National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for biogas combined heat

  1. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 TDA Research ...

  2. SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power | Department of Energy SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Improving Desulfurization Enables Fuel Cell Utilization of Digester Gases The need for clean, sustainable, and domestically produced energy has never been greater and demands new technologies and approaches for the way produces and uses energy. With their clean and quiet operation, solid oxide fuel

  3. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sheet, 2015 | Department of Energy Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 TDA Research Inc., in collaboration with FuelCell Energy, is developing a new, high-capacity sorbent to remove sulfur from anaerobic digester gas. This technology will enable the production of a nearly sulfur-free biogas to replace natural gas in fuel cell power plants while reducing

  4. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    TDA Research Inc., in collaboration with FuelCell Energy, will develop a new, high-capacity sorbent to remove sulfur from anaerobic digester gas. This technology will enable the production of a nearly sulfur-free biogas to replace natural gas in fuel cell power plants while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels.

  5. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Gökhan O. Alptekin TDA Research, Inc. Wheat Ridge, CO U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective  The objective is to develop a low-cost, high-capacity expendable sorbent to remove both sulfur species in biogas to ppb levels, making its use possible in a fuel cell CHP unit  The high concentrations of sulfur species in the

  6. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With their clean and quiet operation, fuel cells represent a promising means of implementing small-scale distributed power generation in the future. Waste heat from the fuel cell can be harnessed...

  7. Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Combined Heat and Power 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 1.1 Combined Heat and Power overview ........................................................................................... 2 5 1.2 Benefits of CHP for the Nation ...................................................................................................... 4 6 1.3 Benefits of CHP for

  8. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-22

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  9. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  10. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop, Golden, Colorado, June 11-13, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado, to discuss biogas and waste-to-energy technologies for fuel cell applications. The overall objective was to identify opportunities for coupling renewable biomethane with highly efficient fuel cells to produce electricity; heat; combined heat and power (CHP); or combined heat, hydrogen and power (CHHP) for stationary or motive applications. The workshop focused on biogas sourced from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), landfills, and industrial facilities that generate or process large amounts of organic waste, including large biofuel production facilities (biorefineries).

  11. Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat & Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Information about the Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program and its Combined Heat and Power program.

  12. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Success story about using waste water treatment gas for hydrogen production at UC Irvine. Presented by Jack Brouwer, UC Irvine, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  13. Combined Heat and Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development Projects » Combined Heat and Power Combined Heat and Power Combined heat and power (CHP)-sometimes called cogeneration-is an integrated set of technologies for the simultaneous, on-site production of electricity and heat. R&D breakthroughs can help U.S. manufacturers introduce advanced technologies and systems to users in the United States and around the world. CHP and distributed energy systems improve energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions, optimize fuel

  14. Northeast Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Regional CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  15. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Maryland CHP grant program provides grants for construction of new Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems in industrial and critical infrastructure facilities in Maryland. Applications for the...

  16. Pacific Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Regional CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  17. Northwest Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Regional CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  18. Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers combined heat and power (CHP) technologies and their applications.

  19. Small-scale biogas applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Guidance is given through the exercise of determining whether a biogas system is worthwhile for a farm owner. After a brief description of anaerobic digestion and characteristics and economics of biogas, basic features of anaerobic digesters are discussed. The use of biogas is discussed, starting with gas collection at the digester and ending with waste heat recovery in cogeneration systems. Direct heating with biogas is also covered briefly. The parts of a working biogas system are discussed. Three different case studies are reviewed. Directions are offered for collecting site data and a method for performing a preliminary economic analysis of a given operation. Firms and consultants with experience in the design and construction of biogas systems are listed. (LEW)

  20. Midwest Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. 

  1. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plant fact sheet | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plant fact sheet Argonne National Laboratory's Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant, expected to be operational in June 2016, will provide electricity...

  2. Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power ...

  3. Promoting Combined Heat and Power (CHP) for Multifamily Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Promoting Combined Heat and Power (CHP) for Multifamily Properties, 2008 Promoting Combined Heat and Power (CHP) for Multifamily Properties, 2008 The U.S. Department of Housing and ...

  4. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Energy Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems The CHP systems program aimed to facilitate acceptance of distributed energy in ...

  5. Energy Portfolio Standards and the Promotion of Combined Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Portfolio Standards and the Promotion of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) White Paper, April 2009 Energy Portfolio Standards and the Promotion of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) White ...

  6. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of...

  7. Energy Department Actions to Deploy Combined Heat and Power,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Actions to Deploy Combined Heat and Power, Boost Industrial Efficiency Energy Department Actions to Deploy Combined Heat and Power, Boost Industrial Efficiency October 21, 2013 -...

  8. Anaerobic Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank J. Hartz; Rob Taylor; Grant Davies

    2011-12-30

    One of the underlying objectives of this study is to recover the untapped energy in wastewater biomass. Some national statistics worth considering include: (1) 5% of the electrical energy demand in the US is used to treat municipal wastewater; (2) This carbon rich wastewater is an untapped energy resource; (3) Only 10% of wastewater treatment plants (>5mgd) recover energy; (4) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to produce > 575 MW of energy nationwide; and (5) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to capture an additional 175 MW of energy from waste Fats, Oils and Grease. The WSSC conducted this study to determine the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (AD/CHP) and/or biosolids gasification and drying facilities to produce and utilize renewable digester biogas. Digester gas is considered a renewable energy source and can be used in place of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project focus includes: (1) Converting wastewater Biomass to Electricity; (2) Using innovative technologies to Maximize Energy Recovery; and (3) Enhancing the Environment by reducing nutrient load to waterways (Chesapeake Bay), Sanitary Sewer Overflows (by reducing FOG in sewers) and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The study consisted of these four tasks: (1) Technology screening and alternative shortlisting, answering the question 'what are the most viable and cost effective technical approaches by which to recover and reuse energy from biosolids while reducing disposal volume?'; (2) Energy recovery and disposal reduction potential verification, answering the question 'how much energy can be recovered from biosolids?'; (3) Economic environmental and community benefit analysis, answering the question 'what are the potential economic, environmental and community benefits/impacts of each approach?'; and (4) Recommend the best plan and develop a concept design.

  9. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Technology Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    John Storey Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 28-29, 2015 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Objective of the ORNL CHP R&D program The project objectives are to improve the efficiency and viability of Combined Heat and Power systems and high-efficiency electrical generation systems, while supporting the U.S. manufacturing base.  Advance the

  10. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Technology Development

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    John Storey and Tim Theiss Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Objective of the ORNL CHP R&D program The project objectives are to improve the efficiency and viability of Combined Heat and Power systems and high-efficiency electrical generation systems, while supporting the U.S. manufacturing base. 

  11. Abwicklungsgesellschaft Biogas I AG Formerly Schmack Biogas AG...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abwicklungsgesellschaft Biogas I AG Formerly Schmack Biogas AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Abwicklungsgesellschaft Biogas I AG (Formerly Schmack Biogas AG) Place: Schwandorf,...

  12. Combined Heat and Power Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Assistance » Combined Heat & Power Deployment » Combined Heat and Power Basics Combined Heat and Power Basics Combined heat and power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is: A process flow diagram showing efficiency benefits of CHP The concurrent production of electricity or mechanical power and useful thermal energy (heating and/or cooling) from a single source of energy. A type of distributed generation, which, unlike central station generation, is located at or near the point

  13. Combined heat recovery and make-up water heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.Y.

    1988-05-24

    A cogeneration plant is described comprising in combination: a first stage source of hot gas; a duct having an inlet for receiving the hot gas and an outlet stack open to the atmosphere; a second stage recovery heat steam generator including an evaporator situated in the duct, and economizer in the duct downstream of the evaporator, and steam drum fluidly connected to the evaporator and the economizer; feedwater supply means including a deaerator heater and feedwater pump for supplying deaerated feedwater to the steam drum through the economizer; makeup water supply means including a makeup pump for delivering makeup water to the deaerator heater; means fluidly connected to the steam drum for supplying auxiliary steam to the deaerator heater; and heat exchanger means located between the deaerator and the economizer, for transferring heat from the feedwater to the makeup water, thereby increasing the temperature of the makeup water delivered to the deaerator and decreasing the temperature of the feedwater delivered to the economizer, without fluid exchange.

  14. National CHP Roadmap: Doubling Combined Heat and Power Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP Roadmap: Doubling Combined Heat and Power Capacity in the United States by 2010, March 2001 National CHP Roadmap: Doubling Combined Heat and Power Capacity in the United States ...

  15. Combined Heat And Power Installation Market Analysis | OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Combined Heat And Power Installation Market Analysis Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate...

  16. Combined Heat And Power Installation Market Forecast | OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Combined Heat And Power Installation Market Forecast Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate...

  17. Combined Heat and Power Systems (CHP): Capabilities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-07-01

    D&MT Capabilities fact sheet that describes the NREL capabilities related to combined heat and power (CHP).

  18. Benefits of Combined Heat and Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat & Power Deployment » Benefits of Combined Heat and Power Benefits of Combined Heat and Power Combined heat and power (CHP) positively impacts the health of local economies and supports national policy goals in a number of ways. Specifically, CHP can: Enhance our energy security by reducing our national energy requirements and help businesses weather energy price volatility and supply disruptions Advance our climate change and environmental goals by reducing emissions of CO2

  19. Biogas management by controlled feeding and heating of a dairy manure digester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chayovan, S.

    1984-01-01

    Gas production dynamics were investigated using laboratory scale digesters fed daily with dairy manure and operated both at constant temperature and with imposed temperature fluctuations of +/-3.3/sup 0/C about a mean of 35.8/sup 0/C. At constant temperature, a 14-liter control digester with a detention time of 19 days, fed with manure diluted to 25% and blended, behaved similarly to two 3-liter digesters fed hole manure at a detection time of 15 days. A second 14-liter digester fed with the diluted manure was operated with three phase relations between the 24 hour temperature cycle and the pulse feeding time. The higher the temperature at the time of feeding, the higher the peak gas production, up to 1.8 times the control. Gradually increasing the temperature after feeding results in sustained high gas production until the most rapidly degradable material is consumed. In all cases digester operation was stable as indicated by pH, alkalinity and total daily gas production. A mathematical model based on three substrate fractions having each first order kinetics and the Arrhenius temperature relationship successfully predicted gas production dynamics as long as hydrolysis remained the rate limiting step and the volatile acid pool did not change rapidly. Results show that gas storage can be reduced as much as 52% using managed heating and feeding for a situation in which gas is productively utilized for only eight hours of the day.

  20. Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pertl, A.; Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G.

    2010-01-15

    One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO{sub 2}.

  1. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination - Fact Sheet, 2014 Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas ...

  2. Portland Community College Celebrates Commissioning of Combined Heat and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Fuel Cell System | Department of Energy Portland Community College Celebrates Commissioning of Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System Portland Community College Celebrates Commissioning of Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System October 3, 2011 - 4:43pm Addthis U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today applauded the commissioning of a combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell system at Portland Community College in Oregon. The CHP fuel cell system will help Portland Community College

  3. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact Sheet,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 | Department of Energy Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact Sheet, 2015 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact Sheet, 2015 FuelCell Energy, Inc., in collaboration with Abbott Furnace Company, is developing a combined heat, hydrogen, and power (CHHP) system that utilizes reducing gas produced by a high-temperature fuel cell to directly replace hydrogen in metal treatment and other industrial processes. Excess reducing gas can be

  4. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... by carrying out slipstream and full-scale field demonstrations Initial contacts will be established with technology users (fuel cell developers such as FuelCell Energy, ...

  5. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Combined Heat and Power Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Industrial Energy Efficiency and Combined Heat and Power Working Group

    2012-07-16

    Provides an overview of the State and Local Energy Efficiency Action Network's (SEE Action) Industrial Energy Efficiency and Combined Heat and Power Working Group.

  6. Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    performance of combined heat and power (CHP) systems in power interruption intolerant ... black-out ride through capability with the CHP systems and the resulting ability to avoid ...

  7. Combined Heat and Power (CHP): Essential for a Cost Effective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP): Essential for a Cost Effective Clean Energy Standard, April ... This white paper discusses the CES concept. PDF icon chpcleanenergystd.pdf More ...

  8. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Resource Guide for Hospital Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power (CHP) Resource Guide for Hospital Applications, 2007 Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Resource Guide for Hospital Applications, 2007 The objective of this 2007 guidebook is to ...

  9. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future Overview of CHP, DOE's CHP program, accomplishments, progress, technology ...

  10. Combined Heat and Power with Your Local Utility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentationgiven at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meetingcovers combined heat and power (CHP) and its uses, configurations, considerations, and more.

  11. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and demonstrate a prototype microturbine combined heat and power system fueled by synthesis gas and integrated with a biomass gasifier, enabling reduced fossil fuel consumption...

  12. Mid-Atlantic Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  13. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and PowerAdvanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications Development of an Improved Modular Landfill Gas Cleanup and...

  14. The Market and Technical Potential for Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon chpindustrialmarketpotential.pdf More Documents & Publications The Market and ... October 1999 New Release -- U.S. DOE Analysis: Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Technical ...

  15. Utility Incentives for Combined Heat and Power | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentutility-incentives-combined-heat-and- Language: English Policies: Financial Incentives This report reviews a U.S. Environmental...

  16. Combined Heat and Power Webinar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Webinar Combined Heat and Power Webinar PDF icon 06092010_CHP.pdf More Documents & Publications CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices, 2006 CHP: Enabling Resilient Energy Infrastructure - Presentations from April 2013 Webinar Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future, August 2009

  17. Guidebook on biogas development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This guidebook covers the practical aspects of small-scale biogas development suitable for use in rural areas in developing countries, especially those of the ESCAP region. It is intended that all aspects of biogas are covered so that someone with no knowledge of the subject can, with confidence, design, build, operate and maintain a biogas plant. Information on biogas technology in China is also included. Chapters cover: the biogas process; factors effecting gas-plant design and operation; the classification and design principles of plants; design, size and site selection; the construction of digesters; gas holders and pipes; household gas appliances and their use; starting and operating a biogas digester; servicing and safety; improving gas-plant performance; commercial uses of biogas; the effluent and its uses, biogas-plant development programmes; community plants; and economics. In the annexes, designs for biogas plants of the fixed-dome, bag and floating gas-holder type are presented. 9 references.

  18. ARM - PI Product - Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals & Heating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates ProductsCombined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals & Heating Rates ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals & Heating Rates [ research data - ASR funded ] The PNNL Combined Remote Sensor retrieval algorithm (CombRet) is designed to retrieve cloud and precipitation properties for all sky conditions. The retrieval is based on a

  19. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FuelCell Energy, June 2011 | Department of Energy Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Presentation on Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System, given by Pinakin Patel of FuelCell Energy, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011. PDF icon

  20. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Plan 2015, Utility & Energy Services, Texas A&M University, Aug. 1, 2011. 2 "Texas A&M Receives 10 Million DOE Grant For New Combined Heat and Power Generation System," Marketing ...

  1. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Tri-Generation Success Story: World's First Tri-Gen Energy Station-Fountain Valley

  2. Combined Heat & Power Technology Overview and Federal Sector Deployment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the Combined Heat & Power Technology Overview and Federal Sector Deployment from Oakridge National Laboratory. The presentation is from the FUPWG Spring Meeting, held on May 22, 2013 in San Francisco, California.

  3. Biogas Production Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation about UC Davis's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Ruihong Zhang, UC Davis, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  4. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012 (Conference) | SciTech Connect GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012 Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions

  5. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power: Effective

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future | Department of Energy ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future Report describing the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future PDF icon chp_report_12-08.pdf More Documents & Publications CHP: A Clean Energy Solution,

  6. Promoting Combined Heat and Power (CHP) for Multifamily Properties, 2008 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Promoting Combined Heat and Power (CHP) for Multifamily Properties, 2008 Promoting Combined Heat and Power (CHP) for Multifamily Properties, 2008 The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed preliminary feasibility (Level 1) screening software and enlisted the DOE CHP Regional Application Centers (RACs) to help run utility data and estimate paybacks. This paper

  7. AMO Announces Successful Completion of Industrial-Scale Combined Heat,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, and Power System | Department of Energy Announces Successful Completion of Industrial-Scale Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System AMO Announces Successful Completion of Industrial-Scale Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System May 20, 2015 - 9:00am Addthis Photo Courtesy of FuelCell Energy, Danbury, CT Photo Courtesy of FuelCell Energy, Danbury, CT AMO recently joined with FuelCell Energy of Danbury, CT to celebrate the completion of their successful partnership project at

  8. Testimonials - Partnerships in Combined Heat and Power Technologies -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cummins Inc. | Department of Energy Combined Heat and Power Technologies - Cummins Inc. Testimonials - Partnerships in Combined Heat and Power Technologies - Cummins Inc. Addthis Text Version The words "Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, EERE Partnership Testimonials," appear on the screen, followed by "Kevin Keene, Project Director, Cummins" and footage of a man. Kevin Keene: Working with the Department of Energy has been

  9. Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power May 7, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In Tok, Alaska, the economic impact of high fuel prices was crippling the community's economy€, especially for the Alaska Gateway School District, with staff laid off and double duties assigned to many. To help offset high energy costs, the school district decided to replace its separated diesel heat and power systems with a

  10. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  11. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems. Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olsen, R.; Hewett, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  12. Combined ICR heating antenna for ion separation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timofeev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-15

    A combination of one- and two-wave antennas (one and two turns of conductors around a plasma cylinder, respectively) is proposed. This combined antenna localizes an RF field within itself. It is shown that spent nuclear fuel processing systems based on ICR heating of nuclear ash by such a combined antenna have high productivity. A theory of the RF field excitation in ICR ion separation systems is presented in a simple and compact form.

  13. A technoeconomic assessment of solar-assisted biogas systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, N.K. )

    1988-01-01

    Biogas has been recognized as one of the best available renewable and decentralized sources of energy and organic fertilizer for a country like India. There is enough evidence to prove that temperature has a profound influence on the rate of biogas production. In temperate climates, where the winters are mild, solar energy systems can be effectively used to increase the temperature of the biogas digester to the desired level. This paper examines various techniques, such as a solar greenhouse on the biogas digester, a shallow solar pond water heater, insulation, and a heat exchanger, and their technoeconomic viability.

  14. GWE Biogas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biogas Jump to: navigation, search Name: GWE Biogas Place: United Kingdom Product: UK-based biogas project developer. The firm is currently developing a waste-to-energy plant in...

  15. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators This guide presents useful information for...

  16. Energen Biogas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biogas Place: United Kingdom Product: Scottish company developing anaerobic digestion plants. References: Energen Biogas1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  17. Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Commercial Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Market Transformation project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done in developing evaluating the performance of 5 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems that have been deployed in Oregon and California. It also describes the business case that was developed to identify markets and address cost.

  18. Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State December 4, 2013 Molly Lunn U.S. DOE's State and Local Technical Assistance Program 1 | Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov DOE's State & Local Technical Assistance Program * Strategic Energy Planning * Program & Policy Design and ImplementaJon * Financing Strategies * Data Management and EM&V * EE & RE Technologies Priority Areas * General EducaOon (e.g., fact sheets, 101s) * Case Studies * Tools for

  19. Biogas Technologies and Integration with Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Food waste Packaged food waste Energy crops Manure Feedstocks for Anaerobic Digestion Biogas Utilization Biomethane Production Biogas Utilization Gas grid Bio fuel Biogas plant...

  20. Biogas Direct LCC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LCC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biogas Direct LCC Place: Spring Green, Wisconsin Zip: WI 53588 Product: Biogas Direct is specialized in constructing Biogas plants for the...

  1. Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future, August 2009 Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future, August 2009 Combined...

  2. American Biogas Council: The Voice of the U.S. Biogas Industry | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy American Biogas Council: The Voice of the U.S. Biogas Industry American Biogas Council: The Voice of the U.S. Biogas Industry Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous Fuels American Biogas Council: The Voice of the U.S. Biogas Industry Patrick Serfass, Executive Director, American Biogas Council PDF icon serfass_bioenergy_2015.pdf More Documents & Publications Biogas Markets and Federal Policy Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report:

  3. Fuel Cells on Bio-Gas (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remick, R. J.

    2009-03-04

    The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Fuel cells operating on bio-gas offer a pathway to renewable electricity generation; (2) With federal incentives of $3,500/kW or 30% of the project costs, reasonable payback periods of less than five years can be achieved; (3) Tri-generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen offers an alternative route to solving the H{sub 2} infrastructure problem facing fuel cell vehicle deployment; and (4) DOE will be promoting bio-gas fuel cells in the future under its Market Transformation Programs.

  4. Thermal Energy Corporation Combined Heat and Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Bruce Turner; Tim Brown; Ed Mardiat

    2011-12-31

    To meet the planned heating and cooling load growth at the Texas Medical Center (TMC), Thermal Energy Corporation (TECO) implemented Phase 1 of a Master Plan to install an additional 32,000 tons of chilled water capacity, a 75,000 ton-hour (8.8 million gallon) Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank, and a 48 MW Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. The Department of Energy selected TMC for a $10 million grant award as part of the Financial Assistance Funding Opportunity Announcement, U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology, Recovery Act: Deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems, District Energy Systems, Waste Energy Recovery Systems, and Efficiency Industrial Equipment Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000044 to support the installation of a new 48 MW CHP system at the TMC located just outside downtown Houston. As the largest medical center in the world, TMC is home to many of the nation??s best hospitals, physicians, researchers, educational institutions, and health care providers. TMC provides care to approximately six million patients each year, and medical instruction to over 71,000 students. A medical center the size of TMC has enormous electricity and thermal energy demands to help it carry out its mission. Reliable, high-quality steam and chilled water are of utmost importance to the operations of its many facilities. For example, advanced medical equipment, laboratories, laundry facilities, space heating and cooling all rely on the generation of heat and power. As result of this project TECO provides this mission critical heating and cooling to TMC utilizing a system that is both energy-efficient and reliable since it provides the capability to run on power independent of the already strained regional electric grid. This allows the medical center to focus on its primary mission ?? providing top quality medical care and instruction ?? without worrying about excessive energy costs or the loss of heating and cooling due to the risk of power outages. TECO??s operation is the largest Chilled Water District Energy System in the United States. The company used DOE??s funding to help install a new high efficiency CHP system consisting of a Combustion Turbine and a Heat Recovery Steam Generator. This CHP installation was just part of a larger project undertaken by TECO to ensure that it can continue to meet TMC??s growing needs. The complete efficiency overhaul that TECO undertook supported more than 1,000 direct and indirect jobs in manufacturing, engineering, and construction, with approximately 400 of those being jobs directly associated with construction of the combined heat and power plant. This showcase industrial scale CHP project, serving a critical component of the nation??s healthcare infrastructure, directly and immediately supported the energy efficiency and job creation goals established by ARRA and DOE. It also provided an unsurpassed model of a district energy CHP application that can be replicated within other energy intensive applications in the industrial, institutional and commercial sectors.

