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Sample records for biomass anaerobic digestion

  1. Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at...

  2. Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration at Biorefineries | Department of Energy Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries DOE Biomass Program perspective on anaerobic digestion and fuel cell integratin at biorefineries. Presented by Brian Duff, DOE Biomass Program, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  3. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  4. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  5. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima makes an ideal substrate for anaerobic digestion because it is easy to harvest, it can use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as its carbon source, and its fermentability is higher than that of other small algae. Digestion experiments demonstrated that S. maxima can serve as the sole nutrient for biogas production and that municipal sewage sludge, when adapted to this new substrate, is very stable. During semicontinuous daily-fed trials under non-optimal conditions at an 0.06 lb volatile solids (VS)/ft/sup 3/ (0.97 kg VS/m/sup 3/) loading rate, 33-day retention time, and 86/sup 0/F (30/sup 0/C) digestion temperature, the daily methane yield was 4.2 CF/lb (0.26 m/sup 3//kg) VS added, which represents 47% of the maximum theoretical yield. Studies on optimizing the process are underway.

  6. CO{sub 2} level control by anthropogenic peat: The anaerobic digestion of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartung, H.A.

    1995-12-31

    Anthropogenic Peat (AP) has been described as an effective and economical way to control the level of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere without adverse effect on economic activity and development. All elements of the proposal are separately at work, but one, anaerobic digestion, is not widely known nor has it been applied to biomass as AP requires. Anaerobic digestion is described here, with some of its current large-scale applications. Results of lab studies of the digestion of other materials, including biomass especially grown for this purpose are presented, and the methods used to find them are explained. The preferred biomass source for AP is sugar cane, and extended studies have been run on a close relative, sorghum; preliminary work on cane itself and on various sugar sources is also reported.

  7. Anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishida, M.; Haga, R.; Odawara, Y.

    1982-10-19

    An algae culture grown on the water from the digested slurry of a biogasification plant serves as a means of removing CO/sub 2/ from the methane stream while purifying the wastewater and providing more biomass for the anaerobic digestion plant. Tested on a sewage-sludge digestion system, the proposed process improved the methane yield by 32% and methane concentration by 53-98 vol % while lowering the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the final water.

  8. Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presented by Brian Duff, DOE Biomass Program, at the NRELDOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado. june2012biogasworkshopduff.pdf (1.31 MB) ...

  9. Effects of lipid concentration on anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yifei; Wang, Dian; Yan, Jiao; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Tianle

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Lipid in municipal biomass would not inhibited the anaerobic digestion process. • A lipid concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. • The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with the increasing of the lipid contents. • Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process. - Abstract: The influence of the lipid concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste-activated sludge was assessed by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and by bench-scale tests in a mesophilic semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. The effect of increasing the volatile solid (VS) concentration of lipid from 0% to 75% was investigated. BMP tests showed that lipids in municipal biomass waste could enhance the methane production. The results of bench-scale tests showed that a lipids concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. Methane yields increased with increasing lipid concentration when lipid concentrations were below 60%, but when lipid concentration was set as 65% or higher, methane yields decreased sharply. When lipid concentrations were below 60%, the pH values were in the optimum range for the growth of methanogenic bacteria and the ratios of volatile fatty acid (VFA)/alkalinity were in the range of 0.2–0.6. When lipid concentrations exceeded 65%, the pH values were below 5.2, the reactor was acidized and the values of VFA/alkalinity rose to 2.0. The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with increasing lipid content. Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process, thereby inhibiting anaerobic digestion.

  10. Anaerobic Digestion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anaerobic Digestion (Redirected from - Anaerobic Digestion) Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Anaerobic Digestion Incentives Retrieved from "http:...

  11. Mechanism, Kinetics and Microbiology of Inhibition Caused by Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Anaerobic Digestion of Algal Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jingwei; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Laurens, Lieve L.; Jarvis, Eric E.; Nagle, Nick J.; Chen, Shulin; Frear, Craig S.

    2015-09-15

    Oleaginous microalgae contain a high level of lipids, which can be extracted and converted to biofuel. The lipid-extracted residue can then be further utilized through anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. However, long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) have been identified as the main inhibitory factor on microbial activity of anaerobic consortium. In this study, the mechanism of LCFA inhibition on anaerobic digestion of whole and lipid-extracted algal biomass was investigated with a range of calcium concentrations against various inoculum to substrate ratios as a means to alleviate the LCFA inhibition.

  12. Anaerobic Digestion Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anaerobic digestion is an alternative to composting for a wide range of organic substances including livestock manure, municipal wastewater solids, food waste, industrial wastewater and residuals, fats, oils and grease, and other organic waste streams.

  13. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivard, C.J.; Boone, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  14. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellinger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  15. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellinger, A.

    1995-11-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters-type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates-define the investment and operating costs of anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters in somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 11/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  16. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosey, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  17. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosey, F.E.

    1995-11-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion with the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  18. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  19. Evaluating anaerobic digestion for reduction of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartung, H.A.

    1994-12-31

    A small-scale anaerobic digestion test has been developed for monitoring start-up work with inoperative digesters. The test is described and variables critical to its consistent operation are detailed. The method has been used in many anaerobic digestion studies, including evaluation of the digestibility of various municipal solid wastes like grass and hedge clippings, garbage and newspapers. Digestion rates are expressed in terms of the rate of production of combustible gas and the retention time needed for a fixed degree of volatile solids destruction. An example shows the advantage of digesting selected combined charges, and it is suggested that this approach might be fruitful with many toxic organic materials. Application of this test to find the digestion rates of some high-yield biomass crops is also described.

  20. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels ...

  1. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... - Journal Papers 1. An overview of biogas production and utilization at full-scale ... review) 2. Producing pipeline-quality biomethane via anaerobic digestion of sludge ...

  2. A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi Community - A Case Study A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi...

  3. The anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartung, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion offers many advantages in the processing of organic solid wastes, using a closed system to convert the waste to combustible gas and a stabilized organic residue.Odors are contained while digestion removes their source and gas is collected for energy recovery as heat or electricity. The stabilized residue is less than the starting waste by the mass of gas produced, and it can be disposed of by land application, land filling, incineration or composting. The stimulation of digesters and the phenomenon of co-digestion are two ways the performance of anaerobic digesters can be enhanced. Data from farm digesters and municipal wastewater treatment plants illustrate the present venue of the process; laboratory studies of the anaerobic digestion of a variety of solid wastes show that the process can be applied to these materials as well. About two thirds of municipal solid waste is shown to be amenable to anaerobic digestion in a substrate from an active municipal sewage plant digester.

  4. Kinetic model for anaerobic digestion of biogas biological sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavlostathis, S.G.; Gossett, J.M.

    1986-10-01

    The principal objective of this study was the development and evaluation of a comprehensive kinetic model capable of predicting digester performance when fed biological sludge. Preliminary conversion mechanisms such as cell deaths, lysis, and hydrolysis responsible for rendering viable biological sludge organisms to available substrate were studied in depth. The results of this study indicate that hydrolysis of the dead, particulate biomass - primarily consisting of protein - is the slowest step, and therefore kinetically controls the overall process of an anaerobic digestion of biological sludge. A kinetic model was developed which could accurately describe digester performance and predict effluent quality.

  5. Anaerobic digestion submarine in Abbey farmyard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    An anaerobic digestion system and fiber separation plant installed at Bethlehem Abbey (Northern Ireland) produces biogas for central heating and grain drying, and a compost which is bagged and sold. According to one report, it even keeps the monks warm at night. Designed by James Murcott of Farm Gas Ltd., the digester (shaped like a submarine) receives 10% solids slurry.

  6. FCPP application to utilize anaerobic digester gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakayama, Yoshio; Kusama, Nobuyuki; Wada, Katsuya

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba and a municipal organization of Yokohama city are jointly conducting a program to utilize ADG (Anaerobic Digester Gas) more effectively. ADG which contains about 60% methane is produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge and has been used as an energy source for heating digestion tanks in sewage treatment plants and/or for combustion engine fuel. This program is focused on operating a commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) power plant on ADG because of its inherently high fuel efficiency and low emissions characteristics. According to the following joint program, we have successfully demonstrated an ADG fueled FCPP The success of this study promises that the ADG fueled FCPP, an environment-friendly power generation system, will be added to the line-up of PC25{trademark}C applications.

  7. Anaerobic digestion for energy production and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lettinga, G.; Haandel, A.C. Vaan

    1993-12-31

    Anaerobic digestion is the decomposition of complex molecules into simpler substances by micro-organisms in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic digestion processes can be employed for resource conservation, for the production of biogas and other useful end products from biomass, and for environmental protection through waste and wastewater treatment. Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater-treatment processes can effectively remove organic pollutants from wastewater at a cost far below that of conventional aerobic processes. These anaerobic wastewater treatment processes can also be profitably applied for the generation of biogas from energy crops such as sugarcane. In fact, these methods might even be an attractive alternative for the alcohol fermentation extensively employed in Brazil for the production of fuel alcohol from sugarcane. The potential of modern anaerobic processes for this purpose has not yet been widely recognized. This paper describes the principles and use of these processes and demonstrates their prospects for producing energy from sugarcane (1) by treating vinasse, the wastewater generated during the production of ethanol from sugarcane, and (2) as a direct method for producing biogas from sugarcane juice.

  8. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F.

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  9. Hog farm in California uses anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes a system of covered lagoons which help address the waste management problems of hog farmers as well as producing methane used to power generators. Four advantages of anaerobic digestion are described along with the system: energy production from methane; fertilizer for fields; economic development in rural areas; and improved water quality through reduction of nonpoint source pollution. Address for full report is given.

  10. Research on Anaerobic Digestion: Optimization and Scalability of Mixed High-strength Food Processing Wastes for Renewable Biogas Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Zhongtang; Hitzhusen, Fredrick

    2012-12-27

    This research project developed and improved anaerobic digestion technologies, created a comprehensive Inventory of Ohio Biomass and a database of microorganisms of anaerobic digesters, and advanced knowledge and understanding of the underpinning microbiology of the anaerobic digestion process. The results and finding of this research project may be useful for future development and implementation of anaerobic digesters, especially at livestock farms. Policy makers and investors may also find the information on the biomass availability in Ohio and valuation of energy projects useful in policy making and making of investment decisions. The public may benefit from the information on biogas as an energy source and the potential impact of anaerobic digester projects on their neighborhoods.

  11. Current State of Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Wastes in North...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10012015 ISSN 2196-3010 Keywords anaerobic digestion, biogas, biosolids, fertilizer, food waste, manure, organic waste, renewable energy Abstract With the large volumes of...

  12. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste FeedstocksEnhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage...

  13. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production March 18-19, 2015 Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Ph. D. Argonne National Laboratory Total Potential Energy at Municipal WWTPs Basis Thermal energy (MMBtu/ year) Electric power (kWh/year) Total energy potential (MMBtu /year) Reference 1 MGD wastewater equates 26 kW of electric capacity and 2.4 MMBtu/day of thermal energy 3.52 × 10 7 9.11 × 10 9 6.65 × 10 7 EPA,

  14. Waste-to-Energy Biomass Digester with Decreased Water Consumption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Waste-to-Energy Biomass Digester with Decreased Water Consumption Colorado State University Contact ...

  15. Extractability of heavy metals in wastewater solids undergoing anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    The extractability of heavy metals in wastewater sludge undergoing anaerobic digestion was investigated. Using batch laboratory digesters, raw wastewater sludge was anaerobically digested at different raw sludge solids loadings and two temperatures. From each of the laboratory digesters, wastewater sludge was sampled at three day intervals and sequentially separated into seven extraction fractions and analyzed for the metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, and Pb. The seven step sequential extraction was for metal species: (a) soluble, (b) displaced-exchangeable, (c) adsorbed, (d) organic, (e) carbonate, (f) sulfide-acid soluble, and (g) residual. At the 35/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the extractant fractions between the raw and anaerobically digested sludges were significantly different. For the 45/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the raw and digested sludge extractant fractions were different and different compared to the 35/sup 0/C system. The 45/sup 0/C raw sludge showed greater percent metal in the organic and sulfide-acid soluble fraction than the digested sludge. At the 45/sup 0/C anaerobic digestion temperature the percent of raw sludge solids loading in the digester had a greater effect on changes in metal extractability and proposed metal species than the 35/sup 0/C.

  16. Methane enrichment digestion experiments at the anaerobic experimental test unit at Walt Disney World. Final report, March 1989-August 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, V.J.; Hill, A.H.

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the project was to determine the technical feasibility of utilizing a novel concept in anaerobic digestion, in-situ methane enrichment digestion or MED for producing utility-grade gas from a pilot-scale anaerobic digester. MED tests conducted during this program consistently achieved digester product gas with a methane (CH4) content of greater than 90% (on a dry-, nitrogen-free basis). The MED concept, because it requires relatively simple equipment and modest energy input, has the potential to simplify gas cleanup requirements and substantially reduce the cost of converting wastes and biomass to pipeline quality gas.

  17. Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Incentive

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity program is designed to support small-sized electricity generation where the energy generated is used primarily at the electric customer's location (third...

  18. Anaerobic Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank J. Hartz; Rob Taylor; Grant Davies

    2011-12-30

    One of the underlying objectives of this study is to recover the untapped energy in wastewater biomass. Some national statistics worth considering include: (1) 5% of the electrical energy demand in the US is used to treat municipal wastewater; (2) This carbon rich wastewater is an untapped energy resource; (3) Only 10% of wastewater treatment plants (>5mgd) recover energy; (4) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to produce > 575 MW of energy nationwide; and (5) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to capture an additional 175 MW of energy from waste Fats, Oils and Grease. The WSSC conducted this study to determine the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (AD/CHP) and/or biosolids gasification and drying facilities to produce and utilize renewable digester biogas. Digester gas is considered a renewable energy source and can be used in place of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project focus includes: (1) Converting wastewater Biomass to Electricity; (2) Using innovative technologies to Maximize Energy Recovery; and (3) Enhancing the Environment by reducing nutrient load to waterways (Chesapeake Bay), Sanitary Sewer Overflows (by reducing FOG in sewers) and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The study consisted of these four tasks: (1) Technology screening and alternative shortlisting, answering the question 'what are the most viable and cost effective technical approaches by which to recover and reuse energy from biosolids while reducing disposal volume?'; (2) Energy recovery and disposal reduction potential verification, answering the question 'how much energy can be recovered from biosolids?'; (3) Economic environmental and community benefit analysis, answering the question 'what are the potential economic, environmental and community benefits/impacts of each approach?'; and (4) Recommend the best plan and develop a concept design.

  19. Anaerobic Digestion (AD): not only methane | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic Digestion (AD): not only methane Anaerobic Digestion (AD): not only methane Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Session 1-C: Beyond Biofuels Larry Baresi, Professor of Biology, California State University, Northridge b13_baresi_1-C.pdf (980.78 KB) More Documents & Publications Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from

  20. On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    An anaerobic digestion system was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm. The anaerobic digestion system was designed to be coupled with a fuel alcohol plant constructed by the farm family as part of an integrated farm energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components. A hog finishing house, which already had a slotted floor and manure pit beneath it, was fitted with a system to scrape the manure into a feed slurry pit constructed at one end of the hog house. A solids handling pump feeds the manure from the feed slurry pit into the digester, a 13,000 gallon tank car body which has been insulated with styrofoam and buried underground. Another pump transfers effluent (digested manure) from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digested manure is then applied to cropland at appropriate times of the year. The digester temperature is maintained at the required level by automated hot water circulation through an internal heat exchanger. The biogas produced in the digester is pumped into a 32,000 gallon gas storage tank.

