Sample records for biomass ethanol plants

  1. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Jung Fu (Lakewood, CO)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

  2. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, J.F.

    1985-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Direct Conversion of Plant Biomass to Ethanol by Engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Daehwan [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Cha, Minseok [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Westpheling, Janet [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is the most widely used renewable transportation biofuel in the United States, with the production of 13.3 billion gallons in 2012 [John UM (2013) Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States]. Despite considerable effort to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, chemical pretreatment and the addition of saccharolytic enzymes before microbial bioconversion remain economic barriers to industrial deployment [Lynd LR, et al. (2008) Nat Biotechnol 26(2):169-172]. We began with the thermophilic, anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, which efficiently uses unpretreated biomass, and engineered it to produce ethanol. Here we report the direct conversion of switchgrass, a nonfood, renewable feedstock, to ethanol without conventional pretreatment of the biomass. This process was accomplished by deletion of lactate dehydrogenase and heterologous expression of a Clostridium thermocellum bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Whereas wild-type C. bescii lacks the ability to make ethanol, 70% of the fermentation products in the engineered strain were ethanol [12.8 mM ethanol directly from 2% (wt/vol) switchgrass, a real-world substrate] with decreased production of acetate by 38% compared with wild-type. Direct conversion of biomass to ethanol represents a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing, offering the potential for carbon neutral, cost-effective, sustainable fuel production.

  4. Gridley Ethanol Demonstration Project Utilizing Biomass Gasification Technology: Pilot Plant Gasifier and Syngas Conversion Testing; August 2002 -- June 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of an overall evaluation of using a modified Pearson Pilot Plant for processing rice straw into syngas and ethanol and the application of the Pearson technology for building a Demonstration Plant at Gridley. This report also includes information on the feedstock preparation, feedstock handling, feedstock performance, catalyst performance, ethanol yields and potential problems identified from the pilot scale experiments.

  5. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  6. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  7. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * * * * June 2002 * NRELTP-510-32438 Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for...

  8. A Probabilistic Inventory Analysis of Biomass for the State of Texas for Cellulosic Ethanol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleinser, Matthew A.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    to simulate the range of biomass available by county and district. The probability that a district could support a 25, 50, 75, or 100 million gallon cellulosic ethanol plant is estimated from the Monte Carlo simulation results. Biomass in Texas is concentrated...

  9. NREL: Biomass Research - Video Text

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    common corn grain ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol is made from organic plant matter called biomass. The video shows different forms of biomass such as switchgrass, corn stalks, and...

  10. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.

  11. Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

    2000-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

  12. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  13. RAW MATERIALS EVALUATION AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES FOR CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL C. R. Wilke, R. D. Yang,of Cellulose Conversion on Ethanol Cost. References Wilke,of Hydrolyzate to Ethanol and Single Cell Protein,"

  14. Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

  15. A laboratory and pilot plant scaled continuous stirred reactor separator for the production of ethanol from sugars, corn grits/starch or biomass streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, M.C.; Lei, Shuiwang; Zhou, Chongde

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved bio-reactor has been developed to allow the high speed, continues, low energy conversion of various substrates to ethanol. The Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) incorporates gas stripping of the ethanol using a recalculating gas stream between cascading stirred reactors in series. We have operated a 4 liter lab scale unit, and built and operated a 24,000 liter pilot scale version of the bioreactor. High rates of fermentation are maintained in the reactor stages using a highly flocculent yeast strain. Ethanol is recovered from the stripping gas using a hydrophobic solvent absorber (isothermal), after which the gas is returned to the bioreactor. Ethanol can then be removed from the solvent to recover a highly concentrated ethanol product. We have applied the lab scale CSRS to sugars (glucose/sucrose), molasses, and raw starch with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the starch granules (SSF). The pilot scale CSRS has been operated as a cascade reactor using dextrins as a feed. Operating data from both the lab and pilot scale CSRS are presented. Details of how the system might be applied to cellulosics, with some preliminary data are also given.

  16. 17th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2009, Hamburg, Germany Lignocellulosic Ethanol: The Path to Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    17th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2009, Hamburg, Germany Lignocellulosic Ethanol of transport fuels from biomass is essential if the EU aspiration to substitute 10% of transport fuels investment in R&D in the US, Europe and Asia. The production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

  17. Softwood Biomass to Ethanol Feasibility Study; Final Report: June 14, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of design and project evaluation work studying various aspects of ethanol related projects including a conceptual ethanol plant located in Martell California.

  18. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.; Aden, A.; Jechura, J.; Dayton, D.; Eggeman, T.

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012.

  19. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  20. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  1. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. At least 80% of the particles pass through a 1/4 inch screen having a 6.3 mm nominal sieve opening but are retained by a No. 10 screen having a 2 mm nominal sieve opening. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  2. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  3. Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

  4. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  5. Thermochemical Ethanol via Direct Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Phillips, S. D.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates process design and technoeconomic criteria for a direct gasification process for conversion of biomass to ethanol. Follow-up to NREL/TP-510-41168.

  6. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Advanced Bio-based Jet Fuel...

  7. THE CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO ETHANOL USING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DERIVED FROM HOT DRY ROCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    97505 THE CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO ETHANOL USING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DERIVED FROM HOT DRY ROCK between a hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy source and the power requirements for the conversion -- geothermal energy derived from the vast resource of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) in our country, and biomass

  8. Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    ARTICLE Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation: Part II. Experimental Validation Using Waste Paper Sludge and Anticipation of CFD AnalysisScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.22047 ABSTRACT: A kinetic model of cellulosic biomass

  9. Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely reliant on wood chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely's biomass energy sector could be undermined unless businesses move to resolve the supply chain issues-scale biomass plants will leave generators largely reliant on biomass from overseas such as wood chips, elephant

  10. Biomass to ethanol : potential production and environmental impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groode, Tiffany Amber, 1979-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study models and assesses the current and future fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol produced from three feedstocks; corn grain, corn stover, and switchgrass. A life-cycle assessment approach ...

  11. Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O. [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences] [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology] [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-products generated from CGW biomass processing.

  12. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  13. Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  14. Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  15. Economic Analysis of a 3MW Biomass Gasification Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert; Lin, Kathy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Collaborative, Biomass gasification / power generationANALYSIS OF A 3MW BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER PLANT R obert Cas a feedstock for gasification for a 3 MW power plant was

  16. Cellulosic Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The economic competitiveness of cellulosic ethanol production is highly dependent on feedstock cost, which constitutes 35–50% of the total ethanol production cost, depending on various geographical factors and the types of systems used for harvesting, collecting, preprocessing, transporting, and handling the material. Consequently, as the deployment of cellulosic ethanol biorefi neries approaches, feedstock cost and availability are the driving factors that infl uence pioneer biorefi nery locations and will largely control the rate at which this industry grows. Initial scenarios were postulated to develop a pioneer dry feedstock supply system design case as a demonstration of the current state of technology. Based on this pioneer design, advanced scenarios were developed to determine key cost barriers, needed supply system improvements, and technology advancements to achieve government and private sector cost targets. Analysis of the pioneer supply system resulted in a delivered feedstock cost to the throat of the pretreatment reactor of $37.00 per dry tonne (2002 $). Pioneer supply systems will start by using current infrastructure and technologies and be individually designed for biorefi neries using specifi c feedstock types and varieties based on local geographic conditions. As the industry develops and cost barriers are addressed, the supply systems will incorporate advanced technologies that will eliminate downstream diversity and provide a uniform, tailored feedstock for multiple biorefi neries located in different regions.

  17. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chien-Ju

    2010-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important issues related to bioethanol generation, which will aid the research aimed to solve the topics m

  18. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of cellulosic biomass to renewable fuels is a plant’sof lignocellulosic biomass to renewable fuels and chemicalsof lignocellulosic biomass to renewable fuels is the plants

  19. Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyson, K.S.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

  20. MBI Biorefinery: Corn to Biomass, Ethanol to Biochemicals and Biomaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is a continuation of DOE-funded work (FY02 and FY03) that has focused on the development of the ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment technology, fermentation production of succinic acid and new processes and products to enhance dry mill profitability. The primary objective for work beginning in April 2004 and ending in November 2005 is focus on the key issues related to the: (1) design, costing and construction plan for a pilot AFEX pretreatment system, formation of a stakeholder development team to assist in the planning and design of a biorefinery pilot plant, continued evaluation of corn fractionation technologies, corn oil extraction, AFEX treatment of corn fiber/DDGs; (2) development of a process to fractionate AFEX-treated corn fiber and corn stover--cellulose and hemicellulose fractionation and sugar recovery; and (3) development of a scalable batch succinic acid production process at 500 L at or below $.42/lb, a laboratory scale fed-batch process for succinic acid production at or below $.40/lb, a recovery process for succinic acid that reduces the cost of succinic acid by $.02/lb and the development of an acid tolerant succinic acid production strain at lab scale (last objective not to be completed during this project time period).

  1. Optimization of Energy and Water Consumption in Cornbased Ethanol Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Optimization of Energy and Water Consumption in Corn­based Ethanol Plants Elvis Ahmetovi). First, we review the major alternatives in the optimization of energy consumption and its impact for the water streams. We show that minimizing energy consumption leads to process water networks with minimum

  2. Bimodal and multimodal plant biomass particle mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H.

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An industrial feedstock of plant biomass particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein the particles are individually characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L, wherein the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces, and wherein the particles in the feedstock are collectively characterized by having a bimodal or multimodal size distribution.

  3. Novel Biomass Conversion Process Results in Commercial Joint Venture; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describing DuPont/NREL cooperative research and development agreement that resulted in biomass-to-ethanol conversion process used as a basis for DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol, LLC and cellulosic ethanol demonstration plant.

  4. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 1: Cost of feedstock supply logistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia; Togore, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supply of corn stover to produce heat and power for a typical 170 dam3 dry mill ethanol plant is proposed. The corn ethanol plant requires 5.6 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat, which creates the annual stover demand of as much as 140 Gg. The corn stover supply system consists of collection, preprocessing, transportation and on-site fuel storage and preparation to produce heat and power for the ethanol plant. Economics of the entire supply system was conducted using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) simulation model. Corn stover was delivered in three formats (square bales, dry chops and pellets) to the combined heat and power plant. Delivered cost of biomass ready to be burned was calculated at 73 $ Mg-1 for bales, 86 $ Mg-1 for pellets and 84 $ Mg-1 for field chopped biomass. Among the three formats of stover supply systems, delivered cost of pelleted biomass was the highest due to high pelleting cost. Bulk transport of biomass in the form of chops and pellets can provide a promising future biomass supply logistic system in the US, if the costs of pelleting and transport are minimized.

  5. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

  6. Video Article Comprehensive Compositional Analysis of Plant Cell Walls (Lignocellulosic biomass)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauly, Markus

    for a thorough characterization of plant biomass feedstocks. Here we describe a comprehensive analytical

  7. OIKOS 103: 4558, 2003 Plant species diversity, plant biomass and responses of the soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leps, Jan "Suspa"

    species diversity, plant biomass and responses of the soil community on abandoned land across EuropeOIKOS 103: 45­58, 2003 Plant species diversity, plant biomass and responses of the soil community on abandoned land across Europe: idiosyncracy or above-belowground time lags K. Hedlund, I. Santa Regina, W. H

  8. What Factors Affect the Decision to Invest in a Fuel Ethanol Plant? A Structural Model of the Ethanol Investment Timing Game1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    1 What Factors Affect the Decision to Invest in a Fuel Ethanol Plant? A Structural Model of the Ethanol Investment Timing Game1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin and Fujin Yi Abstract The decision to invest in building an ethanol plant that uses a particular feedstock is a dynamic decision that may be affected by economic

  9. Ethanol Distribution, Dispensing, and Use: Analysis of a Portion of the Biomass-to-Biofuels Supply Chain Using System Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L. J.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain-represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner's decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer's choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and widespread use of high ethanol blends in flexible-fuel vehicles.

  10. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the United States began a program to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types--categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly--from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path.

  11. Forest Biomass Supply for BioForest Biomass Supply for Bio--productionproduction in the Southeastern United Statesin the Southeastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    Bio--production and biomass utilizationsproduction and biomass utilizations Industrial sector: for heat and steam Utility Fermentation Gasification Pyrolysis Heat, steam, electricity Ethanol Methanol, ethanol, diesel, syngas for biofuel producers and retailers · Energy Security Act of 1980: insured loans to small ethanol plants

  12. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten, the Proctor Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites, for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A separate Appendix provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. 26 figs., 121 tabs.

  13. Mecca Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio: Energy8429°, -88.864698° ShowMeade County,Place,Page EditPlant

  14. Video Article Comprehensive Compositional Analysis of Plant Cell Walls (Lignocellulosic biomass)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauly, Markus

    and optimized. This fact underpins the need for a thorough characterization of plant biomass feedstocks. Here we

  15. Ethanol Myths: Under the Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    , transport to facility, convert to ethanol, and distribute Future biomass feedstocks will come primarily from

  16. HARNESSING PLANT BIOMASS FOR BIOFUELS AND BIOMATERIALS Plant surface lipid biosynthetic pathways and their utility for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    HARNESSING PLANT BIOMASS FOR BIOFUELS AND BIOMATERIALS Plant surface lipid biosynthetic pathways and their utility for metabolic engineering of waxes and hydrocarbon biofuels Reinhard Jetter1,2,* and Ljerka Kunst1 biosynthetic pathways can be used in metabolic engineering of plants for the production of hydrocarbon biofuels

  17. BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritschard, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biomass resources will have to be reassessed periodically in the light of priceEthanol Price. Effect of Sugar on Ethanol Cost • vii BIOMASS

  18. Woody Biomass for Energy in Michigan TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION AND INQUIRY EXTENSION BULLETIN E-3086

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -added product, such as pellets, heat, power, ethanol, or chemicals. In addition to various kinds of chips mill or ethanol plant may require bark-free material. A District Energy plant or Combined Heat. Wood is one form of that biomass, along with leaves, bark, flowers, fruit, etc. Woody biomass has been

  19. Biomass Feedstocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A feedstock is defined as any renewable, biological material that can be used directly as a fuel, or converted to another form of fuel or energy product. Biomass feedstocks are the plant and algal materials used to derive fuels like ethanol, butanol, biodiesel, and other hydrocarbon fuels. Examples of biomass feedstocks include corn starch, sugarcane juice, crop residues such as corn stover and sugarcane bagasse, purpose-grown grass crops, and woody plants. The Bioenergy Technologies Office works in partnership with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), national laboratories, universities, industry, and other key stakeholders to identify and develop economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable feedstocks for the production of energy, including transportation fuels, electrical power and heat, and other bioproducts. Efforts in this area will ultimately support the development of technologies that can provide a large and sustainable cellulosic biomass feedstock supply of acceptable quality and at a reasonable cost for use by the developing U.S. advanced biofuel industry.

  20. Rutgers-Camden Researchers Identify a Key Protein for Yield and Biomass Accumulation in Plants.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Alice Y.C.

    Rutgers-Camden Researchers Identify a Key Protein for Yield and Biomass Accumulation in Plants. Growth, cell patterning, yield, and biomass accumulation in plants are controlled by multi and biomass accumulation. A particular protein, GIGANTUS1 (GTS1), named for its role in regulating a GIANT

  1. A Probabilistic Inventory Analysis of Biomass for the State of Texas for Cellulosic Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleinser, Matthew A.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Agricultural and forestry wastes for the use of creating cellulosic ethanol were inventoried for each county in Texas. A simple forecast was created for each of the agricultural wastes and then a multivariate empirical distribution was used...

  2. Technology assessment of biomass ethanol : a multi-objective, life cycle approach under uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jeremy C. (Jeremy Clayton)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology is presented for assessing the current and future utilization of agricultural crops as feedstocks for the production of transportation fuels, specifically, the use of corn grain and stover for ethanol production. ...

  3. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slininger, Patricia J; Shea-Andersh, Maureen A; Thompson, Stephanie R; Dien, Bruce S; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Balan, Venkatesh; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Dale, Bruce E; Cotta, Michael A

    2015-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock useful for the production of fuel-grade ethanol via the processing steps of pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. Traditional industrial yeasts do not ferment xylose and are not able to grow, survive, or ferment in concentrated hydrolyzates that contain enough sugar to support economical ethanol recovery since they are laden with toxic byproducts generated during pretreatment.

  4. Guadalupe Power Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG| Open Energy Information 2000)2004)PevafersaPlant Biomass Facility

  5. Competitiveness of Biomass-Fueled Electrical Power Plants Bruce A. McCarl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Competitiveness of Biomass-Fueled Electrical Power Plants Bruce A. McCarl Professor Department with suggested rollbacks in greenhouse gas emissions is by employing power plant fueled with biomass. We examine structure. We consider fueling power plants from milling residues, whole trees, logging residues, switch

  6. Economic Optimization of a Lignocellulosic Biomass-to-Ethanol Supply Chain in the Midwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjaafar, Saifallah

    has set a minimum target to replace 10% of overall consumption of petrol and diesel in transport] were collected and converted into ethanol, it would replace over one-third of the current US demand distribution of feedstocks and biofuel demand to evaluate particular biorefinery location

  7. Interactions of Lignin and Hemicellulose and Effects on Biomass Deconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hongjia

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks into ethanol via atools. Different biomass feedstocks have different cell wallmajor lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks, except softwoods,

  8. Development of Agave as a dedicated biomass source: production of biofuels from whole plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Mielenz, Jonathan R [White Cliff Biosystems, Rockwood, Tennessee; Rodriguez Jr, Miguel [ORNL; Thompson, Olivia A [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Yin, Hengfu [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Agave species can grow well in semi-arid marginal agricultural lands around the world. Selected Agave species are used largely for alcoholic beverage production in Mexico. There are expanding research efforts to use the plentiful residues (bagasse) for ethanol production as the beverage manufacturing process only uses the juice from the central core of mature plants. Here we investigate the potential of over a dozen Agave species, including three from cold semi-arid regions of the United States, to produce biofuels using the whole plant. Results: Ethanol was readily produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from hydrolysate of ten whole Agaves with the use of a proper blend of biomass degrading enzymes that overcomes toxicity of most of the species tested. Unlike yeast fermentations, Clostridium beijerinckii produced butanol plus acetone from nine species tested. Butyric acid, a precursor of butanol, was also present due to incomplete conversion during the screening process. Since Agave contains high levels of free and poly-fructose which are readily destroyed by acidic pretreatment, a two step process was used developed to depolymerized poly-fructose while maintaining its fermentability. The hydrolysate from before and after dilute acid processing was used in C. beijerinckii acetone and butanol fermentations with selected Agave species. Conclusions: Results have shown Agave s potential to be a source of fermentable sugars beyond the existing beverage species to now include species previously unfermentable by yeast, including cold tolerant lines. This development may stimulate development of Agave as a dedicated feedstock for biofuels in semi-arid regions throughout the globe.

  9. Engineered plant biomass particles coated with bioactive agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Plant biomass particles coated with a bioactive agent such as a fertilizer or pesticide, characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to a grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces.

  10. Engineered plant biomass particles coated with biological agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Plant biomass particles coated with a biological agent such as a bacterium or seed, characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to a grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces.

