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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis,...

2

Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

3

Specialists' workshop on fast pyrolysis of biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This workshop brought together most of those who are currently working in or have published significant findings in the area of fast pyrolysis of biomass or biomass-derived materials, with the goal of attaining a better understanding of the dominant mechanisms which produce olefins, oxygenated liquids, char, and tars. In addition, background papers were given in hydrocarbon pyrolysis, slow pyrolysis of biomass, and techniques for powdered-feedstock preparation in order that the other papers did not need to introduce in depth these concepts in their presentations for continuity. In general, the authors were requested to present summaries of experimental data with as much interpretation of that data as possible with regard to mechanisms and process variables such as heat flux, temperatures, partial pressure, feedstock, particle size, heating rates, residence time, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each presentation for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Understanding the product distribution from biomass fast pyrolysis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Fast pyrolysis of biomass is an attractive route to transform solid biomass into a liquid bio-oil, which has been envisioned as a renewable substitute for… (more)

Patwardhan, Pushkaraj Ramchandra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Bio-mass for biomass: biological mass spectrometry techniques for biomass fast pyrolysis oils.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Biomass fast pyrolysis oils, or bio-oils, are a promising renewable energy source to supplement or replace petroleum-based products and fuels. However, there is a current… (more)

Dalluge, Erica A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Transportation fuels from biomass via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass is a renewable source of carbon, which could provide a means to reduce the greenhouse gas impact from fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Biomass is the only renewable source of liquid fuels, which could displace petroleum-derived products. Fast pyrolysis is a method of direct thermochemical conversion (non-bioconversion) of biomass to a liquid product. Although the direct conversion product, called bio-oil, is liquid; it is not compatible with the fuel handling systems currently used for transportation. Upgrading the product via catalytic processing with hydrogen gas, hydroprocessing, is a means that has been demonstrated in the laboratory. By this processing the bio-oil can be deoxygenated to hydrocarbons, which can be useful replacements of the hydrocarbon distillates in petroleum. While the fast pyrolysis of biomass is presently commercial, the upgrading of the liquid product by hydroprocessing remains in development, although it is moving out of the laboratory into scaled-up process demonstration systems.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2013-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

7

Bio-methane via fast pyrolysis of biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bio-methane, a renewable vehicle fuel, is today produced by anaerobic digestion and a 2nd generation production route via gasification is under development. This paper proposes a poly-generation plant that produces bio-methane, bio-char and heat via fast pyrolysis of biomass. The energy and material flows for the fuel synthesis are calculated by process simulation in Aspen Plus®. The production of bio-methane and bio-char amounts to 15.5 MW and 3.7 MW, when the total inputs are 23 MW raw biomass and 1.39 MW electricity respectively (HHV basis). The results indicate an overall efficiency of 84% including high-temperature heat and the biomass to bio-methane yield amounts to 83% after allocation of the biomass input to the final products (HHV basis). The overall energy efficiency is higher for the suggested plant than for the gasification production route and is therefore a competitive route for bio-methane production.

Martin Görling; Mårten Larsson; Per Alvfors

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Techno-Economic Analysis of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Transportation Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Transportation Fuels Mark M. Wright, Justinus A. Satrio, and Robert C. Brown Iowa State University Daren E. Daugaard ConocoPhillips Company David D. Hsu National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-46586 November 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Techno-Economic Analysis of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Transportation Fuels Mark M. Wright, Justinus A. Satrio, and Robert C. Brown Iowa State University

9

The effects of biomass pretreatments on the products of fast pyrolysis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Fast pyrolysis thermochemically degrades lignocellulosic material into solid char, organic liquids, and gaseous products. Using fast pyrolysis to produce renewable liquid bio-oil to replace crude… (more)

Kasparbauer, Randall Dennis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Biomass pyrolysis for chemicals.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Biomass Pyrolysis for Chemicals The problems associated with the use of fossil fuels demand a transition to renewable sources (sun, wind, water, geothermal, biomass) for… (more)

Wild, Paul de

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

BIOMASS PRETREATMENT FOR INCREASED ANHYDROSUGARS YIELD DURING FAST PYROLYSIS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Production of liquid fuels is a high national priority to provide transporation fuels. Production of liquid bio-fuels from biomass has been idenfied as a viable… (more)

Li, Qi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Biomass Program develops design cases to understand the current state of conversiontechnologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. The bestavailable bench and pilot-scale conversion data are integrated with detailed process flow andengineering models to identify technical barriers where research and development could leadto significant cost improvements and to calculate production costs. Past design cases focusedon finding pathways toward cost-competitive production of ethanol. This design case is thefirst to establish detailed cost targets for the production of diesel and gasoline blendstock frombiomass via a fast pyrolysis process.

13

Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

Chum, Helena L. (8448 Allison Ct., Arvada, CO 80005); Black, Stuart K. (4976 Raleigh St., Denver, CO 80212); Diebold, James P. (57 N. Yank Way, Lakewood, CO 80228); Kreibich, Roland E. (4201 S. 344th, Auburn, WA 98001)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.

1993-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

15

Design, optimization and evaluation of a free-fall biomass fast pyrolysis reactor and its products.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The focus of this work is a radiatively heated, free-fall, fast pyrolysis reactor. The reactor was designed and constructed for the production of bio-oil from… (more)

Ellens, Cody James

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Aging on Combustion Performance and Emissions of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Liquid-Ethanol Blends in a Swirl Burner.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Biomass fast pyrolysis liquid is a renewable fuel for stationary heat and power generation; however degradation of bio-oil by time, a.k.a. aging, has an impact… (more)

Zarghami-Tehran, Milad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Properties on Combustion Performance and Emissions of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Liquid-ethanol Blends in a Swirl Burner.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Biomass fast pyrolysis liquid, also known as bio-oil, is a promising renewable fuel for heat and power generation; however, implementing crude bio-oil in some current… (more)

Moloodi, Sina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Entrained-Flow, Fast Ablative Pyrolysis of Biomass - Annual Report, 1 December 1984 - 31 December 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ablative, fast pyrolysis system was relocated to SERI's new, permanent Field Test Laboratory. Pyrolysis system modifications were made to increase the energy available to the vortex reactor and to enhance the collection efficiency of primary pyrolysis vapors. Mathematical modeling of the vapor cracker has resulted in the ability to accurately predict experimental results with respect to the thermal cracking of the primary vapors, the generation of noncondensible gases, and the gas composition. The computer algorithm of this model can be readily used to perform experimental simulation and/or reactor scale-up due to its fundamental nature. Preliminary screening tests with pure ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst, supplied by Mobil Research and Development Corporation, have shown promise for the conversion of primary pyrolysis oil vapors to aromatic hydrocarbons; i.e., gasoline.

Diebold, J. P.; Scahill, J. W.; Evans, R. J.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

APPLICATION OF PYROLYSIS-GC/MS TO THE STUDY OF BIOMASS AND BIOMASS CONSTITUENTS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Fast pyrolysis, the rapid thermal decomposition of organic material in the absence of oxygen, is a process that can be used to convert biomass into… (more)

Ware, Anne E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Inorganic Compounds in Biomass Feedstocks. 1. Effect on the Quality of Fast Pyrolysis Oils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inorganic Compounds in Biomass Feedstocks. 1. ... Inorganic compoundsespecially potassium, calcium, sodium, silicon, phosphorus, and chlorineare the main constituents of the ash in biomass feedstocks. ...

F. A. Agblevor; S. Besler

1996-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Integration of biomass fast pyrolysis and precedent feedstock steam drying with a municipal combined heat and power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) is a promising pre-treatment technology for converting biomass to transport fuel and in the future also for high-grade chemicals. BFP can be integrated with a municipal combined heat and power (CHP) plant. This paper shows the influence of BFP integration on a CHP plant's main parameters and its effect on the energetic and environmental performance of the connected district heating network. The work comprises full- and part-load operation of a CHP plant integrated with BFP and steam drying. It also evaluates different usage alternatives for the BFP products (char and oil). The results show that the integration is possible and strongly beneficial regarding energetic and environmental performance. Offering the possibility to provide lower district heating loads, the operation hours of the plant can be increased by up to 57%. The BFP products should be sold rather than applied for internal use as this increases the district heating network's primary energy efficiency the most. With this integration strategy future CHP plants can provide valuable products at high efficiency and also can help to mitigate global CO2 emissions.

Thomas Kohl; Timo P. Laukkanen; Mika P. Järvinen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is to enable the development of biomass technologies.

23

The best use of biomass? Greenhouse gas lifecycle analysis of predicted pyrolysis biochar systems   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to pessimistic scenarios are used for system operation. Slow pyrolysis is compared to fast pyrolysis and biomass co-firing for GHG abatement and electricity production, using various scenarios for availability of indigenous Scottish feedstocks....

Hammond, James A R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating, biomass is rapidly heated in a fluidized bed to create bio-oils, which can then be used to create hydrocarbon biofuel blendstocks.

25

Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis, biomass is heated with catalysts to create bio-oils, which are then used to produce biofuel blendstocks.

26

Lignin Fast Pyrolysis: Results from an International Collaboration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An international study of fast pyrolysis of lignin was undertaken. Fourteen laboratories in eight different countries contributed. Two lignin samples were distributed to the laboratories for analysis and bench-scale process testing in fast pyrolysis. Analyses included proximate and ultimate analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and analytical pyrolysis. The bench-scale test included bubbling fluidized bed reactors and entrained flow systems. Based on the results of the various analyses and tests it was concluded that a concentrated lignin (estimated at about 50% lignin and 50% cellulose) behaved like a typical biomass, producing a slightly reduced amount of a fairly typical bio-oil, while a purified lignin material was difficult to process in the fast pyrolysis reactors and produced a much lower amount of a different kind of bio-oil. It was concluded that for highly concentrated lignin feedstocks new reactor designs will be required other than the typical fluidized bed fast pyrolysis systems.

Nowakowski, Daniel J.; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Meier, Dietrich; de Wild, Paul

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Pyrolysis/Gas Chromatography: Application in the Study of Biomass Pyrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The analytical chemistry technique of pyrolysis/gas chromatography has been applied to the study of biomass pyrolysis. Very small samples of biomass feedstocks were pyrolyzed in a controlled, reproducible manner....

John C. Franklin; James L. Kuester

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: 2012 State of Technology and Projections to 2017  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the economic impact of the work performed at PNNL during FY12 to improve fast pyrolysis oil upgrading via hydrotreating. A comparison is made between the projected economic outcome and the actual results based on experimental data. Sustainability metrics are also included.

Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

31

Sala Dolomite-Catalysed Conversion of Tar from Biomass Pyrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dolomite from the Swedish Sala quarry has been examined as a possible catalyst for cracking and steam reforming of tar produced during pyrolysis of biomass.

K. Sjöström; G. Taralas; L. Liinanki

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Fluidized bed pyrolysis of terrestrial biomass feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hybrid poplar, switchgrass, and corn stover were pyrolyzed in a bench scale fluidized-bed reactor to examine the influence of storage time on thermochemical converting of these materials. The influence of storage on the thermochemical conversion of the biomass feedstocks was assessed based on pyrolysis product yields and chemical and instrumental analyses of the pyrolysis products. Although char and gas yields from corn stover feedstock were influenced by storage time, hybrid poplar and switchgrass were not significantly affected. Liquid, char, and gas yields were feedstock dependent. Total liquid yields (organic+water) varied from 58%-73% depending on the feedstock. Char yields varied from 14%-19% while gas yields ranged from 11%-15%. The chemical composition of the pyrolysis oils from hybrid polar feedstock was slightly changed by storage, however, corn stover and switchgrass feedstock showed no significant changes. Additionally, stored corn stover and hybrid poplar pyrolysis oils showed a significant decrease in their higher heating values compared to the fresh material.

Besler, S.; Agblevor, F.A.; Davis, M.F. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

33

Biomass Feedstocks for Renewable Fuel Production: A review of the impacts of feedstock and pretreatment on the yield and product distribution of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and vapors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Renewable transportation fuels from biomass have the potential to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and diversify global fuel supplies. Thermal conversion by fast pyrolysis converts up to 75% of the starting plant material (and its energy content) to a bio-oil intermediate suitable for upgrading to motor fuel. Woody biomass, by far the most widely-used and researched material, is generally preferred in thermochemical processes due to its low ash content and high quality bio-oil produced. However, the availability and cost of biomass resources, e.g. forest residues, agricultural residues, or dedicated energy crops, vary greatly by region and will be key determinates in the overall economic feasibility of a pyrolysis-to-fuel process. Formulation or blending of various feedstocks, combined with thermal and/or chemical pretreatment, could facilitate a consistent, high-volume, lower-cost biomass supply to an emerging biofuels industry. However, the impact of biomass type and pretreatment conditions on bio-oil yield and quality, and the potential process implications, are not well understood. This literature review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the effect of feedstock and pretreatments on the yield, product distribution, and upgradability of bio-oil.

Daniel Carpenter; Stefan Czernik; Whitney Jablonski; Tyler L. Westover

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Diesel Engine Combustion of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass pyrolysis oils are manufactured through a moderate-temperature process (?500 °C) in which the biomass feedstock is subjected to rapid heating in the absence of air, where it vaporizes, cracks, and is condensed after a short residence time (?500 ms) into a dark brown liquid composed of a complex mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons whose heating value is approximately half that of No. 2 diesel fuel. ... The combustion air inlet temperature can be preheated up to 130 °C through the use of an in-line electric heater, which allows engine operation with fuels that have long ignition delay, without relying on any ignition additives. ... Their data showed that in addition to reducing the peak heat release magnitude, slower chemical kinetics resulted in reduced rate of instantaneous heat release (the slope of the instantaneous heat release curve) in the early combustion phase, resulting in delayed peak heat release timing relative to SOC. ...

Alan Shihadeh; Simone Hochgreb

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Fast Pyrolysis Conversion Tests of Forest Concepts’ Crumbles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report describes the work done by PNNL on assessing Forest Concept's engineered feedstock using the bench-scale continuous fast pyrolysis system to produce liquid bio-oil, char and gas. Specifically, bio-oil from the following process were evaluated for its yield and quality to determine impact of varying feed size parameters. Furthermore, the report also describes the handling process of the biomass and the challenges of operating the system with above average particle size.

Santosa, Daniel M.; Zacher, Alan H.; Eakin, David E.

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

36

FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS Kimberly established that biomass pyrolysis oil could be steam-reformed to generate hydrogen using non pyrolysis oil could be almost stoichiometrically converted to hydrogen. However, process performance

37

Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

38

Study of the mechanism of pyrolysis and gasification of Mallee biomass.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Mechanisms of pyrolysis/gasification (steam and carbon dioxide) of mallee biomass were investigated. Wood biochar obtained under slow pyrolysis kept botanical structure but lost its original… (more)

Yang, Yanwu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

A review of the toxicity of biomass pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scaleup of biomass fast pyrolysis systems to large pilot and commercial scales will expose an increasingly large number of personnel to potential health hazards, especially during the evaluation of the commercial use of the pyrolysis condensates. Although the concept of fast pyrolysis to optimize liquid products is relatively new, low-temperature pyrolysis processes have been used over the aeons to produce charcoal and liquid by-products, e.g., smoky food flavors, food preservatives, and aerosols containing narcotics, e.g., nicotine. There are a number of studies in the historical literature that concern the hazards of acute and long-term exposure to smoke and to the historical pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures. The reported toxicity of smoke, smoke food flavors, and fast pyrolysis oils is reviewed. The data found for these complex mixtures suggest that the toxicity may be less than that of the individual components. It is speculated that there may be chemical reactions that take place that serve to reduce the toxicity during aging. 81 refs.

Diebold, J.P. [Thermalchemie, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Product Analysis and Thermodynamic Simulations from the Pyrolysis of Several Biomass Feedstocks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Product Analysis and Thermodynamic Simulations from the Pyrolysis of Several Biomass Feedstocks ... Forestry residue is one of the most viable biomass feedstocks for liq. ...

Jieling Zhang; Hossein Toghiani; Dinesh Mohan; Charles U. Pittman, Jr.; Rebecca K. Toghiani

2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

"Optimization of Zero Length Chromatographic System and Measuring Properties of Model Compounds from Biomass Pyrolysis"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compounds from Biomass Pyrolysis" Ross Kendall Faculty Mentor: Dr. Paul Dauenhauer, Chemical Engineering by using what he made to measure many of the compounds involved in biomass pyrolysis. If we can understand to retrieve diffusion coefficients of many intermediates of the biomass pyrolysis reaction. From this data

Mountziaris, T. J.

42

Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline , diesel and jet range blendstocks . Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

43

In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline, diesel, and jet range blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

45

State-of-the-art of fast pyrolysis in IEA bioenergy member countries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fast pyrolysis of biomass is becoming increasingly important in some member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA). Six countries have joined the IEA Task 34 of the Bioenergy Activity: Canada, Finland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, and USA. The National Task Leaders give an overview of the current activities in their countries both on research, pilot and demonstration level.

Dietrich Meier; Bert van de Beld; Anthony V. Bridgwater; Douglas C. Elliott; Anja Oasmaa; Fernando Preto

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Pyrolysis and ignition behavior of coal, cattle biomass, and coal/cattle biomass blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

derived from biomass. Current research at Texas A&M University is focused on the effectiveness of using cattle manure biomass as a fuel source in conjunction with coal burning utilities. The scope of this project includes fuel property analysis, pyrolysis...

Martin, Brandon Ray

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Detailed kinetic study of anisole pyrolysis and oxidation to understand tar formation during biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biomass combustion and gasification Milena Nowakowska, Olivier Herbinet, Anthony Dufour, Pierre. Methoxyphenols are one of the main precursors of PAH and soot in biomass combustion and gasification. Keywords: Anisole; Pyrolysis; Oxidation; Tars; Biomass; Kinetic modeling Corresponding author

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

Autothermal oxidative pyrolysis of biomass feedstocks over noble metal catalysts to liquid products.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Two thermal processing technologies have emerged for processing biomass into renewable liquid products: pyrolysis and gasification/Fischer-Tropsch processing. The work presented here will demonstrate oxidative pyrolysis… (more)

Balonek, Christine Marie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Biomass pyrolysis processes: performance parameters and their influence on biochar system benefits   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study focuses on performance of biomass pyrolysis processes for use in biochar systems. Objectives are to understand the range of control of such processes and how this affects potential benefits of pyrolysis biochar ...

Brownsort, Peter A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Flash pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Process chemistry data on the flash pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of wood is being obtained in a 1'' downflow entrained tubular reactor. The data indicates that at residence times of <1 second, and 900 to 1000/sup 0/C and 500 psi pressure, the flash hydropyrolysis of wood yields mainly methane and water. As the residence time increases to >3 seconds, the products are methane and CO. Almost complete conversion of the carbon to methane and CO are obtained in these experiments. At lower temperatures, in the order of 800/sup 0/C, 500 psi and residence times <4 seconds, significant amounts of benzene and ethane are produced. The experimental process chemistry data have been used to design and evaluate two processes in a preliminary manner. One process converts wood to high BTU pipeline gas and the other to methanol and chemical feedstocks consisting of benzene and ethylene. Reasonable plant investments which compare favorably with coal conversion plant estimates are derived.

Not Available

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Biomass pyrolysis processes: performance parameters and their influence on biochar system benefits.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study focuses on performance of biomass pyrolysis processes for use in biochar systems. Objectives are to understand the range of control of such processes… (more)

Brownsort, Peter A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Summary of Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading GHG Analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established new renewable fuel categories and eligibility requirements (EPA 2010). A significant aspect of the National Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) program is the requirement that the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a qualifying renewable fuel be less than the life cycle GHG emissions of the 2005 baseline average gasoline or diesel fuel that it replaces. Four levels of reduction are required for the four renewable fuel standards. Table 1 lists these life cycle performance improvement thresholds. Table 1. Life Cycle GHG Thresholds Specified in EISA Fuel Type Percent Reduction from 2005 Baseline Renewable fuel 20% Advanced biofuel 50% Biomass-based diesel 50% Cellulosic biofuel 60% Notably, there is a specialized subset of advanced biofuels that are the cellulosic biofuels. The cellulosic biofuels are incentivized by the Cellulosic Biofuel Producer Tax Credit (26 USC 40) to stimulate market adoption of these fuels. EISA defines a cellulosic biofuel as follows (42 USC 7545(o)(1)(E)): The term “cellulosic biofuel” means renewable fuel derived from any cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin that is derived from renewable biomass and that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, that are at least 60 percent less than the baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. As indicated, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has sole responsibility for conducting the life cycle analysis (LCA) and making the final determination of whether a given fuel qualifies under these biofuel definitions. However, there appears to be a need within the LCA community to discuss and eventually reach consensus on discerning a 50–59 % GHG reduction from a ? 60% GHG reduction for policy, market, and technology development. The level of specificity and agreement will require additional development of capabilities and time for the sustainability and analysis community, as illustrated by the rich dialogue and convergence around the energy content and GHG reduction of cellulosic ethanol (an example of these discussions can be found in Wang 2011). GHG analyses of fast pyrolysis technology routes are being developed and will require significant work to reach the levels of development and maturity of cellulosic ethanol models. This summary provides some of the first fast pyrolysis analyses and clarifies some of the reasons for differing results in an effort to begin the convergence on assumptions, discussion of quality of models, and harmonization.

Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Male, Jonathan L.

2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

53

Life Cycle Assessment of Gasoline and Diesel Produced via Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a life cycle assessment (LCA) estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and net energy value (NEV) of the production of gasoline and diesel from forest residues via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing, from production of the feedstock to end use of the fuel in a vehicle, is performed. The fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are based on a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) design report. The LCA results show GHG emissions of 0.142 kg CO2-equiv. per km traveled and NEV of 1.00 MJ per km traveled for a process using grid electricity. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis shows a range of results, with all values better than those of conventional gasoline in 2005. Results for GHG emissions and NEV of gasoline and diesel from pyrolysis are also reported on a per MJ fuel basis for comparison with ethanol produced via gasification. Although pyrolysis-derived gasoline and diesel have lower GHG emissions and higher NEV than conventional gasoline does in 2005, they underperform ethanol produced via gasification from the same feedstock. GHG emissions for pyrolysis could be lowered further if electricity and hydrogen are produced from biomass instead of from fossil sources.

Hsu, D. D.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Peculiarities of Rapid Pyrolysis of Biomass Covering Medium- and High-Temperature Ranges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Peculiarities of Rapid Pyrolysis of Biomass Covering Medium- and High-Temperature Ranges ... It is considered that rapid pyrolysis is the first step in both gasification and combustion, which occurs at the same temperature of gasification or combustion in an industrial gasifier or boiler. ...

Yan Zhang; Shiro Kajitani; Masami Ashizawa; Kouichi Miura

2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

55

CO2 Gasification Kinetics of Biomass Char Derived from High-Temperature Rapid Pyrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CO2 Gasification Kinetics of Biomass Char Derived from High-Temperature Rapid Pyrolysis ... The rapid pyrolysis char produced was isothermally gasified in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) under a CO2 atmosphere. ... In the study by Zhang and co-workers, where as much as 14 biomass chars were gasified, gasification rates of all of the wooden biomass chars present a similar feature as Figure 7a (PS char), but this feature has not been found from gasification rates of the herbaceous biomass char. ...

Shuai Yuan; Xue-li Chen; Jun Li; Fu-chen Wang

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

56

Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Oil via HDO Using Nano-Structured Catalysts.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The effects of type of solvents (hydro-treated or upgraded pyrolysis oil and ethanol) on hydro-de-oxygenation (HDO) of fast pyrolysis oil were studied. The presence and… (more)

Ahmadi, Shima

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

A component based model for the prediction of the product yields of the pyrolysis of a biomass particle.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Pyrolysis of biomass can produce several useful, renewable products: biochar for soil amendment and long-term carbon sequestration; tars for chemicals and biofuels; and syngas as… (more)

Eberly, Brian C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Modelling and experimental studies of biomass and organic pyrolysis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Pyrolysis is a thermal conversion process that decomposes organic materials into liquid hydrocarbons, carbonaceous residues and combustible gases in the absence of oxygen. Depending on… (more)

Lam, Ka Leung

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

Soncini, Ryan M.; Means, Nicholas C.; Weiland, Nathan T.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Influences of Additives on Steam Gasification of Biomass. 1. Pyrolysis Procedure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To remove tar and upgrade the quality of gaseous product, researchers have extensively studied the influences of various additives(2-6) and diverse reactors(7-9) on biomass gasification. ... For the pyrolysis procedure, there are two effectual methods, improving operating conditions and adding additives into reactors, to control the formations of tar and CnHm. ... The chemical components of additives added in the related pyrolysis procedure are shown in Table 2. ...