  1. A mixed plug flow anaerobic digester for dairy manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, M.S.; Delisle, U.; Ferland, D.; Chagnon, R.

    1985-01-01

    In 1982, a ''mixed plug-flow'' anaerobic digester has been built to produce biogas from the manure of 350 dairy cows and, subsequently, to produce electricity for on-farm use only. This paper describes the digester and presents the main results of one year of technical follow-up.

  2. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez Torres, M. Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-11-15

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH){sub 2}), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH){sub 2}/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW.

  3. Economic evaluation of a swine farm covered anaerobic lagoon digester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.

    1996-12-31

    It is helpful to evaluate anaerobic digestion technologies using objective economic criteria. Options can then be ranked in terms of their relative cost effectiveness, leading to rational deployment decisions. This study presents the results of a hypothetical pro forma economic evaluation of one type of digestion system that could commonly be found on many swine farms; a covered anaerobic lagoon. The digester was assumed to be located in North Carolina, a major swine-producing state. Electricity generation with waste heat recovery was assumed to be the major end-use application of biogas manufactured from this process.

  4. Anaerobic digestion of hog wastes: Principles and practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Bujoczek, G.

    1996-12-31

    The principles and overview of research, development and implementation of anaerobic digestion for hog wastes are discussed. Based on economic evaluations, an anaerobic technology is cost-effective, especially for a larger herd and becomes more competitive with aerobic treatment. Nevertheless, the rate of treatment is more sensitive and dependent on the particular fraction of manure being processed. Considering the different factors affecting anaerobic digestion, a complete mixed reactor with solids recycle (having high solids retention time and low hydraulic retention time) was found to be the more reliable system with regards to methane generation and manure stabilization. By solids recycle one can obtain significant saving in the reactor volume required, while still achieving the expected degree of treatment. It was also found that even though treatment using advanced anaerobic systems when compared with simple anaerobic systems is more expensive, the rate of return on investment and efficiency of the process are higher.

  5. Anaerobic digestion as a waste disposal option for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivard, C

    1993-01-01

    Tuna sludge and municipal solid waste (MSW) generated on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, represent an ongoing disposal problem as well as an emerging opportunity for use in renewable fuel production. This research project focuses on the biological conversion of the organic fraction of these wastes to useful products including methane and fertilizer-grade residue through anaerobic high solids digestion. In this preliminary study, the anaerobic bioconversion of tuna sludge with MSW appears promising.

  6. An adaptive strategy to control anaerobic digesters for wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monroy, O.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Cuervo, F.; Femat, R.

    1996-10-01

    The design and implementation of a new adaptive controller for anaerobic digesters is presented using a general nonlinear model and an uncertainties estimation scheme. The primary advantage of this controller over standard adaptive controllers is that biogas flow rate measurements are not required. The resulting controller is similar in form to standard adaptive controllers and can be tuned analogously. The adaptive control strategy has been implemented in a pilot-scale anaerobic digester showing good performance and robustness against changes in the feed load.

  7. Single stage anaerobic digester at Tarleton State University. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The design and operation of the demonstration plant facilities at Tarleton State University to produce methane in a single stage anaerobic digester are described. A combination of manures from hogs and poultry are used as feedstock. Uses for the methane, cost of the digester, and value of the energy produced are discussed. During the 21 months of operation, 310 people have visited the project. (DMC)

  8. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters (text version)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters," originally presented on April 16, 2013.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haugen, V.; Dahlberg, S.; Lindley, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    The authors tested several solid liquid separation systems suitable for processing dairy manure prior to anaerobic digestion. None of the systems tried have completely satisfied the requirements. Evaluated effects of separation on biogas production. Unseparated dairy manure produced more biogas than the liquid fraction.

  10. Pulse power enhancement of the anaerobic digester process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, H.W.

    1996-12-31

    A pilot study of the effects of Pulse Power Processing on an anaerobic digester system was completed at the Decatur Utilities Dry Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant, in Decatur Alabama, in September, 1995. This patented method generates several significant effects when all biosolids material is treated as it enters the anaerobic system. Intense, high peak-power plasma arcs are created, one at each end of the parabolic processing chamber, to produce an amplified synergy of alterations to the digester sludge flowing between them. The millisecond electric discharges generate localized temperatures as high as 30,000 K{degrees}, followed by a rapid cooling of the flowing liquid, which produces acoustic shock waves with pressures approaching 5,000 atmospheres. This destructive force: ruptures many of the cell walls of the bacteria and other single-cell organisms, releasing their vacuole fluids; breaks carbon bonds to form smaller organic compounds; and pulverizes large particle conglomerates, increasing the overall surface area of the solids. These beneficial results serve to boost the nutrient source for the anaerobes in the digester. In conjunction with LTV radiation, the formation of excited chemical radicals (including OH{sup -}), and the changes in ionic charge through alteration of the zeta potential, the bioreactor system is turbocharged to enhance the conversion of volatile biosolids to methane gas, which is the natural respiratory by-product of anaerobic digestion.

  11. Factors controlling pathogen destruction during anaerobic digestion of biowastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S.R. . E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk; Lang, N.L.; Cheung, K.H.M.; Spanoudaki, K.

    2005-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is the principal method of stabilising biosolids from urban wastewater treatment in the UK, and it also has application for the treatment of other types of biowaste. Increasing awareness of the potential risks to human and animal health from environmental sources of pathogens has focused attention on the efficacy of waste treatment processes at destroying pathogenic microorganisms in biowastes recycled to agricultural land. The degree of disinfection achieved by a particular anaerobic digester is influenced by a variety of interacting operational variables and conditions, which can often deviate from the ideal. Experimental investigations demonstrate that Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. are not damaged by mesophilic temperatures, whereas rapid inactivation occurs by thermophilic digestion. A hydraulic, biokinetic and thermodynamic model of pathogen inactivation during anaerobic digestion showed that a 2 log{sub 10} reduction in E. coli (the minimum removal required for agricultural use of conventionally treated biosolids) is likely to challenge most conventional mesophilic digesters, unless strict maintenance and management practices are adopted to minimise dead zones and by-pass flow. Efficient mixing and organic matter stabilisation are the main factors controlling the rate of inactivation under mesophilic conditions and not a direct effect of temperature per se on pathogenic organisms.

  12. Discussion of ``The anaerobic digestion of organic waste``

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    With respect to economics, the presenter indicated that anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste (MSW) may not be economical based on the value of the energy produced. This will most likely be the case, partly because of the low energy prices in this country. These facilities would have to rely on tipping fees paid for receiving and processing the waste. As stated earlier, the high solids process will help improve the economics. While there are said to be 20 plants operating in Europe on MSW, there seems to be none in the US, and that is the condition this paper addresses. It was hoped that by exploring the benefits of co-digestion and stimulation, and showing how digestible certain components of MSW can be, more operators of existing anaerobic facilities would consider expanding their operations to include at least some elements of MSW.

  13. A mass transfer model of ammonia volatilisation from anaerobic digestate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whelan, M.J.; Everitt, T.; Villa, R.

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is becoming increasingly popular for treating organic waste. The methane produced can be burned to generate electricity and the digestate, which is high in mineral nitrogen, can be used as a fertiliser. In this paper we evaluate potential losses of ammonia via volatilisation from food waste anaerobic digestate using a closed chamber system equipped with a sulphuric acid trap. Ammonia losses represent a pollution source and, over long periods could reduce the agronomic value of the digestate. Observed ammonia losses from the experimental system were linear with time. A simple non-steady-state partitioning model was developed to represent the process. After calibration, the model was able to describe the behaviour of ammonia in the digestate and in the trap very well. The average rate of volatilisation was approximately 5.2 g N m{sup -2} week{sup -1}. The model was used to extrapolate the findings of the laboratory study to a number of AD storage scenarios. The simulations highlight that open storage of digestate could result in significant losses of ammonia to the atmosphere. Losses are predicted to be relatively minor from covered facilities, particularly if depth to surface area ratio is high.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of livestock manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1995-08-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry creates new opportunities for proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products, including a renewable fuel. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, based on estimates of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return are developed from the evaluations. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes}, are provided as a reality check.

  15. Modeling fatty acid relationships in animal waste anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, D.T.; Bolte, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) relationships are important in the anaerobic digestion of animal wastes as they (acetic, propionic and butyric) are direct precursors of methane, either through direct conversion of acetate or through the intermediate formation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Thus, they are essential compounds in the biological conversion of heterogenous wastes to useable products. VFA's are also known inhibitors in the biological conversion process if their concentrations are sufficiently high. Thus, VFA's are simultaneously essential for the process and can be toxic agents should they be present in excess quantities. This relationship makes quantifying VFA's in the modeling studies essential to accurately predicting digester failure or success. A highly correlated relationship between the level of acetic acid and/or the propionic to acetic acid ratio in digesters that were successful and in digesters that failed has been shown. These data have been used to calibrate an original comprehensive methanogenesis model and along with the addition of dual-use substrate kinetics for the simultaneous catalysis of propionate and butyrate, have produced a much improved prediction of the VFA relationships observed in operating anaerobic digesters. This manuscript describes the addition of the dual-use substrate kinetics and the modification of the kinetic parameters of the original methanogenic model and compared the simulated output of the original and modified models to demonstrate the improved predictive ability. (Refs. 12).

  16. Digestion of waste activated sludge by anaerobic rotating biological contactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chiyuan.

    1990-01-01

    Two parallel, four-stage anaerobic rotating biological contactors (RBC) were continuously operated to evaluate the engineering feasibility of such an attached growth system for digesting sewage sludge. Waste activated sludge was used as the feed which contained 10,000 mg/l of suspended solids and an average total COD of 11,890 mg/l. The effects of three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs: 10, 5, 2.5 days) and three different operating temperatures (35, 30, 25 C) on the digester performance were evaluated. In addition, the maximum methanogenic capability of the RBC system in utilizing acetic, propionic and butyric acids was also assessed. Results indicated that the performance of the anaerobic RBS digester was strongly affected by both the HRT and the operating temperature. A decrease of either HRT or operating temperature would result in a lower stabilization efficiency. At 35 C the digester could stabilize 39.3% of the total sludge COD with a 5-day HRT, and this efficiency was very close to the minimum requirement of 40% in the general engineering practice. The accelerated digestion rate in an RBC system was mainly due to the high methanogenic capability existing in the attached-growths, which also avoid biological washout at a short hydraulic retention condition. Applications of the experimental data to an actual engineering design were also illustrated.

  17. EA-1907: Biogas Anaerobic Digester Facility, Oakley, Kansas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal by DOE and USDA to provide funding to Western Plains Energy, LLC (WPE) to construct, purchase equipment, and operate a new Biogas Anaerobic Digester at WPE's existing Ethanol Facility, located at 3022 County Road 18, Grinnell Township (Oakley), Gove County, Kansas. The proposed facility will include a receiving building, digester, and related infrastructure. Based on the analysis in USDA's Final EA and FONSI, DOE has determined that DOE's proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human or natural environment.

  18. Effect of particle size reduction on anaerobic sludge digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koutsospyros, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The majority of organic pollutants in primary sludge are suspended in the form of particulate rather than soluble matter. Microbial organisms cannot assimilate this material without initial solubilization. In anaerobic digestion, the initial size breakdown is accomplished by hydrolytic bacteria. The extent of solubilization is limited by the size of particulate matter. Thus, size reduction prior to digestion is a sound alternative. Size reduction pretreatment was achieved by means of ultrasonic waves. Sonication proved an effective method for size reduction of particulate matter in primary sludge. In addition, although the method produced relatively high amounts of finely dispered solids, the filtration properties of resulting sludges were not affected. Chemical characteristics of sludge, important in anaerobic digestion, were not affected, at least within the attempted range of sonication time and amplitude. The effect of size reduction of primary sludge solids was studied under batch and semi-continuous feed conditions. Preliminary batch digestion experiments were conducted in five 1.5 liter reactors that accepted sonicated feeds of varying pretreatment at four different feed loads (3.3-13.3% by volume). The digestion efficiency and gas production were increased by as much as 30 percent as a result of sonication without any deterioration in the filtration properties of the digester effluent. At higher feed loads the digester efficiency dropped drastically and significant deterioration of the effluent filtration properties from all reactors was evident. Semi-continuous runs were conducted in four reactors. Solids retention time (SRT) was varied from 8 to 20 days. Process efficiency and gas production were enhanced as a result of sonication. Process improvement was more evident under short SRT (8-10 days).

  19. Optimization of solid state anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW by digestate recirculation: A new approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michele, Pognani; Giuliana, D’Imporzano; Carlo, Minetti; Sergio, Scotti; Fabrizio, Adani

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD) of OFMSW can be optimized by irrigation with digestate. • Digestate spreading allows keeping optimal process parameters and high hydrolysis rate. • The 18.4% of CH{sub 4} was produced in the reactor, leaving the 49.7% in the percolate. • Successive CSTR feed with percolate shows a biogas enriched in methane (more than 80%). • The proposed process allow producing the 68% of OFMSW potential CH{sub 4}, getting high quality organic amendment. - Abstract: Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of OFMSW was optimized in order to produce biogas avoiding the use of solid inoculum. Doing so the dry AD was performed irrigating the solid waste with liquid digestate (flow rate of 1:1.18–1:0.9 w/w waste/digestate; 21 d of hydraulic retention time – HRT) in order to remove fermentation products inhibiting AD process. Results indicated that a high hydrolysis rate of organic matter (OM) and partial biogas production were obtained directly during the dry AD. Hydrolysate OM was removed from digester by the percolate flow and it was subsequently used to feed a liquid anaerobic digester. During dry AD a total loss of 36.9% of total solids was recorded. Methane balance indicated that 18.4% of potential methane can be produced during dry AD and 49.7% by the percolate. Nevertheless results obtained for liquid AD digestion indicated that only 20.4% and 25.7% of potential producible methane was generated by adopting 15 and 20 days of HRT, probably due to the AD inhibition due to high presence of toxic ammonia forms in the liquid medium.

  20. Liquid-liquid extraction of short-chain organic acids from anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wene, E.G.; Antonopoulos, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic digesters with glucose or municipal solid waste (MSW) feed were operated to maximize production of short-chain organic acids. Digester effluent was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or trioctylamine (TOA) in heptane or 2-heptanone as the water immiscible phase. Digester effluent was recycled to digesters after extraction. Both TOPO and TOA in organic solvents effectively extract organic acids from anaerobic digester fluid. Longer chain acids have a higher distribution coefficient than shorter-chain acids. Long term extraction of digester fluid with recycle was not toxic to the anaerobic production of short-chain acids.

  1. Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigby, H.; Smith, S.R.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen release in digestate-amended soil depends on the digestate type. • Overall N release is modulated by digestate mineral and mineralisable N contents. • Microbial immobilisation does not influence overall release of digestate N in soil. • Digestate physical properties and soil type interact to affect overall N recovery. • High labile C inputs in digestate may promote denitrification in fine-textured soil. - Abstract: Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application

  2. A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi Community- A Case Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Jason Rieth, Industrial Construction Executive at Miron Construction at the April 16, 2013, Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters CommRE Webinar.