  11. Economic Analysis of a 3MW Biomass Gasification Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert; Lin, Kathy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facilities that use biomass, waste, or renewable resources (Renewable Power Purchase and Sale Agreement, Accessed May 2008 from www.sce.com 9. The California Biomassrenewable projects. Southern California Edison (SCE) has one such program for biomass

  12. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartmentTest for PumpingThe FactsSynthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

  13. PILOT PLANT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5 EthanolBazua, D.C. and C.R. Wilke, "Ethanol Effects on the Kineticsto the Production of Ethanol, LBL-5963. (Submitted to

  14. Illinois State Geological Survey Evaluation of CO2 Capture Options from Ethanol Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finley

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Illinois State Geological Survey and the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium are conducting CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced oil recovery testing at six different sites in the Illinois Basin. The capital and operating costs for equipment to capture and liquefy CO{sub 2} from ethanol plants in the Illinois area were evaluated so that ethanol plants could be considered as an alternate source for CO{sub 2} in the event that successful enhanced oil recovery tests create the need for additional sources of CO{sub 2} in the area. Estimated equipment and operating costs needed to capture and liquefy 68 metric tonnes/day (75 tons/day) and 272 tonnes/day (300 tons/day) of CO{sub 2} for truck delivery from an ethanol plant are provided. Estimated costs are provided for food/beverage grade CO{sub 2} and also for less purified CO{sub 2} suitable for enhanced oil recovery or sequestration. The report includes preliminary plant and equipment designs and estimates major capital and operating costs for each of the recovery options. Availability of used equipment was assessed.

  15. aquatic plant biomass: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ani- mal fodder, conservation tillage systems on erodible soils, as well as green manure Petanidou, Theodora 418 Conversion Factors for Dreissena spp. Biomass. Open Access...

  16. Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Senthilvasan

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    be applied to farmland in accordance with nutrient management plans and stockpiled waste poses economic and environmental liabilities. In the present study, the feasibility of using biomass as a reburn fuel in existing coal-fired power plants is considered...

  17. Assessing Available Woody Plant Biomass on Rangelands with Lidar and Multispectral Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ku, Nian-Wei

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    ASSESSING AVAILABLE WOODY PLANT BIOMASS ON RANGELANDS WITH LIDAR AND MULTISPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING A Thesis by NIAN-WEI KU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... ASSESSING AVAILABLE WOODY PLANT BIOMASS ON RANGELANDS WITH LIDAR AND MULTISPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING A Thesis by NIAN-WEI KU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  18. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Appendices to the final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The final report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten Island, the Proctor and Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. This appendix to the final report provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations.

  19. Modelling air quality impact of a biomass energy power plant in a mountain valley in Central Italy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curci, Gabriele

    Modelling air quality impact of a biomass energy power plant in a mountain valley in Central Italy in revised form 31 July 2012 Accepted 1 August 2012 Keywords: Biomass energy Air quality CALPUFF NO2 SO2 fuel power plants with those fuelled with modern biomass (IPCC, 2011). However, from an air quality

  20. Economic Analysis of a 3MW Biomass Gasification Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert; Lin, Kathy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon (char) from the gasifier to the combustor and heatfrom the combustor back to the gasifier. One advantage ofexhaust stream of the Char Combustor (R-2). The biomass is

  1. A pilot plant scale reactor/separator for ethanol from cellulosics. ERIP/DOE quarterly report no. 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, M.C.; Moelhman, M.; Butters, R.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a continuous, low energy process for the conversion of cellulosics to ethanol. This process involves a pretreatment step followed by enzymatic release of sugars and the consecutive simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) of cellulose (glucans) followed by hemi-cellulose (pentosans) in a multi-stage continuous stirred reactor separator (CSRS). During quarters 3 and 4, we have completed a literature survey on cellulase production, activated one strain of Trichoderma reesei. We continued developing our proprietary Steep Delignification (SD) process for biomass pretreatment. Some problems with fermentations were traces to bad cellulase enzyme. Using commercial cellulase enzymes from Solvay & Genecor, SSF experiments with wheat straw showed 41 g/L ethanol and free xylose of 20 g/L after completion of the fermentation. From corn stover, we noted 36 g/L ethanol production from the cellulose fraction of the biomass, and 4 g/L free xylose at the completion of the SSF. We also began some work with paper mill sludge as a cellulose source, and in some preliminary experiments obtained 23 g/L ethanol during SSF of the sludge. During year 2, a 130 L process scale unit will be operated to demonstrate the process using straw or cornstalks. Co-sponsors of this project include the Indiana Biomass Grants Program, Bio-Process Innovation.

  2. Survey and Down-Selection of Acid Gas Removal Systems for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol with a Detailed Analysis of an MDEA System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, California

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first section (Task 1) of this report by Nexant includes a survey and screening of various acid gas removal processes in order to evaluate their capability to meet the specific design requirements for thermochemical ethanol synthesis in NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007, NREL/TP-510-41168). MDEA and selexol were short-listed as the most promising acid-gas removal agents based on work described in Task 1. The second report section (Task 2) describes a detailed design of an MDEA (methyl diethanol amine) based acid gas removal system for removing CO2 and H2S from biomass-derived syngas. Only MDEA was chosen for detailed study because of the available resources.

  3. Assessing Available Woody Plant Biomass on Rangelands with Lidar and Multispectral Remote Sensing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ku, Nian-Wei

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    products. Mesquite trees, a type of woody plant, are a proven source of bioenergy feedstock found on semi-arid lands. The overall objectives of this study were to develop algorithms for determining woody plant biomass on rangelands in Texas at plot...

  4. Partitioning the effects of plant biomass and litter on Andropogon gerardi in old-field vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, Bryan L.; Gross, Katherine L.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examined the effects of living plant neighbors and litter on the performance of a native C4 grass, Andropogon gerardi, at five old-field sites that differ in community biomass and soil fertility. We used plant removal experiments in which both...

  5. Investment in Corn-Ethanol Plants in the Midwestern United States: An Analysis Using Reduced-Form and Structural Models1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    1 Investment in Corn-Ethanol Plants in the Midwestern United States: An Analysis Using Reduced-Form and Structural Models1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin and Karen E. Thome Abstract Ethanol has attracted considerable policy policy and strategic interactions affect decisions about when and where to invest in building new ethanol

  6. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood: Properties for Ethanol Fuel and Fiber Productions.Wyman CE, 2004. Ethanol Fuel, in Cleveland, C.J. (Ed. ),scenario for cellulosic ethanol fuel production, and speaks

  7. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  8. EA-1870: Utah Coal and Biomass Fueled Pilot Plant, Kanab, Kane County, Utah

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared an Environmental Assessment to evaluate the potential impacts of providing financial assistance to Viresco Energy, LLC, for its construction and operation of a Coal and Biomass Fueled Pilot Plant, which would be located in Kanab, Utah.

  9. Economic Assessment of a Conceptual Biomass to Liquids Bio-Syntrolysis Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. M. Plum; G. L. Hawkes

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of assessments evaluated the economic efficiency of integrating a nuclear electric power plant with a biomass to SynFuel plant under three market scenarios. Results strongly suggest that a nuclear assisted-BioSyntrolysis Process would be as cost competitive as other carbon feedstock to liquid fuels concepts while having significant advantages regarding CO2 greenhouse gas production. This concept may also be competitive for those energy markets where energy dense, fossil fuels are scarce while wind, hydroelectric, or other renewable energy sources can be produced at a relatively low cost. At this time, a realistic vision of this technology’s deployment of a biomass to synfuel plants powered by a nuclear 1100 MWe reactor. Accompanying an area of 25 miles by 25 miles, this integrated Enterprise could produce 24,000 BBLs of SynFuel daily; or 0.2% of the U.S.’s imported oil.

  10. West Point Treatment Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED JumpHills, New York: EnergyMountain, Utah:Orange,WestFoodPlant

  11. Nove Power Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellence Seed LLCShores,Activity on Low RiskNovaNovato,Nove

  12. Olinda Landfill Gas Recovery Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellenceOffice of StateOklahomaField,Olde WestInformation

  13. American Canyon Power Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: Energy Resources Jump to:Almo, Idaho: EnergyAltenCanyon Power Plant

  14. Marsh Road Power Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther,JemezMissouri: EnergyMarlboro, New York:MarquetteMarquisMarsh

  15. Rhodia Houston Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation,Maze - Making theEngenhariaReynoldsRhodia Houston Plant

  16. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suen, Garret; Barry, Kerrie; Goodwin, Lynne; Scott, Jarrod; Aylward, Frank; Adams, Sandra; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Foster, Clifton; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy; Slater, Steven; Donohue, Timothy; Currie, Cameron; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome?s predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  17. Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered Thermophilic and Ethanol-Tolerant Geobacillus Strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Yinjie J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: currentcharacterization of two novel ethanol-tolerant facultative-Lin Y, Tanaka S. 2006. Ethanol fermentation from biomass

  18. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks (Lynd et al. , 1991;as well as superior biomass feedstocks be intelligentlyrecalcitrance for all biomass feedstocks. Consequently, more

  19. Role of plant biomass in the global environmental partitioning of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calamari, D.; Morosini, M.; Vighi, M. (Univ. of Milan, (Italy)); Bacci, E.; Focardi, S.; Gaggi, C. (Univ. of Siena (Italy))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plant biomass plays a significant role in the global environmental partitioning phenomena and plants are good indicators of tropospheric contamination levels by chlorinated hydrocarbons. In the present research 300 samples of plants were collected in 265 areas distributed worldwide and analyzed for HCB (hexachlorobenzene), {alpha}-HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane), {gamma}-HCH, p,p{prime}-DDT,o,p{prime}-DDT, and p,p{prime}-DDE (degradation product of DDT). Global HCB distribution is strongly dependent on the temperature, the HCB being present mainly in samples from cold areas. The sum of DDTs show higher concentrations in samples from topical areas, while the sum of HCHs is higher in the plants from the Northern Hemisphere. These results are discussed, taking into account the role of physicochemical properties in determining the global distribution as well as the air age of the contamination.

  20. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  1. A supply chain network design model for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Md. S. Roni; Sandra D. Eksioglu; Erin Searcy; Krishna Jha

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a framework for designing the supply chain network for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants. This framework is inspired by existing practices with products with similar physical characteristics to biomass. We present a hub-and-spoke supply chain network design model for long-haul delivery of biomass. This model is a mixed integer linear program solved using benders decomposition algorithm. Numerical analysis indicates that 100 million tons of biomass are located within 75 miles from a coal plant and could be delivered at $8.53/dry-ton; 60 million tons of biomass are located beyond 75 miles and could be delivered at $36/dry-ton.

  2. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  3. The Effects of Surfactant Pretreatment and Xylooligomers on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose and Pretreated Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qing, Qing

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enzymatic Conversion of Biomass for Fuels Production, 566,B. , 2002. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process DesignSummary of findings from the Biomass Refining Consortium for

  4. Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 joint quarterly Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Todd Sneller (Nebraska Ethanol Board) discussed the food versus fuel issue.

  5. PILOT PLANT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of the Kudzu Plant ..Chemical Analysis of the Kudzu Plant. As promised in a1-30-77), the study on the Kudzu plant has been completed.

  6. Nipa (Nypa fruticans) sap as a potential feedstock for ethanol production Pramila Tamunaidu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    . Introduction Currently the global ethanol supply is produced mainly from sugar and starch feedstocks. Sugar these feedstocks rely heavily on non-renewable fossil fuels and exploitation of forest lands which has negative cutting down the plant as in sugarcane which consequently produces large biomass waste such as straw

  7. Integrating and Piloting Lignocellulose Biomass Conversion Technology (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schell, D. J.

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation on NREL's integrated biomass conversion capabilities. Presented at the 2009 Advanced Biofuels Workshop in Denver, CO, Cellulosic Ethanol session.

  8. Physical Energy Accounting in California: A Case Study of Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie; Fridley, David

    2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    California's target for greenhouse gas reduction in part relies on the development of viable low-carbon fuel alternatives to gasoline. It is often assumed that cellulosic ethanol--ethanol made from the structural parts of a plant and not from the food parts--will be one of these alternatives. This study examines the physical viability of a switchgrass-based cellulosic ethanol industry in California from the point of view of the physical requirements of land, water, energy and other material use. Starting from a scenario in which existing irrigated pastureland and fiber-crop land is converted to switchgrass production, the analysis determines the total acreage and water supply available and the resulting total biofuel feedstock output under different assumed yields. The number and location of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries that can be supported is also determined, assuming that the distance from field to biorefinery would be minimized. The biorefinery energy input requirement, available energy from the fraction of biomass not converted to ethanol, and energy output is calculated at various levels of ethanol yields, making different assumptions about process efficiencies. The analysis shows that there is insufficient biomass (after cellulose separation and fermentation into ethanol) to provide all the process energy needed to run the biorefinery; hence, the purchase of external energy such as natural gas is required to produce ethanol from switchgrass. The higher the yield of ethanol, the more external energy is needed, so that the net gains due to improved process efficiency may not be positive. On 2.7 million acres of land planted in switchgrass in this scenario, the switchgrass outputproduces enough ethanol to substitute for only 1.2 to 4.0percent of California's gasoline consumption in 2007.

  9. Compositions and methods relating to transgenic plants and cellulosic ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tien, Ming (State College, PA); Carlson, John (Port Matilda, PA); Liang, Haiying (Clemson, SC)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Transgenic lignocellulosic plants are provided according to embodiments of the present invention, the transgenic plants transformed with an expression cassette encoding a protein operably linked to a signal peptide which targets the protein to a cell wall of the transgenic plant, where at least 5% of the total amino acid residues of the protein are tyrosine, lysine, serine, threonine or cysteine. Methods of increasing lignin-protein bonds in a lignocellulosic plant are provided according to embodiments of the present invention which include expressing a recombinant nucleic acid in a lignocellulosic plant, the recombinant nucleic acid encoding a protein operably linked to a signal peptide which targets the protein to the cell wall of a plant, where at least 5% of the total amino acid residues of the protein are tyrosine, lysine, serine, threonine or cysteine.

  10. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY .................................................................................... 33 3.3 BIOMASS POWER PLANT OPERATION MODELS AND DATA

  11. Developing better biomass feedstock | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Developing better biomass feedstock Developing better biomass feedstock Released: September 04, 2014 Multi-omics unlocking the workings of plants Kim Hixson, an EMSL research...

  12. Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiluweit, M.; Nico, P.S.; Johnson, M.G.; Kleber, M.

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration ('biochar'). Here we present a molecular-level assessment of the physical organization and chemical complexity of biomass-derived chars and, specifically, that of aromatic carbon in char structures. BET-N{sub 2} surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy are used to show how two plant materials (wood and grass) undergo analogous, but quantitatively different physical-chemical transitions as charring temperature increases from 100 to 700 C. These changes suggest the existence of four distinct categories of char consisting of a unique mixture of chemical phases and physical states: (i) in transition chars the crystalline character of the precursor materials is preserved, (ii) in amorphous chars the heat-altered molecules and incipient aromatic polycondensates are randomly mixed, (iii) composite chars consist of poorly ordered graphene stacks embedded in amorphous phases, and (iv) turbostratic chars are dominated by disordered graphitic crystallites. The molecular variations among the different char categories translate into differences in their ability to persist in the environment and function as environmental sorbents.

  13. Plant biomass in the Tanana River Basin, Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mead, B.R.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vegetation biomass tables are presented for the Tanana River Basin. Average biomass for each species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in the 13 forest and 30 nonforest vegetation types is shown. These data combined with area estimates for each vegetation type provide a tool for estimating habitat carrying capacity for many wildlife species. Tree biomass is reported for the entire aboveground tree, thereby allowing estimates of total fiber content.

  14. Twig and foliar biomass estimation equations for major plant species in the Tanana River basin of interior Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarie, J.; Mead, B.R.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equations are presented for estimating the twig, foliage, and combined biomass for 58 plant species in interior Alaska. The equations can be used for estimating biomass from percentage of the foliar cover of 10-centimeter layers in a vertical profile from 0 to 6 meters. Few differences were found in regressions of the same species between layers except when the ratio of foliar-to-twig biomass changed drastically between layers, for example, Rosa acicularis Lindl. Eighteen species were tested for regression differences between years. Thirteen showed no significant differences, five were different. Of these five, three were feather mosses for which live and dead biomass are easily confused when measured.

  15. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called �dedicated bioenergy crops� including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a major portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

  16. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Togore, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

  17. How Wood Chip Size Affects Pretreatment Effectiveness of Woody Biomass for Biological Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Jerry

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the price of food and animal feed. Lignocellulosic biomass,biomass can be the most promising feedstock for ethanol production because it offers lower price

  18. Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis to Ethanol | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEWResponse(Expired)of EnergyPlanned Audits andOneEnergy Plants

  19. Decomposition of Fresh and Anaerobically Digested Plant Biomass in Soil1 K. K. MOORHEAD, D. A, GRAETZ, AND K. R. REDDY2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Decomposition of Fresh and Anaerobically Digested Plant Biomass in Soil1 K. K. MOORHEAD, D. A to produce CH4 or added to soil directly as an amendment.In this study, fresh and anaerobically digested. The fresh plant biomassand digested biomasssludgewere freeze- dried and groundto passa0.84-mm sieve

  20. Applying SE Methods Achieves Project Success to Evaluate Hammer and Fixed Cutter Grinders Using Multiple Varieties and Moistures of Biomass Feedstock for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry R. Zirker; Christopher T. Wright, PhD; R. Douglas Hamelin

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applying basic systems engineering (SE) tools to the mission analysis phases of a 2.5-million dollar biomass pre-processing project for the U.S. Department of Energy directly assisted the project principal investigator understand the complexity and identify the gaps of a moving-target project and capture the undefined technical/functional requirements and deliverables from the project team and industrial partners. A creative application of various SE tools by non-aerospace systems engineers developed an innovative “big picture” product that combined aspects of mission analysis with a project functional flow block diagram, providing immediate understanding of the depth and breath of the biomass preprocessing effort for all team members, customers, and industrial partners. The “big picture” diagram became the blue print to write the project test plan, and provided direction to bring the project back on track and achieve project success.

  1. Technoeconomic Comparison of Biofuels: Ethanol, Methanol, and Gasoline from Gasification of Woody Residues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarud, J.; Phillips, S.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides a technoeconomic comparison of three biofuels - ethanol, methanol, and gasoline - produced by gasification of woody biomass residues. The presentation includes a brief discussion of the three fuels evaluated; discussion of equivalent feedstock and front end processes; discussion of back end processes for each fuel; process comparisons of efficiencies, yields, and water usage; and economic assumptions and results, including a plant gate price (PGP) for each fuel.

  2. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Clark, David P. (Carbondale, IL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  3. Designer organisms for photosynthetic production of ethanol from carbon dioxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a revolutionary photosynthetic ethanol production technology based on designer transgenic plants, algae, or plant cells. The designer plants, designer algae, and designer plant cells are created such that the endogenous photosynthesis regulation mechanism is tamed, and the reducing power (NADPH) and energy (ATP) acquired from the photosynthetic water splitting and proton gradient-coupled electron transport process are used for immediate synthesis of ethanol (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH) directly from carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and water (H.sub.2O). The ethanol production methods of the present invention completely eliminate the problem of recalcitrant lignocellulosics by bypassing the bottleneck problem of the biomass technology. The photosynthetic ethanol-production technology of the present invention is expected to have a much higher solar-to-ethanol energy-conversion efficiency than the current technology and could also help protect the Earth's environment from the dangerous accumulation of CO.sub.2 in the atmosphere.