  5. WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan Jones

    2003-09-01

    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  6. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pinakin Patel / Fred Jahnke FuelCell Energy, Inc . U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting � Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective � � Demonstrate Tri-generation (CHHP) combining heat, hydrogen and power production using a high temperature fuel cell to reduce O&M costs up to 25%. � Many industrial sites import liquid hydrogen, power and natural gas at

  7. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System DE-EE0003679 FuelCell Energy, Inc. 10/1/2010 - 9/30/2011 Pinakin Patel FuelCell Energy Inc. ppatel@fce.com 203-825-6072 U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting Washington, D.C. June 1-2, 2011 2 FCE Overview * Leading fuel cell developer for over 40 years - MCFC, SOFC, PAFC and PEM (up to 2.8 MW size products) - Over 700 million kWh of clean power produced world-wide (>50 installations) - Renewable fuels: over

  8. Standby Rates for Combined Heat and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedano, Richard; Selecky, James; Iverson, Kathryn; Al-Jabir, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Improvements in technology, low natural gas prices, and more flexible and positive attitudes in government and utilities are making distributed generation more viable. With more distributed generation, notably combined heat and power, comes an increase in the importance of standby rates, the cost of services utilities provide when customer generation is not operating or is insufficient to meet full load. This work looks at existing utility standby tariffs in five states. It uses these existing rates and terms to showcase practices that demonstrate a sound application of regulatory principles and ones that do not. The paper also addresses areas for improvement in standby rates.

  9. Biomass: Biogas Generator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BIOGAS GENERATOR Curriculum: Biomass Power (organic chemistry, chemical/carbon cycles, plants, energy resources/transformations) Grade Level: Middle School (6-8) Small groups (3 to 4) Time: 90 minutes to assemble, days to generate sufficient gas to burn Summary: Students build a simple digester to generate a quantity of gas to burn. This demonstrates the small amount of technology needed to generate a renewable energy source. Biogas has been used in the past and is still used today as an energy

  10. Refeeding biogas digester solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licht, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Biosolid, the digester residue from a biogas plant, must be of economical use to ensure the financial feasibility of biogas facilities. This paper sumarizes work performed for a Department of Energy study in the Imperial Valley of California. Feeding trials show that biosolid can only be used as a small proportion of feed rations. Apart from bacterial debris, biosolid is composed larely of non-nutritive residues. 5 refs.

  11. National Association of Counties Webinar- Combined Heat and Power: Resiliency Strategies for Critical Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Combined heat and power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is a method whereby energy is produced, and excess heat from the production process can be used for heating and cooling processes....

  12. Biogas electric power generation: 25 kW or greater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    A biogas cogeneration system consists basically of: an anaerobic digester to produce the gas, a prime mover which burns the gas and makes power, and recovery devices which capture engine waste heat. Guidance is given through the exercise of determining whether biogas cogeneration is worthwhile. Design, construction, and operation are covered in general. Theoretical and practical background on biogas cogeneration are given, and directions for collecting site data and a method for performing a preliminary economic analysis for a given operation are given. (LEW)

  13. THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES Section...

  14. New Release -- U.S. DOE Analysis: Combined Heat and Power (CHP...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Release -- U.S. DOE Analysis: Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Technical Potential in the United States New Release -- U.S. DOE Analysis: Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Technical ...

  15. 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical...

  16. Assessing the Benefits of On-Site Combined Heat and Power During...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessing the Benefits of On-Site Combined Heat and Power During the August 14, 2003, Blackout, June 2004 Assessing the Benefits of On-Site Combined Heat and Power During the...

  17. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators, July 2004 Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators, July 2004 Many owners...

  18. AMO Industrial Distributed Energy: Combine Heat and Power: A Clean Energy Solution, August 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Energy Solution Combined Heat and Power August 2012 Combined Heat and Power: A Clean Energy Solution 1 Contents Executive Summary .................................................................................................... 3 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 5 Combined Heat and Power as A Clean Energy Solution ......................................... 7 The Current Status of CHP and Its

  19. Chesterfield Biogas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biogas Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chesterfield Biogas Place: United Kingdom Zip: S9 1BT Product: UK-based firm which provides turnkey solutions for the cleaning, storage and...

  20. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop June 11–13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado, to discuss biogas and waste-to...

  1. Air Liquide- Biogas & Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation about Air Liquide's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Charlie Anderson, Air Liquide, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  2. Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and the environment PT Loma WWTP, Biogas to Fuel Cell Power BioFuels Energy Biogas to BioMethane to 4.5 MW Fuel Cell Power 3 FCE Fuel Cells 2 via directed...

  3. 5 Questions for an Expert: Bob Gemmer on Combined Heat and Power |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Questions for an Expert: Bob Gemmer on Combined Heat and Power 5 Questions for an Expert: Bob Gemmer on Combined Heat and Power October 27, 2014 - 7:13pm Addthis Infographic by Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Infographic by Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Amy Manheim Communication and Outreach Lead, Advanced Manufacturing Office Combined heat and power (CHP), also known as co-generation, provides both electricity and heat from a single source all while saving energy

  4. Biogas: the Chinese experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorhaug, A.

    1980-10-01

    This article details the history of biogas in China and its development as a renewable energy source. There are 7.2 million biogas plants that benefit directly 35 million rural people. The average family digester costs $20 to $40 and can easily be made by unskilled technical workers. The design of a typical digester is described together with its maintenance and recovery of gas. The uses of biogas in China are numerous and solves most of the major energy problems of rural life such as village cooking, and fuel for irrigation pumps and farm tractors. The utilizing of human, animal and agricultural waste is in itself a large benefit and a list of other benefits to the Chinese is given.

  5. How Combined Heat and Power Can Support State Climate and Energy Planning |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Combined Heat and Power Can Support State Climate and Energy Planning How Combined Heat and Power Can Support State Climate and Energy Planning Provides states and their stakeholders with a short synopsis for what it would look like to include combined heat and power in their climate and energy plans, including current activity at the national and state levels, best practices, energy savings examples, cost-effectiveness, EM&V and DOE support. PDF icon How Combined

  6. Design and operation of small biogas plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Dayem, A.M.; Hamad, M.A.

    1980-12-01

    This paper concentrates on the experience gained from the adaptation of the Chinese biogas technology to rural areas of Egypt. Three different prototype digesters have been constructed. The first is a 10 M/sup 3/ rectangular digester of the water pressure type, the second is a 6 M/sup 3/ circular and shallow digester with domed roof and dished bottom. The third prototype unit with a capacity of 7 M/sup 3/ has been recently constructed. It combines the features of both plug flow and the Indian movable cap types. Provisions for solar heating of feed water, composting of effluent and attachments to both latrine and animal shed were incorporated in the unit. The structural theory, design criteria, construction technique and cost estimation of the circular digester are described. Some operation and performance data of the circular digester are presented. This covers the effects of variation of ambient temperature on internal temperature, effects of temperature and pressure on the gas production rate and composition.

  7. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    Gas Technology Institute will collaborate with Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, West Virginia University, Vronay Engineering Services, KAR Engineering Associates, Pioneer Air Systems, and Energy Concepts Company to recover waste heat from reciprocating engines. The project will integrate waste heat recovery along with gas clean-up technology system improvements. This will address fuel quality issues that have hampered expanded use of opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester biogas, and coal mine methane. This will enable increased application of CHP using renewable and domestically derived opportunity fuels.

  8. Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The emergence of technologies that efficiently convert heat into cooling, such as absorption chillers, has opened up many new opportunities and markets for combined heat and power systems. These...

  9. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    heat and power (DERCHP) applications, examine the DERCHP technologies that can use them, and assess the potential market impacts of opportunity fueled DERCHP applications. ...

  10. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-28

    Description of CHHP system which utilizes a high-temperature fuel cell to provide on-site process reducing gas, clean power, and heat.

  11. Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program (TAP), provides information on Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State PDF icon Presentation Microsoft Office document icon Transcript More Documents & Publications expanding_chp_in_your_state.doc Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water Sustainable Energy Resources for

  12. Opportunities for Combined Heat and Power in Data Centers, March 2009 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Combined Heat and Power in Data Centers, March 2009 Opportunities for Combined Heat and Power in Data Centers, March 2009 This report analyzes the opportunities for combined heat and power (CHP) technologies to assist primary power in making the data center more cost-effective and energy efficient. Broader application of CHP will lower the demand for electricity from central stations and reduce the pressure on electric transmission and distribution infrastructure. PDF

  13. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 The purpose of this 2004 report was to determine the best opportunity fuel(s) for distributed energy resources and combined heat and power (DER/CHP) applications, examine the DER/CHP technologies that can use them, and assess the potential market impacts of opportunity fueled DER/CHP applications. PDF icon

  14. Energy Portfolio Standards and the Promotion of Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (CHP) White Paper, April 2009 | Department of Energy Portfolio Standards and the Promotion of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) White Paper, April 2009 Energy Portfolio Standards and the Promotion of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) White Paper, April 2009 This 2009 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Partnership paper covers Energy Portfolio Standards (EPS) which are becoming a widely applied method of encouraging the development of renewable and efficient

  15. Guide to Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Resiliency in Buildings | Department of Energy Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings Guide to Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings During and after Hurricane Sandy, combined heat and power (CHP) enabled a number of critical infrastructure and other facilities to continue their operations when the electric grid went down. This guidance document on CHP supports the August 2013 Hurricane Sandy

  16. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, in collaboration with the University of California-Irvine, Packer Engineering, and Argonne National Laboratory, will develop and demonstrate a prototype microturbine combined heat and power system fueled by synthesis gas and integrated with a biomass gasifier, enabling reduced fossil fuel

  17. Low-Cost Packaged Combined Heat and Power System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Packaged Combined Heat and Power System Low-Cost Packaged Combined Heat and Power System Increasing the Market Acceptance of Smaller CHP Systems This project is developing a flexible, packaged combined heat and power (CHP) system that produces 330 kilowatts (kW) of electrical power output and 410 kW of thermal output while increasing efficiency and reducing total cost of ownership. Introduction Many CHP systems less than 1 megawatt (MW) use reciprocating internal combustion engines.

  18. Zebec Biogas Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zebec Biogas Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zebec Biogas Limited Place: Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: G12 9JD Product: Sotland-based biogas company. The firm is...

  19. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Best opportunity fuels for distributed energy resources and combined heat and power (DER/CHP) applications; technologies that can use them; market impact potential.

  20. Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    August 2009 Combined heat and power (CHP) technology holds enormous potential to ... This paper describes DOE's success in building a solid foundation for a robust CHP ...

  1. Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California, September 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report analyzes the current economic and environmental performance of combined heat and power (CHP) systems in power interruption intolerant commercial facilities in California.

  2. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office Case Study: Fuel Cells ... the viaility of fuel cells in a commerical, critical telecommunications setting. ...

  3. Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading Medical Campus - Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-03-29

    Case study of Thermal Energy Corporation (TECO) demonstrating a high-efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) system at Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas

  4. The market and technical potential for combined heat and power in the commercial/institutional sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2000-01-01

    Report of an analysis to determine the potential for cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) in the commercial/institutional market.

  5. Combined Heat and Power. Enabling Resilient Energy Infrastructure for Critical Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hampson, Anne; Bourgeois, Tom; Dillingham, Gavin; Panzarella, Isaac

    2013-03-01

    This report provides context for combined heat and power (CHP) in critical infrastructure applications, as well as case studies and policies promoting CHP in critical infrastructure.

  6. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Resource Guide for Hospital Applications, 2007

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reference document of basic information for hospital managers when considering the application of combined heat and power (CHP) in the healthcare industry, specifically in hospitals

  7. Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About Combined Heat and Power | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Combined Heat and Power Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About Combined Heat and Power October 21, 2013 - 11:25am Addthis Learn how combined heat and power could strengthen U.S. manufacturing competitiveness, lower energy consumption and reduce harmful emissions. | Infographic by <a href="/node/379579">Sarah Gerrity</a>, Energy Department. Learn how combined heat and power could strengthen U.S. manufacturing competitiveness, lower energy consumption and reduce

  8. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Biogas is a proven source of energy used in the United States and around the world for decades. As such, biogas systems can and should be an integral part of America's energy strategy moving forward. The Biogas Opportunities Roadmap builds on progress made to date to identify voluntary actions that can be taken to reduce methane emissions through the use of biogas systems and outlines strategies to overcome barriers limiting further

  9. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Infographic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (EPA), created the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap as a response to the White House Climate ... BIOGAS OPPORTUNITIES ROADMAP PROGRESS REPORT POTENTIAL CAPACITY POLICY ACHIEVEMENTS There ...

  10. Biogas Technology Group Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biogas Technology Group Ltd. Place: England, United Kingdom Zip: PE28 5SB Product: UK based, Biogas Technology, provides infrastructure...

  11. Archea Biogas N V | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biogas N V Jump to: navigation, search Name: Archea Biogas N.V. Place: Hessisch Oldendorf, Lower Saxony, Germany Zip: 31840 Product: Design, analysis, planning and construction of...

  12. German Biogas Association | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Association Jump to: navigation, search Name: German Biogas Association Place: Freising, Germany Zip: 85356 Product: The Association represents the interests of biogas plant...

  13. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The system can operate as a baseload system to serve 75% of Texas A&M's peak power needs, 65% of total electrical energy needs, and 80% of the heating loads (steam for cooling ...

  14. Combined Heat and Power Systems Technology Development and Demonstrati...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    heating and more electrical efficiency California Air Resources Board (CARB) level emissions, and a price target of 600 per kW, the system would represent a step change in the...

  15. FACT SHEET: Energy Department Actions to Deploy Combined Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... For example, in 2010, Thermal Energy Corporation installed a new high-efficiency 48 megawatt CHP system to power and heat the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas ...

  16. EA-1922: Combined Power and Biomass Heating System, Fort Yukon, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE (lead agency), Denali Commission (cooperating agency) and USDA Rural Utilities Services (cooperating agency) are proposing to provide funding to support the final design and construction of a biomass combined heat and power plant and associated district heating system to the Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments and the Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation. The proposed biomass district heating system would be located in Fort Yukon Alaska.

  17. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Thanh Nhon (Flossmoor, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area.

  18. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, T.N.

    1999-08-24

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area. 12 figs.

  19. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  20. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  1. Combined Heat and Power: A Vision for the Future of CHP in the United

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    States in 2020, June 1999 | Department of Energy Vision for the Future of CHP in the United States in 2020, June 1999 Combined Heat and Power: A Vision for the Future of CHP in the United States in 2020, June 1999 The U.S. Combined Heat and Power Association (USCHPA) was formed in December 1998 with the purpose of promoting the use of clean and efficient industrial combined heat and power and buildings cooling, heating and power technologies in the United States. This report is a summary

  2. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report PDF icon biogas_opportunites_roadmap_progress_report.pdf PDF icon biogas_opportunites_roadmap_progress_report_infographic.pdf More Documents & Publications Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Infographic Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Biogas Markets and Federal Policy

  3. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Infographic | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Infographic Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Infographic PDF icon biogas_opportunites_roadmap_progress_report_infographic.pdf More Documents & Publications Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop, Golden, Colorado, June 11-13, 2012 Biogas Opportunities Roadmap

  4. Sustainable Heat Power Europe GmbH formerly Solar Heat Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    involved in the project development, design and construction of solar thermal, PV and biogas power plants. References: Sustainable Heat & Power Europe GmbH (formerly Solar Heat &...

  5. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, James C.; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-07-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR. (authors)

  6. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, Jim; Forsberg, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high-temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR.

  7. A new absorption chiller to establish combined cold, heat, and power generation utilizing low-temperature heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweigler, C.J.; Riesch, P.; Demmel, S.; Alefeld, G.

    1996-11-01

    Presently available absorption machines for air conditioning are driven with heat of a minimum of 80 C (176 F). A combination of the standard single-effect and a double-lift process has been identified as a new cycle that can use driving heat down to return temperatures of about 55 C (131 F) and permits temperature glides in generation of more than 30 K (54 F). Thus a larger cooling capacity can be produced from the same heat source compared to a single-effect chiller run with the same heat carrier supply temperature and mass flow. According to the estimated heat exchanger area, competitive machine costs for this new chiller can be expected. This single-effect/double-lift absorption chiller can be operated with waste heat from industrial processes, as well as with low-temperature heat (e.g., heat from solar collectors) as driving heat for air conditioning. The large temperature glide and the low return temperature especially fit the operating conditions in district heating networks during the summer. The cycle will be presented, followed by a discussion of suitable operating conditions.

  8. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap 8-1-14

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Voluntary Actions to Reduce Methane Emissions and Increase Energy Independence U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Energy August 2014 1 Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Table of Contents Executive Summary . ............................................................................................................. 4 I. Biogas and Biogas Systems

  9. Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: ...

  10. Biogas Nord GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Biogas Nord GmbH Place: Bielefeld, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip: 33719 Product: Biogas Nord is a specialized engineering company for biogas...

  11. Tulalip Tribe - Biogas Project

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Bio-Gas Project Daryl Williams November 18, 2008 Introduction Background Description of Project Partnership Feasibility Study/Business Plan Creation of Quil Ceda Power Funding Creation of Qualco Energy Closing Background Land-Use Changes from Agriculture to Other Types of Development Skykomish River WQ Problems Bacteria Nutrient Loading Relationship Between Tribes and Dairies Poor Economy for Dairy Operations Project Description Sewage Treatment for

  12. Assessment of Large Combined Heat and Power Market, April 2004 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Large Combined Heat and Power Market, April 2004 Assessment of Large Combined Heat and Power Market, April 2004 This 2004 report summarizes an assessment of the 2-50 MW combined heat and power (CHP) market and near-term opportunities for a fixed set of CHP technologies. This size range has been the biggest contributor to the traditional inside-the-fence CHP market to date. PDF icon chp_large.pdf More Documents & Publications CHP Assessment, California Energy Commission, October

  13. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    | Department of Energy Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers Providing Clean, Low-Cost, Onsite Distributed Generation at Very High Fuel Efficiency This project integrated a gas-fired, simple-cycle 100 kilowatt (kW) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NOx) gas-fired burner (ULNB) to develop a combined heat and power (CHP) assembly called the Boiler Burner Energy

  14. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas Success story about using waste water treatment gas for ...

  15. Combined Heat and Power: A Vision for the Future of CHP in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vision for the Future of CHP in the United States in 2020, June 1999 Combined Heat and Power: A Vision for the Future of CHP in the United States in 2020, June 1999 The U.S. ...

  16. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project to develop direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating, a process which is meant to eliminate traditional, intermediate steelmaking steps.

  17. Chapter 6: Innovating Clean Energy Technologies in Advanced Manufacturing | Combined Heat and Power Systems Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Platforms and Modeling for Manufacturing Combined Heat and Power Systems Composite Materials Critical Materials Direct Thermal Energy Conversion Materials, Devices, and Systems Materials for Harsh Service Conditions Process Heating Process Intensification Roll-to-Roll Processing Sustainable Manufacturing - Flow of Materials through Industry Waste Heat Recovery Systems Wide Bandgap Semiconductors for Power Electronics ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 1 Quadrennial

  18. Combined Heat and Power: Is It Right For Your Facility? | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Power: Is It Right For Your Facility? Combined Heat and Power: Is It Right For Your Facility? This presentation provides an overview of CHP technologies and how they can be used in industrial manufacturing plants to increase productivity and reduce energy and costs. PDF icon Combined Heat and Power: Is It Right For Your Facility? (May 14, 2009) More Documents & Publications HUD CHP GUIDE #2 - FEASIBILITY SCREENING FOR CHP IN MULTIFAMILY HOUSING, May 2009 New and Emerging

  19. HUD Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Guide #3, September 2010 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Guide #3, September 2010 HUD Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Guide #3, September 2010 This Level 2 analysis tool for multifamily buildings will help an owner determine whether to invite proposals for design of a system and for a financial analysis. This 2010 guide provides an introduction to the software program, with a description of its development and advice on how it can be used. PDF icon chpguide3.pdf More Documents & Publications Promoting

  20. ITP Distributed Energy: 2008 Combined Heat and Power Baseline Assessment and Action Planfor the Nevada Market

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    UC Berkeley UC Irvine San Diego State University 2008 Combined Heat and Power Baseline Assessment and Action Plan for the Nevada Market Final Project Report September 30, 2008 Prepared By: Pacific Region Combined Heat and Power Application Center Timothy Lipman 1 Frank Ling 1 Vincent McDonell 2 Asfaw Beyene 3 Daniel Kammen 1 Scott Samuelsen 2 1 University of California - Berkeley 2 University of California - Irvine 3 San Diego State University (this page left intentionally blank) Legal Notice

  1. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the

  2. Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2007 | Department of Energy Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems, 2007 Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems, 2007 The models surveyed in this study vary in design, scope, and detail, but they all seek to capture the functions of an energy economy and use knowledge of economic interactions to simulate the effects of economic and policy changes. In this 2007 document, Integrated Planning Model (IPM), Average Displaced

  3. FACT SHEET: Energy Department Actions to Deploy Combined Heat and Power,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boost Industrial Efficiency | Department of Energy FACT SHEET: Energy Department Actions to Deploy Combined Heat and Power, Boost Industrial Efficiency FACT SHEET: Energy Department Actions to Deploy Combined Heat and Power, Boost Industrial Efficiency October 21, 2013 - 11:30am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 Underscoring President Obama's Climate Action Plan to cut harmful emissions and double energy efficiency, the Energy Department is taking action to develop the next

  4. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a

  5. National CHP Roadmap: Doubling Combined Heat and Power Capacity in the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    United States by 2010, March 2001 | Department of Energy CHP Roadmap: Doubling Combined Heat and Power Capacity in the United States by 2010, March 2001 National CHP Roadmap: Doubling Combined Heat and Power Capacity in the United States by 2010, March 2001 The National CHP Roadmap document is the culmination of more than 18 state, regional, national, and international workshops, and numerous discussions, planning studies, and assessments. The origin of these activities was a conference held

  6. Engine Driven Combined Heat and Power: Arrow Linen Supply, December 2008 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Engine Driven Combined Heat and Power: Arrow Linen Supply, December 2008 Engine Driven Combined Heat and Power: Arrow Linen Supply, December 2008 This paper describes the Arrow Linen CHP demonstration, including the original installation supported by NYSERDA and the data monitoring and analysis supported by DOE. The team consisted of Oak Ridge National Lab, Energy Solutions Center, and ICF International. PDF icon arrow_linen_hedman.pdf More Documents & Publications

  7. The Market and Technical Potential for Combined Heat and Power in the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial/Institutional Sector, January 2000 | Department of Energy Commercial/Institutional Sector, January 2000 The Market and Technical Potential for Combined Heat and Power in the Commercial/Institutional Sector, January 2000 ONSITE SYCOM Energy Corporation (OSEC) assisted the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration in determining the potential for cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) in the commercial/institutional market. As part of this effort, in this

  8. The Market and Technical Potential for Combined Heat and Power in the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Sector, January 2000 | Department of Energy Industrial Sector, January 2000 The Market and Technical Potential for Combined Heat and Power in the Industrial Sector, January 2000 This January 2000 ONSITE SYCOM Energy Corporation (OSEC) report provides information on the potential for cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) in the industrial market. As part of this effort, OSEC has characterized typical technologies used in industrial CHP, analyzed existing CHP capacity in

  9. Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (CHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2015 | Department of Energy Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2015 University of California, Irvine, in collaboration with Siemens Corporate Research, developed and demonstrated novel algorithms and dynamic control technology for optimal economic use of CHP systems under 5 MW. The control

  10. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Progress, A Vision for the Future | Department of Energy ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future Overview of CHP, DOE's CHP program, accomplishments, progress, technology R&D, marketplace transformation, partnerships, strategies, future goals PDF icon chp_accomplishments_booklet.pdf More Documents & Publications

  11. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Off-Gas from Coke Calcination - Fact Sheet, 2014 | Department of Energy an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination - Fact Sheet, 2014 Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination - Fact Sheet, 2014 The Gas Technology Institute-in collaboration with Superior Graphite Company and SCHMIDTSCHE SCHACK, a division of ARVOS Group, Wexford business unit (formerly Alstom Power Energy

  12. Hese Biogas GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hese Biogas GmbH Place: Gelsenkirchen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip: 45881 Product: Hese Biogas is a biogas plant manufacturer and a subsidiary of Schmack Biogas AG....