  3. Anaerobic digestion analysis model: User`s manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Landucci, R.

    1994-08-01

    The Anaerobic Digestion Analysis Model (ADAM) has been developed to assist investigators in performing preliminary economic analyses of anaerobic digestion processes. The model, which runs under Microsoft Excel{trademark}, is capable of estimating the economic performance of several different waste digestion process configurations that are defined by the user through a series of option selections. The model can be used to predict required feedstock tipping fees, product selling prices, utility rates, and raw material unit costs. The model is intended to be used as a tool to perform preliminary economic estimates that could be used to carry out simple screening analyses. The model`s current parameters are based on engineering judgments and are not reflective of any existing process; therefore, they should be carefully evaluated and modified if necessary to reflect the process under consideration. The accuracy and level of uncertainty of the estimated capital investment and operating costs are dependent on the accuracy and level of uncertainty of the model`s input parameters. The underlying methodology is capable of producing results accurate to within {+-} 30% of actual costs.

  4. Kinetics and dynamic modelling of batch anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste in a stirred reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nopharatana, Annop; Pullammanappallil, Pratap C.; Clarke, William P.

    2007-07-01

    A series of batch, slurry anaerobic digestion experiments were performed where the soluble and insoluble fractions, and unwashed MSW were separately digested in a 200 l stirred stainless steel vessel at a pH of 7.2 and a temperature of 38 deg. C. It was found that 7% of the total MSW COD was readily soluble, of which 80% was converted to biogas; 50% of the insoluble fraction was solubilised, of this only 80% was converted to biogas. The rate of digesting the insoluble fraction was about four times slower than the rate of digesting the soluble fraction; 48% of the total COD was converted to biogas and 40% of the total nitrogen was converted to ammonia. Soluble and insoluble fractions were broken down simultaneously. The minimum time to convert 95% of the degradable fraction to biogas was 20 days. The lag phase for the degradation of insoluble fraction of MSW can be overcome by acclimatising the culture with the soluble fraction. The rate of digestion and the methane yield was not affected by particle size (within the range of 2-50 mm). A dynamic model was developed to describe batch digestion of MSW. The parameters of the model were estimated using data from the separate digestion of soluble and insoluble fractions and validated against data from the digestion of unwashed MSW. Trends in the specific aceticlastic and formate-utilising methanogenic activity were used to estimate initial methanogenic biomass concentration and bacterial death rate coefficient. The kinetics of hydrolysis of insoluble fraction could be adequately described by a Contois equation and the kinetics of acidogenesis, and aceticlastic and hydrogen utilising methanogenesis by Monod equations.

  5. Biogasification of sorghum in a novel anaerobic digester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, V.J.; Biljetina, R.; Isaacson, H.R.; Hayes, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) conducted pilot-scale anaerobic digestion experiments with ensiled sorghum in a 160 ft/sup 3/ digester at the experimental test unit (ETU) facility at the Walt Disney World Resort Complex in Florida. The study focused on improving bioconversion efficiencies and process stability by employing a novel reactor concept developed at IGT. Steady-state performance data were collected from the ETU as well as from a laboratory-scale conventional stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at loading rates of 0.25 and 0.50 lb organic matter/ft/sup 3/-day at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures, respectively. This paper will describe the ETU facility, novel digester design and operating techniques, and the results obtained during 12 months of stable and uninterrupted operation of the ETU and the CSTR which showed that methane yields anad rates from the ETU were 20% to 50% higher than those of the CSTR. 10 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestre, Gracia; Bonmatí, August; Fernández, Belén

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Methane production rate increased between 56% and 208% during OFMSW–SS codigestion. • The OFMSW particle size reduction from 20 to 8 mm did not affect the methane yield. • OFMSW–SS codigestion promoted β-oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenic activity. • The evolution of specific activity was a feasible tool to control the process. - Abstract: The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20 days. The SS–OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1 kg{sub COD} m{sup −3} d{sup −1} (1.9 kg{sub VS} m{sup −3} d{sup −1}), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20 mm to 8 mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system.

  7. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tampio, Elina; Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles; Rintala, Jukka

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H{sub 2}S during food waste digestion. Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m{sup 3}day. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Highest CH{sub 4} yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m{sup 3}day with untreated FW. Autoclaved FW produced highest CH{sub 4} yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m{sup 3}day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d. Methane yields at all OLR were 510% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 0.013 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 3 kg VS/m{sup 3} d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 0.020 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 4 kg VS/m{sup 3} d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components.

  8. On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel-alcohol plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bengtson, H.H.

    1985-12-01

    An anaerobic-digestion system, coupled with a fuel-alcohol plant, was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm as part of an integrated farm-energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components; a hog finishing house with a manure pit; a solids handling pump to feed the manure; and a 13,000-gallon railroad tank car as the main digester vessel and pump to transfer effluent from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digester was operated for sufficient time to demonstrate the use of hot water in an automated digester temperature control system. Sufficient biogas was produced to demonstrate the use of biogas in a converted propane boiler.

  9. Biomass 2014: Growing the Future Bioeconomy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... * 2 Anaerobic digesters using swine manure as principle feedstock; * Solid fuel pellets from woody biomass; and * 2 Biodiesel from waste greases and oils. 11 Scope * ...

  10. Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Anhydrous Liquid Ammonia - Energy Innovation Portal Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Anhydrous Liquid Ammonia Inventors: Shishir Chundawat, Leonardo Sousa, Albert Cheh, Venkatesh Balan, Bruce Dale Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryIn the continuing push to develop alternative fuels, bioethanol is clearly a viable option. However, if it is to become a truly economical

  11. Long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Lei; Jahng, Deokjin

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Korean food waste was found to contain low level of trace elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved by adding trace elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Iron played an important role in anaerobic digestion of food waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt addition further enhanced the process performance in the presence of iron. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste in a semi-continuous single-stage reactor could be stabilized by supplementing trace elements. Contrary to the failure of anaerobic digestion of food waste alone, stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved for 368 days by supplementing trace elements. Under the conditions of OLR (organic loading rates) of 2.19-6.64 g VS (volatile solid)/L day and 20-30 days of HRT (hydraulic retention time), a high methane yield (352-450 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}) was obtained, and no significant accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed. The subsequent investigation on effects of individual trace elements (Co, Fe, Mo and Ni) showed that iron was essential for maintaining stable methane production. These results proved that the food waste used in this study was deficient in trace elements.

  12. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheradmand, S.; Karimi-Jashni, A.; Sartaj, M.

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD{sub rem} for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  13. Evaluating a model of anaerobic digestion of organic wastes through system identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anex, R.P.; Kiely, G.

    1999-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW), on its own or co-digested with primary sewage sludge (PSS), produces high quality biogas, suitable as renewable energy. Parameter estimation and evaluation of a two-stage mathematical model of the anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of MSW and PSS are described. Measured data are from a bench scale laboratory experiment using a continuously stirred tank reactor and operated at 36 C for 115 days. The two-stage model simulates acidogenesis and methanogenesis, including ammonia inhibition. Model parameters are estimated using an output error, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. Sensitivity of the estimated parameter values and the model outputs to non-estimated model parameters and measurement errors are evaluated. The estimated mathematical model successfully predicts the performance of the anaerobic reactor. Sensitivity results provide guidance for improving the model structure and experimental procedures.

  14. Anaerobic waste-activated sludge digestion - A bioconversion mechanism and kinetic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimizu, Tatsuo; Kudo, Kenzo; Nasu, Yoshikazu )

    1993-05-01

    The anaerobic bioconversion of raw and mechanically lysed waste-activated sludge was kinetically investigated. The hydrolysis of the biopolymers, such as protein, which leaked out from the biological sludge with ultrasonic lysis, was a first-order reaction in anaerobic digestion and the rate constant was much higher than the decay rate constant of the raw waste activated sludge. An anaerobic digestion model that is capable of evaluating the effect of the mechanical sludge lysis on digestive performance was developed. The present model includes four major biological processes - the release of intracellular matter with sludge lysis; hydrolysis of biopolymers to volatile acids; the degradation of various volatile acids to acetate; and the conversion of acetate and hydrogen to methane. Each process was assumed to follow first-order kinetics. The model approximately simulated the overall process performance of the anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge. The model suggested that when the lysed waste-activated sludge was fed, the overall digestive performance remarkably increased in the two-phase system consisting of an acid forming process and a methanogenic process, which ensured the symbiotic growth of acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of municipal, industrial, and livestock wastes for energy recovery and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sax, R.I.; Lusk, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    The degradation of carbonaceous organic material by anaerobic bacteria leads to the production of methane gas (biogas) at the theoretical stoichiometric conversion rate of 0.35-cubic meters of methane per kilogram of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reasonably close proximity to the site of this digestion process. The untreated biogas generated from anaerobic digestion typically contains from 55% to 75% methane content, with the balance consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and a small, but important, amount of hydrogen sulfide. The untreated biogas is normally saturated with water vapor at the temperature of the digestion process which typically is in the mesophilic range 25 to 38 degrees Celsius. This overview paper describes the types of anaerobic technologies which are presently used for the digestion of various type of municipal, industrial and livestock manure wastes, summarizes the principal developments which have taken place in the field during the past several years, and discusses the energy recovery economics for each of the three usage applications. The paper stratifies the use of anaerobic digestion technology for the treatment of wastewaters from industry (an application which has increased dramatically during the past decade) by geographical region, by industry type, very various categories of food processing, and by technology type, in all cases taking account of system size to emphasize the economics of energy production.

  16. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian; Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang; Li Yebo

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  17. Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Gioannis, G.; Diaz, L.F.; Muntoni, A. Pisanu, A.

    2008-07-01

    A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater.

  18. Anaerobic fermentation of woody biomass pretreated with supercritical ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, P.J.; Chou, Y.C.T.

    1986-10-01

    The degradability of ground hardwood by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium thermocellum with or without Thermoanaerobacter strain B6A) was greatly enhanced by pretreatment of the substrate with supercritical ammonia. Relative to C. thermocellum monocultures, cocultures of C. thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacter strain B6A degraded 1.5-fold more pretreated soft maple but produced 2- 5-fold more fermentation end products because Thermoanaerobacter sp. removed reducing sugars produced by C. thermocellum during the fermentation. Dry weight losses were not totally accounted for in end products, due to formation of partially degraded material (<0.4 ..mu..m diameter wood particles) during the fermentation. One pretreated hardwood, Southern red oak, was fermented poorly because it released soluble inhibitors at the 60/sup 0/C incubation temperature. Considerable (6- to 11-fold) increases in substrate degradability were also noted for supercritical ammonia-pretreated wood materials fermented in an in vitro rumen digestibility assay. Degradation of pretreated softwoods by either thermophilic or mesophilic fermentation was not measurable under the conditions tested.

  19. Biomass and Waste-to-Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic Digestion & Biogas: Industry Perspectives ... waste and manure, and municipal commercial food waste. ... Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast ...

  20. Intermediate-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion system operational development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivard, C.J.

    1995-02-01

    Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. Operation of the anaerobic digestion process at high solids reduces the level of process water and thereby the size and capital costs for the digester system. In addition, by virtue of the lack of available water, the microbial catalysts are more productive in feedstock polymer hydrolysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. Information gained from laboratory-scale digester research was used to develop die intermediate-scale digester system. This system represents a 50-fold scale-up of the original digester system and includes continuous feed addition and computer monitoring and control. During the first 1.15 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements -- which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using the NREL high-solids digester design -- are detailed in this report.

  1. Industrial landfill leachate characterization and treatment utilizing anaerobic digestion with methane production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbo, P.

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic compounds found in an industrial landfill leachate originating from a Superfund site was assessed using mixed methanogenic cultures. Leachate was found to contain a dissolved organic content (DOC) of about 16,000 mg/liter, of which 40% was in the form of acetic, propionic and butyric acids. The overall reduction of DOC and the fates of individual volatile fatty acids were studied during batch experiments of 5, 10, and 20% leachate dilutions. Other leachate components were characterized. Two methanogenic cultures were selected. A leachate digesting culture was selected directly with the leachate. A volatile fatty acid digesting culture was selected using acetic, propionic and butyric acids in the ratio found in the leachate. An overall DOC reduction of 64.3% was observed for the leachate digesting culture. A reduction of 69.1% was observed for the volatile fatty acid digesting culture. Specific DOC utilization rates were 0.154 and 0.211 day/sup -1/, for the leachate digesting and volatile fatty acid digesting cultures, respectively. Methane was produced at levels of 0.95-0.99 liters per gram DOC removed. Cell growth could not be observed during batch experiments. Acetate appeared to be the rate-limiting step in the DOC removal. Batch experiments with 20% leachate dilutions did not produce much methane, possibly due to overloading systems with volatile fatty acids. Other leachate components did not appear to effect anaerobic digestion.

  2. Efficient Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Microalgae and Lipid-Extracted...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Bioenergy Word Cloud More ...

  3. Producing pipeline-quality biomethane via anaerobic digestion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and <5 ppb H2S), facilitated CO2 removal by up to 86.3%, boosted average CH4 content in biogas by up to 42.4% compared with the control digester, close to fungibility of natural...

  4. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Bjoernsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas

  5. Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... control, tilth * Berms, spill control products * Flowerpots, molded products * Fuel pellets * Organic fertilizer, liquid nutrient solutions, "teas" * Enormous, untapped potential ...

  6. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of screened dairy manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes the operating results of a two-phase process that separate the acid-phase and methane-phase digestion of screened dairy manure under mesophilic temperature. Acidogenesis pretreatment prior to the methanogenic fixed-film reactor phase resulted in a significant increase in methane yield.

  7. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste potential market implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjoberg, H.T.D.; Mooij, H.P.

    1985-08-01

    A 10-day retention time experiment determined digester biogas production and overall digester performance for comparison with previous experiments using 12- and 18-day retention. The authors describe the experiments, compare the results, and discuss general operation and start-up of the three experiments. The results show that the 10-day retention time produces a high level of biogas with substantially lower retention times. The data suggest that as sludge is used and the problem of leaks is addressed, gas production rate can be increased as well as the extent of bio-conversion. They also suggest that a seven-day retention time is physically feasible, and that similar values for gas production and bio-conversion can be maintained. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Design of a large-scale anaerobic digestion facility for the recovery of energy from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayhanian, M.; Jones, D.

    1996-12-31

    The California Prison Industry Authority, in conjunction with the City of Folsom, operates a 100 ton/d municipal solid waste (MSW) recovery facility using inmate labor. Through manual sorting, all useful organic and inorganic materials are recycled for marketing. The remaining organic material will be further processed to remove hazardous and inert material and prepared as a feedstock for an anaerobic digestion process. The clean organic waste (approximately 78 ton/d) will then be shredded and completely mixed with sewage water prior feeding to the digester. Off gas from the digester will be collected as a fuel for the steam boiler or combusted in a waste gas burner. Steam will be injected directly into the digester for heating. The anaerobically digested material will be moved to compost area where it will be mixed with wood faction of yard waste and processed aerobically for the production of compost material as a soil amendment. Anaerobic digesters will be constructed in two phases. The first phase consists of the construction of one 26 ton/d digester to confirm the suitability of feeding and mixing equipment. Modifications will be made to the second and third digesters, in the second phase, based on operating experience of the first digester. This paper discusses important design features of the anaerobic digestion facility.

  9. Study of the operational conditions for anaerobic digestion of urban solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castillo M, Edgar Fernando . E-mail: efcastil@uis.edu.co; Cristancho, Diego Edison; Victor Arellano, A.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes an experimental evaluation of anaerobic digestion technology as an option for the management of organic solid waste in developing countries. As raw material, a real and heterogeneous organic waste from urban solid wastes was used. In the first experimental phase, seed selection was achieved through an evaluation of three different anaerobic sludges coming from wastewater treatment plants. The methanization potential of these sludges was assessed in three different batch digesters of 500 mL, at two temperature levels. The results showed that by increasing the temperature to 15 deg. C above room temperature, the methane production increases to three times. So, the best results were obtained in the digester fed with a mixed sludge, working at mesophilic conditions (38-40 deg. C). Then, this selected seed was used at the next experimental phase, testing at different digestion times (DT) of 25, 20 and 18 days in a bigger batch digester of 20 L with a reaction volume of 13 L. The conversion rates were registered at the lowest DT (18 days), reaching 44.9 L/kg{sup -1} of wet waste day{sup -1}. Moreover, DT also has a strong influence over COD removal, because there is a direct relationship between solids removal inside the reactor and DT.