Yu R. Xie; Lai H. Shen; Jun Xiao; Da X. Xie; Jing Zhu

2009-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Preparation of brightness stabilization agent for lignin containing pulp from biomass pyrolysis oils  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing a brightness stabilization mixture of water-soluble organic compounds from biomass pyrolysis oils comprising: a) size-reducing biomass material and pyrolyzing the size-reduced biomass material in a fluidized bed reactor; b) separating a char/ash component while maintaining char-pot temperatures to avoid condensation of pyrolysis vapors; c) condensing pyrolysis gases and vapors, and recovering pyrolysis oils by mixing the oils with acetone to obtain an oil-acetone mixture; d) evaporating acetone and recovering pyrolysis oils; e) extracting the pyrolysis oils with water to obtain a water extract; f) slurrying the water extract with carbon while stirring, and filtering the slurry to obtain a colorless filtrate; g) cooling the solution and stabilizing the solution against thermally-induced gelling and solidification by extraction with ethyl acetate to form an aqueous phase lower layer and an organic phase upper layer; h) discarding the upper organic layer and extracting the aqueous layer with ethyl acetate, and discarding the ethyl acetate fraction to obtain a brown-colored solution not susceptible to gelling or solidification upon heating; i) heating the solution to distill off water and other light components and concentrating a bottoms fraction comprising hydroxyacetaldehyde and other non-volatile components having high boiling points; and j) decolorizing the stabilized brown solution with activated carbon to obtain a colorless solution.

Agblevor, Foster A. (Blacksburg, VA); Besler-Guran, Serpil (Flemington, NJ)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

CATALYTIC MICROWAVE PYROLYSIS OF BIOMASS FOR RENEWABLE PHENOLS AND FUELS .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Bio-oil is an unstable intermediate and needs to be upgraded before its use. This study focused on improving the selectivity of bio-oilby catalytic pyrolysis of… (more)

[No author

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes of wood and biomass pyrolysis,” to appear ineffect during biomass pyrolysis,” Industrial & Engineeringprocesses during pyrolysis of a large biomass particle,”

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Large-Scale Pyrolysis Oil Production: A Technology Assessment and Economic Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A broad perspective of pyrolysis technology as it relates to converting biomass substrates to a liquid bio-oil product and a detailed technical and economic assessment of a fast pyrolysis plant.

Ringer, M.; Putsche, V.; Scahill, J.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Molecular beam mass spectrometric characterization of biomass pyrolysis products for fuels and chemicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Converting biomass feedstocks to fuels and chemicals requires rapid characterization of the wide variety of possible feedstocks. The combination of pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (Py-MBMS) and multivariate statistical analysis offers a unique capability for characterizing these feedstocks. Herbaceous and woody biomass feedstocks that were harvested at different periods were used in this study. The pyrolysis mass spectral data were acquired in real time on the MBMS, and multivariate statistical analysis (factor analysis) was used to analyze and classify Py-MBMS data into compound classes. The effect of harvest times on the thermal conversion of these feedstocks was assessed from these data. Apart from sericea lespedeza, the influence of harvest time on the pyrolysis products of the various feedstocks was insignificant. For sericea lespedeza, samples harvested before plant defoliation were significantly different from those harvested after defoliation. The defoliated plant samples had higher carbohydrate-derived pyrolysis products than the samples obtained from the foliated plant. Additionally, char yields from the defoliated plant samples were lower than those from the foliated plant samples.

Agblevor, F.A.; Davis, M.F.; Evans, R.J. [National Renewal Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

Ab Initio Dynamics of Cellulose Pyrolysis: Nascent Decomposition Pathways at 327 and 600 C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reserves in lignocellulosic biomass.1 Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, which involves rapidAb Initio Dynamics of Cellulose Pyrolysis: Nascent Decomposition Pathways at 327 and 600 °C Vishal pyrolysis at 327 and 600 °C using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations with rare events

Auerbach, Scott M.

67

Pyrolysis kinetics of coking coal mixed with biomass under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To investigate the kinetic characteristics of coking coal mixed with biomass during pyrolysis, thermogravimetric (TG) and thermo-balance reactor (TBR) analyses were conducted under non-isothermal and isothermal condition. Yellow poplar as a biomass (B) was mixed with weak coking coal (WC) and hard coking coal (HC), respectively. The calculated activation energies of WC/B blends were higher than those of HC/B blends under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. The coal/biomass blends show increased reactivity and decreased activation energy with increasing biomass blend ratio, regardless of the coking properties of the coal. The different char structures of the WC/B and HC/B blends were analyzed by BET and SEM.

Ha Myung Jeong; Myung Won Seo; Sang Mun Jeong; Byung Ki Na; Sang Jun Yoon; Jae Goo Lee; Woon Jae Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from...

69

Analysis and comparison of biomass pyrolysis/gasification condensates: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from eleven biomass gasification and pyrolysis systems. The samples were representative of the various reactor configurations being researched within the Department of Energy, Biomass Thermochemical Conversion program. The condensates included tar phases and aqueous phases. The analyses included gross compositional analysis (elemental analysis, ash, moisture), physical characterization (pour point, viscosity, density, heat of combustion, distillation), specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and biological activity (Ames assay and mouse skin tumorigenicity tests). These results are the first step of a longer term program to determine the properties, handling requirements, and utility of the condensates recovered from biomass gasification and pyrolysis. The analytical data demonstrates the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recovered in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic components in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures. 56 refs., 25 figs., 21 tabs.

Elliott, D.C.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Thermal characterization and pyrolysis kinetics of tropical biomass feedstocks for energy recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper aims to analyse energy related properties, thermal degradation behaviour and devolatilization kinetics of five Cameroonian biomasses namely, Palm Kernel Shells (PKS), Mesocarp Fibres (PMF), Coffee Husk (CH), Corn Cob (CC) and Peanut Shell (PNS). The thermal degradation was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TG). Different behaviours related to the presence of chemical constituents such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin were obtained. Comparison of the thermal characterization shows that PMF is the most interesting feedstock with the highest heating values and reactivity due to higher volatile content. Decomposition of TG data was analysed by applying diffusion and chemical reaction kinetic models. Obtained results show that biomass pyrolysis is represented by two successive steps. The devolatilization stage characterized by high weight loss rate is well described by diffusion reaction models. In contrast, the char formation stage characterized by low weight loss rate is well described by third order chemical reaction models.

M. Jeguirim; J. Bikai; Y. Elmay; L. Limousy; E. Njeugna

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Influence of inorganic compounds on char formation and quality of fast pyrolysis oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inorganic compounds, especially potassium, calcium, sodium, silicon, phosphorus, and chlorine, are the main constituents of ash in biomass feedstocks. The concentrations of ash in biomass feedstocks range from less than 1% in softwoods to 15% in herbaceous biomass and agricultural residues. During biomass pyrolysis, these inorganics, especially potassium and calcium, catalyze both decomposition and char formation reactions. Decomposition reactions may either result in levoglucosan-rich or hydroxyacetaldehyde-rich pyrolysis products depending on the concentration of the ash in the feedstocks. The catalytic effect of the ash levels off at high organic ion concentrations. Chars formed during these reactions invariably end up in the pyrolysis oils (biofuel oils). A high proportion of the alkali metals in the ash are sequestered in the chars. The presence of high concentrations of alkali metals in the biofuel oils make them unsuitable for combustion in boilers, diesel engines, and in turbine operations. The highest concentration of alkali metals are found in herbaceous feedstocks and agricultural residue biofuel oils. Leaching studies conducted on the chars suspended in the oils showed no leaching of the alkali metals from the chars into the oils. Our data suggest that hot gas filtration of the oils can effectively reduce the alkali metals contents of the biofuel oils to acceptable levels to be used as turbine, diesel engine, and boiler fuels.

Agbleyor, F.A.; Besler, S.; Montane, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Overview of Applications of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

National Bioenergy Center NREL, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401, and Bio-Energy Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK ... The paper critically reviews scientific and technical developments in applications of bio-oil to date and concludes with some suggestions for research and strategic developments. ... Literature Review. ...

S. Czernik; A. V. Bridgwater

2004-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

73

Life Cycle Environmental and Economic Tradeoffs of Using Fast Pyrolysis Products for Power Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ash ... To find favorable locations for a 200 dry metric ton/day fast pyrolysis plant in Pennsylvania (PA), analysis was undertaken using GIS tools that considered locations and the availability of corn farms, fuel oil-fired power plants, and coal-fired power plants in the state. ...

Ghasideh Pourhashem; Sabrina Spatari; Akwasi A. Boateng; Andrew J. McAloon; Charles A. Mullen

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

74

KINETIC STUDY OF COAL AND BIOMASS CO-PYROLYSIS USING THERMOGRAVIMETRY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this study are to investigate thermal behavior of coal and biomass blends in inert gas environment at low heating rates and to develop a simplified kinetic model using model fitting techniques based on TGA experimental data. Differences in thermal behavior and reactivity in co-pyrolysis of Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coal and pelletized southern yellow pine wood sawdust blends at low heating rates are observed. Coal/wood blends have higher reactivity compared to coal alone in the lower temperature due to the high volatile matter content of wood. As heating rates increase, weight loss rates increase. The experiment data obtained from TGA has a better fit with proposed two step first order reactions model compared single first order reaction model.

Wang, Ping; Hedges, Sheila; Chaudharib, Kiran; Turtonb, Richard

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

75

Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Pyrolysis of Biomass. 1. Fundamentals. Energy Fuelsof the Pyrolysis of Biomass. 1. Fundamentals. Energy Fuelsfor analytical pyrolysis. 7.5.2 Biomass analysis All biomass

DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Analysis and comparison of biomass pyrolysis/gasification condensates: an interim report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from eleven biomass gasification and pyrolysis systems. The analyses were performed in order to provide more detailed data concerning these condensates for the different process research groups and to allow a determination of the differences in properties of the condensates as a function of reactor environment. The samples were representative of the various reactor configurations being researched within the Department of Energy, Biomass Thermochemical Conversion program. The condensates included tar phases, aqueous phases and, in some cases, both phases depending on the output of the particular reactor system. The analyses included gross compositional analysis (elemental analysis, ash, moisture), physical characterization (pour point, viscosity, density, heat of combustion, distillation), specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and biological activity (Ames assay). The analytical data demonstrate the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recovered in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic components in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures as a result of formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high concentrations. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

Elliott, D.C.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Comparative analysis of pinewood, peanut shell, and bamboo biomass derived biochars produced via hydrothermal conversion and pyrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biochars were produced from pinewood, peanut shell, and bamboo biomass through hydrothermal conversion (HTC) at 300 °C and comparatively by slow pyrolysis over a temperature range of 300, 400, and 500 °C. These biochars were characterized by FT-IR, cation exchange capacity (CEC) assay, methylene blue adsorption, as well as proximate and elemental analysis. The experimental results demonstrated higher retained oxygen content in biochars produced at lower pyrolysis temperatures and through HTC, which also correlated to the higher CEC of respective biochars. Furthermore, all types of biochar studied herein were capable of adsorption of methylene blue from solution and the adsorption did not appear to strongly correlate with CEC, indicating that the methylene blue adsorption appears to be dependent more upon the non-electrostatic molecular interactions such as the likely dispersive ?–? interactions between the graphene-like sheets of the biochar with the aromatic ring structure of the dye, than the electrostatic CEC. A direct comparison of hydrothermal and pyrolysis converted biochars reveals that biochars produced through HTC have much higher CEC than the biochars produced by slow pyrolysis. Analysis by FT-IR reveals a higher retention of oxygen functional groups in HTC biochars; additionally, there is an apparent trend of increasing aromaticity of the pyrolysis biochars when produced at higher temperatures. The CEC value of the HTC biochar appears correlated with its oxygen functional group content as indicated by the FT-IR measurements and its O:C ratio.

Matthew D. Huff; Sandeep Kumar; James W. Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Novel Fast Pyrolysis/Catalytic Technology for the Production of Stable Upgraded Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the proposed research is the demonstration and development of a novel biomass pyrolysis technology for the production of a stable bio-oil. The approach is to carry out catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and upgrading together with pyrolysis in a single fluidized bed reactor with a unique two-level design that permits the physical separation of the two processes. The hydrogen required for the HDO will be generated in the catalytic section by the water-gas shift reaction employing recycled CO produced from the pyrolysis reaction itself. Thus, the use of a reactive recycle stream is another innovation in this technology. The catalysts will be designed in collaboration with BASF Catalysts LLC (formerly Engelhard Corporation), a leader in the manufacture of attrition-resistant cracking catalysts. The proposed work will include reactor modeling with state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics in a supercomputer, and advanced kinetic analysis for optimization of bio-oil production. The stability of the bio-oil will be determined by viscosity, oxygen content, and acidity determinations in real and accelerated measurements. A multi-faceted team has been assembled to handle laboratory demonstration studies and computational analysis for optimization and scaleup.

Ted Oyama, Foster Agblevor, Francine Battaglia, Michael Klein

2013-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

79

The best use of biomass? Greenhouse gas lifecycle analysis of predicted pyrolysis biochar systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Life cycle analysis is carried out for 11 predicted configurations of pyrolysis biochar systems to determine greenhouse gas balance, using an original spreadsheet model. System… (more)

Hammond, James A R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Investigation of the Effect of In-Situ Catalyst on the Steam Hydrogasification of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

G. , An overview of biomass pyrolysis, Energy Sources, 2002,Spliethoff, H. , Biomass pyrolysis/gasification for productreactor for the study of biomass pyrolysis chemistry at high

FAN, XIN

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Oil production by entrained pyrolysis of biomass and processing of oil and char  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Entrained pyrolysis of lignocellulosic material proceeds from a controlled pyrolysis-initiating temperature to completion of an oxygen free environment at atmospheric pressure and controlled residence time to provide a high yield recovery of pyrolysis oil together with char and non-condensable, combustible gases. The residence time is a function of gas flow rate and the initiating temperature is likewise a function of the gas flow rate, varying therewith. A controlled initiating temperature range of about 400.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. with corresponding gas flow rates to maximize oil yield is disclosed.

Knight, James A. (Atlanta, GA); Gorton, Charles W. (Atlanta, GA)

1990-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

83

Production of Liquid Feedstock from Biomass via Steam Pyrolysis in a Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry basis. ... loss on ignition ... A pre-charred, wood-based carbonaceous precursor was activated using a two-step process (steam-pyrolysis activation) to investigate the potential for optimizing an activation protocol for the prodn. of powd. ...

Efthymios Kantarelis; Weihong Yang; Wlodzimierz Blasiak

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

84

Combustion Tests of Bio-Oils Derived from Biomass Slow Pyrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ENEL in collaboration with Region Abruzzo and Tecnars has carried out some experimental combustion tests of bio-oil produced with a conventional slow pyrolysis process, with a partial economic support of EEC.

C. Rossi; R. Frandi; E. Bonfitto…

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Flash Pyrolysis of Biomass with Reactive and Non-Reactive Gases: Summary Report for Period July 1983 through September 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this program is to study the conversion of biomass to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels and chemical feedstocks by a flash or rapid pyrolysis technique. During this period of study pine wood was flash pyrolyzed in atmospheres of methane and helium at a pressure of 50 psi and at temperatures up to 1050 C. The 1-inch I.D. entrained downflow tubular reactor was used in these experiments. Product yields of methane, ethane, ethylene, BTX, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were determined as a function of temperature and gas to wood ratio. Of particular interest were the ethylene and BTX yields. These represented as much as 29.6% and 24.6% of the carbon contained in the feed wood respectively when flash pyrolyzing in methane (flash methanolysls) and 14.7% and 9.7% when pyrolyzing in helium. In the case of flash methanolysis of wood the yields of ethylene and benzene increased with increasing methane to wood feed ratios. In the case of flash pyrolysis in helium the yields of ethylene and BTX decreased with increasing helium gas to wood feed ratios. These results indicate a mechanism by which a free radical reactive species originating from the wood interacts with the methane pyrolyzing gas to produce an enhanced yield of ethylene and benzene. The flash methanolysis of lignin extract from wood produced lower yields of ethylene, indicating the yields mainly originate from the cellulosic fractions of the wood. Some work was also performed on substituting wood ash for sillca flour (Cab-O-Sil) to allow free flow of wood particles through the entrained flow reactor. Preliminary process design and analysis indicates an economically competitive process for the flash methanolysis of wood for the production of methanol, benzene and ethylene. Future plans include completing the studies on obtaining the process chemistry of the flash methanolysis of woods, to obtain a better understanding of the enhanced ethylene and benzene yield and to investigate other biomass forms.

Steinberg M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Biomass Pyrolysis and Gasification of Varying Particle Sizes in a Fluidized-Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Light gases, char, and tar evolution as function of the bed temperature and particle size have been compared to literature data. ... A review of the primary measures for tar elimination in biomass gasification processes Biomass Bioenergy 2003, 24 ( 2) 125– 140 ... Some aspects of primary methods and the research and development in this area are reviewed and cited in the present paper. ...

Katherine R. Gaston; Mark W. Jarvis; Perrine Pepiot; Kristin M. Smith; William J. Frederick, Jr.; Mark R. Nimlos

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

87

Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Studies to Evaluate High-Temperature Aqueous Pretreatment as a Way to Modify the Composition of Bio-Oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Wheat Straw  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Studies to Evaluate High-Temperature Aqueous Pretreatment as a Way to Modify the Composition of Bio-Oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Wheat Straw ... ?-Cellulose was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, Missouri). ... This evidence suggests that CHW pretreatment may produce bio-oil that is composed of a greater amount of sugars and furanics and fewer small molecules and may therefore be a viable option to modify the chemical composition of bio-oils. ...

Robert Lee Johnson; Shi-Shen Liaw; Manuel Garcia-Perez; Su Ha; Sean S.-Y. Lin; Armando G. McDonald; Shulin Chen

2009-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

88

Catalytic Conversion of Tars, Carbon Black and Methane from Pyrolysis/Gasification of Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of catalysts in biomass gasification has been suggested for a long time.1 Fung and Graham found that potassium carbonate and calcium oxide have catalytic influences on the gasification rate and the produc...

Clas Ekström; Nils Lindman; Rune Pettersson

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Update of Hydrogen from Biomass — Determination of the Delivered Cost of Hydrogen: Milestone Completion Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Milestone report summarizing the economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass via (1) gasification/reforming of the resulting syngas and (2) fast pyrolysis/reforming of the resulting bio-oil.

90

Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

A review on pyrolysis of biomass constituents: Mechanisms and composition of the products obtained from the conversion of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The conversion of biomass by thermochemical means is very promising for the substitution of fossil materials in many energy applications. Given the complexity of biomass the main challenge in its use is to obtain products with high yield and purity. For a better understanding of biomass thermochemical conversion, many authors have studied in TG analyzer or at bed scale the individual pyrolysis of its main constituents (i.e. cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin). Based on these studies, this original work synthesizes the main steps of conversion and the composition of the products obtained from each constituent. Pyrolysis conversion can be described as the superposition of three main pathways (char formation, depolymerization and fragmentation) and secondary reactions. Lignin, which is composed of many benzene rings, gives the highest char yield and its depolymerization leads to various phenols. The depolymerization of the polysaccharides is a source of anhydro-saccharides and furan compounds. The fragmentation of the different constituents and the secondary reactions produce CO, CO2 and small chain compounds. For temperature higher than 500 °C, the residues obtained from the different constituents present a similar structure, which evolves towards a more condensed polyaromatic form by releasing CH4, CO and H2. As the aromatic rings and their substituent composition have a critical influence on the reactivity of pyrolysis products, a particular attention has been given to their formation. Some mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of the main products. From the results of this study it is possible to predict the reactivity and energy content of the pyrolysis products and evaluate their potential use as biofuels in renewable applications.

François-Xavier Collard; Joël Blin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This University of Massachusetts, Amherst project, "Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils" started on 1st February 2009 and finished on August 31st 2011. The project consisted following tasks: Task 1.0: Char Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The presence of char particles in the bio-oil causes problems in storage and end-use. Currently there is no well-established technology to remove char particles less than 10 micron in size. This study focused on the application of a liquid-phase microfiltration process to remove char particles from bio-oil down to slightly sub-micron levels. Tubular ceramic membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.5 and 0.8 ���µm were employed to carry out the microfiltration, which was conducted in the cross-flow mode at temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 C and at three different trans-membrane pressures varying from 1 to 3 bars. The results demonstrated the removal of the major quantity of char particles with a significant reduction in overall ash content of the bio-oil. The results clearly showed that the cake formation mechanism of fouling is predominant in this process. Task 2.0 Acid Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The feasibility of removing small organic acids from the aqueous fraction of fast pyrolysis bio-oils using nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. Experiments were carried out with a single solute solutions of acetic acid and glucose, binary solute solutions containing both acetic acid and glucose, and a model aqueous fraction of bio-oil (AFBO). Retention factors above 90% for glucose and below 0% for acetic acid were observed at feed pressures near 40 bar for single and binary solutions, so that their separation in the model AFBO was expected to be feasible. However, all of the membranes were irreversibly damaged when experiments were conducted with the model AFBO due to the presence of guaiacol in the feed solution. Experiments with model AFBO excluding guaiacol were also conducted. NF membranes showed retention factors of glucose greater than 80% and of acetic acid less than 15% when operated at transmembrane pressures near 60 bar. Task 3.0 Acid Removal by Catalytic Processing It was found that the TAN reduction in bio-oil was very difficult using low temperature hydrogenation in flow and batch reactors. Acetic acid is very resilient to hydrogenation and we could only achieve about 16% conversion for acetic acid. Although it was observed that acetic acid was not responsible for instability of aqueous fraction of bio-oil during ageing studies (described in task 5). The bimetallic catalyst PtRe/ceria-zirconia was found to be best catalyst because its ability to convert the acid functionality with low conversion to gas phase carbon. Hydrogenation of the whole bio-oil was carried out at 125���°C, 1450 psi over Ru/C catalyst in a flow reactor. Again, negligible acetic acid conversion was obtained in low temperature hydrogenation. Hydrogenation experiments with whole bio-oil were difficult to perform because of difficulty to pumping the high viscosity oil and reactor clogging. Task 4.0 Acid Removal using Ion Exchange Resins DOWEX M43 resin was used to carry out the neutralization of bio-oil using a packed bed column. The pH of the bio-oil increased from 2.43 to 3.7. The GC analysis of the samples showed that acetic acid was removed from the bio-oil during the neutralization and recovered in the methanol washing. But it was concluded that process would not be economical at large scale as it is extremely difficult to regenerate the resin once the bio-oil is passed over it. Task 5.0 Characterization of Upgraded Bio-oils We investigated the viscosity, microstructure, and chemical composition of bio-oils prepared by a fast pyrolysis approach, upon aging these fuels at 90���ºC for periods of several days. Our results suggest that the viscosity increase is not correlated with the acids or char present in the bio-oils. The

George W. Huber, Aniruddha A Upadhye, David M. Ford, Surita R. Bhatia, Phillip C. Badger

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

93

Guidelines for Transportation, Handling, and Use of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil. 1. Flammability and Toxicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The first bio-oil burner fuel standard in ASTM D7544 was approved in 2010. ... A technical specification for a quality specification for pyrolysis oil suitable for gasification feedstock for production of syngas and synthetic biofuels ... Because of the severity of the dermal changes (erythema/edema i.e., burns) and for ethical reasons, the eye irritation test was not run. ...

Anja Oasmaa; Anssi Källi; Christian Lindfors; Douglas C. Elliott; Dave Springer; Cordner Peacocke; David Chiaramonti

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

94

Proceedings of the Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Combustion Meeting, 26-28 September 1994, Estes Park, Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increasing scale-up of fast pyrolysis in North America and Europe, as well as the exploration and expansion of markets for the energy use of biocrude oils that now needs to take place, suggested that it was timely to convene an international meeting on the properties and combustion behavior of these oils. A common understanding of the state-of-the-art and technical and other challenges which need to be met during the commercialization of biocrude fuel use, can be achieved. The technical issues and understanding of combustion of these oils are rapidly being advanced through R&D in the United States. Canada, Europe and Scandinavia. It is obvious that for the maximum economic impact of biocrude, it will be necessary to have a common set of specifications so that oils can be used interchangeably with engines and combustors which require minimal modification to use these renewable fuels. Fundamental and applied studies being pursued in several countries are brought together in this workshop so that we can arrive at common strategies. In this way, both the science and the commercialization are advanced to the benefit of all, without detracting from the competitive development of both the technology and its applications. This United States-Canada-Finland collaboration has led to the two and one half day specialists meeting at which the technical basis for advances in biocrude development is discussed. The goal is to arrive at a common agenda on issues that cross national boundaries in this area. Examples of agenda items are combustion phenomena, the behavior of trace components of the oil (N, alkali metals), the formation of NOx in combustion, the need for common standards and environmental safety and health issues in the handling, storage and transportation of biocrudes.