  13. Biogas Markets and Federal Policy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Markets and Federal Policy Biogas Markets and Federal Policy National policy and legislative outlook for biogas and fuel cells. Presented by Patrick Serfass, American Biogas Council, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado. PDF icon june2012_biogas_workshop_serfass.pdf More Documents & Publications State Level Incentives for Biogas-Fuel Cell Projects Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells

  14. Opportunities for Combined Heat and Power in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darrow, Ken; Hedman, Bruce

    2009-03-01

    Data centers represent a rapidly growing and very energy intensive activity in commercial, educational, and government facilities. In the last five years the growth of this sector was the electric power equivalent to seven new coal-fired power plants. Data centers consume 1.5% of the total power in the U.S. Growth over the next five to ten years is expected to require a similar increase in power generation. This energy consumption is concentrated in buildings that are 10-40 times more energy intensive than a typical office building. The sheer size of the market, the concentrated energy consumption per facility, and the tendency of facilities to cluster in 'high-tech' centers all contribute to a potential power infrastructure crisis for the industry. Meeting the energy needs of data centers is a moving target. Computing power is advancing rapidly, which reduces the energy requirements for data centers. A lot of work is going into improving the computing power of servers and other processing equipment. However, this increase in computing power is increasing the power densities of this equipment. While fewer pieces of equipment may be needed to meet a given data processing load, the energy density of a facility designed to house this higher efficiency equipment will be as high as or higher than it is today. In other words, while the data center of the future may have the IT power of ten data centers of today, it is also going to have higher power requirements and higher power densities. This report analyzes the opportunities for CHP technologies to assist primary power in making the data center more cost-effective and energy efficient. Broader application of CHP will lower the demand for electricity from central stations and reduce the pressure on electric transmission and distribution infrastructure. This report is organized into the following sections: (1) Data Center Market Segmentation--the description of the overall size of the market, the size and types of facilities involved, and the geographic distribution. (2) Data Center Energy Use Trends--a discussion of energy use and expected energy growth and the typical energy consumption and uses in data centers. (3) CHP Applicability--Potential configurations, CHP case studies, applicable equipment, heat recovery opportunities (cooling), cost and performance benchmarks, and power reliability benefits (4) CHP Drivers and Hurdles--evaluation of user benefits, social benefits, market structural issues and attitudes toward CHP, and regulatory hurdles. (5) CHP Paths to Market--Discussion of technical needs, education, strategic partnerships needed to promote CHP in the IT community.

  15. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat & Power Multifamily Performance Program-- Sea Park East 150 kW CHP System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of Sea Park East 150 kilowatt (kW) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System in Brooklyn, New York

  16. Assessing the Benefits of On-Site Combined Heat and Power During the August 14, 2003, Blackout, June 2004

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This June 2004 report summarizes the experiences of 12 combined heat and power facilities during the August 14, 2003, blackout

  17. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas Opportunities Roadmap: Voluntary Actions to Reduce Methane Emissions, Increase Energy Independence and Grow the Economy President Obama's Climate Action Plan In his Climate Action Plan, released in June 2013, President Obama directed the Administration to develop a comprehensive, interagency strategy to reduce methane emissions and promote cutting-edge technologies that help farmers, energy companies, and communities convert methane into a renewable energy source and grow America's biogas

  18. Combined solar and internal load effects on selection of heat reclaim-economizer HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, H.J. Jr.; Howell, R.H.; Wang, Z. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-05-01

    The concern for energy conservation has led to the development and use of heat recovery systems which reclaim the building internal heat before it is discarded in the exhaust air. On the other hand, economizer cycles have been widely used for many years in a variety of types of HVAC systems. Economizer cycles are widely accepted as a means to reduce operating time for chilling equipment when cool outside air is available. It has been suggested that heat reclaim systems should not be used in conjunction with an HVAC system which incorporates an economizer cycle because the economizer operation would result in heat being exhausted which might have been recovered. Others suggest that the economizer cycle can be used economically in a heat recovery system if properly controlled to maintain an overall building heat balance. This study looks at potential energy savings of such combined systems with particular emphasis on the effects of the solar load (amount of glass) and the internal load level (lights, people, appliances, etc.). For systems without thermal storage, annual energy savings of up to 60 percent are predicted with the use of heat reclaim systems in conjunction with economizers when the heat reclaim has priority. These results demonstrate the necessity of complete engineering evaluations if proper selection and operation of combined heat recovery and economizer cycles are to be obtained. This paper includes the basic methodology for making such evaluations.

  19. Biogas Impurities and Cleanup for Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biogas Impurities and Cleanup for Fuel Cells Dennis Papadias and Shabbir Ahmed Argonne National Laboratory Presented at the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Golden, CO June 11-13,...

  20. Natural Gas Quality Biogas | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Quality Biogas Transportation fuel and organic solid fertilizer from anaerobic digestion of wastewater solids and other organic wastes Organic solid fertilizer is rich in nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and sulfur. PDF icon NATURAL GAS-QUALITY BIOGAS

  1. Biogas Energia Ambiental SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ambiental SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biogas Energia Ambiental SA Place: Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 04561-004 Product: Sao Paulo-based landfill biogas-to-energy...

  2. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AND POWER FACILITIE | Department of Energy STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIE Section 1308 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 ("EISA 2007") directed the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the States, to undertake a study of the laws affecting the siting of privately-owned distribution wires on or across public

  3. THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FACILITIES | Department of Energy THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES Section 1308 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 ("EISA 2007") directed the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the States, to undertake a study of the laws affecting the siting of privately-owned distribution wires on or across public rights of way and to

  4. Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    August 2009 | Department of Energy - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future, August 2009 Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future, August 2009 Combined heat and power (CHP) technology holds enormous potential to improve the nation's energy security and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper describes DOE's success in building a solid foundation for a robust CHP marketplace over the period of a decade, as well as what can and must be done to

  5. EERE Success Story-Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Power | Department of Energy Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power EERE Success Story-Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power May 7, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In Tok, Alaska, the economic impact of high fuel prices was crippling the community's economy€, especially for the Alaska Gateway School District, with staff laid off and double duties assigned to many. To help offset high energy costs, the school district decided to replace its

  6. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  7. Mapping the energy saving potential of passive heating combined with conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure is presented for estimating the energy savings potential of combining conservation and passive solar strategies to reduce building heating. General scaling laws are used for costs and the resulting continuous equations are evaluated to find the least life-cycle cost strategy. Results are mapped for the US.

  8. EA-1741: Seattle Steam Company Combined Heat and Power at Post Street in Downtown Seattle, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide an American Recovery Act and Reinvestment Act of 2009 financial assistance grant to Seattle Steam Company to facilitate the installation of a combined heat and power plant in downtown Seattle, Washington. NOTE: This Project has been cancelled.

  9. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings at Large University - Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-29

    Texas A&M University is operating a high-efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) system at its district energy campus in College Station, Texas. Texas A&M received $10 million in U.S. Department of Energy funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 for this project. Private-sector cost share totaled $40 million.

  10. A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHUGH, Devesh; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; Abdelaziz, Omar; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the cycle is recovery of the solution heat energy exiting the desorber by process water (a process-solution heat exchanger ) rather than the absorber exiting solution (the conventional solution heat exchanger ). This approach has enabled heating the process water from an inlet temperature of 15 C to 57 C (conforming to the DOE water heater test standard) and interfacing the process water with absorbent on the opposite side of a single metal sheet encompassing the absorber, process-solution heat exchanger, and desorber. The system under development has a 3.2 kW water heating capacity and a target thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.6.

  11. Biogas project advances in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittrup, L.

    1995-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has given a `thumbs up` rating to the high solids anaerobic digester project which is designed to produce biogas. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), the local utility, is considering the use of biogas to run a fuel cell pilot project. The designs for the three digesters are state-of-the-art, with each containing a horizontal trough measuring 120 feet long, 32 feet wide and 22 feet tall. NREL was asked by the PIA to review the mixing method in the digesters and analyze the overall potential success of the operation. The design employs a redundant system for foam removal from the digester gas, and has provisions to remove moisture from the biogas. However, there are no systems specified to reduce hydrogen sulfide levels. Since hydrogen sulfide is known to be corrosive, it may be destructive to the ultimate use as biogas in fuel cells. A suggested remedy from NREL is to add redundant iron sponge systems to remove hydrogen sulfide gases. A redundant system would allow regenerating one while the other is in service. In general, the lab found the design offers low construction costs, relative ease of operation, and a reasonably high level of anticipated success in operation. Therefore, NREL recommends proceeding with the current digester design plans, once the modifications as indicated are made.

  12. Effects of a carbon tax on microgrid combined heat and power adoption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes the economically optimal adoption and operation of distributed energy resources (DER) by a hypothetical California microgrid consisting of a group of commercial buildings over an historic test year, 1999. The optimization is conducted using a customer adoption model (DER-CAM) developed at Berkeley Lab and implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A microgrid is a semiautonomous grouping of electricity and heat loads interconnected to the existing utility grid (macrogrid) but able to island from it. The microgrid minimizes the cost of meeting its energy requirements (consisting of both electricity and heat loads) by optimizing the installation and operation of DER technologies while purchasing residual energy from the local combined natural gas and electricity utility. The available DER technologies are small-scale generators (< 500 kW), such as reciprocating engines, microturbines, and fuel cells, with or without combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, such as water and space heating and/or absorption cooling. By introducing a tax on carbon emissions, it is shown that if the microgrid is allowed to install CHP-enabled DER technologies, its carbon emissions are mitigated more than without CHP, demonstrating the potential benefits of small-scale CHP technology for climate change mitigation. Reciprocating engines with heat recovery and/or absorption cooling tend to be attractive technologies for the mild southern California climate, but the carbon mitigation tends to be modest compared to purchasing utility electricity because of the predominance of relatively clean central station generation in California.

  13. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings at Large

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    University - Case Study, 2013 | Department of Energy Achieves Millions in Cost Savings at Large University - Case Study, 2013 Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings at Large University - Case Study, 2013 Texas A&M University (Texas A&M), in collaboration with Harvey Cleary Builders and Jacobs Engineering Group, installed a 45 MW high-efficiency, natural gas-fired CHP system consisting of a 34 MW combustion turbine, a 210,000-pound-per-hour (pph) heat

  14. S R Biogas Energiesysteme AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energiesysteme AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: S&R Biogas Energiesysteme AG Place: Frankfurt am Main, Hessen, Germany Zip: 60598 Product: S&R Biogas Energiesysteme is a biogas...

  15. Bio Energy Biogas GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biogas GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bio Energy Biogas GmbH Place: Bad Oeynhausen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip: 32545 Product: Bio Energy Biogas provides the whole...

  16. Envio Biogas GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Envio Biogas GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Envio Biogas GmbH Place: Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip: 44147 Product: North Rhine-Westphalia based biogas...

  17. Renion Biogas GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renion Biogas GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renion Biogas GmbH & Co KG Place: Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 93055 Product: JV between Schmack Biogas and Rewag to...

  18. Combined Heat and Power: A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-08-01

    Over the past 10 years, DOE has built a solid foundation for a robust CHP marketplace. We have aligned with key partners to produce innovative technologies and spearhead market-transforming projects. Our commercialization activities and Clean Energy Regional Application Centers have expanded CHP across the nation. More must be done to tap CHPs full potential. Read more about DOEs CHP Program in Combined Heat and Power: A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future.

  19. Combined Heat and Power (CHP): Essential for a Cost Effective Clean Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standard, April 2011 | Department of Energy : Essential for a Cost Effective Clean Energy Standard, April 2011 Combined Heat and Power (CHP): Essential for a Cost Effective Clean Energy Standard, April 2011 In March 2011, a federal Clean Energy Standard (CES) was put forth as an approach to advancing a new national energy policy. This white paper discusses the CES concept. PDF icon chp_clean_energy_std.pdf More Documents & Publications The International CHP/DHC Collaborative - Advancing

  20. Combined Heat and Power: A Federal Manager's Resource Guide, March 2000 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Federal Manager's Resource Guide, March 2000 Combined Heat and Power: A Federal Manager's Resource Guide, March 2000 This 2000 report identifies the short-, medium-, and long-term potential of internal combustion engines, combustion turbines, fuel cells, and micro-turbines for Federal facilities. It outlines successful application procedures for these CHP technologies and provides case studies of successful implementations. PDF icon chp_femp.pdf More Documents &

  1. Combined Heat and Power: Enabling Resilient Energy Infrastructure for Critical Facilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    i Combined Heat and Power: Enabling Resilient Energy Infrastructure for Critical Facilities March 2013 Prepared for: Oak Ridge National Laboratory ICF International 1725 Eye St. NW Washington D.C. 20006 202-862-1200 Page ii This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or

  2. The Market and Technical Potential for Combined Heat and Power in the Commercial/Institutional Sector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market and Technical Potential for Combined Heat and Power in the Commercial/Institutional Sector Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information Administration 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 Prepared by: ONSITE SYCOM Energy Corporation 1010 Wisconsin Ave, NW Suite 340 Washington, DC 20007 202-625-4119 January 2000 (Revision 1) PREFACE This report was prepared by ONSITE SYCOM Energy Corporation as an account of work sponsored by the Energy Information Administration.

  3. Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems Will Gans, Anna Monis Shipley, and R. Neal Elliott January 2007 Report Number IE071 ©American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy 1001 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 801, Washington, D.C. 20036 (202) 429-8873 phone, (202) 429-2248 fax, http://aceee.org Web site Survey of Emissions Models for CHP, ACEEE CONTENTS

  4. Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading Medical

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Campus - Case Study, 2013 | Department of Energy Enables 100% Reliability at Leading Medical Campus - Case Study, 2013 Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading Medical Campus - Case Study, 2013 Thermal Energy Corporation (TECO), in collaboration with Burns & McDonnell Engineering Co., Inc., operates the largest chilled water district energy system in the United States at the Texas Medical Center, the largest medical center in the world. TECO installed a new

  5. Biogas Technologies and Integration with Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies and Integration with Fuel Cells Biogas Technologies and Integration with Fuel Cells Presentation about Ros Roca Envirotec's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Ian Handley, Ros Roca Envirotec, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado. PDF icon june2012_biogas_workshop_handley.pdf More Documents & Publications Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells

  6. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Infographic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Department of Energy (DOE), and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), created the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap as a response to the White House Climate Action Plan's directive to develop an interagency strategy to reduce methane emissions. Together, the Agencies along with industry partners have formed an Interagency Working Group to help expand the biogas industry. Strategically deployed biogas systems o er the nation a cost-e ective and

  7. Biogas, Solar, and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas, Solar, and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption Biogas, Solar, and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Agricultural Multifamily...

  8. EnviTec Biogas AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EnviTec Biogas AG Place: Saerbeck, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip: 48369 Product: Plans, finances, installs and commissions biogas systems including technical and biological...

  9. EnviTec Biogas India Private Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Private Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: EnviTec Biogas India Private Limited Place: India Product: Manufacturer of anaerobic digesters. References: EnviTec Biogas India...

  10. Optimal selection of on-site generation with combined heat andpower applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Bailey, Owen; HamachiLaCommare, Kristina

    2004-11-30

    While demand for electricity continues to grow, expansion of the traditional electricity supply system, or macrogrid, is constrained and is unlikely to keep pace with the growing thirst western economies have for electricity. Furthermore, no compelling case has been made that perpetual improvement in the overall power quality and reliability (PQR)delivered is technically possible or economically desirable. An alternative path to providing high PQR for sensitive loads would generate close to them in microgrids, such as the Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid. Distributed generation would alleviate the pressure for endless improvement in macrogrid PQR and might allow the establishment of a sounder economically based level of universal grid service. Energy conversion from available fuels to electricity close to loads can also provide combined heat and power (CHP) opportunities that can significantly improve the economics of small-scale on-site power generation, especially in hot climates when the waste heat serves absorption cycle cooling equipment that displaces expensive on-peak electricity. An optimization model, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), developed at Berkeley Lab identifies the energy bill minimizing combination of on-site generation and heat recovery equipment for sites, given their electricity and heat requirements, the tariffs they face, and a menu of available equipment. DER-CAM is used to conduct a systemic energy analysis of a southern California naval base building and demonstrates atypical current economic on-site power opportunity. Results achieve cost reductions of about 15 percent with DER, depending on the tariff.Furthermore, almost all of the energy is provided on-site, indicating that modest cost savings can be achieved when the microgrid is free to select distributed generation and heat recovery equipment in order to minimize its over all costs.

  11. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BIOGAS OPPORTUNITIES ROADMAP PROGRESS REPORT USDA - EPA - DOE December 2015 ROADMAP INTRODUCTION 1 ACHIEVEMENTS 1 Policy and Program Achievements 1 Government Agency Achievements 1 Private Industry Achievements 4 Technology Achievements 5 Projects Funded 5 Technology Information Developed, Updated, and Revised 7 Dissemination of Resources and Information for Stakeholders 8 CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES 9 Challenges 9 Opportunities 11 Sector Trends 11 Stakeholder Engagement 11 Next Steps 13 Coming

  12. Swine lagoon biogas utilization system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettier, S.W.; Roberts, M.

    1994-12-31

    A project was conceived to design and build a system to recover methane from pig manure with covered anaerobic lagoon technology. Covered lagoon technology lends itself both to new lagoon construction and to retrofit designs on existing anaerobic lagoons. A two cell passive in-ground digester/lagoon system was designed for a 600 sow feeder pig farm. The digester was covered with a flexible fabric cover made of 30 mil XR-5. The biogas has 1,100 ppm hydrogen sulfide. For the first month of operation 473 cubic feet of biogas per hour has been recovered from the digester 24 hours per day. At this gas flow the engine turns an induction generator to produce 17.1 KW per hour. A little over 80% of the farm`s electrical needs are generated with methane from swine manure. On an annual basis there will be 150,000 KWh of electricity produced from 4.3 million cubic feet of biogas.

  13. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Fuel Cells Workshop, Golden, Colorado, June 11-13, 2012 | Department of Energy Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop, Golden, Colorado, June 11-13, 2012 Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop, Golden, Colorado, June 11-13, 2012 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado, to discuss biogas

  14. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, CB

    2004-08-19

    Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is the sequential production of two forms of useful energy from a single fuel source. In most CHP applications, chemical energy in fuel is converted to both mechanical and thermal energy. The mechanical energy is generally used to generate electricity, while the thermal energy or heat is used to produce steam, hot water, or hot air. Depending on the application, CHP is referred to by various names including Building Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP); Cooling, Heating, and Power for Buildings (CHPB); Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP); Integrated Energy Systems (IES), or Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The principal technical advantage of a CHP system is its ability to extract more useful energy from fuel compared to traditional energy systems such as conventional power plants that only generate electricity and industrial boiler systems that only produce steam or hot water for process applications. By using fuel energy for both power and heat production, CHP systems can be very energy efficient and have the potential to produce electricity below the price charged by the local power provider. Another important incentive for applying cogeneration technology is to reduce or eliminate dependency on the electrical grid. For some industrial processes, the consequences of losing power for even a short period of time are unacceptable. The primary objective of the guide is to present information needed to evaluate the viability of cogeneration for new or existing industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boiler installations and to make informed CHP equipment selection decisions. Information presented is meant to help boiler owners and operators understand the potential benefits derived from implementing a CHP project and recognize opportunities for successful application of cogeneration technology. Topics covered in the guide follow: (1) an overview of cogeneration technology with discussions about benefits of applying cogeneration technology and barriers to implementing cogeneration technology; (2) applicable federal regulations and permitting issues; (3) descriptions of prime movers commonly used in CHP applications, including discussions about design characteristics, heat-recovery options and equipment, fuels and emissions, efficiency, maintenance, availability, and capital cost; (4) electrical generators and electrical interconnection equipment; (5) cooling and dehumidification equipment; (6) thermodynamic cycle options and configurations; (7) steps for evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of applying cogeneration technology; and (8) information sources.

  15. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Theiss, Timothy J; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  16. Development of biogas technology in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiranjivi, C.; Raviprasad, A.; Rao, K.V.

    1981-01-01

    Biogas from organic wastes is a potential renewable energy to meet the domestic energy needs in India. The fundamentals of bio-gasification by anaerobic digestion are presented. The production of biogas from cattle manure in small anaerobic digesters is discussed illustrating with a popular digester model. 9 refs.

  17. A combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle for low temperature heat sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, B.; Weng, Y.W.

    2010-05-15

    A combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle for low temperature heat sources is under investigation in this paper. The proposed cycle combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle. The ejector is driven by the exhausts from the turbine to produce power and refrigeration simultaneously. A simulation was carried out to analyze the cycle performance using R245fa as the working fluid. A thermal efficiency of 34.1%, an effective efficiency of 18.7% and an exergy efficiency of 56.8% can be obtained at a generating temperature of 395 K, a condensing temperature of 298 K and an evaporating temperature of 280 K. Simulation results show that the proposed cycle has a big potential to produce refrigeration and most exergy losses take place in the ejector. (author)

  18. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM"PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norwood, Zack; Lipman, Timothy; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

    2010-06-01

    The effectiveness of combined heat and power (CHP) systems for power interruption intolerant,"premium power," facilities is the focus of this study. Through three real-world case studies and economic cost minimization modeling, the economic and environmental performance of"premium power" CHP is analyzed. The results of the analysis for a brewery, data center, and hospital lead to some interesting conclusions about CHP limited to the specific CHP technologies installed at those sites. Firstly, facilities with high heating loads prove to be the most appropriate for CHP installations from a purely economic standpoint. Secondly, waste heat driven thermal cooling systems are only economically attractive if the technology for these chillers can increase above the current best system efficiency. Thirdly, if the reliability of CHP systems proves to be as high as diesel generators they could replace these generators at little or no additional cost if the thermal to electric (relative) load of those facilities was already high enough to economically justify a CHP system. Lastly, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, the modeled CHP systems provide some degree of decreased emissions, estimated at approximately 10percent for the hospital, the application with the highest relative thermal load in this case

  19. Heat recovery steam generator outlet temperature control system for a combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martens, A.; Myers, G.A.; McCarty, W.L.; Wescott, K.R.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes a command cycle electrical power plant including: a steam turbine and at least one set comprising a gas turbine, an afterburner and a heat recovery steam generator having an attemperator for supplying from an outlet thereof to the steam turbine superheated steam under steam turbine operating conditions requiring predetermined superheated steam temperature, flow and pressure; with the gas turbine and steam turbine each generating megawatts in accordance with a plant load demand; master control means being provided for controlling the steam turbine and the heat recovery steam generator so as to establish the steam operating conditions; the combination of: first control means responsive to the gas inlet temperature of the heat recovery steam generator and to the plant load demand for controlling the firing of the afterburner; second control means responsive to the superheated steam predetermined temperature and to superheated steam temperature from the outlet for controlling the attemperator between a closed and an open position; the first and second control means being operated concurrently to maintain the superheated steam outlet temperature while controlling the load of the gas turbine independently of the steam turbine operating conditions.

  20. CHP in ESPC: Implementing Combined Heat and Power Technologies Using Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs): Webinar Transcript

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kurmit Rockwell:Welcome.  I'm Kurmit Rockwell, the ESPC Program Manager for DOE's Federal Energy Management Program.  In this presentation we will introduce you to the basics of combined heat and...