  10. Floodplain Assessment for Installation of a Renewable Energy Anaerobic Digester Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Installation of a Renewable Energy Anaerobic Digester Facility at the University of California, Davis in Yolo County, California January 11, 2013 1.0 Introduction This floodplain assessment has been prepared in accordance with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1022, "Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements" which were promulgated to implement the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) responsibilities under Executive Order 11988,

  11. Anaerobic co-digestion of aquatic flora and quinoa with manures from Bolivian Altiplano

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, Rene Liden, Gunnar

    2008-07-01

    Quinoa stalk (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from agricultural crop residue, totora (Schoenoplectus tatora) and o-macrophytes (aquatic flora) from Lake Titicaca (on the Bolivian Altiplano) were studied in a wet anaerobic co-digestion process together with manure from llama, cow and sheep. Anaerobic semi-continuous experiments were performed in (10) 2-l reactors at a temperature of 25 deg. C with 30 days of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.8 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. Totora was found to be the best co-substrate. In mixture ratios of 1:1 (VS basis), it increased the biogas productivity by 130% for llama manure, 60% for cow manure, and 40% for sheep manure. It was possible to use up to 58% (VS basis) of totora in the substrate. Higher concentrations (including pure totora) could not be digested, as that caused acidification problems similar to those caused by other lignocellulosic materials. When quinoa and o-macrophytes were used as co-substrates, the increase in biogas productivity was slightly less. However, these co-substrates did not cause any operational problems. An additional advantage of quinoa and o-macrophytes was that they could be used in any proportion (even in pure form) without causing any destabilization problems in the anaerobic digestion process.

  12. Impacts of microwave pretreatments on the semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of dairy waste activated sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uma Rani, R.; Adish Kumar, S.; Kaliappan, S.; Yeom, IckTae; Rajesh Banu, J.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Microwave pretreatment of dairy WAS was studied. ► MW pretreatment at 70% intensity for 12 min, COD solubilization was 18.6%. ► Biogas production and SS reduction was 35% and 14% higher than control. ► In digester at 15 days SRT with medium OLR, SS and VS reduction was 67% and 64%. ► Biogas and methane production was 57% and 49% higher than control, in digesters. - Abstract: Microwave (MW) irradiation is one of the new and possible methods used for pretreating the sludge. Following its use in different fields, this MW irradiation method has proved to be more appropriate in the field of environmental research. In this paper, we focused on the effects of MW irradiation at different intensities on solubilization, biodegradation and anaerobic digestion of sludge from the dairy sludge. The changes in the soluble fractions of the organic matter, the biogas yield, the methane content in the biogas were used as control parameters for evaluating the efficiency of the MW pretreatment. Additionally, the energetic efficiency was also examined. In terms of an energetic aspect, the most economical pretreatment of sludge was at 70% intensity for 12 min irradiation time. At this, COD solubilization, SS reduction and biogas production were found to be 18.6%, 14% and 35% higher than the control, respectively. Not only the increase in biogas production was investigated, excluding protein and carbohydrate hydrolysis was also performed successfully by this microwave pretreatment even at low irradiation energy input. Also, experiments were carried out in semi continuous anaerobic digesters, with 3.5 L working volume. Combining microwave pretreatment with anaerobic digestion led to 67%, 64% and 57% of SS reduction, VS reduction and biogas production higher than the control, respectively.

  13. Intermediate-Scale High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion System Operational Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivard, C. J.

    1995-02-01

    Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. During the first 1.5 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements, which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using ,the NREL high-solids digester design are detailed in this report.

  14. Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure: The effect of ammonia inhibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Zhanguang; Zhou Xuefei; Zhang Yalei; Zhu Hongguang

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was key controlling factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The threshold of the SCOD/TAN ratio was 2.4 at an influent pH of 8.5-9. - Abstract: The effect of ammonia inhibition was evaluated during the enhanced anaerobic treatment of digested effluent from a 700 m{sup 3} chicken-manure continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A 12.3 L internal circulation (IC) reactor inoculated with an anaerobic granular sludge and operated at 35 {+-} 1 Degree-Sign C was employed for the investigation. With a corresponding organic loading rate of 1.5-3.5 kg-COD/m{sup 3} d over a hydraulic retention time of 1.5 d, a maximum volumetric biogas production rate of 1.2 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3} d and TCOD (total COD) removal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80% was achieved. However, the continual increase in the influent TAN content led to ammonia inhibition in the methanogenesis system. The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was presented to be the key controlling factor for the anaerobic treatment of semi-digested chicken manure, and further validation through shock loading and ammonia inhibition experiments was conducted. The threshold value of the SCOD/TAN ratio was determined to be 2.4 (corresponding to a TAN of 1250 mg/L) at an influent pH of 8.5-9.

  15. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stabnikova, O. Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y.

    2008-07-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

  16. Continuous high-solids anaerobic co-digestion of organic solid wastes under mesophilic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Oh, Sae-Eun

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > High-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion is attracting a lot of attention these days. > One reactor was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste. > Maximum biogas production rate of 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d was achieved at HRT 40 d and 40% TS. > The other reactor was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW). > Until a 40% LW content increase, the reactor exhibited a stable performance. - Abstract: With increasing concerns over the limited capacity of landfills, conservation of resources, and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, high-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste (OSW) is attracting a great deal of attention these days. In the present work, two dry anaerobic co-digestion systems fed with different mixtures of OSW were continuously operated under mesophilic conditions. Dewatered sludge cake was used as a main seeding source. In reactor (I), which was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste (PW), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid content were controlled to find the maximum treatability. At a fixed solid content of 30% total solids (TS), stable performance was maintained up to an HRT decrease to 40 d. However, the stable performance was not sustained at 30 d HRT, and hence, HRT was increased to 40 d again. In further operation, instead of decreasing HRT, solid content was increased to 40% TS, which was found to be a better option to increase the treatability. The biogas production rate (BPR), CH{sub 4} production yield (MPY) and VS reduction achieved in this condition were 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, 0.25 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and 80%, respectively. Reactor (II) was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW), and LW content was increased during the operation. Until a 40% LW content increase, reactor (II) exhibited a stable performance. A BPR of 1.7 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, MPY of 0.26 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and VS reduction of 72% was achieved at 40% LW content. However, when the LW content was increased to 60

  17. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sajeena Beevi, B.; Madhu, G.; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Performance of the reactor was evaluated by the degradation of volatile solids. • Biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS. • Value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}. • During the digestion 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100 g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100 g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}.

  18. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 10, Appendix H: Anaerobic digestion of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of pressed off leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nayono, Satoto E.; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2010-10-15

    A highly polluted liquid ('press water') was obtained from the pressing facility for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a composting plant. Methane productivity of the squeezed-off leachate was investigated in batch assays. To assess the technical feasibility of 'press water' as a substrate for anaerobic digestion, a laboratory-scale glass column reactor was operated semi-continuously at 37 {sup o}C. A high methane productivity of 270 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} COD{sub added} or 490 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} VS{sub added} was achieved in the batch experiment. The semi-continuously run laboratory-scale reactor was initially operated at an organic loading rate of 10.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The loading was increased to finally 27.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, corresponding to a reduction of the hydraulic retention time from initially 20 to finally 7.7 days. During the digestion, a stable elimination of organic material (measured as COD elimination) of approximately 60% was achieved. Linearly with the increment of the OLR, the volumetric methane production of the reactor increased from 2.6 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1} to 7.1 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The results indicated that 'press water' from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was a suitable substrate for anaerobic digestion which gave a high biogas yield even at very high loading rates.

  20. Enhanced Biomass Digestion with Wood Wasp Bacteria - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In nature, certain microbes can deconstruct biomass into simple sugars by secreting combinations of enzymes. Two organisms that utilize cellulose are Clostridium thermocellum - a ...

  1. Biomass Gasification and Methane Digester Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to be eligible for the exemption, methane digester equipment must be certified by the Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) and the farm must be verified as compliant under the Michig...

  2. Effect of seasonal changes in quantities of biowaste on full scale anaerobic digester performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illmer, P. Gstraunthaler, G.

    2009-01-15

    A 750,000 l digester located in Roppen/Austria was studied over a 2-year period. The concentrations and amounts of CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S and several other process parameters like temperature, retention time, dry weight and input of substrate were registered continuously. On a weekly scale the pH and the concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and volatile fatty acids (acetic, butyric, iso-butyric, propionic, valeric and iso-valeric acid) were measured. The data show a similar pattern of seasonal gas production over 2 years of monitoring. The consumption of VFA and not the hydrogenotrophic CH{sub 4} production appeared to be the limiting factor for the investigated digestion process. Whereas the changes in pH and the concentrations of most VFA did not correspond with changes in biogas production, the ratio of acetic to propionic acid and the concentration of H{sub 2} appeared to be useful indicators for reactor performance. However, the most influential factors for the anaerobic digestion process were the amount and the quality of input material, which distinctly changed throughout the year.

  3. The effects of different mixing intensities during anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindmark, Johan Eriksson, Per; Thorin, Eva

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Effects of mixing on the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. • Digestion of fresh substrate and post-digestion at three mixing intensities were evaluated. • Mixing performed at 150 RPM, 25 RPM and minimally intermittently. • Increased biogas production rates and yields at lower mixing intensities. - Abstract: Mixing inside an anaerobic digester is often continuous and is not actively controlled. The selected mixing regime can however affect both gas production and the energy efficiency of the biogas plant. This study aims to evaluate these effects and compare three different mixing regimes, 150 RPM and 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing for both digestion of fresh substrate and post-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The results show that a lower mixing intensity leads to a higher biogas production rate and higher total biogas production in both cases. 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing resulted in similar biogas production after process stabilization, while 150 RPM continuous mixing resulted in lower production throughout the experiment. The lower gas production at 150 RPM could not be explained by the inhibition of volatile fatty acids. Cumulative biogas production until day 31 was 295 ± 2.9, 317 ± 1.9 and 304 ± 2.8 N ml/g VS added during digestion of fresh feed and 113 ± 1.3, 134 ± 1.1 and 130 ± 2.3 N ml/g VS added during post digestion for the 150 RPM, 25 RPM and minimally mixed intensities respectively. As well as increasing gas production, optimal mixing can improve the energy efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process.

  4. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge and fat, oil and grease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan Caixia; Zhou Quancheng; Fu Guiming

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG). > Co-digestion of TWAS and FOG at 64% VS increased biogas production by 137%. > FOG addition ratio at 74% of total VS caused inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. > Micronutrients addition did not significantly improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. - Abstract: Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was conducted semi-continuously under mesophilic conditions. The results showed that daily methane yield at the steady state was 598 L/kg VS{sub added} when TWAS and FOG (64% of total VS) were co-digested, which was 137% higher than that obtained from digestion of TWAS alone. The biogas composition was stabilized at a CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} content of 66.8% and 29.5%, respectively. Micronutrients added to co-digestion did not improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. With a higher addition of FOG (74% of total VS), the digester initially failed but was slowly self-recovered; however, the methane yield was only about 50% of a healthy reactor with the same organic loading rate.

  5. Improved efficiency and stable digestion of biomass in non-mixed upflow solids reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, V.J.; Fannin, K.F.; Chynoweth, D.P.; Frank, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A non-mixed upflow solids reactor (USR), which permitted longer solids than hydraulic retention times, was used to study the anaerobic digestion performance of sea kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). The performance of the USR was compared to that of the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at different organic loading rates in terms of methane yield, methane production rate, and process stability. Results showed that, although digester performance was markedly affected by kelp compositional variability, methane yields and production rates in the USR were significantly higher than those observed with the CSTR. Results also showed that volatile acid concentrations, which are generally inversely related to digester stability, were significantly lower in the USR than in the CSTR. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. High temperature pre-digestion of corn stover biomass for improved product yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunecky, Roman; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Taylor, Larry E.; Tao, Ling; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2014-12-03

    Introduction: The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks remains a key step in the commercialization of biofuels. One of the barriers to cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars remains the enzymatic saccharification process step. Here, we describe a novel hybrid processing approach comprising enzymatic pre-digestion with newly characterized hyperthermophilic enzyme cocktails followed by conventional saccharification with commercial enzyme preparations. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover was subjected to this new procedure to test its efficacy. Thermal tolerant enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii were used to pre-digest pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures prior to saccharification by the commercial cellulase formulation. Results: We report that pre-digestion of biomass with these enzymes at elevated temperatures prior to addition of the commercial cellulase formulation increased conversion rates and yields when compared to commercial cellulase formulation alone under low solids conditions. In conclusion, Our results demonstrating improvements in rates and yields of conversion point the way forward for hybrid biomass conversion schemes utilizing catalytic amounts of hyperthermophilic enzymes.

  7. High temperature pre-digestion of corn stover biomass for improved product yields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brunecky, Roman; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Taylor, Larry E.; Tao, Ling; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2014-12-03

    Introduction: The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks remains a key step in the commercialization of biofuels. One of the barriers to cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars remains the enzymatic saccharification process step. Here, we describe a novel hybrid processing approach comprising enzymatic pre-digestion with newly characterized hyperthermophilic enzyme cocktails followed by conventional saccharification with commercial enzyme preparations. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover was subjected to this new procedure to test its efficacy. Thermal tolerant enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii were used to pre-digest pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures prior to saccharification by the commercial cellulase formulation.more » Results: We report that pre-digestion of biomass with these enzymes at elevated temperatures prior to addition of the commercial cellulase formulation increased conversion rates and yields when compared to commercial cellulase formulation alone under low solids conditions. In conclusion, Our results demonstrating improvements in rates and yields of conversion point the way forward for hybrid biomass conversion schemes utilizing catalytic amounts of hyperthermophilic enzymes.« less

  8. Anaerobic High-Throughput Cultivation Method for Isolation of Thermophiles Using Biomass-Derived Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Allman, Steve L; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Elkins, James G

    2012-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) techniques have been developed for sorting mesophilic organisms, but the difficulty increases if the target microbes are thermophilic anaerobes. We demonstrate a reliable, high-throughput method of screening thermophilic anaerobic organisms using FCM and 96-well plates for growth on biomass-relevant substrates. The method was tested using the cellulolytic thermophiles Clostridium ther- mocellum (Topt = 55 C), Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis (Topt = 78 C) and the fermentative hyperthermo- philes, Pyrococcus furiosus (Topt = 100 C) and Thermotoga maritima (Topt = 80 C). Multi-well plates were incubated at various temperatures for approximately 72 120 h and then tested for growth. Positive growth resulting from single cells sorted into individual wells containing an anaerobic medium was verified by OD600. Depending on the growth substrate, up to 80 % of the wells contained viable cultures, which could be transferred to fresh media. This method was used to isolate thermophilic microbes from Rabbit Creek, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming. Substrates for enrichment cultures including crystalline cellulose (Avicel), xylan (from Birchwood), pretreated switchgrass and Populus were used to cultivate organisms that may be of interest to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  9. Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

  10. Investigation into the effect of high concentrations of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion on methanogenic communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H.; Walter, Andreas; Ebner, Christian; Insam, Heribert

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Different methanogenic communities in mesophilic and thermophilic reactors. • High VFA levels do not cause major changes in archaeal communities. • Real-time PCR indicated greater diversity than ANAEROCHIP microarray. - Abstract: A study was conducted to determine whether differences in the levels of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in anaerobic digester plants could result in variations in the indigenous methanogenic communities. Two digesters (one operated under mesophilic conditions, the other under thermophilic conditions) were monitored, and sampled at points where VFA levels were high, as well as when VFA levels were low. Physical and chemical parameters were measured, and the methanogenic diversity was screened using the phylogenetic microarray ANAEROCHIP. In addition, real-time PCR was used to quantify the presence of the different methanogenic genera in the sludge samples. Array results indicated that the archaeal communities in the different reactors were stable, and that changes in the VFA levels of the anaerobic digesters did not greatly alter the dominating methanogenic organisms. In contrast, the two digesters were found to harbour different dominating methanogenic communities, which appeared to remain stable over time. Real-time PCR results were inline with those of microarray analysis indicating only minimal changes in methanogen numbers during periods of high VFAs, however, revealed a greater diversity in methanogens than found with the array.