Milne, T.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Feedstock Logistics of a Mobile Pyrolysis System and Assessment of Soil Loss Due to Biomass Removal for Bioenergy Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this study was to assess feedstock logistics for a mobile pyrolysis system and to quantify the amount of soil loss caused by harvesting agricultural feedstocks for bioenergy production. The analysis of feedstock logistics...

Bumguardner, Marisa

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

96

Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Thermochemical Conversion Research and Development: Gasification and Pyrolysis (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass gasification and pyrolysis research and development activities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Not Available

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Production of Bio-oil from Alfalfa Stems by Fluidized-Bed Fast Pyrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Findings included a lower-than-average yield of bio-oil and a higher-than-average yield of charcoal from alfalfa stems, compared to previous results for other biomass feedstocks. ...

Akwasi A. Boateng; Charles A. Mullen; Neil Goldberg; Kevin B. Hicks; Hans-Joachim G. Jung; JoAnn F. S. Lamb

2008-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

99

Catalytic microwave torrefaction and pyrolysis of Douglas fir pellet to improve biofuel quality .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The aims of this dissertation were to understand the effects of torrefaction as pretreatment on biomass pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis for improving biofuel quality, and… (more)

[No author

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating 2013 State of Technology R&D and Projections to 2017  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the FY13 modeled costs and experimental basis for those costs for fast pyrolyis and hydrotreating to liquid fuels. The report also documents the projected costs to 2013.

Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Zacher, Alan H.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Drennan, Corinne

2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Liquid-phase Processing of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil using Pt/HZSM-5 Catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as switchgrass, sorghum and miscanthus, agriculture crops such as corn and sugarcane, municipal solid waste, agriculture wastes and forest residues. Energy crops are more preferred since they produce high yield, low fertilizer application requirements and low...), plastic wastes (Bhattacharya et al., 2009; Karaduman et al., 2001; Rutkowski and 7 Kubacki, 2006; Scott et al., 1990), waste biomass like oil cakes (?zbay et al., 2001), energy crops (He et al., 2009), and forest residues (Ingram et al., 2007...

Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

NREL: Biomass Research - Projects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Spectrometer analyzes vapors during the gasification and pyrolysis processes. NREL's biomass projects are designed to advance the production of liquid transportation fuels from...

103

Ris har udgivet en rapport om moderne bioenergi. Den slr fast, at biomasse er en  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risø har udgivet en rapport om moderne bioenergi. Den slår fast, at biomasse er en ligeså værdifuld eventyret med moderne bioenergi i hovedrollen. På Risø skubber vi eventyret i gang ved at udvikle nye større skala, end man troede det muligt for bare få år siden. Andre perspektiver for bioenergien er

104

Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation at the May 9, 2012, Pyrolysis Oil Workship on biomass derivatives competitive with heating oil costs.

105

Investigation of the Effect of In-Situ Catalyst on the Steam Hydrogasification of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Yi, W. , Li, B. , Flash pyrolysis of agricultural residuesalthough fast or flash pyrolysis technologies can achieve a

FAN, XIN

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

1 Solvent-Extractable Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Biochar: 2 Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature and Feedstock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion (or 30 pyrolysis) of plant biomass are important natural constituents 31 of soils and sediments.1 45 different starting materials. 46 Pyrolysis of biomass is known to produce a wide variety of 47 low and high molecular weight (LMW and HMW, respectively) 48 PAHs depending on the biomass type, pyrolysis

107

Investigation on syngas production via biomass conversion through the integration of pyrolysis and air–steam gasification processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fuel production from agro-waste has become an interesting alternative for energy generation due to energy policies and greater understanding of the importance of green energy. This research was carried out in a lab-scale gasifier and coconut shell was used as feedstock in the integrated process. In order to acquire the optimum condition of syngas production, the effect of the reaction temperature, equivalence ratio (ER) and steam/biomass (S/B) ratio was investigated. Under the optimized condition, H2 and syngas yield achieved to 83.3 g/kg feedstock and 485.9 g/kg feedstock respectively, while LHV of produced gases achieved to 12.54 MJ/N m3.

Reza Alipour Moghadam; Suzana Yusup; Wan Azlina; Shahab Nehzati; Ahmad Tavasoli

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

U.S., Canada, and Finland Pyrolysis Collaborations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Jonathan Male, PNNL, presentation at the December 5, 2012, Biomass Program-hosted International webinar on U.S., Canada, and Finland pyrolysis collaborations.

109

Investigation of the Effect of In-Situ Catalyst on the Steam Hydrogasification of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and pyrolysis reactions of biomass, Energy Conversion andthe atmosphere during biomass energy consumption is fixed byThe development of biomass energy industry provides direct

FAN, XIN

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

SYNTHESIS GAS UTILIZATION AND PRODUCTION IN A BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION FACILITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass from feed hopper Feed distributor cone with ultrasonic level indication P~~~ ~at Pyrolysis

Figueroa, C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

NREL: Biomass Research - Jack Ferrell, Ph.D.  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

analytical development for pyrolysis oil, and on kinetic and hydrodynamic modeling of biomass-to-biofuels processes. Research Interests Thermochemical conversion of biomass to...

112

Chapter 15 - Catalytic Thermochemical Processes for Biomass Conversion to Biofuels and Chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biomass is the most abundant and biorenewable resource with great potential for sustainable production of chemicals and fuels. Thermochemical conversion technologies (pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal liquefaction) are a promising option for transforming biomass feedstocks into liquid oils and chemicals. In the article, for the thermal process of biomass for biofuels and chemicals, the effect of reaction conditions, reactors, solvents and catalysts on the yield and distribution of the products are reviewed. Fast pyrolysis of cellulose is primarily conducted over catalysts with proper acidity/basicity and has undergone many pilot tests. Gasification is typically conducted over supported noble metal catalysts and has been profiled as being CO2-neutral, having a high potential to provide power, chemicals and fuels. Catalytically hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass produces a very complex mixture of liquid products; therefore, novel technology for separation and extraction of downstream products from hydrothermal liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass need to be developed.

Lin Mei Wu; Chun Hui Zhou; Dong Shen Tong; Wei Hua Yu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

NREL: Biomass Research - Thermochemical Conversion Projects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fuel synthesis reactor. NREL investigates thermochemical processes for converting biomass and its residues to fuels and intermediates using gasification and pyrolysis...

114

Biomass Power Association (BPA) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Power Association (BPA) Biomass Power Association (BPA) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Biomass Power Association (BPA) Agency/Company /Organization: Biomass Power Association Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals Resource Type: Guide/manual User Interface: Website Website: www.usabiomass.org Cost: Free References: Biomass Power Association[1] The website includes information on biomass power basics, renewable electricity standards, and updates on legislation affecting biomass power plants. Overview "The Biomass Power Association is the nation's leading organization working to expand and advance the use of clean, renewable biomass

115

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pyrolysis of wood: Applications to thermochemical processing of newsprint and biomass.of pyrolysis of cellulose, is a well-established biomasspyrolysis products (such as levoglucosan). In contrast, laboratory combustion of biomass

Hosseini, Seyedehsan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Methods for Determination of Biomass Energy Pellet Quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methods for Determination of Biomass Energy Pellet Quality ... Europe set a target of reaching 20% of renewable energies by 2020, and biomass can play an important role. ... Karagöz, S.Energy production from the pyrolysis of waste biomasses Int. ...

Slavica Prvulovic; Zorica Gluvakov; Jasna Tolmac; Dragiša Tolmac; Marija Matic; Miladin Brkic

2014-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

117

Sustainable use of California biomass resources can help meet state and national bioenergy targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power plant. and pyrolysis of biomass by heating underpyrolysis oils) Producer gas Synthesis gas (syngas) Substitute natural gas (SNG) Hydrogen Biochemical Biosolids Physiochemical Densified biomass

Jenkins, Bryan M; Williams, Robert B; Gildart, Martha C; Kaffka, Stephen R.; Hartsough, Bruce; Dempster, Peter G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge biomass Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

, Orlando, Florida, USA NAWTEC18-3521 STATUS OF EXISTING BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND PYROLYSIS FACILITIES... , the companies' existing installations focus on processing biomass...

119

High-Yield Harvest of Nanofibers/Mesoporous Carbon Composite by Pyrolysis of Waste Biomass and Its Application for High Durability Electrochemical Energy Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Themochemically converting the waste biomass to functional carbon nanomaterials and bio-oil is an environmentally friendly apporach by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by open burning. ...

Wu-Jun Liu; Ke Tian; Yan-Rong He; Hong Jiang; Han-Qing Yu

2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

120

Generation of a Gaseous Fuel by Pyrolysis or Gasification of Biomass for Use as Reburn Gas in Coal-Fired Boilers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biofliels attract increasing interest in power plant technology as sources of carbon dioxide neutral fuels. Besides using solid pulverised biomass as an additional fuel in coal-fired boilers a further possibil...

C. Storm; H. Spliethoff; K. R. G. Hein

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Fluidizable Catalysts for Hydrogen Production from Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fluidizable Catalysts for Hydrogen Production from Biomass Pyrolysis/Steam Reforming K. Magrini/Objective Develop and demonstrate technology to produce hydrogen from biomass at $2.90/kg plant gate price based Bio-oil aqueous fraction CO H2 CO2 H2O Trap grease Waste plastics textiles Co-processing Pyrolysis

122

Flash Pyrolysis -A Powerful Method for Characterization of Polymers Helge Egsgaard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;Analytical flash pyrolysis Direct analysis of polymers including biopolymers & biomass Products detectedFlash Pyrolysis - A Powerful Method for Characterization of Polymers Helge Egsgaard Biosystems Department Risø National Laboratory DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark The rational behind the pyrolysis technique

123

Effect of Using Inert and Non-Inert Gases on the Thermal Degradation and Fuel Properties of Biomass in the Torrefaction and Pyrolysis Region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to N? and Ar (which are entirely inert), making it better suited for use as a fuel for co-firing with coal or gasification. Three different biomasses were investigated: Juniper wood chips, Mesquite wood chips, and forage Sorghum. Experiments were...

Eseltine, Dustin E.

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

124

Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

125

Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

126

The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

overview of fast pyrolysis of biomass, Organic Geochemistry,presented a Pyrolysis and Gasification of Biomass and waste,

Luo, Qian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from   biomass  via  fast  pyrolysis,  hydrotreating  and  2.3   gal/gal  for  pyrolysis  of  woody  biomass  (Jones,  

Fingerman, Kevin Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Synthesis of Mixed Metal Oxides for Hydrodeoxygenation of Pyrolysis Oil for Alternative Fuels Sarah McNew, Tiorra Ross and Carsten Sievers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Flash pyrolysis on biomass [1] · Short residence times and flexible feed · Bio-oils produced are close to dissociate hydrogen Goal: synthesize metal free, sulfur free, catalysts for HDO Biomass Pyrolysis OilSynthesis of Mixed Metal Oxides for Hydrodeoxygenation of Pyrolysis Oil for Alternative Fuels Sarah

Das, Suman

129

Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

J Luche; Q Falcoz; T Bastien; J P Leninger; K Arabi; O Aubry; A Khacef; J M Cormier; J Lédé

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Silane pyrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show that silane pyrolysis is initiated by decomposition on the amorphous silicon surface, with an activation energy Ea of 56 kcal/mole. The observed surface decomposition rate is only weakly dependent on silane pressure. Much faster delayed decomposition rates, approximately independent of surface area and proportional to pressure, are shown to be initiated by surface reactons. A model for surface decomposition is given. Also a model for gas reactions is suggested based on H atom or SiH3 release by surface decomposition, causing chain reactions that process the gas to higher silanes that decompose rapidly. This model can explain the previous observations that the initial disilane formation rate and the delayed decomposition rate were independent of the surface area to volume ratio A/V, which had misled previous investigators to suggest homogeneous initiation processes.

R. Robertson; D. Hils; A. Gallagher

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Online Supplementary Material Biomass availability, energy consumption and biochar production in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is the pyrolysis chamber while the inner cylinder is the combustion chamber (Figure S3). Biomass is placedOnline Supplementary Material Biomass availability, energy consumption and biochar production pieces of wood. 1.3 Pyrolysis stove The pyrolysis stove is an anila-type stove developed by U

Lehmann, Johannes

132

Thermochemical Process Development Unit: Researching Fuels from Biomass, Bioenergy Technologies (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Highlights Highlights Thermochemical conversion technologies convert biomass and its residues to fuels and chemicals using gasification and pyrolysis. Gasification entails heating biomass and results in a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, known as syngas. Pyrolysis, which is heating biomass in the absence of oxygen, produces liquid pyrolysis oil. Both syngas and pyrolysis oil can be chemically converted into clean, renewable transportation fuels and chemicals. The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a unique facility dedicated to researching thermochemical processes to produce fuels from biomass. Thermochemical processes include gasification and pyrolysis-processes used to convert

133

Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) Agency/Company /Organization: Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) Partner: International Trade Administration Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals Resource Type: Guide/manual User Interface: Website Website: www.biomassthermal.org Cost: Free The Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) website is focused on biomass for heating and other thermal energy applications, and includes links to numerous reports from various agencies around the world. Overview The Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) website is focused on biomass for

134

Metal Oxide Laser Ioniza2on Mass Spectrometry for the Direct Profiling of Pyrolysis Oil Cons2tuents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from the anoxic pyrolysis of biomass (py-oils) represent a promising, renewable of Pyrolysis Oil Cons2tuents Casey R. McAlpin and Kent J. Voorhees Colorado School: ·MOLI MS produces profiles of pyrolysis oil consGtuents without separa

135

Pyrolysis for Biochar Purposes: A Review to Establish Current Knowledge Gaps and Research Needs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Khalil(28) reported very low surface areas for charcoals (from a wide variety of biomass feedstocks) pyrolyzed at temperatures near 550 °C. ... Cetin and co-workers(33) reported a slight decrease of the total surface area by increasing pressure during the pyrolysis of several biomass feedstocks (radiata pine, eucalyptus wood, and sugar cane bagasse). ... Table 1 reports several experimental data from the literature for slow pyrolysis of different biomass feedstocks under various operating conditions. ...

Joan J. Manyà

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

136

IEA/H2/TR-02/001 Hydrogen from Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................... 14 Biomass Pyrolysis to Hydrogen and Carbon or Methanol................................. 17-Derived Pyrolysis Oils............................................ 18 Hydrogen from Biomass-Derived MethanolIEA/H2/TR-02/001 Hydrogen from Biomass State of the Art and Research Challenges Thomas A. Milne

137

Biomass and Other Unconventional Energy Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The primary technologies used to convert biomass to energy are direct combustion systems and Ithe gasification/pyrolysis method. IThe latter method creates a gaseous, li~uid or solid fuel to be used by an industry. Gasification involves the destr.... The primary technologies used to convert biomass to energy are direct combustion systems and Ithe gasification/pyrolysis method. IThe latter method creates a gaseous, li~uid or solid fuel to be used by an industry. Gasification involves the destr...

Gershman, H. G.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

FAST  

Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

002363MLTPL00 FAST - A Framework for Agile Software Testing v. 2.0  https://software.sandia.gov/trac/fast 

139

Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

140

Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Flash pyrolysis of sewage sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flash pyrolysis of sewage sludge ... Influence of the Pyrolysis Temperature on Sewage Sludge Product Distribution, Bio-Oil, and Char Properties ... Influence of the Pyrolysis Temperature on Sewage Sludge Product Distribution, Bio-Oil, and Char Properties ...

Jan Piskorz; Donald S. Scott; Ian B. Westerberg

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

143

Staged Catalytic Gasification/Steam Reforming of Pyrolysis Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While the slag can be used in the current industry infrastructure as a construction material, up-scaling of biomass utilization will lead to land depletion because the mineral and metal balances are not closed. ... Table 4 shows gasification results at similar temperatures for two different types of pyrolysis oil (pine and beech) and of another liquid biomass stream, a “light” and a “heavy” sugar waste stream. ... The sugar waste streams that were gasified are a side product from lactic acid production. ...

Guus van Rossum; Sascha R. A. Kersten; Wim P. M. van Swaaij

2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

144

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

145

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Rejai, Bahman (Lakewood, CO); Bain, Richard L. (Golden, CO); Overend, Ralph P. (Lakewood, CO)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Mineral Nutrient Recovery from Pyrolysis Co-Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pyrolysis is the thermo-chemical degradation of biomass in an oxygen-free environment to product liquid, gaseous, and solid co-products. The liquid co-product, known as bio-oil, can be used as a transportation fuel. The gaseous co-product, known...

Wise, Jatara Rob

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

147

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes such as flash pyrolysis [187], but it has not yetreaction model for flash wood pyrolysis,” Fuel 68: 1408–

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass feedstocks were utilized to identify optimized process conditions and selective HDO catalyst for high yield production of hydrocarbons from biomass. In addition to these experimental efforts, in Tasks D and E, we have developed a mathematical optimization framework to identify carbon and energy efficient biomass-to-liquid fuel process designs that integrate the use of different primary energy sources along with biomass (e.g. solar, coal or natural gas) for liquid fuel production. Using this tool, we have identified augmented biomass-to-liquid fuel configurations based on the fast-hydropyrolysis/HDO pathway, which was experimentally studied in this project. The computational approach used for screening alternative process configurations represents a unique contribution to the field of biomass processing for liquid fuel production.

Agrawal, Rakesh

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

149

Facilities: NHMFL 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Citation: Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization Fourier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with greater than 1% relative abundance in either phase are shown. Pyrolysis of solid biomass, in this case: Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization of nitrogen-containing species identified in the peanut hull pyrolysis oil by FT-ICR mass spectrometry

Weston, Ken

150

Chapter 1 - Reactor configurations and design parameters for thermochemical conversion of biomass into fuels, energy, and chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter describes reactors for thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels, energy, and chemicals. The chapter covers basic definitions and concepts involved in biofuels and thermochemical conversion of biomass, and it also includes more advanced topics such as the main reactor configurations currently in use for thermochemical technologies, important parameters for reactor design, discussion of how parameters affect reactor performance, and several examples and case studies. The focus is on fast pyrolysis and gasification systems. The topics discussed include energy and carbon efficiencies, convenience of operation and scale-up, and several other parameters related to reactor design. After reading this chapter, the reader will understand the main characteristics of reactors for thermochemical conversion of biomass, their strengths, and their weaknesses for specific applications.

Fernando L.P. Resende

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

NREL: Biomass Research - Thermochemical Conversion Capabilities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion Capabilities Conversion Capabilities NREL researchers are developing gasification and pyrolysis processes for the cost-effective thermochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. Gasification-heating biomass with about one-third of the oxygen necessary for complete combustion-produces a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, known as syngas. Pyrolysis-heating biomass in the absence of oxygen-produces a liquid bio-oil. Both syngas and bio-oil can be used directly or can be converted to clean fuels and other valuable chemicals. Areas of emphasis in NREL's thermochemical conversion R&D are: Gasification and fuel synthesis R&D Pyrolysis R&D Thermochemical process integration. Gasification and Fuel Synthesis R&D Get the Adobe Flash Player to see this video.

152

Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) Agency/Company /Organization: United States Department of Agriculture Partner: Farm Service Agency Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels Phase: Develop Finance and Implement Projects Resource Type: Guide/manual User Interface: Website Website: www.fsa.usda.gov/FSA/webapp?area=home&subject=ener&topic=bcap Cost: Free The Biomass Crop Assistance provides financial assistance to offset, for a period of time, the fuel costs for a biomass facility. Overview The Biomass Crop Assistance provides financial assistance to offset, for a period of time, the fuel costs for a biomass facility. The Biomass Crop

153

Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Distributed mobile conversion facilities using either fast pyrolysis or torrefaction processes can be used to convert forest residues to more energy dense substances (bio-oil, bio-slurry… (more)

Brown, Duncan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of miscanthus and sewage sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The energetic conversion of biomass into syngas is considered as reliable energy source. In this context, biomass (miscanthus) and sewage sludge have been investigated. A simultaneous thermal analyzer and mass spectrometer was used for the characterization of samples and identified the volatiles evolved during the heating of the sample up to 1100 °C under combustion and gasification conditions. The TG and DTA results were discussed in argon, oxygen, steam and steam blended gas atmospheres. Different stages of pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of the samples have been examined. It was shown that the combustion and gasification of char were occurred in two different temperature zones. The DTA–MS profile of the sample gives information on combustion and gasification process of the samples (ignition, peak combustion and burnout temperatures) and gases released (H2, O2, CO and CO2). The results showed that the different processes were mainly dependent on temperature. The evolution of the gas species was consistent with the weight loss of the samples during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification process. The effect of the ambiences during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of the samples were reported. The appropriate temperature range to the sludge and miscanthus gasification was evaluated. The kinetic parameters of the biomass and sewage sludge were estimated for TGA using two models based on first-order reactions with distributed activation energies. The presence of ash in the biomass char was more influential during the gasification process.

Kandasamy Jayaraman; Iskender Gökalp

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town December 16, 2011 - 12:10pm Addthis Jonathan Peters, a researcher at RTI International (an ARPA-E awardee), characterizes the water content of a bio-oil sample. | Courtesy of RTI International. Jonathan Peters, a researcher at RTI International (an ARPA-E awardee), characterizes the water content of a bio-oil sample. | Courtesy of RTI International. April Saylor April Saylor Former Digital Outreach Strategist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? This ARPA-E awardee removes the oxygen and other contaminants in the biomass to be turned into fuel with a novel "catalytic biomass pyrolysis" approach. This substance is more carbon efficient, requires less hydrogen to

156

Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town December 16, 2011 - 12:10pm Addthis Jonathan Peters, a researcher at RTI International (an ARPA-E awardee), characterizes the water content of a bio-oil sample. | Courtesy of RTI International. Jonathan Peters, a researcher at RTI International (an ARPA-E awardee), characterizes the water content of a bio-oil sample. | Courtesy of RTI International. April Saylor April Saylor Former Digital Outreach Strategist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? This ARPA-E awardee removes the oxygen and other contaminants in the biomass to be turned into fuel with a novel "catalytic biomass pyrolysis" approach. This substance is more carbon efficient, requires less hydrogen to

157

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - Alternative Fuels Characterization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

as well as combustion and emissions impacts. Biomass Pyrolysis-Derived Diesel Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a high-oxygen-content liquid that can be upgraded to...

158

Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

soot ? aromatics PYROLYSIS biomass lignin ? ? ? ? ? guaiacylVigouroux, R.Z. Pyrolysis of Biomass; Ph.D. Thesis, RoyalPeacoke, G.V.C. Fast pyrolysis for biomass. Renew. Sust.

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R. Co-pyrolysis and cogasification of coal and biomass inand liquefaction of biomass through fast pyrolysis can alsofast pyrolysis (400-600 ºC) to produce bio-oil from biomass

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste comprising polyethyleneterephthalate and polyethylene to sequentially recover  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier DOE Hydrogen Program Contractors biomass #12;Approach Outline Gasifier Pilot Plant· Develop subsystems for the hydrogen production system and pyrolysis occur simultaneously in a single reactor · Exothermic combustion provides heat · Endothermic

163

Gasification of woody biomass Tessa Jansen (s0140600)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Gasification of woody biomass Tessa Jansen (s0140600) University of Twente Internship at SINTEF costs. So I would be working on biomass gasification and perform thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA process and char reactivity has been investigated by performing multiple gasification, pyrolysis

Luding, Stefan

164

Hydrogen from Biomass for Urban Transportation Y. D. Yeboah (PI), K. B. Bota and Z. Wang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conversion and 2) pyrolysis of biomass to form a bio-oil that can be subsequently converted to hydrogen viaHydrogen from Biomass for Urban Transportation Y. D. Yeboah (PI), K. B. Bota and Z. Wang Clark amounts of fossil-derived CO2 are released to the atmosphere. Renewable biomass is an attractive

165

Recovery of valuable chemical feedstocks from waste automotive plastics via pyrolysis processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Each year in North America over 9 million scrap vehicles are shredded to recover approximately 10 million tons of ferrous metal. The process also produces 3 million tons of waste known as automobile shredder residue (ASR) which consists of plastics, rubber, foams, textiles, glass, dirt, rust, etc. This waste is currently landfilled. In this study the authors present the results obtained in three different pyrolysis processes when ASR was used as the pyrolysis feedstock. The pyrolysis processes examined included: (1) a fast pyrolysis process, featuring rapid heat transfer and short residence times. This process produced primarily a gas stream that was rich in C{sub 1} to C{sub 3} hydrocarbons; (2) a screw kiln unit, characterized by slow heating and long residence times. This process produced a liquid stream that was high in aromatics; (3) a bench-scale autoclave reactor which, in the presence of water, produced a pyrolysis liquid containing large quantities of oxygenated hydrocarbons.