  1. New Release-- U.S. DOE Analysis: Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Technical Potential in the United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The “Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Technical Potential in the United States” market analysis report provides data on the technical potential in industrial facilities and commercial buildings for ...

  2. Biogas Impurities and Cleanup for Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impurities and Cleanup for Fuel Cells Biogas Impurities and Cleanup for Fuel Cells Presentation about biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Shabbir Ahmed, Argonne National Laboratory, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado. PDF icon june2012_biogas_workshop_ahmed.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Quality Issues in Stationary Fuel Cell Systems Expanding the Use of Biogas with Fuel Cell Technologies CHP and

  3. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agenda Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Agenda Agenda for the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. PDF icon june2012_biogas_workshop_agenda.pdf More Documents & Publications Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop, Golden, Colorado, June 11-13, 2012 Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Agenda EERE Quality Control Workshop Agenda

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on

  5. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. )

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  6. On-farm biogas systems information dissemination project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.K.; Koelsch, R.K.; Guest, R.W.; Fabian, E.

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to study how farmers manage anaerobic digesters on three New York State dairy farms. Two years of data collected were from both plug-flow and tower-type mixed-flow digesters at regular intervals over a three-year period revealed that the financial return from the energy produced by a biogass system in the late 1980`s is marginal. Little difficulty was experienced in operation of the anaerobic digester; however, several farms utilizing congeneration to convert biogas into electricity and heat suffered from not applying maintenance to the congenerator in a timely fashion.

  7. Biogas, compost and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wichert, B.; Wittrup, L.; Robel, R.

    1994-08-01

    A pilot project now under development in Folsom, California, incorporates an anaerobic digestion/aerobic composting process that could eventually supply enough biogas to a fuel cell. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) has two fuel cells in operation and is participating in the research project. Recently, the California Prison Industry Authority (PIA) began operating a processing facility at the Folsom prison, designed for 100 tons/day of mixed waste from the City of Folsom. The 35,000 square foot Correctional Resource Recovery Facility (CRRF) uses minimum security inmates from Folsom`s Return to Custody Facility to manually separate recyclables and compostable materials from the waste stream. The PIA will be using a new technology, high solids anaerobic digestion, to compost the organic fraction (representing approximately 60 to 70 percent of the waste stream). Construction began in June on a 40-foot wide by 120-foot long and 22-foot deep anaerobic digester. Once the vessel is operational in 1995, the composting process and the gradual breakdown of organic material will produce biogas, which SMUD hopes to use to power an adjacent two megawatt fuel cell. The electricity generated will serve SMUD customers, including the waste facility and nearby correctional institutions. 1 fig.

  8. Performance of biogas plants of different designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The performance of different designs of biogas digesters were evaluated at four Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) regional centres in: Vijapadi in Gujarat, Nasik in Maharashtra, Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir, and Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh, India. The information provided in the evaluation includes the average daily gas production per unit of digester volume for each month, the total gas produced per unit of digester volume over an 18-month period, the costs of the KVIC-designed biogas digesters of different volume and the expenditures incurred in installing biogas digesters of different design.

  9. Real-Time Combined Heat and Power Operational Strategy Using a Hierarchical Optimization Algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Kyung Tae; Cho, Heejin; Luck, Rogelio; Mago, Pedro J.

    2011-06-01

    Existing attempts to optimize the operation of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems for building applications have two major limitations: the electrical and thermal loads are obtained from historical weather profiles; and the CHP system models ignore transient responses by using constant equipment efficiencies. This paper considers the transient response of a building combined with a hierarchical CHP optimal control algorithm to obtain a real-time integrated system that uses the most recent weather and electric load information. This is accomplished by running concurrent simulations of two transient building models. The first transient building model uses current as well as forecast input information to obtain short term predictions of the thermal and electric building loads. The predictions are then used by an optimization algorithm, i.e., a hierarchical controller, that decides the amount of fuel and of electrical energy to be allocated at the current time step. In a simulation, the actual physical building is not available and, hence, to simulate a real-time environment, a second, building model with similar but not identical input loads are used to represent the actual building. A state-variable feedback loop is completed at the beginning of each time step by copying, i.e., measuring, the state variable from the actual building and restarting the predictive model using these ?measured? values as initial conditions. The simulation environment presented in this paper features nonlinear effects such as the dependence of the heat exchanger effectiveness on their operating conditions. The results indicate that the CHP engine operation dictated by the proposed hierarchical controller with uncertain weather conditions have the potential to yield significant savings when compared to conventional systems using current values of electricity and fuel prices.

  10. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norwood, Zack; Lipman, Tim; Marnay, Chris; Kammen, Dan

    2008-09-30

    This report analyzes the current economic and environmental performance of combined heat and power (CHP) systems in power interruption intolerant commercial facilities. Through a series of three case studies, key trade-offs are analyzed with regard to the provision of black-out ridethrough capability with the CHP systems and the resutling ability to avoid the need for at least some diesel backup generator capacity located at the case study sites. Each of the selected sites currently have a CHP or combined heating, cooling, and power (CCHP) system in addition to diesel backup generators. In all cases the CHP/CCHP system have a small fraction of the electrical capacity of the diesel generators. Although none of the selected sites currently have the ability to run the CHP systems as emergency backup power, all could be retrofitted to provide this blackout ride-through capability, and new CHP systems can be installed with this capability. The following three sites/systems were used for this analysis: (1) Sierra Nevada Brewery - Using 1MW of installed Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells operating on a combination of digestor gas (from the beer brewing process) and natural gas, this facility can produce electricty and heat for the brewery and attached bottling plant. The major thermal load on-site is to keep the brewing tanks at appropriate temperatures. (2) NetApp Data Center - Using 1.125 MW of Hess Microgen natural gas fired reciprocating engine-generators, with exhaust gas and jacket water heat recovery attached to over 300 tons of of adsorption chillers, this combined cooling and power system provides electricity and cooling to a data center with a 1,200 kW peak electrical load. (3) Kaiser Permanente Hayward Hospital - With 180kW of Tecogen natural gas fired reciprocating engine-generators this CHP system generates steam for space heating, and hot water for a city hospital. For all sites, similar assumptions are made about the economic and technological constraints of the power generation system. Using the Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we model three representative scenarios and find the optimal operation scheduling, yearly energy cost, and energy technology investments for each scenario below: Scenario 1 - Diesel generators and CHP/CCHP equipment as installed in the current facility. Scenario 1 represents a baseline forced investment in currently installed energy equipment. Scenario 2 - Existing CHP equipment installed with blackout ride-through capability to replace approximately the same capacity of diesel generators. In Scenario 2 the cost of the replaced diesel units is saved, however additional capital cost for the controls and switchgear for blackout ride-through capability is necessary. Scenario 3 - Fully optimized site analysis, allowing DER-CAM to specify the number of diesel and CHP/CCHP units (with blackout ride-through capability) that should be installed ignoring any constraints on backup generation. Scenario 3 allows DER-CAM to optimize scheduling and number of generation units from the currently available technologies at a particular site. The results of this analysis, using real data to model the optimal schedulding of hypothetical and actual CHP systems for a brewery, data center, and hospital, lead to some interesting conclusions. First, facilities with high heating loads will typically prove to be the most appropriate for CHP installation from a purely economic standpoint. Second, absorption/adsorption cooling systems may only be economically feasible if the technology for these chillers can increase above current best system efficiency. At a coefficient of performance (COP) of 0.8, for instance, an adsorption chiller paired with a natural gas generator with waste heat recovery at a facility with large cooling loads, like a data center, will cost no less on a yearly basis than purchasing electricity and natural gas directly from a utility. Third, at marginal additional cost, if the reliability of CHP systems proves to be at

  11. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

    2005-03-28

    Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the U.S. steel industry. The objectives associated with this goal were to (a) generate a solid base of technical, marketing, economic, and policy data, (b) develop energy, environmental, and economic targets, (c) more definitively assess opportunities and barriers, (d) accumulate knowledge and experience for defining direction for the next phase of development, and (e) promote learning and training of students.

  12. White Earth Biomass/Biogas Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triplett, Michael

    2015-03-12

    The White Earth Nation examined the feasibility of cost savings and fossil energy reduction through the installation of biogas/biomass boiler at the tribal casino. The study rejected biogas options due to availability and site constraints, but found a favorable environment for technical and financial feasibility of installing a 5 MMBtu hot water boiler system to offset 60-70 percent of current fuel oil and propane usage.

  13. Combined heat recovery and dry scrubbing for MWCs to meet the new EPA guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finnis, P.J.; Heap, B.M.

    1997-12-01

    Both the UK and US Municipal Waste Combuster (MWC) markets have undergone upgraded regulatory control. In the UK, the government`s Integrated Pollution Control (IPC) regime, enforced by the 1990 Environmental Protection Act (EPA) Standard IPR5/3 moved control of emissions of MWCs from local councils to the government Environmental Authority (EA). Existing MWCs had until December 1, 1996 to complete environmental upgrades. Simultaneously, the European Community (EC) was finalizing more stringent legislation to take place in the year 2001. In the US, the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue emission guidelines for new and existing facilities. Existing facilities are likely to have only until the end of 1999 to complete upgrades. In North America, Procedair Industries Corp had received contracts from Kvaerner EnviroPower AB, for APC systems of four new Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) fluid bed boilers that incorporated low outlet temperature economizers as part of the original boiler equipment. The Fayetteville, North Carolina facility was designed for 200,000 tpy. What all these facilities have in common is low economizer outlet temperatures of 285{degrees}F coupled with a Total Dry Scrubbing System. MWC or RDF facilities using conventional spray dryer/fabric filter combinations have to have economizer gas outlet temperatures about 430{degrees}F to allow for evaporation of the lime slurry in the spray dryer without the likelihood of wall build up or moisture carry over. Since the Totally Dry Scrubbing System can operate with economizer gas outlet temperatures about 285{degrees}F, the added energy available for sale from adding low outlet temperature economizer heat recovery can be considerable. This paper focuses on Procedair`s new plant and retrofit experience using `Dry Venturi Reactor/Fabric Filter` combinations with the lower inlet temperature operating conditions.

  14. Energy production potential of a 100 m/sup 3/ biogas generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, H.D.; Persson, S.P.; Regan, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Penn State 100-cow capacity digester system - 100 m/sup 3/ (Upright Silo), heated (35/sup 0/C), continuous feed (1 to 2 times daily), gas agitation (continuously) - operated dependably on a continuous basis for periods as long as 9 months. Alternative systems for handling high solids-content input (up to 15% TS) were tested. Daily feedings of dairy manure slurries (8 to 15% TS) at rates of 345 to 1030 kg VS resulted in total biogas production rates of 70 to 200 m/sup 3//day, respectively. Increased loading rates, and related reduction in retention time to as low as 11 days, increased the energy recovery ratio (m/sup 3/ biogas/m/sup 3/ digester volume) to 2.02. Daily energy production was as high as 35,000 kJ/cow. Part of the biogas produced was used satisfactorily as fuel or a hot water boiler to heat incoming slurry and offset the digester heat losses. Tests of biogas as fuel for a water heater and for internal combustion engines showed combustion efficiencies comparable to other fuels on the basis of its energy content. Experience in operating the digester over a 4-year period showed that uncoated, galvanized, or enamel-painted steel are unsatisfactory for digester components that are in contact with both biogas and slurry. Carefully applied epoxy paints seemed to adequately protect continuously submerged steel components. Concrete, plastic, stainless steel, and treated wood appear to be suitable construction materials. Estimated costs versus returns for the Penn State digester system (75 to 76 prices) were $20,000 initial costs, and an annual return equal to the value of 900 GJ of energy.

  15. Technical Analysis of Installed Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-10-31

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a technical analysis of 5 kWe CHP-FCSs installed in different locations in the U.S. At some sites as many as five 5 kWe system is used to provide up to 25kWe of power. Systems in this power range are considered “micro”-CHP-FCS. To better assess performance of micro-CHP-FCS and understand their benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe PBI high temperature PEM fuel cells (CE5 models) in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated these systems in terms of their economics, operations, and technical performance. These units were monitored from September 2011 until June 2013. During this time, about 190,000 hours of data were collected and more than 17 billion data points were analyzed. Beginning in July 2013, ten of these systems were gradually replaced with ungraded systems (M5 models) containing phosphoric acid fuel cell technology. The new units were monitored until June 2014 until they went offline because ClearEdge was bought by Doosan at the time and the new manufacturer did not continue to support data collection and maintenance of these units. During these two phases, data was collected at once per second and data analysis techniques were applied to understand behavior of these systems. The results of this analysis indicate that systems installed in the second phase of this demonstration performed much better in terms of availability, consistency in generation, and reliability. The average net electrical power output increased from 4.1 to 4.9 kWe, net heat recovery from 4.7 to 5.4 kWth, and system availability improved from 94% to 95%. The average net system electric efficiency, average net heat recovery efficiency, and overall net efficiency of the system increased respectively from 33% to 36%, from 38% to 41%, and from 71% to 76%. The temperature of water sent to sit however reduced by about 16% from 51⁰C to 43 ⁰C. This was a control strategy and the temperature can be controlled depending on building heat demands. More importantly, the number of shutdowns and maintenance events required to keep the systems running at the manufacturer’s rated performance specifications were substantially reduced by about 76% (for 8 to 10 units running over a one-year period). From July 2012 to June 2013, there were eight CE5 units in operation and a total of 134 scheduled and unscheduled shutdowns took place. From July 2013 to June 2014, between two to ten units were in operation and only 32 shutdowns were reported (all unscheduled). In summary, the number of shutdowns reduced from 10 shutdowns per month on average for eight CE5units to an average of 2.7 shutdowns per month for M5 units (between two to ten units).

  16. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Golden, Colorado June 11-13, 2012 Workshop Proceedings NRELBK-5600-56523 January...

  17. Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste Feedstocks Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells Bruce Logan, Kappe Professor of Environmental Engineering and Evan Pugh Professor, Pennsylvania State University PDF icon logan_bioenergy_2015.pdf More

  18. New Biogas Opportunities Roadmap is Part of Climate Change Solution |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Biogas Opportunities Roadmap is Part of Climate Change Solution New Biogas Opportunities Roadmap is Part of Climate Change Solution August 1, 2014 - 11:39am Addthis Biogas -- a byproduct of anaerobic digestion or fermentation of materials like sewage, municipal waste, crops and manure -- currently provides enough renewable energy to power the equivalent of almost 70,000 average American homes. | Energy Department file photo. Biogas -- a byproduct of anaerobic digestion

  19. The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-11-16

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e., ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site's annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities plus a natural gas company, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB's assumed utilization is far higherthan is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at stimulating CHP deployment, while the SGIP buy down is more powerful. The attractiveness of CHP varies widely by climate zone and service territory, but in general, hotter inland areas and San Diego are the more attractive regions because high cooling loads achieve higher equipment utilization. Additionally, large office buildings are surprisingly good hosts for CHP, so large office buildings in San Diego and hotter urban centers emerge as promising target hosts. Overall the effect on CO2 emissions is limited, never exceeding 27percent of the CARB target. Nonetheless, results suggest that the CO2 emissions abatement potential of CHP in mid-sized CA buildings is significant, and much more promising than is typically assumed.

  20. 1?10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maru, H. C.; Singhal, S. C.; Stone, C.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-11-01

    This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.

  1. 1–10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.

  2. Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings: Today's Trends in Project Finance, Clean Fuel Fleets, Combined Heat& Power, Emissions Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-07-01

    The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings covers today's trends in project finance, combined heat& power, clean fuel fleets and emissions trading. The guide is directed at campus facilities and business managers and contains general guidance, contact information and case studies from colleges and universities across the country.

  3. Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

    2013-10-30

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative technologies. As the technology gains a foothold in its target markets and demand increases, the costs will decline in response to improved manufacturing efficiencies, similar to trends seen with other technologies. Transparency Market Research forecasts suggest that the CHP-FCS market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of greater than 27 percent over the next 5 years. These production level increases, coupled with the expected low price of natural gas, indicate the economic payback period will move to less than 5 years over the course of the next 5 years. To better understand the benefits of micro-CHP-FCSs, The U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe fuel cells in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is evaluating these systems in terms of economics, operations, and their environmental impact in real-world applications. As expected, the economic analysis has indicated that the high capital cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than typically is acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, a payback period of less than 3 years may be expected as increased production brings system cost down, and CHP incentives are maintained or improved.

  4. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, John W.

    1983-06-28

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  5. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  6. Use of Time-Aggregated Data in Economic Screening Analyses of Combined Heat and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson II, Carl Randy

    2004-09-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) projects (also known as cogeneration projects) usually undergo a series of assessments and viability checks before any commitment is made. A screening analysis, with electrical and thermal loads characterized on an annual basis, may be performed initially to quickly determine the economic viability of the proposed project. Screening analyses using time-aggregated data do not reflect several critical cost influences, however. Seasonal and diurnal variations in electrical and thermal loads, as well as time-of-use utility pricing structures, can have a dramatic impact on the economics. A more accurate economic assessment requires additional detailed data on electrical and thermal demand (e.g., hourly load data), which may not be readily available for the specific facility under study. Recent developments in CHP evaluation tools, however, can generate the needed hourly data through the use of historical data libraries and building simulation. This article utilizes model-generated hourly load data for four potential CHP applications and compares the calculated cost savings of a CHP system when evaluated on a time-aggregated (i.e., annual) basis to the savings when evaluated on an hour-by-hour basis. It is observed that the simple, aggregated analysis forecasts much greater savings (i.e., greater economic viability) than the more detailed hourly analysis. The findings confirm that the simpler tool produces results with a much more optimistic outlook, which, if taken by itself, might lead to erroneous project decisions. The more rigorous approach, being more reflective of actual requirements and conditions, presents a more accurate economic comparison of the alternatives, which, in turn, leads to better decision risk management.

  7. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  8. Energy Economics of Farm Biogas in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pillay, Pragasen; Grimberg, Stefan; Powers, Susan E

    2012-10-24

    Anaerobic digestion of farm and dairy waste has been shown to be capital intensive. One way to improve digester economics is to co-digest high-energy substrates together with the dairy manure. Cheese whey for example represents a high-energy substrate that is generated during cheese manufacture. There are currently no quantitative tools available that predict performance of co-digestion farm systems. The goal of this project was to develop a mathematical tool that would (1) predict the impact of co-digestion and (2) determine the best use of the generated biogas for a cheese manufacturing plant. Two models were developed that separately could be used to meet both goals of the project. Given current pricing structures of the most economical use of the generated biogas at the cheese manufacturing plant was as a replacement of fuel oil to generate heat. The developed digester model accurately predicted the performance of 26 farm digesters operating in the North Eastern U.S.

  9. Renewable Hydrogen Potential from Biogas in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Milbrandt, A.

    2014-07-01

    This analysis updates and expands upon previous biogas studies to include total potential and net availability of methane in raw biogas with respect to competing demands and includes a resource assessment of four sources of biogas: (1) wastewater treatment plants, including domestic and a new assessment of industrial sources; (2) landfills; (3) animal manure; and (4) a new assessment of industrial, institutional, and commercial sources. The results of the biogas resource assessment are used to estimate the potential production of renewable hydrogen from biogas as well as the fuel cell electric vehicles that the produced hydrogen might support.

  10. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-08-15

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  11. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipley, Ms. Anna; Hampson, Anne; Hedman, Mr. Bruce; Garland, Patricia W; Bautista, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) solutions represent a proven and effective near-term energy option to help the United States enhance energy efficiency, ensure environmental quality, promote economic growth, and foster a robust energy infrastructure. Using CHP today, the United States already avoids more than 1.9 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of fuel consumption and 248 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions annually compared to traditional separate production of electricity and thermal energy. This CO{sub 2} reduction is the equivalent of removing more than 45 million cars from the road. In addition, CHP is one of the few options in the portfolio of energy alternatives that combines environmental effectiveness with economic viability and improved competitiveness. This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future as an: (1) Environmental Solution: Significantly reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through greater energy efficiency; (2) Competitive Business Solution: Increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; (3) Local Energy Solution: Deployable throughout the US; and (4) Infrastructure Modernization Solution: Relieving grid congestion and improving energy security. CHP should be one of the first technologies deployed for near-term carbon reductions. The cost-effectiveness and near-term viability of widespread CHP deployment place the technology at the forefront of practical alternative energy solutions such as wind, solar, clean coal, biofuels, and nuclear power. Clear synergies exist between CHP and most other technologies that dominate the energy and environmental policy dialogue in the country today. As the Nation transforms how it produces, transports, and uses the many forms of energy, it must seize the clear opportunity afforded by CHP in terms of climate change, economic competitiveness, energy security, and infrastructure modernization. The energy efficiency benefits of CHP offer significant, realistic solutions to near- and long-term energy issues facing the Nation. With growing demand for energy, tight supply options, and increasing environmental constraints, extracting the maximum output from primary fuel sources through efficiency is critical to sustained economic development and environmental stewardship. Investment in CHP would stimulate the creation of new 'green-collar' jobs, modernize aging energy infrastructure, and protect and enhance the competitiveness of US manufacturing industries. The complementary roles of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and responsible use of traditional energy supplies must be recognized. CHP's proven performance and potential for wider use are evidence of its near-term applicability and, with technological improvements and further elimination of market barriers, of its longer term promise to address the country's most important energy and environmental needs. A strategic approach is needed to encourage CHP where it can be applied today and address the regulatory and technical challenges preventing its long-term viability. Experience in the United States and other countries shows that a balanced set of policies, incentives, business models, and investments can stimulate sustained CHP growth and allow all stakeholders to reap its many well-documented benefits.

  12. Design consideration and economic analysis of a community size biogas unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbus, S.P.

    1983-12-01

    At present, various organizations in Pakistan are involved in RandD work in biogas technology. Most of them are government organizations. The units developed or advertised by these organizations are of small size, i.e., for a single family, to provide gas for cooking and lighting only. In this paper, the design of a community-size biogas unit for power generation has been discussed based on hydraulic flow characteristics. The type of digesters which have been discussed are plug flow, arbitrary flow and complete mix flow. As the biological activity of the organic material in the reactor depends on the residence time and also on the temperature of the digesting liquor, hence the flow characteristics play a major role in the sizing of the digestion reactor tank. A diesel engine coupled with the biogas unit has been discussed. This not only provides power for pumping water, power for cottage industries, etc., but also the waste heat from the internal combustion engine can be used to heat the digester or for other heating needs. The economic evaluation of such a plant has been completed and the payback period has been calculated.

  13. Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications Michael Ulsh National Renewable Energy Laboratory Douglas Wheeler DJW Technology Peter Protopappas Sentech Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-52125 August 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole

  14. Combined Heat and Power: Connecting the Gap Between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices (Part II)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power: Connecting the Gap Between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices (Part II) Susanne Brooks, Maggie Eldridge, and R. Neal Elliott August 2006 Report Number IE063 ©American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy 1001 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 801, Washington, D.C. 20036 (202) 429-8873 phone, (202) 429-2248 fax, http://www.aceee.org Web site CHP: Connecting the Gap (Part II), ACEEE Contents

  15. Combined Heat and Power: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices (Part I)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices (Part I) Susanne Brooks, Brent Elswick, and R. Neal Elliott March 2006 Report Number IE062 ©American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy 1001 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 801, Washington, D.C. 20036 (202) 429-8873 phone, (202) 429-2248 fax, http://aceee.org Web site CHP: Connecting the Gap, ACEEE Contents

  16. COMBINING PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND CORONAL HEATING VIA DATA-CONSTRAINED CALCULATIONS OF NANOFLARES IN CORONAL LOOPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gontikakis, C.; Efthymiopoulos, C.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Patsourakos, S.; Anastasiadis, A.