  11. Differences in volatile methyl siloxane (VMS) profiles in biogas from landfills and anaerobic digesters and energetics of VMS transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tansel, Berrin Surita, Sharon C.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • In the digester gas, D4 and D5 comprised the 62% and 27% if siloxanes, respectively. • In landfill gas, the bulk of siloxanes were TMSOH (58%) followed by D4 (17%). • Methane utilization may be a possible mechanism for TMSOH formation in the landfills. • The geometric configurations of D4 and D5 molecules make them very stable. - Abstract: The objectives of this study were to compare the types and levels of volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) present in biogas generated in the anaerobic digesters and landfills, evaluate the energetics of siloxane transformations under anaerobic conditions, compare the conditions in anaerobic digesters and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills which result in differences in siloxane compositions. Biogas samples were collected at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant and South Dade Landfill in Miami, Florida. In the digester gas, D4 and D5 comprised the bulk of total siloxanes (62% and 27%, respectively) whereas in the landfill gas, the bulk of siloxanes were trimethylsilanol (TMSOH) (58%) followed by D4 (17%). Presence of high levels of TMSOH in the landfill gas indicates that methane utilization may be a possible reaction mechanism for TMSOH formation. The free energy change for transformation of D5 and D4 to TMSOH either by hydrogen or methane utilization are thermodynamically favorable. Either hydrogen or methane should be present at relatively high concentrations for TMSOH formation which explains the high levels present in the landfill gas. The high bond energy and bond distance of the Si–O bond, in view of the atomic sizes of Si and O atoms, indicate that Si atoms can provide a barrier, making it difficult to break the Si–O bonds especially for molecules with specific geometric configurations such as D4 and D5 where oxygen atoms are positioned inside the frame formed by the large Si atoms which are surrounded by the methyl groups.

  12. Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govasmark, Espen; Staeb, Jessica; Holen, Borge; Hoornstra, Douwe; Nesbakk, Tommy; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2011-12-15

    In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and {Sigma} PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil (<0.30-5.77 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and thiabendazol (<0.14-0.73 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.

  13. Archaeal community composition affects the function of anaerobic co-digesters in response to organic overload

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lerm, S.; Kleyboecker, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Alawi, M.; Kasina, M.; Liebrich, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two types of methanogens are necessary to respond successfully to perturbation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diversity of methanogens correlates with the VFA concentration and methane yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aggregates indicate tight spatial relationship between minerals and microorganisms. - Abstract: Microbial community diversity in two thermophilic laboratory-scale and three full-scale anaerobic co-digesters was analysed by genetic profiling based on PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. In parallel operated laboratory reactors a stepwise increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) resulted in a decrease of methane production and an accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). However, almost threefold different OLRs were necessary to inhibit the gas production in the reactors. During stable reactor performance, no significant differences in the bacterial community structures were detected, except for in the archaeal communities. Sequencing of archaeal PCR products revealed a dominance of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila, while hydrogenotrophic methanogens were of minor importance and differed additionally in their abundance between reactors. As a consequence of the perturbation, changes in bacterial and archaeal populations were observed. After organic overload, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanospirillum hungatei and Methanoculleus receptaculi) became more dominant, especially in the reactor attributed by a higher OLR capacity. In addition, aggregates composed of mineral and organic layers formed during organic overload and indicated tight spatial relationships between minerals and microbial processes that may support de-acidification processes in over-acidified sludge. Comparative analyses of mesophilic stationary phase full-scale reactors additionally indicated a correlation between the diversity of methanogens and the VFA concentration combined with the methane yield. This study

  14. Energy recovery from the effluent of plants anaerobically digesting cellulosic urban solid waste. Final technical report, September 1978-September 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerr-Bullock, L.; Higgins, G.M.; Long, K.; Smith, R.B.; Swartzbaugh, J.T.

    1981-06-03

    The program objective was to study the parameters of concentration, time, temperature, and pH to find optimum conditions for enzymatically converting unreacted cellulose in the effluent of an anaerobic digester to glucose for ultimate conversion to methane, and then to project the economics to a 100 tons per day (TPD) plant. The data presented illustrate the amount of cellulose hydrolysis (in percent solubilized mass) for enzyme concentrations from 5 to 1000 C/sub 1/U/gram of substrate using either filter paper or anaerobically digested municipal solid waste (MSW) reacted over periods of time of from 0 to 72 hours. With an active bacterial culture present, the optimum temperature for the hydrolysis reaction was found to be 40/sup 0/C. The feasibility of recycling enzymes by ultrafilter capture was studied and shows that the recovered enzyme is not denatured by any of several possible enzyme loss mechanisms, either chemical, physical, or biological. Although rather stable enzyme-substrate complexes seem to be formed, various techniques permit a 55% enzyme recovery. Posttreatment of digested MSW by cellulase enzymes produces nearly a three-fold increase in biomethanation. However, the value of the additional methane produced in the process as studied is not sufficient to support the cost of enzymes. The feasibility of enzymatic hydrolysis as a biomethanation process step requires further process optimization or an entirely different process concept.

  15. Controlling the pH of acid cheese whey in a two-stage anaerobic digester with sodium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghaly, A.E.; Ramkumar, D.R.

    1999-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey offers a two-fold benefit: pollution potential reduction and biogas production. The biogas, as an energy source, could be used to reduce the consumption of traditional fuels in the cheese plant. However, as a result of little or no buffering capacity of whey, the pH of the anaerobic digester drops drastically and the process is inhibited. In this study, the effect of controlling the pH of the second chamber of a two-stage, 150 L anaerobic digester operating on cheese whey on the quality and quantity of biogas and the pollution potential reduction, was investigated using sodium hydroxide. The digester was operated at a temperature of 35 C and a hydraulic retention time of 15 days for three runs (no pH control, pH control with no reseeding, and ph control with reseeding) each lasting 50 days. The results indicated that operating the digester without pH control resulted in a low pH (3.3) which inhibited the methanogenic bacteria. The inhibition was irreversible and the digester did not recover (no methane production) when the pH was restored to 7.0 without reseeding, as the observed increased gas production was a false indication of recovery because the gas was mainly carbon dioxide. The addition of base resulted in a total alkalinity of 12,000 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}. When the system was reseeded and the pH controlled, the total volatile acid concentration was 15,100 mg/L (as acetic acid), with acetic (28%), propionic (21%), butyric (25%), valeric (8%), and caproic (15%) acids as the major constituents. The biogas production was 62.6 L/d (0.84 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d) and the methane content was 60.7%. Reductions of 27.3, 30.4 and 23.3% in the total solids, chemical oxygen demand and total kjeldahl nitrogen were obtained, respectively. The ammonium nitrogen content increased significantly (140%).

  16. Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane production modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fdez-Gueelfo, L.A.; Alvarez-Gallego, C.; Sales, D.; Romero Garcia, L.I.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane generation may be modeled by means of modified product generation model of Romero Garcia (1991). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matter content and particle size influence the kinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher organic matter content and lower particle size enhance the biomethanization. - Abstract: The influence of particle size and organic matter content of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in the overall kinetics of dry (30% total solids) thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion have been studied in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR). Two types of wastes were used: synthetic OFMSW (average particle size of 1 mm; 0.71 g Volatile Solids/g waste), and OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant (average particle size of 30 mm; 0.16 g Volatile Solids/g waste). A modification of a widely-validated product-generation kinetic model has been proposed. Results obtained from the modified-model parameterization at steady-state (that include new kinetic parameters as K, Y{sub pMAX} and {theta}{sub MIN}) indicate that the features of the feedstock strongly influence the kinetics of the process. The overall specific growth rate of microorganisms ({mu}{sub max}) with synthetic OFMSW is 43% higher compared to OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant: 0.238 d{sup -1} (K = 1.391 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.167 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 7.924 days) vs. 0.135 d{sup -1} (K = 1.282 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.150 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 9.997 days) respectively. Finally, it could be emphasized that the validation of proposed modified-model has been performed successfully by means of the simulation of non-steady state data for the different SRTs tested with each waste.

  17. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A.; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical methane potential decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Net energy produced was 84.3 MWh or 46 kWh per million metric tons (Mg). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was 96-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average removal efficiency of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) was 68-99%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two-stage batch digester proved to be simple to operate and cost-effective. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3 MWh, or 46 kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  18. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W.; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W.; Scheckel, Kirk G.

    2013-01-14

    The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.

  19. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofer, S.S.; Zaborsky, O.R.

    1981-01-01

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  20. RCM Digesters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RCM Digesters Jump to: navigation, search Name: RCM Digesters Place: Berkeley, California Zip: CA 94704 Product: Manufactures anaerobic manure digesters which process animal waste...

  1. High rate mesophilic, thermophilic, and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: A pilot scale study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolzonella, David; Cavinato, Cristina; Fatone, Francesco; Pavan, Paolo; Cecchi, Franco

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperatures were tested in single and two-stage anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increased temperature demonstrated the possibility of improving typical yields of the conventional mesophilic process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature phased anaerobic digestion process (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) showed the best performances with yields of 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia and phosphate released from solids destruction determined the precipitation of struvite in the reactor. - Abstract: The paper reports the findings of a two-year pilot scale experimental trial for the mesophilic (35 Degree-Sign C), thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) and temperature phased (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. During the mesophilic and thermophilic runs, the reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In the temperature phased run, the first reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 15 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 2 days while the second reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 18 days (20 days for the whole temperature phased system). The performance of the reactor improved with increases in temperature. The COD removal increased from 35% in mesophilic conditions, to 45% in thermophilic conditions, and 55% in the two stage temperature phased system. As a consequence, the specific biogas production increased from 0.33 to 0.45 and to 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed} at 35, 55, and 65 + 55 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The extreme thermophilic reactor working at 65 Degree-Sign C showed a high hydrolytic capability and a specific yield of 0.33 gCOD (soluble) per gVS{sub fed}. The effluent of the extreme thermophilic reactor showed an average concentration of soluble COD and volatile

  2. Effect of ammoniacal nitrogen on one-stage and two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ariunbaatar, Javkhlan; Scotto Di Perta, Ester; Panico, Antonio; Frunzo, Luigi; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N.L.; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Almost 100% of the biomethane potential of food waste was recovered during AD in a two-stage CSTR. • Recirculation of the liquid fraction of the digestate provided the necessary buffer in the AD reactors. • A higher OLR (0.9 gVS/L·d) led to higher accumulation of TAN, which caused more toxicity. • A two-stage reactor is more sensitive to elevated concentrations of ammonia. • The IC{sub 50} of TAN for the AD of food waste amounts to 3.8 g/L. - Abstract: This research compares the operation of one-stage and two-stage anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) systems fed semi-continuously with food waste. The main purpose was to investigate the effects of ammoniacal nitrogen on the anaerobic digestion process. The two-stage system gave more reliable operation compared to one-stage due to: (i) a better pH self-adjusting capacity; (ii) a higher resistance to organic loading shocks; and (iii) a higher conversion rate of organic substrate to biomethane. Also a small amount of biohydrogen was detected from the first stage of the two-stage reactor making this system attractive for biohythane production. As the digestate contains ammoniacal nitrogen, re-circulating it provided the necessary alkalinity in the systems, thus preventing an eventual failure by volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation. However, re-circulation also resulted in an ammonium accumulation, yielding a lower biomethane production. Based on the batch experimental results the 50% inhibitory concentration of total ammoniacal nitrogen on the methanogenic activities was calculated as 3.8 g/L, corresponding to 146 mg/L free ammonia for the inoculum used for this research. The two-stage system was affected by the inhibition more than the one-stage system, as it requires less alkalinity and the physically separated methanogens are more sensitive to inhibitory factors, such as ammonium and propionic acid.

  3. Composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production in Ghana. Environmental–economic assessment in the context of voluntary carbon markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galgani, Pietro; Voet, Ester van der; Korevaar, Gijsbert

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Economic–environmental assessment of combining composting with biogas and biochar in Ghana. • These technologies can save greenhouse gas emissions for up to 0.57 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of waste treated. • Labor intensive, small-scale organic waste management is not viable without financial support. • Carbon markets would make these technologies viable with carbon prices in the range of 30–84 EUR/t. - Abstract: In some areas of Sub-Saharan Africa appropriate organic waste management technology could address development issues such as soil degradation, unemployment and energy scarcity, while at the same time reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper investigates the role that carbon markets could have in facilitating the implementation of composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production, in the city of Tamale, in the North of Ghana. Through a life cycle assessment of implementation scenarios for low-tech, small scale variants of the above mentioned three technologies, the potential contribution they could give to climate change mitigation was assessed. Furthermore an economic assessment was carried out to study their viability and the impact thereon of accessing carbon markets. It was found that substantial climate benefits can be achieved by avoiding landfilling of organic waste, producing electricity and substituting the use of chemical fertilizer. Biochar production could result in a net carbon sequestration. These technologies were however found not to be economically viable without external subsidies, and access to carbon markets at the considered carbon price of 7 EUR/ton of carbon would not change the situation significantly. Carbon markets could help the realization of the considered composting and anaerobic digestion systems only if the carbon price will rise above 75–84 EUR/t of carbon (respectively for anaerobic digestion and composting). Biochar production could achieve large climate benefits and, if approved as a land

  4. Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste combining two pretreatment modalities, high temperature microwave and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahriari, Haleh; Warith, Mostafa; Hamoda, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin J.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment were studied to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The whole waste pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C or 145 Degree-Sign C had the highest biogas production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas production of the whole waste decreased at 175 Degree-Sign C due to formation of refractory compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment to 145 Degree-Sign C and 175 Degree-Sign C were the best when considering only the free liquid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment had a lag phase and the biogas production was not higher than MW pretreated samples. - Abstract: In order to enhance anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), pretreatment combining two modalities, microwave (MW) heating in presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were investigated. The main pretreatment variables affecting the characteristics of the OFMSW were temperature (T) via MW irradiation and supplemental water additions of 20% and 30% (SWA20 and SW30). Subsequently, the focus of this study was to evaluate mesophilic batch AD performance in terms of biogas production, as well as changes in the characteristics of the OFMSW post digestion. A high MW induced temperature range (115-175 Degree-Sign C) was applied, using sealed vessels and a bench scale MW unit equipped with temperature and pressure controls. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted on the whole OFMSW as well as the liquid fractions. The whole OFMSW pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C and 145 Degree-Sign C showed 4-7% improvement in biogas production over untreated OFMSW (control). When pretreated at 175 Degree-Sign C, biogas production decreased due to formation of refractory compounds, inhibiting the digestion. For the liquid fraction of OFMSW, the effect of pretreatment on the cumulative biogas production (CBP

  5. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trzcinski, Antoine P.; Stuckey, David C.