Shen, Z.; Day, M.; Cooney, D. [National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. for Environmental Research and Technology

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Kinetic Model Development for Lignin Pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin pyrolysis poses a significant barrier to the formation of liquid fuel products from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at higher temperatures than other biomass components (e.g. cellulose and hemi-cellulose) and tends to form radicals species that lead to cross-linking and ultimately char formation. A first step in the advancement of biomass-to-fuel technology is to discover the underlying mechanisms that lead to the breakdown of lignin at lower temperatures into more stable and usable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin (B-O4, a-O4, B-B, B-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to bond homolysis reactions, a variety of concerted elimination pathways are under investigation that tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

Clark, J.; Robichaud, D.; Nimlos, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Experimental and theoretical investigation of heat and mass transfer processes during wood pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal decomposition of 25.4 mm diameter dry wood spheres is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Wood spheres were pyrolyzed in a vertical tube furnace at temperatures ranging from 638 K to 879 K. Mass loss and temperatures of the sample were measured during pyrolysis. Center temperature measurements showed two distinct thermal events consisting of sequential endothermic and exothermic reactions. A numerical investigation of these endo/exothermic reactions using various pyrolysis kinetics models was conducted to determine the pyrolysis mechanism and the heats of the pyrolysis reactions. A comparison of the experimental and numerical results showed that (i) Contrary to the suggestions in the literature, the contributions of the secondary tar decomposition and lignin decomposition to the center temperature exothermic peak are small. (ii) Exothermic decomposition of the intermediate solid is responsible for the center temperature peak. (iii) The center temperature plateau is caused by the endothermic decomposition of cellulose. (iv) Internal pressure generation was found to be quite important because it controls the pyrolyzate mass transfer and thus affects both the heat transfer and the residence time of the pyrolysis gases for secondary decomposition. Based on the experimental and numerical results, a new wood pyrolysis model is proposed. The model consists of three endothermic parallel reactions producing tar, gas and intermediate solid and subsequent exothermic decomposition of the intermediate solid to char and exothermic decomposition of tar to char and gas. The proposed pyrolysis model shows good agreement with the experiments. Pressure calculations based on the new pyrolysis model revealed that high pressure is generated inside the biomass particle during pyrolysis and sample splitting was observed during the experiments. The splitting is due to both weakening of the structure and internal pressure generation during pyrolysis. At low heating rates, structural weakness is the primary factor, whereas at high heating rates, internal pressure is the determining factor. It is expected that moisture, while not considered in this work will have a similar effect, but at lower temperatures. (author)

Park, Won Chan; Atreya, Arvind [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2158 GGBL 2350 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Baum, Howard R. [Department of Fire Protection Engineering, University of Maryland, 3106-D J.M. Patterson Building, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Production, Upgrading and Analysis of Bio-oils Derived from Lignocellulosic Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

is a promising renewable resource for biofuels and numerous value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis is a widely adopted process for the thermal breakdown of biomass feedstocks in the absence of oxygen which leads ...

Pankaj K. Kanaujia

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Pyrolysis of polystyrene - polyphenylene oxide to recover styrene and useful products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide plastic waste to a given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature range to cause pyrolysis of given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide and its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and a support and treating the feed stream with the catalyst to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of high value monomeric constituent of styrene from polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide in the first temperature range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of the high value monomeric constituent of styrene from polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomer constituent of styrene; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis to a different derived high value product of polyphenylene oxide from the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of the plastic into a polyphenylene oxide derived product; and separating the different derived high value polyphenylene oxide product.

Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of polycarbonate and plastic waste to recover monomers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described using fast pyrolysis to convert a plastic waste feed stream containing polycarbonate and ABS to high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituents prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting an acid or base catalysts and an oxide or carbonate support for treating the feed stream to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of the high value monomeric constituents of polycarbonate and ABS in the first temperature program range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis or other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents from the polycarbonate to cause pyrolysis to a different high value monomeric constituent of the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of different high value monomeric constituents; and separating the different high value monomeric constituents. 68 figs.

Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

171

Controlled catalystic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of polycarbonate and plastic waste to recover monomers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of using fast pyrolysis to convert a plastic waste feed stream containing polycarbonate and ABS to high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituents prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting an acid or base catalysts and an oxide or carbonate support for treating the feed stream to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of the high value monomeric constituents of polycarbonate and ABS in the first temperature program range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis or other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents from the polycarbonate to cause pyrolysis to a different high value monomeric constituent of the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of different high value monomeric constituents; and separating the different high value monomeric constituents.

Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Agency/Company /Organization: CONEG Policy Research Center Inc. Partner: Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Rick Handley and Associates, Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, Economic Development Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals Resource Type: Guide/manual User Interface: Other Website: www.mass.gov/Eoeea/docs/doer/renewables/biomass/DOER%20Biomass%20Emiss Country: United States

173

Pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste comprising polyethylene-terephthalate and polyethylene to sequentially recover [monomers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feed stream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 83 figs.

Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

174

Biomass Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In its simplest terms, biomass is all the plant matter found on our planet. Biomass is produced directly by photosynthesis, the fundamental engine of life on earth. Plant photosynthesis uses energy from the su...

Stephen R. Decker; John Sheehan…

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Biomass Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accounting for all of the factors that go into energy demand (population, vehicle miles traveled per ... capita, vehicle efficiency) and land required for energy production (biomass land yields, biomass conversion

Stephen R. Decker; John Sheehan…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Biomass pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

177

Review of Mid- to High-Temperature Sulfur Sorbents for Desulfurization of Biomass- and Coal-derived Syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass feedstocks contain low percentages of protein-derived sulfur that is converted primarily to H2S, as well as small amounts of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and organosulfur compounds during pyrolysis and gasification. ...

Singfoong Cheah; Daniel L. Carpenter; Kimberly A. Magrini-Bair

2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

178

NREL: Biomass Research - Josh Schaidle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Josh Schaidle Josh Schaidle Photo of Josh Schaidle Josh Schaidle works in the Thermochemical Catalysis Research and Development group, headed by Jesse Hensley. He manages a $500,000 per year task focused on developing catalysts, processes, and reactor systems for the catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis products to produce fungible transportation fuels. Research Interests Biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals Environmentally-sustainable engineering practices Photochemical and electrochemical routes for fuel production Rational design of catalysts through the combination of experiment and theory Early transition metal carbide and nitride catalysts Process design and optimization Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) Catalysts for automotive exhaust treatment Education Ph.D., Chemical Engineering; Concentration in Environmental

179

Chemistry of Furan Conversion into Aromatics and Olefins over HZSM-5: A Model Biomass Conversion Reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(5, 6) The ideal process to produce biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass would be a single step reactor at short residence times where solid biomass is directly converted into a liquid fuel. ... with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). ... conversion processes that include combustion, gasification, liquefaction, hydrogenation and pyrolysis, have been used to convert the biomass into various energy products. ...

Yu-Ting Cheng; George W. Huber

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

180

Potential and properties of marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata as biomass fuel feedstock  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Microalgal biomass is the most promising and attractive alternative to replace the terrestrial crop utilization for renewable biomass fuel feedstock. The potential for biomass fuel is due to its fast growth ra...

Sukarni; Sudjito; Nurkholis Hamidi…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP Biomass Outlook 2014: Is Biomass About To Go Bang?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP 1 Biomass Outlook 2014: Is Biomass About To Go Bang? Biomass offers a multitude can bio go? David Appleyard, Contributing Editor February 06, 2014 LONDON -- Traditional biomass renewables collectively. Nonetheless, modern renewables, and modern biomass with it, is catching up fast

182

CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solvent Systems Catalystic Biomass Liquefaction Investigatereactor Product collection Biomass liquefaction process12-13, 1980 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,

Ergun, Sabri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Chemical Characterization and Water Content Determination of Bio-Oils Obtained from Various Biomass Species using 31P NMR Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pyrolysis is a promising approach to utilize biomass for biofuels. One of the key challenges for this conversion is how to analyze complicated components in the pyrolysis oils. Water contents of pyrolysis oils are normally analyzed by Karl Fischer titration. The use of 2-chloro-4,4,5,5,-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by {sup 31}P NMR analysis has been used to quantitatively analyze the structure of hydroxyl groups in lignin and whole biomass. Results: {sup 31}P NMR analysis of pyrolysis oils is a novel technique to simultaneously characterize components and analyze water contents in pyrolysis oils produced from various biomasses. The water contents of various pyrolysis oils range from 16 to 40 wt%. The pyrolysis oils obtained from Loblolly pine had higher guaiacyl content, while that from oak had a higher syringyl content. Conclusion: The comparison with Karl Fischer titration shows that {sup 31}P NMR could also reliably be used to measure the water content of pyrolysis oils. Simultaneously with analysis of water content, quantitative characterization of hydroxyl groups, including aliphatic, C-5 substituted/syringyl, guaiacyl, p-hydroxyl phenyl and carboxylic hydroxyl groups, could also be provided by {sup 31}P NMR analysis.

David, K.; Ben, H.; Muzzy, J.; Feik, C.; Iisa, K.; Ragauskas, A.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

An efficient didehydroxylation method for the biomass-derived polyols glycerol and erythritol. Mechanistic studies of a formic acid-mediated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-oils from biomass pyrolysis4 and because of its promising role in hydrogen storage through the fixationAn efficient didehydroxylation method for the biomass-derived polyols glycerol and erythritol,2-deoxygenation method, involving an unexpected mechanism, was found for simple diols and for biomass

185

AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Plenary IV: Advances in Bioenergy Feedstocks—From Field to Fuel AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation Glenn Farris, Marketing Manager Biomass, AGCO Corporation

186

Comparison of Biological and Thermal (Pyrolysis) Pathways for Conversion of Lignocellulose to Biofuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D study. This journey was great because of her and Tinku being around! Thanks to my advisor Dr. Capareda for the diverse bio-energy research opportunity at BETA lab, Dr. El-Halwagi for the unconditional care in every step since I joined TX A... to produce bio-energy from biomass ....................... 3 1.2.2 Pretreatment and hydrolysis in lignocellulose breakdown ....................... 5 1.2.3 Pyrolysis oil upgrade technology...

Imam, Tahmina 1983-

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

187

Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents, selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 87 figures.

Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

190

Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents, selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 83 figs.

Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

192

Biomass Basics  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Biomass is an energy resource derived from organic matter, which includes wood, agricultural waste, and other living-cell material that can be burned to produce heat energy. It also includes algae,...

193

Study of Surface Cleaning Methods and Pyrolysis Temperature on...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface Cleaning Methods and Pyrolysis Temperature on Nano-Structured Carbon Films using X-ray Photoelectron Study of Surface Cleaning Methods and Pyrolysis Temperature on...

194

D o s s i e r Second and Third Generation Biofuels: Towards Sustainability and Competitiveness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Historical Review of Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass D. Radlein1 * and A. Quignard2 1 632 Grange Cres., Waterloo valeur ajoute´ e. Abstract -- A Short Historical Review of Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass -- In this short. In this short review, we shall attempt to summarise the modern history of the fast pyrolysis of biomass over

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

NETL: C&CBTL - Investigation of Coal-Biomass Catalytic Gasification Using  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification Investigation of Coal-Biomass Catalytic Gasification Using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Project Number: FE0005476 Project Description The objectives of the proposed study are to obtain experimental reactor data and develop kinetic rate expressions for pyrolysis and char gasification for the coal-biomass blends under conditions free from transport limitations, to develop a detailed understanding of the effect of pyrolysis conditions on the porous char structure, to build mathematical models that combine true kinetic rate expressions with transport models for predicting gasification behavior for a broad range of pressures and temperatures, and to investigate the physical and chemical parameters that might lead to synergistic effects in coal-biomass blends gasification.

196

Biomass Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:22pm Addthis Biomass resources include any plant-derived organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. These materials are commonly referred to as feedstocks. Biomass Feedstocks Biomass feedstocks include dedicated energy crops, agricultural crops, forestry residues, aquatic crops, biomass processing residues, municipal waste, and animal waste. Dedicated energy crops Herbaceous energy crops are perennials that are harvested annually after taking 2 to 3 years to reach full productivity. These include such grasses as switchgrass, miscanthus (also known as elephant grass or e-grass), bamboo, sweet sorghum, tall fescue, kochia, wheatgrass, and others. Short-rotation woody crops are fast-growing hardwood trees that are

197

Biomass Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:22pm Addthis Biomass resources include any plant-derived organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. These materials are commonly referred to as feedstocks. Biomass Feedstocks Biomass feedstocks include dedicated energy crops, agricultural crops, forestry residues, aquatic crops, biomass processing residues, municipal waste, and animal waste. Dedicated energy crops Herbaceous energy crops are perennials that are harvested annually after taking 2 to 3 years to reach full productivity. These include such grasses as switchgrass, miscanthus (also known as elephant grass or e-grass), bamboo, sweet sorghum, tall fescue, kochia, wheatgrass, and others. Short-rotation woody crops are fast-growing hardwood trees that are

198

Efficiency and Emissions Study of a Residential Micro-cogeneration System based on a Modified Stirling Engine and Fuelled by a Wood Derived Fas Pyrolysis Liquid-ethanol Blend.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A residential micro-cogeneration system based on a Stirling engine unit was modified to operate with wood derived fast pyrolysis liquid (bio-oil)-ethanol blend. A pilot stabilized… (more)

Khan, Umer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Cellulose Pyrolysis A Literature, Review.  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Reaction Mechanisms in Reaction Mechanisms in Cellulose Pyrolysis A Literature, Review. - - pacific N o r t h ~ ~ ~ , baboratwies I - - bCL-T-,,;, .,- , . . . I ' I . - " 1- jl,! # . .' , . - --h 1 , i b - . "I 1.- . . ., .. ' N O T - I C E , , If PACIF tC NORTHWLST U B O R A T ~ R Y .4peiild by B h m E far c h t ,EP4ERGY RESEARCH AN0 PEVELOPMEM ADMtNlSTRAnQN U m h Contract Z Y - ~ ~ - C ~ & I # D w n : m a , m & l 3 Q j l m OIdrfrn m y - !*? 1SI71Y9 1 - m-u3 2s-m .**-2?3 ,Sbca lcPa w m *a0 Iffy &a It- w-% w w @.a SlO.0 m u 6 REACTION MECHANISMS IN CELLULOSE PYROLYSIS A LITERATURE REVIEW by Peter M. Molton T.F. Demmitt Chemical Technology Department BATTELLE Pacific Northwest Laboratories Richland, Washington 99352 CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L I S T OF F I G U R E S iii L I S T O F T A B L E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i v . . . . . . . . . . . . . I . INTRODUCTION 1

200

Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for transportation fuel Concept developed at RISÃ? and DTU Anne Belinda Thomsen (RISÃ?) Birgitte K. Ahring (DTU) #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass: Biogas #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Pre-treatment Step Biomass is macerated The biomass is cut in small

202

Biomass shock pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Science Activities in Biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Activities in Biomass Curriculum: Biomass Power (organic chemistry, genetics, distillation, agriculture, chemicalcarbon cycles, climatology, plants and energy resources...

204

Application of bio-oils from lignocellulosic biomass to transportation, heat and power generation—A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This review will be concentrated on the application of bio-oil produced from the cellulosic biomass among the various liquid biofuels to transport fuels, heat and power generation as substitute. Main application of bio-oil and biocrude from two main thermochemical processes, i.e., pyrolysis and liquefaction include boiler for heat and electricity production, diesel engine or gas turbine for power generation, and diesel engine for transportation fuel. Fast pyrolysis is the most popular process for converting cellulosic biomass to high yield of bio-oil with relatively low cost. For the application of bio-oils to transportation, heat and power generation, physical upgrading methods such as emulsions (bio-oil/diesel or bio-oil/biodiesel ) and blends of bio-oil/oxygenated fuel (ethanol, diglyme) were mainly used and tested. The studies on the spray characteristics of emulsions and blends in diesel engine condition are not available in the literature. In most studies on the combustion and emission characteristics of emulsions and blends, CO emission was increased in most fuels and engines tested and HC was increased or comparable to diesel operation. However, \\{NOx\\} and soot emissions were decreased in most case of experiments. In the pressure-swirl nozzle for gas turbine application, preheating and blending techniques were employed to reduce the SMD of spray. In case of blend for the application of heat and power generation, E20 blend was mainly selected in most studies. Most studies related to bio-oil combustion in burners, diesel engines and gas turbines demonstrated the higher HC, CO and soot emissions than the original design fuel. Although the properties of bio-oil/methanol blend were widely investigated, there are no studies available about the application of bio-oil/methanol blend to transportation, heat and power generation in the literature. In addition, more research is required for the combustion of upgraded bio-oils for transportation application.

Soo-Young No

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

©2013 Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation * University of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

wood or other biomass sources and feed them directly into their process, Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis (CFP). Within the reactor, particles of biomass are rapidly heated within...

206

Environmental impacts of thermochemical biomass conversion. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermochemical conversion in this study is limited to fast pyrolysis, upgrading of fast pyrolysis oils, and gasification. Environmental impacts of all types were considered within the project, but primary emphasis was on discharges to the land, air, and water during and after the conversion processes. The project discussed here is divided into five task areas: (1) pyrolysis oil analysis; (2) hydrotreating of pyrolysis oil; (3) gas treatment systems for effluent minimization; (4) strategic analysis of regulatory requirements; and (5) support of the IEA Environmental Systems Activity. The pyrolysis oil task was aimed at understanding the oil contaminants and potential means for their removal. The hydrotreating task was undertaken to better define one potential means for both improving the quality of the oil but also removing contaminants from the oil. Within Task 3, analyses were done to evaluate the results of gasification product treatment systems. Task 4 was a review and collection of regulatory requirements which would be applicable to the subject processes. The IEA support task included input to and participation in the IEA Bioenergy activity which directly relates to the project subject. Each of these tasks is described along with the results. Conclusions and recommendations from the overall project are given.

Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; McKinney, M.D.; Norton, M.V.; Abrams, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Volatile constituents in a wood pyrolysis oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Science VOLATILE CONSTITUTENTS IN A WOOD PYROLYSIS OIL A Thesis SHIH-CHIEN LIN Appro d as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) Head of epa tmen (Member Member Nay 1978 442936 ABSTRACT Volatile Constituents in a Wood Pyrolysis Oil.../120 Supelcoport. Other trace constituents of volatile acid were also 'dentifi="' by trap- ping the substances from the C. C. column into i: n;- 0-sh ped capillary tube and subjecting to mass spectrometry. The corrosivity of pyrolysis oil and it, volati'e acids...

Lin, Shih-Chien

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Selection and performance of Materials for Biomass Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Production of syngas through gasification or pyrolysis offers one of the more efficient routes for utilization of biomass resources; however, the containment structures used for many of these thermochemical processes are exposed to severe environments that limit their longevity and reliability. Studies have been conducted for three of these systems, and superior alternative materials have been identified. Improved materials will be of even greater importance in proposed gasification systems, many of which will generate even more extreme operating conditions.

Keiser, James R [ORNL] [ORNL; Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Blau, Peter J [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Pint, Bruce A [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Ammonia evolution during oil shale pyrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ammonia evolution during oil shale pyrolysis ... Parallel pyrolytic studies were carried out on an immature, ultralaminae-rich, type I kerogen (Göynük oil shale kerogen) and a related algaenan (isolated from the extant green microalga Scenedesmus communis). ...

Myongsook S. Oh; Robert W. Taylor; Thomas T. Coburn; Richard W. Crawford

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. • Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. • Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. • Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. • Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H{sub 2}, C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2}S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of polymer waste comprising nylon 6 and a polyolefin or mixtures of polyolefins to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 83 figs.

Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

213

Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of polymer waste comprising nylon 6 and a polyolefin or mixtures of polyolefins to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

NREL: Biomass Research - Biomass Characterization Projects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass Characterization Projects Biomass Characterization Projects A photo of a magnified image on a computer screen. Many blue specks and lines in different sizes and shapes are visible on top of a white background. A microscopic image of biomass particles. Through biomass characterization projects, NREL researchers are exploring the chemical composition of biomass samples before and after pretreatment and during processing. The characterization of biomass feedstocks, intermediates, and products is a critical step in optimizing biomass conversion processes. Among NREL's biomass characterization projects are: Feedstock/Process Interface NREL is working to understand the effects of feedstock and feedstock pre-processing on the conversion process and vice versa. The objective of the task is to understand the characteristics of biomass feedstocks

215

Fast pyrolysis of a waste fraction of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) containing brominated flame retardants in a fluidized bed reactor: The effects of various Ca-based additives (CaO, Ca(OH)2 and oyster shells) on the removal of bromine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A waste fraction of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) containing brominated flame retardants and antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) as a synergist was pyrolyzed in a bench-scale system equipped with a fluidized bed and char separation system. Experiments were carried out to observe the effects of the reaction temperature and three additives (CaO, Ca(OH)2, oyster shells) on the removal of bromine. An analysis of the pyrolysis oils obtained showed the oils were mainly composed of toluene, ethyl-benzene, styrene, cumene, ?-methylstyrene, 1,3-diphenylpropane, 1,3-diphenylbutane and (1-bromoethyl)-benzene. When the Ca-based additives were used, the concentration of styrene was markedly increased; whereas, those of ethlybenzene and cumene were reduced. The total bromine content of pyrolysis oil produced without any additive at 459 °C was about 5 wt.%. When Ca(OH)2 and oyster shells were applied, the total bromine contents of the pyrolysis oils were decreased to 1.3 and 2.7 wt.%, respectively. The antimony content in the pyrolysis oil was relatively small due to the efficient operation of the char separation system.

Su-Hwa Jung; Seon-Jin Kim; Joo-Sik Kim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Pyrolysis Research: Bioenergy Testing and Analysis Laboratory BIOENERGY PROGRAM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pyrolysis Research: Bioenergy Testing and Analysis Laboratory BIOENERGY PROGRAM Pyrolysis research is conducted at Texas A&M University at the Bioenergy Testing and Analysis Laboratory. Our researchers create

217

Chemicals from Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Added Chemicals from Biomass. Volume I: Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas (www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/pdfs/35523.pdf) . 6. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical...

David R. Dodds; Richard A. Gross

2007-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

218

CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBL-11 019 UC-61 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,Catalytic Liquefaction of Biomass,n M, Seth, R. Djafar, G.of California. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION QUARTERLY

Ergun, Sabri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liquid Fuels from Biomass: "Catalyst Screening and KineticUC-61 (l, RCO osn CDL or BIOMASS CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION ManuCATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS Manu Seth, Roger Djafar,

Seth, Manu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility Facility Tracy Biomass Sector Biomass Location San Joaquin County, California Coordinates 37.9175935°, -121.1710389° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.9175935,"lon":-121.1710389,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

NREL: Biomass Research - Biomass Characterization Capabilities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass Characterization Capabilities Biomass Characterization Capabilities A photo of a man wearing a white lab coat and looking into a large microscope. A researcher uses an Atomic Force Microscope to image enzymes used in biochemical conversion. Through biomass characterization, NREL develops, refines, and validates rapid and cost-effective methods to determine the chemical composition of biomass samples before and after pretreatment, as well as during bioconversion processing. Detailed and accurate characterization of biomass feedstocks, intermediates, and products is a necessity for any biomass-to-biofuels conversion. Understanding how the individual biomass components and reaction products interact at each stage in the process is important for researchers. With a large inventory of standard biomass samples as reference materials,

222

Biomass Analytical Library  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

diversity and performance, The chemical and physical properties of biomass and biomass feedstocks are characterized as they move through the supply chain to various conversion...

223

Sandia National Laboratories: Biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass Assessing the Economic Potential of Advanced Biofuels On September 10, 2013, in Biofuels, Biomass, Energy, Facilities, JBEI, News, News & Events, Partnership, Renewable...

224

Sandia National Laboratories: Biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EnergyBiomass Biomass Sandia spearheads research into energy alternatives that will help the nation reduce its dependence on fossil fuels and to combat the effects of climate...

