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1

COMPACTING BIOMASS AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES TO FORM AND UPGRADED FUEL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass waste materials exist in large quantity in every city and in numerous industrial plants such as wood processing plants and waste paper collection centers. Through minimum processing, such waste materials can be turned into a solid fuel for combustion at existing coal-fired power plants. Use of such biomass fuel reduces the amount of coal used, and hence reduces the greenhouse effect and global warming, while at the same time it reduces the use of land for landfill and the associated problems. The carbon-dioxide resulting from burning biomass fuel is recycled through plant growth and hence does not contribute to global warming. Biomass fuel also contains little sulfur and hence does not contribute to acid rain problems. Notwithstanding the environmental desirability of using biomass waste materials, not much of them are used currently due to the need to densify the waste materials and the high cost of conventional methods of densification such as pelletizing and briquetting. The purpose of this project was to test a unique new method of biomass densification developed from recent research in coal log pipeline (CLP). The new method can produce large agglomerates of biomass materials called ''biomass logs'' which are more than 100 times larger and 30% denser than conventional ''pellets'' or ''briquettes''. The Phase I project was to perform extensive laboratory tests and an economic analysis to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the biomass log fuel (BLF). A variety of biomass waste materials, including wood processing residues such as sawdust, mulch and chips of various types of wood, combustibles that are found in municipal solid waste stream such as paper, plastics and textiles, energy crops including willows and switch grass, and yard waste including tree trimmings, fallen leaves, and lawn grass, were tested by using this new compaction technology developed at Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC), University of Missouri-Columbia (MU). The compaction conditions, including compaction pressure, pressure holding time, back pressure, moisture content, particle size and shape, piston and mold geometry and roughness, and binder for the materials were studied and optimized. The properties of the compacted products--biomass logs--were evaluated in terms of physical, mechanical, and combustion characteristics. An economic analysis of this technology for anticipated future commercial operations was performed. It was found that the compaction pressure and the moisture content of the biomass materials are critical for producing high-quality biomass logs. For most biomass materials, dense and strong logs can be produced under room temperature without binder and at a pressure of 70 MPa (10,000 psi), approximately. A few types of the materials tested such as sawdust and grass need a minimum pressure of 100 MPa (15,000 psi) in order to produce good logs. The appropriate moisture range for compacting waste paper into good logs is 5-20%, and the optimum moisture is in the neighborhood of 13%. For the woody materials and yard waste, the appropriate moisture range is narrower: 5-13%, and the optimum is 8-9%. The compacted logs have a dry density of 0.8 to 1.0 g/cm{sup 3}, corresponding to a wet density of 0.9 to 1.1 g/cm{sup 3}, approximately. The logs have high strength and high resistance to impact and abrasion, but are feeble to water and hence need to be protected from water or rain. They also have good long-term performance under normal environmental conditions, and can be stored for a long time without significant deterioration. Such high-density and high-strength logs not only facilitate handling, transportation, and storage, but also increase the energy content of biomass per unit volume. After being transported to power plants and crushed, the biomass logs can be co-fired with coal to generate electricity.

Henry Liu; Yadong Li

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Comprehensive Municipal Solid Waste Management, Resource Recovery...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Municipal Solid Waste Management, Resource Recovery, and Conservation Act (Texas) Comprehensive Municipal Solid Waste Management, Resource Recovery, and Conservation...

3

Municipal Solid Waste:  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy May 2007 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contact This report was prepared by staff of the Renewable Information Team, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels.

4

Municipal Solid Waste | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Solid Waste Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMunicipalSo...

5

List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Waste Incentives Waste Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 172 Municipal Solid Waste Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 172) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Advanced Clean Energy Project Grants (Texas) State Grant Program Texas Commercial Industrial Utility Biomass Municipal Solid Waste No Advanced Energy Fund (Ohio) Public Benefits Fund Ohio Commercial Industrial Institutional Residential Utility Biomass CHP/Cogeneration Fuel Cells Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Hydroelectric energy Landfill Gas Microturbines Municipal Solid Waste Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Water Heat Wind energy Yes Alternative Energy Law (AEL) (Iowa) Renewables Portfolio Standard Iowa Investor-Owned Utility Anaerobic Digestion

6

Characteristics Of Fresh Municipal Solid Waste.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hossain, Sahadat The characteristics of fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) are critical in planning, designing, operating or upgrading solid waste management systems. Physical composition, moisture… (more)

Taufiq, Tashfeena

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Municipal Solid Waste in The United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2005 Facts and Figures Municipal Solid Waste in The United States #12;United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste (5306P) EPA530-R-06-011 October 2006 www.epa.gov #12;MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN THE UNITED STATES: 2005 FACTS AND FIGURES Table of Contents Chapter Page EXECUTIVE

Barlaz, Morton A.

8

Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 Municipal Consortium 0 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Presentations Publications

9

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Municipal Consortium 1 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Presentations Publications

10

Syn-Gas Production from Catalytic Steam Gasification of Municipal Solid Wastes in a Combined Fixed Bed Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic steam gasi?cation of municipal solid wastes (MSW) for syn-gas production was experimentally investigated in a combined fixed bed reactor using the newly developed tri-metallic catalyst. A series of experiments have been performed to explore ... Keywords: Biomass gasification, municipal solid wastes, catalyst, hydrogen production, energy recovery

Jianfen Li; Jianjun Liu; Shiyan Liao; Xiaorong Zhou; Rong Yan

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Wheelabrator Saugus Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wheelabrator Saugus Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wheelabrator Saugus Biomass Facility Facility Wheelabrator Saugus Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid...

12

Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2011 Municipal Consortium North 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings

14

Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Municipal Solid-State Street Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings

15

Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff to someone by Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on

16

Environmental impact on municipal solid waste management system in Chaiyaphum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continually increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the limited capacity of the existing waste management system are serious problems that Chaiyaphum municipality must deal with. The optimal waste management system should be adopted. Explicit ... Keywords: decision making, environmental evaluation, life cycle assessment, municipal solid waste

S. Piyaphant; K. Prayong

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Market-Based Programs Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts

18

Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies October 7, 2013 - 9:28am Addthis Black and white photo of a bulldozer pushing a large mound of trash in a landfill. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's high-solids digester converts wastes to biogas and compost for energy production. This page provides a brief overview of municipal solid waste energy resources and technologies supplemented by specific information to apply waste to energy within the Federal sector. Overview Municipal solid waste, also known as waste to energy, generates electricity by burning solid waste as fuel. This generates renewable electricity while also incinerating landfill and other municipal waste products such as trash, yard clippings and debris, furniture, food scraps, and other

19

Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies October 7, 2013 - 9:28am Addthis Black and white photo of a bulldozer pushing a large mound of trash in a landfill. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's high-solids digester converts wastes to biogas and compost for energy production. This page provides a brief overview of municipal solid waste energy resources and technologies supplemented by specific information to apply waste to energy within the Federal sector. Overview Municipal solid waste, also known as waste to energy, generates electricity by burning solid waste as fuel. This generates renewable electricity while also incinerating landfill and other municipal waste products such as trash, yard clippings and debris, furniture, food scraps, and other

20

Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Digg

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul  

SciTech Connect

Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul.

Kanat, Gurdal, E-mail: gkanat@gmail.co [Yildiz Teknik Universitesi Cevre Muh Bolumu, 34220 Davutpasa-Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Information Information Resources Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials-Phoenix, AZ to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials-Phoenix, AZ on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials-Phoenix, AZ on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials-Phoenix, AZ on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials-Phoenix, AZ on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials-Phoenix, AZ on Digg

23

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Consortium North Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts CALiPER Program

24

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Northeast Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Northeast Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts CALiPER Program Standards Development Technical Information Network

25

Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Los Angeles, CA to someone Los Angeles, CA to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Los Angeles, CA on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Los Angeles, CA on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Los Angeles, CA on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Los Angeles, CA on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Los Angeles, CA on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium

26

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Northwest Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Northwest Region Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts CALiPER Program Standards Development Technical Information Network

27

Federal Energy Management Program: Municipal Solid Waste Resources...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's high-solids digester converts wastes to biogas and compost for energy production. This page provides a brief overview of municipal...

28

UTILIZATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMPOST IN HORTICULTURE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) has long been considered an attractive waste management tool for effective reduction of waste volume and beneficial utilization of… (more)

Lu, Wenliang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

An Environment Friendly Energy Recovery Technology: Municipal Solid Waste Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy from waste, is a perspective source to replace fossil fuels in the future, municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification is a new technique for waste treatment. MSW can be combusted directly to generate heat and electricity, and by means of gasification ... Keywords: municipal solid waste, gasification, incineration

Lei Ma; Chuanhua Liao; Yuezhao Zhu; Haijun Chen; Yanghuiqin Ding

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webcast to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webcast on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webcast on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webcast on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webcast on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal

31

Mathematical Models in Municipal Solid Waste Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two mathematical models developed as tools for solid waste planners in decisions concerning the overall management of solid waste in a municipality are described. The models have respectively been formulated as integer and mixed integer linear programming problems. The choice between the two models from the practical point of view depends on the user and the technology used. One user may prefer to measure the transportation costs in terms of costs per trip made from the waste source, in which case the first model is more appropriate. In this case we replace the coefficients of the decision variables in the objective function with the total cost per trip from the waste collection point. At the same time, instead of measuring the amount of waste using the number of trucks used multiplied by their capacities, continuous variables can be introduced to measure directly the amount of waste that goes to the plants and landfills. The integer linear problem is then transformed into a mixed integer problem that gives better total cost estimates and more precise waste amount measurements, but measuring transportation costs in terms of costs per trip. For instance, at the moment the first model is more relevant to the Ugandan situation, where the technology to measure waste as it is carried away from the waste sources is not available. Another user may prefer to measure the transportation costs in terms of costs per unit mass of

Michael K. Nganda

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Beijing City. Beijing, the capital of China, has a land area of approximately 1368.32 km{sup 2} with an urban population of about 13.33 million in 2006. Over the past three decades, MSW generation in Beijing City has increased tremendously from 1.04 million tons in 1978 to 4.134 million tons in 2006. The average generation rate of MSW in 2006 was 0.85 kg/capita/day. Food waste comprised 63.39%, followed by paper (11.07%), plastics (12.7%) and dust (5.78%). While all other wastes including tiles, textiles, glass, metals and wood accounted for less than 3%. Currently, 90% of MSW generated in Beijing is landfilled, 8% is incinerated and 2% is composted. Source separation collection, as a waste reduction method, has been carried out in a total of 2255 demonstration residential and commercial areas (covering about 4.7 million people) up to the end of 2007. Demonstration districts should be promoted over a wider range instead of demonstration communities. The capacity of transfer stations and treatment plants is an urgent problem as these sites are seriously overloaded. These problems should first be solved by constructing more sites and converting to new treatment technologies. Improvements in legislation, public education and the management of waste pickers are problematic issues which need to be addressed.

Li Zhenshan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, No. 5, Yi Heyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)], E-mail: lizhenshan@pku.edu.cn; Yang Lei [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, No. 5, Yi Heyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Qu XiaoYan [Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Sui Yumei [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, No. 5, Yi Heyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871 (China)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Information Resources: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6, 2010 webcast served as the first official meeting of the new DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. Ed Smalley of Seattle City Light and Bruce Kinzey of Pacific...

35

Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Boston, MA to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Boston, MA on Facebook Tweet about...

36

Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dallas, TX to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Dallas, TX on Facebook Tweet about...

37

Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

1996-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

38

I 95 Municipal Landfill Phase I Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Landfill Phase I Biomass Facility Municipal Landfill Phase I Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name I 95 Municipal Landfill Phase I Biomass Facility Facility I 95 Municipal Landfill Phase I Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Fairfax County, Virginia Coordinates 38.9085472°, -77.2405153° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.9085472,"lon":-77.2405153,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

39

Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

Rogers, R. III

1994-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

40

Covanta Fairfax Energy Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigation, search Name Covanta Fairfax Energy Biomass Facility Facility Covanta Fairfax Energy Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Fairfax County,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Information Resources: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool This April 3, 2012 webcast presented information about the Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool developed by DOE"s Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. Doug Elliott of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provided a guided walk-through of what the tool can do and how to use it to evaluate costs and benefits associated with converting to LED street and roadway lighting. The webcast showed how city and other government agencies, utilities, finance and budget offices, and energy efficiency organizations can use the tool to compute annualized energy-cost savings, maintenance savings, greenhouse gas reductions, net present value, and simple payback, which can be helpful when putting together construction and conservation grant applications, as well as for preparing budgets and comparing incumbent costs to new costs.

42

Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

Lebersorger, S. [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 107, A-1190 Wien (Austria); Beigl, P., E-mail: peter.beigl@boku.ac.at [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 107, A-1190 Wien (Austria)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

Manaf, Latifah Abd [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: latifah@env.upm.my; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal Solid  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal Solid Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal Solid Waste Management Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: A Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal Solid Waste Management Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: - Landfill Gas, - Waste to Energy Topics: Implementation, Co-benefits assessment Resource Type: Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.unescap.org/esd/environment/publications/cdm/Guide.pdf UN Region: Central Asia, Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, "Pacific" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property.

46

Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

Troschinetz, Alexis M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sustainable Futures Institute, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr., Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)], E-mail: alexis_troschinetz@yahoo.com; Mihelcic, James R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sustainable Futures Institute, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr., Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Municipal solid waste to electricity in Bangkok, Thailand (prefeasibility study)  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing the problem of municipal waste disposal in Bangkok and the potential for energy recovery, the Royal Government of Thailand requested the US Trade and Development Program (TDP) to provide assistance in conducting an initial assessment of the potential options for managing Bangkok's waste disposal problem. Before undertaking a detailed feasibility study of a relatively attractive option for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal in Bangkok, the Thai government wanted to determine whether a project for waste disposal and energy recovery could be developed with the involvement of the private sector such that over time the project could be totally owned and operated in the private domain. In response to the request made by the National Energy Administration (NEA) and Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA), TDP asked Engineering and Economics Research Inc. (EER) to send a team of consultants to conduct a definitional study to make a preliminary assessment of a municipal waste solid disposal system which recovers energy in conjunction with the treatment/disposal of waste in an environmentally safe manner. The consultants visited Thailand for a period of 3 weeks and worked with officials from NEA and BMA.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Evaluation of mixing systems for biogasification of municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two specially selected mixing systems were tested and evaluated to determine how effectively they could prevent the formation of fibrous mats and stringers during the anaerobic digestion of a slurried mixture of preprocessed municipal solid waste and sewage sludge to produce methane gas. The tests were conducted in a modified 10.7-m (35-ft) diameter, nominal 378,000-liter (100,000-gal) capacity concrete vessel in the Franklin, Ohio, environmental complex. Between August 1977 and September 1978, nine tests were conducted with 3:1 and 9:1 solid waste/sewage sludge ratios and with 4, 7, and 10 percent total solids in the feedstock. Though the microbial culture was healthy in most tests, the mixing systems were not effective in preventing excessive fibrous mat and stringer formations. These formations occurred because of the high cellulosic content of the feedstock. The test with the best energy recovery had a gas production of 805 liters/kg of volatile solids destroyed. However, the energy recovered was only 50 percent of the energy available in the solid waste, and only four times greater than the mixing energy expended for that test. The solids accumulations were generally the same for the two mixing systems when they had common test conditions. In all tests, the percent solids for the top level were higher than those for the middle and bottom levels. As the feed ratio and the percent solids in the feedstock were increased, this differential became progressively more pronounced. Moreover, the percent of volatile solids (in a given amount of total solids) for the top level became disproportionately higher than those for the other two levels.

Swartzbaugh, J T; Smith, R B

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Comprehensive Municipal Solid Waste Management, Resource Recovery, and Conservation Act (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act encourages the establishment of regional waste management facilities and the cooperation of local waste management entities in order to streamline the management of municipal solid waste...

51

Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report summarizes the methodology used to split the heat content of municipal solid waste (MSW) into its biogenic and non-biogenic shares.

Marie LaRiviere

2007-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

52

Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: A shared input DEA-model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexity in local waste management calls for more in depth efficiency analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shared-input Data Envelopment Analysis can provide solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable room for the Flemish municipalities to improve their cost efficiency. - Abstract: This paper proposed an adjusted 'shared-input' version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities' cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008.

Rogge, Nicky, E-mail: Nicky.Rogge@hubrussel.be [Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel (HUBrussel), Center for Business Management Research (CBMR), Warmoesberg 26, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KULeuven), Faculty of Business and Economics, Naamsestraat 69, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); De Jaeger, Simon [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KULeuven), Faculty of Business and Economics, Naamsestraat 69, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel (HUBrussel), Center for Economics and Corporate Sustainability (CEDON), Warmoesberg 26, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste's origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Process modeling of hydrogen production from municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ASPEN PLUS commercial simulation software has been used to develop a process model for a conceptual process to convert municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen. The process consists of hydrothermal treatment of the MSW in water to create a slurry suitable as feedstock for an oxygen blown Texaco gasifier. A method of reducing the complicated MSW feed material to a manageable set of components is outlined along with a framework for modeling the stoichiometric changes associated with the hydrothermal treatment process. Model results indicate that 0.672 kmol/s of hydrogen can be produced from the processing of 30 kg/s (2600 tonne/day) of raw MSW. A number of variations on the basic processing parameters are explored and indicate that there is a clear incentive to reduce the inert fraction in the processed slurry feed and that cofeeding a low value heavy oil may be economically attractive.

Thorsness, C.B.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Municipal solid waste management in Kolkata, India - A review  

SciTech Connect

Kolkata is one of four metropolitan cities in India. With an area of 187.33 sq km and a population of about 8 million, it generates around 3,000 t d{sup -1} of municipal solid waste (MSW) at a rate of 450-500 g per capita per day. With rapid urbanization as a result of planned and unplanned growth and industrialization, the problems associated with handling MSW have increased at an alarming rate over the past few years. No source segregation arrangement exists; there is only limited (60%) house-to-house collection; and 50-55% open vats are used in the present collection system. The operational efficiency of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) transport system is about 50%, with a fleet composed of about 30-35% old vehicles. The majority (80%) of these, particularly the hired vehicles, are more than 20 years old. The newly added areas covered by KMC have even lower collection efficiencies, and only an informal recycling system exists. The waste collected has a low energy value (3,350-4,200 kJ kg{sup -1}) with high moisture and inert content. A 700 t d{sup -1} compost plant set up in 2000 has not been functioning effectively since 2003. Open dumping (without liners and without a leachate management facility) and the threat of groundwater pollution, as well as saturation of an existing landfill site (Dhapa) are the most pressing problems for the city today. KMC spends 70-75% of its total expenditures on collection of solid waste, 25-30% on transportation, and less than 5% on final disposal arrangements. The Kolkata Environmental Improvement Project, funded by the Asian Development Bank, is seen as only a partial solution to the problem. A detailed plan should emphasize segregation at the source, investment in disposal arrangements (including the use of liners and leachate collection), and an optimized transport arrangement, among improvements.

Chattopadhyay, Subhasish [Solid Waste Management Department, KMC, Department of Civil Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India)], E-mail: subharpita@rediffmail.com; Dutta, Amit [Department of Civil Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, P.O. Botanic Garden, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India)], E-mail: amit@civil.becs.ac.in; Ray, Subhabrata [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)], E-mail: sray@che.iitkhp.ernet.in

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

process streams. Handb. Bioethanol:395-415. 10. Ehrman T.solid waste used as bioethanol sources and its relatedof cellulosic biomass into bioethanol as an alternative

Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

Rives, Jesus, E-mail: Jesus.Rives@uab.ca [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Energy potential of municipal solid waste is limited  

SciTech Connect

Energy recovery from municipal solid waste has the potential for making only a limited contribution to the nation`s overall energy production. Although the current contribution of waste-derived energy production is less than one-half of 1 percent of the nation`s total energy Supply, DOE has set a goal for energy from waste at 2 percent of the total supply by 2010. The industry`s estimates show a smaller role for waste as an energy source in the future. The energy potential from waste is limited not only by the volume and energy content of the waste itself, but also by the factors affecting the use of waste disposal options, including public opposition and the availability of financing. Energy production from waste combustors and from landfill gases generates pollutants, although these are reduced through current regulations that require the use of emissions control technology and define operational criteria for the facilities. Although DOE estimates that one-third of the energy available from waste is available in the form of energy savings through the recycling of materials, the Department`s research in this area is ongoing.

NONE

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Use of ash from municipal solid waste combustion. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report details the results of efforts to integrate municipal solid waste combustion ash into a high strength portland cement concrete matrix comprised of multiple waste materials. The material developed by this research was to be used to construct a large underground storage vault to house the Friendly Mobile Barrier, a safety barrier system for use at highway crossings for the high speed rail system. The subcontractor, Environmental Solutions, Inc., of Richmond, Virginia, worked with researchers at Pennsylvania State University and the State University of New York--Stony Brook to develop and test the material. The result of this work is a portland cement concrete matrix which utilizes 80.01% recycled materials, and a field-applicable method for incorporating MSW ash as a component at volumes up to 9.78%. Twenty-eight day strengths of over 4000 psi were achieved, with 315 day strengths of 6500 psi. All structural, chemical and environmental testing showed the material to be competitive with conventional concrete.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Municipal solid waste plants convert garbage to electricity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. Total Energy.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns

Columbia University

62

PYROLYSIS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE M. IGARASHI Y. HAYAFUNE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modern biomass can produce a bio-char by-product through pyrolysis which results in 30.6 kg C, pyrolysis and gasification of biomass. In the context of bio-char sequestration, only pyrolysis yields in bio-char was the type of biomass used for pyrolysis. Greater concentrations of lignin increased

Columbia University

63

PYROLISIS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE M. IGARASHI Y. HAYAFUNE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-energy Pyrolysis is one of many technologies to produce energy from biomass (Bridgwater 2003). What distinguishes pyrolysis from alternative ways of converting biomass to energy is that pyrolysis produces a carbon-temperature pyrolysis"), using a variety of different reactor configurations. At these tem- peratures, biomass undergoes

Columbia University

64

PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in existing boilers, evaluation of these composite fuels to determine their applicability to the major combustor types, development of preliminary designs and economic projections for commercial facilities producing up to 200,000 tons per year of biomass/waste-containing fuels, and the development of dewatering technologies to reduce the moisture content of high-moisture biomass and waste materials during the pelletization process.

David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

2001-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

65

MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant Program MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant Program < Back Eligibility Local Government Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Minimum project size for the full $5,000 grant is 20 fixtures; smaller projects will receive a $250 per-fixture grant. Program Info State Iowa Program Type Utility Grant Program Rebate Amount Up to $5,000 Provider MidAmerican Energy Company MidAmerican Energy offers grants to munipalities which implement solid-state roadway street lighting upgrades. Grants of up to $5,000 are available to participating entities who install eligible roadway lighting fixtures. Participants must be an Iowa electric governmental customer of

66

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant Program (Iowa) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Summary Last modified on November 9, 2012. Financial Incentive Program Place Iowa Additional Place applies to MidAmerican Energy Name MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant Program Incentive Type Utility Grant Program Applicable Sector Local Government Eligible Technologies Lighting, Lighting Controls/Sensors, Induction Lighitng, LED Lighting Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector Utility Energy Category Energy Efficiency Incentive Programs Amount Up to $5,000 Equipment Requirements Fixtures must have an efficiency rating equal to or greater than 66 lumens per watt as tested under Illuminating Engineering Society of North America LM-79-08 testing to qualify for a grant.