    2011-07-15

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

  6. Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Energy Co-Evolution of Biofuels Lignocellulosic Biomass Microalgae ... HomeBiomass Permalink One-Pot-to-Prep Biomass for Biofuels Biofuels, Biomass, Energy, ...

  7. Energy and economic assessment of anaerobic digester and biofuels for waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    A history of biogas production in the USA is presented. Recent systems approaches to biogas are considered. Technological problems that have interfered with the routine operation of biogas digesters are the barriers to feed-material handling, inadequate feed material preparation, irregular gas production of current designs of small-scale systems, and the capital- and maintenance-intensive nature of the conversion of biogas to electricity. Finally, it was noted that so far no work has been carried out to study alternative uses for biogas, as for example the production of methanol or ammonia.

  8. Optimization of micro-aeration intensity in acidogenic reactor of a two-phase anaerobic digester treating food waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Suyun; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W.C.

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: Effect of micro-aeration on acidogenesis and hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Micro-aeration at 258 L-air/kg TS/d increased the VFAs production 3-fold. High aeration leads to loss of substrate through microbial biomass and respiration. Optimum aeration increased methane recovery while high aeration intensity reduced methane yield. - Abstract: Micro-aeration is known to promote the activities of hydrolytic exo-enzymes and used as a strategy to improve the hydrolysis of particulate substrate. The effect of different micro-aeration rates, 0, 129, 258, and 387 L-air/kg TS/d (denoted as LBR-AN, LBR-6h, LBR-3h and LBR-2h, respectively) on the solubilization of food waste was evaluated at 35 C in four leach bed reactors (LBR) coupled with methanogenic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Results indicate that the intensity of micro-aeration influenced the hydrolysis and methane yield. Adequate micro-aeration intensity in LBR-3h and LBR-2h significantly enhanced the carbohydrate and protein hydrolysis by 2127% and 3864% respectively. Due to the accelerated acidogenesis, more than 3-fold of acetic acid and butyric acid were produced in LBR-3h as compared to the anaerobic treatment LBR-AN resulting in the maximum methane yield of 0.27 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} in the UASB. The performance of LBR-6h with inadequate aeration was similar to that of LBR-AN with a comparable hydrolysis degree. Nevertheless, higher aeration intensity in LBR-2h was also unfavorable for methane yield due to significant biomass generation and CO{sub 2} respiration of up to 18.5% and 32.8% of the total soluble hydrolysate, respectively. To conclude, appropriate micro-aeration rate can promote the hydrolysis of solid organic waste and methane yield without undesirable carbon loss and an aeration intensity of 258 L-air/kg TS/d is recommended for acidogenic LBR treating food waste.

  9. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chanakya, H.N. Sharma, Isha; Ramachandra, T.V.

    2009-04-15

    The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks.

  10. Demonstration of anaerobic biogas digesters in developing countries. Part III. The Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.H.; Morales, E.C.

    1980-03-01

    The main theme of this series of articles is that ours is now a world-wide society, short on meeting needs for energy yet long on waste from our industrial, agricultural and human consumption processes. This is a study report about developments in the Philippines where waste management has been recognized and considered as an important practical source of energy. This is revealed by several reports of the number of biogas plants in operation in this country. According to the July 31, 1977 survey made by the Philippines Bureau of Animal Industries, 200 biogas plants were then installed and in operation of which 46 were government-owned and 154 privately-owned. More have been installed since then. This report presents some of the operating observations and developments from the joint engineering analyses project of the Philippines Bureau of Animal Industry, Man and the Biosphere Inter-Agency Committee on Ecological Studies, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources and the National Institute of Science and Technology. The project's main objective was to show that establishing a biogas plant involves not only the production of a methane gas mixture but the integration of its other products as part of a system (i.e., using effluent water from the biogas digester for production of algae chlorell sp. for livestock and poultry feed, production of fish and fertilizing-irrigating of pasture and vegetable plots.). Housing development sewer systems with added biogas generators are also discussed.

  11. Improved energy recovery from municipal solid wastes in sanitary landfills by two-phase digestion of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onu, Chukwu.

    1990-01-01

    The concept under investigaton was the separation of the acidogenic and the methanogenic phases of anaerobic fermentation, converting the sanitary landfill into an acid reactor and using a separate upflow fixed-film anaerobic reactor for methanogenesis. Acidic leachate from the landfill simulator was used as the influent substrate to the anaerobic reactor. The goal of the study was to improve both methane yield and concentration through nutrient addition and two-phase digestion of MSW. Sewage sludge was utilized to provide moisture, buffering capacity, nutrients, and an adequate microbial population. Single-phase systems with other enhancement techniques were also compared to the two-phase with sludge addition. Data from this study indicated that gas produced in the anaerobic reactor had methane concentration as high as 80 Mole % at the fixed-bed reactor (FBR) hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days. The system reached a cumulative methane production rate of 78.6 {ell}/kg dry waste at an estimated cumulative production rate of approximately 270 {ell}/kg/yr. This performance was better than that reported in the literature for a similar type of feed. This study has also indicated that sewage sludge addition appears to be a successful enhancement technique for methane gas production from municipal solid waste. The addition of mineral nutrients and buffer solutions appears to have influenced the development of a dominant population of methanogenic bacteria in the FBR as indicated by the COD removal efficiency of 90% and 100% conversion of all influent organic acids. In terms of the overall system performance, the two-phase system was superior to the one-phase technique currently in use for methane generation.

  12. Integration of Leading Biomass Pretreatment Technologies with Enzymatic Digestion and Hydrolyzate Fermentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    The goal of this project is to develop comprehensive performance information on a common basis on integrated biomass pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation systems.

  13. Waste-to-wheel analysis of anaerobic-digestion-based renewable natural gas pathways with the GREET model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.

    2011-12-14

    In 2009, manure management accounted for 2,356 Gg or 107 billion standard cubic ft of methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions in the United States, equivalent to 0.5% of U.S. natural gas (NG) consumption. Owing to the high global warming potential of methane, capturing and utilizing this methane source could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The extent of that reduction depends on several factors - most notably, how much of this manure-based methane can be captured, how much GHG is produced in the course of converting it to vehicular fuel, and how much GHG was produced by the fossil fuel it might displace. A life-cycle analysis was conducted to quantify these factors and, in so doing, assess the impact of converting methane from animal manure into renewable NG (RNG) and utilizing the gas in vehicles. Several manure-based RNG pathways were characterized in the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model, and their fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions were compared to petroleum-based pathways as well as to conventional fossil NG pathways. Results show that despite increased total energy use, both fossil fuel use and GHG emissions decline for most RNG pathways as compared with fossil NG and petroleum. However, GHG emissions for RNG pathways are highly dependent on the specifics of the reference case, as well as on the process energy emissions and methane conversion factors assumed for the RNG pathways. The most critical factors are the share of flared controllable CH{sub 4} and the quantity of CH{sub 4} lost during NG extraction in the reference case, the magnitude of N{sub 2}O lost in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process and in AD residue, and the amount of carbon sequestered in AD residue. In many cases, data for these parameters are limited and uncertain. Therefore, more research is needed to gain a better understanding of the range and magnitude of environmental benefits from converting animal manure to RNG via AD.

  14. Enhanced hydrolysis and methane yield by applying microaeration pretreatment to the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Jun Wei; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Microaeration pretreatment was effective for brown water and food waste mixture. ? The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms. ? Enhanced solubilization, acidification and breakdown of SCFAs to acetate. ? Microaeration pretreatment improved methane yield by 1021%. ? Nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration. - Abstract: Microaeration has been used conventionally for the desulphurization of biogas, and recently it was shown to be an alternative pretreatment to enhance hydrolysis of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Previous studies on microaeration pretreatment were limited to the study of substrates with complex organic matter, while little has been reported on its effect on substrates with higher biodegradability such as brown water and food waste. Due to the lack of consistent microaeration intensities, previous studies were not comparable and thus inconclusive in proving the effectiveness of microaeration to the overall AD process. In this study, the role of microaeration pretreatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste was evaluated in batch-tests. After a 4-day pretreatment with 37.5 mL-O{sub 2}/L{sub R}-d added to the liquid phase of the reactor, the methane production of substrates were monitored in anaerobic conditions over the next 40 days. The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms and a reducing environment for organic matter degradation was maintained. Other than higher COD solubilization, microaeration pretreatment led to greater VFA accumulation and the conversion of other short chain fatty acids to acetate. This could be due to enhanced activities of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria and the degradation of slowly biodegradable compounds under microaerobic conditions. This study also found that the nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration as a 21% and 10% increase in methane yield was observed when pretreatment was applied to

  15. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin-Gonzalez, L.; Colturato, L.F.; Font, X.; Vicent, T.

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 {sup o}C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 {+-} 0.02 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} to 0.55 {+-} 0.05 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  16. Biomass process handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  17. Early-warning process/control for anaerobic digestion and biological nitrogen transformation processes: Batch, semi-continuous, and/or chemostat experiments. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickey, R.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and test an early-warning/process control model for anaerobic sludge digestion (AD). The approach was to use batch and semi-continuously fed systems and to assemble system parameter data on a real-time basis. Specific goals were to produce a real-time early warning control model and computer code, tested for internal and external validity; to determine the minimum rate of data collection for maximum lag time to predict failure with a prescribed accuracy and confidence in the prediction; and to determine and characterize any trends in the real-time data collected in response to particular perturbations to feedstock quality. Trends in the response of trace gases carbon monoxide and hydrogen in batch experiments, were found to depend on toxicant type. For example, these trace gases respond differently for organic substances vs. heavy metals. In both batch and semi-continuously feed experiments, increased organic loading lead to proportionate increases in gas production rates as well as increases in CO and H{sub 2} concentration. An analysis of variance of gas parameters confirmed that CO was the most sensitive indicator variable by virtue of its relatively larger variance compared to the others. The other parameters evaluated including gas production, methane production, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane concentration. In addition, a relationship was hypothesized between gaseous CO concentration and acetate concentrations in the digester. The data from semicontinuous feed experiments were supportive.

  18. Development and Optimization of a Flocculation Procedure for Improved Solid-Liquid Separation of Digested Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, Caroline; Lischeske, James J.; Sievers, David A.

    2015-11-03

    One viable treatment method for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels begins with saccharification (thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis), followed by fermentation or catalytic upgrading to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, or other hydrocarbons. The post-hydrolysis slurry is typically 4-8 percent insoluble solids, predominantly consisting of lignin. Suspended solids are known to inhibit fermentation as well as poison catalysts and obstruct flow in catalyst beds. Thus a solid-liquid separation following enzymatic hydrolysis would be highly favorable for process economics, however the material is not easily separated by filtration or gravimetric methods. Use of a polyacrylamide flocculant to bind the suspended particles in a corn stover hydrolyzate slurry into larger flocs (1-2mm diameter) has been found to be extremely helpful in improving separation. Recent and ongoing research on novel pretreatment methods yields hydrolyzate material with diverse characteristics. Therefore, we need a thorough understanding of rapid and successful flocculation design in order to quickly achieve process design goals. In this study potential indicators of flocculation performance were investigated in order to develop a rapid analysis method for flocculation procedure in the context of a novel hydrolyzate material. Flocculation conditions were optimized on flocculant type and loading, pH, and mixing time. Filtration flux of the hydrolyzate slurry was improved 170-fold using a cationic polyacrylamide flocculant with a dosing of approximately 22 mg flocculant/g insoluble solids at an approximate pH of 3. With cake washing, sugar recovery exceeded 90 percent with asymptotic yield at 15 L wash water/kg insoluble solids.

  19. SERI biomass program annual technical report: 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, P.W.; Corder, R.E.; Hill, A.M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M.Z.

    1983-02-01

    The biomass with which this report is concerned includes aquatic plants, which can be converted into liquid fuels and chemicals; organic wastes (crop residues as well as animal and municipal wastes), from which biogas can be produced via anerobic digestion; and organic or inorganic waste streams, from which hydrogen can be produced by photobiological processes. The Biomass Program Office supports research in three areas which, although distinct, all use living organisms to create the desired products. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) supports research on organisms that are themselves processed into the final products, while the Anaerobic Digestion (ADP) and Photo/Biological Hydrogen Program (P/BHP) deals with organisms that transform waste streams into energy products. The P/BHP is also investigating systems using water as a feedstock and cell-free systems which do not utilize living organisms. This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1982.

  20. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of waste

  1. Single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: Comparison of start-up, reactor stability and process performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Torrijos, Michel; Sousbie, Philippe; Lugardon, Aurelien; Steyer, Jean Philippe; Delgenes, Jean Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: Single-phase and two-phase systems were compared for fruit and vegetable waste digestion. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS and 83% VS removal. Substrate solubilization was high in acidification conditions at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.56.2. Energy yield was lower by 33% for two-phase system compared to the single-phase system. Simple and straight-forward operation favored single phase process over two-phase process. - Abstract: Single-phase and two-phase digestion of fruit and vegetable waste were studied to compare reactor start-up, reactor stability and performance (methane yield, volatile solids reduction and energy yield). The single-phase reactor (SPR) was a conventional reactor operated at a low loading rate (maximum of 3.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d), while the two-phase system consisted of an acidification reactor (TPAR) and a methanogenic reactor (TPMR). The TPAR was inoculated with methanogenic sludge similar to the SPR, but was operated with step-wise increase in the loading rate and with total recirculation of reactor solids to convert it into acidification sludge. Before each feeding, part of the sludge from TPAR was centrifuged, the centrifuge liquid (solubilized products) was fed to the TPMR and centrifuged solids were recycled back to the reactor. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed and VS removal of 83%. The TPAR shifted to acidification mode at an OLR of 10.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and then achieved stable performance at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.56.2, with very high substrate solubilization rate and a methane yield of 0.30 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed. The two-phase process was capable of high VS reduction, but material and energy balance showed that the single-phase process was superior in terms of volumetric methane production and energy yield by 33%. The lower energy yield of the two-phase system was due to the loss of energy during

  2. Floodplain Assessment for Installation of a Renewable Energy Anaerobic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Digester Facility | Department of Energy for Installation of a Renewable Energy Anaerobic Digester Facility Floodplain Assessment for Installation of a Renewable Energy Anaerobic Digester Facility Floodplain Assessment for Installation of a Renewable Energy Anaerobic Digester Facility at the University of California, Davis in Yolo County, California, as posted on the U.S. Department of Energy website. Floodplain Assessment (449.94 KB) More Documents & Publications Floodplain Assessment

  3. Biogas and alcohol fuels production. Proceedings of the Seminar on Biomass, Energy for City, Farm, and Industry, Chicago, IL, October 25, 26, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, J.

    1980-01-01

    Basic principles of anaerobic digestion are considered along with the status of the Imperial Valley Biogas Project, the Department of Energy program for the recovery of energy and materials from urban waste, the principles of alcohol production from wastes, the mechanical recovery of a refuse-derived cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production, and the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. Attention is given to on-farm alcohol fuel production, the current status and future role of gasohol production, methane generation from small scale farms, farmsite installations of energy harvester anaerobic digesters, biogas/composting and landfill recovery, farm-scale composting as an option to anaerobic digestion, designing a high-quality biogas system, and methane as fuel of the future. A description is presented of subjects which are related to landfill gas recovery, biogas purification with permselective membranes, and anaerobic digestion of marine biomass. Other topics studied include the application of biogas technology in India, biogas production in China, biogasification of organic wastes in the Republic of the Philippines, and economics and operational experience of full-scale anaerobic dairy manure digester.