    2013-07-10

    We model nanoflare heating of extrapolated active-region coronal loops via the acceleration of electrons and protons in Harris-type current sheets. The kinetic energy of the accelerated particles is estimated using semi-analytical and test-particle-tracing approaches. Vector magnetograms and photospheric Doppler velocity maps of NOAA active region 09114, recorded by the Imaging Vector Magnetograph, were used for this analysis. A current-free field extrapolation of the active-region corona was first constructed. The corresponding Poynting fluxes at the footpoints of 5000 extrapolated coronal loops were then calculated. Assuming that reconnecting current sheets develop along these loops, we utilized previous results to estimate the kinetic energy gain of the accelerated particles. We related this energy to nanoflare heating and macroscopic loop characteristics. Kinetic energies of 0.1-8 keV (for electrons) and 0.3-470 keV (for protons) were found to cause heating rates ranging from 10{sup -6} to 1 erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -3}. Hydrodynamic simulations show that such heating rates can sustain plasma in coronal conditions inside the loops and generate plasma thermal distributions that are consistent with active-region observations. We concluded the analysis by computing the form of X-ray spectra generated by the accelerated electrons using the thick-target approach. These spectra were found to be in agreement with observed X-ray spectra, thus supporting the plausibility of our nanoflare-heating scenario.

  17. Subcontract Report: Modular Combined Heat & Power System for Utica College: Design Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouse, Greg

    2007-09-01

    Utica College, located in Utica New York, intends to install an on-site power/cogeneration facility. The energy facility is to be factory pre-assembled, or pre- assembled in modules, to the fullest extent possible, and ready to install and interconnect at the College with minimal time and engineering needs. External connections will be limited to fuel supply, electrical output, potable makeup water as required and cooling and heat recovery systems. The proposed facility will consist of 4 self-contained, modular Cummins 330kW engine generators with heat recovery systems and the only external connections will be fuel supply, electrical outputs and cooling and heat recovery systems. This project was eventually cancelled due to changing DOE budget priorities, but the project engineers produced this system design specification in hopes that it may be useful in future endeavors.

  18. Analysis of combined hydrogen, heat, and power as a bridge to a hydrogen transition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahalik, M.; Stephan, C.

    2011-01-18

    Combined hydrogen, heat, and power (CHHP) technology is envisioned as a means to providing heat and electricity, generated on-site, to large end users, such as hospitals, hotels, and distribution centers, while simultaneously producing hydrogen as a by-product. The hydrogen can be stored for later conversion to electricity, used on-site (e.g., in forklifts), or dispensed to hydrogen-powered vehicles. Argonne has developed a complex-adaptive-system model, H2CAS, to simulate how vehicles and infrastructure can evolve in a transition to hydrogen. This study applies the H2CAS model to examine how CHHP technology can be used to aid the transition to hydrogen. It does not attempt to predict the future or provide one forecast of system development. Rather, the purpose of the model is to understand how the system works. The model uses a 50- by 100-mile rectangular grid of 1-square-mile cells centered on the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The major expressways are incorporated into the model, and local streets are considered to be ubiquitous, except where there are natural barriers. The model has two types of agents. Driver agents are characterized by a number of parameters: home and job locations, income, various types of 'personalities' reflective of marketing distinctions (e.g., innovators, early adopters), willingness to spend extra money on 'green' vehicles, etc. At the beginning of the simulations, almost all driver agents own conventional vehicles. They drive around the metropolitan area, commuting to and from work and traveling to various other destinations. As they do so, they observe the presence or absence of facilities selling hydrogen. If they find such facilities conveniently located along their routes, they are motivated to purchase a hydrogen-powered vehicle when it becomes time to replace their present vehicle. Conversely, if they find that they would be inconvenienced by having to purchase hydrogen earlier than necessary or if they become worried that they would run out of fuel before encountering a facility, their motivation to purchase a hydrogen-powered vehicle decreases. At vehicle purchase time, they weigh this experience, as well as other factors such as social influence by their peers, fuel cost, and capital cost of a hydrogen vehicle. Investor agents build full-service hydrogen fueling stations (HFSs) at different locations along the highway network. They base their decision to build or not build a station on their (imperfect) estimates of the sales the station would immediately generate (based on hydrogen-powered vehicle traffic past the location and other factors), as well as the growth in hydrogen sales they could expect throughout their investment horizon. The interaction between driver and investor agents provides the basis for growth in both the number of hydrogen vehicles and number of hydrogen stations. For the present report, we have added to this mix smaller, 'bare-bones' hydrogen dispensing facilities (HDFs) of the type that owners of CHHP facilities could provide to the public. The locations of these stations were chosen to match existing facilities that might reasonably incorporate CHHP plants in the future. Unlike the larger commercial stations, these facilities are built according to exogenously supplied timetables, and no attempt has been made to model the financial basis for the facilities. Rather, our objective is to understand how the presence of these additional stations might facilitate the petroleum-to-hydrogen transition. We discuss a base case in which the HDFs are not present, and then investigate the effects of introducing HDFs in various numbers; according to different timetables; with various production capacities; and with hydrogen selling at prices above, equal to, and below the commercial stations selling price. We conclude that HDFs can indeed be helpful in accelerating a petroleum-to-hydrogen transition. Placed in areas where investors might not be willing to install large for-profit HFSs, HDFs can serve as a bridge until demand for hydrogen increases to the point where l

  19. Combined Heat and Power Systems Technology Development and Demonstration 370 kW High Efficiency Microturbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2015-10-14

    The C370 Program was awarded in October 2010 with the ambitious goal of designing and testing the most electrically efficient recuperated microturbine engine at a rated power of less than 500 kW. The aggressive targets for electrical efficiency, emission regulatory compliance, and the estimated price point make the system state-of-the-art for microturbine engine systems. These goals will be met by designing a two stage microturbine engine identified as the low pressure spool and high pressure spool that are based on derivative hardware of Capstone’s current commercially available engines. The development and testing of the engine occurred in two phases. Phase I focused on developing a higher power and more efficient engine, that would become the low pressure spool which is based on Capstone’s C200 (200kW) engine architecture. Phase II integrated the low pressure spool created in Phase I with the high pressure spool, which is based on Capstone’s C65 (65 kW) commercially available engine. Integration of the engines, based on preliminary research, would allow the dual spool engine to provide electrical power in excess of 370 kW, with electrical efficiency approaching 42%. If both of these targets were met coupled with the overall CHP target of 85% total combined heating and electrical efficiency California Air Resources Board (CARB) level emissions, and a price target of $600 per kW, the system would represent a step change in the currently available commercial generation technology. Phase I of the C370 program required the development of the C370 low pressure spool. The goal was to increase the C200 engine power by a minimum of 25% — 250 kW — and efficiency from 32% to 37%. These increases in the C200 engine output were imperative to meet the power requirements of the engine when both spools were integrated. An additional benefit of designing and testing the C370 low pressure spool was the possibility of developing a stand-alone product for possible commercialization. The low pressure spool design activity focused on an aeropath derivative of the current C200 engine. The aeropath derivative included changes to the compressor section —compressor and inducer — and to the turbine nozzle. The increased power also necessitated a larger, more powerful generator and generator controller to support the increased power requirements. These two major design changes were completed by utilizing both advanced 3D modeling and computational fluid dynamics modelling. After design, modeling, and analysis, the decision was made to acquire and integrate the components for testing. The second task of Phase I was to integrate and test the components of the low pressure spool to validate power and efficiency. Acquisition of the components for the low pressure spool was completed utilizing Capstone’s current supplier base. Utilization of Capstone’s supply base for integration of the test article would allow — if the decision was made —expedited commercialization of the product. After integration of the engine components, the engine was tested and evaluated for performance and emissions. Test data analysis confirmed that the engine met all power and efficiency requirements and did so while maintaining CARB level emissions. The emissions were met without the use of any post processing or catalyst. After testing was completed, the DOE authorized — via a milestone review — proceeding to Phase II: the development of the integrated C370 engine. The C370 high pressure spool design activity required significant changes to the C65 engine architecture. The engine required a high power density generator, completely redesigned compressor stage, turbine section, recuperator, controls architecture, and intercooler stage asThe two most critical design challenges were the turbine section (the nozzle and turbine) and the controls architecture. The design and analysis of all of the components was completed and integrated into a system model. The system model — after numerous iterations — indicated that, once integrated, the engine will meet or exceed all system requirements. Unfortunately, the turbine section’s life requirements remain a technical challenge and will require continued refinement of the bi-metallic turbine wheel design and manufacturing approach to meet the life requirement at theses high temperatures. The current controls architecture requires substantial effort to develop a system capable of handling the high-speed, near real-time controls requirement, but it was determined not to be a technical roadblock for the project. The C370 Program has been a significant effort with state-of-the-art technical targets. The targets have pushed Capstone’s designers to the limits of current technology. The program has been fortunate to see many successes: the successful testing of the low pressure spool (C250), the development of new material processes, and the implementation of new design practices. The technology and practices learned during the program will be utilized in Capstone’s current product lines and future products. The C370 Program has been a resounding success on many fronts for the DOE and for Capstone.

  20. Biogas Potential in the United States (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    Biogas has received increased attention as an alternative energy source in the United States. The factsheet provides information about the biogas (methane) potential from various sources in the country (by county and state) and estimates the power generation and transportation fuels production (renewable natural gas) potential from these biogas sources. It provides valuable information to the industry, academia and policy makers in support of their future decisions.

  1. BioGas Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Sector: Biomass Product: Makes anaerobic digesters that convert manure into methane for fuel Website: www.biogas-energy.comsiteind Coordinates: 47.6163159,...

  2. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to discuss biogas and waste-to-energy technologies for fuel cell applications. The overall objective was to identify opportunities for coupling renewable biomethane with highly ...

  3. Renewable Hydrogen Potential from Biogas in the United States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The estimates do not include electricity, water, or other materials that may also be required in the biogas, biomethane, and hydrogen production processes. The geographic ...

  4. Thermoeconomic analysis method for optimization of combined heat and power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silveira, J.L.; Tuna, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, a thermoeconomic analysis method based on the second Law of Thermodynamics and applied to analyze four cogeneration system is presented. The objective of the developed technique is to minimize the operating costs of the cogeneration plant, namely Exergetic Manufacturing Cost (EMC), assuming a fixed rate of electricity production and process steam in exergy base. In this study a comparison is made between four configurations. The cogeneration system consisted of a gas turbine with a heat recovery steam generator, without supplementary firing, has the lowest EMC.

  5. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Com- bined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office With more than 67 million customers nationwide, Verizon Communications is one of the largest telecommunica- tions providers in the U.S. Power inter- ruptions can severely impact network operations and could result in losses in excess of $1 million/minute. 1 In 2005, Verizon Communications installed a 1.4 MW phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) system, consisting of seven 200 kW units, at its Central

  6. Expert Meeting Report. Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-06-01

    This Building America expert meeting was held on 7/31/2011, in Westford, Massachusetts. Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic.

  7. 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","All Sources",,4,85.9,80.09

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Code","Producer Type","Fuel Source","Generators","Facilities","Nameplate Capacity (Megawatts)","Summer Capacity (Megawatts)" 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","All Sources",,4,85.9,80.09 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","Coal",,3,65.5,61.1 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial

  8. Transcript for the U.S. Department of Energy TAP Webinar - Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Amy Hollander: I'd like to welcome you to today's webinar, titled "Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State." This webinar is sponsored by the US Department of Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program. We have an excellent webinar on CHP today, with four speakers from around the nation. We'll give folks a few more minutes to call in and log on, so while we wait, I will go over some logistics, and then we'll get going on today's webinar. Please note, this webinar

  9. Combined refrigeration system with a liquid pre-cooling heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2003-07-01

    A compressor-pump unit for use in a vapor-compression refrigeration system is provided. The compressor-pump unit comprises a driving device including a rotatable shaft. A compressor is coupled with a first portion of the shaft for compressing gaseous refrigerant within the vapor-compression refrigeration system. A liquid pump is coupled with a second portion of the shaft for receiving liquid refrigerant having a first pressure and for discharging the received liquid refrigerant at a second pressure with the second pressure being higher than the first pressure by a predetermined amount such that the discharged liquid refrigerant is subcooled. A pre-cooling circuit is connected to the liquid pump with the pre-cooling circuit being exposed to the gaseous refrigerant whereby the gaseous refrigerant absorbs heat from the liquid refrigerant, prior to the liquid refrigerant entering the liquid pump.

  10. Combined Heating and Power Using Microturbines in a Major Urban Hotel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweetser, Richard; Wagner, Timothy; Leslie, Neil; Stovall, Therese K

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a cooperative effort to install and operate a Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) System at a major hotel in San Francisco, CA. The packaged CHP System integrated four microturbines, a double-effect absorption chiller, two fuel gas boosters, and the control hardware and software to ensure that the system operated predictably, reliably, and safely. The chiller was directly energized by the recycled hot exhaust from the microturbines, and could be configured to provide either chilled or hot water. As installed, the system was capable of providing up to 227 kW of net electrical power and 142 Refrigeration Tons (RT) of chilled water at a 59oF (15oC) ambient temperature. For the year, the CHP efficiency was 54 percent. Significant lessons learned from this test and verification project are discussed as well as measured performance and economic considerations.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste combining two pretreatment modalities, high temperature microwave and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahriari, Haleh; Warith, Mostafa; Hamoda, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin J.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment were studied to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The whole waste pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C or 145 Degree-Sign C had the highest biogas production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas production of the whole waste decreased at 175 Degree-Sign C due to formation of refractory compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment to 145 Degree-Sign C and 175 Degree-Sign C were the best when considering only the free liquid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment had a lag phase and the biogas production was not higher than MW pretreated samples. - Abstract: In order to enhance anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), pretreatment combining two modalities, microwave (MW) heating in presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were investigated. The main pretreatment variables affecting the characteristics of the OFMSW were temperature (T) via MW irradiation and supplemental water additions of 20% and 30% (SWA20 and SW30). Subsequently, the focus of this study was to evaluate mesophilic batch AD performance in terms of biogas production, as well as changes in the characteristics of the OFMSW post digestion. A high MW induced temperature range (115-175 Degree-Sign C) was applied, using sealed vessels and a bench scale MW unit equipped with temperature and pressure controls. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted on the whole OFMSW as well as the liquid fractions. The whole OFMSW pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C and 145 Degree-Sign C showed 4-7% improvement in biogas production over untreated OFMSW (control). When pretreated at 175 Degree-Sign C, biogas production decreased due to formation of refractory compounds, inhibiting the digestion. For the liquid fraction of OFMSW, the effect of pretreatment on the cumulative biogas production (CBP) was more pronounced for SWA20 at 145 Degree-Sign C, with a 26% increase in biogas production after 8 days of digestion, compared to the control. When considering the increased substrate availability in the liquid fraction after MW pretreatment, a 78% improvement in biogas production vs. the control was achieved. Combining MW and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} modalities did not have a positive impact on OFMSW stabilization and enhanced biogas production. In general, all samples pretreated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} displayed a long lag phase and the CBP was usually lower than MW irradiated only samples. First order rate constant was calculated.

  12. An engineering-economic analysis of combined heat and power technologies in a (mu)grid application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Owen; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Bartholomew, Emily; Marnay, Chris; Bourassa, Norman

    2002-03-01

    This report describes an investigation at Ernesto Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the potential for coupling combined heat and power (CHP) with on-site electricity generation to provide power and heating, and cooling services to customers. This research into distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid (mGrid), a semiautonomous grouping of power-generating sources that are placed and operated by and for the benefit of its members. For this investigation, a hypothetical small shopping mall (''Microgrid Oaks'') was developed and analyzed for the cost effectiveness of installing CHP to provide the mGrid's energy needs. A mGrid consists of groups of customers pooling energy loads and installing a combination of generation resources that meets the particular mGrid's goals. This study assumes the mGrid is seeking to minimize energy costs. mGrids could operate independently of the macrogrid (the wider power network), but they are usually assumed to be connected, through power electronics, to the macrogrid. The mGrid in this study is assumed to be interconnected to the macrogrid, and can purchase some energy and ancillary services from utility providers.

  13. Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in accurately modeling costs for fuel cell-based combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems. Work was performed by NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  14. Biogas Potential on Long Island, New York: A Quantification Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, D.; Patel, S.; Tonjes, D.

    2011-08-25

    Biogas is the product of anaerobic digestion of waste, whether occurring spontaneously in landfills or under controlled conditions in digesters. Biogas is viewed as an important energy source in current efforts to reduce the use of fossil fuels and dependency on imported resources. Several studies on the assessment of biogas potential have been made at regional, national, and global scales. However, because it is not economically feasible to transport biogas feedstock over long distances, it is more appropriate to consider local waste sources for their potential to produce biogas. An assessment of the biogas potential on Long Island, based on the review of local landfills, wastewater treatment plants, solid waste generation and management, and agricultural waste, found that 234 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of methane (CH{sub 4}) from biogas might be harvestable, although substantial barriers for complete exploitation exist. This number is equivalent to 2.52 TW-h of electricity, approximately 12% of fossil fuel power generation on Long Island. This work can serve as a template for other areas to rapidly create or approximate biogas potentials, especially for suburban U.S. locations that are not usually thought of as sources of renewable energy.

  15. Biogas energy for Hawaiian small farms and homesteads, HI-11. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzenhoff, M.H.

    1980-02-01

    This report contains the results of a US Department of Energy, Appropriate Energy Technology grant for the development and demonstration of a simple, easy-to-operate and high energy yielding anaerobic bioconversion system for Hawaiian small scale hog farms. The system included a flexible material ''rubber'' digester, gas storage tank, algae pond, wastewater recycling loop, and gas utilization appliances. Ten cubic feet of biogas per 150 pound hog per day was identified as the sustainable yield of biogas using this system under Hawaiian farm conditions at a 15-day retention period without heating or mixing the anaerobic digester. Cost of the system was compared with the economic value of the gas produced and the investment recovery period was found to be 1.16 years. Biogas was used to fuel numerous farm appliances, including nursery infra-red heaters, gas lamps and an internal combustion powered water pump. Digested pig manure was renovated by recycling through an algae pond, after which it was used in biweekly hog housing sanitation washdowns. Finally, the results of the project have been promulgated through informal seminars, workshops, and the publication-distribution of a farmer oriented manual on digester installation and operation. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Technoeconomic Analysis of Biomethane Production from Biogas and Pipeline Delivery (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2010-10-18

    This presentation summarizes "A Technoeconomic Analysis of Biomethane Production from Biogas and Pipeline Delivery".

  17. Combined heat and power systems that consist of biomass fired fluidised bed combustors and modern steam engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, S.D.; Errey, S.; Thomas, M.; Kruger, P.

    1996-12-31

    Biomass energy is widely used in many processing industries in the ASEAN region. The residue produced by agricultural and wood processing plant is either inefficiently combusted in simple furnaces or in the open, or disposed of in land fill sites or in rivers. Many of these industries are paying high prices for electricity in rural areas and/or supply is unreliable. An ASEAN/Australian cooperation program has been under way for the last ten years to introduce clean burning biomass fired heat and/or combined heat and power equipment. It aims to transfer Australian know how in the design and manufacture of fluidised bed CHP technology to the ASEAN region. The main participants involved in the program include SIRIM and UKM in Malaysia, PCIERD, FPRI and Asia Ratan in the Philippines, King Monkutt Institute of Technology (KMITT) in Thailand, LIPI and ITB in Indonesia, and the University of Singapore. In this paper an outline of the program will be given including results of market research and development undertaken into fluidised bed combustion, the proposed plant design and costings, and research and development undertaken into modem steam engine technology. It will be shown that all of the projects to be undertaken are financially viable. In particular the use of simple low cost high efficient steam engines ensures that the smaller CHP plant (50-100 kWe) can be viable.

  18. A methodology for understanding the impacts of large-scale penetration of micro-combined heat and power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapia-Ahumada, K.; Prez-Arriaga, I. J.; Moniz, Ernest J.

    2013-10-01

    Co-generation at small kW-e scale has been stimulated in recent years by governments and energy regulators as one way to increasing energy efficiency and reducing CO2emissions. If a widespread adoption should be realized, their effects from a system's point of view are crucial to understand the contributions of this technology. Based on a methodology that uses long-term capacity planning expansion, this paper explores some of the implications for an electric power system of having a large number of micro-CHPs. Results show that fuel cells-based micro-CHPs have the best and most consistent performance for different residential demands from the customer and system's perspectives. As the penetration increases at important levels, gas-based technologies - particularly combined cycle units - are displaced in capacity and production, which impacts the operation of the electric system during summer peak hours. Other results suggest that the tariff design impacts the economic efficiency of the system and the operation of micro-CHPs under a price-based strategy. Finally, policies aimed at micro-CHPs should consider the suitability of the technology (in size and heat-to-power ratio) to meet individual demands, the operational complexities of a large penetration, and the adequacy of the economic signals to incentivize an efficient and sustainable operation. Highlights: Capacity displacements and daily operation of an electric power system are explored; Benefits depend on energy mix, prices, and micro-CHP technology and control scheme; Benefits are observed mostly in winter when micro-CHP heat and power are fully used; Micro-CHPs mostly displace installed capacity from natural gas combined cycle units; and, Tariff design impacts economic efficiency of the system and operation of micro-CHPs.

  19. Expanding the Use of Biogas with Fuel Cell Technologies | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Expanding the Use of Biogas with Fuel Cell Technologies Expanding the Use of Biogas with Fuel Cell Technologies DOE perspective on expanding the use of biogas with fuel cell technologies. Presented by Sunita Satyapal, DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado. PDF icon june2012_biogas_workshop_satyapal.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel

  20. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  1. COMBINED ACTIVE/PASSIVE DECAY HEAT REMOVAL APPROACH FOR THE 24 MWt GAS-COOLED FAST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHENG,L.Y.; LUDEWIG, H.

    2007-06-01

    Decay heat removal at depressurized shutdown conditions has been regarded as one of the key areas where significant improvement in passive response was targeted for the GEN IV GFR over the GCFR designs of thirty years ago. It has been recognized that the poor heat transfer characteristics of gas coolant at lower pressures needed to be accommodated in the GEN IV design. The design envelope has therefore been extended to include a station blackout sequence simultaneous with a small break/leak. After an exploratory phase of scoping analysis in this project, together with CEA of France, it was decided that natural convection would be selected as the passive decay heat removal approach of preference. Furthermore, a double vessel/containment option, similar to the double vessel/guard vessel approach of the SFR, was selected as the means of design implementation to reduce the PRA risks of the depressurization accident. However additional calculations in conjunction with CEA showed that there was an economic penalty in terms of decay heat removal system heat exchanger size, elevation heights for thermal centers, and most of all in guard containment back pressure for complete reliance on natural convection only. The back pressure ranges complicated the design requirements for the guard containment. Recognizing that the definition of a loss-of-coolant-accident in the GFR is a misnomer, since gas coolant will always be present, and the availability of some driven blower would reduce fuel temperature transients significantly; it was decided instead to aim for a hybrid active/passive combination approach to the selected BDBA. Complete natural convection only would still be relied on for decay heat removal but only after the first twenty four hours after the initiation of the accident. During the first twenty four hour period an actively powered blower would be relied on to provide the emergency decay power removal. However the power requirements of the active blower/circulators would be kept low by maintaining a pressurized system coolant back pressure of {approx}7-8 bars through the design of the guard containment for such a design pressure. This approach is termed the medium pressure approach by both CEA and the US. Such a containment design pressure is in the range of the LWR experience, both PWRs and BWRs. Both metal containments and concrete guard containments are possible in this pressure range. This approach is then a time-at-risk approach as the power requirements should be low enough that battery/fuel cell banks without diesel generator start-up failure rate issues should be capable of providing the necessary power. Compressed gas sources are another possibility. A companion PRA study is being conducted to survey the reliability of such systems.