68

Biogas generation by two-phase anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The organic fraction of municipal solid waste can be a significant energy source for renewable energy generation. The total production of municipal solid waste in Turkey was 25?×?106 tones per year. Anaerobic digestion (AD) process may be a solution to the problems of energy demand and waste management since it provides biomethanation along with waste stabilization. AD can be operated in single or two phase configurations. Two-phase processes have some advantages over one phase systems in terms of selection of microorganisms

Eylem Dogan; Göksel N. Demirer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II. In Phase II (June 2001 to December 2004), the project team demonstrated the GranuFlow technology as part of a process to combine paper sludge and coal to produce a composite fuel with combustion and handling characteristics acceptable to existing boilers and fuel handling systems. Bench-scale studies were performed at DOE-NETL, followed by full-scale commercial demonstrations to produce the composite fuel in a 400-tph coal cleaning plant and combustion tests at a 90-MW power plant boiler to evaluate impacts on fuel handling, boiler operations and performance, and emissions. A circuit was successfully installed to re-pulp and inject paper sludge into the fine coal dewatering circuit of a commercial coal-cleaning plant to produce 5,000 tons of a ''composite'' fuel containing about 5% paper sludge. Subsequent combustion tests showed that boiler efficiency and stability were not compromised when the composite fuel was blended with the boiler's normal coal supply. Firing of the composite fuel blend did not have any significant impact on emissions as compared to the normal coal supply, and it did not cause any excursions beyond Title V regulatory limits; all emissions were well within regulatory limits. SO{sub 2} emissions decreased during the composite fuel blend tests as a result of its higher heat content and slightly lower sulfur content as compared to the normal coal supply. The composite fuel contained an extremely high proportion of fines because the parent coal (feedstock to the coal-cleaning plant) is a ''soft'' coal (HGI > 90) and contained a high proportion of fines. The composite fuel was produced and combustion-tested under record wet conditions for the local area. In spite of these conditions, full load was obtained by the boiler when firing the composite fuel blend, and testing was completed without any handling or combustion problems beyond those typically associated with wet coal. Fuel handling and pulverizer performance (mill capacity and outlet temperatures) could become greater concerns when firing composite fuels which contain higher percent

Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

70

Engineering and Economic Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2006, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated a project to conduct engineering and economic evaluations of renewable energy technologies, including wind, biomass, solar, geothermal, hydro, and ocean tidal and wave (Program 84). The goal of the evaluations is to develop an objective and consistent assessment of the current performance and project the future performance of the technologies with regard to thermal efficiency, capital and operation and maintenance costs, resource requirement...

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

71

High temperature behavior of electrostatic precipitator ash from municipal solid waste combustors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combustion may cause the oxidation of mercury, and chloride mercury #12;13 13 species may be the major form combustion and gasification flue gases, Environ. Sci. Technol. 30 (1996) 2421-2426. [23] S.B. Ghorishi, C Ms. Ref. No.: HAZMAT-D-07-00176 Accepted manuscript #12;2 2 Abstract Municipal solid waste (MSW) flue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

DISTRICT ENERGY SYSTEMS POWERED THROUGH THE COMBUSTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.assure.org Biography: Mr. Tomberlin has 21 years of experience in the design of power generation facilities having & Brad Moorman Barlow Projects, Inc. 2000 Vermont Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80525 (970) 226-8557 info municipal solid waste (MSW) by 90%-95% creating energy in the form of steam and/or electricity

Columbia University

73

THE BURNING ISSUES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL WHAT WORKS AND WHAT DOESN'T  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 THE BURNING ISSUES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL ­ WHAT WORKS AND WHAT DOESN'T By: Jack D devil burns and the Lord recycles." Perhaps these negative references to waste burning come from, the Valley of Hinnom south of ancient Jerusalem. This was the site of a foul, smoking, open burning garbage

Columbia University

74

Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

Hwang, In-Hee, E-mail: hwang@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan); Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

must be an Iowa electric governmental customer of MidAmerican Energy Company. Light-emitting diode and induction types of solid state lighting (SSL) qualify under this program....

76

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The problem addressed by our invention is that of municipal solid waste utilization. The dimensions of the problem can be visualized by the common comparison that the average individual in America creates in five years time an amount of solid waste equivalent in weight to the Statue of Liberty. The combustible portion of the more than 11 billion tons of solid waste (including municipal solid waste) produced in the United States each year, if converted into useful energy, could provide 32 quads per year of badly needed domestic energy, or more than one-third of our annual energy consumption. Conversion efficiency and many other factors make such a production level unrealistic, but it is clear that we are dealing with a very significant potential resource. This report describes research pertaining to the co-combustion of oil shale with solid municipal wastes in a circulating fluidized bed. The oil shale adds significant fuel content and also constituents that can possible produce a useful cementitious ash.

NONE

1996-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

77

Constructed wetlands for municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In 1989, the US Geological Survey and Cornell University, in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Tompkins County Solid Waste Department, began a three-year study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Ithaca, New York, to test the effectiveness of leachate treatment with constructed wetlands and to examine the associated treatment processes. Specific objectives of the study were to examine: treatment efficiency as function of substrate composition and grain size, degree of plant growth, and seasonal changes in evapotranspiration rates and microbial activity; effects of leachate and plant growth on the hydraulic characteristics of the substrate; and chemical, biological, and physical processes by which nutrients, metals, and organic compounds are removed from leachate as it flows through the substrate. A parallel study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Fenton, New York was conducted by researchers at Cornell University, Ithaca College, and Hawk Engineering (Trautmann and others, 1989). Results are described.

Peverly, J.; Sanford, W.E.; Steenhuis, T.S. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

A study of tritium in municipal solid waste leachate and gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has become increasingly clear in the last few years that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills produce leachate that contains elevated levels of tritium. The authors recently conducted a study of landfills in New York and New Jersey and found that the mean concentration of tritium in the leachate from ten municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills was 33,800 pCi/L with a peak value of 192,000 pCi/L. A 2003 study in California reported a mean tritium concentration of 99,000 pCi/L with a peak value of 304,000 pCi/L. Studies in Pennsylvania and the UK produced similar results. The USEPA MCL for tritium is 20,000 pCi/L. Tritium is also manifesting itself as landfill gas and landfill gas condensate. Landfill gas condensate samples from landfills in the UK and California were found to have tritium concentrations as high as 54,400 and 513,000 pCi/L, respectively. The tritium found in MSW leachate is believed to derive principally from gaseous tritium lighting devices used in some emergency exit signs, compasses, watches, and even novelty items, such as 'glow stick' key chains. This study reports the findings of recent surveys of leachate from a number of municipal solid waste landfills, both open and closed, from throughout the United States and Europe. The study evaluates the human health and ecological risks posed by elevated tritium levels in municipal solid waste leachate and landfill gas and the implications to their safe management. We also assess the potential risks posed to solid waste management facility workers exposed to tritium-containing waste materials in transfer stations and other solid waste management facilities. (authors)

Mutch Jr, R. D. [HydroQual, Inc., 1200 MacArthur Blvd., Mahwah, NJ 07430 (United States); Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY (United States); Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Mahony, J. D. [HydroQual, Inc., 1200 MacArthur Blvd., Mahwah, NJ 07430 (United States); Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor report through 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

U.S. Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 516,000 metric tons (567,000 tons) of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US DOE. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

Arena, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.arena@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A study of the metal content of municipal solid waste. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Knowledge of the content of toxic components, so called pollutant precursors, in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream is essential to development of the strategies for source reduction and reuse, recycling, composting and disposal. Data are scarce; trends in composition for any locality even more so. In a previous study the total and water soluble chlorine content of the components of municipal solid waste were determined from sampling studies at two sites, Baltimore County, MD, and Brooklyn, NY, each for a five day period. The total sulfur content of the combined combustible components was also determined. Because of the scarcity of data and synergistic effects, it seemed appropriate to determine the heavy metal content of the preceding material prior to its disposal. The metals chosen were the so-called priority pollutant metals (PPM): antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, and zinc.

Churney, K.L.; Domalski, E.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units  

SciTech Connect

This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

None

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

Valkenburg, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Biomass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass: Biomass: Organic matter, including: agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, and terrestrial and aquatic crops grown solely for energy purposes. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Traditional and Thermal Use of Biomass Traditional use of biomass, particularly burning wood, is one of the oldest manners in which biomass has been utilized for energy. Traditional use of biomass is 14% of world energy usage which is on the same level as worldwide electricity usage. Most of this consumption comes from developing countries where traditional use of biomass accounts for 35% of primary energy usage [1] and greater than 75% of primary energy use is in the residential sector. The general trend in developing countries has been a

85

Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor reports through 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

US Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 536,000 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography is an updated version of Municipal Waste to Energy: An Annotated Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports, by Caroline Brooks, published in 1987. Like its predecessor, this bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment. The bibliography contains three indexes -- an author index, a subject index, and a title index. The reports are listed alphabetically in the subject areas and may appear under more than one subject. All of the reports cited in the original MSW bibliography are also included in this update. The number of copies of each report originally published varied according to anticipated public demand. However, all reports are available in either microfiche or hard copy form and may be ordered from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. Explicit information on ordering reports is included in Appendix A.

Shepherd, P.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable fuel. These fuels will be converted to energy while reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from power generating boilers and mitigating global warming concerns. This report describes the sludge analysis, solid fuel preparation and production, combustion performance, environmental emissions and required equipment.

Hamid Farzan

2001-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

87

Effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill on corn yield and heavy metal content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill, Khon Kaen Municipality, Thailand, on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and heavy metal content were studied. Field experiments with randomized complete block design with five treatments (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% v/v of residues and soil) and four replications were carried out. Corn yield and heavy metal contents in corn grain were analyzed. Corn yield increased by 50, 72, 85 and 71% at 20, 40, 60 and 80% treatments as compared to the control, respectively. All heavy metals content, except cadmium, nickel and zinc, in corn grain were not significantly different from the control. Arsenic, cadmium and zinc in corn grain were strongly positively correlated with concentrations in soil. The heavy metal content in corn grain was within regulated limits for human consumption.

Prabpai, S. [Suphan Buri Campus Establishment Project, Kasetsart University, 50 U Floor, Administrative Building, Paholyothin Road, Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: s.prabpai@hotmail.com; Charerntanyarak, L. [Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)], E-mail: lertchai@kku.ac.th; Siri, B. [Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)], E-mail: boonmee@kku.ac.th; Moore, M.R. [The University of Queensland, The National Research Center for Environmental Toxicology, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plans, Brisbane, Queensland 4108 (Australia)], E-mail: m.moore@uq.edu.au; Noller, Barry N. [The University of Queensland, Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: b.noller@uq.edu.au

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid wastes: Development of the WASTED model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of the Waste Analysis Software Tool for Environmental Decisions (WASTED) model. This model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems. The model consists of a number of separate submodels that describe a typical waste management process: waste collection, material recovery, composting, energy recovery from waste and landfilling. These submodels are combined to represent a complete waste management system. WASTED uses compensatory systems to account for the avoided environmental impacts derived from energy recovery and material recycling. The model is designed to provide solid waste decision-makers and environmental researchers with a tool to evaluate waste management plans and to improve the environmental performance of solid waste management strategies. The model is user-friendly and compares favourably with other earlier models.

Diaz, R. [Civil Engineering Department, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ont., M5B 2K3 (Canada); Warith, M. [Civil Engineering Department, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ont., M5B 2K3 (Canada)]. E-mail: mwarith@ryerson.ca

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

High-Solids Enzymatic Saccharification Screening Method for Lignocellulosic Biomass (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ability to screen new biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions is key to developing economically viable lignocellulosic ethanol. While much research is being invested in developing pretreatment technologies and enzyme systems that will more efficiently convert cellulosic biomass to sugars, the current standard reactor vessel, a shake flask, that is used for screening enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass is inadequate at high-solids conditions. Shake flasks do not provide adequate mixing at high solids conditions. In this work, a roller bottle reactor was identified as a small-scale high-solids saccharification reaction vessel, and a method was developed for use in screening both pretreated biomass and enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions. This new method addresses mixing issues observed in high-solids saccharifications. In addition, yield calculations from sugar concentrations on a mass basis were used to account for the two-phase nature of the saccharification slurry, which eliminates discontinuities in comparing high-solids to low-solids saccharifications that occur when using concentrations on a volume basis. The roller bottle reactors out-performed the shake flasks by 5% for an initial insoluble solids loading of 15% and 140% for an initial soluble solids loading of 30%. The reactor system and method was compared at bench and floor scales and determined to be scalable for initial insoluble solids loading in the range of 15% to 30%. Pretreatment and enzyme screening results indicate that mid severity pretreated biomass is more digestible than the low and high severity biomass and GC220 is a superior enzyme to Spezyme CP.

Roche, C. M.; Stickel, J. J.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

National survey of industrial markets for steam produced from burning municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the methodology and findings of an analysis to determine the maximum size of the industrial market for steam produced from municipal solid waste in the United States. The data used in the analysis were developed from the 1980 census report and the US Chamber of Commerce's 1979 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) listing. The process used to match potential steam users with populations large enough to generate suitable quantities of waste is presented. No attempt was made to rank the markets or analyze the market economics.

Pearson, C.V.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Evaluation of Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste in Oil-Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five methods of energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) in oil-fired power plants are evaluated: preparation and supplemental firing of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with oil in a utility boiler originally designed for coal firing; 100% firing of either RDF or MSW in a dedicated water-wall incinerator and use of the steam to drive a dedicated turbine generator unit; and 100% firing of RDF or MSW in a dedicated water-wall incinerator and integration of the steam into the power plant steam cycle.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Energy recovery from municipal solid waste, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The environmental and safety aspects of processing municipal solid wastes to recover energy and materials are reviewed in some detail. The state of the art in energy recovery, energy potential for the near and long-term, and constraints to commercialization are discussed. Under the environmental and safety aspects the state of the art, need for research and development, and need for coordination among federal agencies and private industry are considered. Eleven principal types of refuse-to-energy processes are described and a projected energy balance is derived for each process. (JSR)

Johnson, R.L.

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Two-year performance by evapotranspiration covers for municipal solid waste landfills in northwest Ohio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All ET covers produced rates of percolation less than 32 cm yr{sup -1}, the maximum allowable rate by the Ohio EPA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dredged sediment provided sufficient water storage and promoted growth by native plant species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Native plant mixtures attained acceptable rates of evapotranspiration throughout the growing season. - Abstract: Evapotranspiration (ET) covers have gained interest as an alternative to conventional covers for the closure of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills because they are less costly to construct and are expected to have a longer service life. Whereas ET covers have gained acceptance in arid and semi-arid regions (defined by a precipitation (P) to potential evapotranspiration (PET) ratio less than 0.75) by meeting performance standards (e.g. rate of percolation), it remains unclear whether they are suitable for humid regions (P:PET greater than 0.75). The goal of this project is to extend their application to northwest Ohio (P:PET equals 1.29) by designing covers that produce a rate of percolation less than 32 cm yr{sup -1}, the maximum acceptable rate by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA). Test ET covers were constructed in drainage lysimeters (1.52 m diameter, 1.52 m depth) using dredged sediment amended with organic material and consisted of immature (I, plants seeded onto soil) or mature (M, plants transferred from a restored tall-grass prairie) plant mixtures. The water balance for the ET covers was monitored from June 2009 to June 2011, which included measured precipitation and percolation, and estimated soil water storage and evapotranspiration. Precipitation was applied at a rate of 94 cm yr{sup -1} in the first year and at rate of 69 cm yr{sup -1} in the second year. During the first year, covers with the M plant mixture produced noticeably less percolation (4 cm) than covers with the I plant mixture (17 cm). However, during the second year, covers with the M plant mixture produced considerably more percolation (10 cm) than covers with the I plant mixture (3 cm). This is likely due to a decrease in the aboveground biomass for the M plant mixture from year 1 (1008 g m{sup -2}) to year 2 (794 g m{sup -2}) and an increase for the I plant mixture from year 1 (644 g m{sup -2}) to year 2 (1314 g m{sup -2}). Over the 2-year period, the mean annual rates of percolation for the covers with the M and I plant mixtures were 7 and 8 cm yr{sup -1}, which are below the OEPA standard. The results suggest the application of ET covers be extended to northwest Ohio and other humid regions.

Barnswell, Kristopher D., E-mail: kristopher.barnswell2@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Lake Erie Center, 6200 Bayshore Rd., Oregon, OH 43616 (United States); Dwyer, Daryl F., E-mail: daryl.dwyer@utoledo.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft, Mail Stop 604, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

Liu Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao Xingbao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Qiao Wei [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhou Yingjun [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nisikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Methanogenic Population Dynamics during Start-Up of Anaerobic Digesters Treating Municipal Solid Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: An aggressive start-up strategy was used to initiate codigestion in two anaerobic, continuously mixed bench-top reactors at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The digesters were inoculated with mesophilic anaerobic sewage sludge and cattle manure and were fed a mixture of simulated municipal solid waste and biosolids in proportions that reflect U.S. production rates. The design organic loading rate was 3.1 kg volatile solids/m 3 /day and the retention time was 20 days. Ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were used to determine the methanogenic community structure in the inocula and the digesters. Chemical analyses were performed to evaluate digester performance. The aggressive start-up strategy was successful for the thermophilic reactor, despite the use of a

Biosolids; Matt E. Griffin; Katherine D. Mcmahon; Roderick I. Mackie; Lutgarde Raskin

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries - Kenyan case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60% of the urban population on only 5% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored.

Henry, Rotich K. [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China); Zhao Yongsheng [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)]. E-mail: zhaoyongsheng@jlu.edu.cn; Dong Jun [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Municipal solid waste source-separated collection in China: A comparative analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pilot program focusing on municipal solid waste (MSW) source-separated collection was launched in eight major cities throughout China in 2000. Detailed investigations were carried out and a comprehensive system was constructed to evaluate the effects of the eight-year implementation in those cities. This paper provides an overview of different methods of collection, transportation, and treatment of MSW in the eight cities; as well as making a comparative analysis of MSW source-separated collection in China. Information about the quantity and composition of MSW shows that the characteristics of MSW are similar, which are low calorific value, high moisture content and high proportion of organisms. Differences which exist among the eight cities in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) are presented in this paper. Only Beijing and Shanghai demonstrated a relatively effective result in the implementation of MSW source-separated collection. While the six remaining cities result in poor performance. Considering the current status of MSWM, source-separated collection should be a key priority. Thus, a wider range of cities should participate in this program instead of merely the eight pilot cities. It is evident that an integrated MSWM system is urgently needed. Kitchen waste and recyclables are encouraged to be separated at the source. Stakeholders involved play an important role in MSWM, thus their responsibilities should be clearly identified. Improvement in legislation, coordination mechanisms and public education are problematic issues that need to be addressed.

Tai Jun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Shanghai Environmental Engineering Design Research Institute, Shanghai 200232 (China); Zhang Weiqian [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Che Yue, E-mail: yche@des.ecnu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Feng Di [Shanghai Environmental Engineering Design Research Institute, Shanghai 200232 (China)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

Recovery and recycling practices in municipal solid waste management in Lagos, Nigeria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The population of Lagos, the largest city in Nigeria, increased seven times from 1950 to 1980 with a current population of over 10 million inhabitants. The majority of the city's residents are poor. The residents make a heavy demand on resources and, at the same time, generate large quantities of solid waste. Approximately 4 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated annually in the city, including approximately 0.5 million of untreated industrial waste. This is approximately 1.1 kg/cap/day. Efforts by the various waste management agencies set up by the state government to keep its streets and neighborhoods clean have achieved only minimal success. This is because more than half of these wastes are left uncollected from the streets and the various locations due to the inadequacy and inefficiency of the waste management system. Whilst the benefits of proper solid waste management (SWM), such as increased revenues for municipal bodies, higher productivity rate, improved sanitation standards and better health conditions, cannot be overemphasized, it is important that there is a reduction in the quantity of recoverable materials in residential and commercial waste streams to minimize the problem of MSW disposal. This paper examines the status of recovery and recycling in current waste management practice in Lagos, Nigeria. Existing recovery and recycling patterns, recovery and recycling technologies, approaches to materials recycling, and the types of materials recovered from MSW are reviewed. Based on these, strategies for improving recovery and recycling practices in the management of MSW in Lagos, Nigeria are suggested.

Kofoworola, O.F. [Environment Division, Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachauthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)], E-mail: sholafemi28@yahoo.com

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 1, Report text  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste`s origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.

Zhao Jinsong [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: jinsongzhao@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Huang Jianchao [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 10086 (China); Sun Wei [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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101

An analytic network process model for municipal solid waste disposal options  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to present an evaluation method that can aid decision makers in a local civic body to prioritize and select appropriate municipal solid waste disposal methods. We introduce a hierarchical network (hiernet) decision structure and apply the analytic network process (ANP) super-matrix approach to measure the relative desirability of disposal alternatives using value judgments as the input of the various stakeholders. ANP is a flexible analytical program that enables decision makers to find the best possible solution to complex problems by breaking down a problem into a systematic network of inter-relationships among the various levels and attributes. This method therefore may not only aid in selecting the best alternative but also helps decision makers to understand why an alternative is preferred over the other options.

Khan, Sheeba [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Youngstown State University, OH 44555, United States of America (United States)], E-mail: sheebanishat@yahoo.com; Faisal, Mohd Nishat [Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)], E-mail: nishat786@yahoo.com

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Definition: Biomass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Biomass Organic matter, including: agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, and terrestrial and aquatic crops grown solely for energy purposes.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. It most often refers to plants or plant-derived materials which are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass. As a renewable energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods. Historically, humans have harnessed biomass-derived

104

Anaerobic digestion of pressed off leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A highly polluted liquid ('press water') was obtained from the pressing facility for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a composting plant. Methane productivity of the squeezed-off leachate was investigated in batch assays. To assess the technical feasibility of 'press water' as a substrate for anaerobic digestion, a laboratory-scale glass column reactor was operated semi-continuously at 37 {sup o}C. A high methane productivity of 270 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} COD{sub added} or 490 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} VS{sub added} was achieved in the batch experiment. The semi-continuously run laboratory-scale reactor was initially operated at an organic loading rate of 10.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The loading was increased to finally 27.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, corresponding to a reduction of the hydraulic retention time from initially 20 to finally 7.7 days. During the digestion, a stable elimination of organic material (measured as COD elimination) of approximately 60% was achieved. Linearly with the increment of the OLR, the volumetric methane production of the reactor increased from 2.6 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1} to 7.1 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The results indicated that 'press water' from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was a suitable substrate for anaerobic digestion which gave a high biogas yield even at very high loading rates.