  4. Anaerobic Digestion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Category: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

  5. IMPROVED BIOMASS UTILIZATION THROUGH REMOTE FLOW SENSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington University- St. Louis:; ,; Muthanna Al-Dahhan; E-mail: muthanna@wustl.edu; ,; Rajneesh Varma; Khursheed Karim; Mehul Vesvikar; Rebecca Hoffman; ,; Oak Ridge National Laboratory:; ,; David Depaoli,; Email: depaolidw@ornl.gov; ,; Thomas Klasson; Alan L. Wintenberg; Charles W Alexander; Lloyd Clonts; ,; Iowa Energy Center; ,; ,; Norm Olson; Email: nolson@energy.iastate.edu

    2007-03-26

    The growth of the livestock industry provides a valuable source of affordable, sustainable, and renewable bioenergy, while also requiring the safe disposal of the large quantities of animal wastes (manure) generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. If these biomass resources are mishandled and underutilized, major environmental problems will be created, such as surface and ground water contamination, odors, dust, ammonia leaching, and methane emission. Anaerobic digestion of animal wastes, in which microorganisms break down organic materials in the absence of oxygen, is one of the most promising waste treatment technologies. This process produces biogas typically containing {approx}65% methane and {approx}35% carbon dioxide. The production of biogas through anaerobic digestion from animal wastes, landfills, and municipal waste water treatment plants represents a large source of renewable and sustainable bio-fuel. Such bio-fuel can be combusted directly, used in internal combustion engines, converted into methanol, or partially oxidized to produce synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) that can be converted to clean liquid fuels and chemicals via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Different design and mixing configurations of anaerobic digesters for treating cow manure have been utilized commercially and/or tested on a laboratory scale. These digesters include mechanically mixed, gas recirculation mixed, and slurry recirculation mixed designs, as well as covered lagoon digesters. Mixing is an important parameter for successful performance of anaerobic digesters. It enhances substrate contact with the microbial community; improves pH, temperature and substrate/microorganism uniformity; prevents stratification and scum accumulation; facilitates the removal of biogas from the digester; reduces or eliminates the formation of inactive zones (dead zones); prevents settling of biomass and inert solids; and aids in particle size reduction. Unfortunately

  6. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2014-06-27

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 x 3 Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282- member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. Finally, these results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass.

  7. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; et al

    2014-06-27

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 x 3 Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yieldmore » was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282- member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. Finally, these results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass.« less

  8. Bioenergy `96: Partnerships to develop and apply biomass technologies. Volume I and II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The conference proceedings consist of two volumes of papers detailing numerous issues related to biomass energy production and use. An author and keyword index are provided in the proceedings. A total of 143 papers were selected for the database. Papers were selected from the following areas from Volume 1: feedstock production, harvest, storage, and delivery; the DOE biomass power program; technical, economic, and policy barriers and incentives; new developments in biomass combustion; advancements in biomass gasification; liquid fuels production and use; and case studies of bioenergy projects. From Volume 2, subtopics selected included: bioenergy systems for distributed generation; assessment and use of biomass wastes; non-technical barriers to bioenergy implementation; improving commercial viability through integrated systems; and anaerobic digestion.

  9. Biochemically enhanced hybrid anaerobic reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stover, E.L.

    1993-07-20

    A process is described for treatment of highly contaminated industrial waste waters, comprising: introducing influent wastewater into a lower suspended growth zone of a digestion vessel wherein anaerobic digestion commences; receiving up-flow of digestion product through a middle fixed film zone of the digestion vessel to effect solids/liquids/gas separation; drawing off waste solids from the floor of the digester vessel at a predetermined rate of removal; receiving liquids/gas up-flow through an upper quiescent zone of the digestion vessel; drawing off treated effluent from said quiescent zone; selecting a portion of treated effluent for conduction via recycle line back to said point of introduction for mixture with said influent wastewater; and injecting selected ones of plural process enhancement chemicals in predetermined amounts into said recycle line, which plurality includes preselected amounts of Mg(OH)[sub 2] and iron chloride to effect cleaning of the biogas.

  10. Determination of operating conditions in an anaerobic acid-phase reactor treating dairy wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasapgil, B.; Ince, O.; Anderson, G.K.

    1996-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic material is a multistep process. Two groups of bacteria, namely acidogenic and methanogenic bacteria, are responsible for the acidification and for the methane formation, respectively. The growth requirements of the two groups of bacteria are rather different. In order to create optimum conditions for the process, it was first proposed to separate the process into two phases. Operating variables applicable for the selection and enrichment of microbial populations in phased digesters include digester loading, hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH, temperature, reactor design, and operating mode. By proper manipulation of these operating parameters it is possible to prevent any significant growth of methane bacteria and at the same time achieve the required level of acidification in the first reactor. Further enrichment of two cultures is possible by biomass recycle around each phase. Since the 1970s, phase separation has been introduced into anaerobic digestion technology. However, data concerning the optimization of operating conditions in both acidogenic and methanogenic phase reactors are scarce. This study was therefore carried out for the purposes given below. These were: (1) to determine the best combination of pH and temperature within the ranges studied for the pre-acidification of dairy wastewater; (2) to determine the maximum acidogenic conversion from COD to VFAs, and (3) to determine the changes in the distribution of major VFAs being produced during the pre-acidification of dairy wastewater.

  11. Energy from biomass and wastes V. Proceedings of the fifth symposium, Lake Buena Vista, FL, January 26-30, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Papers are presented in the areas of biomass production and procurement, biomass and waste combustion, gasification processes, liquefaction processes, environmental effects and government programs. Specific topics include a water hyacinth wastewater treatment system with biomass production, the procurement of wood as an industrial fuel, the cofiring of densified refuse-derived fuel and coal, the net energy production in anaerobic digestion, photosynthetic hydrogen production, the steam gasification of manure in a fluidized bed, and biomass hydroconversion to synthetic fuels. Attention is also given to the economics of deriving alcohol for power applications from grain, ethanol fermentation in a yeast-immobilized column fermenter, a solar-fired biomass flash pyrolysis reactor, particulate emissions from controlled-air modular incinerators, and the DOE program for energy recovery from urban wastes.

  12. Anaerobic treatment of food wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Criner, G. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes a research project at the University of Maine in which food wastes from the University cafeteria salad bar are processed in the anaerobic facility which normally treats only animal wastes. The project has benefited the University in several ways: avoidance of waste disposal fees; increased electricity co-generated from the biogas process; and use of the residual as fertilizer. An economic analysis indicated that the estimated cost of anaerobic treatment of the salad bar wastes was $4520/yr and benefits were $4793/yr. Since the digester was already in use, this cost was not factored into the analysis. Further studies are being planned.

  13. Animal Farm Powers Village | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Agriculture, Energy Efficiency - Central Plant, Economic Development, Renewable Energy, Biomass - Anaerobic Digestion, Biomass, Biomass - Waste To Energy Phase Develop...

  14. Simulation of an integrated system for the production of methane and single cell protein from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical model was developed to simulate the operation of an integrated system for the production of methane and single-cell algal protein from a variety of biomass energy crops or waste streams. Economic analysis was performed at the end of each simulation. The model was capable of assisting in the determination of design parameters by providing relative economic information for various strategies. Three configurations of anaerobic reactors were simulated. These included fed-bed reactors, conventional stirred tank reactors, and continuously expanding reactors. A generic anaerobic digestion process model, using lumped substrate parameters, was developed for use by type-specific reactor models. The generic anaerobic digestion model provided a tool for the testing of conversion efficiencies and kinetic parameters for a wide range of substrate types and reactor designs. Dynamic growth models were used to model the growth of algae and Eichornia crassipes was modeled as a function of daily incident radiation and temperature. The growth of Eichornia crassipes was modeled for the production of biomass as a substrate for digestion. Computer simulations with the system model indicated that tropical or subtropical locations offered the most promise for a viable system. The availability of large quantities of digestible waste and low land prices were found to be desirable in order to take advantage of the economies of scale. Other simulations indicated that poultry and swine manure produced larger biogas yields than cattle manure. The model was created in a modular fashion to allow for testing of a wide variety of unit operations. Coding was performed in the Pascal language for use on personal computers.

  15. Aerobic versus anaerobic wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, D.G.; White, J.E.; Callier, A.J.

    1997-04-01

    Biological wastewater treatment facilities are designed to emulate the purification process that occurs naturally in rivers, lakes and streams. In the simulated environment, conditions are carefully manipulated to spur the degradation of organic contaminants and stabilize the residual sludge. Whether the treatment process is aerobic or anaerobic is determined by a number of factors, including the composition of the wastewater, the degree of stabilization required for environmental compliance and economic viability. Because anaerobic digestion is accomplished without oxygen in a closed system, it is economical for pretreatment of high-strength organic sludge. Before the effluent can be discharged, however, followup treatment using an aerobic process is required. Though it has the drawback of being energy intensive, aerobic processing, the aeration of organic sludges in an open tank, is the primary method for treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Aerobic processes are more stable than anaerobic approaches and can be done rather simply, particularly with trickling filters. Gradually, the commercialization of modular systems that are capable of aerobic and anaerobic digestion will blur the distinctions between the two processes. Systems that boast those capabilities are available now.

  16. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation by Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Argonne National Laboratory, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18–19, 2015.

  17. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... to 7 days to minimize the biogas production. Summary Renewable Methane Production We developed a novel process using biochar for producing biomethane at pipeline quality ...

  18. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ANL's process (U.S. Patent Serial No. 14540,393) 55-70 % CH 4 30-45% CO 2 Conventional biogas upgrading: 20-72% of overall production cost 1. Producing pipeline-quality biomethane ...

  19. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation by Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Argonne National Laboratory, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from ...

  20. Manure digester and power generating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santina, P.F.; Chatterjee, A.K.

    1988-06-14

    A manure digester and power generating system is described comprising: a mixing tank for receiving manure, and for mixing water with the manure to produce a manure slurry of desired consistency; a closed anaerobic digester tank of fixed volume; the mixing tank being separate from and spaced from the digester tank; pumping and conduit means for transferring the contents of the mixing tank to the digester tank; automatic control means, associated with the pumping means, for monitoring and controlling temperature and volume of the contents of the mixing tank before transfer to the digester tank; means for discharging effluent by-products out the outflow end of the digester tank; a gas-fueled engine and a generator coupled to the engine, for generating electrical power; heater means; means for drawing off biogas from the digester tank and for conducting it to the engine as fuel, and wherein the manure slurry is heated sufficiently, prior to introduction into the digester tank and separately from the digester tank, to prevent temperature shock of already digesting slurry in the digester tank when the slurry is introduced into the digester tank.

  1. Anaerobic pretreatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsors research and development (R D) to improve the energy efficiency of American industry and to provide for fuel flexibility. The pharmaceutical industry generates considerable amounts of wastewater that require extensive treatment before they are released. A common method of disposal is aerobic biological treatment, but this method is energy intensive and expensive. An alternative process--anaerobic digestion--costs less, saves energy, generates less sludge requiring disposal, and produces a usable fuel--methane. OIT and HydroQual, Inc., with Merck Co. recently completed a joint project that demonstrated the anaerobic biological treatment of wastewaters generated by the pharmaceutical industry. The objectives of the project were to demonstrate how the anaerobic biological process and the resulting energy savings can apply to the pharmaceutical industry and how effective and beneficial the process is to sludge management operations at pharmaceutical plants. This technical case study provides an overview of the DOE-HydroQual-Merck R D project and highlights the field tests done on pilot-scale anaerobic wastewater treatment units at a pharmaceutical plant. This document makes field test and data analysis results available to other researchers and private industry. It discusses project status; summarizes field-test efforts; and reviews potential technology impacts in terms of commercial applications, benefits, and full-scale system economics. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Methane production from marine biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1980-01-01

    The overall concept of the giant brown kelp farm and conversion system, the integrated research program engaged in its study, and IGT's work on biogasification process development are discussed. A summary of results to date on anaerobic digestion will be emphasized. (MHR)

  3. Science Digests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Digests Science Digests Our Science Digests embrace complex issues around our science, technologies, and mission in a series of mini-articles that provide a context for our historical approach, current problem solving and our vision for the future. Spatial partitioning for the ocean simulation data set. Data triage enables extreme-scale computing Data selection and triage are important techniques for large-scale data, which can drastically reduce the amount of data written to disk or

  4. Co-digestion of sewage sludge with glycerol to boost biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Petousi, I.; Manios, T.

    2010-10-15

    The feasibility of adding crude glycerol from the biodiesel industry to the anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants was studied in both batch and continuous experiments at 35 {sup o}C. Glycerol addition can boost biogas yields, if it does not exceed a limiting 1% (v/v) concentration in the feed. Any further increase of glycerol causes a high imbalance in the anaerobic digestion process. The reactor treating the sewage sludge produced 1106 {+-} 36 ml CH{sub 4}/d before the addition of glycerol and 2353 {+-} 94 ml CH{sub 4}/d after the addition of glycerol (1% v/v in the feed). The extra glycerol-COD added to the feed did not have a negative effect on reactor performance, but seemed to increase the active biomass (volatile solids) concentration in the system. Batch kinetic experiments showed that the maximum specific utilization rate ({mu}{sub max}) and the saturation constant (K{sub S}) of glycerol were 0.149 {+-} 0.015 h{sup -1} and 0.276 {+-} 0.095 g/l, respectively. Comparing the estimated values with the kinetics constants for propionate reported in the literature, it can be concluded that glycerol uptake is not the rate-limiting step during the process.

  5. Final Report: Feasibility Study of Biomass in Snohomish County, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daryl Williams; Ray Clark

    2005-01-31

    This report and its attachments summarizes the results of a unique tribal-farmer cooperative study to evaluate the feasibility of building one or more regional anaerobic digestion systems in Snohomish County, Washington.

  6. August 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    One of "35 people worth knowing in the BioBased movement and industry" Biofuels Digest named the Biomass Program's Acting Director Valerie Reed as one of the "35 people worth ...

  7. A REVIEW ON BIOMASS DENSIFICATION TECHNOLOGIE FOR ENERGY APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JAYA SHANKAR TUMULURU; CHRISTOPHER T. WRIGHT

    2010-08-01

    The world is currently facing challenges to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is finding more uses as it is considered carbon neutral since the carbondioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle (Arias et al., 2008). Increasing the utilization of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help to meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol (UN, 1998). Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes like thermochemical (combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation) or chemical (esterification) where direct combustion can provide a direct near-term energy solution (Arias et al., 2008). Some of the inherent problems with raw biomass materials, like low bulk density, high moisture content, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value, limit the ease of use of biomass for energy purposes (Arias et al., 2008). In fact, due to its low energy density compared to fossil fuels, high volumes of biomass will be needed; adding to problems associated with storage, transportation and feed handling at a cogeneration plant. Furthermore, grinding biomass pulverizes, can be very costly and in some cases impractical. All of these drawbacks have given rise to the development of new technologies in order to increase the quality of biomass fuels. The purpose of the work is mainly in four areas 1) Overview of the torrefaction process and to do a literature review on i) Physical properties of torrefied raw material and torrefaction gas composition. 2) Basic principles in design of packed bed i) Equations governing the flow of material in packed bed ii) Equations governing the flow of the gases in packed bed iii) Effect of physical

  8. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, James L.; Chen, Guang Jiong

    1998-01-01

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

  9. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

    1998-10-13

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

  10. Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

    1989-06-01

    The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

  11. Low-temperature conversion of high-moisture biomass: Topical report, January 1984--January 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.; Butner, R.S.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

    1988-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a low-temperature, catalytic process that converts high-moisture biomass feedstocks and other wet organic substances to useful gaseous and liquid fuels. The advantage of this process is that it works without the need for drying or dewatering the feedstock. Conventional thermal gasification processes, which require temperatures above 750/degree/C and air or oxygen for combustion to supply reaction heat, generally cannot utilize feedstocks with moisture contents above 50 wt %, as the conversion efficiency is greatly reduced as a result of the drying step. For this reason, anaerobic digestion or other bioconversion processes traditionally have been used for gasification of high-moisture feedstocks. However, these processes suffer from slow reaction rates and incomplete carbon conversion. 50 refs., 21 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. Flux enhancement with powdered activated carbon addition in the membrane anaerobic bioreactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H.; Choo, K.H.; Lee, C.H.