225

Sandia National Laboratories: Biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass "Bionic" Liquids from Lignin: Joint BioEnergy Institute Results Pave the Way for Closed-Loop Biofuel Refineries On December 11, 2014, in Biofuels, Biomass, Capabilities,...

226

Mixed-integer programming methods for supply chain optimization Christos Maravelias, University of Wisconsin -Madison  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Zeolite upgrading Phenols &BTX Phenols &BTX AromaticsAromatics Fast pyrolysis Fast pyrolysis ­ industrial gases ­ chemicals SC under power constraints Biomass to fuels and chemicals #12;Mixed

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

227

Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a polyamide containing a plastic waste feed stream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polyamide and its high value monomeric constituent or derived high value products occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components is described therein comprising: (a) selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polyamide and its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; (b) selecting a catalyst and a support and treating said feed stream with said catalyst to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent or high value product of said polyamide in said first temperature program range; (c) differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of said high value monomeric constituent or high value product of said polyamide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein; (d) separating said high value monomer constituent or derived high value product of said polyamide; (e) selecting a second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis to a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating said feed stream of said higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said plastic into a different high value monomeric constituent or derived product; and (f) separating said different high value monomeric constituent or derived high value product.

Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

The direct observation of alkali vapor species in biomass combustion and gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes new data from screening various feedstocks for alkali vapor release under combustion conditions. The successful development of a laboratory flow reactor and molecular beam, mass spectrometer interface is detailed. Its application to several herbaceous and woody feedstocks, as well as a fast-pyrolysis oil, under 800 and 1,100{degrees}C batch combustion, is documented. Chlorine seems to play a large role in the facile mobilization of potassium. Included in the report is a discussion of relevant literature on the alkali problem in combustors and turbines. Highlighted are the phenomena identified in studies on coal and methods that have been applied to alkali speciation. The nature of binding of alkali in coal versus biomass is discussed, together with the implications for the ease of release. Herbaceous species and many agricultural residues appear to pose significant problems in release of alkali species to the vapor at typical combustor temperatures. These problems could be especially acute in direct combustion fired turbines, but may be ameliorated in integrated gasification combined cycles.

French, R.J.; Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Biomass treatment method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

Friend, Julie (Claymont, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III; Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Lyons, Robert C. (Arvada, CO)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

230

A study on the dynamic combustion behavior of a biomass fuel bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The main objective of this research was to study fuel bed combustion dynamics of a BioGrate boiler with a mechanistic model. First, the fuel specific pyrolysis reaction rates were experimentally determined for the model. Second, the model was validated and finally, it was used to investigate the effects of the primary air flows on drying, pyrolysis and char consumption rates occurring inside the fuel bed. The research results are presented and the role of the dynamic behavior of the reactions on the biomass combustion process discussed.

Alexandre Boriouchkine; Vida Sharifi; Jim Swithenbank; Sirkka-Liisa Jämsä-Jounela

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Pyrolysis of Organic Molecules Relevant to Combustion as Monitored by Photoionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Small Molecules by Flash Pyrolysis, University ofapproach of coupling flash pyrolysis of the compound ofZhang, Chairperson Flash pyrolysis coupled to molecular beam

Weber, Kevin Howard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Thermal Decomposition of Molecules Relevant to Combustion and Chemical Vapor Deposition by Flash Pyrolysis Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Small Molecules by Flash Pyrolysis, University ofwas performed using flash pyrolysis vacuum-ultraviolet time-Vapor Deposition by Flash Pyrolysis Time-of-Flight Mass

Lemieux, Jessy Mario

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Mapping Biomass Distribution Potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mapping Biomass Distribution Potential Michael Schaetzel Undergraduate ? Environmental Studies ? University of Kansas L O C A T S I O N BIOMASS ENERGY POTENTIAL o According to DOE, Biomass has the potential to provide 14% of... the nation’s power o Currently 1% of national power supply o Carbon neutral? combustion of biomass is part of the natural carbon cycle o Improved crop residue management has potential to benefit environment, producers, and economy Biomass Btu...

Schaetzel, Michael

2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

234

Nitrogen chemistry during oil shale pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real time evolution of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), two major nitrogen-containing volatiles evolved during oil shale pyrolysis, was measured by means of a mass spectrometer using chemical ionization and by infrared spectroscopy. While the on-line monitoring of NH{sub 3} in oil shale pyrolysis games was possible by both techniques, HCN measurements were only possible by IR. We studied one Green River Formation oil shale and one New Albany oil shale. The ammonia from the Green River oil shale showed one broad NH{sub 3} peak maximizing at a high temperature. For both oil shales, most NH{sub 3} evolves at temperatures above oil-evolving temperature. The important factors governing ammonia salts such as Buddingtonite in Green River oil shales, the distribution of nitrogen functional groups in kerogen, and the retorting conditions. The gas phase reactions, such as NH{sub 3} decomposition and HCN conversion reactions, also play an important role in the distribution of nitrogen volatiles, especially at high temperatures. Although pyrolysis studies of model compounds suggests the primary nitrogen product from kerogen pyrolysis to be HCN at high temperatures, we found only a trace amount of HCN at oil-evolving temperatures and none at high temperatures (T {gt} 600{degree}C). 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Oh, Myongsook S.; Crawford, R.W.; Foster, K.G.; Alcaraz, A.

1990-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

235

Alternative Resources The Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources (ICFAR)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fast pyrolysis of biomass · Developing fast pyrolysis of palm oil residues · Developing a new reactor-generation biofuels and chemicals using forestry residues, non-food crops and other sources of biomass, like municipal Briens to develop a mobile pyrolysis unit being tested at the institute · The Agri-Therm unit transforms

Denham, Graham

236

Russell Biomass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Massachusetts Sector: Biomass Product: Russell Biomass, LLC is developing a 50MW biomass to energy project at the former Westfield Paper Company site in Russell, Massachusetts....

237

NREL: Biomass Research Home Page  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass Research Photo of a technician completing a laboratory procedure Biomass Compositional Analysis Find laboratory analytical procedures for standard biomass analysis. Photo...

238

Sandia National Laboratories: Lignocellulosic Biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ProgramLignocellulosic Biomass Lignocellulosic Biomass It is estimated that there is over 1 billion tons of non-food lignocellulosic biomass currently available on a sustainable...

239

BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Report, (unpublished, 1979). Biomass Project Progress 31.Operations, vol. 2 of Biomass Energy (Stanford: StanfordPhotosynthethic Pathway Biomass Energy Production," ~c:_! _

Ritschard, Ronald L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Operations, vol. 2 of Biomass Energy (Stanford: StanfordPhotosynthethic Pathway Biomass Energy Production," ~c:_! _LBL-11902 UC-61a BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

Ritschard, Ronald L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and torrefaction at 270 ºC followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700 ºC) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270 °C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700 °C as compared to 500 °C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.

Yang, Z; Sarkar, M; Kumar, A; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; R.L. Huhnke

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Accepted Manuscript Kinetic modelling of high density polyethylene pyrolysis: Part 2. Reduction of existing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accepted Manuscript Kinetic modelling of high density polyethylene pyrolysis: Part 2. Reduction density polyethylene pyrolysis: Part 2. Reduction of existing detailed mechanism, Polymer Degradation Modelling of High Density PolyEthylene Pyrolysis: Part 2. Reduction of existing detailed mechanism. N

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

243

Dynamic study of coupled heavy hydrocarbon pyrolysis and combustion. N. Gascoina*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1/28 Dynamic study of coupled heavy hydrocarbon pyrolysis and combustion. N. Gascoina* , P of the heat transfer dynamics. Finally, the combustion mechanism is applied and validated experimentally for kerosene pyrolysis application. Keywords Regenerative cooling; Hydrocarbon pyrolysis; Supersonic Combustion

Boyer, Edmond

244

Energie aus Biomasse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomasse ist Sonnenenergie, die mithilfe von Pflanzen über den Prozess der Photosynthese in organische Materie umgewandelt wird und in dieser Form zur Deckung der Energienachfrage genutzt werden kann. Biomasse...

Martin Kaltschmitt; Wolfgang Streicher

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Biomass One Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Facility Biomass Facility Facility Biomass One Sector Biomass Owner Biomass One LP Location White City, Oregon Coordinates 42.4333333°, -122.8338889° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.4333333,"lon":-122.8338889,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

246

Pretreated densified biomass products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

247

Biobased Chemicals Without Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Unlike most other companies using biology to make chemicals, LanzaTech does not rely on biomass feedstocks. ...

MELODY BOMGARDNER

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

248

Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in North ­ This study is part of a larger project aimed at quantifying the biomass and biomass increment been developed to estimate the biomass and biomass increment of coarse, small and fine roots of trees

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jones and w.s. Fong, Biomass Conversion of Biomass to Fuels11902 UC-61a BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII RonaldLBL-11902 Biomass Energy Conversion in Hawaii Ronald 1.

Ritschard, Ronald L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Star Biomass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

India Sector: Biomass Product: Plans to set up biomass projects in Rajasthan. References: Star Biomass1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Star Biomass...

251

AVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding Guide 2010 The Forestry Commission and the Humber Rural Partnership (co-ordinated by East Riding of Yorkshire Council) have jointly produced a biomass funding guide fuel prices continue to rise, and the emerging biomass sector is well-placed to make a significant

252

Flash Carbonization of Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass feedstocks included woods (Leucaena and oak) and agricultural byproducts (macadamia nut shells and corncob). ... Biomass feedstocks employed in this study are listed in Table 1. ... 4 We presume that these differences represent the inherent variability of biomass feedstocks from one year, location, etc. to the next. ...

Michael Jerry Antal, Jr.; Kazuhiro Mochidzuki; Lloyd S. Paredes

2003-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

253

U.S., Canada, and Finland Pyrolysis Collaborations  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

feeds to compare bio-oil product quality - Evaluate pyrolysis oil vapor quality by small scale analysis - Understand upgrading requirements for bio-oil from low quality...

254

Utilization of pyrolysis oil in industrial scale boilers.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The performance of pyrolysis oil in a large-scale combustion system is investigated to determine the feasibility of displacing fuel oil or natural gas in current… (more)

Redfern, Kyle D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Coke resistant coating technology for applications in ethylene pyrolysis heaters.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This dissertation begins with a description of the history of the events leading to ethylene pyrolysis tube failure. During service, hydrocarbons pass through the… (more)

Chauhan, Alok Pratap Singh

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Process for minimizing solids contamination of liquids from coal pyrolysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a continuous process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from a solid carbonaceous material by pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material in the presence of a particulate source of heat, particulate contamination of the liquid hydrocarbons is minimized. This is accomplished by removing fines from the solid carbonaceous material feed stream before pyrolysis, removing fines from the particulate source of heat before combining it with the carbonaceous material to effect pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material, and providing a coarse fraction of reduced fines content of the carbon containing solid residue resulting from the pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material before oxidizing carbon in the carbon containing solid residue to form the particulate source of heat.

Wickstrom, Gary H. (Yorba Linda, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Shaw, Benjamin W. (Costa Mesa, CA); Wang, Yue G. (West Covina, CA)

1981-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

257

Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

renewable heating oil substitution Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a renewable heating oil substitution Two-day agenda from the workshop: Technical...

258

Pyrolysis behavior of coal and petroleum coke at high temperature and high pressure.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??While pyrolysis of coal is a well-studied thermal process, little is known about pressurized pyrolysis of coal and petroleum coke. This study aims to interpret… (more)

Wagner, David Ray

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

BNL | Biomass Burns  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass Burn Observation Project (BBOP) Biomass Burn Observation Project (BBOP) Aerosols from biomass burning are recognized to perturb Earth's climate through the direct effect (both scattering and absorption of incoming shortwave radiation), the semi-direct effect (evaporation of cloud drops due to absorbing aerosols), and indirect effects (by influencing cloud formation and precipitation. Biomass burning is an important aerosol source, providing an estimated 40% of anthropogenically influenced fine carbonaceous particles (Bond, et al., 2004; Andrea and Rosenfeld, 2008). Primary organic aerosol (POA) from open biomass burns and biofuel comprises the largest component of primary organic aerosol mass emissions at northern temperate latitudes (de Gouw and Jimenez, 2009). Data from the IMPROVE

260

Biomass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass: Biomass: Organic matter, including: agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, and terrestrial and aquatic crops grown solely for energy purposes. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Traditional and Thermal Use of Biomass Traditional use of biomass, particularly burning wood, is one of the oldest manners in which biomass has been utilized for energy. Traditional use of biomass is 14% of world energy usage which is on the same level as worldwide electricity usage. Most of this consumption comes from developing countries where traditional use of biomass accounts for 35% of primary energy usage [1] and greater than 75% of primary energy use is in the residential sector. The general trend in developing countries has been a

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Fast Beam Studies of Free Radical Photodissociation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radicals. 37 They employ a flash pyrolysis source, having abond on undergoing flash pyrolysis. Our approach to the

Cyr, D.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Pyrolysis of automotive shredder residues: a lumped kinetic characterization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A lumped kinetic model for the pyrolysis of industrial wastes of unknown chemical composition is developed. The model is applied to the pyrolysis of automotive shredder residues (ASRs), studied by means of thermogravimetric and calorimetric analyses, in isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

Oreste Patierno; Paola Cipriani; Fausto Pochetti; Massimiliano Giona

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Accepted Manuscript Title: Fuel Pyrolysis through Porous Media: Coke Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accepted Manuscript Title: Fuel Pyrolysis through Porous Media: Coke Formation and Coupled effect. Gascoin, P. Gillard, M. Bouchez, J. Steelant, Fuel Pyrolysis through Porous Media: Coke Formation Coke Formation and Coupled effect on Permeability2 G. Fau1* , N. Gascoin1 , P. Gillard1 , M. Bouchez2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

NITROGEN EVOLUTION AND SOOT FORMATION DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NITROGEN EVOLUTION AND SOOT FORMATION DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS by Haifeng Zhang DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS Haifeng Zhang Department of Chemical Engineering Doctor of Philosophy Economical NOx control techniques used in pulverized coal furnaces, such as air/fuel staging, promote

Fletcher, Thomas H.

265

Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the coal without chemical decomposition and pyrolysis converts dry coal into gas and coke [1]. The final1 Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a , Eric Blond1, b , Alain Gasser1 Forbach, France a damintode.kolani@univ-orleans.fr, b eric.blond@univ-orleans.fr Keywords: coal, drying

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

Determining the Effect of Concerted Elimination Reactions in the Pyrolysis of Lignin Using Model Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin pyrolysis is a significant impediment in forming liquid fuel from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at a higher temperature than other biomass components (ie cellulose, hemicellulose) and tends to form radicals which lead to cross linking and ultimately char formation. A primary step in advances biomass-to-fuel technology will be to discover mechanisms that can disassemble lignin at lower temperatures and depolymerize lignin into more stable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin ({beta}-O4, {alpha}-O4, {beta}-{beta}, {beta}-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to the usually-assumed bond homolysis reactions, we have investigated a variety of concerted elimination pathways that will tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

Robichaud, D.; Clark, J.; Nimlos, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Vacuum pyrolysis of bark residues and primary sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black spruce bark residues and primary sludges derived from the operation of the Daishowa pulp and paper plant in Quebec City, PQ, were processed by vacuum pyrolysis in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The pyrolysis oil, water, charcoal, and gas were recovered and analyzed. The bark residues yielded 30.6% oil and 34.1% charcoal, and the primary sludges gave 40.1% oil and 30.1% charcoal on a feedstock air-dry basis. The oil phases recovered from the two pyrolysis experiments were fractionated into eight fractions; they were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Both pyrolysis oil samples had a high content of phenolic compounds. These oils contained various fine chemicals that have possible commercial potential. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as long- and short-chain carboxylic acids, are also present in both pyrolysis oils.

Pakdel, H.; Couture, G.; Roy, C. (Univ. Laval, Ste-Foy, Quebec (Canada))

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Hydrogen Production From Crude Bio-oil and Biomass Char by Electrochemical Catalytic Reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We reports an efficient approach for production of hydrogen from crude bio-oil and biomass char in the dual fixed-bed system by using the electrochemical catalytic reforming method. The maximal absolute hydrogen yield reached 110.9 g H2/kg dry biomass. The product gas was a mixed gas containing 72%H2, 26%CO2, 1.9%CO, and a trace amount of CH4. It was observed that adding biomass char (a by-product of pyrolysis of biomass) could remarkably increase the absolute H2 yield (about 20%-50%). The higher reforming temperature could enhance the steam reforming reaction of organic compounds in crude bio-oil and the reaction of CO and H2O. In addition, the CuZn-Al2O3 catalyst in the water-gas shift bed could also increase the absolute H2 yield via shifting CO to CO2.

Xing-long Li; Shen Ning; Li-xia Yuan; Quan-xin Li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 1, Overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed an initial investigation of the effects of physical and chemical properties of biomass feedstocks relative to their performance in biomass energy conversion systems. Both biochemical conversion routes (anaerobic digestion and ethanol fermentation) and thermochemical routes (combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification) were included in the study. Related processes including chemical and physical pretreatment to improve digestibility, and size and density modification processes such as milling and pelletizing were also examined. This overview report provides background and discussion of feedstock and conversion relationships, along with recommendations for future research. The recommendations include (1) coordinate production and conversion research programs; (2) quantify the relationship between feedstock properties and conversion priorities; (3) develop a common framework for evaluating and characterizing biomass feedstocks; (4) include conversion effects as part of the criteria for selecting feedstock breeding programs; and (5) continue emphasis on multiple feedstock/conversion options for biomass energy systems. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

271

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic rings synthesis Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

272

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds part Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Energy Innovation, an Energy... Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

273

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds derived Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

274

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic molecules suggested Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results have shown that these new... Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

275

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds progress Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

276

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds effects Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

277

This research was supported as part of the Catalysis Center for...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New Generations of Zeolite Catalysts This research was conducted by the group of George...

278

Hydrogen Generation for Refineries  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

bottoms (VTB), vacuum resid) * Dilbit (tar sand bitumen diluted with 30% condensate) * Biomass fast pyrolysis oil (whole raw oil) * Norpar 12 (C 11 C 12 paraffinic solvent -...

279

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic geranyl derivatives Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

280

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic substitution reaction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic reactive intermediates Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and allene as intermediates... Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

282

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic molecules application Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results have shown that these new... Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

283

ef501714j 1..9  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

yielding approximately 310 million oven dry Megagrams for bioenergy production. 2 Fast-pyrolysis technologies to convert woody biomass to bio- oil and biochar are becoming more...

284

NREL: Biomass Research - Capabilities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capabilities Capabilities A photo of a series of large metal tanks connected by a network of pipes. Only the top portion of the tanks is visible above the metal floor grate. Each tank has a round porthole on the top. Two men examine one of the tanks at the far end of the floor. Sugars are converted into ethanol in fermentation tanks. This ethanol is then separated, purified, and recovered for use as a transportation fuel. NREL biomass researchers and scientists have strong capabilities in many facets of biomass technology that support the cost-effective conversion of biomass to biofuels-capabilities that are in demand. The NREL biomass staff partners with other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities at every stage of the biomass-to-biofuels conversion process. For these partners, our biomass

285

Complex pendulum biomass sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Perrenoud, Ben C. (Rigby, ID)

2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

286

Wheelabrator Bridgeport Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wheelabrator Bridgeport Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wheelabrator Bridgeport Biomass Facility Facility Wheelabrator Bridgeport Sector Biomass Facility Type...

287

UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

renewable energy resources include biomass, solar thermal resources”:  wind,  closed?loop  biomass,  open? loop  biomass,  geothermal  energy,  solar 

Cattolica, Robert

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Downdraft gasification of biomass.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The objectives of this research were to investigate the parameters affecting the gasification process within downdraft gasifiers using biomass feedstocks. In addition to investigations with… (more)

Milligan, Jimmy B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Biomass: Biogas Generator  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

BIOGAS GENERATOR Curriculum: Biomass Power (organic chemistry, chemicalcarbon cycles, plants, energy resourcestransformations) Grade Level: Middle School (6-8) Small groups (3 to...

290

Biomass 2012 Agenda  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

reach of biomass and biofuel applications, helping to build capacity that will allow for bioenergy markets to develop and deepen in the international arena. Moderator: Natasha...

291

DOE 2014 Biomass Conference  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2014 Biomass Conference Jim Williams Senior Manager American Petroleum Institute July 29, 2014 DRAFT 72814 Let's Agree with the Chicken Developing & Implementing Fuels & Vehicle...

292

Biomass Resource Library  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with universities and industry partners to maintain a library of herbaceous and woody biomass samples. All analyses performed on these samples, including moisture content,...

293

Biomass 2014 Attendee List  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Bender Novozymes Bryna Berendzen DOE - Bioenergy Technologies Office Joshua Berg The Earth Partners Dilfia Bermudez Summerhill Biomass Systems Inc. Michael Bernstein BCS, Inc....

294

Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To support research and development (R&D) planning efforts within the Thermochemical Conversion Program, the Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted the Biomass Indirect Liquefaction (IDL)...

295

Introduction to Biomass Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass was the major fuel in the world ... hundreds when coal then became dominant. The combustion of solid biofuels as a primary energy...

Jenny M. Jones; Amanda R. Lea-Langton…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Biomass 2014 Draft Agenda | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biomass 2014 Draft Agenda Biomass 2014 Draft Agenda The following document is a draft agenda for the Biomass 2014: Growing the Future Bioeconomy conference. Biomass 2014 Draft...

297

Biomass 2011 Conference Agenda | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

1 Conference Agenda Biomass 2011 Conference Agenda Biomass 2011 Conference Agenda bio2011fullagenda.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass 2009 Conference Agenda Biomass 2010...

298

Biomass 2009 Conference Agenda | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

09 Conference Agenda Biomass 2009 Conference Agenda Biomass 2009 Conference Agenda bio2009fullagenda.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass 2010 Conference Agenda Biomass 2011...

299

Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vanadium catalysts break down biomass into useful components Breaking down biomass could help in converting biomass to fuels. March 26, 2012 Biomass Due to diminishing petroleum...

300

Driving on Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for future liquid biofuels might be better directed...because of higher energy density and at...priority for future biofuel research. However...perhaps including algae or thermochemical...support research alternatives that look beyond...biomass yields and the energy density of biomass...

John Ohlrogge; Doug Allen; Bill Berguson; Dean DellaPenna; Yair Shachar-Hill; Sten Stymne

2009-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Biomass Research Program  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

302

Module Handbook Specialisation Biomass Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Module Handbook Specialisation Biomass Energy 2nd Semester for the Master Programme REMA/EUREC Course 2008/2009 University of Zaragoza Specialisation Provider: Biomass Energy #12;Specialisation Biomass Energy, University of Zaragoza Modul: Introduction and Basic Concepts

Damm, Werner

303

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY to treatment prescriptions and anticipated outputs of sawlogs and biomass fuel? How many individual operations biomass fuel removed. Typically in plantations. 50% No harvest treatment

304

Computational Analysis of the Pyrolysis of ..beta..-O4 Lignin Model Compounds: Concerted vs. Homolytic Fragmentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels is a very attractive technology for expanding the utilization of carbon neutral processes and reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources. As with all such emerging technologies, biomass conversion through gasification or pyrolysis has a number of obstacles that need to be overcome to make these processes cost competitive with the refining of fossil fuels. Our current efforts have focused on the investigation of the thermochemistry of the linkages between lignin units using ab initio calculations on dimeric lignin model compounds. All calculations were carried out using M062X density functional theory at the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The M062X method has been shown to be consistent with the CBS-QB3 method while being significantly less computationally expensive. To date we have only completed the study on the b-O4 compounds. The theoretical calculations performed in the study indicate that concerted elimination pathways dominate over bond homolysis reactions under typical pyrolysis conditions. However, this does not mean that concerted elimination will be the dominant loss process for lignin. Bimolecular radical chemistry could very well dwarf the unimolecular pathways investigated in this study. These concerted pathways tend to form stable, reasonably non-reactive products that would be more suited producing a fungible bio-oil for the production of liquid transportation fuels.

Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

biomass | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

biomass biomass Dataset Summary Description Biomass energy consumption and electricity net generation in the industrial sector by industry and energy source in 2008. This data is published and compiled by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Source EIA Date Released August 01st, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated August 01st, 2010 (4 years ago) Keywords 2008 biomass consumption industrial sector Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon industrial_biomass_energy_consumption_and_electricity_2008.xls (xls, 27.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote

306

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY Citation: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 2009. Biomass to Energy: Forest

307

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY study. The Biomass to Energy (B2E) Project is exploring the ecological and economic consequences

308

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY .................................................................................... 33 3.3 BIOMASS POWER PLANT OPERATION MODELS AND DATA

309

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY and continuously between the earth's biomass and atmosphere. From a greenhouse gas perspective, forest treatments

310

Developing better biomass feedstock | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Developing better biomass feedstock Developing better biomass feedstock Multi-omics unlocking the workings of plants Kim Hixson, an EMSL research scientist, is bioengineering...