Nayono, Satoto E. [Department of Civil Engineering, Yogyakarta State University, Campus UNY Karangmalang Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, University of Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Winter, Josef, E-mail: josef.winter@iba.uka.d [Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, University of Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gallert, Claudia [Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, University of Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Review of composting and anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste and a methodological proposal for a mid-size city  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review of composting and anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste and a methodological proposal and processes on composting and anaerobic digestion are compiled, showing the versatility and multivariable of the compost. In addition, anaerobic decomposition followed by vermicomposting is pointed as one of the best

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

106

Processing high solids concentration of municipal solid waste by anaerobic digester for methane production  

SciTech Connect

Cellulosic solids are pretreated by calcium hydroxide to produce salts of volatile orangic acids and other water-soluble substances. Pure cellulose, sawdust, and waste paper are used as model substances for the study of alkaline degradation. It is found that sawdust is more difficult to degrade than the other two substances. The cooking conditions for high conversion of model substances and high yeild of orangic acids are found to be 275/degree/C to 300/degree/C with the corresponding reaction time from 30 minutes to 15 minutes. The cooking liquor can be readily fermented in an anaerobic fluidized-bed digester for methane production. The cooking liquor from different reaction conditions can all be digested by the methanogens. Higher than 90% of COD can be removed under the conditions of low organic loading rate (<2.0 g COD/1/day) and low hydraulic retention time (1.5 to 2.0 days). 14 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Tsao, G.T.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW). Our method is superior to existing methods since it has capability of representing vague qualitative data and presenting all possible results with different degrees of membership. In the first stage of the proposed methodology, a set of criteria of cost, reliability, feasibility, pollution and emission levels, waste and energy recovery is optimized to determine the best MSW disposal method. Landfilling, composting, conventional incineration, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion are the alternatives considered. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is found that RDF combustion is the best disposal method alternative for Istanbul. In the second stage, the same methodology is used to determine the optimum RDF combustion plant location using adjacent land use, climate, road access and cost as the criteria. The results of this study illustrate the importance of the weights on the various factors in deciding the optimized location, with the best site located in Catalca. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to monitor how sensitive our model is to changes in the various criteria weights.

Ekmekcioglu, Mehmet, E-mail: meceng3584@yahoo.co [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Management Engineering, 34367 Macka, Istanbul (Turkey); Kaya, Tolga [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Management Engineering, 34367 Macka, Istanbul (Turkey); Kahraman, Cengiz [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Industrial Engineering, 34367 Macka, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO{sub 2} equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO{sub 2} equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO{sub 2} equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.

Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks.

Chanakya, H.N. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, (formerly ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)], E-mail: chanakya@astra.iisc.ernet.in; Sharma, Isha [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, (formerly ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Ramachandra, T.V. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, (formerly ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

An environmental assessment of recovering methane from municipal solid waste by anaerobic digestion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of an experimental process which produces synthetic natural gas (SNG) or biogas by anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste (MSW) is evaluated. This technology, if implemented, would be utilized in lieu of incineration or directly landfilling waste. An environmental assessment describing the principal impacts associated with operating the MSW anaerobic digestion process is presented. Variations in process configurations provide for SNG or electricity production and digester residue incineration, composting, or landfilling. Four process configuration are compared to the conventional solid waste disposal alternative of mass burn incineration and landfilling. Emissions are characterized, effluents quantified, and landfill areas predicted. The quantity of SNG and electricity recovered, and aluminum and ferrous metals recycled is predicted along with the emissions and effluents avoided by recovering energy and recycling metals. Air emissions are the primary on-site concern with the anaerobic digestion process. However, when compared to mass burn incineration, the projected particulate emissions for the anaerobic digestion process range from 2.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 2.6 {times} {sup 10{minus}5} pounds per ton of waste vs. 3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} pounds per ton for mass burn. SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and PCCD emissions have a similar relationship.

O'Leary, P.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Leachability of heavy metals from growth media containing source-separated municipal solid waste compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The leaching of heavy metals in source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) compost was determined by irrigation leaching of growth medium, admixed with varying amounts of compost, used for container grown plants. Perennial flowers (black-eyed Susan, Rudbeckia hirta L.) were grown in 2-L containers filled with the growth medium for a 10-wk period. Rainfall was supplemented with overhead irrigation to supply 2 cm of water per day. Leachates collected over each 2-wk period were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn using atomic spectrometry. Concentrations of the heavy metals in the leachates increased with increasing proportions of MSW compost in the growth medium, but decreased with time of leaching. Leaching of the metals occurred at relatively high concentrations initially, followed by continued leaching at low concentrations. The initial leaching of heavy metals is attributed to their soluble or exchangeable forms and the subsequent slow leaching to the solid compounds. The concentrations of the heavy metals remained below the current drinking water standards in all treatments throughout the leaching period. The results thus suggest that contamination of groundwater with heavy metals from source-separated MSW compost applied as a soil amendment should be negligible, as the low concentrations in the leachates leaving the surface soil would be further attenuated by the subsoil. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Sawhney, B.L.; Bugbee, G.J.; Stilwell, D.E. [Connecticut Agricultural Experimental Station, New Haven, CT (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Characterization and kinetic studies of organic matter  

SciTech Connect

Bottom ash is the main solid residue which is produced by municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) facilities. To be reused in public works, it has to be stored previously a few months. This material is composed primarily of a mineral matrix but also contains unburnt organic matter. The mineral content and its change in the course of aging are relatively well-known, in contrast with the organic content. So in order to detect the phenomena responsible for changes in organic matter and their effects during aging, the concentrations of the main organic compounds previously characterized, the number of microorganisms, and the release of carbon dioxide were followed kinetically in model laboratory conditions. The results showed that the aging process led to the natural biodegradation of the organic matter available in bottom ash, composed essentially of carboxylic acids and n-alkanes (steroids and PAH`s to a lesser extent), and consequently that it would improve the bottom ash quality. Furthermore these results were confirmed by the study of aging conducted in conditions used in the industrial scale.

Dugenest, S.; Casabianca, H.; Grenier-Loustalot, M.F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Vernaison (France). Service central d`Analyse; Combrisson, J. [Univ. Claude Bernard-Lyon I, Villeurbanne (France). Lab. d`Ecologie Microbienne du Sol

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Development of a Segregated Municipal Solid Waste Gasification System for Electrical Power Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gasification technologies are expected to play a key role in the future of solid waste management since the conversion of municipal and industrial solid wastes to a gaseous fuel significantly increases its value. Municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification for electrical power generation was conducted in a fluidized bed gasifier and the feasibility of using a control system was evaluated to facilitate its management and operation. The performance of an engine using the gas produced was evaluated. A procedure was also tested to upgrade the quality of the gas and optimize its production. The devices installed and automated control system developed was able to achieve and maintain the set conditions for optimum gasification. The most important parameters of reaction temperature and equivalence ratio were fully controlled. Gas production went at a rate of 4.00 kg min-1 with a yield of 2.78 m3 kg-1 of fuel and a heating value (HV) of 7.94 MJ Nm-3. Within the set limits of the tests, the highest production of synthesis gas and the net heating value of 8.97 MJ Nm-3 resulted from gasification at 725°C and ER of 0.25 which was very close to the predicted value of 7.47 MJ Nm-3. This was not affected by temperature but significantly affected by the equivalence ratio. The overall engine-generator efficiency at 7.5 kW electrical power load was lower at 19.81% for gasoline fueled engine compared to 35.27% for synthesis gas. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system increased the net heating value of the product gas by an average of 38% gas over that of inlet gas. There were no traces of carbon dioxide in the product gas indicating that it had been completely adsorbed by the system. MSW showed relatively lower fouling and slagging tendencies than cotton gin trash (CGT) and dairy manure (DM). This was further supported by the compressive strength measurements of the ash of MSW, CGT and DM and the EDS elemental analysis of the MSW ash.

Maglinao, Amado Latayan

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES  

SciTech Connect

Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was found that the ground pellets could be used as an effective NOx control agent for pulverized-coal-fired systems. NOx emissions reductions up to 63% were recorded, when using AFP as a NOx control agent. In addition to performance benefits, economic analyses showed the good economic benefits of AFP fuel. Using equipment manufacturer inputs, and reasonable values for biomass, biosolids and coal fines costs, it was determined that an AFP plant would have good profitability. For cases where biosolids contents were in the range of 50%, the after tax Internal Rates of Return were in the range of 40% to 50%. These are very attractive returns. Besides the baseline analysis for the various AFP formulations tested at pilot scale, sensitivity analysis showed the impact of important parameters on return. From results, it was clear that returns are excellent for a range of parameters that could be expected in practice. Importantly, these good returns are achieved even without incentives related to the emissions control benefits of biomass.

John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Municipal solid waste management in Africa: Strategies and livelihoods in Yaounde, Cameroon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the capital of Cameroon, Yaounde, and suggests some possible solutions for its improvement. The institutional, financial, and physical aspects of MSW management, as well as the livelihoods of the population, were analyzed. Our study revealed that distances and lack of infrastructure have a major impact on waste collection. Garbage bins are systematically mentioned as the primary infrastructure needed by the population in all quarters, whether it be a high or low standard community. The construction of transfer stations and the installation of garbage bins are suggested as a solution to reduce distances between households and garbage bins, thus improving waste collection vehicle accessibility. Transfer stations and garbage bins would enable the official waste collection company to expand its range of services and significantly improve waste collection rates. Several transfer stations have already been set up by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs), but they require technical, institutional and funding support. Research is needed on the quality and safety of community-made compost, as well as on soil fertility in urban and peri-urban areas. Most of the stakeholders, municipalities, the official waste collection company and households acknowledge the need for better monitoring and regulation of MSW management. The urban community of Yaounde also needs to maintain its support of MSW management and promote the sustainability of NGOs and CBOs operating in underserved areas not yet covered by adequate infrastructures. A major opportunity for implementation of such waste policy is the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) program dedicated to urban planning and good governance.

Parrot, Laurent [Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement (CIRAD), Montpellier 34398 Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: laurent.parrot@cirad.fr; Sotamenou, Joel; Dia, Bernadette Kamgnia [University of Yaounde II - Soa, Faculty of Economics and Management, P.O. Box 1365, Yaounde (Cameroon)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburg, Corinne

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?  

SciTech Connect

Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem.

Narayana, Tapan [Hidayatullah National Law University, HNLU Bhawan, Civil Lines, Raipur 492001, Chhattisgarh (India)], E-mail: tapan.narayana@gmail.com

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@nsc-eng.co.jp [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan); Manako, Kazutaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

Guide to implementing reclamation processes at Department of Defense municipal solid waste and construction debris landfills. Master's thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This thesis serves as a guide for implementing landfill reclamation techniques on municipal solid waste or construction debris landfills owned, operated, or used by the DoD. The research describes historical and current methods for disposing of solid waste including open dumping, sanitary landfilling, and the development of state-of-the-art sanitary landfill cell technology. The thesis also identifies the factors which have led to the need for new methods of managing municipal solid waste. The vast majority of the study is devoted to identifying actions which should be taken before, during, and after implementation of a landfill reclamation project. These actions include the development of health, safety, and contingency planning documents, the establishment of systems for characterizing and monitoring site conditions, and the identification of other procedures and processes necessary for performing successful operations. Finally, this study contains a model for analyzing under which conditions reclamation is economically feasible. The model examines economic feasibility in four separate conditions and shows that reclamation is economically feasible in a wide variety of markets. However, the model also shows that feasibility is directly associated with a continuance of normal landfilling operations. Landfill, Landfill reclamation, Landfill mining, Municipal solid waste, Recycling, Construction debris.

Tures, G.L.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

120

Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane production modeling  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane generation may be modeled by means of modified product generation model of Romero Garcia (1991). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matter content and particle size influence the kinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher organic matter content and lower particle size enhance the biomethanization. - Abstract: The influence of particle size and organic matter content of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in the overall kinetics of dry (30% total solids) thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion have been studied in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR). Two types of wastes were used: synthetic OFMSW (average particle size of 1 mm; 0.71 g Volatile Solids/g waste), and OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant (average particle size of 30 mm; 0.16 g Volatile Solids/g waste). A modification of a widely-validated product-generation kinetic model has been proposed. Results obtained from the modified-model parameterization at steady-state (that include new kinetic parameters as K, Y{sub pMAX} and {theta}{sub MIN}) indicate that the features of the feedstock strongly influence the kinetics of the process. The overall specific growth rate of microorganisms ({mu}{sub max}) with synthetic OFMSW is 43% higher compared to OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant: 0.238 d{sup -1} (K = 1.391 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.167 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 7.924 days) vs. 0.135 d{sup -1} (K = 1.282 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.150 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 9.997 days) respectively. Finally, it could be emphasized that the validation of proposed modified-model has been performed successfully by means of the simulation of non-steady state data for the different SRTs tested with each waste.

Fdez-Gueelfo, L.A., E-mail: alberto.fdezguelfo@uca.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Alvarez-Gallego, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Sales, D. [Department of Environmental Technologies, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Romero Garcia, L.I. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste: test program results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air classified municipal solid waste (MSW) was fired in an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor at low excess air to simulate boiler conditions. The 7 ft/sup 2/ combustor at Combustion Power Company's energy laboratory in Menlo Park, CA, incorporates water tubes for heat extraction and recycles elutriated particles to the bed. System operation was stable while firing processed MSW for the duration of a 300-h test. Low excess air, low exhaust gas emissions, and constant bed temperature demonstrated feasibility of steam generation from fluidized bed combustion of MSW. During the 300-h test, combustion efficiency averaged 99%. Excess air was typically 44% while an average bed temperature of 1400/sup 0/F and an average superficial gas velocity of 4.6 fps were maintained. Typical exhaust emission levels were 30 ppM SO/sub 2/, 160 ppM NO/sub x/, 200 ppM CO, and 25 ppM hydrocarbons. No agglomeration of bed material or detrimental change in fluidization properties was experienced. A conceptual design study of a full scale plant to be located at Stanford University was based on process conditions from the 300-h test. The plant would produce 250,000 lb/hr steam at the maximum firing rate of 1000 tons per day (TPD) processed MSW. The average 800 TPD firing rate would utilize approximately 1200 TPD raw MSW from surrounding communities. The Stanford Solid Waste energy Program was aimed at development of a MSW-fired fluidized bed boiler and cogeneration plant to supply most of the energy needs of Stanford University.

Preuit, L C; Wilson, K B

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Integrated municipal solid waste treatment using a grate furnace incinerator: The Indaver case  

SciTech Connect

An integrated installation for treatment of municipal solid waste and comparable waste from industrial origin is described. It consists of three grate furnace lines with flue gas treatment by half-wet scrubbing followed by wet scrubbing, and an installation for wet treatment of bottom ash. It is demonstrated that this integrated installation combines high recovery of energy (40.8% net) with high materials recovery. The following fractions were obtained after wet treatment of the bottom ash: ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, three granulate fractions with different particle sizes, and sludge. The ferrous and non-ferrous metal fractions can both be recycled as high quality raw materials; the two larger particle size particle fractions can be applied as secondary raw materials in building applications; the sand fraction can be used for applications on a landfill; and the sludge is landfilled. For all components of interest, emissions to air are below the limit values. The integrated grate furnace installation is characterised by zero wastewater discharge and high occupational safety. Moreover, with the considered installation, major pollutants, such as PCDD/PCDF, Hg and iodine-136 are to a large extent removed from the environment and concentrated in a small residual waste stream (flue gas cleaning residue), which can be landfilled after stabilisation.

Vandecasteele, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: carlo.vandecasteele@cit.kuleuven.be; Wauters, G. [Indaver, Dijle 17a, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Arickx, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Jaspers, M. [Indaver, Dijle 17a, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Van Gerven, T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

A comparison of municipal solid waste management in Berlin and Singapore  

SciTech Connect

A comparative analysis of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Singapore and Berlin was carried out in order to identify its current status, and highlight the prevailing conditions of MSWM. An overview of the various aspects of MSWM in these two cities is provided, with emphasis on comparing the legal, technical, and managerial aspects of MSW. Collection systems and recycling practiced with respect to the involvement of the government and the private sector, are also presented. Over last two decades, the city of Berlin has made impressive progress with respect to its waste management. The amounts of waste have declined significantly, and at the same time the proportion that could be recovered and recycled has increased. In contrast, although Singapore's recycling rate has been increasing over the past few years, rapid economic and population growth as well as change in consumption patterns in this city-state has caused waste generation to continue to increase. Landfilling of MSW plays minor role in both cities, one due to geography (Singapore) and the other due to legislative prohibition (Berlin). Consequently, both in Singapore and Berlin, waste is increasingly being used as a valuable resource and great efforts have been made for the development of incineration technology and energy recovery, as well as climate protection.

Zhang Dongqing, E-mail: dqzhang@ntu.edu.s [DHI-NTU Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Keat, Tan Soon [Maritime Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Gersberg, Richard M. [Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, Hardy Tower 119, 5500 Campanile, San Diego CA 92182-4162 (United States)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Life cycle assessment of four municipal solid waste management scenarios in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of municipal solid waste. Four scenarios mostly used in China were compared to assess the influence of various technologies on environment: (1) landfill, (2) incineration, (3) composting plus landfill, and (4) composting plus incineration. In all scenarios, the technologies significantly contribute to global warming and increase the adverse impact of non-carcinogens on the environment. The technologies played only a small role in the impact of carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, and non-renewable energy. Similarly, the influence of the technologies on the way other elements affect the environment was ignorable. Specifically, the direct emissions from the operation processes involved played an important role in most scenarios except for incineration, while potential impact generated from transport, infrastructure and energy consumption were quite small. In addition, in the global warming category, highest potential impact was observed in landfill because of the direct methane gas emissions. Electricity recovery from methane gas was the key factor for reducing the potential impact of global warming. Therefore, increasing the use of methane gas to recover electricity is highly recommended to reduce the adverse impact of landfills on the environment.

Hong Jinglan, E-mail: hongjing@sdu.edu.c [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li Xiangzhi [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, 1301 Catherine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Zhaojie Cui [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Oxygen respirometry to assess stability and maturity of composted municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stability and maturity of compost prepared from municipal solid waste (MSW) at a full-scale composting plant was assessed through chemical, physical, and biological assays. Respiration bioassays used to determine stability (O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} respirometry) were sensitive to process control problems at the composting plant and indicated increasing stability with time. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growth bioassays revealed that immature compost samples inhibited growth. Growth of ryegrass in potting mix prepared with cured compost not amended with fertilizer was enhanced as compared to a pest control. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed germination, used as an indicator of phytotoxicity, revealed inhibition of germination at all compost maturity levels. The phytotoxicity was though to be salt-related. Spearman rank-order correlations demonstrated that O{sub 2} respirometry, water-soluble organic C, and the water extract organic C to organic N ratio, significantly correlated with compost age and best indicated an acceptable level of stability. Oxygen respirometry also best predicted the potential for ryegrass growth, and an acceptable level of compost maturity. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Iannotti, D.A.; Grebus, M.E.; Toth, B.L.; Madden, L.V.; Hoitink, A.J. [Ohio State Univ./Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Flow analysis of metals in a municipal solid waste management system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study aimed to identify the metal flow in a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system. Outputs of a resource recovery facility, refuse derived fuel (RDF) production facility, carbonization facility, plastics liquefaction facility, composting facility, and bio-gasification facility were analyzed for metal content and leaching concentration. In terms of metal content, bulky and incombustible waste had the highest values. Char from a carbonization facility, which treats household waste, had a higher metal content than MSW incinerator bottom ash. A leaching test revealed that Cd and Pb in char and Pb in RDF production residue exceeded the Japanese regulatory criteria for landfilling, so special attention should be paid to final disposal of these substances. By multiplying metal content and the generation rate of outputs, the metal content of input waste to each facility was estimated. For most metals except Cr, the total contribution ratio of paper/textile/plastics, bulky waste, and incombustible waste was over 80%. Approximately 30% of Cr originated from plastic packaging. Finally, several MSW management scenarios showed that most metals are transferred to landfills and the leaching potential of metals to the environment is quite small.

Jung, C.H. [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Matsuto, T. [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)]. E-mail: matsuto@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Tanaka, N. [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases.

Chiriac, R., E-mail: rodica.chiriac@univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); De Araujos Morais, J. [Universite Federal de Paraiba, Campus I Departamento de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Carre, J. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bayard, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Chovelon, J.M. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Gourdon, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report ending March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a progress report for the Project Description of Grant No. DE-FG01-94CE15612, {open_quotes}Develop a Combustion of Municipal Solid Waste with Oil Shale in Circulating Fluidized Bed{close_quotes}, dated September 2, 1994. The Project Description lists and describes six tasks, four of which are complete, and two others nearing completion. A summary of progress on each task is presented in this report.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as agricultural wastes and energy crops, also raisesacid hydrolysis. Energy Biomass Wastes 13:1281- 16. Green M,fraction. Energy from Biomass and Wastes 15:725-43. 2. Aden

Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management in the Philippines - What does it need?  

SciTech Connect

The integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management is a challenge many developing countries face. In Iloilo City, Philippines around 220 tons of municipal solid waste are collected every day and disposed at a 10 ha large dumpsite. In order to improve the local waste management system the Local Government decided to develop a new Waste Management Center with integrated landfill. However, the proposed area is adjacent to the presently used dumpsite where more than 300 waste pickers dwell and depend on waste picking as their source of livelihood. The Local Government recognized the hidden threat imposed by the waste picker's presence for this development project and proposed various measures to integrate the informal sector into the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) program. As a key intervention a Waste Workers Association, called USWAG Calahunan Livelihood Association Inc. (UCLA) was initiated and registered as a formal business enterprise in May 2009. Up to date, UCLA counts 240 members who commit to follow certain rules and to work within a team that jointly recovers wasted materials. As a cooperative they are empowered to explore new livelihood options such as the recovery of Alternative Fuels for commercial (cement industry) and household use, production of compost and making of handicrafts out of used packages. These activities do not only provide alternative livelihood for them but also lessen the generation of leachate and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from waste disposal, whereby the life time of the proposed new sanitary landfill can be extended likewise.