    1999-10-01

    The effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the performance of a membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor (MCAB) was investigated in terms of membrane filterability and treatability through a series of batch and continuous microfiltration (MF) experiments. In both batch and continuous MF of the digestion broth, a flux improvement with PAC addition was achieved, especially when a higher shear rate and/or a higher PAC dose were applied. Both the fouling and cake layer resistances decreased continuously with increasing the PAC dose up to 5 g/L. PAC played an important role in substantially reducing the biomass cake resistance due to its incompressible nature and higher backtransport velocities. PAC might have a scouring effect for removing the deposited biomass cake from the membrane surface while sorbing and/or coagulating dissolved organics and colloidal particles in the broth. The chemical oxygen demand and color in the effluent were much removed with PAC addition, and the system was also more stable against shock loading.

  13. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  14. High Throughput Pretreatment and Enzyme Hydrolysis of Biomass: Screening Recalcitrance in Large Sample Populations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, S. R.

    2010-10-01

    Presentation on the execution of the first high-throughput thermochemical pretreatment/enzyme digestion pipeline for screening biomass for recalcitrance.

  15. Biomass pretreatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  16. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  17. Biomass Logistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Ian Bonner; David J. Muth

    2015-04-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon “shelf-life.” The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  18. Hydrogen Production: Microbial Biomass Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microbial Biomass Conversion Hydrogen Production: Microbial Biomass Conversion Photo of a fermentation reactor Microbial biomass conversion processes take advantage of the ability of microorganisms to consume and digest biomass and release hydrogen. Depending on the pathway, this research could result in commercial-scale systems in the mid- to long-term timeframe that could be suitable for distributed, semi-central, or central hydrogen production scales, depending on the feedstock used. How

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biomass, Hydroelectric, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Anaerobic Digestion, Microturbines Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial Savings Category: Biomass, Hydrogen, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Anaerobic Digestion, Microturbines...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Ocean Thermal, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Other...

  2. Lincoln Electric System - Renewable Generation Rate (Nebraska...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Applicable Sector Commercial, Industrial Eligible Technologies Solar Thermal Electric, Photovoltaics, Landfill Gas, Wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric, Anaerobic Digestion, Small...

  3. Lincoln Electric System - Renewable Energy Rebate (Nebraska)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Program Applicable Sector Commercial, Industrial, Residential Eligible Technologies Photovoltaics, Landfill Gas, Biomass, Anaerobic Digestion, Small Hydroelectric, Other...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass, Hydroelectric, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Other Distributed Generation...

  6. Clean Cities: State of Maryland Clean Cities coalition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    trucks. His past projects include: PSC Case No. 9261, anaerobic digestion, biomass combustiongasification, biodiesel consumptionproduction, ethanol consumptionproduction, CNG,...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Renewables Portfolio...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Hydrogen, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewable Energy Sales Tax Exemption Eligible renewable resources include wind, solar, biomass, landfill gas, anaerobic digestion, hydroelectricity, and geothermal energy....

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Yes; specific technologies not identified, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Connecticut Clean Energy Fund Connecticut's 1998...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Category: Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Portfolio...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells...

  14. List of Daylighting Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Loan Program Michigan Agricultural Agricultural Equipment Heat pumps Anaerobic Digestion Biodiesel Biomass CHPCogeneration Daylighting Ethanol Fuel Cells Fuel Cells using...

  15. List of Photovoltaics Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Standard West Virginia Investor-Owned Utility Retail Supplier Anaerobic Digestion Biodiesel Biomass CHPCogeneration Fuel Cells Geothermal Electric Hydroelectric energy...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    include wind, solar, biomass, landfill gas, anaerobic digestion, hydroelectricity, and geothermal energy. Facilities must use renewable energy to produce electricity......

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Hydrogen, Municipal Solid Waste, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Renewable...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractors Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion,...

  20. List of Methanol Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Commercial Industrial Anaerobic Digestion Biodiesel Biomass CHPCogeneration Ethanol Hydrogen Landfill Gas Methanol Microturbines Municipal Solid Waste Yes Business Energy Tax...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small) Anaerobic Digester Gas-to-Electricity Rebate and Performance Incentive The Anaerobic...

  2. Biomass One Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    USA Biomass National Map Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBiomassOneBiomassFacility&oldid397204" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs...

  3. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.

    2014-07-08

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  4. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.; Lynd, Lee R.; Laser, Mark

    2013-03-12

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  5. Some studies on anaerobic decomposition of leucaena leucocephala leaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torane, J.V.; Lokhande, C.D.; Pawar, S.H. )

    1990-01-01

    Batch type anaerobic decomposition process in leucaena leucocephala plant material (leaves) has been carried out under mesophilic conditions (below 35{degrees}C). The results of studies involving variations in pH, conductivity, temperature, and optical density of digester slurry for four weeks are reported. The gas production rate was also studied which reveals that the use of leucaena leucocephala for biogas production will be helpful.

  6. Microbial Ecology of Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion. Final Report

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Zinder, Stephen H.

    2000-04-15

    This grant supported research on methanogenic archaea. The two major areas that were supported were conversion of acetic acid to methane and nitrogen fixation by Methanosarcina. Among the achievements of this research were the isolation of novel methanogenic cultures, elucidation of the pathways from acetate to methane, description of a specific DNA-binding complex in nitrogen fixing methanogens, and demonstration of an alternative nitrogenase in Methanosarcina.

  7. List of Anaerobic Digestion Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat Energy Storage Nuclear Wind Heat recovery Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels No Agricultural Energy Loan...

  8. Microbial ecology of thermophilic anaerobic digestion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen H. Zinder

    2000-04-15

    This grant supported research on methanogenic archaea. The two major areas that were supported were conversion of acetic acid to methane and nitrogen fixation by Methanosarcina. Among the achievements of this research were the isolation of novel methanogenic cultures, elucidation of the pathways from acetate to methane, description of a specific DNA-binding complex in nitrogen fixing methanogens, and demonstration of an alternative nitrogenase in Methanosarcina.

  9. A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Virginia, MN 55792 FCPC Renewable Generation Facility * 2.0 megawatt biodigestion and biogas facility currently being constructed in Menomonee Valley of Milwaukee * Will operate...

  10. Biomass conversion to mixed alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holtzapple, M.T.; Loescher, M.; Ross, M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the MixAlco Process which converts a wide variety of biomass materials (e.g. municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, agricultural residues) to mixed alcohols. First, the biomass is treated with lime to enhance its digestibility. Then, a mixed culture of acid-forming microorganisms converts the lime-treated biomass to volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. To maintain fermentor pH, a neutralizing agent (e.g. calcium carbonate or lime) is added, so the fermentation actually produces VFA salts such as calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate. The VFA salts are recovered and thermally converted to ketones (e.g. acetone, methylethyl ketone, diethyl ketone) which are subsequently hydrogenated to mixed alcohols (e.g. isopropanol, isobutanol, isopentanol). Processing costs are estimated at $0.72/gallon of mixed alcohols making it potentially attractive for transportation fuels.

  11. Methods for pretreating biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2015-03-03

    A method of alkaline pretreatment of biomass, in particular, pretreating biomass with gaseous ammonia.

  12. Anaerobic thermophilic culture system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

  13. Insource Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Place: England, United Kingdom Sector: Biomass Product: The energy and waste management business provides biomass boilers and anaerobic digestion combined heat and...

  14. Local Generation Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom Sector: Biomass Product: UK-based biomass firm developing anaerobic digestion plants. References: Local Generation Limited1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  15. Lyonsdale Biomass LLC Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lyonsdale Biomass LLC Biomass Facility Facility Lyonsdale Biomass LLC Sector Biomass Location Lewis County, New York...

  16. Biomass One LP Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LP Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Biomass One LP Biomass Facility Facility Biomass One LP Sector Biomass Location Jackson County, Oregon Coordinates 42.334535,...

  17. Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the feeding and conversion of biomass and coal-biomass mixtures as essential upstream ... Activities support research for handling and processing of coal-biomass mixtures, ensuring ...

  18. Star Biomass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Jump to: navigation, search Name: Star Biomass Place: India Sector: Biomass Product: Plans to set up biomass projects in Rajasthan. References: Star Biomass1 This article...

  19. Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lignocellulosic Biomass - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  20. Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NEEDS 2006 Database Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleTracyBiomassBiomassFacility&oldid398234" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs...

  1. Biomass shock pretreatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  2. Biomass Conversion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Feedstocks to Final Products To efficiently convert algae, diverse types of cellulosic biomass, and emerging feedstocks into renewable fuels, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research, development, and demonstration of technologies. This research will help ensure that these renewable fuels are compatible with today's vehicles and infrastructure. Advanced biofuels are part of the United States' "all-of-the-above" energy strategy to develop domestic energy resources and win

  3. Biofuels Digest | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Digest Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biofuels Digest Address: 801 Brickell Avenue Suite 900 Place: Miami, Florida Zip: 33131 Sector: Services Product: Information Year Founded:...

  4. Steam Digest Volume IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  5. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  6. Researchers find potential key for unlocking biomass energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unlocking biomass energy Researchers find potential key for unlocking biomass energy Potential pretreatment method that can make plant cellulose five times more digestible by enzymes that convert it into ethanol, a useful biofuel. July 20, 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new

  7. Biomass torrefaction mill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  8. NREL: Biomass Research - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biofuels Biomass process and sustainability analyses. ... For information on biomass policy, read congressional ... on the Yield and Product Distribution of Fast ...

  9. Science Activities in Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concern plant growth and the environment, byproducts of biomass, and energy contained in different types of biomass. Provided by the Department of Energy's National Renewable...

  10. NREL: Biomass Research - Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilities At NREL's state-of-the-art biomass research facilities, researchers design and optimize processes to convert renewable biomass feedstocks into transportation fuels and...

  11. NREL: Biomass Research - Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is then separated, purified, and recovered for use as a transportation fuel. NREL biomass researchers and scientists have strong capabilities in many facets of biomass...

  12. Biomass Analytical Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diversity and performance, The chemical and physical properties of biomass and biomass feedstocks are characterized as they move through the supply chain to various conversion...

  13. Biomass Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Biomass Program's mission, strategic goals, and research approach.

  14. Biomass Webinar Presentation Slides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Download presentation slides for the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on biomass renewable energy.

  15. Biomass treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  16. Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Feed and Gasification The Biomass Feed and Gasification Key Technology will advance scientific knowledge of the feeding and conversion of biomass and coal-biomass mixtures as essential upstream steps for production of liquid transportation fuels with a lower net GHG emissions than conventional oil refining. Activities support research for handling and processing of coal-biomass mixtures, ensuring those mixtures are compatible with feed delivery systems, identifying potential impacts on

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS STRAIN JF-2 FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. McInerney; M. Folmsbee; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Our work focuses on the use of microorganisms to recover petroleum hydrocarbons that remain entrapped after current recovery technologies reach their economic limit. Capillary forces between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are largely responsible for trapping the hydrocarbons in the pores of the rock and large reductions in the interfacial tension between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (1-3, 10, 11). Microorganisms produce a variety of biosurfactants (4), several of which generate the ultra low interfacial tensions needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (4, 5, 8). In particular, the lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 reduces the interfacial tension between hydrocarbon and aqueous phases to very low levels (<0.016 mN/m) (8) (9). B. mojavensis JF-2 grows under the environmental conditions found in many oil reservoirs, i. e., anaerobic, NaCl concentrations up to 80 g l{sup -1}, and temperatures up to 45 C (6, 7), making it ideally suited for in situ applications. However, anaerobic growth of B. mojavensis JF-2 was inconsistent and difficult to replicate, which limited its use for in situ applications. Our initial studies revealed that enzymatic digests, such as Proteose Peptone, were required for anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis JF-2. Subsequent purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose Peptone resulted in the identification of the growth-enhancing factor as DNA or deoxyribonucleosides. The addition of salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, E. coli DNA or synthetic DNA (single or double stranded) to Medium E all supported anaerobic growth of JF-2. Further, we found that JF-2 required all four deoxyribonucleosides (deoxyadeonosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine) for growth under strict anaerobic conditions. The requirement for the deoxyribonucleosides did not occur under aerobic growth conditions. DNA was not used as a sole energy source; sucrose was required

  18. Complete genome sequence of Methanolinea tarda NOBI-1T, a hydrogenotrophic methanogen isolated from methanogenic digester sludge

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Goodwin, Lynne; Zinder, Stephen H.; Kamagata, Yoichi; Liu, Wen -Tso

    2014-09-04

    In this study, we report a 2.0-Mb complete genome sequence of Methanolinea tarda NOBI-1T, a methanogenic archaeon isolated from an anaerobic digested sludge. This is the first genome report of the genus Methanolinea isolate belonging to the family Methanoregulaceae, a recently proposed novel family within the order Methanomicrobiales.

  19. AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation Plenary IV: Advances in Bioenergy Feedstocks-From Field to Fuel AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation Glenn Farris, Marketing Manager Biomass, AGCO Corporation farris_biomass_2014.pdf (2.11 MB) More Documents & Publications High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Feedstock Supply and Logistics Feedstock Supply and

  20. Complete genome sequences for the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Complete genome sequences for the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic plant ... Title: Complete genome sequences for the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic plant ...

  1. Russell Biomass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Massachusetts Sector: Biomass Product: Russell Biomass, LLC is developing a 50MW biomass to energy project at the former Westfield Paper Company site in Russell,...

  2. Refeeding biogas digester solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licht, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Biosolid, the digester residue from a biogas plant, must be of economical use to ensure the financial feasibility of biogas facilities. This paper sumarizes work performed for a Department of Energy study in the Imperial Valley of California. Feeding trials show that biosolid can only be used as a small proportion of feed rations. Apart from bacterial debris, biosolid is composed larely of non-nutritive residues. 5 refs.

  3. Biomass 2014 Draft Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass 2014 Draft Agenda All topics and times are tentative and subject to change. Page | 1 BIOMASS 2014: Growing the Future Bioeconomy July 29-30, 2014, Washington Convention ...

  4. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  5. Pretreated densified biomass products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  6. Biomass Characterization | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extractability, Bioenergy Research (2016) Compositional Analysis of Biomass Reference Materials: Results from an Interlaboratory Study, Bioenergy Research (2015) View all ...

  7. Biomass Program Biopower Factsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    Generating electricity and thermal energy from biomass has the potential to help meet national goals for renewable energy. The forest products industry has used biomass for power and heat for many decades, yet widespread use of biomass to supply electricity to the U.S. power grid and other applications is relatively recent.

  8. Small Modular Biomass Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-12-01

    This fact sheet provides information about modular biomass systems. Small modular biomass systems can help supply electricity to rural areas, businesses, and the billions of people who live without power worldwide. These systems use locally available biomass fuels such as wood, crop waste, animal manures, and landfill gas.

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Tidal, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Municipal Solid Waste, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Ocean Thermal, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel...