Sample records for biofuels product ethanol

  1. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbialtechnologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of workstrategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently

  2. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007) Cellulosic ethanol: biofuel researchers prepare toBiofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial welltechnologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work

  3. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc. Natl.Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: currentGenetic engineering of ethanol production in Escherichia

  4. Importance of systems biology in engineering microbes for biofuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TS, Steen E, Keasling JD: Biofuel Alternatives to ethanol:in engineering microbes for biofuel production Aindrila

  5. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc.187 24 Fukuda, H. et al. (2001) Biodiesel fuel production by26 Chisti, Y. (2007) Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol.

  6. Viability Studies of Biofuels Though biofuels (like ethanol) promise renewable "green" energy, these

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wendell T.

    Viability Studies of Biofuels Though biofuels (like ethanol) promise renewable "green" energy cannot possibly meet U.S. energy demands, and current methods of biofuel production often consume as much energy as they produce. If biofuels are to be viable long-term energy solutions, we need new sources

  7. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbialproducts, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so,producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the

  8. The in vitro characterization of heterologously expressed enzymes to inform in vivo biofuel production optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, David Ernest

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    enzymes to inform in vivo biofuel production optimization Byenzymes to inform in vivo biofuel production optimization byE & Keasling JD (2008) Biofuel alternatives to ethanol:

  9. A model for improving microbial biofuel production using a synthetic feedback loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunlop, Mary J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steen E, Keasling JD (2008) Biofuel alternatives to ethanol:gene expression. Microbial biofuel production is one areaet al. 2008). Typical biofuel production processes start

  10. Innovative Breakthrough Demonstrated for Biological Ethanol Production...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Biological Ethanol Production June 30, 2015 - 11:43am Addthis Advanced Biofuels Process Demonstration Unit at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Photo credit:...

  11. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortman, J. L.; Chhabra, Swapnil; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Chou, Howard; Lee, Taek Soon; Steen, Eric; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineered microorganisms are currently used for the production of food products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so, the enormous potential of this technology has yet to be fully exploited. The need for sustainable sources of transportation fuels has gener-ated a tremendous interest in technologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work have produced a considerable knowledge-base for the physiology and pathway engineering of microbes, making microbial engineering an ideal strategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the biofuel mar-ket, some of its inherent physical properties make it a less than ideal product. To highlight additional options, we review advances in microbial engineering for the production of other potential fuel molecules, using a variety of biosynthetic pathways.

  12. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortman, J.L.; Chhabra, Swapnil; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Chou, Howard; Lee, Taek Soon; Steen, Eric; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineered microorganisms are currently used for the production of food products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so, the enormous potential of this technology has yet to be fully exploited. The need for sustainable sources of transportation fuels has generated a tremendous interest in technologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work have produced a considerable knowledge-base for the physiology and pathway engineering of microbes, making microbial engineering an ideal strategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the biofuel market, some of its inherent physical properties make it a less than ideal product. To highlight additional options, we review advances in microbial engineering for the production of other potential fuel molecules, using a variety of biosynthetic pathways.

  13. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. (2006) Bonkers about biofuels. Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 755–Schubert, C. (2006) Can biofuels finally take center stage?

  14. Biofuel derived from Microalgae Corn-based Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    ) Comparing both Energy Sources (1) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Corn Microalgae Land Area Needed (M ha) 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 Corn Microalgae Oil Yield (L/ha) #12;Comparing both Energy Sources (2) BackgroundBiofuel derived from Microalgae Corn-based Ethanol #12;Outline · Production processes for each

  15. Assessments of biofuel sustainability: air pollution and health impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsao, Chi-Chung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt. Science 2008,of reactive nitrogen during biofuel ethanol production.of reactive nitrogen during biofuel ethanol production.

  16. Guiding optimal biofuels : a comparative analysis of the biochemical production of ethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters from switchgrass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paap, Scott M.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Dibble, Dean C.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Steen, Eric J. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA; Beller, Harry R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Keasling, Jay D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Chang, Shiyan [Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the current study, processes to produce either ethanol or a representative fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the fermentation of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic materials pretreated in acid or alkaline environments are analyzed in terms of economic and environmental metrics. Simplified process models are introduced and employed to estimate process performance, and Monte Carlo analyses were carried out to identify key sources of uncertainty and variability. We find that the near-term performance of processes to produce FAEE is significantly worse than that of ethanol production processes for all metrics considered, primarily due to poor fermentation yields and higher electricity demands for aerobic fermentation. In the longer term, the reduced cost and energy requirements of FAEE separation processes will be at least partially offset by inherent limitations in the relevant metabolic pathways that constrain the maximum yield potential of FAEE from biomass-derived sugars.

  17. Energy Analysis of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Energy Analysis of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle First Draft Tad W. Patzek Department of Civil legitimately ask: Why do the various energy balances of the corn-ethanol cycle still differ so much? Why do some authors claim that the corn-ethanol cycle has a positive net energy balance (Wang et al., 1997

  18. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  19. Water gunks up biofuels production | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gunks up biofuels production Water gunks up biofuels production Released: August 21, 2014 Findings provide scientific principles to speed up biofuel development Green gold -...

  20. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so,Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: currentethanol production, the advances are applicable to the production of a variety of fuel

  1. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thailand has continued to promote domestic biofuel utilization. Production and consumption of biofuel in Thailand have continued to increase at a fast rate due to aggressive policies of the Thai government in reducing foreign oil import and increasing domestic renewable energy utilization. This paper focuses on ethanol production and consumption, and the use of gasohol in Thailand. The paper is an update on the previous paper--Biofuel Infrastructure Development and Utilization in Thailand--in August 2008.

  2. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  3. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels Jason for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain inputs and more efficient conversion of feed- stocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum

  4. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethanol and plant-based biodiesel ( Box 1). Although bio-acid pathway Currently, biodiesel production uses plant oilsbeen developed for use as biodiesel. However, if biodiesel

  5. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion of biomass to biofuels has been the subject ofdiesel transport fuels with biofuels by 2010 [4]. Owing tobelieved that future biofuels will, by necessity, originate

  6. Biofuels and bio-products derived from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    NEED Biofuels and bio- products derived from lignocellulosic biomass (plant materials) are part improve the energy and carbon efficiencies of biofuels production from a barrel of biomass using chemical and thermal catalytic mechanisms. The Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels IMPACT

  7. A Prospective Target for Advanced Biofuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to bisabolane, an advanced biofuel with physico-chemical properties similar to D2 diesel. High titer microbial bisabolene production was achieved using Abies grandis...

  8. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and diesel transport fuels with biofuels by 2010 [4]. Owingtransport systems, the improvement of the resistance of biofuelstransport to consumers. Although discussion of the properties for the biofuels

  9. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and diesel transport fuels with biofuels by 2010 [4]. Owingtransport systems, the improvement of the resistance of biofuelstransport to consumers. Although discussion of the properties for the biofuels

  10. Thermodynamics of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    into Corn Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.11 Solar Energy Input into Corn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.5 Overall Energy Balance of the Corn-Ethanol Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 II.1 The Earth is an Open System to Heat Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 10.2 Conclusions

  11. High biofuel production of Botryococcus braunii using optimized cultivation strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Wei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates globalcultivation and biofuel production (www.lyxia.com).183 (2001) Amin S. Review on biofuel oil and gas production

  12. Second-Generation Biofuels from Multi-Product Biorefineries Combine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Second-Generation Biofuels from Multi-Product Biorefineries Combine Economic Sustainability With Environmental Sustainability Second-Generation Biofuels from Multi-Product...

  13. Chromatin landscaping in algae reveals novel regulation pathway for biofuels production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngan, Chew Yee

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    regulation pathway for biofuels production Chew Yee Ngan ,regulation pathway for biofuels production Chew Yee Ngan,for the development of biofuels. Biofuels are produced from

  14. Plant and microbial research seeks biofuel production from lignocellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartley, Laura E; Ronald, Pamela C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sugar yields for biofuel production. Nat Biotechnol 25(7):Plant and microbial research seeks biofuel production fromA key strategy for biofuel produc- tion is making use of the

  15. Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fingerman, Kevin Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The  United  States'  Biofuel  Policies   and  Compliance  Water  Impacts  of  Biofuel  Extend  Beyond   Irrigation."  for  assessing  sustainable  biofuel  production."  

  16. Ethanol production in non-recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Youngnyun; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-recombinant bacteria that produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product, associated nucleic acids and polypeptides, methods for producing ethanol using the bacteria, and kits are disclosed.

  17. F.O. Licht's 17th Annual World Ethanol & Biofuels Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The F.O. Licht's 17th Annual World Ethanol & Biofuels Conference will be held on November 3–6, 2014, in Budapest, Hungary. Valerie Reed, Deputy Director of the Bioenergy Technolgies Office will be serving on two panels: "Maintaining Next Generation Investments in the Years Ahead" on November 4 and "Putting Together a Constant Supply of Feedstocks for Advanced and Cellulosic Biofuels, Biochemicals and Aviation Fuels" on November 5.

  18. 2013 Survey of Non-Starch Ethanol and Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels Producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwab, A.; Geiger, J.; Lewis, J.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to understand the status of the industry for non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels as of the end of calendar year 2013, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the first of what is anticipated to be an annual survey of U.S. non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels producers. This report presents the results of this initial survey and describes the survey methodology. Subsequent surveys will report on the progress over time of the development of these facilities and companies.