Paul, Johannes G., E-mail: jp.aht.p3@gmail.com [GIZ-AHT Project Office SWM4LGUs, c/o DENR, Iloilo City (Philippines); Arce-Jaque, Joan [GIZ-AHT Project Office SWM4LGUs, c/o DENR, Iloilo City (Philippines); Ravena, Neil; Villamor, Salome P. [General Service Office, City Government, Iloilo City (Philippines)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Transforming Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) into Fuel via the Gasification/Pyrolysis Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pyrolysis oil and bio-liquids derived thereof. Fast pyrolysis oils can be obtained from biomass in yields up] Bridgwater, A.; Czernik, S.; Diebold, J.; Meier, D.; Oasmaa, A.; Peacocke, C,. Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass, I.A. Production of a Bio-Gasoline by Ugrading Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Liquids via Hydrogen

Columbia University

132

Nitrogen availability and leaching from soil amended with municipal solid waste compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Beneficial use of municipal solid waste compost depends on identifying a management strategy that supports crop production and protects water quality. Effects of compost and N fertilizer management strategies on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N leaching were evaluated in a 3-yr study on a Hubbard loamy sand soil. Two composts were each applied at either 90 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} from 1993 to 1995, or at 270 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} in one application in 1993. The compost and non-amended plots were side dressed annually with N fertilizer as urea at 0, 125, and 250 kg ha{sup {minus}1}. Biochemical properties of the compost as well as compost management strongly affected crop response and fate of N. Compost increased grain yield with no significant yield response to N fertilizer with the single compost application in Year 1 and the annual compost application in Year 3. Plant N uptake increased with N fertilizer rate, except in the 270 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} compost treatments in Year 1. Over the 3-yr period, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N leaching with the 270 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} compost application was 1.8 times greater compared to that with the annual application. The estimated N mineralization ranged from 0 to 12% and 3 to 6% in the annual and single compost addition, respectively. Under the conditions of this study, annual compost application with reduced supplemental N fertilizer was the best management strategy to reach optimum crop yield while minimizing NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N leaching losses.

Mamo, M.; Rosen, C.J.; Halbach, T.R.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

RD & D priorities for energy production and resource conservation from municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report identifies research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) needs and priorities associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) management technologies that conserve or produce energy or resources. The changing character of MSW waste management and the public`s heightened awareness of its real and perceived benefits and costs creates opportunities for RD&D in MSW technologies. Increased recycling, for example, creates new opportunities for energy, chemicals, and materials recovery. New technologies to control and monitor emissions from MSW combustion facilities are available for further improvement or application. Furthermore, emerging waste-to-energy technologies may offer environmental, economic, and other advantages. Given these developments, DOE identified a need to assess the RD&D needs and pdodties and carefully target RD&D efforts to help solve the carbon`s waste management problem and further the National Energy Strategy. This report presents such an assessment. It identifies and Documents RD&D needs and priorities in the broad area of MSW resource . recovery, focusing on efforts to make MSW management technologies commercially viable or to improve their commercial deployment over a 5 to l0 year period. Panels of technical experts identifies 279 RD&D needs in 12 technology areas, ranking about one-fifth of these needs as priorities. A ``Peer Review Group`` identified mass-burn combustion, ``systems studies,`` landfill gas, and ash utilization and disposal as high priority areas for RD&D based on cost and the impacts of further RD&D. The results of this assessment are intended to provide guidance to DOE concerning possible future RD&D projects.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kupwade-Patil, Kunal [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

Taylor Biomass Energy LLC TBE | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Energy LLC TBE Biomass Energy LLC TBE Jump to: navigation, search Name Taylor Biomass Energy, LLC (TBE) Place Montgomery, New York Zip 12549-9900 Sector Biomass Product Montgomery-based municipal-solid-waste (MSW) recovery and recycling firm providing biomass gasification units in addition to operating its own gasifier plants. References Taylor Biomass Energy, LLC (TBE)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Taylor Biomass Energy, LLC (TBE) is a company located in Montgomery, New York . References ↑ "Taylor Biomass Energy, LLC (TBE)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Taylor_Biomass_Energy_LLC_TBE&oldid=352048" Categories:

136

Coal/biomass fuels and the gas turbine: Utilization of solid fuels and their derivatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses key design and development issues in utilizing coal and other solid fuels in gas turbines. These fuels may be burned in raw form or processed to produce liquids or gases in more or less refined forms. The use of such fuels in gas turbines requires resolution of technology issues which are of little or no consequence for conventional natural gas and refined oil fuels. For coal, these issues are primarily related to the solid form in which coal is naturally found and its high ash and contaminant levels. Biomass presents another set of issues similar to those of coal. Among the key areas discussed are effects of ash and contaminant level on deposition, corrosion, and erosion of turbine hot parts, with particular emphasis on deposition effects.

DeCorso, M. [Power Tech Associates, Inc., Paramus, NJ (United States); Newby, R. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Anson, D. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Wenglarz, R. [Allison Engine Co., Indianapolis, IN (United States); Wright, I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate that cocombustion of municipal solid waste and oil shale can reduce emissions of gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2} and HCl) to acceptable levels. Tests in 6- and 15-inch units showed that the oil shale absorbs acid gas pollutants and produces an ash which could be, at the least, disposed of in a normal landfill. Further analysis of the results are underway to estimate scale-up to commercial size. Additional work will be done to evaluate the cementitious properties of oil shale ash.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Municipal Solid Waste Combustion : Fuel Testing and Characterization : Task 1 Report, May 30, 1990-October 1, 1990.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

Bushnell, Dwight J.; Canova, Joseph H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Solute transport under steady and transient conditions in biodegraded municipal solid waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transport of a conservative tracer (lithium) in a large (3.5 m3) undisturbed municipal solid waste sample has been investigated under steady and fully transient conditions using a simple model. The model comprises a kinematic wave approximation for water movement, presented in a previous paper, and a strict convective solute flux law. The waste medium is conceptualized as a three-domain system consisting of a mobile domain (channels), an immobile fast domain, and an immobile slow domain. The mobile domain constitutes only a minor fraction of the medium, and the access to the major part of medium is constrained by diffusive transport. Thus the system is in a state of physical nonequilibrium. The fast immobile domain is the part of the matrix which surrounds the channels and forms the boundary between the channels and the matrix. Owing to its exposure to mobile water, which enhances the biodegradation process, this domain is assumed to be more porous and loose in its structure and therefore to respond faster to a change in solute concentration in the mobile domain compared to the regions deep inside the matrix. The diffusive mass exchange between the domains is modeled with two first-order mass transfer expressions coupled in series. Under transient conditions the system will also be in a state of hydraulic nonequilibrium. Hydraulic gradients build up between the channel domain and the matrix in response to the water input events. The gradients will govern a reversible flow and convective transport between the domains, here represented as a source/sink term in the governing equation. The model has been used to interpret and compare the results from a steady state experiment and an unsteady state experiment. By solely adjusting the size of the fraction of the immobile fast domain that is active in transferring solute, the model is capable of accurately reproducing the measured outflow breakthrough curves for both the steady and unsteady state experiments. During transient conditions the fraction of the immobile fast domain that is active in transferring solute is found to be about 65% larger than that under steady state conditions. It is therefore concluded that the water input pattern governs the size of the fraction of the immobile fast domain which, in turn, governs the solute residence time in the solid waste. It can be concluded that the contaminant transport process in landfills is likely to be in a state of both physical, hydraulic, and chemical nonequilibrium. The transport process for a conservative solute is here shown to be dominated by convective transport in the channels and a fast diffusive mass exchange with the surrounding matrix. This may imply that the observed leachate quality from landfills mainly reflects the biochemical conditions in these regions. The water input pattern is of great importance for the transport process since it governs the size of the fraction of the immobile fast domain which is active in transferring solute. This may be the reason for leachate quality to be seasonally or water flux dependent, which has been observed in several investigations. The result also has a significant practical implication for efforts to enhance the biodegradation process in landfills by recycling of the leachate.

Bendz, David; Singh, Vijay P.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Biomass Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

There are many types of biomass—organic matter such as plants, residue from agriculture and forestry, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes—that can now be used to produce fuels, chemicals, and power. Wood has been used to provide heat for thousands of years. This flexibility has resulted in increased use of biomass technologies. According to the Energy Information Administration, 53% of all renewable energy consumed in the United States was biomass-based in 2007.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Washington State biomass data book  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

NREL: Biomass Research - Alexandre Chapeaux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

biofuels with industrial partners. Alex's research areas of interest are: Integrated biomass processing High solids biomass conversion Fermentation development Separation...

144

Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass -- Executive Summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report, Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass, prepared by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), acknowledges the need and provides supportive designs for an evolutionary progression from present day conventional bale-based supply systems to a uniform-format, bulk solid supply system that transitions incrementally as the industry launches and matures. These designs couple to and build from current state of technology and address science and engineering constraints that have been identified by rigorous sensitivity analyses as having the greatest impact on feedstock supply system efficiencies and costs.

J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney; Erin M. Searcy

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Review of the Regional Biomass Energy Program: Technical projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article summarizes technical projects of the regional Biomass Energy Program. Projects included are as follows: economic impact studies for renewable energy resources; alternative liquid fuels; Wood pellets fuels forum; residential fuel wood consumption; waste to energy decision-makers guide; fuel assessment for cogeneration facilities; municipal solid waste combustion characteristics.

Lusk, P.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

146

Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management alternatives with consideration of uncertainty: SIWMS development and application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the development and application of the Stochastic Integrated Waste Management Simulator (SIWMS) model. SIWMS provides a detailed view of the environmental impacts and associated costs of municipal solid waste (MSW) management alternatives under conditions of uncertainty. The model follows a life-cycle inventory approach extended with compensatory systems to provide more equitable bases for comparing different alternatives. Economic performance is measured by the net present value. The model is verified against four publicly available models under deterministic conditions and then used to study the impact of uncertainty on Sydney's MSW management 'best practices'. Uncertainty has a significant effect on all impact categories. The greatest effect is observed in the global warming category where a reversal of impact direction is predicted. The reliability of the system is most sensitive to uncertainties in the waste processing and disposal. The results highlight the importance of incorporating uncertainty at all stages to better understand the behaviour of the MSW system.

El Hanandeh, Ali, E-mail: alel5804@uni.sydney.edu.a [School of Civil Engineering, Building J05, University of Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); El-Zein, Abbas [School of Civil Engineering, Building J05, University of Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending 31 December 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The test plan is designed to demonstrate that oil shale co-combusted with municipal solid waste (MSW) can reduce gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, CO) to acceptable levels (90%+ reduction) and produce a cementitious ash which will, at a minimum, be acceptable in normal land fills. The small-scale combustion testing will be accomplished in a 6-in. circulating fluid bed combustor (CFBC) at Hazen Research Laboratories. This work will be patterned after the study the authors conducted in 1988 when coal and oil shale were co-combusted in a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The specific purpose of the test program will be to: determine the required ratio of oil shale to MSW by determining the ratio of absorbent to pollutant (A/P); determine the effect of temperature and resident time in the reactor; and determine if kinetic model developed for coal/oil shale mixture is applicable.

Not Available

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

Grady, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Chen, Guang Jiong (Fayetteville, AR)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

150

Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure fails to extract oxoanion-forming elements that are extracted by municipal solid waste leachates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

US EPA and state regulatory agencies rely on standard extraction tests to identify wastes that have the potential to contaminate surface water or groundwater. To evaluate the predictive abilities of these extraction tests, the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), the Waste Extraction Test (WET), and the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) were compared with actual municipal solid waste leachates (MSWLs) for their ability to extract regulated elements from a variety of industrial solid wastes in short- and long-term extractions. Short-term extractions used MSWLs from a variety of California landfills. Long-term sequential extractions simulated longer term leaching, as might occur in MSW landfills. For most regulated elements, the TCLP roughly predicted the maximum concentrations extracted by the MSWLs. For regulated elements that form oxoanions (e.g., Sb, As, Mo, Se, V), however the TCLP underpredicted the levels extracted by the MSWL. None of the standard tests adequately predicted these levels. The results emphasize the need for better standardized techniques to identify wastes that have the potential to contaminate groundwater with oxoanion-forming elements, particularly arsenic.

Hooper, K.; Iskander, M.; Sivia, G. [California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States). Hazardous Materials Lab.] [and others

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Environmental & economical optimization for municipal solid waste collection problems, a modeling and algorithmic approach case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing environmental concerns and interests in material and energy conservation have lead to increasing advancement in the management of solid waste over the past two decades. The field of modeling of waste management system, as opposed to the modeling ... Keywords: CO2 emission, MSW collection and routing, MSW costs analysis, network design

F. Rhoma; Z. Zhang; Y. Luo; B. Noche

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Biomass and Other Unconventional Energy Resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In light of the unstable costs of fuels, it is prudent of industries to seek alternative sources of energy whose costs are more predictable than the prices of oil and gas. This paper will examine the use of biomass as fuel, focusing on the potential benefits to industries. Industries have used the waste generated within their own plants as fuel, or have cooperated with municipal governments in seeking energy sources based on municipal solid waste. A discussion of the activities of local governments is included, but it should be noted that the priorities of industry and government, although compatible, do not always coincide.

Gershman, H. G.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Site hydrogeologic/geotechnical characterization report for Site B new municipal solid waste landfill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Site Hydrogeologic/Geotechnical Characterization Report (SHCR) presents the results of a comprehensive study conducted on a proposed solid waste landfill site, identified herein as Site B, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is intended to satisfy all requirements of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with regard to landfill siting requirements and ground water and environmental protection. In addition, this report provides substantial geotechnical data pertinent to the landfill design process.

Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Evaluation of oxygen utilization as an indicator of municipal solid-waste compost stability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research evaluated oxygen utilization parameters as indicators of MSW compost stability. Parameters evaluated were the oxygen utilization rate (OUR), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), five-day biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. In addition, other suggested indicators of stability were investigated including percent volatile solids, volatile solids reduction, nitrogen content, carbon: nitrogen ratio, and reheating potential (RP). OUR is a measure of the rate of oxygen utilization by the microorganisms in the decomposition of organic matter in compost. OUR was observed to be sensitive to the degree of stabilization and decreased with increasing compost age and stability. OUR values near zero indicate that the compost microorganisms are in a state of endogenous respiration, which is characteristic of a stable compost. Therefore, OUR is an excellent indicator of stability. A number of disadvantages are associated with OUR for practical application. Therefore, other parameters were evaluated as indicators of stability based on their statistical correlation to OUR. RP exhibited the strongest correlation to OUR. In combination, RP and SOUR were the two parameters which exhibited the strongest correlation to OUR. OUR, RP, and SOUR are all measures of microbial activity which reflect the degree of organic decomposition, and therefore, stability. Based on the results of this research; OUR, RP, and SOUR are useful parameters in assessing compost stability.

Zimmerman, R.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Kinetics and dynamic modelling of batch anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste in a stirred reactor  

SciTech Connect

A series of batch, slurry anaerobic digestion experiments were performed where the soluble and insoluble fractions, and unwashed MSW were separately digested in a 200 l stirred stainless steel vessel at a pH of 7.2 and a temperature of 38 deg. C. It was found that 7% of the total MSW COD was readily soluble, of which 80% was converted to biogas; 50% of the insoluble fraction was solubilised, of this only 80% was converted to biogas. The rate of digesting the insoluble fraction was about four times slower than the rate of digesting the soluble fraction; 48% of the total COD was converted to biogas and 40% of the total nitrogen was converted to ammonia. Soluble and insoluble fractions were broken down simultaneously. The minimum time to convert 95% of the degradable fraction to biogas was 20 days. The lag phase for the degradation of insoluble fraction of MSW can be overcome by acclimatising the culture with the soluble fraction. The rate of digestion and the methane yield was not affected by particle size (within the range of 2-50 mm). A dynamic model was developed to describe batch digestion of MSW. The parameters of the model were estimated using data from the separate digestion of soluble and insoluble fractions and validated against data from the digestion of unwashed MSW. Trends in the specific aceticlastic and formate-utilising methanogenic activity were used to estimate initial methanogenic biomass concentration and bacterial death rate coefficient. The kinetics of hydrolysis of insoluble fraction could be adequately described by a Contois equation and the kinetics of acidogenesis, and aceticlastic and hydrogen utilising methanogenesis by Monod equations.

Nopharatana, Annop [Division of Environmental of Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. 4072 (Australia); Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut's University of Technology, Thonburi, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Pullammanappallil, Pratap C. [Division of Environmental of Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. 4072 (Australia); Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Clarke, William P. [Division of Environmental of Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: billc@cheque.uq.edu.au

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from HTC will be dependent on hydrochar use/the purpose for HTC (e.g., energy generation or carbon storage).

Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Berge, Nicole D., E-mail: berge@cec.sc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

The estimation of N{sub 2}O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N{sub 2}O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N{sub 2}O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N{sub 2}O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N{sub 2}O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153 g-N{sub 2}O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N{sub 2}O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N{sub 2}O emissions.

Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinwon, E-mail: jwpark@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Clean energy from municipal solid waste. ERIP technical progress report {number_sign}6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ground carbonized RDF slurry from the grinding trials at IKA Works at approximately 50 wt.% solids was sealed in drums and shipped to the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) for the dioxin/furan and trace heavy metal combustion tests. In addition, a fuel characterization and trace component analysis was completed for this final carbonized RDF slurry fuel. This final fuel was a blend of several fuels from the pilot scale slurry carbonization experiments. As can be seen from the data, the final carbonized RDF has an exceptional heating value and volatile matter content. In addition, trace components are significantly lower than the raw RDF pellets. The report summarizes results from combustion tests and air pollution monitoring of these tests. For the upcoming time period 10/96--01/97, it is anticipated that the analysis of the dioxin/furan and trace heavy metal combustion test will be completed. This analysis includes rheology and particle size distribution analysis of the carbonized RDF slurry fuel, carbon content and TCLP of the combustion ash, trace heavy metal balances around combustor, and dioxin/furan emissions. Finally, the slurry carbonization computer model and computer simulations will be completed in the next reporting period (including the waste water treatment subsystem). Based upon this computer model, initial economic estimates and optimizations of the slurry carbonization process will be completed in the next reporting period.

NONE

1996-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

160

Wheelabrator Westchester Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Westchester Biomass Facility Westchester Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wheelabrator Westchester Biomass Facility Facility Wheelabrator Westchester Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Westchester County, New York Coordinates 41.1220194°, -73.7948516° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.1220194,"lon":-73.7948516,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Covanta Haverhill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Covanta Haverhill Biomass Facility Covanta Haverhill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Covanta Haverhill Biomass Facility Facility Covanta Haverhill Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Essex County, Massachusetts Coordinates 42.7051144°, -70.9071236° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.7051144,"lon":-70.9071236,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

162

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

Mayberry, J.L.

1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

163

Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

Weng, Yu-Chi, E-mail: clyde.weng@gmail.com [Solid Waste Management Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan); Fujiwara, Takeshi [Solid Waste Management Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

Zhao Wei, E-mail: zhaowei.tju@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Liaoning University of Technology, 121000 Jinzhou (China); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Huppes, Gjalt, E-mail: huppes@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der, E-mail: Voet@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Second quarterly report ending March 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Project Description lists and describes six tasks, three of which are virtually complete, with three others underway. A summary of progress on each task follows. Task 1: Development of a Detailed Test Plan. This task is complete. Task 2: Preparation of Test Equipment. This task is complete. Two test units (a six-inch internal diameter and a fifteen-inch internal diameter unit) were prepared and used as described under Task 4. Task 3: Obtain test materials. The required amounts of oil shale and pelletized municipal solid waste have been obtained, tested, and found to be suitable. We have obtained an adequate quantity of a pelletized ``standard`` MSW from BEPR/BFI, Eden Prairie, MN. For test purposes, we synthesized the desired ``worst probable case`` of MSW by the addition of sulfur and chlorine to reach the sulfur and chlorine levels characteristic of such waste. Task 4: Execute Feasibility Demonstration Program. The fluidized bed tests associated with the program have been completed. Analysis of the results is continuing. Testing of the waste stream material generated from these runs will begin about 6 April to evaluate its possible use as cement for specific applications. Information on the technical feasibility of the invention as indicated by the fluid bed test program is included as Attachment A. The results demonstrate that the process is technically feasible. Task 5: Data Analysis. This task is beginning. Task 6: Project Management, Reporting, and Necessary Liaison Activities. Those portions of this task associated with work done on Tasks 1 through 4 have been completed. This task will continue throughout the period of the study. In summary, work is proceeding within budget. No serious problems in the next scheduled tasks are foreseen.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Community Renewable Energy Deployment: Sacramento Municipal Utility  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Deployment: Sacramento Municipal Utility Deployment: Sacramento Municipal Utility District Projects Jump to: navigation, search Name Community Renewable Energy Deployment: Sacramento Municipal Utility District Projects Agency/Company /Organization US Department of Energy Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Renewable Energy, Biomass - Anaerobic Digestion, Solar - Concentrating Solar Power, Solar, - Solar Pv, Biomass - Waste To Energy Phase Bring the Right People Together, Develop Finance and Implement Projects Resource Type Case studies/examples Availability Publicly available--Free Publication Date 2/2/2011 Website http://www1.eere.energy.gov/co Locality Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA References Community Renewable Energy Deployment: Sacramento Municipal Utility District Projects[1]

167

Risk assessment of the health liabilities from exposure to toxic metals found in the composted material of Air Force municipal solid waste. Master's thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This thesis assesses the risk of the health liabilities from exposure to toxic metals found in the composted material of Air Force municipal solid waste (MSW). The goal is to determine the probability that the composted MSW could be a health hazard if it were used as a soil amendment. The research limited the assessment of the exposure risk to heavy metals found in raw MSW and its resulting compost. The thesis uses reviews of present literature to examine the food and soil ingestion exposure pathways. These pathways are assessed using the heavy metal concentrations found in MSW compost and the soil-plant partition coefficients of vegetables grown in soil mixed with sewage sludge or soil irrigated with sewage sludge or soil irrigated with sewage sludge leachate. The recommendation resulting from this research is that the Air Force should not use MSW composting as part of its future solid waste management plan. This alternative to landfilling contains a chronic health risk that is greater than the Environmental Protection Agency's guideline. If the Air Force would use MSW composting in the future, it may endanger Air Force personnel and others who use the compost created from Air Force MSW. Risk assessment, Heavy metals, Recycling municipal solid waste, Pollution, Composting.

Merrymon, T.L.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Reducing Mercury Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Combustion (Results of Investigations and Testing at the Camden Resource Recovery Facility)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies for mercury control for flue gases of Municipal Waste Combustors (MWCs) not only ecological hydrochloric acid (HCl) and elemental mercury (Hg") under oxidizing conditions of the off-gases downstream to the decreasing gas temperature, the elemental mercury is able to react with other flue gas components. The main

Columbia University

169

Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential. Part 2. Tradeoffs of municipal solid-waste-processing alternatives  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to assess the comparative performance and advantages of the various garbage-processing or disposal (landfill) techniques, and to address the issue of large-scale recycling of waste material. Five general methods are discussed: close-in landfill, remote landfill, refuse-derived solid fuel (RDSF), pyrolysis, and incineration. The major issue at this time concerning municipal solid waste disposal is whether to continue with landfill as the primary method or to use some combination of source separation, resource recovery, and energy generation. The constraints surrounding this issue are capital and labor costs, technical feasibility, environmental impacts--especially air pollution--marketability of the derived energy and recycled resources, and public cooperation. (MCW)

Codina, R.; Langlois, C.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste combining two pretreatment modalities, high temperature microwave and hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment were studied to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The whole waste pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C or 145 Degree-Sign C had the highest biogas production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas production of the whole waste decreased at 175 Degree-Sign C due to formation of refractory compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment to 145 Degree-Sign C and 175 Degree-Sign C were the best when considering only the free liquid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment had a lag phase and the biogas production was not higher than MW pretreated samples. - Abstract: In order to enhance anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), pretreatment combining two modalities, microwave (MW) heating in presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were investigated. The main pretreatment variables affecting the characteristics of the OFMSW were temperature (T) via MW irradiation and supplemental water additions of 20% and 30% (SWA20 and SW30). Subsequently, the focus of this study was to evaluate mesophilic batch AD performance in terms of biogas production, as well as changes in the characteristics of the OFMSW post digestion. A high MW induced temperature range (115-175 Degree-Sign C) was applied, using sealed vessels and a bench scale MW unit equipped with temperature and pressure controls. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted on the whole OFMSW as well as the liquid fractions. The whole OFMSW pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C and 145 Degree-Sign C showed 4-7% improvement in biogas production over untreated OFMSW (control). When pretreated at 175 Degree-Sign C, biogas production decreased due to formation of refractory compounds, inhibiting the digestion. For the liquid fraction of OFMSW, the effect of pretreatment on the cumulative biogas production (CBP) was more pronounced for SWA20 at 145 Degree-Sign C, with a 26% increase in biogas production after 8 days of digestion, compared to the control. When considering the increased substrate availability in the liquid fraction after MW pretreatment, a 78% improvement in biogas production vs. the control was achieved. Combining MW and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} modalities did not have a positive impact on OFMSW stabilization and enhanced biogas production. In general, all samples pretreated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} displayed a long lag phase and the CBP was usually lower than MW irradiated only samples. First order rate constant was calculated.