  4. Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: POET

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    processing plant as part of an integrated biorefinery to produce lignocellulosic ethanol primarily from corn cobs. Project LIBERTY will integrate production of cellulosic...

  5. Pretreated densified biomass products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  6. Cellulosic biomass could help meet California’s transportation fuel needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E.; Yang, Bin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin-blocking treatment of biomass and uses thereof. Yangin the conversion of biomass to ethanol. American InstituteNY. p 15. Dale BE. 1983. Biomass refining — protein and

  7. Ethanol plant investment in Canada: A structural model1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin and Fujin Yi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    of mandating an average 5% renewable fuel content based on the gasoline volume. Based on the trend of net sales of gasoline used for road motor vehicles between 2005 and 2008, a federal mandate of 5% renewable fuel content investment should also control for the effects of other factors such as fuel ethanol prices, feedstock

  8. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington`s industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state`s total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state`s energy needs.

  9. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington's industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state's total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state's energy needs.

  10. FERMENTATION OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BY MICROORGANISMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, S.L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conversion of renewable biomass resources to liquid andderived from renewable (biomass) sources. To some extent,use of renewable resources, such as plant, biomass, for the

  11. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, Dan

    2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

  12. Plant power : the cost of using biomass for power generation and potential for decreased greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuellar, Amanda Dulcinea

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To date, biomass has not been a large source of power generation in the United States, despite the potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits from displacing coal with carbon neutral biomass. In this thesis, the fuel cycle ...

  13. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethanol and plant-based biodiesel ( Box 1). Although bio-acid pathway Currently, biodiesel production uses plant oilsbeen developed for use as biodiesel. However, if biodiesel

  14. Mercury emission control for coal fired power plants using coal and biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arcot Vijayasarathy, Udayasarathy

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports for 2001 shows that total mercury emissions from all sources in USA is about 145 tons per annum, of which coal fired power plants contribute around 33% of it, about 48 tons per annum. Unlike other trace metals...

  15. Nitrogen cycling, plant biomass, and carbon dioxide evolution in a subsurface flow wetland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lane, Jeffrey J

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to ascertain the fate of nitrogen in a constructed wetland and the rate of bioremediation as indicated by carbon dioxide evolution. Research included a study of nitrogen uptake by plants and nitrification. A tracer isotope of nitrogen,ą?N, was used to follow...

  16. Breaking the Biological barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Alton, Anita Jean [ORNL; Andrews, Shirley H [ORNL; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn [ORNL; Casey, Denise [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL; Mills, Marissa [ORNL; Nylander, Kim [ORNL; Wyrick, Judy M [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A robust fusion of the agricultural, industrial biotechnology, and energy industries can create a new strategic national capability for energy independence and climate protection. In his State of the Union Address (Bush 2006), President George W. Bush outlined the Advanced Energy Initiative, which seeks to reduce our national dependence on imported oil by accelerating the development of domestic, renewable alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuels. The president has set a national goal of developing cleaner, cheaper, and more reliable alternative energy sources to substantially replace oil imports in the coming years. Fuels derived from cellulosic biomass - the fibrous, woody, and generally inedible portions of plant matter - offer one such alternative to conventional energy sources that can dramatically impact national economic growth, national energy security, and environmental goals. Cellulosic biomass is an attractive energy feedstock because it is an abundant, domestic, renewable source that can be converted to liquid transportation fuels. These fuels can be used readily by current-generation vehicles and distributed through the existing transportation-fuel infrastructure. The Biomass to Biofuels Workshop, held December 7-9, 2005, was convened by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the Office of Science; and the Office of the Biomass Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The purpose was to define barriers and challenges to a rapid expansion of cellulosic-ethanol production and determine ways to speed solutions through concerted application of modern biology tools as part of a joint research agenda. Although the focus was ethanol, the science applies to additional fuels that include biodiesel and other bioproducts or coproducts having critical roles in any deployment scheme. The core barrier is cellulosic-biomass recalcitrance to processing to ethanol. Biomass is composed of nature's most ready energy source, sugars, but they are locked in a complex polymer composite exquisitely created to resist biological and chemical degradation. Key to energizing a new biofuel industry based on conversion of cellulose (and hemicelluloses) to ethanol is to understand plant cell-wall chemical and physical structures - how they are synthesized and can be deconstructed. With this knowledge, innovative energy crops - plants specifically designed for industrial processing to biofuel - can be developed concurrently with new biology-based treatment and conversion methods. Recent advances in science and technological capabilities, especially those from the nascent discipline of systems biology, promise to accelerate and enhance this development. Resulting technologies will create a fundamentally new process and biorefinery paradigm that will enable an efficient and economic industry for converting plant biomass to liquid fuels. These key barriers and suggested research strategies to address them are described in this report. As technologies mature for accomplishing this task, the technical strategy proceeds through three phases: In the research phase, within 5 years, an understanding of existing feedstocks must be gained to devise sustainable, effective, and economical methods for their harvest, deconstruction, and conversion to ethanol. Research is centered on enzymatic breakdown of cellulosic biomass to component 5- and 6-carbon sugars and lignin, using a combination of thermochemical and biological processes, followed by cofermentation of sugars to specified endproducts such as ethanol. Processes will be integrated and consolidated to reduce costs, improve efficacy, reduce generation of and sensitivity to inhibitors, and improve overall yields and viability in biorefinery environments. The technology deployment phase, within 10 years, will include creation of a new generation of energy crops with enhanced sustainability, yield, and composition, coupled with processes for simultaneous breakdown of biomass to sugars and cofermentation of sugars via new biological system

  17. Potential sites for joint venture biomass fueled power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Army is investigating wood-fired boilers. One application is for wood fuels to fire fixed power plant installations where the technology is well proven. Approximately 170 Army bases were evaluated for their heating and electrical needs versus fuel availability from on-base forests. Approximately 20 bases met the minimum demand and resource criteria. Potential joint venture partner classes were identified as new Contractor Owned/Contractor Operated (COCO) entrepreneurs; existing utilities and industries in the vicinity of the bases; and existing Government Owned/Contractor Operated (GOCO) entrepreneurs.

  18. Ethanol Plant Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarkets EnergyConsumption5 15Environmental

  19. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling price of $1.33 for the 2012 goal case process as reported in the 2007 State of Technology Model (NREL 2008). Hence, pyrolysis oil does not appear to be an economically attractive product in this scenario. Further research regarding fast pyrolysis of raw lignin from a cellulosic plant as an end product is not recommended. Other processes, such as high-pressure liquefaction or wet gasification, and higher value products, such as gasoline and diesel from fast pyrolysis oil should be considered in future studies.

  20. Ethanol Tolerant Yeast for Improved Production of Ethanol from Biomass -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1, 13 DE@EnergyErnest

  1. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J. (eds.)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. NREL Research on Converting Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called "biofuels," to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. Today, ethanol is made from starches and sugars, but at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) scientists are developing technology to allow it to be made from cellulose and hemicellulose, the fibrous material that makes up the bulk of most plant matter. Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol (usually methanol) with vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking grease. It can be used as an additive (typically 20%) to reduce vehicle emissions or in its pure form as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html

  3. NREL Research on Converting Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called "biofuels," to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. Today, ethanol is made from starches and sugars, but at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) scientists are developing technology to allow it to be made from cellulose and hemicellulose, the fibrous material that makes up the bulk of most plant matter. Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol (usually methanol) with vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking grease. It can be used as an additive (typically 20%) to reduce vehicle emissions or in its pure form as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html

  4. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY;10-2 #12;Appendix 10: Power Plant Analysis for Conversion of Forest Remediation Biomass to Renewable Fuels and Electricity 1. Report to the Biomass to Energy Project (B2E) Principal Authors: Dennis Schuetzle, TSS

  5. Life cycle analysis of hybrid poplar trees for cellulosic ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jessica J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this paper is to assess the energy and environmental benefits of cultivating hybrid poplars as a biomass crop for cellulosic ethanol. A "Life Cycle Assessment" (LCA) methodology is used to systematically ...

  6. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  7. Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: ICM, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    10 TD pre-treatment skid Pilot Integrated Cellulosic Biorefinery Operations to Fuel Ethanol ICM, Inc. has modified its existing pilot plant and begun operations to use its...

  8. Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: Archer Daniels Midland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Archer Daniels Midland will develop a pilot plant to demonstrate the continuous production of cellulosic ethanol and butyl acrylate from densified corn stover.

  9. The conversion of biomass to ethanol and microbial biomass protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reshamwala, Sultan

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /andii fermentation resulting in 20% CP (dry substrate basis), a 2000% increase over untreated BAG (1 % CP). Fermentations with high solids ratios and no agitation provided the most economically attractive MBP production method. Essential amino acid profiles...

  10. Investigation of the Effect of In-Situ Catalyst on the Steam Hydrogasification of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FAN, XIN

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    derived from biomass, including biogas, biodiesel, ethanol,in the absence of oxygen environment to produce biogas.The biogas generated from anaerobic digestion of biosolids

  11. IEA/H2/TR-02/001 Hydrogen from Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ............................................................................................ 7 Thermal/Steam/Partial Oxidation........................................................... 7................................................. 19 Hydrogen from Biomass-Derived Ethanol.................................................... 21 and Carbon......................................................... 25 Reforming of Methane (and Natural Gas

  12. Genome-Scale Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolism and Ethanol Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    ARTICLE Genome-Scale Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolism and Ethanol Production in Fed cerevisiae metabolism and ethanol production in fed-batch culture. Metabolic engineering strategies previously identified for their enhanced steady-state biomass and/or ethanol yields are evaluated for fed

  13. Biotech Breakthrough Produces Ethanol from Waste Glycerin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    . Biodiesel is one of the green alternatives and US production of this fuel is at an all-time high, with new biodiesel plants being constructed in record number. However, there is one problem, the fact. They developed a new technology that transforms glycerin into ethanol, another ecological fuel. Ethanol

  14. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Utilization of diets containing graded levels of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to manufacture fuel ethanol (Rosentrater and Muthukumarappan, 2006). In 2008, 174 operating ethanol plantsORIGINAL ARTICLE Utilization of diets containing graded levels of ethanol production co-Pascual, 2000), fuel-based DDGS are a co-product of dry mill pro- cessing, where primarily corn is used

  16. Renewable Energy Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis to Ethanol (4 Activities) Renewable Energy Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis to Ethanol (4 Activities)...

  17. Investigation of an integrated switchgrass gasification/fuel cell power plant. Final report for Phase 1 of the Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Smeenk, J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Steinfeld, G. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program, has the goal of converting switchgrass grown on marginal farmland in southern Iowa into electric power. Two energy conversion options are under evaluation: co-firing switchgrass with coal in an existing utility boiler and gasification of switchgrass for use in a carbonate fuel cell. This paper describes the second option under investigation. The gasification study includes both experimental testing in a pilot-scale gasifier and computer simulation of carbonate fuel cell performance when operated on gas derived from switchgrass. Options for comprehensive system integration between a carbonate fuel cell and the gasification system are being evaluated. Use of waste heat from the carbonate fuel cell to maximize overall integrated plant efficiency is being examined. Existing fuel cell power plant design elements will be used, as appropriate, in the integration of the gasifier and fuel cell power plant to minimize cost complexity and risk. The gasification experiments are being performed by Iowa State University and the fuel cell evaluations are being performed by Energy Research Corporation.

  18. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Beall, David S. (Gainesville, FL); Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H. (Gainesville, FL); Guimaraes, Walter V. (Vicosa, BR); Ohta, Kazuyoshi (Miyazaki, JP); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL); Shanmugam, Keelnatham T. (Gainesville, FL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  19. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Horton, Philip G. (Gainesville, FL); Ben-Bassat, Arie (Gainesville, FL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  20. Development of a Low NOx Burner System for Coal Fired Power Plants Using Coal and Biomass Blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez, Patsky O.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    &M University (TAMU) demonstrated that cofiring coal with feedlot biomass (FB) in conventional burners produced lower or similar levels of NOx but increased CO. The present research deals with i) construction of a small scale 29.31 kW (100,000 BTU/hr) LNB...

  1. Biomass pretreatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  2. agriculture biomass feedstock: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sorghum and miscanthus have been posed as high volume... Zhang, Yuquan 2012-02-14 75 Technology assessment of biomass ethanol : a multi-objective, life cycle approach under...

  3. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

  4. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  5. Integration of Biorefineries and Nuclear Cogeneration Power Plants - A Preliminary Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Sherrell R [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass-based ethanol and nuclear power are two viable elements in the path to U.S. energy independence. Numerous studies suggest nuclear power could provide a practical carbon-free heat source alternative for the production of biomass-based ethanol. In order for this coupling to occur, it is necessary to examine the interfacial requirements of both nuclear power plants and bioethanol refineries. This report describes the proposed characteristics of a small cogeneration nuclear power plant, a biochemical process-based cellulosic bioethanol refinery, and a thermochemical process-based cellulosic biorefinery. Systemic and interfacial issues relating to the co-location of either type of bioethanol facility with a nuclear power plant are presented and discussed. Results indicate future co-location efforts will require a new optimized energy strategy focused on overcoming the interfacial challenges identified in the report.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of the Au-modified Pd cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Available online 3 August 2010 Keywords: Fuel cell Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell Oxygen reduction Carbon in large quantities from agricultural products or biomass. Hence, direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) haveSynthesis and characterization of the Au-modified Pd cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol

  7. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  8. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.; Lynd, Lee R.; Laser, Mark

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  9. Development of a Low NOx Burner System for Coal Fired Power Plants Using Coal and Biomass Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez, Patsky O.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    composted, dairy biomass (LA-PC-DB-SepS) had the following heat values and empirical formulas: CH0.6992N0.0122O0.1822S0.00217 and CH_1.2554N_0.0470O_0.3965S_0.00457. The WYO contained 3.10 kg of Ash/GJ, 15.66 kg of VM/GJ, 0.36 kg of N/GJ, and 6.21 kg of O...

  10. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent Systems Catalystic Biomass Liquefaction Investigatereactor Product collection Biomass liquefaction process12-13, 1980 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,

  11. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  12. TECHNICAL ADVANCE The ethanol switch: a tool for tissue-specic gene induction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, J.A.H.

    TECHNICAL ADVANCE The ethanol switch: a tool for tissue-speci®c gene induction during plant is a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function during plant development. Here, we report ethanol inducible of an ethanol-regulated transcription factor, ALCR, is restricted to precise domains using speci®c promoters

  13. Increase in ethanol yield via elimination of lactate production in an ethanol-tolerant mutant of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Ranjita [ORNL] [ORNL; Prabhu, Sandeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth] [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Guss, Adam M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuel is a potential solution to sustainably meet global energy needs. One-step consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a potentially advantageous approach for the production of biofuels, but requires an organism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to sugars and fermenting the sugars to ethanol at commercially viable titers and yields. Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, can ferment cellulosic biomass to ethanol and organic acids, but low yield, low titer, and ethanol sensitivity remain barriers to industrial production. Here, we deleted the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in ethanol tolerant strain of C. thermocellum adhE*(EA) in order to allow use of previously developed gene deletion tools, then deleted lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) to redirect carbon flux towards ethanol. Upon deletion of ldh, the adhE*(EA) ldh strain produced 30% more ethanol than wild type on minimal medium. The adhE*(EA) ldh strain retained tolerance to 5% v/v ethanol, resulting in an ethanol tolerant platform strain of C. thermocellum for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  14. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raines, Ronald T.

    Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass Joseph B. Binder and Ronald T. Raines1 19, 2009) Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels of biomass into monosaccharides. Add- ing water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic

  15. Researchers at the Biomass Energy Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    is renewable, and can be grown domestically. In all its variet- ies, biomass is also plentiful, and hasHARVEST OF ENERGY Researchers at the Biomass Energy Center are homing in on future fuels --By David--seriously for much longer than that. These are just a few examples of biomass, plant matter that can be transformed

  16. AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary IV: Advances in Bioenergy Feedstocks—From Field to Fuel AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation Glenn Farris, Marketing Manager Biomass, AGCO Corporation

  17. Techno-economic study of the calcium looping process for CO2 capture from cement and biomass power plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozcan, Dursun Can

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The first detailed systematic investigation of a cement plant with various carbon capture technologies has been performed. The calcium looping (Ca-looping) process has emerged as a leading option for this purpose, since ...

  18. Biomass in Multifunction Crop Plants: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-05-163

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, S. R.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of cellulase, hemicellulase, and accessory enzymes were tested for their ability to increase the conversion levels and rates of biomass to sugar after being subjected to thermochemical pretreatment. The genes were cloned by Oklahoma State University and expressed, purified, and tested at NREL. Several enzymes were noted to be effective in increasing conversion levels, however expression levels were typically very low. The overall plan was to express these enzymes in corn as a possible mechanism towards decreased recalcitrance. One enzyme, cel5A endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus, was transformed into both tobacco and corn. The transgenic corn stover and tobacco were examined for their susceptibility to thermochemical pretreatment followed by enzymatic digestion.

  19. Colloid-based multiplexed method for screening plant biomass-degrading glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reindl, W.; Deng, K.; Gladden, J.M.; Cheng, G.; Wong, A.; Singer, S.W.; Singh, S.; Lee, J.-C.; Yao, J.-S.; Hazen, T.C.; Singh, A.K; Simmons, B.A.; Adams, P.D.; Northen, T.R.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of long-chain polysaccharides is a crucial step in the conversion of biomass to lignocellulosic biofuels. The identification and characterization of optimal glycoside hydrolases is dependent on enzyme activity assays, however existing methods are limited in terms of compatibility with a broad range of reaction conditions, sample complexity, and especially multiplexity. The method we present is a multiplexed approach based on Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry (NIMS) that allowed studying several glycolytic activities in parallel under diverse assay conditions. Although the substrate analogs carried a highly hydrophobic perfluorinated tag, assays could be performed in aqueous solutions due colloid formation of the substrate molecules. We first validated our method by analyzing known {beta}-glucosidase and {beta}-xylosidase activities in single and parallel assay setups, followed by the identification and characterization of yet unknown glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities.

  20. AgraPure Mississippi Biomass Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackwell,D.A; Broadhead, L.W.; Harrell, W.J.

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The AgraPure Mississippi Biomass project was a congressionally directed project, initiated to study the utilization of Mississippi agricultural byproducts and waste products in the production of bio-energy and to determine the feasibility of commercialization of these agricultural byproducts and waste products as feedstocks in the production of energy. The final products from this project were two business plans; one for a Thermal plant, and one for a Biodiesel/Ethanol plant. Agricultural waste fired steam and electrical generating plants and biodiesel plants were deemed the best prospects for developing commercially viable industries. Additionally, oil extraction methods were studied, both traditional and two novel techniques, and incorporated into the development plans. Mississippi produced crop and animal waste biomasses were analyzed for use as raw materials for both industries. The relevant factors, availability, costs, transportation, storage, location, and energetic value criteria were considered. Since feedstock accounts for more than 70 percent of the total cost of producing biodiesel, any local advantages are considered extremely important in developing this particular industry. The same factors must be evaluated in assessing the prospects of commercial operation of a steam and electrical generation plant. Additionally, the access to the markets for electricity is more limited, regulated and tightly controlled than the liquid fuel markets. Domestically produced biofuels, both biodiesel and ethanol, are gaining more attention and popularity with the consuming public as prices rise and supplies of foreign crude become less secure. Biodiesel requires no major modifications to existing diesel engines or supply chain and offers significant environmental benefits. Currently the biodiesel industry requires Federal and State incentives to allow the industry to develop and become self-sustaining. Mississippi has available the necessary feedstocks and is geographically located to be able to service a regional market. Other states have active incentive programs to promote the industry. Mississippi has adopted an incentive program for ethanol and biodiesel; however, the State legislature has not funded this program, leaving Mississippi at a disadvantage when compared to other states in developing the bio-based liquid fuel industry. With all relevant factors being considered, Mississippi offers several advantages to developing the biodiesel industry. As a result of AgraPure's work and plan development, a private investor group has built a 7,000 gallon per day facility in central Mississippi with plans to build a 10 million gallon per year biodiesel facility. The development of a thermochemical conversion/generation facility requires a much larger financial commitment, making a longer operational time necessary to recover the capital invested. Without a renewable portfolio standard to put a floor under the price, or the existence of a suitable steam host, the venture is not economically viable. And so, it has not met with the success of the biodiesel plan. While the necessary components regarding feedstocks, location, permitting and technology are all favorable; the market is not currently favorable for the development of this type of project. In this region there is an abundance of energy generation capacity. Without subsidies or a Mississippi renewable portfolio standard requiring the renewable energy to be produced from Mississippi raw materials, which are not available for the alternative energy source selected by AgraPure, this facility is not economically viable.