311

NREL: Biomass Research - Video Text  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

common corn grain ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol is made from organic plant matter called biomass. The video shows different forms of biomass such as switchgrass, corn stalks, and...

312

Bioconversion of biomass to methane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of biomass to methane is described. The biomethane potentials of various biomass feedstocks from our laboratory and literature is summarized.

Hashimoto, A.G. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Biomass Energy Resources and Technologies  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This page provides a brief overview of biomass energy resources and technologies supplemented by specific information to apply biomass within the Federal sector.

314

Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA); Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The freezing point of US Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large n-alkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and those from coal the lowest n-alkane content. The origin of these n-alkanes in the amounts observed, especially in shale-derived fuels, is not readily explained on the basis of literature information. Studies of the processes, particularly the ones involving thermal stress, used to produce these fuels are needed to define how the n-alkanes form from larger molecules. The information developed will significantly contribute to the selection of processes and refining techniques for future fuel production from shale oil. Carbon-13 nmr studies indicate that oil shale rock contains many long unbranched straight chain hydrocarbon groups. The shale oil derived from the rock also gives indication of considerable straight chain material with large peaks at 14, 23, 30, and 32 ppM in the C-13 nmr spectrum. Previous pyrolysis studies stressed fractions of shale crude oil residua, measured the yields of JP-5, and determined the content of potential n-alkanes in the JP-5 distillation range (4). In this work, a shale crude oil vacuum distillate (Paraho) was separated into three chemical fractions. The fractions were then subjected to nmr analysis to estimate the potential for n-alkane production and to pyrolysis studies to determine an experimental n-alkane yield.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The freezing point of U.S. Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large nalkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and those from coal the lowest n-alkane content. The origin of these n-alkanes in the amounts observed, especially in shale-derived fuels, is not readily explained on the basis of literature information. Studies of the processes, particularly the ones involving thermal stress, used to produce these fuels are needed to define how th n-alkanes form from larger molecules. The information developed will significantly contribute to the selection of processes and refining techniques for future fuel production from shale oil. Carbon-13 nmr studies indicate that oil shale rock contains many long unbranched straight chain hydrocarbon groups. The shale oil derived from the rock also gives indication of considerable straight chain material with large peaks at 14, 23, 30 and 32 ppm in the C-13 nmr spectrum. Previous pyrolysis studies stressed fractions of shale crude oil residua, measured the yields of JP-5, and determined the content of potential n-alkanes in the JP-5 distillation range (4). In this work, a shale crude oil vacuum distillate (Paraho) was separated into three chemical fractions. The fractions were then subjected to nmr analysis to estimate the potential for n-alkane production and to pyrolysis studies to determine an experimental n-alkane yield.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Multistep pyrolysis kinetics of North Korean oil shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, multistep pyrolysis kinetics of North Korean oil shale was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. All the...?1...from room temperature to 873 K under nitrogen atmosphere. The main oil-producin...

Wei Wang; Shuyuan Li; Changtao Yue; Yue Ma

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Pyrolysis—Gas Chromatography: A Bibliography (1960–1963)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......THE PYROLYSIS OF TOULENE, Price, S. J., Can. J. Chem...CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF POLY(ETHYLENE ETHYLACRYLATE) AND POLY(ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE) PYROLY- SATES...CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF POLY(ETHYLENE ETHYL ACRYLATE) AND POLY......

R. W. McKinney

1964-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England This...

320

OpenEI - biomass  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Industrial Biomass Industrial Biomass Energy Consumption and Electricity Net Generation by Industry and Energy Source, 2008 http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/827 Biomass energy consumption and electricity net generation in the industrial sector by industry and energy source in 2008. This data is published and compiled by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

License
Type of License: 

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials Biomass production potentials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 1 Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios Final report of WP3 of the VIEWLS project, funded by DG-Tren #12;WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 2 Report Biomass production potentials in central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios

322

Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, including 10% post consumer waste. #12;iii Executive Summary Pyrolysis of biomass followed Cycle Assessment of Gasoline and Diesel Produced via Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing David D. Hsu Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing David D. Hsu Prepared under Task No. BB07.7511 Technical Report NREL

324

Isothermal pyrolysis and char combustion of oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Yields and rates of hydrocarbons evolved during pyrolysis of oil shales have been measured with improved accuracy. Green River and New Albany oil shales were heated in a fluidized sand bed, and volatile pyrolysis products were transferred to a combustion tube and burned. Resulting H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2 were detected in real time by mass spectrometry. Residual char was subsequently burned to allow complete C and H balances. Good closure was obtained. Proportions of organic C and H released as pyrolysis products and retained as char were determined. Shale oil loss due to the presence of oxidized shale in the fluidized bed was measured accurately. We find that all of the experimental apparatus that the pyrolysis gas contacts must be near pyrolysis temperature to avoid condensation of heavy oil which subsequently forms coke and secondary products. We observe a faster release of products with all transfer lines 450/degree/C than when they are at 300/degree/C. The current uncertainty in pyrolysis rates is due in part to such difficulties with experimental techniques. 12 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Coburn, T.T.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.; Duval, V.

1988-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

325

The effect of clay catalyst on the chemical composition of bio-oil obtained by co-pyrolysis of cellulose and polyethylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • Non-catalytic and catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose/polyethylene blend was carried out in a laboratory scale reactor. • Optimization of process temperature was done. • Optimization of clay catalyst type and amount for co-pyrolysis of cellulose and polyethylene was done. • The product yields and the chemical composition of bio-oil was investigated. - Abstract: Cellulose/polyethylene (CPE) mixture 3:1, w/w with and without three clay catalysts (K10 – montmorillonite K10, KSF – montmorillonite KSF, B – Bentonite) addition were subjected to pyrolysis at temperatures 400, 450 and 500 °C with heating rate of 100 °C/s to produce bio-oil with high yield. The pyrolytic oil yield was in the range of 41.3–79.5 wt% depending on the temperature, the type and the amount of catalyst. The non-catalytic fast pyrolysis at 500 °C gives the highest yield of bio-oil (79.5 wt%). The higher temperature of catalytic pyrolysis of cellulose/polyethylene mixture the higher yield of bio-oil is. Contrarily, increasing amount of montmorillonite results in significant, almost linear decrease in bio-oil yield followed by a significant increase of gas yield. The addition of clay catalysts to CPE mixture has a various influence on the distribution of bio-oil components. The addition of montmorillonite K10 to cellulose/polyethylene mixture promotes the deepest conversion of polyethylene and cellulose. Additionally, more saturated than unsaturated hydrocarbons are present in resultant bio-oils. The proportion of liquid hydrocarbons is the highest when a montmorillonite K10 is acting as a catalyst.

Solak, Agnieszka; Rutkowski, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.rutkowski@pwr.wroc.pl

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Biomass | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy » Energy » Biomass Biomass Learn how the Energy Department is working to sustainably transform the nation's abundant renewable resources into biomass energy. Featured Energy 101 | Algae-to-Fuel A behind-the-scenes video of how oil from algae is extracted and refined to create clean, renewable transportation fuel. Oregon Hospital Heats Up with a Biomass Boiler Using money from the Recovery Act, Blue Mountain Hospital replaced one of its 1950s crude oil boilers with a wood-pellet boiler -- saving the hospital about $100,000 a year in heating costs. | Photo courtesy of the Oregon Department of Energy. Highlighting how a rural Oregon hospital was able to cut its heating bills while stimulating the local economy. Ceres: Making Biofuels Bigger and Better A Ceres researcher evaluates the performance of biofuel crops. | Photo courtesy of Ceres, Inc.

327

CLC of biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Developments on Developments on Chemical Looping Combustion of Biomass Laihong Shen Jiahua Wu Jun Xiao Rui Xiao Southeast University Nanjing, China 2 th U.S. - China Symposium on CO 2 Emissions Control Science & Technology Hangzhou, China May 28-30, 2008 Overview  Introduction  Technical approach  Experiments on chemical looping combustion of biomass  Conclusions Climate change is a result of burning too much coal, oil and gas.... We need to capture CO 2 in any way ! Introduction CCS is the world's best chance to have a major & immediate impact on CO 2 emission reduction Introduction Introduction  Biomass is renewable energy with zero CO 2 emission  A way to capture CO 2 from biomass ?  If so, a quick way to reduce CO 2 content in the atmosphere Normal combustion

328

Driving on Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Annual Supply ( USDA and DOE , Washington, DC , 2005 ); www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/pdfs/final_billionton_vision...hybridcars.com/. 12 Vehicle Technologies Program, DOE , www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/2008_fotw514...

John Ohlrogge; Doug Allen; Bill Berguson; Dean DellaPenna; Yair Shachar-Hill; Sten Stymne

2009-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

329

Driving on Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Research Increasing supplies of biodiesel is one priority for future...research. However, production of biodiesel from temperate oilseed crops...systems, perhaps including algae or thermochemical conversion...biomass either for burning or for biodiesel production. Reducing leaf...

John Ohlrogge; Doug Allen; Bill Berguson; Dean DellaPenna; Yair Shachar-Hill; Sten Stymne

2009-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

330

DOE 2014 Biomass Conference  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 1C—Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels DOE 2014 Biomass Conference Jim Williams, Senior Manager, American Petroleum Institute

331

Modern Biomass Conversion Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of key biomass conversion technologies currently deployed and technologies that may...2...capture and sequestration technology (CCS). In doing so, special at...

Andre Faaij

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

AGCO Biomass Solutions  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

to update any forward-looking statements except as required by law. Who is AGCO? AGCO Biomass - A History * Started approximately 5 years ago - First OEM to have a department...

333

Overview of Biomass Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main combustion systems for biomass fuels are presented and the respective requirements ... etc.) in industrial boilers or for co-combustion in power plants. For fuels with high ... moving grate firings are u...

T. Nussbaumer; J. E. Hustad

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND #12; #12;© Crown copyright 2007 ISBN: 978 0 7559 6506 9 Scottish% recyclable. #12;A BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND #12;#12;1 CONTENTS FOREWORD 3 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5 2. INTRODUCTION 9 3. WIDER CONTEXT 13 4. SCOTLAND'S ROLE IN THE UK BIOMASS STRATEGY 17 5. BIOMASS HEATING 23 6

335

Biomass 2014 Poster Session  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) invites students, researchers, public and private organizations, and members of the general public to submit poster abstracts for consideration for the annual Biomass Conference Poster Session. The Biomass 2014 conference theme focuses on topics that are advancing the growth of the bioeconomy, such as improvements in feedstock logistics; promising, innovative pathways for advanced biofuels; and market-enabling co-products.

336

Elucidation of Biomass Pyrolysis Products Using a Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor and Char Particle Imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

† National Bioenergy Center ... These particles have attained a conformation most similar to the Metaplast model reviewed in Yu et al.(62) ... Antal, M. J., A Review of the Literature. ...

Mark W. Jarvis; Thomas J. Haas; Bryon S. Donohoe; John W. Daily; Katherine R. Gaston; W. James Frederick; Mark R. Nimlos

2010-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

337

Visualization of Biomass Pyrolysis and Temperature Imaging in a Heated-Grid Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To power the grid, a control box was designed and built in-house, containing three main components: a Delta power source, a mini PC, and a Keithley data acquisition module. ... The resolution of the ICCD is equivalent to 5 pixels per the smallest (square) element of the finest grid; the other grids had more pixels per element. ...

M. J. Prins; J. Lindén; Z. S. Li; R. J. M. Bastiaans; J. A. van Oijen; M. Aldén; L. P. H. de Goey

2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

338

Working Group Meeting Presentation Guidance at a Glance Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(75%) Char (13%) Gas (12%) Catalytic Auto-thermal Reforming of Bio-Oil at 650oC: 0.71 CH1.98O0.76 + 0 Case (Ethanol Case) Bio-oil Storage Tank $106,040 Reformer $803,000 Shift Reactor, PSA, BOP $1 Oils DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting November 6

339

Dual bed reactor for the study of catalytic biomass tars conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dual fixed bed laboratory scale set up has been used to compare the activity of a novel Rh/LaCoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst to that of dolomite, olivine and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, typical catalysts used in fluidized bed biomass gasification, to convert tars produced during biomass devolatilization stage. The experimental apparatus allows the catalyst to be operated under controlled conditions of temperature and with a real gas mixture obtained by the pyrolysis of the biomass carried out in a separate fixed bed reactor operated under a selected and controlled heating up rate. The proposed catalyst exhibits much better performances than conventional catalysts tested. It is able to completely convert tars and also to strongly decrease coke formation due to its good redox properties. (author)

Ammendola, P.; Piriou, B.; Lisi, L.; Ruoppolo, G.; Chirone, R.; Russo, G. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas using ceria-supported oxygen carriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cu, Ni and Fe oxides supported on ceria were investigated for their performance as oxygen carriers during the chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas. A complex gas mixture containing CO, H2, CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons was used to simulate the complex fuel gas environment derived from biomass gasification. Results show that the transfer of the stored oxygen into oxidants for the supported Cu and Ni oxides at 800 °C for the combustion of syngas was effective (>85%). The unsupported Cu oxide showed high oxygen carrying capacity but particle sintering was observed at 800 °C. A reaction temperature of 950 °C was required for the supported Fe oxides to transfer the stored oxygen into oxidants effectively. Also, for the complex fuel gas environment, the supported Ni oxide was somewhat effective in reforming CH4 and other light hydrocarbons into CO, which may have benefits for the reduction of tar produced during biomass pyrolysis.

H.B. Huang; L. Aisyah; P.J. Ashman; Y.C. Leung; C.W. Kwong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Thermogravimetric investigation on characteristic of biomass combustion under the effect of organic calcium compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer to investigate thermal behavior of different organic calcium compounds (OCCs) and its blended fuels with three kinds of biomass. The effectiveness of synthesized method for OCC was assessed by the pyrolysis test. Effect of the mole ratio of calcium to sulfur on co-combustion characteristics was studied. Results indicated that preparation method of modified calcium acetate (MCA) had high precision and accuracy. Co-combustion characteristic of \\{OCCs\\} blended with biomass was controlled by OCCs’ additive amount and the content of volatile matter which is mainly composed of small hydrocarbon molecules. Combustion performance indexes for peanut shell and wheat straw impregnated by \\{OCCs\\} were improved, however, an inverse trend was found for rice husk because of lower additive amount of OCCs. The blended fuel show higher combustion performance indexes compared with combustion of individual biomass, and these indexes decrease with increases of Ca/S ratio.

Lihui Zhang; Feng Duan; Yaji Huang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reburn with animal waste yield NO{sub x} reduction of the order of 70-80%, which is much higher than those previously reported in the literature for natural gas, coal and agricultural biomass as reburn fuels. Further, the NO{sub x} reduction is almost independent of stoichiometry from stoichiometric to upto 10% deficient air in reburn zone. As a first step towards understanding the reburn process in a boiler burner, a simplified zero-dimensional model has been developed for estimating the NO{sub x} reduction in the reburn process using simulated animal waste based biomass volatiles. However the first model does not include the gradual heat up of reburn fuel particle, pyrolysis and char combustion. Hence there is a need for more rigorous treatment of the model with animal waste as reburn fuel. To address this issue, an improved zero-dimensional model is being developed which can handle any solid reburn fuel, along with more detailed heterogeneous char reactions and homogeneous global reactions. The model on ''NO{sub x} Reduction for Reburn Process using Feedlot Biomass,'' incorporates; (a) mixing between reburn fuel and main-burner gases, (b) gradual heat-up of reburn fuel accompanied by pyrolysis, oxidation of volatiles and char oxidation, (c) fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) pyrolysis, and FBN including both forward and backward reactions, (d) prediction of NO{sub x} as a function of time in the reburn zone, and (e) gas phase and solid phase temperature as a function of time. The fuel bound nitrogen is assumed to be released to the gas phase by two processes, (a) FBN evolution to N{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}, and (b) FBN oxidation to NO at the char surface. The formulation has been completed, code has been developed, and preliminary runs have been made to test the code. Note that, the current model does not incorporate the overfire air. The results of the simulation will be compared with the experimental results. During this quarter, three journal and four conference publications dealing with utilization of animal waste as fuel have been published. In addition a presentation was made to a utility company interested in the new reburn technology for NO{sub x} reduction.

Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Soyuz Priyadarsan (PhD)

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

NREL: Biomass Research - Projects in Biomass Process and Sustainability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Projects in Biomass Process and Sustainability Analyses Projects in Biomass Process and Sustainability Analyses Researchers at NREL use biomass process and sustainability analyses to understand the economic, technical, and global impacts of biomass conversion technologies. These analyses reveal the economic feasibility and environmental benefits of biomass technologies and are useful for government, regulators, and the private sector. NREL's Energy Analysis Office integrates and supports the energy analysis functions at NREL. Among NREL's projects in biomass process and sustainability analyses are: Life Cycle Assessment of Energy Independence and Security Act for Ethanol NREL is determining the life cycle environmental impacts of the ethanol portion of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). EISA mandates

344

Pyrolysis of Municipal Solid Waste for Syngas Production by Microwave Irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present study, we discuss the application of microwave-irradiated pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) for total recovery of useful gases and energy. The MSW pyrolysis under microwave irradiation hi...

Vidyadhar V. Gedam; Iyyaswami Regupathi

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Pyrolysis of lignin for phenols with alkaline additive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study is devoted to investigating the effect of alkaline additives on lignin pyrolysis for producing phenols. The effects of different types and amounts of alkaline additives, i.e., 0–20 wt.% NaOH, KOH, Na2CO3 or K2CO3, on lignin pyrolysis were tested in a fixed bed reactor. The chemicals in the pyrolysis liquid from a commercial alkali lignin with and without alkaline additive were mainly phenols including 2-methoxy-phenol, 2,6-dimethoxy-phenol, alkyl-phenols (free of methoxyl group) and 2-methoxy-4-alkyl-phenols. More vanillin and dimethoxy-benzene appeared in the pyrolysis liquid of alkali lignin and lignin purified from black liquor, respectively. While carbonate additives facilitated the production of methxoy-phenols, more alkyl-phenols were formed with the hydroxide additives. Analysis showed that all the alkaline additives promoted the reactions of decarboxylation or decarbonylation and the removal of unsaturated alkyl branch chains. The strong alkalescence of NaOH and KOH facilitated more deoxygenation of methoxyl groups so that there were more phenols free of methoxyl groups. The pyrolysis of PL resulted in the liquid yields of up to 30 wt.% (dry base), and the content of phenols was above 80% in the liquid.

Cuina Peng; Guangyi Zhang; Junrong Yue; Guangwen Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Auto shredder residue recycling: Mechanical separation and pyrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Directive 2000/53/EC sets a goal of 85% material recycling from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) by the end of 2015. The current ELV recycling rate is around 80%, while the remaining waste is called automotive shredder residue (ASR), or car fluff. In Europe, this is mainly landfilled because it is extremely heterogeneous and often polluted with car fluids. Despite technical difficulties, in the coming years it will be necessary to recover materials from car fluff in order to meet the ELV Directive requirement. This study deals with ASR pretreatment and pyrolysis, and aims to determine whether the ELV material recycling target may be achieved by car fluff mechanical separation followed by pyrolysis with a bench scale reactor. Results show that flotation followed by pyrolysis of the light, organic fraction may be a suitable ASR recycling technique if the oil can be further refined and used as a chemical. Moreover, metals are liberated during thermal cracking and can be easily separated from the pyrolysis char, amounting to roughly 5% in mass. Lastly, pyrolysis can be a good starting point from a “waste-to-chemicals” perspective, but further research should be done with a focus on oil and gas refining, in order both to make products suitable for the chemical industry and to render the whole recycling process economically feasible.

Alessandro Santini; Fabrizio Passarini; Ivano Vassura; David Serrano; Javier Dufour; Luciano Morselli

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Formation characteristics of PCDD and PCDF during pyrolysis processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years, pyrolysis processes have become technologies developed to industrial scale and discussed as alternatives to the existing waste combustion technology. However, little information is published regarding PCDD/F formation characteristics during pyrolysis processes. Two common shredder fractions – industrial light shredder (ILS) and refrigerators (REF) – both with high chlorine and copper content were pyrolysed for this pyrolysis study using a pilot plant with a capacity of 100 kg/h. At oxygen concentrations below 2% and temperatures between 430°C and 470°C, considerable amounts of PCDD/F were formed during the pyrolysis. More than 90% of total TEQ was found in the oil fraction (gas phase). The PCDD/PCDF ratio and the homologue pattern differed significantly from those formed during waste incineration. Considering mono- to octachlorinated congeners, up to 400 times more PCDF were formed compared to PCDD. For the investigated pyrolysis conditions, the formation of low chlorinated congeners was highly favoured. The distribution of TEQ within the individual congeners were very similar in all investigated runs. More than 80% of total TEQ stem from 2,3,7,8-substituted T4CDF and P5CDF. The isomer pattern, however, did not show significant differences compared to the common waste incineration pattern suggesting that the basic formation routes are similar.

Roland Weber; Takeshi Sakurai

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Benchmarking Biomass Gasification Technologies  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass Gasification Technologies for Biomass Gasification Technologies for Fuels, Chemicals and Hydrogen Production Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Prepared by Jared P. Ciferno John J. Marano June 2002 i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to express their appreciation to all individuals who contributed to the successful completion of this project and the preparation of this report. This includes Dr. Phillip Goldberg of the U.S. DOE, Dr. Howard McIlvried of SAIC, and Ms. Pamela Spath of NREL who provided data used in the analysis and peer review. Financial support for this project was cost shared between the Gasification Program at the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the Biomass Power Program within the DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

349

Biomass 2010 Conference Agenda | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

0 Conference Agenda Biomass 2010 Conference Agenda Biomass 2010 Conference Agenda bio2010fullagenda.pdf More Documents & Publications QTR Cornerstone Workshop Agenda 2014 Biomass...

350

Wheelabrator Saugus Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Saugus Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wheelabrator Saugus Biomass Facility Facility Wheelabrator Saugus Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste...

351

Biomass 2012 Agenda | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

2 Agenda Biomass 2012 Agenda Detailed agenda from the July 10-11, 2012, Biomass conference--Biomass 2012: Confronting Challenges, Creating Opportunities - Sustaining a Commitment...

352

Dinuba Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dinuba Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Dinuba Biomass Facility Facility Dinuba Sector Biomass Owner Community Recycling, Inc. Location Dinuba, California...

353

November 2011 Model documentation for biomass,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 November 2011 Model documentation for biomass, cellulosic biofuels, renewable of Education, Office of Civil Rights. #12;3 Contents Biomass.....................................................................................................................................................4 Variables in the biomass module

Noble, James S.

354

Mecca Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mecca Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Mecca Biomass Facility Facility Mecca Sector Biomass Owner Colmac Energy Location Mecca, California Coordinates 33.571692,...

355

Santa Clara Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Santa Clara Biomass Facility Facility Santa Clara Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Santa Clara County,...

356

Hebei Jiantou Biomass Power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jiantou Biomass Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hebei Jiantou Biomass Power Place: Jinzhou, Hebei Province, China Zip: 50000 Sector: Biomass Product: A company engages in...

357

NREL: International Activities - Biomass Resource Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass Resource Assessment Map showing annual productivity of marginal lands in APEC economies. Biomass resource assessments quantify the existing or potential biomass material in...

358

Chowchilla Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Chowchilla Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Chowchilla Biomass Facility Facility Chowchilla Sector Biomass Owner London Economics Location Chowchilla, California...

359

Category:Biomass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pages in category "Biomass" This category contains only the following page. B Biomass Scenario Model Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCategory:Biomass&oldid3...

360

Haryana Biomass Power Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Haryana Biomass Power Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Haryana Biomass Power Ltd. Place: Mumbai, Haryana, India Zip: 400025 Sector: Biomass Product: This is a JV consortium...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

NREL: Biomass Research - David W. Templeton  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

W. Templeton Photo of David Templeton David Templeton is the senior biomass analyst on the Biomass Analysis team (Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory) within the National...

362

UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biofuels, LLC  UCSD Biomass to Power  Economic Feasibility Figure 1: West Biofuels Biomass Gasification to Power rates..……………………. ……31  UCSD Biomass to Power ? Feasibility 

Cattolica, Robert

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Hutchins LFG Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hutchins LFG Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hutchins LFG Biomass Facility Facility Hutchins LFG Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Dallas County,...