Shahriari, Haleh, E-mail: haleh.shahriari@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Warith, Mostafa [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Hamoda, Mohamed [Department of Environmental Technology and Management, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait); Kennedy, Kevin J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Application of spatial and non-spatial data analysis in determination of the factors that impact municipal solid waste generation rates in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatial autocorrelation exists in municipal solid waste generation rates for different provinces in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Traditional non-spatial regression models may not provide sufficient information for better solid waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unemployment rate is a global variable that significantly impacts the waste generation rates in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significances of global parameters may diminish at local scale for some provinces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GWR model can be used to create clusters of cities for solid waste management. - Abstract: In studies focusing on the factors that impact solid waste generation habits and rates, the potential spatial dependency in solid waste generation data is not considered in relating the waste generation rates to its determinants. In this study, spatial dependency is taken into account in determination of the significant socio-economic and climatic factors that may be of importance for the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates in different provinces of Turkey. Simultaneous spatial autoregression (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are used for the spatial data analyses. Similar to ordinary least squares regression (OLSR), regression coefficients are global in SAR model. In other words, the effect of a given independent variable on a dependent variable is valid for the whole country. Unlike OLSR or SAR, GWR reveals the local impact of a given factor (or independent variable) on the waste generation rates of different provinces. Results show that provinces within closer neighborhoods have similar MSW generation rates. On the other hand, this spatial autocorrelation is not very high for the exploratory variables considered in the study. OLSR and SAR models have similar regression coefficients. GWR is useful to indicate the local determinants of MSW generation rates. GWR model can be utilized to plan waste management activities at local scale including waste minimization, collection, treatment, and disposal. At global scale, the MSW generation rates in Turkey are significantly related to unemployment rate and asphalt-paved roads ratio. Yet, significances of these variables may diminish at local scale for some provinces. At local scale, different factors may be important in affecting MSW generation rates.

Keser, Saniye [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Duzgun, Sebnem [Department of Mining Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Geodetic and Geographic Information Technologies, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Aksoy, Aysegul, E-mail: aaksoy@metu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Wheelabrator North Broward Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wheelabrator North Broward Biomass Facility Wheelabrator North Broward Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wheelabrator North Broward Biomass Facility Facility Wheelabrator North Broward Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Broward County, Florida Coordinates 26.190096°, -80.365865° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":26.190096,"lon":-80.365865,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

173

Kent County Waste to Energy Facility Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kent County Waste to Energy Facility Biomass Facility Kent County Waste to Energy Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kent County Waste to Energy Facility Biomass Facility Facility Kent County Waste to Energy Facility Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Kent County, Michigan Coordinates 43.0097027°, -85.520024° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.0097027,"lon":-85.520024,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

174

Pioneer Valley Resource Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pioneer Valley Resource Recovery Biomass Facility Pioneer Valley Resource Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pioneer Valley Resource Recovery Biomass Facility Facility Pioneer Valley Resource Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Hampden County, Massachusetts Coordinates 42.1172314°, -72.6624209° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.1172314,"lon":-72.6624209,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

175

Bay Resource Management Center Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Center Biomass Facility Center Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bay Resource Management Center Biomass Facility Facility Bay Resource Management Center Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Bay County, Florida Coordinates 30.1805306°, -85.684578° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.1805306,"lon":-85.684578,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

176

Hillsborough County Resource Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hillsborough County Resource Recovery Biomass Facility Hillsborough County Resource Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hillsborough County Resource Recovery Biomass Facility Facility Hillsborough County Resource Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Hillsborough County, Florida Coordinates 27.9903597°, -82.3017728° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":27.9903597,"lon":-82.3017728,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

177

Penobscot Energy Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Penobscot Energy Recovery Biomass Facility Facility Penobscot Energy Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Penobscot County, Maine Coordinates 45.3230777°, -68.5806727° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.3230777,"lon":-68.5806727,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

178

Montenay Montgomery LP Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Montenay Montgomery LP Biomass Facility Montenay Montgomery LP Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Montenay Montgomery LP Biomass Facility Facility Montenay Montgomery LP Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Montgomery County, Pennsylvania Coordinates 40.2290075°, -75.3878525° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.2290075,"lon":-75.3878525,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

179

Huntington Resource Recovery Facility Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Huntington Resource Recovery Facility Biomass Facility Huntington Resource Recovery Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Huntington Resource Recovery Facility Biomass Facility Facility Huntington Resource Recovery Facility Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Suffolk County, New York Coordinates 40.9848784°, -72.6151169° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.9848784,"lon":-72.6151169,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

180

Miami Dade County Resource Recovery Fac Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Miami Dade County Resource Recovery Fac Biomass Facility Miami Dade County Resource Recovery Fac Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Miami Dade County Resource Recovery Fac Biomass Facility Facility Miami Dade County Resource Recovery Fac Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Miami-Dade County, Florida Coordinates 25.7889689°, -80.2264393° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":25.7889689,"lon":-80.2264393,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Southeast Resource Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Southeast Resource Recovery Biomass Facility Southeast Resource Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Southeast Resource Recovery Biomass Facility Facility Southeast Resource Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Los Angeles County, California Coordinates 34.3871821°, -118.1122679° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.3871821,"lon":-118.1122679,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

182

Covanta Bristol Energy Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Covanta Bristol Energy Biomass Facility Covanta Bristol Energy Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Covanta Bristol Energy Biomass Facility Facility Covanta Bristol Energy Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Hartford County, Connecticut Coordinates 41.7924343°, -72.8042797° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.7924343,"lon":-72.8042797,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

183

North County Regional Resource Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Regional Resource Biomass Facility Regional Resource Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name North County Regional Resource Biomass Facility Facility North County Regional Resource Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Palm Beach County, Florida Coordinates 26.6514503°, -80.2767327° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":26.6514503,"lon":-80.2767327,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

184

Wheelabrator South Broward Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South Broward Biomass Facility South Broward Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wheelabrator South Broward Biomass Facility Facility Wheelabrator South Broward Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Broward County, Florida Coordinates 26.190096°, -80.365865° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":26.190096,"lon":-80.365865,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

185

Covanta Hennepin Energy Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hennepin Energy Biomass Facility Hennepin Energy Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Covanta Hennepin Energy Biomass Facility Facility Covanta Hennepin Energy Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Hennepin County, Minnesota Coordinates 45.0208911°, -93.5094574° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.0208911,"lon":-93.5094574,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

186

Covanta Mid-Connecticut Energy Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mid-Connecticut Energy Biomass Facility Mid-Connecticut Energy Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Covanta Mid-Connecticut Energy Biomass Facility Facility Covanta Mid-Connecticut Energy Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Hartford County, Connecticut Coordinates 41.7924343°, -72.8042797° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.7924343,"lon":-72.8042797,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

187

Wheelabrator Millbury Facility Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wheelabrator Millbury Facility Biomass Facility Wheelabrator Millbury Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wheelabrator Millbury Facility Biomass Facility Facility Wheelabrator Millbury Facility Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Worcester County, Massachusetts Coordinates 42.4096528°, -71.8571331° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.4096528,"lon":-71.8571331,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

188

Regional Waste Systems Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Regional Waste Systems Biomass Facility Facility Regional Waste Systems Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Cumberland County, Maine Coordinates 43.8132979°, -70.3870587° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.8132979,"lon":-70.3870587,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

189

Covanta Stanislaus Energy Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Stanislaus Energy Biomass Facility Stanislaus Energy Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Covanta Stanislaus Energy Biomass Facility Facility Covanta Stanislaus Energy Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Stanislaus County, California Coordinates 37.5090711°, -120.9876321° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.5090711,"lon":-120.9876321,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

190

Commerce Refuse To Energy Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refuse To Energy Biomass Facility Refuse To Energy Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Commerce Refuse To Energy Biomass Facility Facility Commerce Refuse To Energy Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Los Angeles County, California Coordinates 34.3871821°, -118.1122679° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.3871821,"lon":-118.1122679,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

191

Covanta Babylon Energy Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Babylon Energy Biomass Facility Babylon Energy Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Covanta Babylon Energy Biomass Facility Facility Covanta Babylon Energy Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Suffolk County, New York Coordinates 40.9848784°, -72.6151169° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.9848784,"lon":-72.6151169,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

192

McKay Bay Facility Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

McKay Bay Facility Biomass Facility McKay Bay Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name McKay Bay Facility Biomass Facility Facility McKay Bay Facility Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Hillsborough County, Florida Coordinates 27.9903597°, -82.3017728° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":27.9903597,"lon":-82.3017728,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

193

Montgomery County Resource Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Montgomery County Resource Recovery Biomass Facility Montgomery County Resource Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Montgomery County Resource Recovery Biomass Facility Facility Montgomery County Resource Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Montgomery County, Maryland Coordinates 39.1547426°, -77.2405153° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.1547426,"lon":-77.2405153,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

194

Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research investigated the feasibility of reducing volatilization of heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals via phosphate pre-treatment. To evaluate the evaporation characteristics of three heavy metals from phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash, volatilization tests have been performed by means of a dedicated apparatus in the 100-1000 deg. C range. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and BCR sequential extraction procedure were applied to assess phosphate stabilization process. The results showed that the volatilization behavior in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash could be reduced effectively. Pyromorphite-like minerals formed in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash were mainly responsible for the volatilization reduction of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash at higher temperature, due to their chemical fixation and thermal stabilization for heavy metals. The stabilization effects were encouraging for the potential reuse of MSWI fly ash.

Sun Ying; Zheng Jianchang [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zou Luquan [Shanghai Center of Solid Waste Disposal, Shanghai (China); Liu Qiang; Zhu Ping [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Qian Guangren, E-mail: grqian@mail.shu.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

195

Thermodynamic estimation of minor element distribution between immiscible liquids in Fe-Cu-based metal phase generated in melting treatment of municipal solid wastes  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two liquids separation of metal occurs in the melting of municipal solid waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of PGMs etc. between two liquid metal phases is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quite simple thermodynamic model is applied to predict the distribution ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au and Ag originated from WEEE are found to be concentrated into Cu-rich phase. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become an important target in managing material cycles from the viewpoint of not only waste management and control of environmental pollution but also resource conservation. This study investigated the distribution tendency of trace elements in municipal solid waste (MSW) or incinerator ash, including valuable non-ferrous metals (Ni, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ti, V, W, Zr), precious group metals (PGMs) originated from WEEE (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt), and others (Al, B, Pb, Si), between Fe-rich and Cu-rich metal phases by means of simple thermodynamic calculations. Most of the typical alloying elements for steel (Co, Cr, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ti, V, and W) and Rh were preferentially distributed into the Fe-rich phase. PGMs, such as Au, Ag, and Pd, were enriched in the Cu-rich phase, whereas Pt was almost equally distributed into both phases. Since the primary metallurgical processing of Cu is followed by an electrolysis for refining, and since PGMs in crude copper have been industrially recovered from the resulting anode slime, our results indicated that Ag, Au, and Pd could be effectively recovered from MSW if the Cu-rich phase could be selectively collected.

Lu, X. [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, The University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Nakajima, K.; Sakanakura, H. [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Matsubae, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Bai, H. [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, The University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Nagasaka, T., E-mail: t-nagasaka@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Solid Waste Management Act (Pennsylvania)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act provides for the planning and regulation of solid waste storage, collection, transportation, processing, treatment, and disposal. It requires that municipalities submit plans for municipal...

197

International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

uniformity. Shredding of mixed waste to about 10 centimetersand untreated mixed municipal waste. GTZ/Holcim (2006) givesCEMBUREAU 2009). Mixed municipal waste must be pre-processed

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

EA-1841: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee for the Taylor Biomass  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee for the Taylor Biomass 41: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee for the Taylor Biomass Montgomery Project in the Town of Montgomery, Orange County, New York EA-1841: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee for the Taylor Biomass Montgomery Project in the Town of Montgomery, Orange County, New York Summary Taylor Biomass, LLC (Taylor) submitted an application to DOE for a Federal loan guarantee to support the construction and startup of a biomass gasification-to energy facility at a 95-acre recycling facility in the Town of Montgomery, Orange County, NY. The Project would involve the construction of a Post-Collection Separation Facility, a Gasification System and a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Island. The Post-Collection Separation Facility would accept 950 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW), construction and demolition debris, and 100 tons of

199

Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

Trzcinski, Antoine P., E-mail: a.trzcinski05@ic.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College of Science and Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Stuckey, David C., E-mail: d.stuckey@ic.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College of Science and Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

Northeast regional biomass program. Retrospective, 1983--1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ten years ago, when Congress initiated the Regional Biomass Energy Program, biomass fuel use in the Northeast was limited primarily to the forest products industry and residential wood stoves. An enduring form of energy as old as settlement in the region, residential wood-burning now takes its place beside modern biomass combustion systems in schools and other institutions, industrial cogeneration facilities, and utility-scale power plants. Biomass today represents more than 95 percent of all renewable energy consumed in the Northeast: a little more than one-half quadrillion BTUs yearly, or five percent of the region`s total energy demand. Yet given the region`s abundance of overstocked forests, municipal solid waste and processed wood residues, this represents just a fraction of the energy potential the biomass resource has to offer.This report provides an account of the work of the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) over it`s first ten years. The NRBP has undertaken projects to promote the use of biomass energy and technologies.

Savitt, S.; Morgan, S. [eds.] [Citizens Conservation Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Assessment of landfill reclamation and the effects of age on the combustion of recovered municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarized the Lancaster county Solid Waste Management Authorities`s (LCSWMA)landfill reclamation activities, ongoing since 1991. All aspects have been analyzed from the manpower and equipment requirements at the landfill to the operational impacts felt at the LCSWMA Resource Recovery Facility (RRF) where the material is delivered for processing. Characteristics of the reclaimed refuse and soil recovered from trommeling operations are discussed as are results of air monitoring performed at the landfill excavation site and the RRF. The report also discusses the energy value of the reclaimed material and compares this value with those obtained for significantly older reclaimed waste streams. The effects of waste age on the air emissions and ash residue quality at the RRF are also provided. The report concludes by summarizing the project benefits and provides recommendations for other landfill reclamation operations and areas requiring further research.

Forster, G.A. [Lancaster Environmental Foundation, PA (United States)] [Lancaster Environmental Foundation, PA (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington's industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state's total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state's energy needs.

Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington`s industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state`s total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state`s energy needs.

Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

204

1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities  

SciTech Connect

This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington's industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state's total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state's energy needs.

Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

American Ref-Fuel of SE CT Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

American Ref-Fuel of SE CT Biomass Facility American Ref-Fuel of SE CT Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name American Ref-Fuel of SE CT Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of SE CT Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location New London County, Connecticut Coordinates 41.5185189°, -72.0468164° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.5185189,"lon":-72.0468164,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

206

American Ref-Fuel of Essex Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Essex Biomass Facility Essex Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name American Ref-Fuel of Essex Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of Essex Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Essex County, New Jersey Coordinates 40.7947466°, -74.2648829° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.7947466,"lon":-74.2648829,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

207

MacArthur Waste to Energy Facility Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MacArthur Waste to Energy Facility Biomass Facility MacArthur Waste to Energy Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name MacArthur Waste to Energy Facility Biomass Facility Facility MacArthur Waste to Energy Facility Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Suffolk County, New York Coordinates 40.9848784°, -72.6151169° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.9848784,"lon":-72.6151169,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

208

American Ref-Fuel of Niagara Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Niagara Biomass Facility Niagara Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name American Ref-Fuel of Niagara Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of Niagara Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Niagara County, New York Coordinates 43.3119496°, -78.7476208° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.3119496,"lon":-78.7476208,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

209

American Ref-Fuel of Delaware Valley Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name American Ref-Fuel of Delaware Valley Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of Delaware Valley Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Delaware County, Pennsylvania Coordinates 39.907793°, -75.3878525° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.907793,"lon":-75.3878525,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

210

Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. An assessment of the current situation in the United States and forecast of future emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

System and process for biomass treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

212

Understanding the product distribution from biomass fast pyrolysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fast pyrolysis of biomass is an attractive route to transform solid biomass into a liquid bio-oil, which has been envisioned as a renewable substitute for… (more)

Patwardhan, Pushkaraj Ramchandra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name A Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal Solid Waste Management AgencyCompany Organization United Nations Economic and Social Commission for...

214

Biomass Anaerobic Digestion Facilities and Biomass Gasification...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Anaerobic Digestion Facilities and Biomass Gasification Facilities (Indiana) Biomass Anaerobic Digestion Facilities and Biomass Gasification Facilities (Indiana)...

215

SPATIAL AND SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION; GLOBAL, REGIONAL, AND NATIONAL POTENTIAL FOR SUSTAINABLE BIOENERGY FROM RESIDUE BIOMASS AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Combustion of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere, and has led to an increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2. CO2 is… (more)

Gregg, Jay Sterling

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

American Ref-Fuel of Hempstead Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

American Ref-Fuel of Hempstead Biomass Facility American Ref-Fuel of Hempstead Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of Hempstead Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Nassau County, New York Coordinates 40.6546145°, -73.5594128° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.6546145,"lon":-73.5594128,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

217

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2.3. Effects of low pH on biomass solids……………………………. ………………of effects of low pH on biomass……………………………. ….25 2.4. Low pHof low pH biomass reactions………………………. ……………..46

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

A Reversible Planar Solid Oxide Fuel-Fed Electrolysis Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Hydrogen and Electricity Production Operating on Natural Gas/Biomass Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis technique was developed to co-generate hydrogen and electricity directly from a fuel at a reduced cost of electricity. Solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs), which were comprised of 8YSZ electrolytes sandwiched between thick anode supports and thin cathodes, were constructed and experimentally evaluated at various operation conditions on lab-level button cells with 2 cm2 per-cell active areas as well as on bench-scale stacks with 30 cm2 and 100 cm2 per-cell active areas. To reduce the concentration overpotentials, pore former systems were developed and engineered to optimize the microstructure and morphology of the Ni+8YSZ-based anodes. Chemically stable cathode materials, which possess good electronic and ionic conductivity and exhibit good electrocatalytic properties in both oxidizing and reducing gas atmospheres, were developed and materials properties were investigated. In order to increase the specific hydrogen production rate and thereby reduce the system volume and capital cost for commercial applications, a hybrid system that integrates the technologies of the SOFEC and the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), was developed and successfully demonstrated at a 1kW scale, co-generating hydrogen and electricity directly from chemical fuels.

Tao, Greg, G.

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

219

Solid Waste and Infectious Waste Regulations (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Infectious Waste Regulations (Ohio) and Infectious Waste Regulations (Ohio) Solid Waste and Infectious Waste Regulations (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Utility Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This chapter of the law that establishes the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency establishes the rules and regulations regarding solid waste. The chapter establishes specific regulations for biomass facilities, which includes permitting, siting, operation, safety guidelines, and closing requirements. Siting regulations include setbacks from waste handling areas for state facilities (1000 feet from jails, schools), requirements for not siting

220

International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

engineering.de/116/) Co-firing of MSW and sewage sludge indevice for solid waste fuel co-firing Solid waste fuels areand HF produced during firing. ? CO is largely unaffected. ?

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

222

Biomass Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Technology Basics Biomass Technology Basics Biomass Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis Photo of a pair of hands holding corn stover, the unused parts of harvested corn. There are many types of biomass-organic matter such as plants, residue from agriculture and forestry, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes-that can now be used to produce fuels, chemicals, and power. Wood has been used to provide heat for thousands of years. This flexibility has resulted in increased use of biomass technologies. According to the Energy Information Administration, 53% of all renewable energy consumed in the United States was biomass-based in 2007. Biomass technologies break down organic matter to release stored energy from the sun. The process used depends on the type of biomass and its

223

Biomass Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Technology Basics Biomass Technology Basics Biomass Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis Photo of a pair of hands holding corn stover, the unused parts of harvested corn. There are many types of biomass-organic matter such as plants, residue from agriculture and forestry, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes-that can now be used to produce fuels, chemicals, and power. Wood has been used to provide heat for thousands of years. This flexibility has resulted in increased use of biomass technologies. According to the Energy Information Administration, 53% of all renewable energy consumed in the United States was biomass-based in 2007. Biomass technologies break down organic matter to release stored energy from the sun. The process used depends on the type of biomass and its

224

Sustainable use of California biomass resources can help meet state and national bioenergy targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as mixed municipal solid wastes, thereby accruing addi-Landfilled mixed paper Landfilled wood and green waste with

Jenkins, Bryan M; Williams, Robert B; Gildart, Martha C; Kaffka, Stephen R.; Hartsough, Bruce; Dempster, Peter G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

State Grid and Shenzhen Energy Group Biomass Engineering Technology  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Shenzhen Energy Group Biomass Engineering Technology and Shenzhen Energy Group Biomass Engineering Technology Research Centre Jump to: navigation, search Name State Grid and Shenzhen Energy Group Biomass Engineering Technology Research Centre Place Beijing Municipality, China Sector Biomass Product The centre focuses on biomass technology research and provides integrated technologic and service support for biomass utilisation and industrialisation. References State Grid and Shenzhen Energy Group Biomass Engineering Technology Research Centre[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. State Grid and Shenzhen Energy Group Biomass Engineering Technology Research Centre is a company located in Beijing Municipality, China .

226

Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

OUT Success Stories: Biomass Gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The world's first demonstration of an efficient, low-pressure biomass gasifier capable of producing a high-quality fuel is now operating in Vermont. The gasifier converts 200 tons of solid biomass per day into a clean-burning gas with a high energy content for electricity generation.

Jones, J.