  2. Optimizal design and control strategies for novel Combined Heat and Power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-04-01

    Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches.

  3. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01

    Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches. The detailed assumptions and methods behind these models are described in Part I of this article pair.

  4. Expanding the Use of Biogas with Fuel Cell Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program Manager 6112012 Expanding the Use of Biogas with Fuel Cell Technologies U.S. Energy Consumption U.S. Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector Renewable Electric...

  5. US Energy Biogas Corp prev ZAPCO | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corp prev ZAPCO Jump to: navigation, search Name: US Energy Biogas Corp (prev ZAPCO) Place: Connecticut Zip: 6001 Product: Owns and operates 26 landfill gas-to-energy (LFG)...

  6. Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulsh, M.; Wheeler, D.; Protopappas, P.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in supporting manufacturing research and development (R&D) for fuel cell systems in the 10-1,000 kilowatt (kW) power range relevant to stationary and distributed combined heat and power applications, with the intent to reduce manufacturing costs and increase production throughput. To assist in future decision-making, DOE requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide a baseline understanding of the current levels of adoption of automation in manufacturing processes and flow, as well as of continuous processes. NREL identified and visited or interviewed key manufacturers, universities, and laboratories relevant to the study using a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire covered the current level of vertical integration, the importance of quality control developments for automation, the current level of automation and source of automation design, critical balance of plant issues, potential for continuous cell manufacturing, key manufacturing steps or processes that would benefit from DOE support for manufacturing R&D, the potential for cell or stack design changes to support automation, and the relationship between production volume and decisions on automation.

  7. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Bjoernsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester.

  8. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: A Guide to Developing Air-Cooled LiBr Absorption for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guide to Developing Air- Cooled LiBr Absorption for Combined Heat and Power Applications April 2005 By Robert A. Zogg Michael Y. Feng Detlef Westphalen TIAX LLC Re: D0281 Table of Contents 1.0 INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND .................................................................................................1 2.0 LIBR ABSORPTION OVERVIEW...................................................................................................3 3.0 KEY TECHNOLOGY BARRIERS

  9. Results of heat tests of the TGE-435 main boiler in the PGU-190/220 combined-cycle plant of the Tyumen' TETs-2 cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.V. Kurochkin; A.L. Kovalenko; V.G. Kozlov; A.I. Krivobok

    2007-01-15

    Special features of operation of a boiler operating as a combined-cycle plant and having its own furnace and burner unit are descried. The flow of flue gases on the boiler is increased due to feeding of exhaust gases of the GTU into the furnace, which intensifies the convective heat exchange. In addition, it is not necessary to preheat air in the convective heating surfaces (the boiler has no air preheater). The convective heating surfaces of the boiler are used for heating the feed water, thus replacing the regeneration extractions of the steam turbine (HPP are absent in the circuit) and partially replacing the preheating of condensate (the LPP in the circuit of the unit are combined with preheaters of delivery water). Regeneration of the steam turbine is primarily used for the district cogeneration heating purposes. The furnace and burner unit of the exhaust-heat boiler (which is a new engineering solution for the given project) ensures utilization of not only the heat of the exhaust gases of the GTU but also of their excess volume, because the latter contains up to 15% oxygen that oxidizes the combustion process in the boiler. Thus, the gas temperature at the inlet to the boiler amounts to 580{sup o}C at an excess air factor a = 3.50; at the outlet these parameters are utilized to T{sub out} = 139{sup o}C and a{sub out} = 1.17. The proportions of the GTU/boiler loads that can actually be organized at the generating unit (and have been checked by testing) are presented and the proportions of loads recommended for the most efficient operation of the boiler are determined. The performance characteristics of the boiler are presented for various proportions of GTU/boiler loads. The operating conditions of the superheater and of the convective trailing heating surfaces are presented as well as the ecological parameters of the generating unit.

  10. Biogas From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation about the value proposition for biogas from waste water treatment plants. Presented by Steve Hamilton, SCS Energy, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  11. B A S Biogas Anlagen Systeme GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    B A S Biogas Anlagen Systeme GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: B.A.S. Biogas Anlagen Systeme GmbH Place: Tellingstedt, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany Zip: 25782 Product: B.A.S....

  12. ABO Wind Biogas Sachsen Anhalt GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biogas Sachsen Anhalt GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: ABO Wind Biogas Sachsen-Anhalt GmbH & Co. KG Place: Wiesbaden, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Zip: 65193 Product: Company...

  13. Biogas end-use in the European community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constant, M.; Naveau, H.; Nyns, E.J. ); Ferrero, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    In Europe over the past few years the generation of biogas for energy and environmental purposes has been gaining in importance. Industrial wastewaters, cattle manure, sewage sludges, urban wastes, crop residues, algae and aquatic biomass are all typical of the materials being utilized. In contrast to the extensive inventory of biomethanation processes which has been carried out within the EEC, until recently a detailed, up-to-date investigation of the end-sues of biogas had not been undertaken. To supply the necessary information, the Commission of the European Communities and the Belgian Science Policy Office jointly entrusted a study to the Unit of Bioengineering at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium. This book is record of the study and has the following key features: it gives a broad overview of the ongoing use of biogas in Europe; it summarizes available data on storage, purification and engines using biogas; it draws several conclusions concerning the technical and economic viability of the processes; it discusses the problems of using biogas; and it outlines recommendations and future R and D and demonstration projects in the field.

  14. Substrate inhibition and control for high rate biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    This research addresses a critical aspect of the technical feasibility of biogas recovery with poultry manure using anaerobic digestion, namely, inhibition and toxicity factors limiting methane generation under high rate conditions. The research was designed to identify the limiting factors and to examine alternative pretreatment and in situ control methods for the anaerobic digestion of poultry manure as an energy producing system. Biogas production was indicated by the daily gas volume produced per unit digester capacity. Enhanced biogas generation from the anaerobic digester systems using poultry manure was studied in laboratory- and pilot-scale digester operations. It was found that ammonia nitrogen concentration above 4000 mg/l was inhibitory to biogas production. Pretreatment of the manure by elutriation was effective for decreasing inhibitory/toxic conditions. Increased gas production resulted without an indication of serious inhibition by increased volatile acids, indicating a limitation of available carbon sources. For poultry manure digestion, the optimum pH range was 7.1 to 7.6. Annual costs for pretreatment/biogas systems for 10,000, 30,000 and 50,000 birds were estimated and compared with annual surplus energy produced. The economic break-even point was achieved in digesters for greater than 30,000 birds. Capital cost of the digester system was estimated to be $18,300 with annual costs around $4000. It is anticipated that the digester system could be economically applied to smaller farms as energy costs increase.

  15. " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," " " "," "

  16. ,,,"with Any"," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.3;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Establishments" ,,,"with Any"," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," "

  17. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coke calcination is a process that involves the heating of green petroleum coke in order to remove volatile material and purify the coke for further processing. Calcined coke is vital to the...

  18. State Level Incentives for Biogas-Fuel Cell Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Level Incentives for Biogas-Fuel Cell Projects State Level Incentives for Biogas-Fuel Cell Projects State policy and legislative outlook for biogas and fuel cells. Presented by Norma McDonald, Organic Waste Systems, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado. PDF icon june2012_biogas_workshop_mcdonald.pdf More Documents & Publications Power Purchase Agreements Midsize Wind Turbines for the U.S. Community Wind Market Solar Webinar Presentation

  19. The Influence of Building Location on Combined Heat and Power/ Hydrogen (Tri-Generation) System Cost, Hydrogen Output and Efficiency (Presentation)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Hydrogen Association Meeting Darlene M. Steward Mike Penev National Renewable Energy Laboratory Columbia, SC March 30 - April 3, 2009 NREL/PR-560-45628 The Influence of Building Location on Combined Heat and Power/ Hydrogen (Tri-Generation) System Cost, Hydrogen Output and Efficiency This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Acknowledgements Development of

  20. Energy and cost analysis of a solar-hydrogen combined heat and power system for remote power supply using a computer simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabani, Bahman; Andrews, John; Watkins, Simon

    2010-01-15

    A simulation program, based on Visual Pascal, for sizing and techno-economic analysis of the performance of solar-hydrogen combined heat and power systems for remote applications is described. The accuracy of the submodels is checked by comparing the real performances of the system's components obtained from experimental measurements with model outputs. The use of the heat generated by the PEM fuel cell, and any unused excess hydrogen, is investigated for hot water production or space heating while the solar-hydrogen system is supplying electricity. A 5 kWh daily demand profile and the solar radiation profile of Melbourne have been used in a case study to investigate the typical techno-economic characteristics of the system to supply a remote household. The simulation shows that by harnessing both thermal load and excess hydrogen it is possible to increase the average yearly energy efficiency of the fuel cell in the solar-hydrogen system from just below 40% up to about 80% in both heat and power generation (based on the high heating value of hydrogen). The fuel cell in the system is conventionally sized to meet the peak of the demand profile. However, an economic optimisation analysis illustrates that installing a larger fuel cell could lead to up to a 15% reduction in the unit cost of the electricity to an average of just below 90 c/kWh over the assessment period of 30 years. Further, for an economically optimal size of the fuel cell, nearly a half the yearly energy demand for hot water of the remote household could be supplied by heat recovery from the fuel cell and utilising unused hydrogen in the exit stream. Such a system could then complement a conventional solar water heating system by providing the boosting energy (usually in the order of 40% of the total) normally obtained from gas or electricity. (author)

  1. Building America Case study: Advanced Controls Improve Performance of Combination Space and Water Heating Systems, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls Improve Performance of Combination Space- and Water-Heating Systems Minneapolis, Minnesota PROJECT INFORMATION Combined Space and Water Heating: Next Steps to Improved Performance Location: Minneapolis, MN Partners: University of Minnesota and The Energy Conservatory Center for Energy and Environment, mncee.org NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership Building Component: Space conditioning and water heating Application: New and retrofit; single-family Year Tested: 2011-2014 Applicable

  2. Biogas from agricultural and other wastes: a subject bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadduck, G.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography covers the following areas: application of anaerobic digestion to agricultural wastes, biochemistry and microbiology, factors in digester design and performance, digester design and types, digestion of individual materials, biogas use, use of digester effluent, integrated recycling systems, and economics and policy. (MHR)

  3. Increasing biogas yield of rural biogas digester by addition of NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, G.C.; Chen, G.Q.; Chen, M.; Liu, K.X.; Zhou, S.Y.

    1983-12-01

    By addition of 0.3% NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ instead of animal manure into rural biogas digester in which the rotted rice straw was the major feedstock, the biogas yield doubled in comparison with the check digester (0.1 m/sup 3//m/sup 3//d) and the fertility of NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ did not decrease because of biogas fermentation. Many digesters have been built in China. But, owing to the problems of improper management, unsuitable influent mixing, etc., neither digesters nor feedstock were fully utilized. In order to solve these problems, adding NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ into digester instead of animal manure was tried. Its results showed that the suitable C/N ratio of influent mixing was obtained, the fertility of effluent went up, and biogas producing rate increased. The concentration of NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ is 0.2-0.6%, but the optimal is 0.3%.

  4. Dynamic simulation of a solar-driven carbon dioxide transcritical power system for small scale combined heat and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Lundqvist, Per; Pridasawas, Wimolsiri

    2010-07-15

    Carbon dioxide is an environmental benign natural working fluid and has been proposed as a working media for a solar-driven power system. In the current work, the dynamic performance of a small scale solar-driven carbon dioxide power system is analyzed by dynamic simulation tool TRNSYS 16 and Engineering Equation Solver (EES) using co-solving technique. Both daily performance and yearly performance of the proposed system have been simulated. Different system operating parameters, which will influence the system performance, have been discussed. Under the Swedish climatic condition, the maximum daily power production is about 12 kW h and the maximum monthly power production is about 215 kW h with the proposed system working conditions. Besides the power being produced, the system can also produce about 10 times much thermal energy, which can be used for space heating, domestic hot water supply or driving absorption chillers. The simulation results show that the proposed system is a promising and environmental benign alternative for conventional low-grade heat source utilization system. (author)

  5. Combining nanocalorimetry and dynamic transmission electron microscopy for in situ characterization of materials processes under rapid heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grapes, Michael D.; LaGrange, Thomas; Reed, Bryan W.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; LaVan, David A.; Weihs, Timothy P.

    2014-08-15

    Nanocalorimetry is a chip-based thermal analysis technique capable of analyzing endothermic and exothermic reactions at very high heating and cooling rates. Here, we couple a nanocalorimeter with an extremely fast in situ microstructural characterization tool to identify the physical origin of rapid enthalpic signals. More specifically, we describe the development of a system to enable in situ nanocalorimetry experiments in the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM), a time-resolved TEM capable of generating images and electron diffraction patterns with exposure times of 30 ns500 ns. The full experimental system consists of a modified nanocalorimeter sensor, a custom-built in situ nanocalorimetry holder, a data acquisition system, and the DTEM itself, and is capable of thermodynamic and microstructural characterization of reactions over a range of heating rates (10{sup 2} K/s10{sup 5} K/s) accessible by conventional (DC) nanocalorimetry. To establish its ability to capture synchronized calorimetric and microstructural data during rapid transformations, this work describes measurements on the melting of an aluminum thin film. We were able to identify the phase transformation in both the nanocalorimetry traces and in electron diffraction patterns taken by the DTEM. Potential applications for the newly developed system are described and future system improvements are discussed.

  6. National Account Energy Alliance Final Report for the Ritz Carlton, San Francisco Combined Heat and Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosfjord, Thomas J

    2007-11-01

    Under collaboration between DOE and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), UTC Power partnered with Host Hotels and Resorts to install and operate a PureComfort 240M Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) System at the Ritz-Carlton, San Francisco. This packaged CHP system integrated four microturbines, a double-effect absorption chiller, two fuel gas boosters, and the control hardware and software to ensure that the system operated predictably, reliably, and safely. The chiller, directly energized by the recycled hot exhaust from the microturbines, could be configured to provide either chilled or hot water. As installed, the system was capable of providing up to 227 kW of net electrical power and 142 RT of chilled water at a 59F ambient temperature.

  7. Biogas Potential in the United States (Fact Sheet), Energy Analysis, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Energy Analysis Biogas Potential in the United States Biogas is the gaseous product of anaerobic digestion, a biological process in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. Biogas is comprised primarily of methane (50%-70%) and carbon dioxide (30%-50%), with trace amounts of other particulates and contaminants. It can be produced from various waste sources, including landfll material; animal manure; wastewater; and industrial, institutional, and commercial

  8. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part I of II, datum design conditions and approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01

    Energy network optimization (ENO) models identify new strategies for designing, installing, and controlling stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) with the goals of (1) minimizing electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) reducing emissions of the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A goal of this work is to employ relatively inexpensive simulation studies to discover more financially and environmentally effective approaches for installing CHP FCSs. ENO models quantify the impact of different choices made by power generation operators, FCS manufacturers, building owners, and governments with respect to two primary goals - energy cost savings for building owners and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. These types of models are crucial for identifying cost and CO{sub 2} optima for particular installations. Optimal strategies change with varying economic and environmental conditions, FCS performance, the characteristics of building demand for electricity and heat, and many other factors. ENO models evaluate both 'business-as-usual' and novel FCS operating strategies. For the scenarios examined here, relative to a base case of no FCSs installed, model results indicate that novel strategies could reduce building energy costs by 25% and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80%. Part I of II articles discusses model assumptions and methodology. Part II of II articles illustrates model results for a university campus town and generalizes these results for diverse communities.

  9. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as a Compliance Option under the Clean Power Plan: A Template and Policy Options for State Regulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-07-30

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an important option for states to consider in developing strategies to meet their emission targets under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. This Template is designed to highlight key issues that states should consider when evaluating whether CHP could be a meaningful component of their compliance plans. It demonstrates that CHP can be a valuable approach for reducing emissions and helping states achieve their targets. While the report does not endorse any particular approach for any state, and actual plans will vary dependent upon state-specific factors and determinations, it provides tools and resources that states can use to begin the process, and underscores the opportunity CHP represents for many states. . By producing both heat and electricity from a single fuel source, CHP offers significant energy savings and carbon emissions benefits over the separate generation of heat and power, with a typical unit producing electricity with half the emissions of conventional generation. These efficiency gains translate to economic savings and enhanced competitiveness for CHP hosts, and emissions reductions for the state, along with helping to lower electric bills; and creating jobs in the design, construction, installation and maintenance of equipment. In 2015, CHP represents 8 percent of electric capacity in the United States and provides 12 percent of total power generation. Projects already exist in all 50 states, but significant technical and economic potential remains. CHP offers a tested way for states to achieve their emission limits while advancing a host of ancillary benefits.

  10. Biogas From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition Biogas From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition Presentation about the value proposition for ...

  11. Overview of An Analysis Project for Renewable Biogas / Fuel Cell Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2009-11-19

    Presentation on renewable biogas: as an opportunity for commercialization of fuel cells presented as part of a panel discussion at the 2009 Fuel Cell Seminar, Palm Springs, CA.

  12. O'Brien Biogas IV LLC Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References NEEDS 2006 Database Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleO%27BrienBiogasIVLLCBiomassFacility&oldid397863" Feedback Contact needs updating...

  13. Biogas from refuse via an earth-sheltered passive solar digester. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    As originally conceived, the project involved the design, construction and operation of a test-scale refuse digestion system and alternative energy technology, as an integral component of a planned comprehensive waste management system based on the concept of recycling and resource recovery. Specific technologies employed in the digestion system included aerobic composting and anaerobic fermentation. System inputs included non-recycleable organic refuse (paper, food wastes, etc.) and septage (septic tank sludge), both of which represent disposal problems for many North American communities, and heat. Anticipated system outputs were biogas (50 to 60% methane), a premium fuel, and compostable sludge, a potential soil amendment-fertilizer. Projected net energy output was enhanced by incorporating biological feedstock preheating, earth sheltering, passive solar heating, and sludge heat recovery into the project design. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of this system versus competing waste-to-energy technologies. Due primarily to institutional barriers and related factors, the project did not progress to the point of enabling the stated purpose to be demonstrated.

  14. Performance evaluation of Janata and Deenbandhu biogas plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalia, A.K.; Kanwar, S.S.

    1996-04-01

    Performance of the Janata and Deenbandhu fixed dome biogas plants for anaerobic digestion of dairy manure was evaluated under the conditions of a hilly region. In contrast to Janata, the Deenbandhu biogas plant was found to be not only cheaper on the basis of cost/m{sup 3} rated capacity of the plant, but it also produced more gas per unit of manure fed and per unit of digester volume in addition to maintaining a consistent rate of gas production during subsequent years from initial charging. The higher production of gas by 28.5% and 12.5% per kg of manure fed and 49.5% and 28.9% per m{sup 3} of digester volume was observed from this plant for highest 24 C and lowest 14 C digester temperatures of the plants for the months of July and December, respectively.

  15. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  16. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  17. EA-1907: Biogas Anaerobic Digester Facility, Oakley, Kansas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal by DOE and USDA to provide funding to Western Plains Energy, LLC (WPE) to construct, purchase equipment, and operate a new Biogas Anaerobic Digester at WPE's existing Ethanol Facility, located at 3022 County Road 18, Grinnell Township (Oakley), Gove County, Kansas. The proposed facility will include a receiving building, digester, and related infrastructure. Based on the analysis in USDA's Final EA and FONSI, DOE has determined that DOE's proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human or natural environment.

  18. Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of CHP project profiles.

  19. Combined Heat and Power (CHP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... are not fully aware of the full array of benefits, or are overly sensitive to perceived ... CHP systems at these facilities range from large systems at grain or meat processing ...

  20. Energy System and Thermoeconomic Analysis of Combined Heat and Power High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems for Light Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.; Pilli, Siva Prasad

    2015-06-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE)s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is spearheading a program with industry to deploy and independently monitor five kilowatt-electric (kWe) combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) in light commercial buildings. This publication discusses results from PNNLs research efforts to independently evaluate manufacturer-stated engineering, economic, and environmental performance of these CHP FCSs at installation sites. The analysis was done by developing parameters for economic comparison of CHP installations. Key thermodynamic terms are first defined, followed by an economic analysis using both a standard accounting approach and a management accounting approach. Key economic and environmental performance parameters are evaluated, including (1) the average per unit cost of the CHP FCSs per unit of power, (2) the average per unit cost of the CHP FCSs per unit of energy, (3) the change in greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollution emissions with a switch from conventional power plants and furnaces to CHP FCSs; (4) the change in GHG mitigation costs from the switch; and (5) the change in human health costs related to air pollution. From the power perspective, the average per unit cost per unit of electrical power is estimated to span a range from $1519,000/ kilowatt-electric (kWe) (depending on site-specific changes in installation, fuel, and other costs), while the average per unit cost of electrical and heat recovery power varies between $7,000 and $9,000/kW. From the energy perspective, the average per unit cost per unit of electrical energy ranges from $0.38 to $0.46/kilowatt-hour-electric (kWhe), while the average per unit cost per unit of electrical and heat recovery energy varies from $0.18 to $0.23/kWh. These values are calculated from engineering and economic performance data provided by the manufacturer (not independently measured data). The GHG emissions were estimated to decrease by one-third by shifting from a conventional energy system to a CHP FCS system. The GHG mitigation costs were also proportional to the changes in the GHG gas emissions. Human health costs were estimated to decrease significantly with a switch from a conventional system to a CHP FCS system.

  1. Biogas, once flared, fuels cogen plant serving two hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.K.; McRae, C.L.

    1995-04-01

    This article reports that digester gas from a wastewater treatment plant meets up to 40% of the fuel needs of this cogenerator. Steam is exported for heating the treatment plant`s digesters and for ice production by a second steam host. The Carson Ice-Gen Project promises to enhance the reliability of electric service to the Sacramento Regional Waste water Treatment Plant (SRWTP), to prevent effluent discharges to nearby water ways during power disruptions, and to reduce air emissions associated with flaring of digester gas. The project comprises a 95-MW combined-cycle cogeneration powerplant and a 300-ton/day ice-production plant. The powerplant features twin LM 6000 gas turbines (GTs). One, used as a 53-MW base-load unit, is paired with a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) feeding an extraction/condensing steam turbine/generator (STG). The other GT is used as a 42-MW, simple-cycle peaking unit. Primary fuel is natural gas, which is supplemented by digester gas that is currently being flared at the wastewater treatment plant. Export steam extracted from the STG is used to heat the digesters and to drive ammonia compressors at the ice plant. Steam is also used on-site to chill water in absorption chillers that cool the GT inlet air for power augmentation.

  2. Collaborative National Program for the Development and Performance Testing of Distributed Power Technologies with Emphasis on Combined Heat and Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soinski, Arthur; Hanson, Mark

    2006-06-28

    A current barrier to public acceptance of distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) technologies is the lack of credible and uniform information regarding system performance. Under a cooperative agreement, the Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) and the U.S. Department of Energy have developed four performance testing protocols to provide a uniform basis for comparison of systems. The protocols are for laboratory testing, field testing, long-term monitoring and case studies. They have been reviewed by a Stakeholder Advisory Committee made up of industry, public interest, end-user, and research community representatives. The types of systems covered include small turbines, reciprocating engines (including Stirling Cycle), and microturbines. The protocols are available for public use and the resulting data is publicly available in an online national database and two linked databases with further data from New York State. The protocols are interim pending comments and other feedback from users. Final protocols will be available in 2007. The interim protocols and the national database of operating systems can be accessed at www.dgdata.org. The project has entered Phase 2 in which protocols for fuel cell applications will be developed and the national and New York databases will continue to be maintained and populated.

  3. Biogas to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals Using a Methanotrophic Microorganism WBS 2.3.2.102 2015 DOE BioEnergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review March 24, 2015 Technology Area: Biochemical Conversion Principal Investigator: Michael T. Guarnieri Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2 Goal Statement Goals 1. Demonstrate proof of concept for a biogas-to-liquid fuels and chemicals process. 2. Enhance carbon conversion efficiency from methane to biomass and products. Outcome:

  4. One Year Down the Road of Biogas Industry Development | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Year Down the Road of Biogas Industry Development One Year Down the Road of Biogas Industry Development December 18, 2015 - 9:40am Addthis Newtown Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant | New York City Department of Environmental Protection Newtown Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant | New York City Department of Environmental Protection DC Water’s Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant | DC water DC Water's Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant | DC water Newtown Creek

  5. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima makes an ideal substrate for anaerobic digestion because it is easy to harvest, it can use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as its carbon source, and its fermentability is higher than that of other small algae. Digestion experiments demonstrated that S. maxima can serve as the sole nutrient for biogas production and that municipal sewage sludge, when adapted to this new substrate, is very stable. During semicontinuous daily-fed trials under non-optimal conditions at an 0.06 lb volatile solids (VS)/ft/sup 3/ (0.97 kg VS/m/sup 3/) loading rate, 33-day retention time, and 86/sup 0/F (30/sup 0/C) digestion temperature, the daily methane yield was 4.2 CF/lb (0.26 m/sup 3//kg) VS added, which represents 47% of the maximum theoretical yield. Studies on optimizing the process are underway.

  6. Novel Sorbent to Clean Up Biogas for CHPs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, Gkhan O.; Jayataman, Ambalavanan; Schaefer, Matthew; Ware, Michael; Hunt, Jennifer; Dobek, Frank

    2015-05-30

    In this project, TDA Research Inc. (TDA) has developed low-cost (on a per unit volume of gas processed basis), high-capacity expendable sorbents that can remove both the H2S and organic sulfur species in biogas to the ppb levels. The proposed sorbents will operate downstream of a bulk desulfurization system as a polishing bed to provide an essentially sulfur-free gas to a fuel cell (or any other application that needs a completely sulfur-free feed). Our sorbents use a highly dispersed mixed metal oxides active phase with desired modifiers prepared over on a mesoporous support. The support structure allows the large organic sulfur compounds (such as the diethyl sulfide and dipropyl sulfide phases with a large kinetic diameter) to enter the sorbent pores so that they can be adsorbed and removed from the gas stream.

  7. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  8. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Systems | Department of Energy presentation covers typical sources of waste heat from process heating equipment, characteristics of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power. PDF icon Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems (August 20, 2009) More Documents & Publications Energy Systems Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment Seven Ways to Optimize Your Process Heat System

  9. The method of solid fermentation of biogas in Chinese rural areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Y.; Zhao, Z.

    1983-12-01

    This report describes laboratory experimental results of solid method of biogas fermentation by using farm stalks and livestock manure as raw materials but without hydraulic pressure. Under natural conditions of ordinary temperature, the average rate of biogas production for 100 days has increased from 0.13 m/sup 3//m/sup 3/ of materials per day by using hydraulic pressure to 0.37 m/sup 3//m/sup 3/ of materials per day with dry method. The amount of gas produced per kg by the volatile solid material increases about 14% and there is little change in the methane content of the biogas. At present the biogas fermentation by means of hydraulic pressure in Chinese rural areas has certain special features, but there are disadvantages of low rate of biogas production and difficulty in filling and taking off materials. It requires about 100 dans (50 kg = 1 dan) of water to fill a digester. Hence a lot of labour is required. And, without stirring, it may easily result in separation of material and liquid in two layers and the formation of scum of the floating materials. It is thus unfavorable for microbial activities. According to our previous experiments and the reports of other workers, one of the important reasons for the low rate of biogas production is due to insufficient total solid (TS) content of the fermentation material. In this experiment, the authors used the method of solid fermentation instead of hydraulic pressure and obtained nearly double the rate of biogas production using smaller digesters which did not require as much labor to fill and remove materials.

  10. Demonstration of anaerobic biogas digesters in developing countries. Part III. The Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.H.; Morales, E.C.

    1980-03-01

    The main theme of this series of articles is that ours is now a world-wide society, short on meeting needs for energy yet long on waste from our industrial, agricultural and human consumption processes. This is a study report about developments in the Philippines where waste management has been recognized and considered as an important practical source of energy. This is revealed by several reports of the number of biogas plants in operation in this country. According to the July 31, 1977 survey made by the Philippines Bureau of Animal Industries, 200 biogas plants were then installed and in operation of which 46 were government-owned and 154 privately-owned. More have been installed since then. This report presents some of the operating observations and developments from the joint engineering analyses project of the Philippines Bureau of Animal Industry, Man and the Biosphere Inter-Agency Committee on Ecological Studies, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources and the National Institute of Science and Technology. The project's main objective was to show that establishing a biogas plant involves not only the production of a methane gas mixture but the integration of its other products as part of a system (i.e., using effluent water from the biogas digester for production of algae chlorell sp. for livestock and poultry feed, production of fish and fertilizing-irrigating of pasture and vegetable plots.). Housing development sewer systems with added biogas generators are also discussed.

  11. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Jingqing; Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Guohui; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 1 C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.970.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  12. H2A Biomethane Model Documentation and a Case Study for Biogas From Dairy Farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Jalalzadeh, A.

    2010-12-01

    The new H2A Biomethane model was developed to estimate the levelized cost of biomethane by using the framework of the vetted original H2A models for hydrogen production and delivery. For biomethane production, biogas from sources such as dairy farms and landfills is upgraded by a cleanup process. The model also estimates the cost to compress and transport the product gas via the pipeline to export it to the natural gas grid or any other potential end-use site. Inputs include feed biogas composition and cost, required biomethane quality, cleanup equipment capital and operations and maintenance costs, process electricity usage and costs, and pipeline delivery specifications.

  13. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  14. ARM - Heat Index Calculations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CalculatorsHeat Index Calculations Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Heat Index Calculations Heat Index is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity to estimate how hot it actually feels. The human body cools off through perspiration, which removes heat from

  15. Table 8.6a Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.6b and 8.6c)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.6b and 8.6c) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu 1989 16,509,639 1,410,151 16,356,550 353,000 247,409 19,356,746

  16. Table 8.6b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu 1989 638,798 119,640 1,471,031 762 – 1,591,433 81,669,945 2,804 24,182 5,687

  17. Table 8.6c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu Commercial Sector 11<//td> 1989 711,212 202,091 600,653 – –

  18. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. Most homeowners who have heat pumps use them to heat and cool their homes. But a heat pump also can be used to heat water -- either as stand-alone water heating system, or as combination water heating and space conditioning system. How They Work Heat pump water heaters use electricity to move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat directly. Therefore,

  19. Pilot project of biogas production from pig manure and urine mixture at ambient temperature in Ventanilla (Lima, Peru)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrer, I. Gamiz, M.

    2009-01-15

    Parque Porcino de Ventanilla has an extension of 840 ha with 2200 farmers dedicated to pig production. There is a lack of services in the area (i.e., water supply, electricity, or waste collection). Anaerobic treatment of pig manure would replace current dumping and incineration, reducing environmental pollution and hazards to public health, as well as providing an organic fertilizer and biogas. The objective of the present work was to study the viability of ambient temperature anaerobic digestion of pig manure diluted in urine, by means of on-site pilot scale reactors. The final goal was to establish design parameters for anaerobic digesters to be implemented; since it was part of a project to improve life conditions for the farmers through the incorporation of better management techniques. Experiments were carried out in a low-cost pilot plant, which consists of three anaerobic digesters (225 L total volume), without heating or agitation, placed in a greenhouse. The start-up of the digestion process was performed with a mixture of temperature adapted pig manure-sludge and fresh rumen, and showed a good performance regardless of the dilution of pig manure with water or urine, which is a key parameter due to the scarcity of water in the area under study.

  20. Chinese biogas digester: a potential model for small-scale, rural applications (a manual for construction and operation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakagawa, C.H.; Honquilada, Q.L.

    1985-07-01

    This report gives a thorough description of a Philippine biogas project. It provides basic knowledge and guidance for the construction and operation of a small-scale family-size biogas unit. The report includes benefits of installation and a general overview of the construction process: structural features/considerations, planning/preparation, site consideration and operation and maintenance provisions. Contains numerous sketches, design diagrams, appendices and a reference bibliography.

  1. Crave Brothers Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-01

    This is a combined heat and power (CHP) project profile on a 633 kW biogas CHP application at Crave Brothers Farm in Waterloo, Wisconsin.

  2. Net Metering | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    who generate electricity using solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, biomass, biogas, combined heat and power, or fuel cell technologies.* A net metering facility must be...

  3. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  4. Table 8.3a Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.3b and 8.3c; Billion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.3b and 8.3c; Billion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 1989 323,191 95,675 461,905 92,556 973,327 546,354 30,217 576,571 39,041 1,588,939 1990 362,524 127,183 538,063 140,695 1,168,465 650,572 36,433 687,005 40,149 1,895,619 1991 351,834 112,144 546,755 148,216 1,158,949 623,442 36,649

  5. Table 8.3c Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Billion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Billion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 Commercial Sector 8<//td> 1989 13,517 3,896 9,920 102 27,435 145 10,305 10,450 – 37,885 1990 14,670 5,406 15,515 118 35,709 387 10,193 10,580 – 46,289 1991 15,967 3,684 20,809 118 40,578 169 8,980 9,149 1 49,728 1992

  6. combined heat power | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy within the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office. CHP - sometimes referred to as cogeneration - provides a cost-effective, near-term opportunity to improve our nation's energy,...

  7. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Technology Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Objective of the ORNL CHP R&D program The project objectives are to improve the efficiency ... base. Advance the state-of-the-art of CHP CHP offers great benefits and potential ...

  8. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The CHP systems program aimed to facilitate acceptance of distributed energy in end-use sectors by forming partnerships with industry consortia in the commercial building, merchant stores, light industrial, supermarkets, restaurants, hospitality, health care and high-tech industries.

  9. Combined Heat and Power Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CHP technologies are eligible for either a grant, loan or power purchase incentive under the initial round of solicitations for new renewable energy generating equipment  up to five megawatts at ...

  10. Combined Heat and Power Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CHP technologies are eligible for either a grant, loan or power purchase incentive under the initial round of solicitations for new renewable energy generating equipment  up to five megawatts at ...

  11. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Technology Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... estimates IGATE-E IAC, ESA,and MNI Databases Database Schema** 45 tables-MySQL ... system (DBMS) and refers to the organization of data as a blueprint of how a database is ...

  12. Combined Heat and Power System Increases Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to meet nearly 100% of the plant's electrical power needs and provide a majority of the ... also means that the plant is less susceptible to outages caused by severe storms. ...

  13. Industrial Utility Webinar: Combined Heat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-09

    The Industrial Utility Webinars focus on providing utilities with information on how to develop sucessful energy efficeincy programs for industrial energy consumers.

  14. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  15. Efficiency combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel, J.; Meyers, G.A.; Baldwin, T.S.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a method of operating a combined cycle power plant. It comprises: flowing exhaust gas from a combustion turbine through a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG); flowing feed water through an economizer section of the HRSG at a flow rate and providing heated feed water; flowing a first portion of the heated feed water through an evaporator section of the HRSG and producing saturated steam at a production rate, the flow rate of the feed water through the economizer section being greater than required to sustain the production rate of steam in the evaporator section; flowing fuel for the turbine through a heat exchanger; and, flowing a second portion of the heated feed water provided by the economizer section through the heat exchanger then to an inlet of the economizer section, thereby heating the fuel flowing through the heat exchanger.

  16. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Biorecycling Technologies, Inc., Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant, Fresno County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a proposal from the California Energy Commission for partial funding up to $1,500,000 of the construction of the biorecycling Technologies, Inc., (BTI) Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant in Fresno County, California. BTI along with its contractors and business partners would develop the plant, which would use manure and green waste to produce biogas and a variety of organic fertilizer products. The California Energy Commission has requested funding from the DOE Commercialization Ventures program to assist in the construction of the plant, which would produce up to one megawatt of electricity by burning biogas in a cogeneration unit. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with funding development of the proposed project.

  17. Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pretreatment of food waste from households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murto, Marika; Bjrnsson, Lovisa; Rosqvist, Hkan; Bohn, Irene

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? A novel approach for biogas production from a waste fraction that today is incinerated. ? Biogas production is possible in spite of the impurities of the waste. ? Tracer studies are applied in a novel way. ? Structural material is needed to improve the flow pattern of the waste. ? We provide a solution to biological treatment for the complex waste fraction. - Abstract: At the waste handling company NSR, Helsingborg, Sweden, the food waste fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is pretreated to obtain a liquid fraction, which is used for biogas production, and a dry fraction, which is at present incinerated. This pretreatment and separation is performed to remove impurities, however also some of the organic material is removed. The possibility of realising the methane potential of the dry fraction through batch-wise dry anaerobic digestion was investigated. The anaerobic digestion technique used was a two-stage process consisting of a static leach bed reactor and a methane reactor. Treatment of the dry fraction alone and in a mixture with structural material was tested to investigate the effect on the porosity of the leach bed. A tracer experiment was carried out to investigate the liquid flow through the leach beds, and this method proved useful in demonstrating a more homogenous flow through the leach bed when structural material was added. Addition of structural material to the dry fraction was needed to achieve a functional digestion process. A methane yield of 98 m{sup 3}/ton was obtained from the dry fraction mixed with structural material after 76 days of digestion. This was in the same range as obtained in the laboratory scale biochemical methane potential test, showing that it was possible to extract the organic content in the dry fraction in this type of dry digestion system for the production of methane.

  18. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maranon, E.; Castrillon, L.; Quiroga, G.; Fernandez-Nava, Y.; Gomez, L.; Garcia, M.M.

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2-1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH{sub 4}/kg VS{sub feed} for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 Degree-Sign C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20-28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 Degree-Sign C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  19. Geothermal Heat Pumps- Heating Mode

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In winter, fluid passing through this vertical, closed loop system is warmed by the heat of the earth; this heat is then transferred to the building.

  20. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1996-12-03

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium. A combination of weak and rich liquor working solution is used as the heat transfer medium.

  1. Correlation Of Surface Heat Loss And Total Energy Production...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal systems lose their heat by a site-specific combination of conduction (heat flow) and advection (surface discharge). The conductive loss at or near the surface (shallow...

  2. Power combiner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  3. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  4. Jobs, sustainable heating coming to Vermont city

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Their new woodchip-fired combined heat and power system will heat the Capitol Complex, the city’s schools, City Hall and as many as 156 other buildings in the downtown area.

  5. Water Heating Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC, Water Heating, Appliances R&D » Water Heating Projects Water Heating Projects Figure 1: The system model for the combined Water heater, dehumidifier and cooler (WHDC). A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC) Lead Performer: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida Partners: -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN -- Stony Brook University - Stony Brook, NY Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Xergy

  6. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  7. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  8. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  9. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  10. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  11. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  12. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  13. Process and installation for simultaneously producing compost and biogas from organic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebesgue, Y.; Zeana, A.

    1986-12-30

    A process is described for the simultaneous treatment of solid or semi-solid organic waste and liquid organic waste with a view to the simultaneous production of compost and biogas, wherein the liquid organic waste is subjected to a liquid-solid separation. The liquid phase from this separation is subjected to anaerobic fermentation in at least one closed digester, the solid phase from the liquid-solid separation is mixed with the solid or semi-solid organic waste, and the resulting mixture is subjected to aerobic fermentation at the periphery of the digester and in contact therewith. Mud, clarified liquid and gas are respectively discharged from the digester whereas compost from the aerobic fermentation of the solid or semi-solid waste is recovered at the periphery of the digester wherein the digester is characterized by two superimposed compartments, an upper compartment at low pressure and a lower compartment at high pressure, the compartments communicating together through at least one lateral pipe and through a central siphon. A means is provided for lowering the pressure of the lower compartment when the liquid reaches a predetermined level therein. An installation is described for the simultaneous treatment of solid or semi-solid organic waste and liquid waste with a view to the simultaneous production of compost and biogas. This comprises: means for separating the liquid organic waste into a solid phase and a liquid phase; at least one closed digester; means for introducing the liquid phase into the digester; means for mixing the solid phase with the solid or semi-solid waste; means for bringing the resulting mixture to the periphery of the digester in contact therewith; and means for discharging respectively from the digester the gas which is formed therein by anaerobic fermentation and the sludges which are deposited therein.

  14. Biogas and alcohol fuels production. Proceedings of the Seminar on Biomass, Energy for City, Farm, and Industry, Chicago, IL, October 25, 26, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, J.

    1980-01-01

    Basic principles of anaerobic digestion are considered along with the status of the Imperial Valley Biogas Project, the Department of Energy program for the recovery of energy and materials from urban waste, the principles of alcohol production from wastes, the mechanical recovery of a refuse-derived cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production, and the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. Attention is given to on-farm alcohol fuel production, the current status and future role of gasohol production, methane generation from small scale farms, farmsite installations of energy harvester anaerobic digesters, biogas/composting and landfill recovery, farm-scale composting as an option to anaerobic digestion, designing a high-quality biogas system, and methane as fuel of the future. A description is presented of subjects which are related to landfill gas recovery, biogas purification with permselective membranes, and anaerobic digestion of marine biomass. Other topics studied include the application of biogas technology in India, biogas production in China, biogasification of organic wastes in the Republic of the Philippines, and economics and operational experience of full-scale anaerobic dairy manure digester.

  15. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  16. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  17. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  18. Effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itodo, I.N.; Awulu, J.O.

    1999-12-01

    The effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield was investigated. Twelve laboratory-size anaerobic batch digesters with 25 L volume were constructed and used for the experiments. Three replicates of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% TS concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries were anaerobically digested for a 30-day detention period and gas yield was measured by the method of water displacement. Temperature variation within the digesters was measured with a maximum and minimum thermometer. Anaerobic digestion of the slurries was undertaken in the mesophilic temperature range (20--40 C). The carbon:nitrogen ratio of each of the slurries digested was determined. The carbon content was determined using the wackley-Black method, and nitrogen content was determined by the regular kjeldhal method. The pH was measured weekly during the period of digestion from a digital pH meter. Gas quality (% methane fraction) was also measured weekly from an analyzer. Coefficient of variation was computed to ascertain the status of the digestion process. Analysis of variance was used to determine the significant difference in gas yield at p < 0.05. Duncan's New Multiple Range Test at p < 0.05 was used to analyze the difference in gas yield among the various TS concentrations of the slurries investigated. The results indicate that biogas yield is of the order: 5% TS > 10% TS > 15% TS > 20% TS. This result shows that gas yield increases with decreasing TS concentration of the slurries. The ANOVA showed that the gas yield from the various TS % was significantly different (p < 0.05). DNMRT showed that there was significant difference in gas yield from the slurries and wastetypes investigated. Poultry waste slurries had the greatest gas yield (L CH4/kg TS) as the gas yield from the waste types was of the order: Poultry > Piggery > Cattle. The pH of the slurries was of the range 5.5 to 6.8 (weakly acidic). The C:N of the slurries varied between 6:1 and 9:1. The Coefficient of Variation (CV) for 10 consecutive days of digestion was less than 10% indicating a steady state in all the digesters.

  19. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  20. Rural biogas technology: effect of digester pressure on gas rate and composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamad, M.A.; Abdel, Dayem, A.M.; El-Halwagi, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of digester pressure on gas rate and composition was studied using an experimental Chinese-type digester of 5 m/sup 3/ volume. Water buffalo dung was used as feedstock and was fermented at 40 days retention time. The increase in digester pressure was accompanied by a decrease in the amount of biogas produced. However, this decrease was partially compensated for by the increase in methane content. The latter may be attributed to the transfer of carbon dioxide from the gas phase to the liquid phase. The remainder of the noted decrease in the obtained gas amount was related to the increase of the nonconfined amount of slurry in the outlet chamber. Thus, it can be concluded that the initial amount of gas liberated was not a direct consequence of varying the digester pressure. A modified design for the outlet chamber is proposed. Such modification is anticipated to decrease the gas losses, partially stabilize the gas pressure and accordingly increase the efficiency of the digester operation as well as the gas combustion process.

  1. Co-digestion of sewage sludge with glycerol to boost biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Petousi, I.; Manios, T.

    2010-10-15

    The feasibility of adding crude glycerol from the biodiesel industry to the anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants was studied in both batch and continuous experiments at 35 {sup o}C. Glycerol addition can boost biogas yields, if it does not exceed a limiting 1% (v/v) concentration in the feed. Any further increase of glycerol causes a high imbalance in the anaerobic digestion process. The reactor treating the sewage sludge produced 1106 {+-} 36 ml CH{sub 4}/d before the addition of glycerol and 2353 {+-} 94 ml CH{sub 4}/d after the addition of glycerol (1% v/v in the feed). The extra glycerol-COD added to the feed did not have a negative effect on reactor performance, but seemed to increase the active biomass (volatile solids) concentration in the system. Batch kinetic experiments showed that the maximum specific utilization rate ({mu}{sub max}) and the saturation constant (K{sub S}) of glycerol were 0.149 {+-} 0.015 h{sup -1} and 0.276 {+-} 0.095 g/l, respectively. Comparing the estimated values with the kinetics constants for propionate reported in the literature, it can be concluded that glycerol uptake is not the rate-limiting step during the process.

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3...

  3. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

  4. Check Heat Transfer Surfaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet discusses the importance of checking heat transfer surfaces in process heating systems.

  5. Absorption Heat Pump Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps.

  6. Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Guangyin; Zheng Zheng; Yang Shiguan; Fang Caixia; Zou Xingxing; Luo Yan

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 {+-} 13.87 mL/g TS{sub added} was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 {+-} 11.01 mL/g TS{sub added} and methane yield of 259.35 {+-} 13.85 mL/g TS{sub added} were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

  7. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER...

  8. Heat transport system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, Samuel D. (McMurray, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A falling bed of ceramic particles receives neutron irradiation from a neutron-producing plasma and thereby transports energy as heat from the plasma to a heat exchange location where the ceramic particles are cooled by a gas flow. The cooled ceramic particles are elevated to a location from which they may again pass by gravity through the region where they are exposed to neutron radiation. Ceramic particles of alumina, magnesia, silica and combinations of these materials are contemplated as high-temperature materials that will accept energy from neutron irradiation. Separate containers of material incorporating lithium are exposed to the neutron flux for the breeding of tritium that may subsequently be used in neutron-producing reactions. The falling bed of ceramic particles includes velocity partitioning between compartments near to the neutron-producing plasma and compartments away from the plasma to moderate the maximum temperature in the bed.

  9. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  10. Hydrogen production via reforming of biogas over nanostructured Ni/Y catalyst: Effect of ultrasound irradiation and Ni-content on catalyst properties and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharifi, Mahdi; Haghighi, Mohammad; Abdollahifar, Mozaffar

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Synthesis of nanostructured Ni/Y catalyst by sonochemical and impregnation methods. Enhancement of size distribution and active phase dispersion by employing sonochemical method. Evaluation of biogas reforming over Ni/Y catalyst with different Ni-loadings. Preparation of highly active and stable catalyst with low Ni content for biogas reforming. Getting H{sub 2}/CO very close to equilibrium ratio by employing sonochemical method. - Abstract: The effect of ultrasound irradiation and various Ni-loadings on dispersion of active phase over zeolite Y were evaluated in biogas reforming for hydrogen production. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, BrunauerEmmettTeller, Fourier transform infrared analysis and TEM analysis were employed to observe the characteristics of nanostructured catalysts. The characterizations implied that utilization of ultrasound irradiation enhanced catalyst physicochemical properties including high dispersion of Ni on support, smallest particles size and high catalyst surface area. The reforming reactions were carried out at GHSV = 24 l/g.h, P = 1 atm, CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} = 1 and temperature range of 550850 C. Activity test displayed that ultrasound irradiated Ni(5 wt.%)/Y had the best performance and the activity remained stable during 600 min. Furthermore, the proposed reaction mechanism showed that there are three major reaction channels in biogas reforming.

  11. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbury, P.J.

    1983-12-08

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  12. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-01-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  13. Heat transfer and heat exchangers reference handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-15

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with an understanding of the basic concepts of heat transfer and the operation of heat exchangers.

  14. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  15. Property:Heat Recovery Rating | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + 2,000 + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + 1,366,072 + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + 600,000 + Distributed...

  16. CX-009743: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel Sorbent to Cleanup Biogas for Combined Heat and Power Systems CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 12/19/2012 Location(s): Connecticut Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  17. Project Reports for Minnesota Chippewa Tribe: White Earth Band- 2012 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The project will consist of a detailed feasibility study for a biogas/biomass-fired electric combined heat and power (CHP) facility to be located on tribal land adjacent to the Tribe's casino and hotel in Mahnomen, Minnesota.

  18. Minnesota Chippewa Tribe: White Earth Band- 2012 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The project will consist of a detailed feasibility study for a biogas/biomass-fired electric combined heat and power (CHP) facility to be located on tribal land adjacent to the Tribe's casino and hotel in Mahnomen, Minnesota.

  19. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  20. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  1. Energy Department Turns Up the Heat and Power on Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how combined heat and power could strengthen U.S. manufacturing competitiveness, lower energy consumption and reduce harmful emissions.

  2. Research on Anaerobic Digestion: Optimization and Scalability of Mixed High-strength Food Processing Wastes for Renewable Biogas Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Zhongtang; Hitzhusen, Fredrick

    2012-12-27

    This research project developed and improved anaerobic digestion technologies, created a comprehensive Inventory of Ohio Biomass and a database of microorganisms of anaerobic digesters, and advanced knowledge and understanding of the underpinning microbiology of the anaerobic digestion process. The results and finding of this research project may be useful for future development and implementation of anaerobic digesters, especially at livestock farms. Policy makers and investors may also find the information on the biomass availability in Ohio and valuation of energy projects useful in policy making and making of investment decisions. The public may benefit from the information on biogas as an energy source and the potential impact of anaerobic digester projects on their neighborhoods.

  3. Differences in volatile methyl siloxane (VMS) profiles in biogas from landfills and anaerobic digesters and energetics of VMS transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tansel, Berrin Surita, Sharon C.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: In the digester gas, D4 and D5 comprised the 62% and 27% if siloxanes, respectively. In landfill gas, the bulk of siloxanes were TMSOH (58%) followed by D4 (17%). Methane utilization may be a possible mechanism for TMSOH formation in the landfills. The geometric configurations of D4 and D5 molecules make them very stable. - Abstract: The objectives of this study were to compare the types and levels of volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) present in biogas generated in the anaerobic digesters and landfills, evaluate the energetics of siloxane transformations under anaerobic conditions, compare the conditions in anaerobic digesters and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills which result in differences in siloxane compositions. Biogas samples were collected at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant and South Dade Landfill in Miami, Florida. In the digester gas, D4 and D5 comprised the bulk of total siloxanes (62% and 27%, respectively) whereas in the landfill gas, the bulk of siloxanes were trimethylsilanol (TMSOH) (58%) followed by D4 (17%). Presence of high levels of TMSOH in the landfill gas indicates that methane utilization may be a possible reaction mechanism for TMSOH formation. The free energy change for transformation of D5 and D4 to TMSOH either by hydrogen or methane utilization are thermodynamically favorable. Either hydrogen or methane should be present at relatively high concentrations for TMSOH formation which explains the high levels present in the landfill gas. The high bond energy and bond distance of the SiO bond, in view of the atomic sizes of Si and O atoms, indicate that Si atoms can provide a barrier, making it difficult to break the SiO bonds especially for molecules with specific geometric configurations such as D4 and D5 where oxygen atoms are positioned inside the frame formed by the large Si atoms which are surrounded by the methyl groups.

  4. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  5. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. |...

  6. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power: Effective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future Report describing the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future PDF icon...

  7. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order for metal products to have desired properties, most metal is thermally processed at a high temperature one or more times under a controlled atmosphere. There are many different thermal...

  8. Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    savings, Tok School has been able to rehire three staff members for the school: music teacher, counselor, and boiler operator. Once more savings are realized and biomass...

  9. Public Sector Combined Heat and Power Pilot Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois DCEO programs are subject to the State appropriation process, and while the Department can accept and review applications, it will not be able to award funding, issue Notices to...

  10. Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TECO installed a new high-efficiency natural gas-fired CHP system capable of producing 48 ... The CHP system can operate as a baseload system to serve 100% of the TECO plant peak ...

  11. The Market and Technical Potential for Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and power (CHP) in the commercialinstitutional market. As part of this effort, in this report, OSEC has characterized typical technologies used in commercial CHP, analyzed ...

  12. Combined Heat and Power: A Federal Manager's Resource Guide,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It outlines successful application procedures for these CHP technologies and provides case studies of successful implementations. PDF icon chpfemp.pdf More Documents & ...

  13. Guide to Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    power (CHP) enabled a number of critical infrastructure and other facilities to continue their operations when the electric grid went down. This guidance document on CHP supports ...

  14. Combined Heat and Power: A Clean Energy Solution, August 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-08-30

    This paper provides a foundation for national discussions on effective ways to reach the 40 gigawatts (GW) target, and includes an overview of the key issues currently impacting CHP deployment and the factors that need to be considered by stakeholders participating in the dialogue.

  15. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    prices, actions toward carbon emissions regulation, and excess risk from reliance on a ... ANL will conduct fame visualization and temperature performance mea- surements in support ...

  16. ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP VOLUME 8: COMBINED HEAT...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the Energy Efficiency Technology Roadmap (EE Roadmap), published by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on behalf of regional stakeholders. For the background and...

  17. Combined Heat and Power Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    This factsheet describes a project that will seamlessly integrate a gas-fired simple-cycle 100 kWe microturbine with a new ultra-low NOx gas-fired burner to develop a CHP assembly called the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology.

  18. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... CONANT H.S. At the Conant High School in Hoffman Estates, Illinois, the Midwest Center ... educational needs of end users, product developers, project managers, and policymakers. ...

  19. Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oak Ridge Competitive Electric Dispatch (ORCED), and National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) models are addressed. PDF icon surveyofemissionsmodelsfordg.pdf More Documents &...

  20. Testimonials - Partnerships in Combined Heat and Power Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on the screen, followed by "Kevin Keene, Project Director, Cummins" and footage of a man. ... Footage of two men in a lab working on a computer, followed by footage of a man pointing ...

  1. Engine Driven Combined Heat and Power: Arrow Linen Supply, December...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications CHP: A Technical & Economic Compliance Strategy - SEE Action Webinar, January 2012 Characterization of the U.S. Industrial...

  2. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power: Effective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... There is competition for energy supplies from growing economies such as China, ... Nevertheless, most US environmental regulations have historically established emission limits ...

  3. Performance based incentive for Combined Heat and Power Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CHP technologies are eligible for either a grant, loan or power purchase incentive under the initial round of solicitations for new renewable energy generating equipment  up to five megawatts at ...

  4. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pinakin Patel of FuelCell Energy, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011. PDF icon ultraefficientpatel.pdf...

  5. Guide to Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... system prior to determining the cost of adding islanding capacity. 33 EPA CHP Partnership. ... valuable financial benefits such as tax credits and income generated from the sale ...

  6. Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The CHP system generated all the power needed to supply chilled water and steam to The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas Children's Hospital, and 16 other ...

  7. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the ... Research Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); National Transportation Research ...

  8. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power Market...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Successful Utility-Sector Projects. Washingtion, D.C., August 1994. www.nrelinfo.nrel.govdocumentsprofiles.html 36 R.L. Brain, R.P. Overend and K.R. Craig, Biomass-Fired Power ...

  9. Concentrating solar heat collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattor, A.P.

    1980-09-23

    A heat storage unit is integrated with a collection unit providing a heat supply in off-sun times, and includes movable insulation means arranged to provide insulation during off-sun times for the heat storage unit.

  10. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  11. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  12. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4.1 cents from a week ago to 2.89 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the...

  13. Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  14. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  15. Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  16. Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

  17. Optimal joule heating of the subsurface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berryman, James G. (Danville, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A method for simultaneously heating the subsurface and imaging the effects of the heating. This method combines the use of tomographic imaging (electrical resistance tomography or ERT) to image electrical resistivity distribution underground, with joule heating by electrical currents injected in the ground. A potential distribution is established on a series of buried electrodes resulting in energy deposition underground which is a function of the resistivity and injection current density. Measurement of the voltages and currents also permits a tomographic reconstruction of the resistivity distribution. Using this tomographic information, the current injection pattern on the driving electrodes can be adjusted to change the current density distribution and thus optimize the heating. As the heating changes conditions, the applied current pattern can be repeatedly adjusted (based on updated resistivity tomographs) to affect real time control of the heating.

  18. Optimal joule heating of the subsurface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berryman, J.G.; Daily, W.D.

    1994-07-05

    A method for simultaneously heating the subsurface and imaging the effects of the heating is disclosed. This method combines the use of tomographic imaging (electrical resistance tomography or ERT) to image electrical resistivity distribution underground, with joule heating by electrical currents injected in the ground. A potential distribution is established on a series of buried electrodes resulting in energy deposition underground which is a function of the resistivity and injection current density. Measurement of the voltages and currents also permits a tomographic reconstruction of the resistivity distribution. Using this tomographic information, the current injection pattern on the driving electrodes can be adjusted to change the current density distribution and thus optimize the heating. As the heating changes conditions, the applied current pattern can be repeatedly adjusted (based on updated resistivity tomographs) to affect real time control of the heating.

  19. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  20. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  1. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 ... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery ......

  2. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  3. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  4. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    among the most effcient and comfortable heating and cooling technologies available because they use the earth's natural heat to provide heating, cooling, and often, water heating. ...

  5. Comparative analysis of compact heat exchangers for application as the intermediate heat exchanger for advanced nuclear reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bartel, N.; Chen, M.; Utgikar, V. P.; Sun, X.; Kim, I. -H.; Christensen, R.; Sabharwall, P.

    2015-04-04

    A comparative evaluation of alternative compact heat exchanger designs for use as the intermediate heat exchanger in advanced nuclear reactor systems is presented in this article. Candidate heat exchangers investigated included the Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) and offset strip-fin heat exchanger (OSFHE). Both these heat exchangers offer high surface area to volume ratio (a measure of compactness [m2/m3]), high thermal effectiveness, and overall low pressure drop. Helium–helium heat exchanger designs for different heat exchanger types were developed for a 600 MW thermal advanced nuclear reactor. The wavy channel PCHE with a 15° pitch angle was found to offer optimummore » combination of heat transfer coefficient, compactness and pressure drop as compared to other alternatives. The principles of the comparative analysis presented here will be useful for heat exchanger evaluations in other applications as well.« less

  6. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

    1981-01-01

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  7. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, Lance D. (Shelly, ID)

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  8. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  9. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  10. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PDF icon PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) PIA - WEB Unclassified Business Operations General Support

  11. Heat Treating Apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  12. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  13. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  14. Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems ... U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Fuel Cells for Supermarkets, April 4, 2011. PDF icon ...

  15. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper,

  16. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  17. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  18. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  19. ENER G Combined Power formerly Combined Power Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENER G Combined Power formerly Combined Power Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: ENER.G Combined Power (formerly Combined Power Ltd) Place: United Kingdom Product: Specialises...

  20. Heat Management Strategy Trade Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Priebe; Dirk Gombert; Ted Bauer

    2009-09-01

    This Heat Management Trade Study was performed in 2008-2009 to expand on prior studies in continued efforts to analyze and evaluate options for cost-effectively managing SNF reprocessing wastes. The primary objective was to develop a simplified cost/benefit evaluation for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing that combines the characteristics of the waste generated through reprocessing with the impacts of the waste on heating the repository. Under consideration were age of the SNF prior to reprocessing, plutonium and minor actinide (MA) separation from the spent fuel for recycle, fuel value of the recycled Pu and MA, age of the remaining spent fuel waste prior to emplacement in the repository, length of time that active ventilation is employed in the repository, and elemental concentration and heat limits for acceptable glass waste form durability. A secondary objective was to identify and qualitatively analyze remaining issues such as (a) impacts of aging SNF prior to reprocessing on the fuel value of the recovered fissile materials, and (b) impact of reprocessing on the dose risk as developed in the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Results of this study can be used to evaluate different options for managing decay heat in waste streams from spent nuclear fuel.

  1. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIE Section 1308 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 ("EISA 2007") directed the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the...

  2. Heat recovery and the economizer for HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anantapantula, V.S. . Alco Controls Div.); Sauer, H.J. Jr. )

    1994-11-01

    This articles examines why a combined heat reclaim/economizer system with priority to heat reclaim operation is most likely to result in the least annual total HVAC energy. PC-based, hour-by-hour simulation programs evaluate annual HVAC energy requirements when using combined operation of heat reclaim and economizer cycle, while giving priority to operation of either one. These simulation programs also enable the design engineer to select the most viable heat reclaim and/or economizer system for any given type of HVAC system serving the building internal load level, building geographical location and other building/system variables.

  3. Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water. Final report May 75-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Burch, D.W.; Kingsley, J.B.; Waddell, E.L. Jr

    1982-05-01

    The report summarizes a 5-year study of the beneficial uses of waste heat from condenser cooling water from steam-electric generating plants. The major effort addressed the recovery of plant nutrients in swine manure by aquatic farming of selected fish and Chinese waterchestnuts. Another effort included biogas production from swine manure in an anaerobic digester and the use of the digester waste to fertilize the aquatic farming system. Optimum recovery of plant nutrients resulted from operation of an integrated fish and waterchestnut system. Flowing water systems were 30-50% more productive than static systems. Annual fish yields of 5000-7000 lb/acre are projected for a properly stocked system over a 150-180 day growing period. Similarly, waterchestnut yields of nearly 17.8 tons/acre and dry hay yields of 6.7 tons/acre from sand-bed filters would be expected when fed wastewater from the fish system. The quality of the water leaving the sand beds would meet tertiary wastewater treatment standards during the growing season. An estimated 2000-head swine facility with a $400,000 investment would annually produce a 20% rate of return, save 360,000 bbl of oil through waste heat utilization, and produce biogas equivalent to 3000 bbl of oil.

  4. Fusion heating technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, A.J.

    1982-06-01

    John Lawson established the criterion that in order to produce more energy from fusion than is necessary to heat the plasma and replenish the radiation losses, a minimum value for both the product of plasma density and confinement time t, and the temperature must be achieved. There are two types of plasma heating: neutral beam and electromagnetic wave heating. A neutral beam system is shown. Main development work on negative ion beamlines has focused on the difficult problem of the production of high current sources. The development of a 30 keV-1 ampere multisecond source module is close to being accomplished. In electromagnetic heating, the launcher, which provides the means of coupling the power to the plasma, is most important. The status of heating development is reviewed. Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), lower hybrid heating (HHH), and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) are reviewed.

  5. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  6. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.6 cents from a week ago to 3.04 per gallon. That's down 99.4 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  7. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to 2.91 per gallon. That's down 1.10 from a year ago, based on the...

  8. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.5 cents from a week ago to 2.84 per gallon. That's down 1.22 from a year ago, based on the...

  9. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to 2.97 per gallon. That's down 1.05 from a year ago, based on the...

  10. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  11. Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used ...

  12. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  13. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  14. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  15. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  16. MA HEAT Loan Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents information on the success of Massachusetts's HEAT loan offerings and how the financing tool is funded.

  17. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  18. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: To install and monitor an innovative WaterFurnace geothermal system that is technologically advanced and evolving; To generate hot water heating from a heat pump that uses non-ozone depleting refrigerant CO2. To demonstrate the energy efficiency of this system ground source heat pump system.

  19. Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery .......................................................................................... 2 5 1.2. Challenges and Barriers for Waste Heat Recovery ..................................................................... 13 6 1.3.

  20. Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Geothermal heat pumps are expensive to install but pay for themselves over time in reduced heating and cooling costs. Learn more about how geothermal heat pumps heat and cool buildings by concentrating the naturally existing heat contained within the earth -- a clean, reliable, and renewable source of energy. In moderate climates, heat pumps can be an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Several types of heat pumps are available, including

  1. Home Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating Home Heating Energy Saver 101 Infographic: Home Heating Energy Saver 101 Infographic: Home Heating Everything you need to know about home heating, including how heating systems work, the different types on the market and proper maintenance. Read more Thermostats Thermostats Save money on heating by automatically setting back your thermostat when you are asleep or away. Read more Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and pellets are renewable fuel sources, and modern wood

  2. Solar heat pump systems with refrigerant-filled collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dell, M.P.; Beckman, W.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The heat pump system with a refrigerant-filled evaporator consists of a standard air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat pump that utilizes a solar panel as the evaporator. A combination of solar energy and convection heat transfer acts as the ''free'' energy absorbed by the collector/evaporator. In this paper, the seasonal performance of such systems for industrial applications will be presented. Performance of collector/evaporator heat pumps will be compared with alternative heat pump and solar systems. The benefits of covered and coverless collector/evaporators will be discussed. Results to date have shown that refrigerant-filled collector heat pumps do not perform as well as conventional heat pumps at small collector areas but have as much as 15% performance improvement over conventional heat pumps at an appropriate collector area.

  3. Building America Webinar: New Construction Hybrid-Ductless Heat Pumps

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Study: Resistance is Futile | Department of Energy New Construction Hybrid-Ductless Heat Pumps Study: Resistance is Futile Building America Webinar: New Construction Hybrid-Ductless Heat Pumps Study: Resistance is Futile This webinar on June 24, 2015, focused on the use of ductless heat pumps (DHP) as a hybrid "all-electric" heating system in new high-performance homes. In a DHP/hybrid heating system, the DHP fan coil is located in the main living area in combination with electric

  4. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN); Perez-Blanco, Horacio (Knoxville, TN)

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  6. Heat pump apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  7. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks...

  8. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  9. Secretary Chu Announces More Than $20.5 million for Community...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... heating, cooling and electricity; a biogas digester and 150 kW generation facility; ... processing waste with sewage to produce biogas with estimated power recovery of 1 - 3 ...

  10. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

    1983-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  11. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  12. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids This fact sheet describes a UCLA-led solar project to investigate high operating temperature liquid metal heat transfer fluids, funded by the SunShot initiative. The project team is using a combination of modeling along with a variety of property measurement and validation studies to demonstrate that the metal alloys identified can meet all the needs of a

  13. Exploitation of olive mill wastewater and liquid cow manure for biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dareioti, Margarita A.; Dokianakis, Spyros N.; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Zafiri, Constantina; Kornaros, Michael

    2010-10-15

    Co-digestion of organic waste streams is an innovative technology for the reduction of methane/greenhouse gas emissions. Different organic substrates are combined to generate a homogeneous mixture as input to the anaerobic reactor in order to increase process performance, realize a more efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. In this study, the potential of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of a mixture containing olive mill wastewater (OMW) and liquid cow manure (LCM) using a two-stage process has been evaluated by using two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) under mesophilic conditions (35 {sup o}C) in order to separately monitor and control the processes of acidogenesis and methanogenesis. The overall process was studied with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 19 days. The digester was continuously fed with an influent composed (v/v) of 20% OMW and 80% LCM. The average removal of dissolved and total COD was 63.2% and 50%, respectively. The volatile solids (VS) removal was 34.2% for the examined mixture of feedstocks operating the system at an overall OLR of 3.63 g CODL{sub reactor}{sup -1}d{sup -1}. Methane production rate at the steady state reached 0.91 L CH{sub 4}L{sub reactor}{sup -1}d{sup -1} or 250.9 L CH{sub 4} at standard temperature and pressure conditions (STP) per kg COD fed to the system.

  14. Microwave heating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Andrew J. (Boulder, CO); Petersen, Robert D. (Thornton, CO); Swanson, Stephen D. (Brighton, CO)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for heating and melting materials using microwave energy, and for permitting them to solidify. The apparatus includes a microwave energy source, a resonant cavity having an opening in its floor, a microwave energy choke encompassing the opening in the floor of the cavity, a metal container to hold the materials to be heated and melted, a turntable, and a lift-table. During operation, the combined action of the turntable and the lift-table position the metal container so that the top of the container is level with the floor of the cavity, is in substantial registration with the floor opening, and is encompassed by the microwave energy choke; thus, during operation, the interior of the container defines part of the resonant cavity. Additionally, a screw feeder, extending into the cavity and sheltered from microwave energy by a conveyor choke, may convey the materials to be heated to the container. Also, preferably, the floor of the resonant cavity may include perforatins, so that the offgases and dust generated in the apparatus may be removed from the resonant cavity by pulling outside air between the container choke and the exterior wall of the container into the resonant cavity and out from the cavity through the perforations.

  15. DHC: a diurnal heat capacity program for microcomputers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program has been developed that can predict the temperature swing in direct gain passive solar buildings. The diurnal heat capacity (DHC) program calculates the DHC for any combination of homogeneous or layered surfaces using closed-form harmonic solutions to the heat diffusion equation. The theory is described, a Basic program listing is provided, and an example solution printout is given.

  16. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  17. New Technology Demonstration of Microturbine with Heat Recovery at Fort Drum, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Michele; Armstrong, Peter R.; Smith, David L.

    2004-04-30

    This report replaces PNNL-14417 and documents a project to demonstrate and evaluate a combined heat and power-configured microturbine system.

  18. Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Heat Management Options Industrial Process Heating Systems By Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi E-mail: athekdi@e3minc.com E3M, Inc. August 20, 2009 2 Source of Waste Heat in Industries * Steam Generation * Fluid Heating * Calcining * Drying * Heat Treating * Metal Heating * Metal and Non-metal Melting * Smelting, agglomeration etc. * Curing and Forming * Other Heating Waste heat is everywhere! Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc 3 Waste Heat Sources from Process Heating Equipment * Hot gases -

  19. Heat storage duration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Both the amount and duration of heat storage in massive elements of a passive building are investigated. Data taken for one full winter in the Balcomb solar home are analyzed with the aid of sub-system simulation models. Heat storage duration is tallied into one-day intervals. Heat storage location is discussed and related to overall energy flows. The results are interpreted and conclusions drawn.

  20. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    2014-05-06

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.