364

Mecca Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Plant Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Mecca Plant Biomass Facility Facility Mecca Plant Sector Biomass Location Riverside County, California Coordinates...

365

Florida Biomass Energy Consortium | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Consortium Jump to: navigation, search Name: Florida Biomass Energy Consortium Place: Florida Sector: Biomass Product: Association of biomass energy companies. References: Florida...

366

Opportunities for Farmers in Biomass Feedstock Production  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Opportunities for Farmers in Biomass Feedstock Production Richard Hess Biomass 2014, Feedstocks Plenary July 29, 2014 Getting into the Biomass Business Crop Residue Removal; Farm...

367

NREL: Climate Neutral Research Campuses - Biomass Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

basics and biomass organizations. Technology Basics The following resources explain the fundamentals of biomass energy technologies: Biomass Energy Basics: NREL publishes this...

368

ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENT WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~. ~. ~. ~. Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . Coal and Solventon Subbiturninous Coal Below Pyrolysis Temperatures, LBL-Treatment of Extract Solution Coal Residue Treatment. Yield

Lindsey, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Comparison of concepts for thermal biomass utilization, with the example of the Netherlands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass and waste, which are the focus of the activities at the Thermal Power Engineering section of the TU Delft, are the most important renewable energies today. They will maintain their role in the future. There are different ways to convert biomass and waste to power and heat. The combustion of biomass can be considered state-of-the-art technology and plants ranging in capacity from a few kW up to several MW are available on the market. The selection of the combustion technology is dependent on the scale and the kind of biomass. Power can be produced by means of a steam turbine, which is attractive in units above 1 MW. Gasification, in contrast, is a technology that has yet to find a wide use. But, in combination with gas engines, gas turbines or fuel cells, gasification has the advantage of a high electrical efficiency. Direct co-combustion of biomass in coal-fired steam power plants is the most economic choice and it is widely applied in the Netherlands. By an additional pyrolysis or gasification step, it is possible to separately remove and utilize the ashes of coal and biomass, and expected operational problems, such as corrosion, can possibly be avoided. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Spliethoff, H. [Technical University, Delft (Netherlands). Thermal Power Engineering Section

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Multiscale molecular modeling can be an effective tool to aid the development of biomass conversion technology: A perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignocellulosic biomass is an alternate and renewable source of carbon. However, due to high oxygen content and diverse functionality, its conversion to fuels and chemicals is technologically challenging. Since physico-chemical characteristics of biomass and its derived components are very different from petroleum, fundamental understanding of their interactions with catalysts and solvents and of their behavior during thermochemical processing needs to be developed. In the present paper, we provide a perspective on how multiscale molecular modeling can assist in developing the science of biomass processing. The scope of this paper is limited to liquid phase catalytic and pyrolytic conversion of biomass. Car–Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD), a multiscale method that combines quantum mechanics and classical molecular dynamics and is an excellent choice to simulate biomass interactions in the condensed phase, is discussed. An overview of metadynamics, a method to accelerate CPMD dynamics, is also given. Revealing the chemistry of biomass pyrolysis, identifying liquid phase catalytic reaction mechanisms and developing a fundamental understanding of the role of solvents in biomass processing are the three main areas highlighted in this paper. Molecular modeling based investigations in these areas are reviewed and key findings are summarized. Limitations of the current approaches are discussed and the relevance of multiscale methods like CPMD and metadynamics is discussed. Potential studies that could implement multiscale molecular modeling methods to solve some of the challenging problems in developing biomass conversion technology are elaborated and an outlook is provided.

Samir H. Mushrif; Vallabh Vasudevan; Chethana B. Krishnamurthy; Boddu Venkatesh

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

APS Biomass I Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

APS Biomass I Biomass Facility APS Biomass I Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name APS Biomass I Biomass Facility Facility APS Biomass I Sector Biomass Location Arizona Coordinates 34.0489281°, -111.0937311° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.0489281,"lon":-111.0937311,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

372

Minimally refined biomass fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Fixed Bed Biomass Gasifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report details work performed by Gazogen to develop a novel biomass gasifier for producimg electricity from commercially available hardwood chips. The research conducted by Gazogen under this grant was intended to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new means of producing electricity from wood chips and other biomass and carbonaceous fuels. The technical feasibility of the technology has been furthered as a result of the DOE grant, and work is expected to continue. The economic feasibility can only be shown when all operational problems have been overocme. The technology could eventually provide a means of producing electricity on a decentralized basis from sustainably cultivated plants or plant by-products.

Carl Bielenberg

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

Thermal Decomposition of Dichlorosilane Investigated by Pulsed Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of vacuum flash pyrolysis of SiH 2Cl2. Ban and Gilbert6 observed SiCl2 by mass spectrometry under sili- conThermal Decomposition of Dichlorosilane Investigated by Pulsed Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis powered homogeneous pyrolysis of dichlorosilane are reported. Pyrolyses at temperatures of 1350 to 1700 K

Swihart, Mark T.

375

Biomass Anaerobic Digestion Facilities and Biomass Gasification Facilities (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Indiana Department of Environmental Management requires permits before the construction or expansion of biomass anaerobic digestion or gasification facilities.

376

Pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The freezing point of JP-5, the Navy jet fuel, has been related to the n-alkane content, specifically n-hexadecane. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest n-alkanes. The formation of n-alkanes in the jet fuel distillation range can be explained if large n-alkanes are present in the crude oil source. Quantities of large n-alkanes are insufficient, however, to explain the amounts found - up to 37% n-alkanes in the jet fuel range. Other possible precursors to small straight chain molecules are substituted cyclic compounds. Attack in the side chain obviously afford a path to an n-alkane. Aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, acids, amines, and ethers also have the potential to form n-alkanes if an unbranched alkyl chain is present in the molecule. Investigations showed that the best yield of the JP-5 cut comes at different times for the various fractions, but a time in the 60 to 120 min range would appear to be the optimum time for good yield at 450/sup 0/C. The longer time would be preferred with respect to lower potential n-alkane yield. None of the fractions gave n-alkane yields approaching the 37% amount found in the Shale-I JP-5. A temperature different than the 450/sup 0/C used here might affect the conversion percentage. Further the combined saturate, aromatic, and polar fractions may interact under pyrolysis conditions to give higher potential n-alkane yields than the fractions stressed independently.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.; Vetter, T.; Sonntag, R.; Moniz, W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Biomass Feedstock National User Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 1B—Integration of Supply Chains I: Breaking Down Barriers Biomass Feedstock National User Facility Kevin L. Kenney, Director, Biomass Feedstock National User Facility, Idaho National Laboratory

378

Biomass in a petrochemical world  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...refinery, mapping out the possible routes from biomass feedstocks to fuels and petrochemical-type products, drawing...biorefinery enables the conversion of a range of biomass feedstocks into fuels and chemical feedstocks [6]. As with...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Biomass 2014 Attendee List | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biomass 2014 Attendee List Biomass 2014 Attendee List This document is the attendee list for Biomass 2014, held July 29-July 30 in Washington, D.C. biomass2014attendeelist.pdf...

380

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY;5-2 #12;APPENDIX 5: BIOMASS TO ENERGY PROJECT:WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION 1. Authors: Patricia Manley Ross management scenarios. We evaluated the potential effects of biomass removal scenarios on biological diversity

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY as a result of emerging biomass opportunities on private industrial and public multiple-use lands (tracked in the vegetation domain) and the quantity of biomass consumed by the wildfire (tracked

382

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY;12-2 #12;Appendix 12: Biomass to Energy Project Team, Committee Members and Project Advisors Research Team. Nechodom's background is in biomass energy policy development and public policy research. Peter Stine

383

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY or recommendations of the study. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Domain Description The study area for the Biomass to Energy (B2 and environmental costs and benefits of using forest biomass to generate electrical power while changing fire

384

Biomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential Prepared for: Massachusetts Division of Energy;#12;Executive Summary In Massachusetts, biomass energy has typically meant wood chips derived from the region's extensive forest cover. Yet nationally, biomass energy from dedicated energy crops and from crop residues

Schweik, Charles M.

385

13, 3226932289, 2013 Biomass burning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern Great Plains T (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Biomass burning aerosol Geosciences Union. 32269 #12;ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern

Dong, Xiquan

386

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY;10-2 #12;Appendix 10: Power Plant Analysis for Conversion of Forest Remediation Biomass to Renewable Fuels and Electricity 1. Report to the Biomass to Energy Project (B2E) Principal Authors: Dennis Schuetzle, TSS

387

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY;6-2 #12;APPENDIX 6: Cumulative Watershed Effects Analysis for the Biomass to Energy Project 1. Principal the findings or recommendations of the study. Cumulative watershed effects (CWE) of the Biomass to Energy (B2E

388

7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

Federal Biomass Activities | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Federal Biomass Activities Federal Biomass Activities Statutory and executive order requirements for Bioproducts and Biofuels federalbiomassactivities.pdf More Documents &...

390

Biomass Energy Technology Module | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Biomass Topics: Technology characterizations Website: web.worldbank.orgWBSITEEXTERNALTOPICSEXTENERGY2EXTRENENERGYTK0,, References: Biomass...

391

Biomass Supply and Carbon Accounting for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass Supply and Carbon Accounting for Southeastern Forests February 2012 #12;This Biomass Supply and Carbon Accounting for Southeastern Forests study was conducted by the Biomass Energy Resource Center Biomass Energy Resource Center Kamalesh Doshi Biomass Energy Resource Center Hillary Emick Biomass Energy

392

NREL: Biomass Research - Thomas Foust  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thomas Foust Thomas Foust Photo of Thomas Foust Dr. Thomas Foust is an internationally recognized expert in the biomass field. His areas of expertise include feedstock production, biomass-to-fuels conversion technologies, and environmental and societal sustainability issues associated with biofuels. He has more than 20 years of research and research management experience, specializing in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. As National Bioenergy Center Director, Dr. Foust guides and directs NREL's research efforts to develop biomass conversion technologies via biochemical and thermochemical routes, as well as critical research areas addressing the sustainability of biofuels. This research focuses on developing the necessary science and technology for converting biomass to biofuels,

393

Definition: Biomass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Biomass Organic matter, including: agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, and terrestrial and aquatic crops grown solely for energy purposes.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. It most often refers to plants or plant-derived materials which are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass. As a renewable energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods. Historically, humans have harnessed biomass-derived

394

Interaction of Plastics in Mixed-Plastics Pyrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pyrolysis of mixed-plastic waste has been proposed as a means of recycling to produce petrochemical feedstock. ... The main gases produced from the individual plastics were hydrogen, methane, ethane, ethene, propane, propene, butane, and butene and for the PET plastic carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. ...

Paul T. Williams; Elizabeth A. Williams

1998-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

395

European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil) Dec 15, 2006 Doug Bradley President Climate Change Solutions National Team Leader- IEA Bioenergy Task 40- Bio-trade 402 Third Avenue ·Ottawa, Ontario ·Canada K. Market Determining Factors 5. EU Country Perspectives 6. Potential European Markets 6.1. Pulp Mill Lime

396

Pyrolysis in Porous Media: Numerical Analysis and Comparison to Experiments.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reactions which contribute to the heat flux absorption. The formation of a thin film inside the combustion hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis, which can be of practical interest for the active cooling of head loaded is an additional way to investigate the related phenomena (heat and mass transfer with chemistry). After a first

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

397

Synthetic and Jet Fuels Pyrolysis for Cooling and Combustion Applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

phenomenon (heat and mass transfers, pyrolysis, combustion) in a cooling channel surrounding a SCRamjet regeneratively cooled SCRamjet is provided to get a large vision of the fuel nature impact on the system of supersonic combustion ramjet (SCRamjet) [1]. For such high velocity, the total temperature of external air

Boyer, Edmond

398

Hydrocarbons Heterogeneous Pyrolysis: Experiments and Modeling for Scramjet Thermal Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Hydrocarbons Heterogeneous Pyrolysis: Experiments and Modeling for Scramjet Thermal Management : United States (2008)" #12;2 I. Introduction One of the main issues of the development of scramjet, an air to the endothermicity of its thermal decomposition. Because of the large heat load found in a scramjet, engine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

399

Biomass: Potato Power  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

POTATO POWER POTATO POWER Curriculum: Biomass Power (organic chemistry, chemical/carbon cycles, plants, energy resources/transformations) Grade Level: Grades 2 to 3 Small groups (3 to 4) Time: 30 to 40 minutes Summary: Students assemble a potato battery that will power a digital clock. This shows the connection between renewable energy from biomass and its application. Provided by the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory and BP America Inc. BIOPOWER - POTATO POWER Purpose: Can a potato power a clock? Materials:  A potato  A paper plate  Two pennies  Two galvanized nails  Three 8 inch insulated copper wire, with 2 inches of the insulation removed from the ends  A digital clock (with places for wire attachment)

400

Laser pyrolysis of explosives combined with mass spectral studies of the ignition zone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By combining a laser ignition technique with mass spectroscopic analysis we have developed a means of rapid determination of some of the molecules involved in the thermal ignition process of a high explosive. This technique also enables the study of how parameters such as initial gas pressure (0.1–5.0 MPa), type of gas (helium, air or nitrogen), laser wavelength (9–11 ?m), laser pulse width (1 ms?1 s) and laser power (10–180 W) influence the production of major decomposition products (N2O, HCN, NO2, H2CO, NO and CO2) and some of the larger fragments in the reaction zone. It also permits the detection and identification of some of the larger molecule fragments involved in the ignition process. The experimental equipment consists mainly of a 180 W CO2 laser, an explosives test vessel, and a mass spectrometer. This paper describes in detail the techniques and apparatus used and gives an introductory study of the fast laser pyrolysis/laser ignition for 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The combined laser ignition/mass spectroscopy method gives advantages over earlier pyrolysis-MS methods in that it permits us to follow the transition from a slow thermal decomposition to a self-sustained deflagration. The method also makes it possible to study these processes at elevated pressures (up to 5.0 MPa). In the RDX pre-ignition zone some decomposition intermediates were identified: triazine (C3N3H3) and possibly (CN)2. In the pre-ignition zone of RDX we have also identified both condensed-phase and gas-phase processes. In order to show the general applicability of the method results are also presented for other high explosives: HNS, PETN, TNT and Tetryl.

Henric Östmark; Helena Bergman; Katrin Ekvall

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

The Development of a Hydrothermal Method for Slurry Feedstock Preparation for Gasification Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reactor for the Study of Biomass Pyrolysis Chemistry at Highmineral matter on biomass pyrolysis characteristics. Fuel,Puigjaner, Kinetics of Biomass Pyrolysis: ? a Reformulated

He, Wei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Biomass One LP Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LP Biomass Facility LP Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Biomass One LP Biomass Facility Facility Biomass One LP Sector Biomass Location Jackson County, Oregon Coordinates 42.334535°, -122.7646577° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.334535,"lon":-122.7646577,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

403

Lyonsdale Biomass LLC Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lyonsdale Biomass LLC Biomass Facility Facility Lyonsdale Biomass LLC Sector Biomass Location Lewis County, New York Coordinates 43.840112°, -75.4344727° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.840112,"lon":-75.4344727,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

404

High-biomass sorghums for biomass biofuel production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University; M.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. William Rooney High-biomass sorghums provide structural carbohydrates for bioenergy production. Sorghum improvement is well established, but development of high- biomass sorghums... these goals and be economically viable, abundant and low-cost 3 biomass sources are needed. To provide this, dedicated bioenergy crops are necessary (Epplin et al., 2007). For a variety of reasons, the C4 grass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L...

Packer, Daniel

2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

405

Biomass burning and global change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The burning of living and dead biomass including forests savanna grasslands and agricultural wastes is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed and may consume as much as 8700 teragrams of dry biomass matter per year. The burning of this much biomass releases about 3940 teragrams of total carbon or about 3550 teragrams of carbon in the form of CO2 which is about 40% of the total global annual production of CO2. Biomass burning may also produce about 32% of the world’s annual production of CO 24% of the nonmethane hydrocarbons 20% of the oxides of nitrogen and biomass burn combustion products may be responsible for producing about 38% of the ozone in the troposphere. Biomass burning has increased with time and today is overwhelmingly human?initiated.

Joel S. Levine; Wesley R. Cofer III; Donald R. Cahoon Jr.; Edward L. Winsted; Brian J. Stocks

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Remotely sensed heat anomalies linked with Amazonian forest biomass declines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with Amazonian forest biomass declines Michael Toomey, 1 Darof aboveground living biomass (p biomass declines, Geophys. Res.

Toomey, M.; Roberts, D. A.; Still, C.; Goulden, M. L.; McFadden, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Biomass 2014: Breakout Speaker Biographies  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document outlines the biographies of the breakout speakers for Biomass 2014, held July 29–July 30 in Washington, D.C.

408

Biomass 2009: Fueling Our Future  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

We would like to thank everyone who attended Biomass 2009: Fueling Our Future, including the speakers, moderators, sponsors, and exhibitors who helped make the conference a great success.

409

NREL: Biomass Research - Joseph Shekiro  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Deacetylation and Mechanical (Disc) Refining Process for the Conversion of Renewable Biomass to Lower Cost Sugars." Biotechnology for Biofuels (7:7). Shekiro, J. ; Kuhn, E.M.;...

410

Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: POET  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

in the project, including POET Design and Construction, POET Research, POET Biomass, and POET Biorefining - Emmetsburg. LIBERTY is partnering with Novozymes to optimize...

411

NREL: Biomass Research - Michael Resch  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

improve the hydrolysis efficiency of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme digestion of biomass. This work will help NREL lower the industrial cost of lignocellulosic enzyme...

412

A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties for Energy Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Torrefaction of biomass can be described as a mild form of pyrolysis at temperatures typically ranging between 200 and 300 C in an inert and reduced environment. Common biomass reactions during torrefaction include devolatilization, depolymerization, and carbonization of hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Torrefaction process produces a brown to black solid uniform product and also condensable (water, organics, and lipids) and non condensable gases (CO2, CO, and CH4). Typically during torrefaction, 70% of the mass is retained as a solid product, containing 90% of the initial energy content, and 30% of the lost mass is converted into condensable and non-condensable products. The system's energy efficiency can be improved by reintroducing the material lost during torrefaction as a source of heat. Torrefaction of biomass improves its physical properties like grindability; particle shape, size, and distribution; pelletability; and proximate and ultimate composition like moisture, carbon and hydrogen content, and calorific value. Carbon and calorific value of torrefied biomass increases by 15-25%, and moisture content reduces to <3% (w.b.). Torrefaction reduces grinding energy by about 70%, and the ground torrefied biomass has improved sphericity, particle surface area, and particle size distribution. Pelletization of torrefied biomass at temperatures of 225 C reduces specific energy consumption by two times and increases the capacity of the mill by two times. The loss of the OH group during torrefaction makes the material hydrophobic (loses the ability to attract water molecules) and more stable against chemical oxidation and microbial degradation. These improved properties make torrefied biomass particularly suitable for cofiring in power plants and as an upgraded feedstock for gasification.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Hebei Milestone Biomass Energy Co Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hebei Milestone Biomass Energy Co Ltd Place: Hebei Province, China Zip: 50051 Sector: Biomass Product: China-based biomass project developer. References: Hebei Milestone Biomass...

414

Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

NREL: Biomass Research - Capabilities in Biomass Process and Sustainability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capabilities in Biomass Process and Sustainability Analyses Capabilities in Biomass Process and Sustainability Analyses A photo of a woman and four men, all wearing hard hats and looking into a large square bin of dried corn stover. One man is using a white scoop to pick up some of the material and another man holds some in his hand. Members of Congress visit NREL's cellulosic ethanol pilot plant. A team of NREL researchers uses biomass process and sustainability analyses to bridge the gap between research and commercial operations, which is critical for the scale-up of biomass conversion technology. Among NREL's biomass analysis capabilities are: Life cycle assessments Technoeconomic analysis Sensitivity analysis Strategic analysis. Life Cycle Assessments Conducting full life cycle assessments is important for determining the

416

Experimental Flash Pyrolysis of High Density1 PolyEthylene under Hybrid Propulsion Conditions2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1/25 Experimental Flash Pyrolysis of High Density1 PolyEthylene under Hybrid Propulsion Conditions2 Poly-Ethylene (HDPE) is studied6 up to 20 000 K.s-1 , under pressure up to 3.0 MPa and at temperature Pyrolysis (2013) 1-11" DOI : 10.1016/j.jaap.2013.02.014 #12;2/25 Keywords: Polyethylene; flash pyrolysis

Boyer, Edmond

417

Catalytic pyrolysis of straight-run gasoline on a promoted vanadium catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the years the catalytic pyrolysis has been studied of various hydrocarbon materials - from gaseous (ethane, propane and n-butane) to heavy petroleum fractions with an end boiling point higher than 500/sup 0/C. The process indices for all the raw materials studied were significantly better than those from thermal pyrolysis. Improvement of operational properties for the vanadium catalyst for pyrolysis involved the selecting a better acceptor and the use of promotor additives which inhibit coke formation.

Chernykh, S.P.; Adel'son, S.V.; Rudyk, E.M.; Zhagfarov, F.G.; Motorina, I.A.; Nikonov, V.I.; Mukhina, T.N.; Barabanov, N.L.; Pyatiletov, V.I.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Fast valve  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing. 4 figs.

Van Dyke, W.J.

1992-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

419

Fast valve  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing.

Van Dyke, William J. (Grafton, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Reactive gases evolved during pyrolysis of Devonian oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Computer modeling of oil shale pyrolysis is an important part of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Oil Shale Program. Models containing detailed chemistry have been derived from an investigation of Colorado oil shale. We are currently attempting to use models to treat more completely reactions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in the retort to better understand emissions. Batch retorting work on Devonian oil shale is proving particularly useful for this study of nitrogen/sulfur chemistry. Improved analytical methods have been developed to quantitatively determine reactive volatiles at the parts-per-million level. For example, the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS) is used in the chemical ionization (CI) mode to provide real-time analytical data on ammonia evolution as the shale is pyrolyzed. A heated transfer line and inlet ensure rapid and complete introduction of ammonia to the instrument by preventing water condensation. Ammonia and water release data suitable for calculating kinetic parameters have been obtained from a New Albany Shale sample. An MS/MS technique with the TQMS in the electron ionization (EI) mode allows hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and certain trace organic sulfur compounds to be monitored during oil shale pyrolysis. Sensitivity and selectivity for these compounds have been increased by applying artificial intelligence techniques to tuning of the spectrometer. Gas evolution profiles (100 to 900/sup 0/C) are reported for hydrogen sulfide, water, ammonia, and trace sulfur species formed during pyrolysis of Devonian oil shale. Implications for retorting chemistry are discussed. 18 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Coburn, T.T.; Crawford, R.W.; Gregg, H.R.; Oh, M.S.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (?m) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

Lin, Chen-Luh; Miller, Jan

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a renewable heating oil substitution  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Two-day agenda from the workshop: Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a renewable heating oil substitution fuel in New England.

423

Pyrolysis Kinetics and Chemical Structure Considerations of a Green River Oil Shale and Its Derivatives.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This work had the objective of determining both the kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of oil shale and kerogen as well as using analytical techniques… (more)

Hillier, James L

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Process for concentrated biomass saccharification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA); Seapan, Mayis (Landenberg, PA); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

425

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and impact of Industrial Private Forestry (IPF) has been eliminated from most of the analyses that make up) Project is developing a comprehensive forest biomass-to- electricity model to identify and analyze the economic and environmental costs and benefits of using forest biomass to generate electricity while

426

Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

26 January 1983 research-article Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass [and Discussion...of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuel, ethanol. Within the scope of this objective...maximize the conversion efficiency of ethanol production from biomass. This can be...

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

The annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Forrest The annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass Monika Winder 1 * James E. Cloern 2...Here, we ask whether phytoplankton biomass also fluctuates over a consistent annual...compiled 125 time series of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a concentration) from temperate...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass [and Discussion] D. I. C. Wang G...microbiological conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuel, ethanol. Within the...efficiency of ethanol production from biomass. This can be achieved through the effective...

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Mineral Transformation and Biomass Accumulation Associated With  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mineral Transformation and Biomass Accumulation Associated With Uranium Bioremediation at Rifle transformation and biomass accumulation, both of which can alter the flow field and potentially bioremediation to understand the biogeochemical processes and to quantify the biomass and mineral transformation/ accumulation

Hubbard, Susan

430

Biomass 2013 Agenda | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

3 Agenda Biomass 2013 Agenda This agenda outlines the sessions and events for Biomass 2013 in Washington, D.C., July 31-August 1. biomass2013agenda.pdf More Documents &...