2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

Biomass Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:22pm Addthis Biomass resources include any plant-derived organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. These materials are commonly referred to as feedstocks. Biomass Feedstocks Biomass feedstocks include dedicated energy crops, agricultural crops, forestry residues, aquatic crops, biomass processing residues, municipal waste, and animal waste. Dedicated energy crops Herbaceous energy crops are perennials that are harvested annually after taking 2 to 3 years to reach full productivity. These include such grasses as switchgrass, miscanthus (also known as elephant grass or e-grass), bamboo, sweet sorghum, tall fescue, kochia, wheatgrass, and others. Short-rotation woody crops are fast-growing hardwood trees that are

229

Biomass Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:22pm Addthis Biomass resources include any plant-derived organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. These materials are commonly referred to as feedstocks. Biomass Feedstocks Biomass feedstocks include dedicated energy crops, agricultural crops, forestry residues, aquatic crops, biomass processing residues, municipal waste, and animal waste. Dedicated energy crops Herbaceous energy crops are perennials that are harvested annually after taking 2 to 3 years to reach full productivity. These include such grasses as switchgrass, miscanthus (also known as elephant grass or e-grass), bamboo, sweet sorghum, tall fescue, kochia, wheatgrass, and others. Short-rotation woody crops are fast-growing hardwood trees that are

230

Biomass pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

231

Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: Arkansas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document consists of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner agricultural crop, agricultural waste, municipal waste and industrial waste in Arkansas that are potential biomass energy sources.

Not Available

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Evaluation of the Natick enzymatic hydrolysis process for use in the production of ethanol from municipal solid waste or from wood. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Economic evaluation of a conceptual, large-scale, commercial ethanol production facility using the enzymatic hydrolysis technology are presented. Designs and cost estimates for the mechanical processing and the ethanol fermentation and recovery are included. Production of ethanol from both wood and solid wastes is covered. (MHR)

Jones, J. L.; Fong, W. S.; Chatterjee, A. K.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

SEMASS Resource Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » SEMASS Resource Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name SEMASS Resource Recovery Biomass Facility Facility SEMASS Resource Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Plymouth County, Massachusetts Coordinates 41.9120406°, -70.7168469° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.9120406,"lon":-70.7168469,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

234

Wheelabrator North Andover Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Wheelabrator North Andover Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wheelabrator North Andover Biomass Facility Facility Wheelabrator North Andover Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste Location Essex County, Massachusetts Coordinates 42.7051144°, -70.9071236° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.7051144,"lon":-70.9071236,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

235

WASTE SEPARATION-DOES IT INFLUENCE MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR EMISSIONS?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WASTE SEPARATION- DOES IT INFLUENCE MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR EMISSIONS? A. John Chandler A a commendable job in proving that trace emissions from a modem waste to energy plant have little to do with the trace compounds in individual components of municipal solid waste. Ogden, the leader in designing

Columbia University

236

CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solvent Systems Catalystic Biomass Liquefaction Investigatereactor Product collection Biomass liquefaction process12-13, 1980 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,

Ergun, Sabri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Biomass Resources  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Biomass resources include any plant-derived organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. These materials are commonly referred to as feedstocks.

238

Produzioni e consumi di biomasse legnose a fini  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Produzioni e consumi di biomasse legnose a fini energetici: problemi di monitoraggio e Sistemi Agro-forestali Università di Padova "Sleeping giant" (IEA) The contribution of biomass finali di sola energia termica #12;3 Biomasse = il settore chiave del PAN · Al 2020: biomasse solide (in

Pettenella, Davide

239

Solid Waste Disposal Act (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality is responsible for the regulation and management of municipal solid waste and hazardous waste. A fee is applied to all solid waste disposed in the...

240

Energy Basics: Biomass Resources  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Share this resource Biomass Biofuels Biopower Bio-Based Products Biomass Resources Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Biomass Resources Biomass resources include any...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gasifier: Commercial Gasifiers: Gasifiers for Special Applications Biomass and Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Gasification The gasification of biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW)...

242

Expanding roles for modernized biomass energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

produc- tion) at industrial sites or at municipal district heating fa- cilities. This produces a greater poor man's oil" because direct use by combustion for domestic cooking and heating ranks of biomass for cooking and heating. An astounding 58% of all human exposure to particulate air pollution

243

Treatment of biomass to obtain a target chemical  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Target chemicals were produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

244

Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: A case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana  

SciTech Connect

Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

Asase, Mizpah [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Yanful, Ernest K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Western Ontario London, Ontario, N6A 5B9 (Canada)], E-mail: eyanful@eng.uwo.ca; Mensah, Moses [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Stanford, Jay [City of London, 300 Dufferin Ave. P.O. Box 5035, Ontario, N6A 4L9 (Canada); Amponsah, Samuel [Mathematics Department, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Municipal Utility Districts (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Municipal Utility Districts, regulated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, may be created for the following purposes: (1) the control, storage, preservation, and distribution of its...

246

Permitting Guidance for Biomass Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass power plants could contribute significantly to reaching U.S. targets for renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions reduction. Achieving these goals will require the construction of many new biomass-fired units, as well as the conversion of existing coal-fired units to biomass combustion or co-fired units. New biomass units will require air, water use, wastewater, and, in some cases, solid waste permits. Existing fossil fuel-fired units that will be converted to dedicated biomass-fired units o...

2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

247

Superheater Corrosion Produced By Biomass Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About 90% of the world's bioenergy is produced by burning renewable biomass fuels. Low-cost biomass fuels such as agricultural wastes typically contain more alkali metals and chlorine than conventional fuels. Although the efficiency of a boiler's steam cycle can be increased by raising its maximum steam temperature, alkali metals and chlorine released in biofuel boilers cause accelerated corrosion and fouling at high superheater steam temperatures. Most alloys that resist high temperature corrosion protect themselves with a surface layer of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. However, this Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fluxed away by reactions that form alkali chromates or volatilized as chromic acid. This paper reviews recent research on superheater corrosion mechanisms and superheater alloy performance in biomass boilers firing black liquor, biomass fuels, blends of biomass with fossil fuels and municipal waste.

Sharp, William (Sandy) [SharpConsultant; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations; Keiser, James R [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 {sup o}C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 {+-} 0.02 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} to 0.55 {+-} 0.05 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

Martin-Gonzalez, L., E-mail: lucia.martin@uab.ca [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Colturato, L.F. [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Font, X.; Vicent, T. [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental (ICTA) Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Municipal Waste Combustion (New Mexico)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This rule establishes requirements for emissions from, and design and operation of, municipal waste combustion units. "Municipal waste" means all materials and substances discarded from residential...

250

COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

Darren D. Schmidt

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL  

SciTech Connect

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

Darren D. Schmidt

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - H2 Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demonstration of Pressurizing CoalBiomass Mixtures Using Posimetric Solids Pump Technology PDF-626KB (Feb 2011) Nanoporous, Metal Carbide, Surface Diffusion Membranes for...

253

Russell Biomass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Russell Biomass Jump to: navigation, search Name Russell Biomass Place Massachusetts Sector Biomass Product Russell Biomass, LLC is developing a 50MW biomass to energy project at...

254

Star Biomass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Jump to: navigation, search Name Star Biomass Place India Sector Biomass Product Plans to set up biomass projects in Rajasthan. References Star Biomass1 LinkedIn...

255

Energy Basics: Biomass Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Share this resource Biomass Biofuels Biopower Bio-Based Products Biomass Resources Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Biomass Technologies Photo of a pair of hands...

256

Plant Biomass Characterization: Application of Solution- and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plant Biomass Characterization: Application of Solution- and Solid-state NMR Spectroscopy Yunqiao Pu 1,3 , Bassem Hallac 2,3 and Arthur J. Ragauskas 1,2,3 1 Georgia Institute of...

257

Clean energy from municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This progress report describes a slurry grinding trial where a carbonized refuse derived fuel was dispersed in water. The RDF slurry produced in this study is to subjected to dioxin combustion tests.

Klosky, M.

1996-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

258

DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for transportation fuel Concept developed at RISÃ? and DTU Anne Belinda Thomsen (RISÃ?) Birgitte K. Ahring (DTU) #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass: Biogas #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Pre-treatment Step Biomass is macerated The biomass is cut in small

259

High solids fermentation reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

NREL: Biomass Research - Richard L. Bain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Richard L. Bain Richard L. Bain Photo of Richard Bain Richard Bain is a Principal Engineer in the National Bioenergy Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. He has worked at NREL since 1990 and has extensive experience in the thermal conversion of biomass, municipal wastes, coal, and petroleum. He is a lead researcher in the area of production of transportation fuels and hydrogen via thermochemical conversion of biomass; technical advisor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) on biofuels demonstrations; and Task Leader for the International Energy Agency Bioenergy Annex Biomass Gasification Task. Dr. Bain manages biomass gasification research activities for the Fuel Cell Technologies Program at NREL and coordinates support to the USDA for

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Sustainable use of California biomass resources can help meet state and national bioenergy targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2006. * Does not include landfill gas from municipal wastemegawatts from solid-fuel, landfill gas and digester gasother fuels. Both landfill gas and digester ecological and

Jenkins, Bryan M; Williams, Robert B; Gildart, Martha C; Kaffka, Stephen R.; Hartsough, Bruce; Dempster, Peter G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

United States - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

a Biomass waste includes municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.

263

Science Activities in Biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Activities in Biomass Curriculum: Biomass Power (organic chemistry, genetics, distillation, agriculture, chemicalcarbon cycles, climatology, plants and energy resources...

264

Gasification of woody biomass Tessa Jansen (s0140600)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on biomass fast pyrolysis followed by #12;-3- hydroprocessing.11-14 A number of pre-conversion technologies;-9- Fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing Fast pyrolysis is a process of heating biomass without include biomass pretreatment, fast pyrolysis, solids removal, oil recovery, char combustion

Luding, Stefan

265

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications.

Unknown

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Managing America`s solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

Not Available

1998-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

268

Solid state transport-based thermoelectric converter - Energy ...  

A solid state thermoelectric converter includes a thermally insulating separator layer, ... Advanced Materials; Biomass and Biofuels; Building Energy Efficiency;

269

Integration of alternative feedstreams for biomass treatment and utilization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method for treating biomass composed of integrated feedstocks to produce fermentable sugars. One aspect of the methods described herein includes a pretreatment step wherein biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream and the resulting integrated feedstock, at relatively high concentrations, is treated with a low concentration of ammonia relative to the dry weight of biomass. In another aspect, a high solids concentration of pretreated biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream for saccharifiaction.

Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA); Friend, Julie (Claymont, DE); Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Hames, Bonnie (Westminster, CO)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

270

Biomass Energy Production in California: The Case for a Biomass Policy Initiative; Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the 1980s California developed the largest and most divers biomass energy industry in the world. Biomass energy production has become an important component of the state's environmental infrastructure, diverting solid wastes from open burning and disposal in landfills to a beneficial use application.

Morris, G.

2000-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

271

Biomass Energy Production in California: The Case for a Biomass Policy Initiative; Final Report  

SciTech Connect

During the 1980s California developed the largest and most divers biomass energy industry in the world. Biomass energy production has become an important component of the state's environmental infrastructure, diverting solid wastes from open burning and disposal in landfills to a beneficial use application.

Morris, G.

2000-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

272

Schiller Biomass Con Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

| Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Schiller Biomass Con Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Schiller Biomass Con Biomass...

273

Ware Biomass Cogen Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Ware Biomass Cogen Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ware Biomass Cogen Biomass...

274

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts proceeded, and Carbona completed the gasifier island design package. Nexant has completed the balance of plant support systems design and the design for the biomass feed system. Work on the Technoeconomic Study is proceeding. Approximately 75% of the specified hardware quotations have been received at the end of the reporting period. A meeting is scheduled for July 23 rd and 24 th to review the preliminary cost estimates. GTI presented a status review update of the project at the DOE/NETL contractor's review meeting in Pittsburgh on June 21st.

Unknown

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembles an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on conducting tests of biomass feedstock samples on the 2 inch mini-bench gasifier.

Unknown

2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

276

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembles an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1 During this Performance Period work efforts focused on conducting tests of biomass feedstock samples on the 2 inch mini-bench gasifier. The gasification tests were completed. The GTI U-GAS model was used to check some of the early test results against the model predictions. Additional modeling will be completed to further verify the model predictions and actual results.

Unknown

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Natural gas and waste coal fines were evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. A design was developed for a cofiring combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures in a power generation boiler, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. Following the preliminary design, GTI evaluated the gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembled an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test were used to confirm the process design completed in Phase Task 1. As a result of the testing and modeling effort, the selected biomass feedstocks gasified very well, with a carbon conversion of over 98% and individual gas component yields that matched the RENUGAS{reg_sign} model. As a result of this work, the facility appears very attractive from a commercial standpoint. Similar facilities can be profitable if they have access to low cost fuels and have attractive wholesale or retail electrical rates for electricity sales. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. Phase II has not been approved for construction at this time.

Francis S. Lau

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts proceeded, and Carbona completed the gasifier island design package. Nexant has completed the balance of plant support systems design and the design for the biomass feed system. Work on the Technoeconomic Study is proceeding. Approximately 75% of the specified hardware quotations have been received at the end of the reporting period. A meeting is scheduled for July 23 rd and 24 th to review the preliminary cost estimates. GTI presented a status review update of the project at the DOE/NETL contractor's review meeting in Pittsburgh on June 21st.

Unknown

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembles an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on conducting tests of biomass feedstock samples on the 2 inch mini-bench gasifier.

Unknown

2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

280

NREL: Biomass Research - Biomass Characterization Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass Characterization Projects Biomass Characterization Projects A photo of a magnified image on a computer screen. Many blue specks and lines in different sizes and shapes are visible on top of a white background. A microscopic image of biomass particles. Through biomass characterization projects, NREL researchers are exploring the chemical composition of biomass samples before and after pretreatment and during processing. The characterization of biomass feedstocks, intermediates, and products is a critical step in optimizing biomass conversion processes. Among NREL's biomass characterization projects are: Feedstock/Process Interface NREL is working to understand the effects of feedstock and feedstock pre-processing on the conversion process and vice versa. The objective of the task is to understand the characteristics of biomass feedstocks

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

American Municipal Power (Public Electric Utilities) - Residential...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

American Municipal Power (Public Electric Utilities) - Residential Efficiency Smart Program (Ohio) American Municipal Power (Public Electric Utilities) - Residential Efficiency...

282

Municipal Energy Plan Program (Ontario, Canada) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Energy Plan Program (Ontario, Canada) Municipal Energy Plan Program (Ontario, Canada) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on August 29, 2013. EZFeed Policy Place Ontario Applies to States or Provinces Ontario Name Municipal Energy Plan Program (Ontario, Canada) Policy Category Financial Incentive Policy Type Grant Program Affected Technologies Biomass/Biogas, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy Storage, Fuel Cells, Geothermal Electric, Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric (Small), Solar Photovoltaics, Tidal Energy, Wave Energy, Wind energy Active Policy Yes Implementing Sector State/Province Amount 50 percent of eligible costs Expiration Date 11/29/2013 Maximum Incentive 90,000 Program Administrator Ontario Ministry of Energy

283

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to Design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications.

Unknown

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBL-11 019 UC-61 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,Catalytic Liquefaction of Biomass,n M, Seth, R. Djafar, G.of California. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION QUARTERLY

Ergun, Sabri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid Fuels from Biomass: "Catalyst Screening and KineticUC-61 (l, RCO osn CDL or BIOMASS CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION ManuCATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS Manu Seth, Roger Djafar,

Seth, Manu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

SERI biomass program annual technical report: 1982  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The biomass with which this report is concerned includes aquatic plants, which can be converted into liquid fuels and chemicals; organic wastes (crop residues as well as animal and municipal wastes), from which biogas can be produced via anerobic digestion; and organic or inorganic waste streams, from which hydrogen can be produced by photobiological processes. The Biomass Program Office supports research in three areas which, although distinct, all use living organisms to create the desired products. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) supports research on organisms that are themselves processed into the final products, while the Anaerobic Digestion (ADP) and Photo/Biological Hydrogen Program (P/BHP) deals with organisms that transform waste streams into energy products. The P/BHP is also investigating systems using water as a feedstock and cell-free systems which do not utilize living organisms. This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1982.

Bergeron, P.W.; Corder, R.E.; Hill, A.M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M.Z.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Woody Biomass Supply Issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Woody biomass is the feedstock for the majority of biomass power producers. Woody biomass consists of bark and wood and is generally obtained as a byproduct or waste product. Approximately 40% of timber biomass is left behind in the form of slash, consisting of tree tops, branches, and stems after a timber harvest. Collecting and processing this residue provides the feedstock for many utility biomass projects. Additional sources of woody biomass include urban forestry, right-of-way clearance, and trees k...

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

NREL: Biomass Research - Biomass Characterization Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass Characterization Capabilities Biomass Characterization Capabilities A photo of a man wearing a white lab coat and looking into a large microscope. A researcher uses an Atomic Force Microscope to image enzymes used in biochemical conversion. Through biomass characterization, NREL develops, refines, and validates rapid and cost-effective methods to determine the chemical composition of biomass samples before and after pretreatment, as well as during bioconversion processing. Detailed and accurate characterization of biomass feedstocks, intermediates, and products is a necessity for any biomass-to-biofuels conversion. Understanding how the individual biomass components and reaction products interact at each stage in the process is important for researchers. With a large inventory of standard biomass samples as reference materials,

289

Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility Facility Tracy Biomass Sector Biomass Location San Joaquin County, California Coordinates 37.9175935°, -121.1710389° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.9175935,"lon":-121.1710389,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

290

Oil in biomass: a step-change for bioenergy production?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To help meet the rapidly growing demand for biofuels, scientists and policy makers envision that a variety of agricultural, municipal, and forest-derived feedstocks will be used to produce “second-generation” biofuels. Oil in biomass: a step-change for bio

291

Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

Reed, T.B.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

NREL: Biomass Research - Facilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Facilities At NREL's state-of-the-art biomass research facilities, researchers design and optimize processes to convert renewable biomass feedstocks into transportation fuels and...

293

Catalytic conversion of biomass.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Catalytic processes for conversion of biomass to transportation fuels have gained an increasing attention in sustainable energy production. The biomass can be converted to… (more)

Calleja Aguado, Raquel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Biomass pyrolysis for chemicals.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass Pyrolysis for Chemicals The problems associated with the use of fossil fuels demand a transition to renewable sources (sun, wind, water, geothermal, biomass) for… (more)

Wild, Paul de

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

BIOMASS COGASIFICATION AT POLK POWER STATION  

SciTech Connect

Part of a closed loop biomass crop was recently harvested to produce electricity in Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station Unit No.1. No technical impediments to incorporating a small percentage of biomass into Polk Power Station's fuel mix were identified. Appropriate dedicated storage and handling equipment would be required for routine biomass use. Polk Unit No.1 is an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. IGCC is a new approach to generating electricity cleanly from solid fuels such as coal, petroleum coke, The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the Polk Unit No.1 could process biomass as a fraction of its fuel without an adverse impact on availability and plant performance. The biomass chosen for the test was part of a crop of closed loop Eucalyptus trees.

John McDaniel

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

BIOMASS COGASIFICATION AT POLK POWER STATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Part of a closed loop biomass crop was recently harvested to produce electricity in Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station Unit No.1. No technical impediments to incorporating a small percentage of biomass into Polk Power Station's fuel mix were identified. Appropriate dedicated storage and handling equipment would be required for routine biomass use. Polk Unit No.1 is an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. IGCC is a new approach to generating electricity cleanly from solid fuels such as coal, petroleum coke, The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the Polk Unit No.1 could process biomass as a fraction of its fuel without an adverse impact on availability and plant performance. The biomass chosen for the test was part of a crop of closed loop Eucalyptus trees.

John McDaniel

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Cultivation, Capital, and Contamination: Urban Agriculture in Oakland, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

municipal solid waste composts. Journal of Environmentalin municipal solid waste compost Biomass and Energy 3 (3-4):of fertilizer and sewage sludge compost on yield and heavy

McClintock, Nathan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on completion of the Topical Report, summarizing the design and techno-economic study of the project's feasibility. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE contracts for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI will assemble an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1.

Unknown

2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

299

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on completion of the Topical Report, summarizing the design and techno-economic study of the project's feasibility. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE contracts for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of 2002. GTI worked with DOE to develop the Statement of Work for the supplemental activities. DOE granted an interim extension of the project until the end of January 2002 to complete the contract paperwork. GTI worked with Calla Energy to develop request for continued funding to proceed with Phase II, submitted to DOE on November 1, 2001.

Unknown

2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on completion of the Topical Report, summarizing the design and techno-economic study of the project's feasibility. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE contracts for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI will assemble an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1.

Unknown

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on completion of the Topical Report, summarizing the design and techno-economic study of the project's feasibility. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE contracts for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI will assemble an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1.

Unknown

2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

Comparison of biomass and coal char reactivities  

SciTech Connect

Char combustion is typically the rate limiting step during the combustion of solid fuels. The magnitude and variation of char reactivity during combustion are, therefore, of primary concern when comparing solid fuels such as coal and biomass. In an effort to evaluate biomass` potential as a sustainable and renewable energy source, the reactivities of both biomass and coal chars were compared using Sandia`s Captive Particle Imaging (CPI) apparatus. This paper summarizes the experimental approach used to determine biomass and coal reactivities and presents results from CPT experiments. The reactivity of six types of char particles, two high-rank coal chars, two low-rank coal chars, and two biomass chars, were investigated using the CPT apparatus. Results indicate that both of the high-rank coal chars have relatively low reactivities when compared with the higher reactivities measured for the low-rank coal and the biomass chars. In addition, extinction behavior of the chars support related investigations that suggest carbonaceous structural ordering is an important consideration in understanding particle reactivity as a function of extent of burnout. High-rank coal chars were found to have highly ordered carbon structures, where as, both low-rank coal and biomass chars were found to have highly disordered carbon structures.

Huey, S.P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, K.A. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hurt, R.H. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Ohio Biomass Energy Program (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Energy Program (Ohio) Biomass Energy Program (Ohio) Ohio Biomass Energy Program (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Utility Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Program Info Funding Source Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program, Public Utilities Commission of Ohio Start Date 1983 State Ohio Program Type Grant Program Industry Recruitment/Support Training/Technical Assistance Workforce development Provider Public Utilities Commission of Ohio Ohio is one of seven states participating in the Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program which was established in 1983. The Regional Program is administered by the Council of Great Lakes Governors and receives funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The other six states under the

304

Municipal Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste Landfills In CitiesLandfills In Cities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

trench c) Liner Deployment d) Seaming Double Hot wedge Fillet Extrusion Seam properties ­ ASTM D6392 e-wise construction of landfill #12;Daily cell, cover, lift & phase of a landfill #12;Operational Points Provisions (contd) Check for compatibilities of different wastes. Divide landfill into cells. Non

Columbia University

305

Biomass treatment method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

Friend, Julie (Claymont, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III; Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Lyons, Robert C. (Arvada, CO)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

306

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembles an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1 During this Performance Period work efforts focused on conducting tests of biomass feedstock samples on the 2 inch mini-bench gasifier. GTI determined that the mini-bench feed system could not handle ''raw'' biomass samples. These clogged the fuel feed screw. GTI determined that palletized samples would operate well in the mini-bench unit. Two sources of this material were identified that had similar properties to the raw fuel. Testing with these materials is proceeding.

Unknown

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

307

Preparation for commercial demonstration of biomass-to-ethanol conversion technology. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program was to complete the development of a commercially viable process to produce fuel ethanol from renewable cellulosic biomass. The program focused on pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation technologies where Amoco has a unique proprietary position. Assured access to low-cost feedstock is a cornerstone of attractive economics for cellulose to ethanol conversion in the 1990s. Most of Amoco`s efforts in converting cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol before 1994 focused on using paper from municipal solid waste as the feed. However, while many municipalities and MSW haulers expressed interest in Amoco`s technology, none were willing to commit funding to process development. In May, 1994 several large agricultural products companies showed interest in Amoco`s technology, particularly for application to corn fiber. Amoco`s initial work with corn fiber was encouraging. The project work plan was designed to provide sufficient data on corn fiber conversion to convince a major agriculture products company to participate in the construction of a commercial demonstration facility.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Biomass Energy R&D in the San Francisco Bay Area  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass is plant matter such as trees, grasses, agricultural crops or other biological material. It can be used as a solid fuel, or converted into liquid or gaseous forms, for the production of electric power, heat, chemicals, or fuels. There are a number of ways of getting energy from biomass, and a number of factors influence the efficiency of the conversion process. All biomass can be easily combusted. The heat of combustion can be used as heat, or can be used to run gas/steam turbines to produce electricity. However, most biomass combustion processes are inefficient and environmentally non-benign. The main pollutants from direct biomass combustion are tars, particulates, and VOCs. Biodiesels can be made from oils obtained from plants/crops such as soybean, peanuts and cotton. The oils from these sources are mainly triglycerides of fatty acids and not directly suitable as diesel substitutes. Transesterification processes convert the triglycerides into simple esters of the corresponding fatty acids (for example, Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or FAME), which can be directly substitutes for diesel fuels. Starches, sugars and cellulose can be fermented to produce ethanol, which can be added to gasoline, or used directly as an engine fuel. Fermentation of starches and sugars is established technology, practiced for thousands of years. Fermentation of cellulose to make ethanol is relatively harder, requiring additional intermediate steps to hydrolyze the cellulose first by adding acids or by raising temperature. Forestry wastes predominantly comprise cellulose and lignin. Lignin cannot be fermented using the current bio-organisms, and, as mentioned above, even cellulose is difficult to ferment directly. In such cases, a suite of alternative technologies can be employed to convert the biomass into liquid fuels. For example, the biomass can be gasified with the use of air/oxygen and steam, the resultant syngas (mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) can be cleaned to remove tars and particulates, the gas can be shifted to obtain the proper balance between hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and the balanced gas can be converted into either methanol or other hydrocarbons with the use of Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. The liquid fuels thus produced can be transported to the point of use. In addition, they can be reformed to produce hydrogen to drive fuel cells. In addition to agriculture and forestry, a third, and significant, source for biomass is municipal waste. The biomass component of municipal wastes consists mainly of cellulose (paper products and yard wastes) and lignin (yard wastes). This waste can be combusted or gasified, as described above. All the technologies mentioned above are relatively mature, and are being practiced in some form or another. However, there are other technologies that may be promising, yet present significant challenges and may require more work. An example of this is the use of bacteria to use light to decompose water to yield hydrogen.

Upadhye, R

2005-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

309

Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 360: Solid Waste Management Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Solid Waste Management 0: Solid Waste Management Facilities (New York) Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 360: Solid Waste Management Facilities (New York) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Transportation Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations apply to all solid wastes with the exception of hazardous or radioactive waste. Proposed solid waste processing facilities are required to obtain permits prior to construction, and the regulations provide details about permitting, construction, registration, and operation requirements. The regulations contain specific guidance for land

310

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Pieces of material which become lodged in the openings of the conveyor belt may be removed by cylindrical deraggers or pressurized air. The crushed materials may be fed onto the conveyor belt by a vibrating feed plate which shakes the materials so that they tend to lie flat.

Mayberry, J.L.

1987-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Pieces of material which become lodged in the openings of the conveyor belt may be removed by cylindrical deraggers or pressurized air. The crushed materials may be fed onto the conveyor belt by a vibrating feed plate which shakes the materials so that they tend to lie flat.

Mayberry, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Consecutive conveyors may be connected by an intermediate vibratory plate. An air knife can be used to further separate materials based on weight.

Mayberry, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Woodland Biomass Power Ltd Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

| Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Woodland Biomass Power Ltd Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Woodland Biomass Power...

314

Fibrominn Biomass Power Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

| Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Fibrominn Biomass Power Plant Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fibrominn Biomass Power...

315

Municipal spotlight: Working together in Northern Virginia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Northern Virginia region is one of the nation`s liveliest centers of commerce as measured by job creation, new business formation, residential and commercial construction, and retail sales. The region also has one of the most advanced integrated waste management programs. In 1994, more than 1.6 million tons of municipal solid (MSW) were generated in the Northern Virginia region. Of that amount, 1 million tons were recovered as energy and more than 500,000 tons were landfilled. Additionally, more than 500,000 tons were recycled. The jurisdictions in this region have built an extensive network of solid waste management programs that are handled on the local government level, through cooperative programs, and through implementation of unique interjurisdictional agreements. These programs are arranged in the following hierarchy: source reduction, composting, recycling, energy recovery, and landfilling. This article provides a description of how this hierarchy is implemented in the region.

Arner, R.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

NREL: Biomass Research - Standard Biomass Analytical Procedures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the pertinent LAPs. Workbooks are available for: Wood (hardwood or softwood) Corn stover (corn stover feedstock) Biomass hydrolyzate (liquid fraction produced from...

317

BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Report, (unpublished, 1979). Biomass Project Progress 31.Operations, vol. 2 of Biomass Energy (Stanford: StanfordPhotosynthethic Pathway Biomass Energy Production," ~c:_! _

Ritschard, Ronald L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Thermodynamic Data for Biomass Conversion and Waste Incineration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

l b l l q,(net) 4202 cal g i qv(net) 17580 J g- 83 JENEBE 15 Agricultural Residues CORN STOVER; solid; Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values...

319

Utah Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Utah Municipal Power Agency Jump to: navigation, search Name Utah Municipal Power Agency...

320

Gasification of Low Ash Partially Composted Dairy Biomass with Enriched Air Mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass is one of the renewable and non-conventional energy sources and it includes municipal solid wastes and animal wastes in addition to agricultural residue. Concentrated animal feeding operations produce large quantities of cattle biomass which might result in land and water pollution if left untreated. Different methods are employed to extract the available energy from the cattle biomass (CB) which includes co-firing and gasification. There are two types of CB: Feedlot biomass (FB), animal waste from feedlots and dairy biomass (DB), animal waste from dairy farms. Experiments were performed in the part on gasification of both FB and DB. Earlier studies on gasification of DB with different steam-fuel ratios resulted in increased production of hydrogen. In the present study, dairy biomass was gasified in a medium with enriched oxygen percentage varying from 24% to 28%. The effect of enriched air mixture, equivalence ratio and steam-fuel ratio on the performance of gasifier was studied. Limited studies were done using a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen as the gasification medium and also a methodology was developed to determine the gasification efficiency based on mass and heat contents of gas. The results show that the peak temperature within the bed increases with increase in oxygen concentration in the gasification medium. Also carbon dioxide concentration in the mixture increases with corresponding decrease in carbon monoxide with increase in oxygen concentration of the incoming gasification medium. The peak temperature increased from 988°C to 1192°C as the oxygen concentration increased from 21% to 28% at ER=2.1. The upper limit on oxygen concentration is limited to 28% due to high peak temperature and resulting ash agglomeration. Higher heating value (HHV) of the gases decreases with increase in equivalence ratio. The gases produced using carbon dioxide and oxygen mixture had a higher HHV when compared to that of air and enriched air gasification. Typically the HHV of the gases increased from 2219 kJ/m³ to 3479 kJ/m³ when carbon dioxide and oxygen mixture is used for gasification instead of air at ER=4.2 in the absence of steam.

Thanapal, Siva Sankar

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

NREL: Biomass Research - Daniel J. Schell  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Daniel J. Schell Daniel J. Schell Photo of Daniel Schell Daniel Schell is a senior biochemical engineer and supervisor of the Bioprocess Integration R&D section of the National Bioenergy Center at NREL. Mr. Schell has more than 25 years of research experience in bio-based conversion of lignocellulosic biomass and has expertise in integrated operations at the bench and pilot scales. He also manages numerous projects for industrial clients investigating various aspects of lignocellulosic biomass conversion and currently leads a multi-disciplinary team of engineers, microbiologists, and chemists. Research Interests Integrated biomass processing High solids biomass conversion Fermentation development Separation processes Technoeconomic analysis Measurement uncertainty Pilot plant operation and process scale up

322

IMPROVED BIOMASS UTILIZATION THROUGH REMOTE FLOW SENSING  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The growth of the livestock industry provides a valuable source of affordable, sustainable, and renewable bioenergy, while also requiring the safe disposal of the large quantities of animal wastes (manure) generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. If these biomass resources are mishandled and underutilized, major environmental problems will be created, such as surface and ground water contamination, odors, dust, ammonia leaching, and methane emission. Anaerobic digestion of animal wastes, in which microorganisms break down organic materials in the absence of oxygen, is one of the most promising waste treatment technologies. This process produces biogas typically containing {approx}65% methane and {approx}35% carbon dioxide. The production of biogas through anaerobic digestion from animal wastes, landfills, and municipal waste water treatment plants represents a large source of renewable and sustainable bio-fuel. Such bio-fuel can be combusted directly, used in internal combustion engines, converted into methanol, or partially oxidized to produce synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) that can be converted to clean liquid fuels and chemicals via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Different design and mixing configurations of anaerobic digesters for treating cow manure have been utilized commercially and/or tested on a laboratory scale. These digesters include mechanically mixed, gas recirculation mixed, and slurry recirculation mixed designs, as well as covered lagoon digesters. Mixing is an important parameter for successful performance of anaerobic digesters. It enhances substrate contact with the microbial community; improves pH, temperature and substrate/microorganism uniformity; prevents stratification and scum accumulation; facilitates the removal of biogas from the digester; reduces or eliminates the formation of inactive zones (dead zones); prevents settling of biomass and inert solids; and aids in particle size reduction. Unfortunately, information and findings in the literature on the effect of mixing on anaerobic digestion are contradictory. One reason is the lack of measurement techniques for opaque systems such as digesters. Better understanding of the mixing and hydrodynamics of digesters will result in appropriate design, configuration selection, scale-up, and performance, which will ultimately enable avoiding digester failures. Accordingly, this project sought to advance the fundamental knowledge and understanding of the design, scale up, operation, and performance of cow manure anaerobic digesters with high solids loading. The project systematically studied parameters affecting cow manure anaerobic digestion performance, in different configurations and sizes by implementing computer automated radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), computed tomography (CT), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and by developing novel multiple-particle CARPT (MP-CARPT) and dual source CT (DSCT) techniques. The accomplishments of the project were achieved in a collaborative effort among Washington University, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Iowa Energy Center teams. The following investigations and achievements were accomplished: Systematic studies of anaerobic digesters performance and kinetics using various configurations, modes of mixing, and scales (laboratory, pilot plant, and commercial sizes) were conducted and are discussed in Chapter 2. It was found that mixing significantly affected the performance of the pilot plant scale digester ({approx}97 liter). The detailed mixing and hydrodynamics were investigated using computer automated radioactive particle tracking (CARPT) techniques, and are discussed in Chapter 3. A novel multiple particle tracking technique (MP-CARPT) technique that can track simultaneously up to 8 particles was developed, tested, validated, and implemented. Phase distribution was investigated using gamma ray computer tomography (CT) techniques, which are discussed in Chapter 4. A novel dual source CT (DSCT) technique was developed to measure the phase distribution of dyn

Washington University- St. Louis: Muthanna Al-Dahhan (Principal Investigator)

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

323

Biomass for Electricity Generation  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

Zia Haq

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Biomass Energy Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Biomass Energy Program assists businesses in installing biomass energy systems. Program participants receive up to $75,000 in interest subsidy payments to help defray the interest expense on...

325

Small Modular Biomass Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fact sheet that provides an introduction to small modular biomass systems. These systems can help supply electricity to rural areas, businesses, and people without power. They use locally available biomass fuels such as wood, crop waste, and animal manures.

Not Available

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

TORREFACTION OF BIOMASS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Torrefaction is a thermo-chemical pre-treatment of biomass within a narrow temperature range from 200°C to 300°C, where mostly the hemicellulose components of a biomass depolymerise.… (more)

Dhungana, Alok

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

South Carolina Municipalities - Green Power Purchasing | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

South Carolina Municipalities - Green Power Purchasing South Carolina Municipalities - Green Power Purchasing South Carolina Municipalities - Green Power Purchasing < Back Eligibility Local Government Savings Category Bioenergy Solar Buying & Making Electricity Wind Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Green Power Purchasing Provider Santee Cooper Santee Cooper's Green Power Program was launched in September of 2001. All of the state's 20 electric cooperatives and the City of Georgetown participate in the Green Power Program, which is Green-e accredited. The renewable resources sold under the Green Power Program are comprised of 99% landfill gas (methane) and less than 1% solar energy. Santee Cooper is currently using landfill gas (methane) to produce electricity at six facilities in South Carolina: Horry Solid Waste

328

Biomass One Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Facility Biomass Facility Facility Biomass One Sector Biomass Owner Biomass One LP Location White City, Oregon Coordinates 42.4333333°, -122.8338889° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.4333333,"lon":-122.8338889,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

329

Biomass Cofiring Update 2002  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass is a renewable energy source. When cofired with coal in a plant that would normally fire 100% coal as the fuel, biomass becomes a renewable source of electricity—for that fraction of electricity that is generated from the biomass fraction of the heat in the fuel mix to the power plant. For electric power generation organizations that have coal-fired generation, cofiring biomass with coal will often be the lowest-cost form of renewable power.

2003-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

330

Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in North ­ This study is part of a larger project aimed at quantifying the biomass and biomass increment been developed to estimate the biomass and biomass increment of coarse, small and fine roots of trees

Recanati, Catherine

331

Biomass Guidelines (Prince Edward Island, Canada) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Biomass Guidelines (Prince Edward Island, Canada) Biomass Guidelines (Prince Edward Island, Canada) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Construction Developer Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Utility Program Info State Prince Edward Island Program Type Environmental Regulations PEI Biomass Guidelines identify two major pathways that biomass projects may follow: No Public Investment, and Public Investment. Projects with Public Investment include any project that has: * Grants or loans for start-up, capital, or operating costs; * Silvicultural or other land management incentives provided through Departmental programs (e.g. Forest Enhancement Program, ALUS); or * Green credits or certification from Government. Guidelines for No Public Investment projects must only comply with existing

332

AVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding Guide 2010 The Forestry Commission and the Humber Rural Partnership (co-ordinated by East Riding of Yorkshire Council) have jointly produced a biomass funding guide fuel prices continue to rise, and the emerging biomass sector is well-placed to make a significant

333

Particle swarm optimization for biomass-fuelled systems with technical constraints  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces a binary particle swarm optimization-based method to accomplish optimal location of biomass-fuelled systems for distributed power generation. The approach also provides the supply area for the biomass plant and takes technical constraints ... Keywords: Binary particle swarm optimization, Biomass, Distributed power generation, Profitability index, Solid oxide fuel cell

P. Reche López; F. Jurado; N. Ruiz Reyes; S. García Galán; M. Gómez

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Municipal waste incineration; An environmentally benign energy source for district heating  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste should be regarded as a good fuel. Emissions from solid waste incineration can be kept within any reasonable limit. Compared with fossil fuels, waste can be regarded as a renewable source of energy that does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Finally, waste incineration for district heating can be very economical.

Astrand, L.E. (Uppsala Energi AB, Uppsala (SE))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

BNL | Biomass Burns  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass Burn Observation Project (BBOP) Biomass Burn Observation Project (BBOP) Aerosols from biomass burning are recognized to perturb Earth's climate through the direct effect (both scattering and absorption of incoming shortwave radiation), the semi-direct effect (evaporation of cloud drops due to absorbing aerosols), and indirect effects (by influencing cloud formation and precipitation. Biomass burning is an important aerosol source, providing an estimated 40% of anthropogenically influenced fine carbonaceous particles (Bond, et al., 2004; Andrea and Rosenfeld, 2008). Primary organic aerosol (POA) from open biomass burns and biofuel comprises the largest component of primary organic aerosol mass emissions at northern temperate latitudes (de Gouw and Jimenez, 2009). Data from the IMPROVE

336

Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on February 13, 2013. EZFeed Policy Place Pennsylvania Name Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) Policy Category Other Policy Policy Type Environmental Regulations Affected Technologies Biomass/Biogas, Coal with CCS, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy Storage, Fuel Cells, Geothermal Electric, Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric (Small), Natural Gas, Nuclear, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind energy Active Policy Yes Implementing Sector State/Province Program Administrator Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection

337

Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability  

SciTech Connect

If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Hynol -- An economic process for methanol production from biomass and natural gas with reduced CO{sub 2} emission  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hynol process is proposed to meet the demand for an economical process for methanol production with reduced CO{sub 2} emission. This new process consists of three reaction steps: (a) hydrogasification of biomass, (b) steam reforming of the produced gas with additional natural gas feedstock, and (c) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps. The H{sub 2}-rich gas remaining after methanol synthesis is recycled to gasify the biomass in an energy neutral reactor so that there is no need for an expensive oxygen plant as required by commercial steam gasifiers. Recycling gas allows the methanol synthesis reactor to perform at a relatively lower pressure than conventional while the plant still maintains high methanol yield. Energy recovery designed into the process minimizes heat loss and increases the process thermal efficiency. If the Hynol methanol is used as an alternative and more efficient automotive fuel, an overall 41% reduction in CO{sub 2} emission can be achieved compared to the use of conventional gasoline fuel. A preliminary economic estimate shows that the total capital investment for a Hynol plant is 40% lower than that for a conventional biomass gasification plant. The methanol production cost is $0.43/gal for a 1085 million gal/yr Hynol plant which is competitive with current U.S. methanol and equivalent gasoline prices. Process flowsheet and simulation data using biomass and natural gas as cofeedstocks are presented. The Hynol process can convert any condensed carbonaceous material, especially municipal solid waste (MSW), to produce methanol.

Steinberg, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Dong, Yuanji [Hynol Corp., New York, NY (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Photovoltaics for municipal planners  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Solid-phase supported profluorescent nitroxide probe for the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for employing solid-phase supported PF for field measurement of specific ROS in other combustion systems (i.e. biomass burning, candles, and diesel exhaust) and environmental...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-function process is described for the hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components such as extractives and proteins; a portion of the solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising one or more of the following: optionally, as function 1, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing a lignocellulosic biomass material at a temperature of about 94 to about 160.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 120 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of extractives, lignin, and protein by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 2, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0, either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing either fresh biomass or the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 1 at a temperature of about 94-220.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of hemicellulosic sugars, semisoluble sugars and other compounds, and amorphous glucans by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 3, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 2 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; and as function 4, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 3 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process.

Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO); Padukone, Nandan (Denver, CO); Hatzis, Christos (Denver, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Solid Waste Management (Indiana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Waste Management (Indiana) Solid Waste Management (Indiana) Solid Waste Management (Indiana) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Utility Program Info State Indiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Association of Indiana Solid Wastes Districts Inc. The state supports the implementation of source reduction, recycling, and other alternative solid waste management practices over incineration and land disposal. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management and the Indiana Solid Waste Management Board are tasked with planning and adopting rules and regulations governing solid waste management practices. Provisions pertaining to landfill management and expansion, permitting,

343

NREL: Biomass Research - Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities Capabilities A photo of a series of large metal tanks connected by a network of pipes. Only the top portion of the tanks is visible above the metal floor grate. Each tank has a round porthole on the top. Two men examine one of the tanks at the far end of the floor. Sugars are converted into ethanol in fermentation tanks. This ethanol is then separated, purified, and recovered for use as a transportation fuel. NREL biomass researchers and scientists have strong capabilities in many facets of biomass technology that support the cost-effective conversion of biomass to biofuels-capabilities that are in demand. The NREL biomass staff partners with other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities at every stage of the biomass-to-biofuels conversion process. For these partners, our biomass

344

Complex pendulum biomass sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Perrenoud, Ben C. (Rigby, ID)

2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

345

Biomass for Electricity Generation - Table 9  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Modeling and Analysis Papers> Biomass for Electricity Generation : Biomass for Electricity Generation. Table 9. Biomass-Fired Electricity Generation ...

346

Biomass for Electricity Generation - Table 3  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Modeling and Analysis Papers> Biomass for Electricity Generation : Biomass for Electricity Generation. Table 3. Biomass Resources by Price: Quantities ...

347

Biomass Cofiring Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This handbook has been prepared as a 147how tomanual for those interested in biomass cofiring in cyclone- or pulverized-coal-fired boilers. It contains information regarding all aspects of biomass cofiring, including biomass materials and procurement, handling, storage, pulverizing, feeding, gaseous emissions, ash handling, and general economics. It relies on actual utility experience over the past many years from plants mainly in the United States, but some experience also in Europe and Australia. Many ...

2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

348

Engine fuels from biomass  

SciTech Connect

Methods discussed for the conversion of biomass to engine fuels include the production of producer gas, anaerobic fermentation to give biogas, fermentation of sugars and starches to give EtOH, and the production of synthesis gas for conversion to MeOH or hydrocarbons. Also discussed are the suitability of these fuels for particular engines, biomass availability, and the economics of biomass-derived engine fuels.

Parker, H.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Biomass Gasification Syngas Cleanup  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In December 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) published report 1023994, Engineering and Economic Evaluation of Biomass Gasification, prepared by CH2M HILL Engineers, Inc. (CH2M HILL). It provided a global overview of commercially available biomass gasification technologies that can be used for power production in the 25- to 50-MWe range. The report provided detailed descriptions of biomass gasification technologies, typical operational parameters, emissions information, and ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

350

Biomass Cofiring Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass, primarily wood waste such as sawdust, has been cofired in over twenty utility coal-fired boilers in the United States at cofiring levels where the biomass provides from 1% to 10% of the heat input to the boiler. These guidelines present insights and conclusions from five years of EPRI assessment and testing of biomass cofiring and will enable utility engineers and power plant managers to evaluate their own options and plan their own tests.

1997-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

351

Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DOE has a major initiative under way to demonstrate two high-efficiency gasification systems for converting biomass into electricity. As this fact sheet explains, the Biomass Power Program is cost-sharing two scale-up projects with industry in Hawaii and Vermont that, if successful, will provide substantial market pull for U.S. biomass technologies, and provide a significant market edge over competing foreign technologies.

Not Available

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Biomass Gasification Technology Commercialization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reliable cost and performance data on biomass gasification technology is scarce because of limited experience with utility-scale gasification projects and the reluctance of vendors to share proprietary information. The lack of this information is a major obstacle to the implementation of biomass gasification-based power projects in the U.S. market. To address this problem, this report presents four case studies for bioenergy projects involving biomass gasification technologies: A utility-scale indirect c...

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

353

Hydrogen production from biomass .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass energy encompasses a broad category of energy derived from plants and animals as well as the residual materials from each. Hydrogen gas is an… (more)

Hahn, John J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

NREL: Biomass Research - Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectrometer analyzes vapors during the gasification and pyrolysis processes. NREL's biomass projects are designed to advance the production of liquid transportation fuels from...

355

Co-firing biomass  

SciTech Connect

Concern about global warming has altered the landscape for fossil-fuel combustion. The advantages and challenges of co-firing biomass and coal are discussed. 2 photos.

Hunt, T.; Tennant, D. [Hunt, Guillot & Associates LLC (United States)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Biomass Processing Photolibrary  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

357

Florida Biomass Energy LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Florida Biomass Energy, LLC Place Florida Sector Biomass Product Florida-based biomass project developer. References Florida Biomass Energy, LLC1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase...

358

The coprocessing of fossil fuels and biomass for CO{sub 2} emission reduction in the transportation sector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research is underway to evaluate the Hydrocarb process for conversion of carbonaceous raw material to clean carbon and methanol products. These products are valuable in the market either as fuel or as chemical commodities. As fuel, methanol and carbon can be used economically, either independently or in slurry form, in efficient heat energies (turbines and internal combustion engines) for both mobile and stationary single and combined cycle power plants. When considering CO{sub 2} emission control in the utilization of fossil fuels, the copressing of those fossil fuels with biomass (which may include, wood, municipal solid waste and sewage sludge) is a viable mitigation approach. By coprocessing both types of feedstock to produce methanol and carbon while sequestering all or part of the carbon, a significant net CO{sub 2} reduction is achieved if the methanol is substituted for petroleum fuels in the transportation sector. The Hydrocarb process has the potential, if the R&D objectives are achieved, to produce alternative transportation fuel from indigenous resources at lower cost than any other biomass conversion process. These comparisons suggest the resulting fuel can significantly displace gasoline at a competitive price while mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions and reducing ozone and other toxics in urban atmospheres.

Steinberg, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Dong, Yuanji [Hydrocarb Corp., New York, NY (United States); Borgwardt, R.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Chelan County Public Works Department would like to thank the following organizations and individuals for their assistance in the development of this plan: ? Chelan County’s Solid Waste Council members, past and present, and the municipalities they represent. ? Chelan County’s Solid Waste Advisory Committee members, past and present, and the agencies and businesses they represented. ? the Chelan–Douglas Health District staff. ? Washington Department of Ecology staff. Chelan County residents and businesses also contributed to this document through comments provided during public meetings and through various other channels. The Board of County Commissioners and the Public Works Department gratefully acknowledge this input by the

unknown authors

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

Calabro, Paolo S. [Dipartimento di Meccanica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, via Graziella - loc. Feo di Vito, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.calabro@unirc.it

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY) .......................................................................... 91 Appendix 10: Power Plant Analysis for Conversion of Forest Remediation Biomass) ......................................................................................................................... 111 Appendix 12: Biomass to Energy Project Team, Committee Members, and Project Advisors

362

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY to treatment prescriptions and anticipated outputs of sawlogs and biomass fuel? How many individual operations biomass fuel removed. Typically in plantations. 50% No harvest treatment

363

Non-Mandated Renewable Energy Objective (Minnesota) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Utility Eligible Technologies Solar Thermal Electric, Photovoltaics, Landfill Gas, Wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric, Municipal Solid Waste, Hydrogen Active Incentive No Implementing...

364

biomass | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

biomass biomass Dataset Summary Description Biomass energy consumption and electricity net generation in the industrial sector by industry and energy source in 2008. This data is published and compiled by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Source EIA Date Released August 01st, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated August 01st, 2010 (4 years ago) Keywords 2008 biomass consumption industrial sector Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon industrial_biomass_energy_consumption_and_electricity_2008.xls (xls, 27.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote

365

NREL: Biomass Research Home Page  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and green algae and gas bubbles can be seen floating in the liquid. Through biomass research, NREL is developing technologies to convert biomass-plant matter such as...

366

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY study. The Biomass to Energy (B2E) Project is exploring the ecological and economic consequences

367

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY Citation: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 2009. Biomass to Energy: Forest

368

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY and continuously between the earth's biomass and atmosphere. From a greenhouse gas perspective, forest treatments

369

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY .................................................................................... 33 3.3 BIOMASS POWER PLANT OPERATION MODELS AND DATA

370

Multi-functional biomass systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass can play a role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions by substituting conventional materials and supplying biomass based fuels. Main reason for the low share… (more)

Dornburg, Veronika

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Illinois Municipal Electric Agency - Electric Efficiency Program...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Agency - Electric Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Municipal Utility Nonprofit Schools Savings Category Home...

372

U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry  

SciTech Connect

The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small-diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning worldwide demand and concerns about long-term supplies. By the end of the summer, oil pri

Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Cape Light Compact - Commercial, Industrial and Municipal Buildings...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial and Municipal Buildings Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Cape Light Compact - Commercial, Industrial and Municipal Buildings Energy Efficiency Rebate Program...

374

Hydropyrolysis of biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of biomass was investigated. Experimental runs using the biomass (Poplar wood sawdust) were performed using a tubular reactor of dimensions 1 inch inside diameter and 8 feet long heated at a temperature of 800 C and pressures between 450 and 750 psig. At low heat-up rate the reaction precedes in two steps. First pyrolysis takes place at temperatures of 300 to 400 c and subsequent hydropyrolysis takes place at 700 C and above. This is also confirmed by pressurized thermogravimetric analysis (PTGA). Under conditions of rapid heat-up at higher temperatures and higher hydrogen pressure gasification and hydrogasification of biomass is especially effective in producing carbon monoxide and methane. An overall conversion of 88 to 90 wt % of biomass was obtained. This value is in agreement with the previous work of flash pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of biomass for rapid heat-up and short residence time. Initial rates of biomass conversion indicate that the rate increases significantly with increase in hydrogen pressure. At 800 C and 755 psig the initial rate of biomass conversion to gases is 0.92 1/min.

Kobayashi, Atsushi; Steinberg, M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

OpenEI - biomass  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Industrial Biomass Industrial Biomass Energy Consumption and Electricity Net Generation by Industry and Energy Source, 2008 http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/827 Biomass energy consumption and electricity net generation in the industrial sector by industry and energy source in 2008. This data is published and compiled by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

License
Type of License: 

376

WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials Biomass production potentials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 1 Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios Final report of WP3 of the VIEWLS project, funded by DG-Tren #12;WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 2 Report Biomass production potentials in central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios

377

Lignin-blocking treatment of biomass and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion. Cellulase efficiencies are improved by the protein or polypeptide treatment. The treatment may be used in combination with steam explosion and acid prehydrolysis techniques. Hydrolysis yields from lignin containing biomass are enhanced 5-20%, and enzyme utilization is increased from 10% to 50%. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

Yang, Bin (Hanover, NH); Wyman, Charles E. (Norwich, VT)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

378

National Bio Energy Co Ltd formerly Guoneng Biomass Power Ltd | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bio Energy Co Ltd formerly Guoneng Biomass Power Ltd Bio Energy Co Ltd formerly Guoneng Biomass Power Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name National Bio Energy Co Ltd (formerly Guoneng Biomass Power Ltd.) Place Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip 100005 Sector Biomass Product Invest in, build and run biomass power plants. Coordinates 39.90601°, 116.387909° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.90601,"lon":116.387909,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

379

Mansfield Municipal Electric Department - Residential Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mansfield Municipal Electric Department - Residential Energy Mansfield Municipal Electric Department - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Mansfield Municipal Electric Department - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Maximum Rebate $100 limit per customer account for appliances purchased in the same calendar year. Program Info Expiration Date 12/31/2014 State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Central AC: $100 Refrigerators: $100 Clothes Washing Machines: $100 Dishwashers: $75 Dehumidifiers: $50 Window Air Conditioners: $50 Provider Mansfield Municipal Electric Department Mansfield Municipal Electric Department encourages energy efficiency

380

Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Other Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Insulation Water Heating Maximum Rebate Varies depending on utility Program Info Start Date Varies Expiration Date Varies State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Varies depending on utility Provider Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company Certain municipal utilities in Massachusetts, in cooperation with

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Clean Energy Production Tax Credit (Corporate)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Maryland offers a production tax credit for electricity generated by wind, geothermal energy, solar energy, hydropower, hydrokinetic, municipal solid waste and biomass resources. Eligible biomass...

382

Clean Energy Production Tax Credit (Personal)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Maryland offers a production tax credit for electricity generated by wind, geothermal energy, solar energy, hydropower, hydrokinetic, municipal solid waste and biomass resources. Eligible biomass...

383

EA-1790: Construction and Operation of a Heterogeneous Feed Biorefiner...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

use the dried and post-sorted biomass fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood biomass as feedstock. Enerkem's biorefinery would produce approximately 10 million gallons...

384

CLC of biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Developments on Developments on Chemical Looping Combustion of Biomass Laihong Shen Jiahua Wu Jun Xiao Rui Xiao Southeast University Nanjing, China 2 th U.S. - China Symposium on CO 2 Emissions Control Science & Technology Hangzhou, China May 28-30, 2008 Overview  Introduction  Technical approach  Experiments on chemical looping combustion of biomass  Conclusions Climate change is a result of burning too much coal, oil and gas.... We need to capture CO 2 in any way ! Introduction CCS is the world's best chance to have a major & immediate impact on CO 2 emission reduction Introduction Introduction  Biomass is renewable energy with zero CO 2 emission  A way to capture CO 2 from biomass ?  If so, a quick way to reduce CO 2 content in the atmosphere Normal combustion

385

Biomass | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy » Energy » Biomass Biomass Learn how the Energy Department is working to sustainably transform the nation's abundant renewable resources into biomass energy. Featured Energy 101 | Algae-to-Fuel A behind-the-scenes video of how oil from algae is extracted and refined to create clean, renewable transportation fuel. Oregon Hospital Heats Up with a Biomass Boiler Using money from the Recovery Act, Blue Mountain Hospital replaced one of its 1950s crude oil boilers with a wood-pellet boiler -- saving the hospital about $100,000 a year in heating costs. | Photo courtesy of the Oregon Department of Energy. Highlighting how a rural Oregon hospital was able to cut its heating bills while stimulating the local economy. Ceres: Making Biofuels Bigger and Better A Ceres researcher evaluates the performance of biofuel crops. | Photo courtesy of Ceres, Inc.

386

Energy Basics: Biomass Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technologies Photo of a pair of hands holding corn stover, the unused parts of harvested corn. There are many types of biomass-organic matter such as plants, residue from...

387

CLC of biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Developments on Chemical Looping Combustion of Biomass Laihong Shen Jiahua Wu Jun Xiao Rui Xiao Southeast University Nanjing, China 2 th U.S. - China Symposium on CO 2 Emissions...

388

BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND #12; #12;© Crown copyright 2007 ISBN: 978 0 7559 6506 9 Scottish% recyclable. #12;A BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND #12;#12;1 CONTENTS FOREWORD 3 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5 2. INTRODUCTION 9 3. WIDER CONTEXT 13 4. SCOTLAND'S ROLE IN THE UK BIOMASS STRATEGY 17 5. BIOMASS HEATING 23 6

389

Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

Tyson, K.S.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

American Municipal Power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Power Municipal Power Jump to: navigation, search Name American Municipal Power Place Columbus, Ohio Zip 43219 Product AMP is a non-profit corporation that owns and operates electric facilities. AMP purchases wholesale electric power and energy, and develops alternate power resources for its members. References American Municipal Power[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. American Municipal Power is a company located in Columbus, Ohio . References ↑ "American Municipal Power" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=American_Municipal_Power&oldid=342122" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs

391

Flash hydrogenation of biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is proposed to obtain process chemistry information on the rapid hydrogenation of biomass (wood and other agricultural products) to produce light liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels and feedstocks. The process is referred to as Flash Hydropyrolysis. The information will be of use in the design and evaluation of processes for the conversion of biomass to synthetic fuels and petrochemical feedstocks. Results obtained in an initial experiment are discussed.

Steinberg, M

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

Skelton, J.C.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Biomass Power Association (BPA) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Power Association (BPA) Biomass Power Association (BPA) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Biomass Power Association (BPA) Agency/Company /Organization: Biomass Power Association Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals Resource Type: Guide/manual User Interface: Website Website: www.usabiomass.org Cost: Free References: Biomass Power Association[1] The website includes information on biomass power basics, renewable electricity standards, and updates on legislation affecting biomass power plants. Overview "The Biomass Power Association is the nation's leading organization working to expand and advance the use of clean, renewable biomass

394

NREL: Biomass Research - Projects in Biomass Process and Sustainability  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Projects in Biomass Process and Sustainability Analyses Projects in Biomass Process and Sustainability Analyses Researchers at NREL use biomass process and sustainability analyses to understand the economic, technical, and global impacts of biomass conversion technologies. These analyses reveal the economic feasibility and environmental benefits of biomass technologies and are useful for government, regulators, and the private sector. NREL's Energy Analysis Office integrates and supports the energy analysis functions at NREL. Among NREL's projects in biomass process and sustainability analyses are: Life Cycle Assessment of Energy Independence and Security Act for Ethanol NREL is determining the life cycle environmental impacts of the ethanol portion of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). EISA mandates

395

Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Now that public attention has grown increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, the commercial use of biomass could greatly accelerate. Renewable feedstocks like biomass can provide better environmentally balanced sources of energy and other nonfood products than fossil fuels. The future of biomass is uncertain, however, because public attention focuses on both its potential and its challenges. This paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 and 4 catalog the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large-scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups: wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier: gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 provides a conclusion and summary.

Hughes, M. [Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy; Ranney, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

396

November 2011 Model documentation for biomass,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 November 2011 Model documentation for biomass, cellulosic biofuels, renewable of Education, Office of Civil Rights. #12;3 Contents Biomass.....................................................................................................................................................4 Variables in the biomass module

Noble, James S.

397

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local in Estonia in 1995 - 2002 Regional Energy Centres in Estonia http://www.managenergy.net/conference/biomass

398

Florida Biomass Energy Consortium | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Consortium Jump to: navigation, search Name Florida Biomass Energy Consortium Place Florida Sector Biomass Product Association of biomass energy companies. References Florida...

399

Haryana Biomass Power Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Haryana Biomass Power Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Haryana Biomass Power Ltd. Place Mumbai, Haryana, India Zip 400025 Sector Biomass Product This is a JV consortium between...

400

Algae Biomass Summit | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Algae Biomass Summit Algae Biomass Summit September 30, 2013 12:00PM EDT to October 3, 2013 12:00PM EDT Algae Biomass Summit...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

PRETREATMENT OF BIOMASS PRIOR TO LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UC-61 PRETREATMENT OF BIOMASS PRIOR TO LIQUEFACTION Larry L.10093 PRETREATMENT OF BIOMASS PRIOR TO LIQUEFACTION Larry L.hydrolytic pretreatment to biomass feedstocks, higher acid

Schaleger, Larry L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Category:Biomass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass category. Pages in category "Biomass" This category contains only the following page. B Biomass Scenario Model Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCatego...

403

Tribal Renewable Energy Curriculum Foundational Course: Biomass...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Tribal Renewable Energy Curriculum Foundational Course: Biomass Watch the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy foundational course webinar on biomass renewable...

404

UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biofuels, LLC  UCSD Biomass to Power  Economic Feasibility Figure 1: West Biofuels Biomass Gasification to Power rates..……………………. ……31  UCSD Biomass to Power ? Feasibility 

Cattolica, Robert

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Hebei Jiantou Biomass Power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jiantou Biomass Power Jump to: navigation, search Name Hebei Jiantou Biomass Power Place Jinzhou, Hebei Province, China Zip 50000 Sector Biomass Product A company engages in...

406

Chowchilla Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Chowchilla Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Chowchilla Biomass Facility Facility Chowchilla Sector Biomass Owner London Economics Location Chowchilla, California...

407

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Market Assessment of Networked Outdoor Lighting Controls Mark Rehley, NEEA; Jordan Shackelford, Energy Solutions MSSLC Specification for Remote Monitoring and...

408

Clean energy from municipal solid waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the project was to demonstrate the environmental and combustion performance advantages of a carbonized refuse derived fuel (RDF) slurry, produced from EnerTech`s slurry carbonization process, using continuous pilot scale equipment and its suitability as an alternative fuel for utility and industrial boilers.

Klosky, M.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Municipal solid waste management in Lahore City District, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

This study deals with generation, composition, collection, transportation, and disposal, as well as the present cost of the waste management on the basis of 60% collection of the total waste and the cost of proposed improved system of management on the basis of 100% waste collection using the IWM-2 LCI model. A GIS map of Data Ganj Bakhsh Town (DGBT) of Lahore City District showing communal storage facilities is also provided. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 living in 232,024 dwellings. The total waste generated per year is 500,000 tons, or 0.84/kg/cap/day. Presently 60% of the MSW is collected and disposed in open dumps, while 40% is not collected and lies along roadsides, streets railway lines, depressions, vacant plots, drains, storm drains and open sewers. In DGBT, 129 containers of 5-m{sup 3} capacity, 120 containers of 10-m{sup 3} capacity and 380 skips of 2.5-m{sup 3} capacity are placed for waste collection. The overall collection and disposal cost of the MSW of DGBT is $3,177,900/yr, which is $10.29/ton. Modeling was conducted using the IWM-2 model for improved collection and disposal on the basis of 100% service, compared to the current 60% service. The modelled cost is $8.3/per ton, which is 20% less than the present cost, but the overall cost of 100% collection and disposal increases to $4,155,737/yr.

Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Muhammad Nawaz Ch [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Benchmarking Biomass Gasification Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass Gasification Technologies for Biomass Gasification Technologies for Fuels, Chemicals and Hydrogen Production Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Prepared by Jared P. Ciferno John J. Marano June 2002 i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to express their appreciation to all individuals who contributed to the successful completion of this project and the preparation of this report. This includes Dr. Phillip Goldberg of the U.S. DOE, Dr. Howard McIlvried of SAIC, and Ms. Pamela Spath of NREL who provided data used in the analysis and peer review. Financial support for this project was cost shared between the Gasification Program at the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the Biomass Power Program within the DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

411

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Municipal Alternative Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation

414

APS Biomass I Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

APS Biomass I Biomass Facility APS Biomass I Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name APS Biomass I Biomass Facility Facility APS Biomass I Sector Biomass Location Arizona Coordinates 34.0489281°, -111.0937311° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.0489281,"lon":-111.0937311,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

415

Research on Common Biomass Pyrolysis Production of Biomass ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Textural parameters analysis revealed the caloric value of biomass carbons between 32 MJ/kg and 34 MJ/kg. It also indicated that the surface of biomass carbon ...

416

Minimally refined biomass fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Fixed Bed Biomass Gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The report details work performed by Gazogen to develop a novel biomass gasifier for producimg electricity from commercially available hardwood chips. The research conducted by Gazogen under this grant was intended to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new means of producing electricity from wood chips and other biomass and carbonaceous fuels. The technical feasibility of the technology has been furthered as a result of the DOE grant, and work is expected to continue. The economic feasibility can only be shown when all operational problems have been overocme. The technology could eventually provide a means of producing electricity on a decentralized basis from sustainably cultivated plants or plant by-products.

Carl Bielenberg

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

418

Reading Municipal Light Department - Residential ENERGY STAR...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Program Reading Municipal Light Department - Residential ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Program Eligibility Residential Savings For Heating &...

419

Mansfield Municipal Electric Department - Residential Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

50 Mansfield Municipal Electric Department encourages energy efficiency through the ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Incentive Program. Cash rebates are offered for ENERGY STAR...

420

Energy management in municipal street lighting  

SciTech Connect

This report presents strategies to reduce the energy used in street lighting and, at the same time, reduce or stabilize the cost of street lighting to municipalities.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass municipal solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Reading Municipal Light Department - Residential Renewable Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Summary Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers rebates of 1.00watt for solar photovoltaic and small wind installations for residential customers. A 0.25watt...

422

North Branch Municipal Water & Light - Commercial & Industrial...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

150 - 400 Dishwashers: 300 - 1,000 Ventilation Hood Controllers: 165HP Low-Flow Spray Valve: 50% of installed cost Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (http:...

423

Mora Municipal Utilities - Commercial & Industrial Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

150 - 400 Dishwashers: 300 - 1,000 Ventilation Hood Controllers: 165HP Low-Flow Spray Valve: 50% of installed cost Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (http:...

424

Saint Peter Municipal Utilities - Commercial & Industrial Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

150 - 400 Dishwashers: 300 - 1,000 Ventilation Hood Controllers: 165HP Low-Flow Spray Valve: 50% of installed cost Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (http:...

425

Financing Strategies for Municipal Energy Efficiency.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Energy efficiency represents a significant opportunity to reduce energy use, save money and reduce environmental impacts. For municipalities that are facing increasingly tight budgets and… (more)

Lubershane, Andrew

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities J. Daw and K. Hallett National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. DeWolfe and I. Venner Malcolm Pirnie, the Water Division of ARCADIS...

427

Wellesley Municipal Light Plant - Residential Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Refrigerator: 100 Clothes Washing Machine: 75 Central AC: 100 Room AC Unit: 50 Dishwasher: 75 Dehumidifier: 50 Wellesley Municipal Light Plant (WMLP) offers a number of...

428

Cogeneration in municipalities. Workshop proceedings for local governments and municipal utilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five papers from workshops for local governments and municipal utilities are included. A separate abstract was prepared for each one.

Patterson, S. (ed.)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Biomass Anaerobic Digestion Facilities and Biomass Gasification Facilities (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Indiana Department of Environmental Management requires permits before the construction or expansion of biomass anaerobic digestion or gasification facilities.

430

Development and Applications of a Novel Intermittent Solids Feeder for Pyrolysis Reactors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This PhD research addresses the challenge of feeding biomass residues into fluidized bed reactors for pyrolysis, through the development of a novel intermittent solid slug… (more)

Berruti, Federico M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Titanium Oxides Thin Film Anodes for All-Solid-State Lithium Ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metallic lithium is not a suitable anode material for all-solid-state thin film batteries ... Application of Biomass Waste Materials in the Nano Mineral Synthesis.

432

Municipals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hillsboro Hope Lakota Maddock Northwood Park River Riverdale Sharon Stanton Valley City South Dakota Aberdeen Arlington Aurora Badger Beresford Big Stone City Brookings Bryant...

433

Biomass Technologies | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Technologies August 14, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis Photo of a pair of hands holding corn stover, the unused parts of harvested corn. There are many types of biomass-organic...

434

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY and dead vegetative material that have been removed from the landscape (either sent as biomass to the power

435

ENERGY FROM BIOMASS AND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

integrated- gasifier steam-injected gasturbine (BIGISTIG) cogenerationsystemsis carried out here. A detailed!l!ledin a companionpaperprepared for this conference. 781 #12;BIOMASS-GASIFIER ~.INJECTED GAS TURBINE COGENERA110N FOR THE CANE). Biomassintegrated-ga