  1. Biomass Energy Data Book, 2011, Edition 4

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wright, L.; Boundy, B.; Diegel, S. W.; Davis, S. C.

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability.

  2. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Badger, Philip C [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the second edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, assumptions for selected tables and figures, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  3. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of the Biomass Program and the Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis in the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use. This is the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book and is currently only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and BioOil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is about the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include measures of conversions, biomass characteristics and assumptions for selected tables and figures. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  4. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also two appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  5. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the third edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  6. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  7. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

    1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

  8. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Chen, Guang Jiong (Fayetteville, AR)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

  9. Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

  10. Biofuels and Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    residues, or other kinds of plant-based "biomass feedstocks". Ethanol is typically made from plant biomass

  11. Impact of ethanol expansion on the cattle feeding industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Erin

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    feedlots are located more than 200 miles from an ethanol plant, Dried Distiller�s Grains with Solubles (DDGS) can be fed to lower the cost of gain; therefore, ethanol co-products can be fed to help offset potential increases in corn prices. The partial...

  12. Flow-through biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herring, Christopher D.; Liu, Chaogang; Bardsley, John

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for biologically converting carbohydrates from lignocellulosic biomass comprising the steps of: suspending lignocellulosic biomass in a flow-through reactor, passing a reaction solution into the reactor, wherein the solution is absorbed into the biomass substrate and at least a portion of the solution migrates through said biomass substrate to a liquid reservoir, recirculating the reaction solution in the liquid reservoir at least once to be absorbed into and migrate through the biomass substrate again. The biological converting of the may involve hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose, or a combination thereof to form oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof; fermenting oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof to produce ethanol, or a combination thereof. The process can further comprise removing the reaction solution and processing the solution to separate the ethanol produced from non-fermented solids.

  13. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  14. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Dalal, Rajen (Chicago, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  15. Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the recalcitrant nature of biomass feedstocks and the performance of techniques to deconstruct biomass NREL of biomass feedstocks. BSCL imaging capabilities include: · Confocal microscopy and Raman microscopy

  16. Pacific Ethanol, Inc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    facility in an existing pulp mill to demonstrate the production of cellulosic ethanol from lignocellulosic (wood) extract. CEO or Equivalent: Edward Paslawski, Chairman...

  17. MU FAPRI reports economic impact of extending ethanol tax credit, tariff Contact:Duane Dailey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    . ­ Extending the current ethanol tax credit and tariff would boost corn-based fuel production -- and corn for corn as an ethanol fuel source would expand corn acreage by 1.7 million acres, said Seth Meyer, MU for blended fuel at the pump. "At the same time, blenders can pay more to ethanol plants that in turn pay

  18. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Ling Tao, Dan Schell, Ryan...

  19. EA-1642-S1: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOE’s proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

  20. Northstar Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellence Seed LLC JumpNew Jersey:Northstar Ethanol Jump to:

  1. NREL: Biomass Research - Biomass Characterization Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    before and after pretreatment and during processing. The characterization of biomass feedstocks, intermediates, and products is a critical step in optimizing biomass conversion...

  2. Mutant selection and phenotypic and genetic characterization of ethanol-tolerant strains of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Shao, Xiongjun [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Raman, Babu [Dow Chemical Company, The; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Zhu, Mingjun [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, PR China

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clostridium thermocellum is a model microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals via consolidated bioprocessing. One of the challenges for industrial application of this organism is its low ethanol tolerance, typically 1 2% (w/v) in wild-type strains. In this study, we report the development and characterization of mutant C. thermocellum strains that can grow in the presence of high ethanol concentrations. Starting from a single colony, wild-type C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 was sub-cultured and adapted for growth in up to 50 g/L ethanol using either cellobiose or crystalline cellulose as the growth substrate. Both the adapted strains retained their ability to grow on either substrate and displayed a higher growth rate and biomass yield than the wild-type strain in the absence of ethanol. With added ethanol in the media, the mutant strains displayed an inverse correlation between ethanol concentration and growth rate or biomass yield. Genome sequencing revealed six common mutations in the two ethanol-tolerant strains including an alcohol dehydrogenase gene and genes involved in arginine/pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. The potential role of these mutations in ethanol tolerance phenotype is discussed.

  3. Mutant selection and phenotypic and genetic characterization of ethanol-tolerant strains of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Xiongjun [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Raman, Babu [ORNL; Zhu, Mingjun [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, PR China; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clostridium thermocellum is a model microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals via consolidated bioprocessing. One of the challenges for industrial application of this organism is its low ethanol tolerance, typically 1-2% (w/v) in wild-type strains. In this study, we report the development and characterization of mutant C. thermocellum strains that can grow in the presence of high ethanol concentrations. Starting from a single colony, wild-type C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 was sub-cultured and adapted for growth in up to 50 g/L ethanol using either cellobiose or crystalline cellulose as the growth substrate. Both the adapted strains retained their ability to grow on either substrate and displayed a higher growth rate and biomass yield than the wild-type strain in the absence of ethanol. With added ethanol in the media, the mutant strains displayed an inverse correlation between ethanol concentration and growth rate or biomass yield. Genome sequencing revealed six common mutations in the two ethanol-tolerant strains including an alcohol dehydrogenase gene and genes involved in arginine/pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. The potential role of these mutations in ethanol tolerance phenotype is discussed.

  4. Plant-based Food and Feed Protein Structure Changes Induced by Gene-transformation heating and bio-ethanol processing: A Synchrotron-based Molecular Structure and Nutrition Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P Yu

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Unlike traditional 'wet' analytical methods which during processing for analysis often result in destruction or alteration of the intrinsic protein structures, advanced synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy has been developed as a rapid and nondestructive and bioanalytical technique. This cutting-edge synchrotron-based bioanalytical technology, taking advantages of synchrotron light brightness (million times brighter than sun), is capable of exploring the molecular chemistry or structure of a biological tissue without destruction inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions. In this article, a novel approach is introduced to show the potential of the advanced synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to study plant-based food or feed protein molecular structure in relation to nutrient utilization and availability. Recent progress was reported on using synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and diffused reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy to detect the effects of gene-transformation (Application 1), autoclaving (Application 2), and bio-ethanol processing (Application 3) on plant-based food and feed protein structure changes on a molecular basis. The synchrotron-based technology provides a new approach for plant-based protein structure research at ultra-spatial resolutions at cellular and molecular levels.

  5. Biomass shock pretreatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  6. %22Trojan Horse%22 strategy for deconstruction of biomass for biofuels production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Sinclair, Michael B.; Yu, Eizadora; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Hadi, Masood Z.; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of renewable biofuels to displace fossil fuels currently consumed in the transportation sector is a pressing multiagency national priority (DOE/USDA/EERE). Currently, nearly all fuel ethanol is produced from corn-derived starch. Dedicated 'energy crops' and agricultural waste are preferred long-term solutions for renewable, cheap, and globally available biofuels as they avoid some of the market pressures and secondary greenhouse gas emission challenges currently facing corn ethanol. These sources of lignocellulosic biomass are converted to fermentable sugars using a variety of chemical and thermochemical pretreatments, which disrupt cellulose and lignin cross-links, allowing exogenously added recombinant microbial enzymes to more efficiently hydrolyze the cellulose for 'deconstruction' into glucose. This process is plagued with inefficiencies, primarily due to the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, mass transfer issues during deconstruction, and low activity of recombinant deconstruction enzymes. Costs are also high due to the requirement for enzymes and reagents, and energy-intensive cumbersome pretreatment steps. One potential solution to these problems is found in synthetic biology-engineered plants that self-produce a suite of cellulase enzymes. Deconstruction can then be integrated into a one-step process, thereby increasing efficiency (cellulose-cellulase mass-transfer rates) and reducing costs. The unique aspects of our approach are the rationally engineered enzymes which become Trojan horses during pretreatment conditions. During this study we rationally engineered Cazy enzymes and then integrated them into plant cells by multiple transformation techniques. The regenerated plants were assayed for first expression of these messages and then for the resulting proteins. The plants were then subjected to consolidated bioprocessing and characterized in detail. Our results and possible implications of this work on developing dedicated energy crops and their advantage in a consolidated bioprocessing system.

  7. Atlantic Ethanol Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass Conversions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name:Ethanol Capital Jump to:

  8. Blue Flint Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouthby 2022 |Bleckley County,Minnesota:OpenFlint Ethanol Place:

  9. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of waste heat and better documentation of potential of carbon credits, would also improve the economic outlook. Analysis of baseline operational conditions indicated that a reduction in methane emissions and other greenhouse gas savings resulted from implementation of the project. The project results indicate that using anaerobic digestion to produce bio-methane from agricultural biomass is a promising source of electricity, but that significant challenges need to be addressed before dairy-based biomass energy production can be fully integrated into an alternative energy economy. The biomass energy facility was found to be operating undercapacity. Economic analysis indicated a positive economic sustainability, even at the reduced power production levels demonstrated during the baseline period. However, increasing methane generation capacity (via the importation of biomass codigestate) will be critical for increasing electricity output and improving the long-term economic sustainability of the operation. Dairy-based biomass energy plants are operating under strict environmental regulations applicable to both power-production and confined animal facilities and novel approached are being applied to maintain minimal environmental impacts. The use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for nitrous oxide control and a biological hydrogen sulfide control system were tested at this facility. Results from this study suggest that biomass energy systems can be compliant with reasonable scientifically based air and water pollution control regulations. The most significant challenge for the development of biomass energy as a viable component of power production on a regional scale is likely to be the availability of energy-rich organic feedstocks. Additionally, there needs to be further development of regional expertise in digester and power plant operations. At the Fiscalini facility, power production was limited by the availability of biomass for methane generation, not the designed system capacity. During the baseline study period, feedstocks included manure, sudan grass silage, and

  10. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  11. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  12. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  13. Biomass energy : a real estate investment perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foo, Chester Ren Jie

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A central consideration in real estate is how value is created in real estate development and investment deals. A biomass power plant is not only an asset which generates revenues, but from a real estate perspective, it ...

  14. Biomass Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    hands holding corn stover, the unused parts of harvested corn. There are many types of biomass-organic matter such as plants, residue from agriculture and forestry, and the organic...

  15. Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This executive summary provides an overview of an NREL assessment to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region around Greensburg, Kansas.

  16. Implications of ethanol-based fuels for greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); DeLuchi, M.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies; Wyman, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a rule which would mandate that 30% of the oxygen content of reformulated gasoline be provided by renewable oxygenates. The rule would essentially require that biomass-based ethanol, or ETBE derived from ethanol, be used to supply 30% of the oxygen in reformulated gasoline. This short statement addresses the very narrow question, ``Would this rule result in a net decrease in greenhouse gas emissions?`` The challenge then is to determine how much greenhouse gas is emitted during the ethanol fuel cycle, a fuel cycle that is much less mature and less well documented than the petroleum fuel cycle. In the petroleum fuel cycle, most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from fuel combustion. In the ethanol fuel cycle most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from the fuel production processes. Details of corn productivity, fertilizer use, process efficiency, fuel source, etc. become very important. It is also important that the ethanol fuel cycle produces additional products and the greenhouse gas emissions have somehow to be allocated among the respective products. With so many variables in the ethanol fuel cycle, the concern is actually with ethanol-based additives which will be produced in response to the proposed rule, and not necessarily with the average of ethanol which is being produced now. A first important observation is that the difference between standard gasoline and reformulated gasoline is very small so that when differences are drawn against alternative fuels, it makes little difference whether the contrast is against standard or reformulated gasoline. A second observation is that for this base case comparison, emissions of CO{sub 2} alone are roughly 13% less for the ethanol fuel cycle than for the reformulated gasoline cycle.

  17. Modeling, Optimization and Economic Evaluation of Residual Biomass Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgeson, Adam

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . .............................................................................. 7 Table 2. Components Used in Simulation. ...................................................................... 20 Table 3. Composition of Biomass Feedstock to Biorefinery. ......................................... 43 Table 4. Operating... for optimizing gasification plant design from an economic perspective. Specifically, the problem addressed in this work is stated as follows: Given are: ? A set of biomass feedstocks {i|i = 1,2,?,I } which includes fresh as well as residue biomass ? A set...

  18. Pacific Ethanol, Inc | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pacific Ethanol, Inc Pacific Ethanol, Inc Pacific Ethanol, Inc More Documents & Publications RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) Major DOE...

  19. Ethanol Myths and Facts | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ethanol Myths and Facts Ethanol Myths and Facts Ethanol Myths and Facts More Documents & Publications Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts Microsoft Word -...

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Reactor scale up for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    ORIGINAL PAPER Reactor scale up for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol Xiongjun scale-up approach for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to com- modity products of large scale bioreactors based on bench scale experimentation. Keywords CFD Á SSF Á Scale up Á Solids

  1. CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth, Manu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liquid Fuels from Biomass: "Catalyst Screening and KineticUC-61 (l, RCO osn CDL or BIOMASS CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION ManuCATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS Manu Seth, Roger Djafar,

  2. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBL-11 019 UC-61 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,Catalytic Liquefaction of Biomass,n M, Seth, R. Djafar, G.of California. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION QUARTERLY

  3. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass "Bionic" Liquids from Lignin: Joint BioEnergy Institute Results Pave the Way for Closed-Loop Biofuel Refineries On December 11, 2014, in Biofuels, Biomass, Capabilities,...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Assessing the Economic Potential of Advanced Biofuels On September 10, 2013, in Biofuels, Biomass, Energy, Facilities, JBEI, News, News & Events, Partnership, Renewable...

  6. Biomass Analytical Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diversity and performance, The chemical and physical properties of biomass and biomass feedstocks are characterized as they move through the supply chain to various conversion...

  7. Biomass Densification Workshop Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    supply systems that ensure high- volume, reliable, and on-spec availability of biomass feedstocks. The United States has a diverse and abundant potential of biomass resources...

  8. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  9. Ethanol Production Tax Credit (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Qualified ethanol producers are eligible for an income tax credit of $1 per gallon of corn- or cellulosic-based ethanol that meets ASTM standard D4806. The total credit amount available for all...

  10. Biogeochemical Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated Subsurface Sediments. Biogeochemical Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated Subsurface Sediments. Abstract: A...

  11. Economic development through biomass system integration. Volumes 2--4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLong, M.M.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners.

  12. Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boas, Harold P.

    Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant? JAMES M. GRIFFIN & RACHAEL DAHL The Mosbacher Institute VOLUME 3 | ISSUE 2 | 2012 2012 RELAXING THE ETHANOL MANDATE The severity of the drought of 2012 affecting for ethanol production, 6.72 BB for domestic food and feed and the remainder for exports (Figure 1). The USDA

  13. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Butyl Acrylate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013 Sanyo:MarchPractices in Indian

  14. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1, 1999InspectionsAnnual Financial

  15. Biomass treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friend, Julie (Claymont, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III; Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Lyons, Robert C. (Arvada, CO)

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  16. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  17. Biomass torrefaction and CO2 capture using mining wastes A new approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of co-firing plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devernal, Anne

    substitution of coal with biomass as a renewable energy source, i.e., normally viewed as CO2 neutral in energy a , Faďçal Larachi b, a Department of Chemical Engineering, Université Laval, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada b Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada h i g h l i g

  18. Mapping Biomass Distribution Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaetzel, Michael

    2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Mapping Biomass Distribution Potential Michael Schaetzel Undergraduate ? Environmental Studies ? University of Kansas L O C A T S I O N BIOMASS ENERGY POTENTIAL o According to DOE, Biomass has the potential to provide 14% of... the nation’s power o Currently 1% of national power supply o Carbon neutral? combustion of biomass is part of the natural carbon cycle o Improved crop residue management has potential to benefit environment, producers, and economy Biomass Btu...

  19. Technical Support to SBIR Phase II Project: Improved Conversion of Cellulose Waste to Ethanol Using a Dual Bioreactor System: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-310

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, M.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over-dependence on fossil fuel has spurred research on alternative energy. Inedible plant materials such as grass and corn stover represent abundant renewable natural resources that can be transformed into biofuel. Problems in enzymatic conversion of biomass to sugars include the use of incomplete synergistic enzymes, end-product inhibition, and adsorption and loss of enzymes necessitating their use in large quantities. Technova Corporation will develop a defined consortium of natural microorganisms that will efficiently break down biomass to energy-rich soluble sugars, and convert them to cleaner-burning ethanol fuel. The project will also develop a novel biocatalytic hybrid reactor system dedicated to this bioprocess, which embodies recent advances in nanotechnology. NREL will participate to develop a continuous fermentation process.

  20. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  1. Certification of an agricultural spray aircraft on ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G. [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A Piper Pawnee, one of the most common agricultural spray aircraft, is currently undergoing Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification to allow the use of denatured ethanol as its fuel. This certification is part of a broader effort to introduce ethanol as a replacement for aviation gasoline. Various reasons brought about the choice of an agricultural spray aircraft to be certified on ethanol. One is the minimization of initial fuel distribution problems. Agricultural aviation often requires only single fuel storage since most of the flying is local. Additionally, corn-produced ethanol is the natural fuel of choice for farming operations. The increased power developed on ethanol compared to aviation gasoline (avgas) is very important when operating heavily loaded spray aircraft at very low altitudes. The power-plant, a Lycoming IO-540, is already certified. The aircraft is currently flying on ethanol in order to satisfy the airframe requirements. The effort is being supported by a consortium of organizations of corn-producing states. Upon completion of certification, the aircraft will be demonstrated around the mid-western states. Certification will allow the use of the aircraft in the commercial arena. Many mid-western agricultural spray operations and ag-pilots have already expressed interest in converting their aircraft to ethanol fuel.

  2. Biothermal gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Srivastava, V.J.; Henry, M.P.; Tarman, P.B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The BIOTHERMGAS Process is described for conversion of biomass, organic residues, and peat to substitute natural gas (SNG). This new process, under development at IGT, combines biological and thermal processes for total conversion of a broad variety of organic feeds (regardless of water or nutrient content). The process employs thermal gasification for conversion of refractory digester residues. Ammonia and other inorganic nutrients are recycled from the thermal process effluent to the bioconversion unit. Biomethanation and catalytic methanation are presented as alternative processes for methanation of thermal conversion product gases. Waste heat from the thermal component is used to supply the digester heat requirements of the bioconversion component. The results of a preliminary systems analysis of three possible applications of this process are presented: (1) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with catalytic methanation; (2) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with biomethanation; and (3) 1000 ton/day municipal solid waste (MSW) sewage sludge plant with biomethanation. The results indicate that for these examples, performance is superior to that expected for biological or thermal processes used separately. The results of laboratory studies presented suggest that effective conversion of thermal product gases can be accomplished by biomethanation.

  3. Methanol from biomass via steam gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffman, J.A. [Wright-Malta Corp., Ballston Spa, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    R&D at Wright-Malta on gasification of biomass, and use of this gas in methanol synthesis, has now reached the stage where a demonstration plant is feasible. The gasifier has evolved into a long, slender, slightly declined, graded temperature stationary kiln, with a box beam rotor and twin piston feed. The methanol reactor is envisioned as a smaller, more declined, graded temperature, water-filled kiln, with a multi-pipe rotor. Input to the demo plant will be 100 tons/day of green (45% water) wood chips; output will be 11,000 gal/day of methanol and 7500 lbs/hr of steam. The over-all biomass to methanol system is tightly integrated in its mechanical design to take full advantage of the reactivity of biomass under a slow, steady, steamy pressurized cook, and the biomass pyrolysis and methanol synthesis exotherms. This is expected to yield good energy efficiency, environmental attractiveness, and economical operation.

  4. Biomass cogeneration, Port Townsend, Washington Study by Honors 220c, Energy & Environment,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass cogeneration, Port Townsend, Washington Study by Honors 220c, Energy & Environment, Humans Townsend Biomass Power Plant When considering the slash sources that will be used to fuel the Port Townsend from the current 84,000 dry tons to 184,000 dry tons with the new biomass plant addition (Wise, 2012

  5. Biomass, Flavonol Levels and Sensory Characteristics of Allium cultivars Grown Hydroponically at Ambient and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paré, Paul W.

    04ICES-136 Biomass, Flavonol Levels and Sensory Characteristics of Allium cultivars Grown growth chambers to evaluate the effect of elevated CO2 (1200 ppm) versus ambient CO2 (400 ppm) on biomass planting (dap). Regardless of cultivar or dap, plants grown at elevated CO2 had greater biomass

  6. BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritschard, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Of course, the liquid fuel (ethanol) is usually a mores The use of ethanol as fuel is environmentally benignprimarily with the use of ethanol as a fuel in the state of

  7. BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritschard, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report, (unpublished, 1979). Biomass Project Progress 31.Operations, vol. 2 of Biomass Energy (Stanford: StanfordPhotosynthethic Pathway Biomass Energy Production," ~c:_! _

  8. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale SustainableHydrogen Batteries Nuclear By Lee Lynd, Dartmouth EthanolEthanol, ethyl alcohol, fermentation ethanol, or just “

  9. New Ethanol Ordering Process Effective March 11, 2013, Ethanol must be ordered through an Ethanol Form in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    New Ethanol Ordering Process Effective March 11, 2013, Ethanol must be ordered through an Ethanol Services will accept faxed orders for Ethanol. · Monday, March 11, 2013 is the first day the PantherExpress System will accept orders for Ethanol. Requirements · Your PantherExpress System account must be properly

  10. Regional Differences in Corn Ethanol Production: Profitability and Potential Water Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higgins, Lindsey M.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Production and Use ............39 Sector Impacts ..............................................................................41 Quantification of Comprehensive Impacts...................................49 Valuation of Comprehensive Impacts... of recycled water include storm 5 water, treated waste water, and reclaimed ground water, with the proper methods, all have the potential of being used in an ethanol plant (Wenninger 2007). Figure 1. Inflows and Outflows of Water Use in Ethanol...

  11. 10/9/2003 1 Export of biomass from Russia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    + Blending pellets with coal Energy pellet factory Woodchips Power Plants Power Plants Power Plants Power terminal Rotterdam #12;3 200202PP-007 Rotterdam St. Petersburg/ Leningrad Oblast Dry Bulk/Coal stevedore Plants Bulkcarrier containers Bulkcarrier + containers on deck Delivery of BioMass from forests Saw mills

  12. The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Singh, Seema; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass.energy consumption in the processes needed to convert biomass into simple molecules that can be used for fuel

  13. abortion plants: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 247 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  14. aposematic spiny plants: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 239 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  15. ammunition plant radford: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 233 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  16. ammunition plant baraboo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 184 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  17. ammunition plant joliet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 184 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  18. antidiabetic plants bauhinia: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 188 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  19. aube plant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 262 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  20. antifungal plant defensins: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 220 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  1. ammunition plant milan: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 248 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  2. Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation, Lactation and Weaning Increases Ethanol examined effects of ethanol consumption in rat dams during gestation, lactation, and weaning on voluntary ethanol consumption by their adolescent young. We found that exposure to an ethanol-ingesting dam

  3. Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, James M.; Dahl, Rachel

    regulatory apparatus could accommo- date a substantial ethanol reduction with no need for a waiver. Even if gasoline blenders found it both economically and technically desirable to reduce ethanol consumption, a reduction of 2.6 billion gal- lons... up the price of corn and gasoline blenders will have little choice but to pay the higher ethanol prices. OIL PRICE UNCERTAINTY ARGUES FOR A WAIVER With a 2013 waiver in place, refiners would have time to implement the planning to produce higher...

  4. Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in North ­ This study is part of a larger project aimed at quantifying the biomass and biomass increment been developed to estimate the biomass and biomass increment of coarse, small and fine roots of trees

  5. AVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding Guide 2010 The Forestry Commission and the Humber Rural Partnership (co-ordinated by East Riding of Yorkshire Council) have jointly produced a biomass funding guide fuel prices continue to rise, and the emerging biomass sector is well-placed to make a significant

  6. Dispensing Equipment Testing with Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyce, K.; Chapin, J. T.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

  7. DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by means of bio-ethanol Transportation in Denmark and other EU countries: 5.75 % bioethanol in diesel oil and gasoline 1.2 - 1.7% CO2 reduction #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Bio-ethanol can replace MTBE and gasoline #12) Others % #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Danish Bioethanol Concept Wet Oxidation In: Wheat Straw Water SSF

  8. BlueFire Ethanol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10|BlueFire Ethanol, Inc. Corporate

  9. Ethanol-blended Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1, 13 DE@EnergyErnestEthanol-Blended Fuels A Study

  10. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schlamadinger, B. [Institute for Energy Research, Joanneum Research, Graz, (Austria)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol from corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large nonlinearities in the carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues.

  11. Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ethanol Ethanol blend prices are generally 10 cents lower Net Ethanol price at wholesale today is more than 1.50+gal lower than gasoline. Higher blends may emerge in the...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). The Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy...

  13. Regional Differences in Corn Ethanol Production: Profitability and Potential Water Demands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higgins, Lindsey M.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    to location differences. Changes in consumptive water use in the Texas High Plains, Southern Minnesota, and the Central Valley of California, as impacted by current and proposed grain-based ethanol plants were addressed. In addition, this research assesses...

  14. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  15. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per-ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that, due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions and differing harvest, collection and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  16. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts proceeded, and Carbona completed the gasifier island design package. Nexant has completed the balance of plant support systems design and the design for the biomass feed system. Work on the Technoeconomic Study is proceeding. Approximately 75% of the specified hardware quotations have been received at the end of the reporting period. A meeting is scheduled for July 23 rd and 24 th to review the preliminary cost estimates. GTI presented a status review update of the project at the DOE/NETL contractor's review meeting in Pittsburgh on June 21st.

  17. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate poultry litter disposal problems for the area's poultry farmers.

  18. Ethanol production in non-recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Youngnyun; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-recombinant bacteria that produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product, associated nucleic acids and polypeptides, methods for producing ethanol using the bacteria, and kits are disclosed.

  19. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Afghanistan is facing many challenges on its path of reconstruction and development. Among all its pressing needs, the country would benefit from the development and implementation of an energy strategy. In addition to conventional energy sources, the Afghan government is considering alternative options such as energy derived from renewable resources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal). Biomass energy is derived from a variety of sources -- plant-based material and residues -- and can be used in various conversion processes to yield power, heat, steam, and fuel. This study provides policymakers and industry developers with information on the biomass resource potential in Afghanistan for power/heat generation and transportation fuels production. To achieve this goal, the study estimates the current biomass resources and evaluates the potential resources that could be used for energy purposes.

  20. Sequencing of Multiple Clostridial Genomes Related to Biomass Conversion and Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemme, Christopher [University of Oklahoma; Mouttaki, Housna [University of Oklahoma; Lee, Yong-Jin [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; He, Zhili [University of Oklahoma; Wu, Liyou [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Van Nostrand, Joy [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Henrissat, Bernard [Universite d'Aix-Marseille I & II; HE, Qiang [ORNL; Lawson, Paul A. [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Tanner, Ralph S. [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Wiegel, Juergen [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Fields, Dr. Matthew Wayne [Montana State University; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Stevenson, Bradley S. [University of Oklahoma, Norman; McInerney, Michael J. [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Dong, Hailiang [Miami University, Oxford, OH; Xing, Defeng [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology; Ren, Nanqi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology; Wang, Aijie [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology; Ding, Shi-You [National Energy Renewable Laboratory; Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Taghavi, Safiyh [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)/U.S. Department of Energy; Van Der Lelie, Daniel [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Rubin, Edward M. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern methods to develop microbe-based biomass conversion processes require a system-level understanding of the microbes involved. Clostridium species have long been recognized as ideal candidates for processes involving biomass conversion and production of various biofuels and other industrial products. To expand the knowledge base for clostridial species relevant to current biofuel production efforts, we have sequenced the genomes of 20 species spanning multiple genera. The majority of species sequenced fall within the class III cellulosome-encoding Clostridium and the class V saccharolytic Thermoanaerobacteraceae. Species were chosen based on representation in the experimental literature as model organisms, ability to degrade cellulosic biomass either by free enzymes or by cellulosomes, ability to rapidly ferment hexose and pentose sugars to ethanol, and ability to ferment synthesis gas to ethanol. The sequenced strains significantly increase the number of noncommensal/nonpathogenic clostridial species and provide a key foundation for future studies of biomass conversion, cellulosome composition, and clostridial systems biology.

  1. Lyonsdale Biomass LLC Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther, Oklahoma: Energy ResourcesLyonOhio: EnergyLLC Biomass

  2. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Perrenoud, Ben C. (Rigby, ID)

    2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  3. Sorghum to Ethanol Research Initiative: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-291

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfrum, E.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

  4. Method for making adhesive from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, Janet A. (Richland, WA); Riemath, William F. (Pasco, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for making adhesive from biomass. A liquefaction oil is prepared from lignin-bearing plant material and a phenolic fraction is extracted therefrom. The phenolic fraction is reacted with formaldehyde to yield a phenol-formaldehyde resin.

  5. Energy from Forest Biomass: Potential Economic Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    be small by fossil-fuel standards, and may increasingly produce both useful heat and electricity, though and describes a scenario of 165 MW of new biomass electricity generation facilities (as well as some smaller at present are most likely to produce only electricity. Plants will likely be sited in areas with good road

  6. Method for making adhesive from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, J.A.; Riemath, W.F.

    1984-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for making adhesive from biomass. A liquefaction oil is prepared from lignin-bearing plant material and a phenolic fraction is extracted therefrom. The phenolic fraction is reacted with formaldehyde to yield a phenol-formaldehyde resin. 2 figures.

  7. Woody Biomass Harvesting and Processing Tax Credit (Corporate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Woody biomass is defined as "...trees and woody plants, including limbs, tops, needles, leaves, and other woody parts, grown in a forest or woodland or on agricultural land." For equipment use to...

  8. Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Executive Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This executive summary provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Renewable Systems On November 4, 2010, in Renewable Systems Renewable Energy Transportation Nuclear Fossil Energy Efficiency Publications Events News Renewable Systems The...

  10. Biomass Processing Photolibrary

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

  11. Co-firing biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Tennant, D. [Hunt, Guillot & Associates LLC (United States)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Concern about global warming has altered the landscape for fossil-fuel combustion. The advantages and challenges of co-firing biomass and coal are discussed. 2 photos.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Biofuels Publications Biochemical Conversion Program Lignocellulosic Biomass Microalgae Thermochemical Conversion Sign up for our E-Newsletter Required.gif?3.21 Email...

  13. Corn Ethanol -April 2006 11 Cover Story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Corn Ethanol - April 2006 11 Cover Story orn ethanol is the fuel du jour. It's domestic. It oil into gasoline or diesel fuel. Ethanol refineries also use huge amounts of water. An average dry's not oil. Ethanol's going to help promote "energy independence." Magazines trumpet it as the motor vehicle

  14. Biomass 2013 Attendee List | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Attendee List Biomass 2013 Attendee List This is a list of attendees for the Biomass 2013 conference. biomass2013attendeelist.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass 2013...

  15. Integration of Biomass processes in an existing Petrochemical ComplexPetrochemical Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    Integration of Biomass processes in an existing Petrochemical ComplexPetrochemical Complex Debalina · Biomass conversion processes · Integration in existing plant complex l i· Conclusions #12;Sustainability;Overview · Biomass based processes integrated into a chemical production complex. Utili b di id f i th l

  16. Emissions tradeoffs associated with cofiring forest biomass with coal: A case study in Colorado, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    , especially in North America and Europe, promote the substitution of forest biomass for fossil fuels to helpEmissions tradeoffs associated with cofiring forest biomass with coal: A case study in Colorado mine and power plant. Model emissions tradeoffs of cofiring forest biomass with coal up to 20% by heat

  17. Woody Biomass for Energy in Michigan TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION AND INQUIRY EXTENSION BULLETIN E-3093

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Biomass feedstocks might be wood, agricultural products, or municipal solid waste. A "co-gen" plant the biomass feedstocks that are most available in their area. Wood has proven to be quite advantageous where that use biomass feedstocks can sell carbon credits or "green" credits in financial markets where

  18. Fair Oaks Dairy Farms Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Review Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Wold; Robert Divers

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    At Fair Oaks Dairy, dried manure solids (''DMS'') are currently used as a low value compost. United Power was engaged to evaluate the feasibility of processing these DMS into ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. The Fair Oaks Dairy group is transitioning their traditional ''manure to methane'' mesophilic anaerobic digester platform to an integrated bio-refinery centered upon thermophilic digestion. Presently, the Digested Manure Solids (DMS) are used as a low value soil amendment (compost). United Power evaluated the feasibility of processing DMS into higher value ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. DMS was analyzed and over 100 potential technology providers were reviewed and evaluated. DMS contains enough carbon to be suitable as a biomass feedstock for conversion into ethanol by gasification technology, or as part of a conversion process that would include combined heat and power. In the first process, 100% of the feedstock is converted into ethanol. In the second process, the feedstock is combusted to provide heat to generate electrical power supporting other processes. Of the 100 technology vendors evaluated, a short list of nine technology providers was developed. From this, two vendors were selected as finalists (one was an enzymatic platform and one was a gasification platform). Their selection was based upon the technical feasibility of their systems, engineering expertise, experience in commercial or pilot scale operations, the ability or willingness to integrate the system into the Fair Oaks Biorefinery, the know-how or experience in producing bio-ethanol, and a clear path to commercial development.

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - animal disseminated plants Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DHP") n Implementation (,,Utilization of biomass from... municipal coal-fired district heating plants to combined heat and power with utilisation of biomass Source: Louisiana...

  20. Biomass One Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher HomesLyons BiomassBiofuels)Biomass Facility Jump

  1. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed prep, fast pyrolysis, and upgrading. Stabilized, upgraded pyrolysis oil is transferred to the refinery for separation and finishing into motor fuels. The off-gas from the hydrotreaters is also transferred to the refinery, and in return the refinery provides lower-cost hydrogen for the hydrotreaters. This reduces the capital investment. Production costs near $2/gal (in 2007 dollars) and petroleum industry infrastructure-ready products make the production and upgrading of pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon fuels an economically attractive source of renewable fuels. The study also identifies technical areas where additional research can potentially lead to further cost improvements.

  2. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using the same methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The “as received” feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be “reactor ready.” This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed prep, fast pyrolysis, and upgrading. Stabilized, upgraded pyrolysis oil is transferred to the refinery for separation and finishing into motor fuels. The off-gas from the hydrotreaters is also transferred to the refinery, and in return the refinery provides lower-cost hydrogen for the hydrotreaters. This reduces the capital investment. Production costs near $2/gal (in 2007 dollars) and petroleum industry infrastructure-ready products make the production and upgrading of pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon fuels an economically attractive source of renewable fuels. The study also identifies technical areas where additional research can potentially lead to further cost improvements.

  3. Biomass Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  4. Biomass Research Program

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. NREL: Biomass Research - Projects in Biomass Process and Sustainabilit...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects in Biomass Process and Sustainability Analyses Researchers at NREL use biomass process and sustainability analyses to understand the economic, technical, and global...

  6. Module Handbook Specialisation Biomass Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damm, Werner

    Module Handbook Specialisation Biomass Energy 2nd Semester for the Master Programme REMA/EUREC Course 2008/2009 University of Zaragoza Specialisation Provider: Biomass Energy #12;Specialisation Biomass Energy, University of Zaragoza Modul: Introduction and Basic Concepts

  7. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY to treatment prescriptions and anticipated outputs of sawlogs and biomass fuel? How many individual operations biomass fuel removed. Typically in plantations. 50% No harvest treatment

  8. A national research & development strategy for biomass crop feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planning was initiated in 1996 with the objective of reevaluating current biomass feedstock research and development strategies to: (1) assure that by 2005, one or more commercial lignocellulosic to ethanol projects will be able to acquire a dependable supply of biomass crop feedstocks; (2) assure that recently initiated demonstrations of crops to electricity will be successful and; (3) assure that the research base needed to support future biomass industry expansion is being developed. Multiple trends and analyses indicate that biomass energy research and development strategies must take into account the fact that competition for land will define the upper limits of available biomass energy crop supplies and will largely dictate the price of those supplies. Only crop production and utilization strategies which contribute profit to the farmer or landowner and to energy producers will be used commercially for biomass energy production. Strategies for developing biomass {open_quotes}energy{close_quotes} crop supplies must take into consideration all of the methods by which biomass crops will enter biomass energy markets. The lignocellulosic materials derived from crops can be available as primary residues or crop by-products; secondary residues or processing by-products; co-products (at both the crop production and processing stages); or, as dedicated energy crops. Basic research and development (R&D) leading to yield improvement continues to be recommended as a major long-term focus for dedicated energy crops. Many additional near term topics need attention, some of which are also applicable to by-products and co-products. Switchgrass R&D should be expanded and developed with greater collaboration of USDA and state extension groups. Woody crop research should continue with significant cost-share from industries developing the crops for other commercial products. Co-product options need more investigation.

  9. Working Group Meeting Presentation Guidance at a Glance Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .31 O2 + 0.26 H2O 0.71 CO2 + 0.96 H2 #12;Key Performance Metrics Catalytic Steam Reforming of Bio-Oil Case (Ethanol Case) Bio-oil Storage Tank $106,040 Reformer $803,000 Shift Reactor, PSA, BOP $1Working Group Meeting Presentation Guidance at a Glance Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis

  10. FETC/EPRI BIOMASS COFIRING COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. TILLMAN; E. HUGHES

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During April 1 st , 1998 to June 31 st , 1998, significant work was done in preparation for a series of test involving cofiring at power plants. A biomass material handling system was designed for the Seward testing, a gasification system was designed for the Allen Fossil Plant, and a test program plan was developed for testing at NIPSCO?s Bailly Station. Also completed this quarter was a cyclone combustion model that provides a color visual representation of estimated temperatures within a plant. This report summarizes the activities during the second quarter in 1998 of the FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon reporting the results of testing in order to highlight the progress at utilities.

  11. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY and continuously between the earth's biomass and atmosphere. From a greenhouse gas perspective, forest treatments

  12. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY study. The Biomass to Energy (B2E) Project is exploring the ecological and economic consequences

  13. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY Citation: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 2009. Biomass to Energy: Forest

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: biomass conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomass conversion Sandia Video Featured by DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office On December 10, 2014, in Biofuels, Biomass, Capabilities, Energy, Facilities, JBEI, News, News &...

  15. NREL: Biomass Research - Amie Sluiter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Biomass Analysis Technologies team to provide compositional analysis data on biomass feedstocks and process intermediates for use in pretreatment models and techno-economic...

  16. Relationships between circadian rhythms and ethanol intake in mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trujillo, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4.2.3. Ethanol Vapor Sessions . . . . . . . . .4.2.4.scheduling a?ects subsequent voluntary ethanol 2.1.of circadian period to ethanol intake . . . . . . . . . .

  17. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc. Natl.Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: currentGenetic engineering of ethanol production in Escherichia

  18. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbialproducts, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so,producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the

  19. Grand Opening for Project LIBERTY: Nation's First Plant to Use...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of the plant-creating enough energy to power the facility, as well as a co-located bioethanol plant. Project LIBERTY is co-located with POET's existing corn ethanol plant to...

  20. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, March 1-August 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, D. I.C.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported in this coordinated research program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomass by anaerobic microorganisms possessing cellulolytic enzymes. Three main areas of research are discussed: increasing enzyme levels through genetics, mutations, and genetic manipulation; the direct conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuel (ethanol); and the production of chemical feedstocks from biomass (acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, and acetic acid). (DMC)

  1. aluminium-resistant phosphorus-efficient plant: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at planting time in 2009. Aboveground biomass production, coarse and fine roots, SOC Norton, Jay B. 175 THE PLANT BIOLOGY SEMINAR Molecular Plant Biology, Department of...

  2. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets. The 2012 $35 programmatic target included only logistics costs with a limited focus on biomass quality

  3. WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials Biomass production potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 1 Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios Final report of WP3 of the VIEWLS project, funded by DG-Tren #12;WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 2 Report Biomass production potentials in central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios

  4. Energy Utilization in Fermentation Ethanol Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easley, C. E.

    be fermented to ethanol. The energy usage for this design is about 20,900 Btu per gallon of ethanol produced. WATER PARTIAL CONDENSER GRAIN MEA MIX 140?F 360?F FLASH TANK COOLING STEAM MALT COOKER FIGURE 1 - OLD STYLE MASHING SYSTEM Energy savings... ethanol. The basic process for fuel ethanol. as shown in Figure 3. involves steam stripping and rectification to produce 95 volume percent ethanol which is near the ethanol-water azeotropic composition. Except for the modest heat recovery provided...

  5. Greater Ohio Ethanol LLC GO Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG Contracting JumpGoveNebraska:Ethanol LLC GO Ethanol Jump to:

  6. First Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this second volume cover Transportation Fuels, and Chemicals and Products. Transportation Fuels topics include: Biodiesel, Pyrolytic Liquids, Ethanol, Methanol and Ethers, and Commercialization. The Chemicals and Products section includes specific topics in: Research, Technology Transfer, and Commercial Systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Technology Data for Energy Plants June 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ................................................................................................... 35 03 Rebuilding Coal Power Plants to Biomass.......................................................................................................................... 27 01 Advanced Pulverized Fuel Power PlantTechnology Data for Energy Plants June 2010 #12;ISBNwww: 978-87-7844-857-6 #12;2 Table of contents

  8. DOE 2014 Biomass Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1C—Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels DOE 2014 Biomass Conference Jim Williams, Senior Manager, American Petroleum Institute

  9. Countercurrent Saccharification of Biomass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derner, John David

    2015-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Our goal was to research and implement a countercurrent system to run enzymatic saccharification of biomass. The project provided clear results to show that this method is more efficient than the batch process that companies currently employ. Excess...

  10. Biomass Energy Production Incentive

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2007 South Carolina enacted the ''Energy Freedom and Rural Development Act'', which provides production incentives for certain biomass-energy facilities. Eligible systems earn $0.01 per kilowatt...

  11. Strategic Biomass Solutions (Mississippi)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Strategic Biomass Solutions (SBS) was formed by the Mississippi Technology Alliance in June 2009. The purpose of the SBS is to provide assistance to existing and potential companies, investors...

  12. Converting Biomass to Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graybeal, Judith W.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For nearly 30 years, PNNL has been developing and applying novel thermal, chemical and biological processes to convert biomass to industrial and consumer products, fuels and energy. Honors for technologies resulting from this research include the Presidential Green Chemistry Award and several Federal Laboratory Consortium and R&D 100 Awards. PNNL’s research and development activities address the complete processing scheme, from feedstock pretreatment to purified product recovery. The laboratory applies fundamental science and advanced engineering capabilities to biomass conversion and processing to ensure effective recovery of optimal value from biomass; carbohydrate polymer systems to maximize energy efficiencies; and micro-technology systems for separation and conversion processes. For example, bioproducts researchers in the laboratory’s Institute for Interfacial Catalysis develop and demonstrate the utility of new catalyst formulations for production of bio-based chemicals. This article describes a sampling of current and recent catalysis projects for biomass conversion.

  13. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  14. Biomass 2014 Poster Session

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) invites students, researchers, public and private organizations, and members of the general public to submit poster abstracts for consideration for the annual Biomass Conference Poster Session. The Biomass 2014 conference theme focuses on topics that are advancing the growth of the bioeconomy, such as improvements in feedstock logistics; promising, innovative pathways for advanced biofuels; and market-enabling co-products.

  15. BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND #12; #12;© Crown copyright 2007 ISBN: 978 0 7559 6506 9 Scottish% recyclable. #12;A BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND #12;#12;1 CONTENTS FOREWORD 3 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5 2. INTRODUCTION 9 3. WIDER CONTEXT 13 4. SCOTLAND'S ROLE IN THE UK BIOMASS STRATEGY 17 5. BIOMASS HEATING 23 6

  16. Ethanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

    1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  17. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  18. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and ferment all sugars Ethanol recovery Fuel ethanol Residuecellulosic ethanol that is competitive as a pure fuel •Fuels Ocean/ hydro Geothermal Transportation Electricity Hydrogen Batteries Nuclear By Lee Lynd, Dartmouth Ethanol

  19. Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skelton, J.C.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  20. Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Use Management (NESCAUM) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, Economic Development...

  1. Methanol from biomass via steam gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffman, J.A. [Wright-Malta Corp., Ballston Spa, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    R & D at Wright-Malta on gasification of biomass, and use of this gas in methanol synthesis, has now reached the stage where a demonstration plant is feasible. The gasifier has evolved into a long, slender, slightly declined, graded temperature series of stationary kiln sections, with box beam rotors and twin piston feed. The methanol reactor is envisioned as a smaller, more declined, graded temperature, water-filled stationary kiln, with a multi-pipe rotor. Input to the demo plant will be 100 tons/day of green (45% water) wood chips; output is projected at 11,000 gal/day of methanol and 7500 lbs/hr of steam. The over-all biomass to methanol system is tightly integrated in its mechanical design to take full advantage of the reactivity of biomass under a slow, steady, steamy pressurized cook, and the biomass pyrolysis and methanol synthesis exotherms. This is expected to yield good energy efficiency, environmental attractiveness, and economical operation.

  2. Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is aimed at assessing the quantitative risks involved with an ethanol pipeline. Pipelines that run from the Midwest, where the vast majority of ethanol is produced, to the target areas where reformulated gasoline is required...

  3. Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is aimed at assessing the quantitative risks involved with an ethanol pipeline. Pipelines that run from the Midwest, where the vast majority of ethanol is produced, to the target areas where reformulated gasoline is required...

  4. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbialtechnologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of workstrategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently

  5. Dekkera bruxellensis, a Non-conventional Ethanol Production Yeast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : risks and benefits 16 2.3 Bioethanol industry 17 3 Ethanol production overview 19 3.1 Industrial ethanol

  6. Combined enzyme mediated fermentation of cellulose and xylose to ethanol by Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cellulase, [beta]-glucosidase, and xylose isomerase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lastick, S.M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Tucker, M.P.; Grohmann, K.

    1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing ethanol from mixed sugar streams from pretreated biomass comprising xylose and cellulose using enzymes to convert these substrates to fermentable sugars; selecting and isolating a yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe ATCC No. 2476, having the ability to ferment these sugars as they are being formed to produce ethanol; loading the substrates with the fermentation mix composed of yeast, enzymes and substrates; fermenting the loaded substrates and enzymes under anaerobic conditions at a pH range of between about 5.0 to about 6.0 and at a temperature range of between about 35 C to about 40 C until the fermentation is completed, the xylose being isomerized to xylulose, the cellulose being converted to glucose, and these sugars being concurrently converted to ethanol by yeast through means of the anaerobic fermentation; and recovering the ethanol. 2 figures.

  7. Combined enzyme mediated fermentation of cellulous and xylose to ethanol by Schizosaccharoyces pombe, cellulase, .beta.-glucosidase, and xylose isomerase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lastick, Stanley M. (Longmont, CO); Mohagheghi, Ali (Northglen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Winter Haven, FL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing ethanol from mixed sugar streams from pretreated biomass comprising xylose and cellulose using enzymes to convert these substrates to fermentable sugars; selecting and isolating a yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe ATCC No. 2476, having the ability to ferment these sugars as they are being formed to produce ethanol; loading the substrates with the fermentation mix composed of yeast, enzymes and substrates; fermenting the loaded substrates and enzymes under anaerobic conditions at a pH range of between about 5.0 to about 6.0 and at a temperature range of between about 35.degree. C. to about 40.degree. C. until the fermentation is completed, the xylose being isomerized to xylulose, the cellulose being converted to glucose, and these sugars being concurrently converted to ethanol by yeast through means of the anaerobic fermentation; and recovering the ethanol.

  8. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  9. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

    2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased reactor productivity, final product concentration, and product yield. Other advantages of the FBB include efficient and continuous operation without requiring repeated inoculation, elimination of cell lag phase, good long-term stability, self cleaning and easier downstream processing. The excellent reactor performance of the FBB can be attributed to the high viable cell density maintained in the bioreactor as a result of the unique cell immobilization mechanism within the porous fibrous matrix Since Butanol replaces gasoline in any car today - right now, its manufacturing from biomass is the focus of EEI and in the long term production of our transportation fuel from biomass will stabilize the cost of our fuel - the underpinning of all commerce. As a Strategic Chemical Butanol has a ready market as an industrial solvent used primarily as paint thinner which sells for twice the price of gasoline and is one entry point for the Company into an established market. However, butanol has demonstrated it is an excellent replacement for gasoline-gallon for gallon. The EEI process has made the economics of producing butanol from biomass for both uses very compelling. With the current costs for gasoline at $3.00 per gallon various size farmstead turn-key Butanol BioRefineries are proposed for 50-1,000 acre farms, to produce butanol as a fuel locally and sold locally. All butanol supplies worldwide are currently being produced from petroleum for $1.50 per gallon and selling for $3.80 wholesale. With the increasing price of gasoline it becomes feasible to manufacture and sell Butanol as a clean-safe replacement for gasoline. Grown locally - sold locally at gas prices. A 500 acre farm at 120 bushels corn per acre would make $150,000 at $2.50 per bushel for its corn, when turned into 150,000 gallons Butanol per year at 2.5 gallons per bushel the gross income would be $430,000. Butanol-s advantage is the fact that no other agricultural product made can be put directly into your gas tank without modifying your car. The farmer making and selling locally has no overhead for shippi

  10. Integration of Feedstock Assembly System and Cellulosic Ethanol Conversion Models to Analyze Bioenergy System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared M. Abodeely; Douglas S. McCorkle; Kenneth M. Bryden; David J. Muth; Daniel Wendt; Kevin Kenney

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research barriers continue to exist in all phases of the emerging cellulosic ethanol biorefining industry. These barriers include the identification and development of a sustainable and abundant biomass feedstock, the assembly of viable assembly systems formatting the feedstock and moving it from the field (e.g., the forest) to the biorefinery, and improving conversion technologies. Each of these phases of cellulosic ethanol production are fundamentally connected, but computational tools used to support and inform analysis within each phase remain largely disparate. This paper discusses the integration of a feedstock assembly system modeling toolkit and an Aspen Plus® conversion process model. Many important biomass feedstock characteristics, such as composition, moisture, particle size and distribution, ash content, etc. are impacted and most effectively managed within the assembly system, but generally come at an economic cost. This integration of the assembly system and the conversion process modeling tools will facilitate a seamless investigation of the assembly system conversion process interface. Through the integrated framework, the user can design the assembly system for a particular biorefinery by specifying location, feedstock, equipment, and unit operation specifications. The assembly system modeling toolkit then provides economic valuation, and detailed biomass feedstock composition and formatting information. This data is seamlessly and dynamically used to run the Aspen Plus® conversion process model. The model can then be used to investigate the design of systems for cellulosic ethanol production from field to final product.

  11. Effects of ethanol preservation on otolith microchemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of ethanol preservation on otolith microchemistry K. J. HEDGES*, S. A. LUDSIN*§ AND B. J coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to examine the effects of exposure time to ethanol (0, 1, 3, 9, 27 and 81 days) and ethanol quality (ACS- v. HPLC- grade) on strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba

  12. Original article Parallel selection of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Parallel selection of ethanol and acetic-acid tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster significantly with latitude (0.036 ! 0.004 for 1° latitude; genetic divergence FST = 0.25). Patterns of ethanol of latitudinal ethanol tolerance (10 to 15%) and acetic-acid tolerance (3.7 to 13.2%) were observed in adult

  13. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin (from Mississippie State University); Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia (from Jackson State University); Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell (from the University of Mississippi); Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester (from the University of Southern Mississippi).

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mississippi Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass was formed via funding from the US Department of Energy's EPSCoR Program, which is administered by the Office of Basic Science. Funding was approved in July of 1999 and received by participating Mississippi institutions by 2000. The project was funded via two 3-year phases of operation (the second phase was awarded based on the high merits observed from the first 3-year phase), with funding ending in 2007. The mission of the Consortium was to promote the utilization of biomass, both cultured and waste derived, for the production of commodity and specialty chemicals. These scientific efforts, although generally basic in nature, are key to the development of future industries within the Southeastern United States. In this proposal, the majority of the efforts performed under the DOE EPSCoR funding were focused primarily toward the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and biogas from waste products. However, some of the individual projects within this program investigated the production of other products from biomass feeds (i.e. acetic acid and biogas) along with materials to facilitate the more efficient production of chemicals from biomass. Mississippi is a leading state in terms of raw biomass production. Its top industries are timber, poultry production, and row crop agriculture. However, for all of its vast amounts of biomass produced on an annual basis, only a small percentage of the biomass is actually industrially produced into products, with the bulk of the biomass being wasted. This situation is actually quite representative of many Southeastern US states. The research and development efforts performed attempted to further develop promising chemical production techniques that use Mississippi biomass feedstocks. The three processes that were the primary areas of interest for ethanol production were syngas fermentation, acid hydrolysis followed by hydrolyzate fermentation, and enzymatic conversion. All three of these processes are of particular interest to states in the Southeastern US since the agricultural products produced in this region are highly variable in terms of actual crop, production quantity, and the ability of land areas to support a particular type of crop. This greatly differs from the Midwestern US where most of this region's agricultural land supports one to two primary crops, such as corn and soybean. Therefore, developing processes which are relatively flexible in terms of biomass feedstock is key to the southeastern region of the US if this area is going to be a 'player' in the developing biomass to chemicals arena. With regard to the fermentation of syngas, research was directed toward developing improved biocatalysts through organism discovery and optimization, improving ethanol/acetic acid separations, evaluating potential bacterial contaminants, and assessing the use of innovative fermentors that are better suited for supporting syngas fermentation. Acid hydrolysis research was directed toward improved conversion yields and rates, acid recovery using membranes, optimization of fermenting organisms, and hydrolyzate characterization with changing feedstocks. Additionally, a series of development efforts addressed novel separation techniques for the separation of key chemicals from fermentation activities. Biogas related research focused on key factors hindering the widespread use of digester technologies in non-traditional industries. The digestion of acetic acids and other fermentation wastewaters was studied and methods used to optimize the process were undertaken. Additionally, novel laboratory methods were designed along with improved methods of digester operation. A search for better performing digester consortia was initiated coupled with improved methods to initiate their activity within digester environments. The third activity of the consortium generally studied the production of 'other' chemicals from waste biomass materials found in Mississippi. The two primary examples of this activity are production of chem

  14. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yongchao [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Liao, James C [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to significantly alter the mixture of fermentation products. The initial application of this system successfully engineered a strain with high ethanol productivity from complex biomass substrates.

  15. NREL: Biomass Research - Biomass Characterization Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifNREL NREL RefinesAnalysisBiochemical ConversionBiomass

  16. biomass briquetting plant | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindey Wind GeneratingZhongshengZiboZongshenask

  17. OpenEI Community - biomass briquetting plant

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompany Oil and GasOff thedrivingGiven

  18. Bieber Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher Homes JumpMaintenance | OpenBetterBiBB

  19. NREL: Biomass Research - David W. Templeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    W. Templeton Photo of David Templeton David Templeton is the senior biomass analyst on the Biomass Analysis team (Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory) within the National...

  20. NREL: International Activities - Biomass Resource Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Resource Assessment Map showing annual productivity of marginal lands in APEC economies. Biomass resource assessments quantify the existing or potential biomass material in...

  1. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Teotl Energy Partners LLC, West Biofuels Biomass?to?Fuels Teotl Energy Partners LLC, West Biofuels Biomass-to-Fuelssolid?fuel biomass, solar thermal electric, or wind energy 

  2. November 2011 Model documentation for biomass,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    1 November 2011 Model documentation for biomass, cellulosic biofuels, renewable of Education, Office of Civil Rights. #12;3 Contents Biomass.....................................................................................................................................................4 Variables in the biomass module

  3. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuels, LLC  UCSD Biomass to Power  Economic Feasibility Figure 1: West Biofuels Biomass Gasification to Power rates..……………………. ……31  UCSD Biomass to Power ? Feasibility 

  4. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facilities that use biomass, waste, or renewable resources (Eligible renewable energy resources include biomass, solar renewable  power  than  there  is  in  the  market  for  biomass 

  5. EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN U.S. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CORN GRAIN, CORN STOVER, AND SWITCHGRASS ON WORLD AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AND TRADE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campiche, Jody L.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    biofuel technologies in a CGE framework. However, most of these studies do not include both an explicit sector for agricultural biomass feedstocks and allow for joint products. The specific methods of this dissertation include: ii. Incorporate...% more energy than is produced. The net energy balance of biofuels is highly dependent on the particular biomass feedstock used to produce the biofuel. However, it is important to note that cellulosic ethanol is not currently produced on a large...

  6. EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN U.S. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CORN GRAIN, CORN STOVER, AND SWITCHGRASS ON WORLD AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AND TRADE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campiche, Jody L.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    biofuel technologies in a CGE framework. However, most of these studies do not include both an explicit sector for agricultural biomass feedstocks and allow for joint products. The specific methods of this dissertation include: ii. Incorporate...% more energy than is produced. The net energy balance of biofuels is highly dependent on the particular biomass feedstock used to produce the biofuel. However, it is important to note that cellulosic ethanol is not currently produced on a large...

  7. United States Department of Energy Biomass Power Demonstration programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bain, R.L.; Craig, K.R.; Overend, R.P.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Biomass Power Program includes core activities such as: working with the biomass power industry to overcome problems in using some forms of biomass in existing boilers; evaluating and developing advanced technologies such as gasification and pyrolysis; assessing the characteristics of biogas produced from various gasification technologies; developing clean-up technology for high-temperature biogas; supporting small-system demonstrations; analyzing biomass power systems; and sponsoring cost-shared feasibility studies with industry. The Biomass Power Program is supporting integrated efforts such as the {open_quotes}Energy Partnerships for a Strong Economy{close_quotes} initiative, which includes jointly funded commercial application projects such as the Hawaii Biomass Gasifier Project at the Hawaii Commercial and Sugar Company`s sugar processing plant in Paia, Maui, Hawaii, and the Vermont Biomass Gasifier project at Burlington Electric Department`s 50-megawatt wood-fired McNeil Station in Burlington, Vermont. DOE is also supporting commercialization of integrated production systems through a collaborative effort with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and private industry. The objective of the {open_quotes}Biomass Power for Rural Development{close_quotes} initiative is to successfully demonstrate the integration of biomass feedstock production with high-efficiency power production systems which will produce power at cost-competitive rates. This paper will discuss details of a number of integrated production feasibility studies, technology demonstration projects (the Hawaii and Vermont gasifier projects), and integrated commercialization through the {open_quotes}Biomass Power for Rural Development{close_quotes} initiative; and will show the importance of such projects for future commercialization of biomass-based power generation using advanced technologies.

  8. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  9. Biomass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher HomesLyons BiomassBiofuels)BiomassThermal

  10. High-biomass sorghums for biomass biofuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Packer, Daniel

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    for breeding evaluations. Seventeen hundred ninety two exotic sorghum accessions from 7 different geographic origins were evaluated for high-biomass desirability in 3 environments. Significant relationships between passport data and high-biomass desirability...

  11. Fuel ethanol produced from U.S. Midwest corn : help or hindrance to the vision of Kyoto?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Wu, M.; Energy Systems

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we examined the role of corn-feedstock ethanol in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, given present and near-future technology and practice for corn farming and ethanol production. We analyzed the full-fuel-cycle GHG effects of corn-based ethanol using updated information on corn operations in the upper Midwest and existing ethanol production technologies. Information was obtained from representatives of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, faculty of midwestern universities with expertise in corn production and animal feed, and acknowledged authorities in the field of ethanol plant engineering, design, and operations. Cases examined included use of E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume) and E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline). Among key findings is that Midwest-produced ethanol outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG emissions (on a mass emission per travel mile basis). The superiority of the energy and GHG results is well outside the range of model noise. An important facet of this work has been conducting sensitivity analyses. These analyses let us rank the factors in the corn-to-ethanol cycle that are most important for limiting GHG generation. These rankings could help ensure that efforts to reduce that generation are targeted more effectively.

  12. Improving Biomass Yields: High Biomass, Low Input Dedicated Energy Crops to Enable a Full Scale Bioenergy Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Ceres is developing bigger and better grasses for use in biofuels. The bigger the grass yield, the more biomass, and more biomass means more biofuel per acre. Using biotechnology, Ceres is developing grasses that will grow bigger with less fertilizer than current grass varieties. Hardier, higher-yielding grass also requires less land to grow and can be planted in areas where other crops can’t grow instead of in prime agricultural land. Ceres is conducting multi-year trials in Arizona, Texas, Tennessee, and Georgia which have already resulted in grass yields with as much as 50% more biomass than yields from current grass varieties.

  13. Biomass Anaerobic Digestion Facilities and Biomass Gasification Facilities (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Department of Environmental Management requires permits before the construction or expansion of biomass anaerobic digestion or gasification facilities.

  14. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    number = just monomers . Refinery for Cellulosic Biomass tofrom biomass through cellulosic refinery concept that could

  15. Burgeoning Biomass: Creating Efficient and Sustainable Forest Biomass Supply Chains in the Rockies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Burgeoning Biomass: Creating Efficient and Sustainable Forest Biomass Supply Chains and removing beetle- killed trees, produce a byproduct called woody biomass. Also known as "slash, woody biomass can be collected, processed and transported SUMMARY Woody biomass could be used

  16. A method for the assessment of site-specific economic impacts of commercial and industrial biomass energy facilities. A handbook and computer model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A handbook on ``A Method for the Assessment of Site-specific Econoomic Impacts of Industrial and Commercial Biomass Energy Facilities`` has been prepared by Resource Systems Group Inc. under contract to the Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP). The handbook includes a user-friendly Lotus 123 spreadsheet which calculates the economic impacts of biomass energy facilities. The analysis uses a hybrid approach, combining direct site-specific data provided by the user, with indirect impact multipliers from the US Forest Service IMPLAN input/output model for each state. Direct economic impacts are determined primarily from site-specific data and indirect impacts are determined from the IMPLAN multipliers. The economic impacts are given in terms of income, employment, and state and federal taxes generated directly by the specific facility and by the indirect economic activity associated with each project. A worksheet is provided which guides the user in identifying and entering the appropriate financial data on the plant to be evaluated. The WLAN multipliers for each state are included in a database within the program. The multipliers are applied automatically after the user has entered the site-specific data and the state in which the facility is located. Output from the analysis includes a summary of direct and indirect income, employment and taxes. Case studies of large and small wood energy facilities and an ethanol plant are provided as examples to demonstrate the method. Although the handbook and program are intended for use by those with no previous experience in economic impact analysis, suggestions are given for the more experienced user who may wish to modify the analysis techniques.

  17. biomass | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or products. More detailed information on the subject of biomassMSW gasification and co-gasification of coal and biomass is available. Challenges A few obstacles exist before...

  18. Biomass Feedstock National User Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1B—Integration of Supply Chains I: Breaking Down Barriers Biomass Feedstock National User Facility Kevin L. Kenney, Director, Biomass Feedstock National User Facility, Idaho National Laboratory

  19. ENERGY FROM BIOMASS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in aeroderivative gas turbines has beencommerciallyestablished for natural gas-fired cogeneration since 1980. Steam!l!ledin a companionpaperprepared for this conference. 781 #12;BIOMASS-GASIFIER ~.INJECTED GAS TURBINE COGENERA110N FOR THE CANE of the gas turbine for cogeneration.applications(27) and the low unit capital cost of gas turbines comparedto

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Ethanol - Global Warming Potential and Environmental Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Hsu, D. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Mann, M. K.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the global warming potential (GWP), water use, and net energy value (NEV) associated with the EISA-mandated 16 bgy cellulosic biofuels target, which is assumed in this study to be met by cellulosic-based ethanol, and the EISA-mandated 15 bgy conventional corn ethanol target. Specifically, this study compares, on a per-kilometer-driven basis, the GWP, water use, and NEV for the year 2022 for several biomass feedstocks.

  1. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY as a result of emerging biomass opportunities on private industrial and public multiple-use lands (tracked in the vegetation domain) and the quantity of biomass consumed by the wildfire (tracked

  2. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY;12-2 #12;Appendix 12: Biomass to Energy Project Team, Committee Members and Project Advisors Research Team. Nechodom's background is in biomass energy policy development and public policy research. Peter Stine

  3. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY or recommendations of the study. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Domain Description The study area for the Biomass to Energy (B2 and environmental costs and benefits of using forest biomass to generate electrical power while changing fire

  4. 7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

  5. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY not substantively affect the findings or recommendations of the study. 2. Introduction The Biomass to Energy (B2E) Project is developing a comprehensive forest biomass-to- electricity model to identify and analyze

  6. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY;6-2 #12;APPENDIX 6: Cumulative Watershed Effects Analysis for the Biomass to Energy Project 1. Principal the findings or recommendations of the study. Cumulative watershed effects (CWE) of the Biomass to Energy (B2E

  7. Reburn system with feedlot biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Annamalai, Kalyan; Sweeten, John M.

    2005-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention pertains to the use of feedlot biomass as reburn fuel matter to reduce NO.sub.x emissions. According to one embodiment of the invention, feedlot biomass is used as the reburn fuel to reduce NO.sub.x. The invention also includes burners and boiler in which feedlot biomass serves a reburn fuel.

  8. 13, 3226932289, 2013 Biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern Great Plains T (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Biomass burning aerosol Geosciences Union. 32269 #12;ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern

  9. Biomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Biomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential Prepared for: Massachusetts Division of Energy;#12;Executive Summary In Massachusetts, biomass energy has typically meant wood chips derived from the region's extensive forest cover. Yet nationally, biomass energy from dedicated energy crops and from crop residues

  10. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 1, Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed an initial investigation of the effects of physical and chemical properties of biomass feedstocks relative to their performance in biomass energy conversion systems. Both biochemical conversion routes (anaerobic digestion and ethanol fermentation) and thermochemical routes (combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification) were included in the study. Related processes including chemical and physical pretreatment to improve digestibility, and size and density modification processes such as milling and pelletizing were also examined. This overview report provides background and discussion of feedstock and conversion relationships, along with recommendations for future research. The recommendations include (1) coordinate production and conversion research programs; (2) quantify the relationship between feedstock properties and conversion priorities; (3) develop a common framework for evaluating and characterizing biomass feedstocks; (4) include conversion effects as part of the criteria for selecting feedstock breeding programs; and (5) continue emphasis on multiple feedstock/conversion options for biomass energy systems. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Biomass Supply and Carbon Accounting for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass Supply and Carbon Accounting for Southeastern Forests February 2012 #12;This Biomass Supply and Carbon Accounting for Southeastern Forests study was conducted by the Biomass Energy Resource Center Biomass Energy Resource Center Kamalesh Doshi Biomass Energy Resource Center Hillary Emick Biomass Energy

  12. Invasive plant species as potential bioenergy producers and carbon contributors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, S.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Keshwani, D. (Energy Systems); (Univ. of Nebraska)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current cellulosic bioenergy sources in the United States are being investigated in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil and the associated risks to national security and climate change (Koh and Ghazoul 2008; Demirbas 2007; Berndes et al. 2003). Multiple sources of renewable plant-based material have been identified and include agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste, industrial waste, and specifically grown bioenergy crops (Demirbas et al. 2009; Gronowska et al. 2009). These sources are most commonly converted to energy through direct burning, conversion to gas, or conversion to ethanol. Annual crops, such as corn (Zea Mays L.) and sorghum grain, can be converted to ethanol through fermentation, while soybean and canola are transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) by reaction with an alcohol (Demirbas 2007). Perennial grasses are one of the more viable sources for bioenergy due to their continuous growth habit, noncrop status, and multiple use products (Lewandowski el al. 2003). In addition, a few perennial grass species have very high water and nutrient use efficiencies producing large quantities of biomass on an annual basis (Dohleman et al. 2009; Grantz and Vu 2009).

  13. Food for fuel: The price of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albino, Dominic K; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion of corn to ethanol in the US since 2005 has been a major cause of global food price increases during that time and has been shown to be ineffective in achieving US energy independence and reducing environmental impact. We make three key statements to enhance understanding and communication about ethanol production's impact on the food and fuel markets: (1) The amount of corn used to produce the ethanol in a gallon of regular gas would feed a person for a day, (2) The production of ethanol is so energy intensive that it uses only 20% less fossil fuel than gasoline, and (3) The cost of gas made with ethanol is actually higher per mile because ethanol reduces gasoline's energy per gallon.

  14. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  15. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  16. The Use of Biomass for Power Generation in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, biomass has been man's principal source of energy, mainly used in the form of wood for cooking and heating. With the industrial revolution and the introduction of motorized transportation and electricity, fossil fuels became the dominant source of energy. Today, biomass is the largest domestic source of renewable energy providing over 3% of total U.S. energy consumption, and surpassing hydropower. Yet, recent increases in the price and volatility of fossil fuel supplies and the financial impacts from a number of financially distressed investments in natural gas combined cycle power plants have led to a renewed interest in electricity generation from biomass. The biomass-fueled generation market is a dynamic one that is forecast to show significant growth over the next two decades as environmental drivers are increasingly supported by commercial ones. The most significant change is likely to come from increases in energy prices, as decreasing supply and growing demand increase the costs of fossil fuel-generated electricity and improve the competitive position of biomass as a power source. The report provides an overview of the renewed U.S. market interest in biomass-fueled power generation and gives a concise look at what's driving interest in biomass-fueled generation, the challenges faced in implementing biomass-fueled generation projects, and the current and future state of biomass-fueled generation. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of biomass-fueled generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in biomass-fueled generation; an analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of biomass-fueled generation projects; a description of the various feedstocks that can be used for biomass-fueled generation; an evaluation of the biomass supply chain; a description of biomass-fueled generation technologies; and, a review of the economic drivers of biomass-fueled generation project success.

  17. A Multi-Objective, Hub-and-Spoke Supply Chain Design Model For Densified Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Md S. Roni; Sandra Eksioglu; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we propose a model to design the supply chain for densified biomass. Rail is typically used for long-haul, high-volume shipment of densified biomass. This is the reason why a hub-and-spoke network structure is used to model this supply chain. The model is formulated as a multi-objective, mixed-integer programing problem under economic, environmental, and social criteria. The goal is to identify the feasibility of meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) by using biomass for production of cellulosic ethanol. The focus in not just on the costs associated with meeting these standards, but also exploring the social and environmental benefits that biomass production and processing offers by creating new jobs and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We develop an augmented ?-constraint method to find the exact Pareto solution to this optimization problem. We develop a case study using data from the Mid-West. The model identifies the number, capacity and location of biorefineries needed to make use of the biomass available in the region. The model estimates the delivery cost of cellulosic ethanol under different scenario, the number new jobs created and the GHG emission reductions in the supply chain.

  18. Science Activities in Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, Office of ScienceActivities in Biomass

  19. Innovative Breakthrough Demonstrated for Biological Ethanol Production...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Biological Ethanol Production June 30, 2015 - 11:43am Addthis Advanced Biofuels Process Demonstration Unit at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Photo credit:...

  20. Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels ? Implementation Perspectives

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives William Woebkenberg - US Fuels Technical and Regulatory Affairs Mercedes-Benz Research & Development North America July 25, 2013...

  1. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  2. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  3. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  4. Hydrolysis of biomass material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Orth, Rick J.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail

    2004-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for selective hydrolysis of the hemicellulose component of a biomass material. The selective hydrolysis produces water-soluble small molecules, particularly monosaccharides. One embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A second embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently enzymatically hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A third embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose by heating the biomass material to greater than 110.degree. C. resulting in an aqueous portion that includes the solubilized hemicellulose and a water insoluble solids portion and subsequently separating the aqueous portion from the water insoluble solids portion. A fourth embodiment is a method for making a composition that includes cellulose, at least one protein and less than about 30 weight % hemicellulose, the method including solubilizing at least a portion of hemicellulose present in a biomass material that also includes cellulose and at least one protein and subsequently separating the solubilized hemicellulose from the cellulose and at least one protein.

  5. Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol Fuel Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol Fuel Use Dylan B. Millet,*, Eric Apel, Daven K. Henze,§ Jason Hill, Julian D. Marshall, Hanwant B-Chem chemical transport model to constrain present-day North American ethanol sources, and gauge potential long

  6. PEMFC Power System on EthanolPEMFC Power System on Ethanol Caterpillar Inc.Caterpillar Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. RichardsThomas J. Richards #12;PEM ETHANOL FUEL CELL DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cells 2003 Annual Merit Review 21 May 2003 #12;PEM ETHANOL FUEL CELL In 2003, a 10-15 kW stationary PEM fuel cell system examines the durability of a PEM based fuel cell system while operating on ethanol - a renewable fuel

  7. Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    of Ethanol Fuel Use Dylan B. Millet*,1 , Eric Apel2 , Daven K. Henze3 , Jason Hill1 , Julian D. Marshall1S1 Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts INFORMATION Supporting Information contains a total of 12 pages, 1 table, and 7 figures. 1. AIRBORNE ETHANOL

  8. Ethanol 2000 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:EmminolEntergyEnvisoryInformationEthanol 2000 Jump to:

  9. Ethanol Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:EmminolEntergyEnvisoryInformationEthanol

  10. Highwater Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel Jump to: navigation, searchCounty, Virginia:HighlineHighwater Ethanol

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About BecomeTechnologies | BlandineNaturalEmerging FuelsEthanol

  12. Imperium/Lanzatech Syngas Fermentation Project - Biomass Gasification and Syngas Conditioning for Fermentation Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-474

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, E.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LanzaTech and NREL will investigate the integration between biomass gasification and LanzaTech's proprietary gas fermentation process to produce ethanol and 2,3-butanediol. Using three feed materials (woody biomass, agricultural residue and herbaceous grass) NREL will produce syngas via steam indirect gasification and syngas conditioning over a range of process relevant operating conditions. The gasification temperature, steam-to-biomass ratio of the biomass feed into the gasifier, and several levels of syngas conditioning (based on temperature) will be varied to produce multiple syngas streams that will be fed directly to 10 liter seed fermenters operating with the Lanzatech organism. The NREL gasification system will then be integrated with LanzaTech's laboratory pilot unit to produce large-scale samples of ethanol and 2,3-butanediol for conversion to fuels and chemicals.

  13. Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul Ramsey County, Minnesota September with the Gopher State Ethanol, St. Paul, Ramsey County, Minnesota. It is based on a formal site evaluation....................................................................................................................... 3 Ethanol Production

  14. CO2 Mitigation Potential of Biomass Energy Plantations in DevelopingRegions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as carbon sequestration,per tonne of biomass,in reducing CO2emissions; however, fuel substitutioncan than to carbon sequestration,because(i) producers will tend to seekfor energy applications biomass be carried out indefmitely, while carbon sequestrationcan be effective only until the planted trees

  15. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF SOIL AMENDMENT WITH TREE LEGUME BIOMASS ON CARBON AND NITROGEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF SOIL AMENDMENT WITH TREE LEGUME BIOMASS ON CARBON AND NITROGEN IN PARTICLE-to-N ratio of the added plant material seems to control the eects of soil amendment with tree legume biomass to the total quantity of C and N pre- sent. Physical fractionation of SOM can help to identify more active

  16. EA-1922: Combined Power and Biomass Heating System, Fort Yukon, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE (lead agency), Denali Commission (cooperating agency) and USDA Rural Utilities Services (cooperating agency) are proposing to provide funding to support the final design and construction of a biomass combined heat and power plant and associated district heating system to the Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments and the Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation. The proposed biomass district heating system would be located in Fort Yukon Alaska.

  17. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production...

  18. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

  19. Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

  20. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007) Cellulosic ethanol: biofuel researchers prepare toBiofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial welltechnologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work

  1. aqueous ethanol pulping: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) A good...

  2. acute ethanol exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) A good...

  3. acute ethanol challenge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) A good...

  4. affects ethanolic fermentation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) A good...

  5. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid The National Renewable Energy...

  6. Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study - Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Section 243 Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline...

  7. Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking October...

  8. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model An update to...

  9. acute ethanol assessment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Delaine 2008-10-10 3 Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of...

  10. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Abstract: The desorption kinetics of methanol,...

  11. Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B:...

  12. Demonstration and implementation of ethanol as an aviation fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the program were to demonstrate the viability of ethanol as an aviation fuel at appropriate locations and audiences in the participating Biomass Energy Program Regions, and to promote implementation projects in the area. Seven demonstrations were to be performed during the Summer 1995 through December 1996 period. To maximize the cost effectiveness of the program, additional corporate co-sponsorships were sought at each demonstration site and the travel schedule was arranged to take advantage of appropriate events taking place in the vicinity of the schedule events or enroute. This way, the original funded amount was stretched to cover another year of activities increasing the number of demonstrations from seven to thirty-nine. While the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) contract focused on ethanol as an aviation fuel, RAFDC also promoted the broader use of ethanol as a transportation fuel. The paper summarizes locations and occasions, and gives a brief description of each demonstration/exhibit/presentation held during the term of the project. Most of the demonstrations took place at regularly scheduled air shows, such as the Oshkosh, Wisconsin Air Show. The paper also reviews current and future activities in the areas of certification, emission testing, the international Clean Airports Program, air pollution monitoring with instrumented aircraft powered by renewable fuels, training operation and pilot project on ethanol, turbine fuel research, and educational programs.

  13. Lyon Development Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther, Oklahoma: Energy ResourcesLyon County,Development Biomass

  14. Otay Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:EnergyOssian, New York: Energy Resources Jump to:OstwindOtay Biomass

  15. Multitrade Biomass Holdings LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville,Missoula,MontereyHill,SpurrMulberry,EnergyEnergyMultitrade Biomass

  16. Ethanol mandate thrown out by appeals court

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begley, R.

    1995-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In a victory for the oil industry, a federal appeals court has overturned EPA`s mandate for ethanol use in reformulated gasoline (REG), saying the agency lacks authority to require 30% of the oxygenate market be reserved for ethanol. EPA says the ruling does not prevent ethanols use in RFG - {open_quotes}It only says that EPA cannot dictate the recipe.{close_quotes} Charles DiBona, president of the American Petroleum Institute (API), says {open_quotes}API and its member companies are not opposed to the use of ethanol as an oxygenate. We oppose this illegal mandate.{close_quotes} Urvan Sternfels, president of the National Petroleum Refiners Association, says, {open_quotes}Mandating market shares for any product is unsound economic policy.{close_quotes} The two trade groups led the legal battle against the ethanol requirement.

  17. Biomass -Feedstock User Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10 wt%inandWBS 1.2.3.3 Biomass -

  18. Biomass 2013: Welcome

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10 wt%inandWBS 1.2.3.31Biomass 2013

  19. Biomass Scenario Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10 wt%inandWBSBiomassAct ofBiomass

  20. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate structures as they have been further reacted to phenolic Aldol condensation products. The bio-oil

  1. Biomass: Biogas Generator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find Find MoreTechnical Report: BiomassInnovationBIOGAS

  2. Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region. See NREL/TP-7A2-45843 for the Executive Summary of this report.

  3. Design and construction of modular genetic devices and the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnard, Damian Kelly

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The enzymatic deconstruction of lignocellulosic plant biomass is performed by specialist microbial species. It is a ubiquitous process within nature and central to the global recycling of carbon and energy. Lignocellulose ...

  4. Effect of Harvest Dates on Biomass Accumulation and Composition in Bioenergy Sorghum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borden, Dustin Ross

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    followed by dedicated bioenergy sorghums (that are full photo-period sensitive), allowing for a more constant supply of feedstock to processing plants. Sweet sorghums would also allow the end user to obtain biomass when needed, however these types...

  5. Economic development through biomass system integration: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLong, M.M. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. Chapters describe alfalfa basics, production risks, production economics, transportation and storage, processing, products, market analysis, business analysis, environmental impact, and policy issues. 69 figs., 63 tabs.

  6. ERDC/TN APCRP-EA-24 Comparison of Three Biomass Sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    R. Spickard2 PURPOSE: Quantifying biomass to measure aquatic plant abundance can be costly and labor of nuisance aquatic plant management strategies. However, measuring relative plant abundance can be costly and labor intensive, typically involving a boat with dredging capabilities or divers using quadrats. Because

  7. Remotely sensed heat anomalies linked with Amazonian forest biomass declines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toomey, M.; Roberts, D. A.; Still, C.; Goulden, M. L.; McFadden, J. P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with Amazonian forest biomass declines Michael Toomey, 1 Darof aboveground living biomass (p biomass declines, Geophys. Res.

  8. NREL: Biomass Research - Joseph Shekiro

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Deacetylation and Mechanical (Disc) Refining Process for the Conversion of Renewable Biomass to Lower Cost Sugars." Biotechnology for Biofuels (7:7). Shekiro, J. ; Kuhn, E.M.;...

  9. NREL: Biomass Research - Josh Schaidle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of pyrolysis products to produce fungible transportation fuels. Research Interests Biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals Environmentally-sustainable engineering practices...

  10. NREL: Biomass Research - Michael Resch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    improve the hydrolysis efficiency of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme digestion of biomass. This work will help NREL lower the industrial cost of lignocellulosic enzyme...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    industrial process environments, (3) development of high-throughput assays using microfluidics, and (4) understanding how microbial communities degrade biomass and the...

  12. Biomass Gasification | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    gasification involve reducing costs associated with capital equipment and biomass feedstocks. Research to lower capital costs: If oxygen is used in the gasifier, capital...

  13. Biomass Rapid Analysis Network (BRAN)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Helping the emerging biotechnology industry develop new tools and methods for real-time analysis of biomass feedstocks, process intermediates and The Biomass Rapid Analysis Network is designed to fast track the development of modern tools and methods for biomass analysis to accelerate the development of the emerging industry. The network will be led by industry and organized and coordinated through the National Renewable Energy Lab. The network will provide training and other activities of interest to BRAN members. BRAN members will share the cost and work of rapid analysis method development, validate the new methods, and work together to develop the training for the future biomass conversion workforce.

  14. AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL RESEARCH PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    of these organisms to environmental factors (e .g. , temperature and solar radiation). Actual field data have been compared with simulation output with encouraging results. Starting biomass of the plants and numbers

  15. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  16. System and process for biomass treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

  17. Guide to commercial-scale ethanol production and financing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is designed to lead the potential investor through all the steps necessary to develop a business plan and prepare a feasibility analysis for a site-specific project. Emphasis is placed on marketing, financing, management, and incentives rather than primarily technical matters. The introduction provides an overview of the perspectives and issues in the alcohol fuels industry. Chapter II seeks to surface factors which affect the decisionmaking process. The chapter attempts to lead the investor step-by-step through the series of decisions and choices to be made before reaching the final decision to enter the business. Chapter III describes the types of feedstocks available and relates them to areas within the United States. Trends and fluctuations in the price of the major grain feedstocks are also discussed in terms of their potential use and value compared to other feeds. Chapter IV discusses the market potential of ethanol and its coproducts, and examines how the location of the ethanol markets in relation to those of the feedstock supplies may influence selection of a plant site. Various aspects of plant design are discussed. A 50 million gallon per year plant is analyzed to provide the general technical background and costing data required in analyzing plants of various sizes and designs. Safety aspects and environmental concerns are treated in Chapters VI and VII. The regulations are reviewed and their impact on plant design and operation is discussed. The basic elements of a business plan are described which lead to an approach for development of the feasibility study. Other information on financial assistance, regulations, current legislation, and reference material is given in the Appendices.

  18. Biomass in the Deregulated Marketplace: Current Issues for Biomass Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This issue brief provides readers with a monthly review and analysis of electric utility deregulation as it impacts biomass power production and distribution. The topical areas to be routinely covered will include Federal activities, State activities, Current challenges, and Current opportunities. Additionally, a monthly highlighted topic will provide more in-depth analysis of current issue impacting biomass power.

  19. Advances in High Throughput Screening of Biomass Recalcitrance (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, G. B.; Decker, S. R.; Tucker, M. P.; Law, C.; Doeppke, C.; Sykes, R. W.; Davis, M. F.; Ziebell, A.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This was a poster displayed at the Symposium. Advances on previous high throughput screening of biomass recalcitrance methods have resulted in improved conversion and replicate precision. Changes in plate reactor metallurgy, improved preparation of control biomass, species-specific pretreatment conditions, and enzymatic hydrolysis parameters have reduced overall coefficients of variation to an average of 6% for sample replicates. These method changes have improved plate-to-plate variation of control biomass recalcitrance and improved confidence in sugar release differences between samples. With smaller errors plant researchers can have a higher degree of assurance more low recalcitrance candidates can be identified. Significant changes in plate reactor, control biomass preparation, pretreatment conditions and enzyme have significantly reduced sample and control replicate variability. Reactor plate metallurgy significantly impacts sugar release aluminum leaching into reaction during pretreatment degrades sugars and inhibits enzyme activity. Removal of starch and extractives significantly decreases control biomass variability. New enzyme formulations give more consistent and higher conversion levels, however required re-optimization for switchgrass. Pretreatment time and temperature (severity) should be adjusted to specific biomass types i.e. woody vs. herbaceous. Desalting of enzyme preps to remove low molecular weight stabilizers and improved conversion levels likely due to water activity impacts on enzyme structure and substrate interactions not attempted here due to need to continually desalt and validate precise enzyme concentration and activity.

  20. Bushmills Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomassSustainable andBucoda,Burke County,Information

  1. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncoveredmore »that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.« less

  2. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Fengli [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Johnson, Dana M. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Wang, Jinjiang [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  3. Process for concentrated biomass saccharification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA); Seapan, Mayis (Landenberg, PA); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

  4. Biomass 2014 Attendee List | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is the attendee list for Biomass 2014, held July 29-July 30 in Washington, D.C. biomass2014attendeelist.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass 2013 Attendee List Bioproducts:...

  5. BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION EFFORTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    icat ion Preheat zone Biomass liquefaction Tubular reactor (design is shown in Figure 7, C I Biomass ua efaction Fic LBL Process BiOMASS t NON-REVERS lNG CYCLONE CONDENSER (

  6. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  7. Biomass Producer or Collector Tax Credit (Oregon)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     The Oregon Department of Energy provides a tax credit for agricultural producers or collectors of biomass.  The credit can be used for eligible biomass used to produce biofuel; biomass used in...

  8. Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.Tier 2North CarolinaE85:EthanolEthanolEthanol

  10. Modeling Tomorrow's Biorefinery--the NREL Biochemical Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brochure describing the capabilities of NREL's Biochemical Pilot Plant. In this facility, researchers test ideas for creating high-value products from cellulosic biomass.

  11. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  12. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  13. Ethanol Production, Distribution, and Use: Discussions on Key Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrow, G.

    2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    From production to the environment, presentation discusses issues surrounding ethanol as a transportation fuel.

  14. U.S. Energy Situation, Ethanol, and Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slide 1 U.S. Energy Situation, Ethanol, and Energy Policy Wally Tyner #12;Slide 2 Breakeven Corn and Crude Prices with Ethanol Priced on Energyand PremiumBases plus Ethanol Subsidy 0.00 10.00 20.00 30 #12;Slide 3 Breakeven Corn and Crude Prices with Ethanol Priced on Energyand PremiumBases plus

  15. Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Ethanol (E85)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 2.4.2014 Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Ethanol (E85) Contents Introduction is a renewable alternative transportation fuel blend of gasoline and ethanol. Ethanol (C2H5OH, a.k.a. ethyl matter. The E85 ethanol blend is a low carbon, clean-burning, high-octane fuel, and a versatile solvent

  16. Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines Ethanol continuedOber 2013 Catalystcts.umn.edu Nearly all corn-based ethanol produced in the United States is anhydrous processes required to remove the water from ethanol consume a great deal of energy. Researchers from

  17. Ethanol Tolerance Caused by slowpoke Induction in Drosophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, Nigel

    Ethanol Tolerance Caused by slowpoke Induction in Drosophila Roshani B. Cowmeadow, Harish R in the ethanol response. Caenorhabditis elegans carrying mutations in this gene have altered ethanol sensitivity and Drosophila mutant for this gene are unable to acquire rapid tolerance to ethanol or anesthetics

  18. Value of Coproduction of Ethanol and Furfural from Acid Hydrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, S.; Calnon, M.; Feinberg, D.; Power, A.; Weiss, L.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the acid hydrolysis of a cellulosic feedstock (wood, wood wastes, or crop residues), up to 3.65 lb of furfural may be coproduced with each gallon of ethanol for only the cost of recovering and purifying it. Each plant producing 50 x 106 gal/yr of ethanol would produce an amount of by-product furfural equal to the total current domestic production. Thus, the need arises for investigation into potentially suitable processes for deriving profitable end products from furfural and thus expanding the market. The objectives of this study were to determine the economic potential of five selected, large volume derivatives of furfural that could displace hydrocarbon-based chemicals, and the consequent value of furfural as a by-product to the cellulose hydrolysis process of ethanol production.

  19. NREL: Biomass Research - Robert M. Baldwin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MI. Dr. Baldwin has extensive experience and expertise in thermochemical conversion of biomass to gaseous and liquid fuels, including catalysis and reaction engineering of biomass...

  20. NREL: Biomass Research - Daniel J. Schell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    more than 30 years of research experience in bio-based conversion of lignocellulosic biomass and has extensive expertise in integrated biomass conversion operations at the bench...

  1. NREL: Biomass Research - News Release Archives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Facility (IBRF). June 2, 2011 Science & Industry Peers Turn to NREL for Biomass Solutions The biomass industry looks to the U.S. Department of Energy's National...

  2. Supplying High-Quality, Raw Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supplying High-Quality, Raw Biomass The building blocks to supply high-quality raw biomass start with harvesting and collection practices, product storage and recommendations of...

  3. Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Chemical...

  4. Converting Biomass to High-Value Feedstocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Converting Biomass to High-Value Feedstocks Advanced feedstocks play an important role in economically and efficiently converting biomass into bioenergy products. Advanced...

  5. BSCL Use Plan: Solving Biomass Recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, M.; Vinzant, T.; Bower, S.; Jechura, J.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical report describing NREL's new Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory (BSCL). The BSCL was constructed to provide the most modern commercial surface characterization equipment for studying biomass surfaces.

  6. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review This independent review is the...

  7. Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change This presentation was the opening...

  8. Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification The Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification Key Technology is advancing scientific knowledge of the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal...

  9. Biomass Guidelines (Prince Edward Island, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PEI Biomass Guidelines identify two major pathways that biomass projects may follow: No Public Investment, and Public Investment. Projects with Public Investment include any project that has:

  10. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification National Renewable Energy Laboratory Panel, Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification To: Mr. Mark Ruth, NREL, DOE

  11. NREL: Biomass Research - Ryan M. Ness

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    involve bench-scale wet chemical and instrumental analysis of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for the purpose of providing baseline, solids-intermediate, and biomass...

  12. NREL: Biomass Research - Biochemical Conversion Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL's projects in biochemical conversion involve three basic steps to convert biomass feedstocks to fuels: Converting biomass to sugar or other fermentation feedstock Fermenting...

  13. Final Report on Development of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, Christopher D.; Kenealy, William R.; Shaw, A. Joe; Raman, Babu; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Brown, Steven D.; Davison, Brian H.; Covalla, Sean F.; Sillers, W. Ryan; Xu, Haowen; Tsakraklides, Vasiliki; Hogsett, David A.

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addressed the need for economical technology for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels, specifically the conversion of pretreated hardwood to ethanol. The technology developed is a set of strains of the bacterium Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and an associated fermentation process for pretreated hardwood. Tools for genetic engineering and analysis of the organism were developed, including a markerless mutation method, a complete genome sequence and a set of gene expression profiles that show the activity of its genes under a variety of conditions relevant to lignocellulose conversion. Improved strains were generated by selection and genetic engineering to be able to produce higher amounts of ethanol (up to 70 g/L) and to be able to better tolerate inhibitory compounds from pretreated hardwood. Analysis of these strains has generated useful insight into the genetic basis for desired properties of biofuel producing organisms. Fermentation conditions were tested and optimized to achieve ethanol production targets established in the original project proposal. The approach proposed was to add cellulase enzymes to the fermentation, a method called Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). We had reason to think SSF would be an efficient approach because the optimal temperature and pH for the enzymes and bacterium are very close. Unfortunately, we discovered that commercially available cellulases are inactivated in thermophilic SSF by a combination of low redox potential and ethanol. Despite this, progress was made against the fermentation targets using bacterial cellulases. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum may still prove to be a commercially viable technology should cellulase enzyme issues be addressed. Moreover, the organism was demonstrated to produce ethanol at approximately theoretical yield from oligomeric hemicellulose extracts, an ability that may prove to be uniquely valuable in pretreatment configurations in which cellulose and hemicellulose are separated.

  14. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  15. QER- Comment of ND Ethanol Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To whom it may concern, Attached please find comments from the North Dakota Ethanol Council regarding infrastructure constraints in preparation for the OER Public Meeting, which will be held in Bismarck, N.D., on August 8. Sincerely, Deana Wies

  16. Natural Gas Ethanol Flex-Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Gas Propane Electric Ethanol Flex-Fuel Biodiesel Vehicle Buyer's Guide Clean Cities 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 About This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Compressed Natural Gas and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane

  17. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence...

  18. Commercial ethanol production and marketing on a large scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuenkel, A.E.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol use has advanced because of its ability to increase gasoline octane ratings. The recent oil glut, and price decline, will affect the ethanol industry. Yet the country needs the ethanol industry to complement current efforts to eliminate projected grain surpluses. State incentives must be standardized, to provide marketing consistency. At present, ethanol is the only octane enhancer not commanding its true value. Ethanol is more effective than MTBE, Toluene, or TBA, and must take its place beside these enhancers on the market.

  19. Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to digest switchgrass biomass and synthesize its sugars into gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. | Image courtesy of Berkeley Lab. Advanced Biofuels: How Scientists are...

  20. A review on biomass classification and composition, cofiring issues and pretreatment methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presently around the globe there is a significant interest in using biomass for power generation as power generation from coal continues to raise environmental concerns. Biomass alone can be used for generation of power which can bring lot of environmental benefits. However the constraints of using biomass alone can include high investments costs for biomass feed systems and also uncertainty in the security of the feedstock supply due to seasonal variations and in most of the countries biomass is dispersed and the infrastructure for biomass supply is not well established. Alternatively cofiring biomass along with coal offer advantages like (a) reducing the issues related to biomass quality and buffers the system when there is insufficient feedstock quantity and (b) costs of adapting the existing coal power plants will be lower than building new systems dedicated only to biomass. However with the above said advantages there exists some technical constrains including low heating and energy density values, low bulk density, lower grindability index, higher moisture and ash content to successfully cofire biomass with coal. In order to successfully cofire biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications need to be established to direct pretreatment options that may include increasing the energy density, bulk density, stability during storage and grindability. Impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation and boiler tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications including composition and blend ratios if necessary. Some of these limitations can be overcome by using pretreatment methods. This paper discusses the impact of feedstock pretreatment methods like sizing, baling, pelletizing, briquetting, washing/leaching, torrefaction, torrefaction and pelletization and steam explosion in attainment of optimum feedstock characteristics to successfully cofire biomass with coal.