431

Florida Biomass Energy LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Place: Florida Sector: Biomass Product: Florida-based biomass project developer. References: Florida Biomass Energy, LLC1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

432

Biomass Producer or Collector Tax Credit (Oregon)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

 The Oregon Department of Energy provides a tax credit for agricultural producers or collectors of biomass.  The credit can be used for eligible biomass used to produce biofuel; biomass used in...

433

Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

434

Agricultural Biomass and Landfill Diversion Incentive (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This law provides a grant of a minimum $20 per bone-dry ton of qualified agricultural biomass, forest wood waste, urban wood waste, co-firing biomass, or storm-generated biomass that is provided to...

435

BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION EFFORTS IN THE UNITED STATES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

icat ion Preheat zone Biomass liquefaction Tubular reactor (design is shown in Figure 7, C I Biomass ua efaction Fic LBL Process BiOMASS t NON-REVERS lNG CYCLONE CONDENSER (

Ergun, Sabri

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

NREL: Biomass Research - Amie Sluiter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Amie Sluiter Amie Sluiter Amie Sluiter (aka Amie D. Sluiter, Amie Havercamp) is a scientist at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Bioenergy Center in Golden, Colorado. Research Interests Amie Sluiter began research in the biomass-to-ethanol field in 1996. She joined the Biomass Analysis Technologies team to provide compositional analysis data on biomass feedstocks and process intermediates for use in pretreatment models and techno-economic analyses. The results of wet chemical analysis provide guidance on feedstock handling, pretreatment conditions, economic viability, and life cycle analyses. Amie Sluiter has investigated a number of biomass analysis methods and is an author on 11 Laboratory Analytical Procedures (LAPs), which are being used industry-wide. She has taught full biomass compositional analysis

437

Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

438

NREL: Biomass Research - News  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

News News Below are news stories related to NREL biomass research. Subscribe to the RSS feed RSS . Learn about RSS. November 7, 2013 NREL Developed Mobile App for Alternative Fueling Station Locations Released iPhone users now have access to a free application that locates fueling stations offering alternative fuels, including electricity, natural gas, biodiesel, e85 Ethanol, propane and hydrogen. The Energy Department's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the new mobile application for DOE's Clean Cities program. Clean Cities supports local stakeholders across the country in an effort to cut petroleum use in transportation. August 21, 2013 Can "Drop-In" Biofuels Solve Integration Issues? Lab works to create biofuels indistinguishable from conventional

439

Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

Thomas Mason

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

440

Results with a bench scale downdraft biomass gasifier for agricultural and forestry residues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A small scale fixed bed downdraft gasifier system to be fed with agricultural and forestry residues has been designed and constructed. The downdraft gasifier has four consecutive reaction zones from the top to the bottom, namely drying, pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction zones. Both the biomass fuel and the gases move in the same direction. A throat has been incorporated into the design to achieve gasification with lower tar production. The experimental system consists of the downdraft gasifier and the gas cleaning unit made up by a cyclone, a scrubber and a filter box. A pilot burner is utilized for initial ignition of the biomass fuel. The product gases are combusted in the flare built up as part of the gasification system. The gasification medium is air. The air to fuel ratio is adjusted to produce a gas with acceptably high heating value and low pollutants. Within this frame, different types of biomass, namely wood chips, barks, olive pomace and hazelnut shells are to be processed. The developed downdraft gasifier appears to handle the investigated biomass sources in a technically and environmentally feasible manner. This paper summarizes selected design related issues along with the results obtained with wood chips and hazelnut shells.

Hayati Olgun; Sibel Ozdogan; Guzide Yinesor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The effect of storage on the chemical composition and thermochemical conversion of biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of storage on different biomass feedstocks, including short rotation woody crops, herbaceous crops, and agricultural residues have been studied. Results of the analysis of fresh and stored material from four short rotation woody species using traditional wet chemical analysis showed differences in the chemical composition of the feedstocks harvested at different times. Changes that occurred in the material after unprotected storage outside for 26 weeks were measured. Over the period of the storage study, small changes were observed in the structural cell wall components including cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Larger changes were observed in the materials that could be extracted with 95% ethanol. Also presented are results from a rapid analytical technique using pyrolysis-mass spectrometry combined with multivariate statistical analysis to assess the influence of storage on the composition and thermochemical conversion of the different biomass feedstocks. Because of the rapid nature of this technique, a large number of samples could be screened to determine the extent of degradation throughout the piles. Application of this technique to the samples in this study indicated that, for the most part, significant changes did not occur in the composition of biomass taken from the centers of the piles. However, significant changes were detected in biomass taken from the outer layers and isolated regions in the piles where most advanced degradation had occurred.

Davis, M.F.; Agblevor, F.A.; Johnson, D.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

442

WeBiomass Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zip: 05701 Region: Greater Boston Area Sector: Biomass Product: Commercial Biomass Boiler Systems Website: http:www.webiomass.com Coordinates: 43.58070919775,...

443

Biomass Program Peer Review Sustainability Platform  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2000. "Biomass and Bioenergy Applications of the POLYSYS Modeling Framework," Biomass & Bioenergy 4(3):1-18. * County model anchored to USDA 10-year baseline & extended to 2030 -...

444

Economic Considerations of Biomass Conversion Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Earlier chapters have described various biomass conversion processes and processing procedures. This chapter provides a systematic method of estimating biomass process economics and determining the revenue requir...

Fred A. Schooley

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change This presentation was the opening...

446

Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Coal-Biomass to Liquids News Gasifipedia Coal-Biomass Feed Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses International Activity Project Information Project Portfolio Publications...

447

Biomass 2014: Additional Speaker Biographies | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4: Additional Speaker Biographies Biomass 2014: Additional Speaker Biographies This document outlines the biographies of the additional speakers for Biomass 2014, held July 29-July...

448

Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Presentation | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Presentation Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Presentation TRI Technology Update & IDL R&D Needs burciagatri.pdf More Documents & Publications...

449

Tribal Renewable Energy Curriculum Foundational Course: Biomass...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Renewable Energy Curriculum Foundational Course: Biomass Tribal Renewable Energy Curriculum Foundational Course: Biomass Watch the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy...

450

ARM - Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

March 2013 BNL BBOP Website Contacts Larry Kleinman, Lead Scientist Arthur Sedlacek Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Biomass Burning Plants, trees, grass, brush, and...

451

Biomass Renewable Energy Opportunities and Strategies | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Biomass Renewable Energy Opportunities and Strategies Biomass Renewable Energy Opportunities and Strategies May 30, 2014 - 1:39pm Addthis July 9, 2014 Bonneville Power...

452

Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Chemical...

453

Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory (Fact Sheet), National...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

At the Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory, NREL scientists have more than 20 years of experience supporting the biomass conversion industry. They develop, refine, and...

454

Biomass Webinar Presentation Slides | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Presentation Slides Biomass Webinar Presentation Slides Download presentation slides for the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on biomass renewable energy. DOE Office of Indian...

455

Pelleting characteristics of torrefied forest biomass.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Forest biomass (pine wood chips) was torrefied at different temperature (225 to 300 °C) to generate energy dense and hydrophobic biomass suitable for producing pellets.… (more)

Phanphanich, Manunya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

High temperature, optically transparent plastics from biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

temperature, optically transparent plastics from biomass At a Glance Rapid, selective catalytic system to produce vinyl plastics from renewable biomass Stereoregular...

457

Heat transfer efficiency of biomass cookstoves.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Nearly half of the world’s human population burns biomass fuel to meet home energy needs for heating and cooking. Biomass combustion often releases harmful chemical… (more)

Zube, Daniel Joseph

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES SERIES: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market A...

459

Infra red spectroscopy, flash pyrolysis, thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infra red spectroscopy, flash pyrolysis, thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM to sporopollenin or algaenan. This is in agreement with flash pyrolysis­gas chromatography­mass spectrometry (py

460

Known Challenges Associated with the Production, Transportation, Storage and Usage of Pyrolysis Oil in Residential and Industrial Settings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Dr. Jani Lehto presentation at the May 9 Pyrolysis Oil Workshop on Known Challenges Associated with the Production, Transportation, Storage and Usage of Pyrolysis Oil in Residential and Industrial Settings.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Combustion of Fast Pyrolysis Liquid (Bio-oil).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A study was carried out into the computational fluid dynamic simulation of bio-oil combustion. Measurements were taken in an empirical burner to obtain information regarding… (more)

McGrath, Arran Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Review and analysis of the 1980-1989 biomass thermochemical conversion program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the period between 1980 and 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research and development projects through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion (BTC) Program. Thermochemical conversion technologies use elevated temperatures to convert biomass into more useful forms of energy such as fuel gases or transportation fuels. The BTC Program included a wide range of biomass conversion projects in the areas of gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and combustion. This work formed the basis of the present DOE research and development efforts on advanced liquid fuel and power generation systems. At the beginning of Fiscal Year 1989, the management of the BTC Program was transferred from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, formerly Solar Energy Research Institute). This document presents a summary of the research which was performed under the BTC Program during the 1981-1989 time frame. The document consists of an analysis of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program and a bibliography of published documents. This work will help ensure that information from PNL`s BTC Program is available to those interested in biomass conversion technologies. The background of the BTC Program is discussed in the first chapter of this report. In addition, a brief summary of other related biomass research and development programs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and others is presented with references where additional information can be found. The remaining chapters of the report present a detailed summary of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program. The progress which was made on each project is summarized, the overall impact on biomass conversion is discussed, and selected references are provided.

Stevens, D.J.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION EFFORTS IN THE UNITED STATES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coil) Pyrolysis zone j Gasification zone j · Combustion zoneis a reactor for both gasification and liquefaction. The$0 lb = 17~6 lb 13.5 lb Gasification stoichiometry (at 1290°

Ergun, Sabri

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Carbonization of Coal Evaluation of Effects of Rate of Heating and of Maximum Temperature on Pyrolysis of a Coking Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbonization of Coal Evaluation of Effects of Rate of Heating and of Maximum Temperature on Pyrolysis of a Coking Coal ...

William B. Warren

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Biomass Characterization: Recent Progress in Understanding Biomass Recalcitrance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reviews Reviews Biomass Characterization: Recent Progress in Understanding Biomass Recalcitrance Marcus Foston and Arthur J. Ragauskas BioEnergy Science Center, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA Abstract The ever-increasing global demand for energy and materials has a pronounced effect on worldwide economic stability, diplomacy, and technical advancement. In response, a recent key research area in bio- technology has centered on the biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to simple sugars. Lignocellulosic biomass, converted to fer- mentable sugars via enzymatic hydrolysis of cell wall polysaccharides, can be utilized to generate a variety of downstream fuels and chemicals. Ethanol, in particular, has a high potential as transportation fuel to supplement or even replace

466

Investigating and Using Biomass Gases  

K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

Students will be introduced to biomass gasification and will generate their own biomass gases. Students generate these everyday on their own and find it quite amusing, but this time they’ll do it by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They will collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Students will also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best according to their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

467

Cell Wall Chemotyping for Functional Applications of PyrolysisGas Chromatography / Mass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cell Wall Chemotyping for Functional Genomics Applications of Pyrolysis­Gas Chromatography / Mass, Umeå 2012 #12;Cell Wall Chemotyping for Functional Genomics Applications of Pyrolysis.4.1 The Basic Tool-set 27 1.5 Wood Formation and Functional Genomics 31 2 Objectives 33 3 Methodological

468

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Modeling the motion of pyrolysis gas through charring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Modeling the motion of pyrolysis gas through problem with gas motion through the porous media employing finite element based Galerkin and Discontinuous t = time Subscripts c = char g = pyrolysis gas r = resin I. Introduction pace vehicles enter earth's (or

Roy, Subrata

469

Forensic Discrimination of Automotive Paint Samples Using Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry with Multivariate Statistics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC...Analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC...development, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py...considerations, such as lower cost, can lead one to change...does not vary between production sites, subtle differences......

Brian K. Kochanowski; Stephen L. Morgan

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Biothermal gasification of biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The BIOTHERMGAS Process is described for conversion of biomass, organic residues, and peat to substitute natural gas (SNG). This new process, under development at IGT, combines biological and thermal processes for total conversion of a broad variety of organic feeds (regardless of water or nutrient content). The process employs thermal gasification for conversion of refractory digester residues. Ammonia and other inorganic nutrients are recycled from the thermal process effluent to the bioconversion unit. Biomethanation and catalytic methanation are presented as alternative processes for methanation of thermal conversion product gases. Waste heat from the thermal component is used to supply the digester heat requirements of the bioconversion component. The results of a preliminary systems analysis of three possible applications of this process are presented: (1) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with catalytic methanation; (2) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with biomethanation; and (3) 1000 ton/day municipal solid waste (MSW) sewage sludge plant with biomethanation. The results indicate that for these examples, performance is superior to that expected for biological or thermal processes used separately. The results of laboratory studies presented suggest that effective conversion of thermal product gases can be accomplished by biomethanation.

Chynoweth, D.P.; Srivastava, V.J.; Henry, M.P.; Tarman, P.B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Other Biomass | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Other Biomass Other Biomass Dataset Summary Description Provides annual consumption (in quadrillion Btu) of renewable energy by energy use sector (residential, commercial, industrial, transportation and electricity) and by energy source (e.g. solar, biofuel) for 2004 through 2008. Original sources for data are cited on spreadsheet. Also available from: www.eia.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/trends/table1_2.xls Source EIA Date Released August 01st, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords annual energy consumption biodiesel Biofuels biomass energy use by sector ethanol geothermal Hydroelectric Conventional Landfill Gas MSW Biogenic Other Biomass renewable energy Solar Thermal/PV Waste wind Wood and Derived Fuels Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon RE Consumption by Energy Use Sector, Excel file (xls, 32.8 KiB)

472

Biomass conversion in South Africa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

South Africa is using or is investigating the potential of forest biomass sugar-cane, maize, grain sorghum, cannery...6...GJ per annum. These materials can also be utilized for the production of chemicals and foo...

Hans Jurgens Potgieter

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY PRODUCTION, AND OTHER BENEFITS PIERFINALPROJECTREPORT APPENDICES Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program Prepared By: USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research

474

Fuel Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...impacts as well, which include engine performance, infrastructure...Comparative automotive engine operation when fueled with...biomass with 50% moisture by diesel truck requiring 2000 Btu per...actively studied because of its fundamental interest and applications...

LEE R. LYND; JANET H. CUSHMAN; ROBERTA J. NICHOLS; CHARLES E. WYMAN

1991-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

The Combustion of Solid Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion of solid biomass is covered in this chapter. This covers the general mechanism of combustion, moisture evaporation, devolatilisation, the combustion of the volatiles gases and tars and finally char...

Jenny M. Jones; Amanda R. Lea-Langton…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Biomass Combustion for Electricity Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Subject of this article is therefore the description of the state-of-the-art technologies, environmental impacts including greenhouse gas emission balances, as well as financial aspects of using biomass for elect...

Andreas Wiese Dr.-Ing.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Biomass Combustion for Electricity Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Subject of this article is therefore the description of the state-of-the-art technologies, environmental impacts including greenhouse gas emission balances, as well as financial aspects of using biomass for elect...

Andreas Wiese Dr.-Ing.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanism study of wood lignin pyrolysis  by using TG?FTIR hemicellulose,  cellulose and lignin pyrolysis.  Fuel 2007, bark,  cellulose,  and  lignin:  Implications for the 

Keiluweit, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Modeling of the reburn process with the use of feedlot biomass as a reburn fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

...................................................................................... 43 Chemical reactions .............................................................................. 46 Pyrolysis .............................................................................................. 52 viii CHAPTER Page Fuel... nitrogen pyrolysis........................................................................ 54 Gas stream mass conservation equations ............................................ 56 Particle geometry...

Colmegna, Giacomo

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

480

Global (International) Energy Policy and Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presentation to the California Biomass Collaboration--First Annual Forum, January 8th 2004, Sacramento, California

Overend, R. P.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "biomass fast pyrolysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass J I N B A I Y A N G A N D B O H U M I L V Sargassum fluitans biomass was accompanied by the release of hydrogen protons from the biomass. The uptake the overall biosorption rate of cadmium ions in flat seaweed biomass particles. The overall biosorption

Volesky, Bohumil

482

Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- 1 - Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels March 26, 2012 Vanadium catalysts break down biomass into useful components Due to diminishing petroleum reserves, non-food biomass (lignocellulose biomass into high-value commodity chemicals. The journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition published

483

Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion Maryam Momeni #12;Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion Maryam Momeni Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Engineering Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion This thesis is a comprehensive study of single biomass

Berning, Torsten

484

Hydrocracking of a Plastics Pyrolysis Gas Oil to Naphtha  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 Of the approximately 80 billion pounds of plastics currently produced in the United States, most eventually ends up in landfills, with only 2?3% being recycled. ... Disposal of these waste plastics by direct incineration would lead to increased greenhouse gas emissions, primarily carbon dioxide, and particulate pollutants, while direct mechanical recycling of plastics is limited by the fact that reconstituted objects generally possess a downgraded appearance in comparison with virgin plastics. ... 14 On the other hand, there has been little study of the hydrocracking of waste plastic-derived pyrolysis liquids. ...

H. S. Joo; James A. Guin

1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

485

Test plan for ISV laboratory-pyrolysis testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the laboratory-pyrolysis studies is to obtain information on the high temperature (< 1200{degree}C) degradation and alteration of organic chemicals and materials similar to those found in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Pit 9. This test plan describes experimental procedures, sampling and analysis strategy, sampling procedures, sample control, and document management. It addresses safety issues in the experimental apparatus and procedures, personal training, and hazardous waste disposal. Finally, it describes the data quality objectives using the EPA tiered approach to treatability studies to define where research/scoping tests fit into these studies and the EPA analytical levels required for the tests.

McAtee, R.E.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

487

NETL: Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal/Biomass Feed & Gasification Coal/Biomass Feed & Gasification Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification The Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification Key Technology is advancing scientific knowledge of the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal and/or coal-biomass mixtures. Activities support research for handling and processing of coal/biomass mixtures, ensuring those mixtures are compatible with feed delivery systems, identifying potential impacts on downstream components, catalyst and reactor optimization, and characterizing the range of products and product quality. Active projects within the program portfolio include the following: Coal-biomass fuel preparation Development of Biomass-Infused Coal Briquettes for Co-Gasification Coal-biomass gasification modeling

488

Biomass and Bioenergy 31 (2007) 646655 Estimating biomass of individual pine trees using airborne lidar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass and Bioenergy 31 (2007) 646­655 Estimating biomass of individual pine trees using airborne biomass and bio-energy feedstocks. The overall goal of this study was to develop a method for assessing aboveground biomass and component biomass for individual trees using airborne lidar data in forest settings

489

Instructions for CEC-1250E-4 Biomass and Fossil Fuel Usage Report for Biomass Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Instructions for CEC-1250E-4 Biomass and Fossil Fuel Usage Report for Biomass Facilities Biomass energy input basis in the upcoming calendar year? - Please check "yes" or "no." 12. Types of Biomass Fuel Used - Please report the quantity and supplier of the following types of biomass fuel used

490

Isolation of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone solvent to form a residue, and further drying the residue by evaporation; reducing the residue into a powder; continuously extracting the powder residue with ethyl acetate to provide a levoglucosan-rich extract; and concentrating the extract by removing ethyl acetate to provide crystalline levoglucosan. Preferably, Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added to adjust the pH to the elevated values, and then Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added in an excess amount needed. 3 figures.

Moens, L.

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

491

Indirect thermal liquefaction process for producing liquid fuels from biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A progress report on an indirect liquefaction process to convert biomass type materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels by gasification followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis has been presented. A wide variety of feedstocks can be processed through the gasification system to a gas with a heating value of 500 + Btu/SCF. Some feedstocks are more attractive than others with regard to producing a high olefin content. This appears to be related to hydrocarbon content of the material. The H/sub 2//CO ratio can be manipulated over a wide range in the gasification system with steam addition. Some feedstocks require the aid of a water-gas shift catalyst while others appear to exhibit an auto-catalytic effect to achieve the conversion. H/sub 2/S content (beyond the gasification system wet scrubber) is negligible for the feedstocks surveyed. The water gas shift reaction appears to be enhanced with an increase in pyrolysis reactor temperature over the range of 1300 to 1700/sup 0/F. Reactor temperature in the Fischer-Tropsch step is a significant factor with regard to manipulating product composition analysis. The optimum temperature however will probably correspond to maximum conversion to liquid hydrocarbons in the C/sub 5/ - C/sub 17/ range. Continuing research includes integrated system performance assessment, alternative feedstock characterization (through gasification) and factor studies for gasification (e.g., catalyst usage, alternate heat transfer media, steam usage, recycle effects, residence time study) and liquefaction (e.g., improved catalysts, catalyst activity characterization).

Kuester, J.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Biomass gasification using low-temperature solar-driven steam supply  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A numerical modeling study on the low-temperature steam gasification process is presented to outline the possibility to drive the process with an integrated Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant, which provides low-temperature steam, with the aim of preserving a comparable efficiency of the new plant with traditional high-temperature biomass gasification processes. To meet this, the effective parameters and operating conditions are assessed and determined for low-temperature biomass gasification by means of sensitivity analysis, in order to find out the optimal design of the new gasifier. Crucial parameters comprise the residence time of the solid fuel and of the gas phase (leading to efficient gas–solid interactions), as well as the amount of injected oxygen and steam. Moreover, several operative parameters such as content of moisture in the biomass feedstock, size of the solid particles, equivalence ratio and structural components amount in the biomass feedstock are taken into account to optimize the operation. The molar ratio of H2/CO has been selected as a benchmark of efficiency in the process because the produced syngas would be applied in the methanol synthesis process, which needs a molar ratio of H2/CO close to the value of two. The percentage of the solid residue (weight % of the solid feedstock) has been evaluated along with the molar ratio of H2/CO in the low-temperature process to guide the re-design of the solar driven gasifier, in terms of reactor volume and amount of required oxygen and steam, which are necessary to sustain the process. The modeling and simulation to design the process have been accomplished by a comprehensive modeling package (GASDS), which includes kinetics of biomass devolatilization and pyrolysis, gasification, and secondary gas phase kinetic schemes. The gasifier, owing to its intrinsic multi-scale nature, is simulated describing both the particle and the reactor scales.

Zohreh Ravaghi-Ardebili; Flavio Manenti; Michele Corbetta; Carlo Pirola; Eliseo Ranzi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-cysticercus cellulosae antibodies...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy 16 General equations for Biomass Properties Nadge Richard1,2 Summary: shell (biomass) cellulosa type of reaction flash pyrolysis pyrolysis flash pyrolysis slow...

494

Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

synthesis from biomass pyrolysis with in situ carbon dioxideof pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of three biomassand biomass, undergoes several different processes and/or reactions: dehydration, pyrolysis,

Liu, Zhongzhe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

Darren D. Schmidt

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels Vanadium catalysts break down biomass into useful components Breaking down biomass could help in converting biomass to fuels. March 26, 2012 Biomass Due to diminishing petroleum reserves, non-food biomass (lignocellulose) is an attractive alternative as a feedstock for the production of renewable chemicals and fuels. Get Expertise Researcher Susan Hanson Inorganic Isotope & Actinide Chem Email Researcher Ruilian Wu Bioenergy & Environmental Science Email Researcher Louis "Pete" Silks Bioenergy & Environmental Science Email Vanadium is an inexpensive, earth-abundant metal that is well suited for promoting oxidations in air. Vanadium catalysts break down biomass into useful components Due to diminishing petroleum reserves, non-food biomass (lignocellulose) is

497

The role of biomass in California's hydrogen economy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

storage and transport, biomass conversion to hydrogen, andvehicle served by biomass ($) Conversion facility size (kg/the lowest biomass gasi?cation energy conversion ef?ciency

Parker, Nathan C; Ogden, Joan; Fan, Yueyue

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pretreatment to enhance biomass conversion to ethanol. Appl.pretreatment to enhance biomass conversion to ethanol. Appl.earliest use of acid in biomass conversion that provided a

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Interactions of Lignin and Hemicellulose and Effects on Biomass Deconstruction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Follow Xylan Deconstruction in Biomass Conversion . 61 3.1in lignocellulosic biomass conversion, however, is torecalcitrance to biomass conversion, a better understanding

Li, Hongjia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Catalytic Conversion of Biomass-derived Feedstock (HMF) into...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Catalytic Conversion of Biomass-derived Feedstock...