  19. RESEARCH ARTICLE A model for improving microbial biofuel production using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunlop, Mary

    RESEARCH ARTICLE A model for improving microbial biofuel production using a synthetic feedback loop be compared. We propose a model for microbial biofuel production where a synthetic control system is used to increase cell viability and biofuel yields. Although microbes can be engineered to produce biofuels

  20. Consolidated Bio-Processing of Cellulosic Biomass for Efficient Biofuel Production Using Yeast Consortium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Garima

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass for Efficient Biofuel Production Using YeastBiomass for Efficient Biofuel Production Using YeastConsortium for efficient biofuel production: A New Candidate

  1. Structure and dynamics of the microbial communities underlying the carboxylate platform for biofuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollister, E.B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carboxylate platform for biofuel production E.B. Hollisterbiomass conversion and biofuel production. Keywords: mixedbiomass conversion and biofuel production. Materials and

  2. Comparative genomics of xylose-fermenting fungi for enhanced biofuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wohlbach, Dana J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fermenting fungi for enhanced biofuel production Dana J.fermenting fungi for enhanced biofuel production Dana J.fermenting fungi for enhanced biofuel production Dana J.

  3. Versatile microbial surface-display for environmental remediation and biofuels production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawkes, Daniel S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    engineering microbes for biofuels production. Science 315,xenobiotics remediation and biofuels production. TargetP. putida JS444 E. coli Biofuels Production Cellobiose

  4. Ethanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

    1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  5. Impacts of Climate Change on Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melillo, Jerry M. [Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this research project was to improve and use our biogeochemistry model, TEM, to simulate the effects of climate change and other environmental changes on the production of biofuel feedstocks. We used the improved version of TEM that is coupled with the economic model, EPPA, a part of MIT’s Earth System Model, to explore how alternative uses of land, including land for biofuels production, can help society meet proposed climate targets. During the course of this project, we have made refinements to TEM that include development of a more mechanistic plant module, with improved ecohydrology and consideration of plant-water relations, and a more detailed treatment of soil nitrogen dynamics, especially processes that add or remove nitrogen from ecosystems. We have documented our changes to TEM and used the model to explore the effects on production in land ecosystems, including changes in biofuels production.

  6. Increase in ethanol yield via elimination of lactate production in an ethanol-tolerant mutant of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Ranjita [ORNL] [ORNL; Prabhu, Sandeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth] [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Guss, Adam M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuel is a potential solution to sustainably meet global energy needs. One-step consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a potentially advantageous approach for the production of biofuels, but requires an organism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to sugars and fermenting the sugars to ethanol at commercially viable titers and yields. Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, can ferment cellulosic biomass to ethanol and organic acids, but low yield, low titer, and ethanol sensitivity remain barriers to industrial production. Here, we deleted the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in ethanol tolerant strain of C. thermocellum adhE*(EA) in order to allow use of previously developed gene deletion tools, then deleted lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) to redirect carbon flux towards ethanol. Upon deletion of ldh, the adhE*(EA) ldh strain produced 30% more ethanol than wild type on minimal medium. The adhE*(EA) ldh strain retained tolerance to 5% v/v ethanol, resulting in an ethanol tolerant platform strain of C. thermocellum for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  7. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Beall, David S. (Gainesville, FL); Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H. (Gainesville, FL); Guimaraes, Walter V. (Vicosa, BR); Ohta, Kazuyoshi (Miyazaki, JP); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL); Shanmugam, Keelnatham T. (Gainesville, FL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  8. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Horton, Philip G. (Gainesville, FL); Ben-Bassat, Arie (Gainesville, FL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  9. A model for improving microbial biofuel production using a synthetic feedback loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunlop, Mary

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for improving microbial biofuel production using a synthetica model for microbial biofuel production where a syntheticcell viability and biofuel yields. Although microbes can be

  10. Control and Optimization of Light Transfer in Photobioreactors Used for Biofuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandilian, Razmig

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sp. used for fixation and biofuel produc- tion”, Journal ofas feedstocks for biofuel production: per- spectives andPhotobioreactors Used for Biofuel Production A dissertation

  11. Manipulation of the Carbon Storage Regulator System for Metabolite Remodeling and Biofuel Production in Escherichia coli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    metabolite remodeling and biofuel production in Escherichiathrough engineered biofuel pathways. A) Overexpression ofPP, Keasling JD: Advanced biofuel production in microbes.

  12. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  13. Biofuels and Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Biofuels and Transportation Impacts and Uncertainties Some Observations of a Reformed Ethanol and Logistics Symposium 3 Topics · Why Biofuels · Ethanol Economics · Ethanol Transportation Equipment Biofuels? · National Security · Reduce Imports of oil · Peak Oil · Replace Fossil Resources

  14. Spatial Modeling of Geographic Patterns in Biodiversity and Biofuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spatial Modeling of Geographic Patterns in Biodiversity and Biofuel Production How can the US of biodiversity. The future of the biofuel industry will depend on public investment and trust that industry for increasing biofuel production have already come under fire because of real and perceived threats

  15. Global Biofuel Production and Food Security: Implications for Asia Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Biofuel Production and Food Security: Implications for Asia Pacific 56th AARES Annual Conference Fremantle, Western Australia 7-10 February 2012 William T. Coyle #12;Global Biofuel Production and Food Security: Making the Connection --Past analysis and the evidence about biofuels and spiking

  16. Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kudela, Raphael M.

    Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production Peer M. Schenk fuels make up a much larger share of the global energy demand (66%). Biofuels are therefore rapidly for transport fuels. Increasing biofuel production on arable land could have severe consequences for global food

  17. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuk Lee, Sung

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of microbial hosts for biofuels production. Metab Eng 2008,delivers next-generation biofuels. Nat Biotechnol 27.furfural (HMF). Biotechnol Biofuels 2008, 1:12. 40. Trinh

  18. Metabolic Engineering of oleaginous yeast for the production of biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tai, Mitchell

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The past few years have introduced a flurry of interest over renewable energy sources. Biofuels have gained attention as renewable alternatives to liquid transportation fuels. Microbial platforms for biofuel production ...

  19. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  20. Technoeconomic Comparison of Biofuels: Ethanol, Methanol, and Gasoline from Gasification of Woody Residues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarud, J.; Phillips, S.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides a technoeconomic comparison of three biofuels - ethanol, methanol, and gasoline - produced by gasification of woody biomass residues. The presentation includes a brief discussion of the three fuels evaluated; discussion of equivalent feedstock and front end processes; discussion of back end processes for each fuel; process comparisons of efficiencies, yields, and water usage; and economic assumptions and results, including a plant gate price (PGP) for each fuel.

  1. USDA Biofuels Strategic Production Report June 23, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    USDA Biofuels Strategic Production Report June 23, 2010 1 A USDA Regional Roadmap to Meeting the Biofuels Goals of the Renewable Fuels Standard by 2022 I. INTRODUCTION The U.S. Department of Agriculture. The strategy targets barriers to the development of a successful biofuels market that will achieve, or surpass

  2. Dekkera bruxellensis, a Non-conventional Ethanol Production Yeast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : risks and benefits 16 2.3 Bioethanol industry 17 3 Ethanol production overview 19 3.1 Industrial ethanol

  3. Multiphase Flow Modeling of Biofuel Production Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Gaston; D. P. Guillen; J. Tester

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Secure Energy Initiative, the INL is performing research in areas that are vital to ensuring clean, secure energy supplies for the future. The INL Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. HYTEST involves producing liquid fuels in a Hybrid Energy System (HES) by integrating carbon-based (i.e., bio-mass, oil-shale, etc.) with non-carbon based energy sources (i.e., wind energy, hydro, geothermal, nuclear, etc.). Advances in process development, control and modeling are the unifying vision for HES. This paper describes new modeling tools and methodologies to simulate advanced energy processes. Needs are emerging that require advanced computational modeling of multiphase reacting systems in the energy arena, driven by the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, which requires production of 36 billion gal/yr of biofuels by 2022, with 21 billion gal of this as advanced biofuels. Advanced biofuels derived from microalgal biomass have the potential to help achieve the 21 billion gal mandate, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Production of biofuels from microalgae is receiving considerable interest due to their potentially high oil yields (around 600 gal/acre). Microalgae have a high lipid content (up to 50%) and grow 10 to 100 times faster than terrestrial plants. The use of environmentally friendly alternatives to solvents and reagents commonly employed in reaction and phase separation processes is being explored. This is accomplished through the use of hydrothermal technologies, which are chemical and physical transformations in high-temperature (200-600 C), high-pressure (5-40 MPa) liquid or supercritical water. Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram of the production of biofuels from algae. Hydrothermal processing has significant advantages over other biomass processing methods with respect to separations. These 'green' alternatives employ a hybrid medium that, when operated supercritically, offers the prospect of tunable physicochemical properties. Solubility can be rapidly altered and phases partitioned selectively to precipitate or dissolve certain components by altering temperature or pressure in the near-critical region. The ability to tune the solvation properties of water in the highly compressible near-critical region facilitates partitioning of products or by-products into separate phases to separate and purify products. Since most challenges related to lipid extraction are associated with the industrial scale-up of integrated extraction systems, the new modeling capability offers the prospect of addressing previously untenable scaling issues.

  4. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022. Within the mandate, amounts of advanced biofuels, including biomass-based diesel and cellulosic biofuels, are required beginning in 2009. Imported renewable fuels are also eligible for the RFS. Another key U.S. policy is the $1.01 per gal tax credit for producers of cellulosic biofuels enacted as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. This credit, along with the DOE's research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs, are assumed to enable the rapid expansion of U.S. and global cellulosic biofuels production needed for the U.S. to approach the 2022 RFS goal. While the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has yet to issue RFS rules to determine which fuels would meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and land use restrictions specified in EISA, we assume that cellulosic ethanol, biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL), sugar-derived ethanol, and fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel would all meet the EISA advanced biofuel requirements. We also assume that enough U.S. corn ethanol would meet EISA's biofuel requirements or otherwise be grandfathered under EISA to reach 15 B gal per year.

  5. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    materials for efficient bioethanol production. Adv. Biochem.date, the optimization of bioethanol production has involvedREFERENCES 1 (2006) Bioethanol needs biotech now. Nat.

  6. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  7. Ethanol Production Tax Credit (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Qualified ethanol producers are eligible for an income tax credit of $1 per gallon of corn- or cellulosic-based ethanol that meets ASTM standard D4806. The total credit amount available for all...

  8. Sequencing of Multiple Clostridial Genomes Related to Biomass Conversion and Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemme, Christopher [University of Oklahoma; Mouttaki, Housna [University of Oklahoma; Lee, Yong-Jin [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; He, Zhili [University of Oklahoma; Wu, Liyou [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Van Nostrand, Joy [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Henrissat, Bernard [Universite d'Aix-Marseille I & II; HE, Qiang [ORNL; Lawson, Paul A. [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Tanner, Ralph S. [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Wiegel, Juergen [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Fields, Dr. Matthew Wayne [Montana State University; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Stevenson, Bradley S. [University of Oklahoma, Norman; McInerney, Michael J. [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Dong, Hailiang [Miami University, Oxford, OH; Xing, Defeng [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology; Ren, Nanqi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology; Wang, Aijie [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology; Ding, Shi-You [National Energy Renewable Laboratory; Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Taghavi, Safiyh [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)/U.S. Department of Energy; Van Der Lelie, Daniel [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Rubin, Edward M. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern methods to develop microbe-based biomass conversion processes require a system-level understanding of the microbes involved. Clostridium species have long been recognized as ideal candidates for processes involving biomass conversion and production of various biofuels and other industrial products. To expand the knowledge base for clostridial species relevant to current biofuel production efforts, we have sequenced the genomes of 20 species spanning multiple genera. The majority of species sequenced fall within the class III cellulosome-encoding Clostridium and the class V saccharolytic Thermoanaerobacteraceae. Species were chosen based on representation in the experimental literature as model organisms, ability to degrade cellulosic biomass either by free enzymes or by cellulosomes, ability to rapidly ferment hexose and pentose sugars to ethanol, and ability to ferment synthesis gas to ethanol. The sequenced strains significantly increase the number of noncommensal/nonpathogenic clostridial species and provide a key foundation for future studies of biomass conversion, cellulosome composition, and clostridial systems biology.

  9. Biofuel Production in the Western U.S.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuel Production in the Western U.S. March 25, 2015 Analysis & Sustainability Mark Wigmosta PNNL This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise...

  10. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    International report-out at the CTAB webinar on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production. ctabwebinarbiooilsproduction.pdf More Documents &...

  11. Assessing Impact of Biofuel Production on Regional Water Resource...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    12 webinar presentation on the environmental impacts attributable to wastewater from biofuels production. wuwebinar.pdf More Documents & Publications Breaking the Biological...

  12. BESC, Mascoma develop revolutionary microbe for biofuel production...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ron Walli Communications 865.576.0226 BESC, Mascoma develop revolutionary microbe for biofuel production A yeast engineered by Mascoma and BESC could hold the key to accelerating...

  13. Ethanol Distribution, Dispensing, and Use: Analysis of a Portion of the Biomass-to-Biofuels Supply Chain Using System Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L. J.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain-represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner's decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer's choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and widespread use of high ethanol blends in flexible-fuel vehicles.

  14. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Y. (2007) Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol. Adv. 25,fuel production using microalgae. J. Jpn. Pet. Inst. 48,Figure 1). Biodiesel from microalgae-derived lipids has been

  15. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand—2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Foster, Nikolas AF

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In spite of the recent political turmoil, Thailand has continued to develop its ethanol based alternative fuel supply and demand infrastructure. Its support of production and sales of ethanol contributed to more than doubling the production over the past five years alone. In April 2014, average consumption stood at 3.18 million liter per day- more than a third on its way to its domestic consumption goal of 9 million liters per day by 2021. Strong government incentives and the phasing out of non-blended gasoline contributed substantially. Concurrently, exports dropped significantly to their lowest level since 2011, increasing the pressure on Thai policy makers to best balance energy independency goals with other priorities, such as Thailand’s trade balance and environmental aspirations. Utilization of second generation biofuels might have the potential to further expand Thailand’s growing ethanol market. Thailand has also dramatically increased its higher ethanol blend vehicle fleet, with all new vehicles sold in the Thai market now being E20 capable and the number of E85 vehicles increasing three fold in the last year from 100,000 in 2013 to 300,000 in 2014.

  16. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model An update to...

  17. Radiation Characteristics of Botryococcus braunii, Chlorococcum littorale, and Chlorella sp. Used For CO2 Fixation and Biofuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berberoglu, Halil; Gomez, Pedro; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For CO 2 Fixation and Biofuel Production Halil Berberoglufor CO 2 mitigation and biofuel productions namely (i)this technology”, (2) culture of biofuel producing algae is

  18. Mapping the Potential for Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands: Differences in Definitions, Data and Models across Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Sarah M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. Land availability for biofuel production. Environ. Sci.of land available for biofuel production. Environ. Sci.so marginal land for biofuel crops is limited. Energy Policy

  19. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Clark, David P. (Carbondale, IL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  20. Methods of dealing with co-products of biofuels in life-cycle analysis and consequent results within the U.S. context.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Huo, H.; Arora, S. (Energy Systems)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Products other than biofuels are produced in biofuel plants. For example, corn ethanol plants produce distillers grains and solubles. Soybean crushing plants produce soy meal and soy oil, which is used for biodiesel production. Electricity is generated in sugarcane ethanol plants both for internal consumption and export to the electric grid. Future cellulosic ethanol plants could be designed to co-produce electricity with ethanol. It is important to take co-products into account in the life-cycle analysis of biofuels and several methods are available to do so. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the 'displacement method' or the 'substitution method') for life-cycle analyses, application of the method has been limited because of the difficulty in identifying and quantifying potential products to be displaced by biofuel co-products. As a result, some LCA studies and policy-making processes have considered alternative methods. In this paper, we examine the available methods to deal with biofuel co-products, explore the strengths and weaknesses of each method, and present biofuel LCA results with different co-product methods within the U.S. context.

  1. Directed Evolution of a Cellodextrin Transporter for Improved Biofuel Production Under Anaerobic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Huimin

    Directed Evolution of a Cellodextrin Transporter for Improved Biofuel Production Under Anaerobic that anaerobic biofuel production could be significantly improved via directed evolution of a sugar transporter: cellodextrin transporter; cellobiose utilization; cellulosic biofuel; anaerobic fermentation; directed

  2. A Realistic Technology and Engineering Assessment of Algae Biofuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quinn, Nigel

    Creek, California Energy Biosciences Institute University of California Berkeley of microalgae biofuels production through an analysis of five production scenarios. These scenarios, or cases, including raceway ponds for microalgae cultivation, bioflocculation for algae harvesting, and hexane

  3. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. CSTRs and CSTRs with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

  4. Ethanol Production, Distribution, and Use: Discussions on Key Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrow, G.

    2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    From production to the environment, presentation discusses issues surrounding ethanol as a transportation fuel.

  5. EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN U.S. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CORN GRAIN, CORN STOVER, AND SWITCHGRASS ON WORLD AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AND TRADE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campiche, Jody L.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    biofuel technologies in a CGE framework. However, most of these studies do not include both an explicit sector for agricultural biomass feedstocks and allow for joint products. The specific methods of this dissertation include: ii. Incorporate...% more energy than is produced. The net energy balance of biofuels is highly dependent on the particular biomass feedstock used to produce the biofuel. However, it is important to note that cellulosic ethanol is not currently produced on a large...

  6. EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN U.S. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CORN GRAIN, CORN STOVER, AND SWITCHGRASS ON WORLD AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AND TRADE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campiche, Jody L.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    biofuel technologies in a CGE framework. However, most of these studies do not include both an explicit sector for agricultural biomass feedstocks and allow for joint products. The specific methods of this dissertation include: ii. Incorporate...% more energy than is produced. The net energy balance of biofuels is highly dependent on the particular biomass feedstock used to produce the biofuel. However, it is important to note that cellulosic ethanol is not currently produced on a large...

  7. Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production: Commercial Facilities · Applicant's Legal Name: Yokayo Biofuels, Inc. · Name of project: A Catalyst for Success · Project Description: Yokayo Biofuels, an industry veteran with over 10 years experience

  8. Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production Transportation Energy The Issue Algae biofuels directly address the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research fuels more carbonintensive than conventional biofuels. Critics of this study argue that alternative

  9. Biofuels

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kalluri, Udaya

    2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Udaya Kalluri is part of a multidisciplinary scientific team working to unlock plants in order to create more potent biofuels without harsh processing.

  10. Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalluri, Udaya

    2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Udaya Kalluri is part of a multidisciplinary scientific team working to unlock plants in order to create more potent biofuels without harsh processing.

  11. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1980-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  12. Economic Policy and Resource Implications of Biofuel Feedstock Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adusumilli, Naveen

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Page 3-4 Net Biofuel Production From Biomass Feedstocks Taking Into Account The Net Energy Ratio Associated With Each Of The Biomass Feedstocks, Switchgrass And High Energy Sorghum In This Case....S. energy supply and the consequent impact on cost of production of biofuels, 4 4 expanding to a national analysis viewing the macro implications of the RFS related to biomass feedstock. The results are of value to decision and policy makers. 1...

  13. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  14. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  15. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  16. Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities Solicitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities biofuels production facility? A.1 An existing biofuels facility is an existing facility that, as of the application due date of PON-13-601, produces (or did produce) biofuels in California. Q.2 Must an eligible

  17. MN Center for Renewable Energy: Cellulosic Ethanol, Optimization of Bio-fuels in Internal Combustion Engines, & Course Development for Technicians in These Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Frey

    2009-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report for Grant #DE-FG02-06ER64241, MN Center for Renewable Energy, will address the shared institutional work done by Minnesota State University, Mankato and Minnesota West Community and Technical College during the time period of July 1, 2006 to December 30, 2008. There was a no-cost extension request approved for the purpose of finalizing some of the work. The grant objectives broadly stated were to 1) develop educational curriculum to train technicians in wind and ethanol renewable energy, 2) determine the value of cattails as a biomass crop for production of cellulosic ethanol, and 3) research in Optimization of Bio-Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines. The funding for the MN Center for Renewable Energy was spent on specific projects related to the work of the Center.

  18. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  19. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES USING ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED AND WETOXIDISED MANURE AS NUTRIENT AND WATER SUPPLY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    gasses, great interest has arisen in production of biofuels. The idea of combining biogas and bioethanol digested manure could instead be a cheap medium for bioethanol fermentation in combination with suitable SSF. Keywords: bio-ethanol, wet oxidation, agricultural residues. 1 INTRODUCTION In recent years, due

  20. Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  1. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  2. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  3. Crop Production Variability and U.S. Ethanol Mandates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Jason P.

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    the blending amount, including new requirements and ending with a 36 billion gallon obligation by 2022 (U.S. Congress 2007). The RFS2 mandates include specific targets for feedstock based ethanol, advanced biofuels, and biodiesel. Effects of RFS2 Mandates...

  4. RESEARCH Open Access Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    RESEARCH Open Access Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose steps to their practical usage for ethanol production. Ideally, a recombinant microorganism, possessing the capability to utilize cellulose for simultaneous growth and ethanol production, is of great interest. We have

  5. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    key to unlocking low-cost cellulosic ethanol. 2(1):26-40.1995 19941216. Commercial ethanol production process.facility and commercial ethanol production process.

  6. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    13 Javier Perez I II. ETHANOL FERMENTATION STUDIES A. B.Development Studies of Ethanol Production--------------- 19of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol." (June 1979) and (b)

  7. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EthanolOf Cellulose And Production Of Ethanol I Charles R. WilkeCELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of U.S.

  8. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1982 19801205. Ethanol and fuel product production.The first generation fuel ethanol is derived from starch andfor bioconversion to fuel ethanol because it not only

  9. Defossiling Fuel: How Synthetic Biology Can Transform Biofuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Defossiling Fuel: How Synthetic Biology Can Transform Biofuel Production David F. Savage , Jeffrey production is pre- dicted to peak soon, it is reason- able to assume that unconventional fossil fuel sources and economic energy volatility, and smoothing the transition from fossil fuels in the distant future

  10. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Biofuel production technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ................................................................................................... 5 3 Second-generation biofuels............................................................................................... 9 3.1 Second-generation biochemical biofuels................................................................. 10 3.2 Second-generation thermochemical biofuels

  11. High biofuel production of Botryococcus braunii using optimized cultivation strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Wei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from feedstock crops. Microalgae biofuels and differentproduction of biofuels from microalgae. One strategy toin the current world, microalgae biofuels provide such an

  12. Can feedstock production for biofuels be sustainable in California?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaffka, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tolife.org/biofuels. [US EPA] US Environmental Protection1–9. The path forward for biofuels and biomaterials. Scienceof individual assessment of biofuels. EMPA, Technology and

  13. Impacts of Biofuel Production and Navigation Impediments on Agricultural Transportation and Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmedov, Zafarbek

    2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigated the impacts of U.S. biofuel production and barge navigation impediments on agricultural transportation and markets. Both past and future impacts of U.S. biofuel production levels mandated by the Renewable Fuel Standards...

  14. Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation Christopher R. Knittel and Aaron proponents of ethanol have argued that ethanol production greatly lowers gasoline prices, with one industry group claiming it reduced gasoline prices by 89 cents in 2010 and $1.09 in 2011. The estimates have been

  15. Computer simulations suggest a new strategy to design enhanced enzymes for biofuels production.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Computer simulations suggest a new strategy to design enhanced enzymes for biofuels production in the production of biofuels. Glycosylation is the covalent attachment of carbohydrate molecules to protein side to designing enhanced enzymes for biofuels production. More generally, this work suggests that tuning

  16. Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Gas on recycled paper #12;1 Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production. Melillo*, John M. Reilly§ , and Sergey Paltsev§ Abstract The production of cellulosic biofuels may have

  17. Photobioreactor Design for Commercial Biofuel Production from Microalgae Aditya M. Kunjapur* and R. Bruce Eldridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eldridge, R. Bruce

    neutral fuel), and increased biofuel production would supplement nonrenewable energy sources.2 MicroalgaePhotobioreactor Design for Commercial Biofuel Production from Microalgae Aditya M. Kunjapur* and R This review paper describes systems used to cultivate microalgae for biofuel production. It addresses general

  18. Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ethanol Ethanol blend prices are generally 10 cents lower Net Ethanol price at wholesale today is more than 1.50+gal lower than gasoline. Higher blends may emerge in the...

  19. Physical Energy Accounting in California: A Case Study of Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie; Fridley, David

    2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    California's target for greenhouse gas reduction in part relies on the development of viable low-carbon fuel alternatives to gasoline. It is often assumed that cellulosic ethanol--ethanol made from the structural parts of a plant and not from the food parts--will be one of these alternatives. This study examines the physical viability of a switchgrass-based cellulosic ethanol industry in California from the point of view of the physical requirements of land, water, energy and other material use. Starting from a scenario in which existing irrigated pastureland and fiber-crop land is converted to switchgrass production, the analysis determines the total acreage and water supply available and the resulting total biofuel feedstock output under different assumed yields. The number and location of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries that can be supported is also determined, assuming that the distance from field to biorefinery would be minimized. The biorefinery energy input requirement, available energy from the fraction of biomass not converted to ethanol, and energy output is calculated at various levels of ethanol yields, making different assumptions about process efficiencies. The analysis shows that there is insufficient biomass (after cellulose separation and fermentation into ethanol) to provide all the process energy needed to run the biorefinery; hence, the purchase of external energy such as natural gas is required to produce ethanol from switchgrass. The higher the yield of ethanol, the more external energy is needed, so that the net gains due to improved process efficiency may not be positive. On 2.7 million acres of land planted in switchgrass in this scenario, the switchgrass outputproduces enough ethanol to substitute for only 1.2 to 4.0percent of California's gasoline consumption in 2007.

  20. Methods for the economical production of biofuel from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawkins, Andrew C; Glassner, David A; Buelter, Thomas; Wade, James; Meinhold, Peter; Peters, Matthew W; Gruber, Patrick R; Evanko, William A; Aristidou, Aristos A; Landwehr, Marco

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for producing a biofuel are provided. Also provided are biocatalysts that convert a feedstock to a biofuel.

  1. Biofuels from Corn Stover: Pyrolytic Production and Catalytic Upgrading Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capunitan, Jewel Alviar

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    explored, in an attempt to convert an abundant agricultural residue, corn stover, into potential bio-fuels. Pyrolysis of corn stover was carried out at 400, 500 and 600oC and at moderate pressure. Maximum bio-char yield of 37.3 wt.% and liquid product...

  2. Biofuel impacts on water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  3. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    60,700 ETHANOL RECOVERY Dist. Column CondenserF2 Steam Exchanger Ethanol Absorber 10 ft. diameter. 38Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," Progress Report, LBL-

  4. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BIOCONVERSION TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL BERKELEY PROGRAM--JulyXylose Fermentation to Ethanol (a) (b) Fusarium oxysporum (OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of

  5. PILOT PLANT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5 EthanolBazua, D.C. and C.R. Wilke, "Ethanol Effects on the Kineticsto the Production of Ethanol, LBL-5963. (Submitted to

  6. Tappable Pine Trees: Commercial Production of Terpene Biofuels in Pine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PETRO Project: The University of Florida is working to increase the amount of turpentine in harvested pine from 4% to 20% of its dry weight. While enhanced feedstocks for biofuels have generally focused on fuel production from leafy plants and grasses, the University of Florida is experimenting with enhancing fuel production in a species of pine that is currently used in the paper pulping industry. Pine trees naturally produce around 3-5% terpene content in the wood—terpenes are the energy-dense fuel molecules that are the predominant components of turpentine. The team aims to increase the terpene storage potential and production capacity while improving the terpene composition to a point at which the trees could be tapped while alive, like sugar maples. Growth and production from these trees will take years, but this pioneering technology could have significant impact in making available an economical and domestic source of aviation and diesel biofuels.

  7. Comparative genomics of xylose-fermenting fungi for enhanced biofuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasch, Audrey P.

    Comparative genomics of xylose-fermenting fungi for enhanced biofuel production Dana J. Wohlbacha for review February 24, 2011) Cellulosic biomass is an abundant and underused substrate for biofuel creates specific challenges for microbial biofuel production from cellulosic material. Although engineered

  8. Second-Generation Biofuels from Multi-Product Biorefineries Combine Economic Sustainability With Environmental Sustainability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3B—Integration of Supply Chains III: Algal Biofuels Strategy Second-Generation Biofuels from Multi-Product Biorefineries Combine Economic Sustainability With Environmental Sustainability Martin Sabarsky, Chief Executive Officer, Cellana

  9. Turning Bacteria into Biofuel: Development of an Integrated Microbial Electrocatalytic (MEC) System for Liquid Biofuel Production from CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: LBNL is improving the natural ability of a common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to use hydrogen and carbon dioxide for biofuel production. First, LBNL is genetically modifying the bacteria to produce biofuel at higher concentrations. Then, LBNL is using renewable electricity obtained from solar, wind, or wave power to produce high amounts of hydrogen in the presence of the bacteria—increasing the organism’s access to its energy source and improving the efficiency of the biofuel-creation process. Finally, LBNL is tethering electrocatalysts to the bacteria’s surface which will further accelerate the rate at which the organism creates biofuel. LBNL is also developing a chemical method to transform the biofuel that the bacteria produce into ready-to-use jet fuel.

  10. Energy Utilization in Fermentation Ethanol Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easley, C. E.

    be fermented to ethanol. The energy usage for this design is about 20,900 Btu per gallon of ethanol produced. WATER PARTIAL CONDENSER GRAIN MEA MIX 140?F 360?F FLASH TANK COOLING STEAM MALT COOKER FIGURE 1 - OLD STYLE MASHING SYSTEM Energy savings... ethanol. The basic process for fuel ethanol. as shown in Figure 3. involves steam stripping and rectification to produce 95 volume percent ethanol which is near the ethanol-water azeotropic composition. Except for the modest heat recovery provided...

  11. Biofuels from Microalgae: Review of Products, Processes and Potential, with Special Focus on Dunaliella sp.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Benemann, John R.

    2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There is currently great interest in using microalgae for the production of biofuels, mainly due to the fact that microalgae can produce biofuels at a much higher productivity than conventional plants and that they can be cultivated using water, in particular seawater, and land not competing for resources with conventional agriculture. However, at present such microalgae-based technologies are not yet developed and the economics of such processes are uncertain. We review power generation by direct combustion, production of hydrogen and other fuel gases and liquids by gasification and pyrolysis, methane generation by anaerobic digestion, ethanol fermentations, and hydrogen production by dark and light-driven metabolism. We in particular discuss the production of lipids, vegetable oils and hydrocarbons, which could be converted to biodiesel. Direct combustion for power generation has two major disadvantages in that the high N-content of algal biomass causes unacceptably high NOx emissions and losses of nitrogen fertilizer. Thus, the use of sun-dried microalgal biomass would not be cost-competitive with other solid fuels such as coal and wood. Thermochemical conversion processes such as gasification and pyrolysis have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory but will be difficult to scale up commercially and suffers from similar, though sometimes not as stringent, limitations as combustion. Anaerobic digestion of microalgal cells yields only about 0.3 L methane per g volatile solids destroyed, about half of the maximum achievable, but yields can be increased by adding carbon rich substrates to circumvent ammonia toxicity caused by the N-rich algal biomass. Anaerobic digestion would be best suited for the treatment of algal biomass waste after value-added products have been separated. Algae can also be grown to accumulate starches or similar fermentable products, and ethanol or similar (e.g., butanol) fermentations could be applied to such biomass, but research is required on increasing solvent yields. Dark fermentation of algal biomass can also produce hydrogen, but, as for other fermentations, only at low yields. Hydrogen can also be generated by algae in the light, however, this process has not yet been demonstrated in any way that could be scaled up and, in any event, Dunaliella, is not known to produce hydrogen. In response to nutrient deficiency (nitrogen or silicon), some microalgae accumulate neutral lipids which, after physical extraction, could be converted, via transesterification with methanol, to biodiesel. Nitrogen-limitation does not appear to increase either cellular lipid content or lipid productivity in Dunaliella. Results from life cycle energy analyses indicate that cultivation of microalgal biomass in open raceway ponds has a positive energy output ratio (EOR), approaching up to 10 (i.e., the caloric energy output from the algae is 10 times greater than the fossil energy inputs), but EOR are less than 1 for biomass grown in engineered photobioreactors. Thus, from both an energetic as well as economic perspective, only open ponds systems can be considered. Significant long-term R&D will be required to make microalgal biofuels processes economically competitive. Specifically, future research should focus on (a) the improvement of biomass productivities (i.e., maximizing solar conversion efficiencies), (b) the selection and isolation of algal strains that can be mass cultured and maintained stably for long periods, (c) the production of algal biomass with a high content of lipids, carbohydrates, and co-products, at high productivity, (d) the low cost harvesting of the biomass, and (e) the extraction and conversion processes to actually derive the biofuels. For Dunaliella specifically, the highest potential is in the co-production of biofuels with high-value animal feeds based on their carotenoid content.

  12. High biofuel production of Botryococcus braunii using optimized cultivation strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Wei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2009) 55. M. Tredici, Biofuels, 1: 143 (2010) 56. Q. Hu, A.Barbosa, M. H. M. Eppink, Biofuels Bioproducts Biorefining,and recent trends in biofuels. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. ,

  13. Biofuels and Regulatory Co-Production Critical Stakeholder Perceptions of Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    Biofuels and Regulatory Co-Production Critical Stakeholder Perceptions of Carbon and Sustainability are the responsibility of the author(s) alone and not the Tyndall Centre. #12; BIOFUELS AND REGULATORY and, to a lesser extent, industry, stakeholder views on biofuels as of late

  14. Diagram of the Biofuel Production Process (SPORL -Alcohol Production):Introduction: The Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA) is an organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Diagram of the Biofuel Production Process (SPORL - Alcohol Production):Introduction: The Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA) is an organization that aims to create a sustainable aviation biofuels to determine the atmospheric emissions and emission sources that may be released from proposed NARA biofuels

  15. Plant and microbial research seeks biofuel production from lignocellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartley, Laura E; Ronald, Pamela C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the drawbacks of ethanol fuel, researchers are alsoproduction of ethanol and biodiesel fuels from food cropslignin. Furthermore, ethanol as a fuel is not optimal; it

  16. National Microalgae Biofuel Production Potential and Resource Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Huesemann, Michael H.; Lane, Leonard J.

    2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Microalgae continue to receive global attention as a potential sustainable "energy crop" for biofuel production. An important step to realizing the potential of algae is quantifying the demands commercial-scale algal biofuel production will place on water and land resources. We present a high-resolution national resource and oil production assessment that brings to bear fundamental research questions of where open pond microalgae production can occur, how much land and water resource is required, and how much energy is produced. Our study suggests under current technology microalgae have the potential to generate 220 billion liters/year of oil, equivalent to 48% of current U.S. petroleum imports for transportation fuels. However, this level of production would require 5.5% of the land area in the conterminous U.S., and nearly three times the volume of water currently used for irrigated agriculture, averaging 1,421 L water per L of oil. Optimizing the selection of locations for microalgae production based on water use efficiency can greatly reduce total water demand. For example, focusing on locations along the Gulf Coast, Southeastern Seaboard, and areas adjacent to the Great Lakes, shows a 75% reduction in water demand to 350 L per L of oil produced with a 67% reduction in land use. These optimized locations have the potential to generate an oil volume equivalent to 17% of imports for transportation fuels, equal to the Energy Independence and Security Act year 2022 "advanced biofuels" production target, and utilizing some 25% of the current irrigation consumptive water demand for the U. S. These results suggest that, with proper planning, adequate land and water are available to meet a significant portion of the U.S. renewable fuel goals.

  17. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  18. Development of Agave as a dedicated biomass source: production of biofuels from whole plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Mielenz, Jonathan R [White Cliff Biosystems, Rockwood, Tennessee; Rodriguez Jr, Miguel [ORNL; Thompson, Olivia A [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Yin, Hengfu [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Agave species can grow well in semi-arid marginal agricultural lands around the world. Selected Agave species are used largely for alcoholic beverage production in Mexico. There are expanding research efforts to use the plentiful residues (bagasse) for ethanol production as the beverage manufacturing process only uses the juice from the central core of mature plants. Here we investigate the potential of over a dozen Agave species, including three from cold semi-arid regions of the United States, to produce biofuels using the whole plant. Results: Ethanol was readily produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from hydrolysate of ten whole Agaves with the use of a proper blend of biomass degrading enzymes that overcomes toxicity of most of the species tested. Unlike yeast fermentations, Clostridium beijerinckii produced butanol plus acetone from nine species tested. Butyric acid, a precursor of butanol, was also present due to incomplete conversion during the screening process. Since Agave contains high levels of free and poly-fructose which are readily destroyed by acidic pretreatment, a two step process was used developed to depolymerized poly-fructose while maintaining its fermentability. The hydrolysate from before and after dilute acid processing was used in C. beijerinckii acetone and butanol fermentations with selected Agave species. Conclusions: Results have shown Agave s potential to be a source of fermentable sugars beyond the existing beverage species to now include species previously unfermentable by yeast, including cold tolerant lines. This development may stimulate development of Agave as a dedicated feedstock for biofuels in semi-arid regions throughout the globe.

  19. Assessments of biofuel sustainability: air pollution and health impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsao, Chi-Chung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.Use of US croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gasesovercome carbon savings from biofuels in Brazil. Proc. Natl.

  20. Environmental indicators for sustainable production of algal biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For analyzing sustainability of algal biofuels, we identify 16 environmental indicators that fall into six categories: soil quality, water quality and quantity, air quality, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, and productivity. Indicators are selected to be practical, widely applicable, predictable in response, anticipatory of future changes, independent of scale, and responsive to management. Major differences between algae and terrestrial plant feedstocks, as well as their supply chains for biofuel, are highlighted, for they influence the choice of appropriate sustainability indicators. Algae strain selection characteristics do not generally affect which indicators are selected. The use of water instead of soil as the growth medium for algae determines the higher priority of water- over soil-related indicators. The proposed set of environmental indicators provides an initial checklist for measures of biofuel sustainability but may need to be modified for particular contexts depending on data availability, goals of the stakeholders, and financial constraints. Use of these indicators entails defining sustainability goals and targets in relation to stakeholder values in a particular context and can lead to improved management practices.

  1. Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 joint quarterly Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Todd Sneller (Nebraska Ethanol Board) discussed the food versus fuel issue.

  2. PETRO: Higher Productivity Crops for Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PETRO Project: The 10 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s PETRO Project, short for “Plants Engineered to Replace Oil,” aim to develop non-food crops that directly produce transportation fuel. These crops can help supply the transportation sector with agriculturally derived fuels that are cost-competitive with petroleum and do not affect U.S. food supply. PETRO aims to redirect the processes for energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in plants toward fuel production. This would create dedicated energy crops that serve as a domestic alternative to petroleum-based fuels and deliver more energy per acre with less processing prior to the pump.

  3. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  4. A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric Analysis of Starch Solutions (1 Activity) A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric...

  5. A model for improving microbial biofuel production using a synthetic feedback loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunlop, Mary; Keasling, Jay; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Cells use feedback to implement a diverse range of regulatory functions. Building synthetic feedback control systems may yield insight into the roles that feedback can play in regulation since it can be introduced independently of native regulation, and alternative control architectures can be compared. We propose a model for microbial biofuel production where a synthetic control system is used to increase cell viability and biofuel yields. Although microbes can be engineered to produce biofuels, the fuels are often toxic to cell growth, creating a negative feedback loop that limits biofuel production. These toxic effects may be mitigated by expressing efflux pumps that export biofuel from the cell. We developed a model for cell growth and biofuel production and used it to compare several genetic control strategies for their ability to improve biofuel yields. We show that controlling efflux pump expression directly with a biofuel-responsive promoter is a straight forward way of improving biofuel production. In addition, a feed forward loop controller is shown to be versatile at dealing with uncertainty in biofuel production rates.

  6. Economics of Current and Future Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, L.; Aden, A.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents detailed comparative analysis on the production economics of both current and future biofuels, including ethanol, biodiesel, and butanol. Our objectives include demonstrating the impact of key parameters on the overall process economics (e.g., plant capacity, raw material pricing, and yield) and comparing how next-generation technologies and fuels will differ from today's technologies. The commercialized processes and corresponding economics presented here include corn-based ethanol, sugarcane-based ethanol, and soy-based biodiesel. While actual full-scale economic data are available for these processes, they have also been modeled using detailed process simulation. For future biofuel technologies, detailed techno-economic data exist for cellulosic ethanol from both biochemical and thermochemical conversion. In addition, similar techno-economic models have been created for n-butanol production based on publicly available literature data. Key technical and economic challenges facing all of these biofuels are discussed.

  7. An Integrative Modeling Framework to Evaluate the Productivity and Sustainability of Biofuel Crop Production Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; West, T. O.; Post, W. M.; Thomson, Allison M.; Bandaru, V. P.; Nichols, J.; Williams, J.R.

    2010-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential expansion of biofuel production raises food, energy, and environmental challenges that require careful assessment of the impact of biofuel production on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, nutrient loading, and water quality. In this study, we describe a spatially-explicit integrative modeling framework (SEIMF) to understand and quantify the environmental impacts of different biomass cropping systems. This SEIMF consists of three major components: 1) a geographic information system (GIS)-based data analysis system to define spatial modeling units with resolution of 56 m to address spatial variability, 2) the biophysical and biogeochemical model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) applied in a spatially-explicit way to predict biomass yield, GHG emissions, and other environmental impacts of different biofuel crops production systems, and 3) an evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithm for exploring the trade-offs between biofuel energy production and unintended ecosystem-service responses. Simple examples illustrate the major functions of the SEIMF when applied to a 9-county Regional Intensive Modeling Area (RIMA) in SW Michigan to 1) simulate biofuel crop production, 2) compare impacts of management practices and local ecosystem settings, and 3) optimize the spatial configuration of different biofuel production systems by balancing energy production and other ecosystem-service variables. Potential applications of the SEIMF to support life cycle analysis and provide information on biodiversity evaluation and marginal-land identification are also discussed. The SEIMF developed in this study is expected to provide a useful tool for scientists and decision makers to understand sustainability issues associated with the production of biofuels at local, regional, and national scales.

  8. An integrative modeling framework to evaluate the productivity and sustainability of biofuel crop production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X [University of Maryland; Izaurralde, R. C. [University of Maryland; Manowitz, D. [University of Maryland; West, T. O. [University of Maryland; Thomson, A. M. [University of Maryland; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Bandaru, Vara Prasad [ORNL; Nichols, Jeff [ORNL; Williams, J. [AgriLIFE, Temple, TX

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential expansion of biofuel production raises food, energy, and environmental challenges that require careful assessment of the impact of biofuel production on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, nutrient loading, and water quality. In this study, we describe a spatially explicit integrative modeling framework (SEIMF) to understand and quantify the environmental impacts of different biomass cropping systems. This SEIMF consists of three major components: (1) a geographic information system (GIS)-based data analysis system to define spatial modeling units with resolution of 56 m to address spatial variability, (2) the biophysical and biogeochemical model Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) applied in a spatially-explicit way to predict biomass yield, GHG emissions, and other environmental impacts of different biofuel crops production systems, and (3) an evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithm for exploring the trade-offs between biofuel energy production and unintended ecosystem-service responses. Simple examples illustrate the major functions of the SEIMF when applied to a nine-county Regional Intensive Modeling Area (RIMA) in SW Michigan to (1) simulate biofuel crop production, (2) compare impacts of management practices and local ecosystem settings, and (3) optimize the spatial configuration of different biofuel production systems by balancing energy production and other ecosystem-service variables. Potential applications of the SEIMF to support life cycle analysis and provide information on biodiversity evaluation and marginal-land identification are also discussed. The SEIMF developed in this study is expected to provide a useful tool for scientists and decision makers to understand sustainability issues associated with the production of biofuels at local, regional, and national scales.

  9. Recombinant host cells and media for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Brent E; Ingram, Lonnie O; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are recombinant host cells suitable for degrading an oligosaccharide that have been optimized for growth and production of high yields of ethanol, and methods of making and using these cells. The invention further provides minimal media comprising urea-like compounds for economical production of ethanol by recombinant microorganisms. Recombinant host cells in accordance with the invention are modified by gene mutation to eliminate genes responsible for the production of unwanted products other than ethanol, thereby increasing the yield of ethanol produced from the oligosaccharides, relative to unmutated parent strains. The new and improved strains of recombinant bacteria are capable of superior ethanol productivity and yield when grown under conditions suitable for fermentation in minimal growth media containing inexpensive reagents. Systems optimized for ethanol production combine a selected optimized minimal medium with a recombinant host cell optimized for use in the selected medium. Preferred systems are suitable for efficient ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as an oligosaccharide source. The invention also provides novel isolated polynucleotide sequences, polypeptide sequences, vectors and antibodies.

  10. %22Trojan Horse%22 strategy for deconstruction of biomass for biofuels production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Sinclair, Michael B.; Yu, Eizadora; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Hadi, Masood Z.; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of renewable biofuels to displace fossil fuels currently consumed in the transportation sector is a pressing multiagency national priority (DOE/USDA/EERE). Currently, nearly all fuel ethanol is produced from corn-derived starch. Dedicated 'energy crops' and agricultural waste are preferred long-term solutions for renewable, cheap, and globally available biofuels as they avoid some of the market pressures and secondary greenhouse gas emission challenges currently facing corn ethanol. These sources of lignocellulosic biomass are converted to fermentable sugars using a variety of chemical and thermochemical pretreatments, which disrupt cellulose and lignin cross-links, allowing exogenously added recombinant microbial enzymes to more efficiently hydrolyze the cellulose for 'deconstruction' into glucose. This process is plagued with inefficiencies, primarily due to the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, mass transfer issues during deconstruction, and low activity of recombinant deconstruction enzymes. Costs are also high due to the requirement for enzymes and reagents, and energy-intensive cumbersome pretreatment steps. One potential solution to these problems is found in synthetic biology-engineered plants that self-produce a suite of cellulase enzymes. Deconstruction can then be integrated into a one-step process, thereby increasing efficiency (cellulose-cellulase mass-transfer rates) and reducing costs. The unique aspects of our approach are the rationally engineered enzymes which become Trojan horses during pretreatment conditions. During this study we rationally engineered Cazy enzymes and then integrated them into plant cells by multiple transformation techniques. The regenerated plants were assayed for first expression of these messages and then for the resulting proteins. The plants were then subjected to consolidated bioprocessing and characterized in detail. Our results and possible implications of this work on developing dedicated energy crops and their advantage in a consolidated bioprocessing system.

  11. Predicting the adsorption of second generation biofuels by polymeric resins with applications for in situ product recovery (ISPR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, David R.

    The application of hydrophobic polymeric resins as solid-phase adsorbent materials for the recovery and purification of prospective second generation biofuel compounds, including ethanol, iso-propanol, n-propanol, iso-butanol, ...

  12. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB). Users' manual and technical documentation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, S; Dunn, JB; Wang, M (Energy Systems); (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago)

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released May 31, 2012 which includes corn, as did the previous CCLUB version, and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, miscanthus, and switchgrass. CCLUB calculations are based upon two data sets: land change areas and above- and below-ground carbon content. Table 1 identifies where these data are stored and used within the CCLUB model, which is built in MS Excel. Land change area data is from Purdue University's Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model, a computable general equilibrium (CGE) economic model. Section 2 describes the GTAP data CCLUB uses and how these data were modified to reflect shrubland transitions. Feedstock- and spatially-explicit below-ground carbon content data for the United States were generated with a surrogate model for CENTURY's soil organic carbon sub-model (Kwon and Hudson 2010) as described in Section 3. CENTURY is a soil organic matter model developed by Parton et al. (1987). The previous CCLUB version used more coarse domestic carbon emission factors. Above-ground non-soil carbon content data for forest ecosystems was sourced from the USDA/NCIAS Carbon Online Estimator (COLE) as explained in Section 4. We discuss emission factors used for calculation of international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Section 5. Temporal issues associated with modeling LUC emissions are the topic of Section 6. Finally, in Section 7 we provide a step-by-step guide to using CCLUB and obtaining results.

  13. Biofuel Production Initiative at Claflin University Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Kamal

    2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    For US transportation fuel independence or reduced dependence on foreign oil, the Federal Government has mandated that the country produce 36 billion gallons (bg) of renewable transportation fuel per year for its transportation fuel supply by 2022. This can be achieved only if development of efficient technology for second generation biofuel from ligno-cellulosic sources is feasible. To be successful in this area, development of a widely available, renewable, cost-effective ligno-cellulosic biomass feedstock that can be easily and efficiently converted biochemically by bacteria or other fast-growing organisms is required. Moreover, if the biofuel type is butanol, then the existing infrastructure to deliver fuel to the customer can be used without additional costs and retrofits. The Claflin Biofuel Initiative project is focused on helping the US meet the above-mentioned targets. With support from this grant, Claflin University (CU) scientists have created over 50 new strains of microorganisms that are producing butanol from complex carbohydrates and cellulosic compounds. Laboratory analysis shows that a number of these strains are producing higher percentages of butanol than other methods currently in use. All of these recombinant bacterial strains are producing relatively high concentrations of acetone and numerous other byproducts as well. Therefore, we are carrying out intense mutations in the selected strains to reduce undesirable byproducts and increase the desired butanol production to further maximize the yield of butanol. We are testing the proof of concept of producing pre-industrial large scale biobutanol production by utilizing modifications of currently commercially available fermentation technology and instrumentation. We have already developed an initial process flow diagram (PFD) and selected a site for a biobutanol pilot scale facility in Orangeburg, SC. With the recent success in engineering new strains of various biofuel producing bacteria at CU, it will soon be possible to provide other technical information for the development of process flow diagrams (PFD’s) and piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID’s). This information can be used for the equipment layout and general arrangement drawings for the proposed process and eventual plant. An efficient bio-butanol pilot plant to convert ligno-cellulosic biomass feedstock from bagasse and wood chips will create significant number of green jobs for the Orangeburg, SC community that will be environmentally-friendly and generate much-needed income for farmers in the area.

  14. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biochemical Scenarios for Production of Cellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazi, F. K.; Fortman, J.; Anex, R.; Kothandaraman, G.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Dutta, A.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A techno-economic analysis on the production of cellulosic ethanol by fermentation was conducted to understand the viability of liquid biofuel production processes within the next 5-8 years. Initially, 35 technologies were reviewed, then a two-step down selection was performed to choose scenarios to be evaluated in a more detailed economic analysis. The lignocellulosic ethanol process was selected because it is well studied and portions of the process have been tested at pilot scales. Seven process variations were selected and examined in detail. Process designs were constrained to public data published in 2007 or earlier, without projecting for future process improvements. Economic analysis was performed for an 'nth plant' (mature technology) to obtain total investment and product value (PV). Sensitivity analysis was performed on PV to assess the impact of variations in process and economic parameters. Results show that the modeled dilute acid pretreatment process without any downstream process variation had the lowest PV of $3.40/gal of ethanol ($5.15/gallon of gasoline equivalent) in 2007 dollars. Sensitivity analysis shows that PV is most sensitive to feedstock and enzyme costs.

  15. Technical Feasibility Study on Biofuels Production from Pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis oculata and Algal Bio-oil Upgrading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maguyon, Monet

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing environmental concerns over greenhouse gas emissions, depleting petroleum reserves and rising oil prices has stimulated interest on biofuels production from biomass sources. This study explored on biofuels production from pyrolysis...

  16. Ethanol Myths and Facts | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ethanol Myths and Facts Ethanol Myths and Facts Ethanol Myths and Facts More Documents & Publications Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts Microsoft Word -...

  17. Uncertainty in techno-economic estimates of cellulosic ethanol production due to experimental measurement uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vicari, Kristin Jenise

    Abstract Background Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuels remains a major financial and technical challenge at the industrial scale. A critical tool in biofuels process development is the techno-economic ...

  18. Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose by an engineered yeast consortium displaying a functional mini-cellulosome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Garima; Tsai, Shen-Long; Madan, Bhawna; DaSilva, Nancy A; Chen, Wilfred

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulase, clostridia, and ethanol. Microbiol Mol Biol RevNext- generation cellulosic ethanol technologies and theirProduction of cellulosic ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  19. FERMENTATION OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BY MICROORGANISMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, S.L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Fermentation of Xylose to Ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum,OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BYPYRUVATE V~ P a-ACETOLACTATE ETHANOL CoA AC ETA LDE HYDE V

  20. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of22 Mohammad Riaz ETHANOL FERMENTATION STUDIES II I. A. B.Hydrolyzates to Ethanol J2 Ren-Der Yang

  1. Agriculture - Sustainable biofuels Redux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, G. Phillip [W.K. Kellogg Biological Station and Great Lakes Bioenergy Research; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Doering, Otto C. [Purdue University; Hamburg, Steven P [Brown University; Melillo, Jerry M [ORNL; Wander, Michele M [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Parton, William [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Last May's passage of the 2008 Farm Bill raises the stakes for biofuel sustainability: A substantial subsidy for the production of cellulosic ethanol starts the United States again down a path with uncertain environmental consequences. This time, however, the subsidy is for both the refiners ($1.01 per gallon) and the growers ($45 per ton of biomass), which will rapidly accelerate adoption and place hard-to-manage pressures on efforts to design and implement sustainable production practices - as will a 2007 legislative mandate for 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol per year by 2022. Similar directives elsewhere, e.g., the European Union's mandate that 10% of all transport fuel in Europe be from renewable sources by 2020, make this a global issue. The European Union's current reconsideration of this target places even more emphasis on cellulosic feedstocks (1). The need for knowledge- and science-based policy is urgent. Biofuel sustainability has environmental, economic, and social facets that all interconnect. Tradeoffs among them vary widely by types of fuels and where they are grown and, thus, need to be explicitly considered by using a framework that allows the outcomes of alternative systems to be consistently evaluated and compared. A cellulosic biofuels industry could have many positive social and environmental attributes, but it could also suffer from many of the sustainability issues that hobble grain-based biofuels, if not implemented the right way.

  2. Increasing corn for biofuel production reduces biocontrol services in agricultural landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landis, Doug

    November 5, 2008 (received for review May 22, 2008) Increased demand for corn grain as an ethanol feedstock of cellulosic ethanol production processes that use a variety of feedstocks could foster increased diversity has driven a rapid expansion of the corn ethanol industry in the United States. Continuing growth

  3. Exploring Potential U.S. Switchgrass Production for Lignocellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; Davis, Ethan [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to concerns about oil dependency and the contributions of fossil fuel use to climatic change, the U.S. Department of Energy has begun a research initiative to make 20% of motor fuels biofuel based in 10 years, and make 30% of fuels bio-based by 2030. Fundamental to this objective is developing an understanding of feedstock dynamics of crops suitable for cellulosic ethanol production. This report focuses on switchgrass, reviewing the existing literature from field trials across the United States, and compiling it for the first time into a single database. Data available from the literature included cultivar and crop management information, and location of the field trial. For each location we determined latitude and longitude, and used this information to add temperature and precipitation records from the nearest weather station. Within this broad database we were able to identify the major sources of variation in biomass yield, and to characterize yield as a function of some of the more influential factors, e.g., stand age, ecotype, precipitation and temperature in the year of harvest, site latitude, and fertilization regime. We then used a modeling approach, based chiefly on climatic factors and ecotype, to predict potential yields for a given temperature and weather pattern (based on 95th percentile response curves), assuming the choice of optimal cultivars and harvest schedules. For upland ecotype varieties, potential yields were as high as 18 to 20 Mg/ha, given ideal growing conditions, whereas yields in lowland ecotype varieties could reach 23 to 27 Mg/ha. The predictive equations were used to produce maps of potential yield across the continental United States, based on precipitation and temperature in the long term climate record, using the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Potential yields calculated via this characterization were subsequently compared to the Oak Ridge Energy Crop County Level data base (ORECCL), which was created at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Graham et al. 1996) to predict biofuel crop yields at the county level within a limited geographic area. Mapped output using the model was relatively consistent with known switchgrass distribution. It correctly showed higher yields for lowland switchgrass when compared with upland varieties at most locations. Projections for the most northern parts of the range suggest comparable yields for the two ecotypes, but inadequate data for lowland ecotypes grown at high latitudes make it difficult to fully assess this projection. The final model is a predictor of optimal yields for a given climate scenario, but does not attempt to identify or account for other limiting or interacting factors. The statistical model is nevertheless an improvement over historical efforts, in that it is based on quantifiable climatic differences, and it can be used to extrapolate beyond the historic range of switchgrass. Additional refinement of the current statistical model, or the use of different empirical or process-based models, might improve the prediction of switchgrass yields with respect to climate and interactions with cultivar and management practices, assisting growers in choosing high-yielding cultivars within the context of local environmental growing conditions.

  4. Use of tamarisk as a potential feedstock for biofuel production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Norman, Kirsten

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the energy and water use of saltcedar (or tamarisk) as biomass for biofuel production in a hypothetical sub-region in New Mexico. The baseline scenario consists of a rural stretch of the Middle Rio Grande River with 25% coverage of mature saltcedar that is removed and converted to biofuels. A manufacturing system life cycle consisting of harvesting, transportation, pyrolysis, and purification is constructed for calculating energy and water balances. On a dry short ton woody biomass basis, the total energy input is approximately 8.21 mmBTU/st. There is potential for 18.82 mmBTU/st of energy output from the baseline system. Of the extractable energy, approximately 61.1% consists of bio-oil, 20.3% bio-char, and 18.6% biogas. Water consumptive use by removal of tamarisk will not impact the existing rate of evapotranspiration. However, approximately 195 gal of water is needed per short ton of woody biomass for the conversion of biomass to biocrude, three-quarters of which is cooling water that can be recovered and recycled. The impact of salt presence is briefly assessed. Not accounted for in the baseline are high concentrations of Calcium, Sodium, and Sulfur ions in saltcedar woody biomass that can potentially shift the relative quantities of bio-char and bio-oil. This can be alleviated by a pre-wash step prior to the conversion step. More study is needed to account for the impact of salt presence on the overall energy and water balance.

  5. Methods for increasing the production of ethanol from microbial fermentation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Arora, Dinesh K. (Fayetteville, AR); Ko, Ching-Whan (Fayetteville, AR); Phillips, John Randall (Fayetteville, AR); Basu, Rahul (Bethlehem, PA); Wikstrom, Carl V. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A stable continuous method for producing ethanol from the anaerobic bacterial fermentation of a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas involves culturing a fermentation bioreactor anaerobic, acetogenic bacteria in a liquid nutrient medium; supplying the gaseous substrate to the bioreactor; and manipulating the bacteria in the bioreactor by reducing the redox potential, or increasing the NAD(P)H TO NAD(P) ratio, in the fermentation broth after the bacteria achieves a steady state and stable cell concentration in the bioreactor. The free acetic acid concentration in the bioreactor is maintained at less than 5 g/L free acid. This method allows ethanol to be produced in the fermentation broth in the bioreactor at a productivity greater than 10 g/L per day. Both ethanol and acetate are produced in a ratio of ethanol to acetate ranging from 1:1 to 20:1.

  6. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuk Lee, Sung; Chou, Howard; Ham, Timothy S.; Soon Lee, Taek; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to generate microorganisms that can produce biofuels similar to petroleum-based transportation fuels would allow the use of existing engines and infrastructure and would save an enormous amount of capital required for replacing the current infrastructure to accommodate biofuels that have properties significantly different from petroleum-based fuels. Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of manipulating microbes to produce molecules similar to petroleum-derived products, albeit at relatively low productivity (e.g. maximum butanol production is around 20 g/L). For cost-effective production of biofuels, the fuel-producing hosts and pathways must be engineered and optimized. Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for metabolic engineers to better understand how to rewire the cell in order to create the desired phenotypes for the production of economically viable biofuels.

  7. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; McBride, Allen [ORNL; Johnson, Timothy L [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Raleigh, North Carolina; Hilliard, Michael R [ORNL; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M [University of Minnesota

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  8. Biological production of ethanol from coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the ``wild strain`` produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  9. Carbon Accounting and Economic Model Uncertainty of Emissions from Biofuels-Induced Land Use Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plevin, Richard J; Beckman, Jayson; Golub, Alla A; Witcover, Julie; O'??Hare, Michael

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse GasesLife-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels. Environmental Science &cellulosic ethanol. Biotechnol Biofuels 6 (1), 51. Elliott,

  10. COMPUTATIONAL RESOURCES FOR BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK SPECIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buell, Carol Robin [Michigan State University; Childs, Kevin L [Michigan State University

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    While current production of ethanol as a biofuel relies on starch and sugar inputs, it is anticipated that sustainable production of ethanol for biofuel use will utilize lignocellulosic feedstocks. Candidate plant species to be used for lignocellulosic ethanol production include a large number of species within the Grass, Pine and Birch plant families. For these biofuel feedstock species, there are variable amounts of genome sequence resources available, ranging from complete genome sequences (e.g. sorghum, poplar) to transcriptome data sets (e.g. switchgrass, pine). These data sets are not only dispersed in location but also disparate in content. It will be essential to leverage and improve these genomic data sets for the improvement of biofuel feedstock production. The objectives of this project were to provide computational tools and resources for data-mining genome sequence/annotation and large-scale functional genomic datasets available for biofuel feedstock species. We have created a Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource that provides a web-based portal or �clearing house� for genomic data for plant species relevant to biofuel feedstock production. Sequence data from a total of 54 plant species are included in the Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource including model plant species that permit leveraging of knowledge across taxa to biofuel feedstock species.We have generated additional computational analyses of these data, including uniform annotation, to facilitate genomic approaches to improved biofuel feedstock production. These data have been centralized in the publicly available Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource (http://bfgr.plantbiology.msu.edu/).

  11. Quantifying the climate impacts of albedo changes due to biofuel production: a comparison with biogeochemical effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caiazzo, Fabio

    Lifecycle analysis is a tool widely used to evaluate the climate impact of greenhouse gas emissions attributable to the production and use of biofuels. In this paper we employ an augmented lifecycle framework that includes ...

  12. Application of Ligninolytic Enzymes in the Production of Biofuels from Cotton Wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Placido Escobar, Jersson Emir

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of ligninolytic fungi and enzymes is an option to overcome the issues related with the production of biofuels using cotton wastes. In this dissertation, the ligninolytic fungus and enzymes were evaluated as pretreatment...

  13. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most of which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.

  14. Lipid Biofuels | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lipid Biofuels Lipid Biofuels Released: March 30, 2015 Enhancing microbial lipid production By revealing a novel molecular pathway involved in microbial lipid accumulation in the...

  15. The impact of co-occurring tree and grassland species on carbon sequestration and potential biofuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    The impact of co-occurring tree and grassland species on carbon sequestration and potential biofuel for terrestrial carbon sequestration and potential biofuel production. For P. strobus, above- ground plant carbon harvest for biofuel would result in no net carbon sequestration as declines in soil carbon offset plant

  16. Transportation Biofuels in the USA Preliminary Innovation Systems Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggert, Anthony

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a greater focus on specific biofuel production technologies.differences for certain biofuel feedstocks as well as policy24 Biofuel

  17. Transportation Biofuels in the US A Preliminary Innovation Systems Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggert, Anthony

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a greater focus on specific biofuel production technologies.differences for certain biofuel feedstocks as well as policy24 Biofuel

  18. Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fingerman, Kevin Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L.  (2004).  Biofuels  for  transport:  an  international  renewable  electric  transport  and  biofuels  made  from  “and  transport  consumption  associated  with  biofuels  

  19. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Mc Cutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); Li; Xu (Newark, DE); Emptage, Mark (Wilmington, DE); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

    2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  20. Can feedstock production for biofuels be sustainable in California?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaffka, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    supply of ethanol and biodiesel for transportation. Current1 bil- lion gallons of biodiesel (primarily soy) and anothercellulosic sources Biodiesel Petroleum† et al. 2007). Some

  1. Natural Oil Production from Microorganisms: Bioprocess and Microbe Engineering for Total Carbon Utilization in Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: MIT is using carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen generated from electricity to produce natural oils that can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels. MIT has designed a 2-stage biofuel production system. In the first stage, hydrogen and CO2 are fed to a microorganism capable of converting these feedstocks to a 2-carbon compound called acetate. In the second stage, acetate is delivered to a different microorganism that can use the acetate to grow and produce oil. The oil can be removed from the reactor tank and chemically converted to various hydrocarbons. The electricity for the process could be supplied from novel means currently in development, or more proven methods such as the combustion of municipal waste, which would also generate the required CO2 and enhance the overall efficiency of MIT’s biofuel-production system.

  2. Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith Beardshear Hall, (515) 294-7612." #12;1 Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Relating Ethanol Production to Gasoline Prices" written by myself and Xiadong Du, and published in 2009

  3. REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL WITH ETHANOL YEAST IN THE DIETS OF SUNSHINE BASS: EFFECTS ON PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be investigated. Ethanol yeast (EY), a co-product of bio-ethanol production may be a novel protein source. The increasing capacity of the bio-ethanol industries has made EY an increasingly available commodity. However

  4. Development of a microbial process for the conversion of carbon dioxide and electricity to higher alcohols as biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Han

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Li H, Cann AF, Liao JC: Biofuels: biomolecular engineeringthe predominant portion of biofuels produced currently, itof biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

  5. Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Michael McKellar

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier.

  6. Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose for Production of Fuel Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose for Production of Fuel Ethanol by the Simultaneous to ethanol, a promising alternative fuel, can be carried out efficiently and economically using are presented in light of the impact of enzymatic hydrolysis on fuel ethanol production. Key words: enzymatic

  7. Genome-Scale Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolism and Ethanol Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    ARTICLE Genome-Scale Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolism and Ethanol Production in Fed cerevisiae metabolism and ethanol production in fed-batch culture. Metabolic engineering strategies previously identified for their enhanced steady-state biomass and/or ethanol yields are evaluated for fed

  8. The effect of CO regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    The effect of CO 2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production This article has been) 024003 (9pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/2/024003 The effect of CO2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol the effect of CO2 price on the effective cost of ethanol production we have developed a model that integrates

  9. World Biofuels Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very rapidly over the next two decades, provided policymakers stay the course with their policy goals. This project relied on a scenario-based analysis to study global biofuel markets. Scenarios were designed to evaluate the impact of different policy proposals and market conditions. World biofuel supply for selected scenarios is shown in Figure 1. The reference case total biofuel production increases from 12 billion gallons of ethanol equivalent in 2005 to 54 billion gallons in 2020 and 83 billion gallons in 2030. The scenarios analyzed show volumes ranging from 46 to 64 billion gallons in 2020, and from about 72 to about 100 billion gallons in 2030. The highest production worldwide occurs in the scenario with high feedstock availability combined with high oil prices and more rapid improvements in cellulosic biofuel conversion technologies. The lowest global production is found in the scenario with low feedstock availability, low oil prices and slower technology progress.

  10. Land Use and Water Efficiency in Current and Potential Future U.S. Corn and Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ethanol Systems Ethan Warner1, Yimin Zhang1, Helena Chum2 , Robin Newmark1 Biofuels represent technological learning, sugarcane and corn ethanol industries have achieved steady improvements in resource Scope Abstract Conclusions The GHG savings and land energy productivity of both ethanol systems have

  11. Biofuels from Pyrolysis: Catalytic Biocrude Production in a Novel, Short-Contact Time Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: RTI is developing a new pyrolysis process to convert second-generation biomass into biofuels in one simple step. Pyrolysis is the decomposition of substances by heating—the same process used to render wood into charcoal, caramelize sugar, and dry roast coffee and beans. RTI’s catalytic biomass pyrolysis differs from conventional flash pyrolysis in that its end product contains less oxygen, metals, and nitrogen—all of which contribute to corrosion, instability, and inefficiency in the fuel-production process. This technology is expected to easily integrate into the existing domestic petroleum refining infrastructure, making it an economically attractive option for biofuels production.

  12. Transcriptome sequencing and annotation of the microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta: Pathway description and gene discovery for production of next-generation biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rismani-Yazdi, Hamid

    Background Biodiesel or ethanol derived from lipids or starch produced by microalgae may overcome many of the sustainability challenges previously ascribed to petroleum-based fuels and first generation plant-based biofuels. ...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels Clean CitiesStation Locations to someone by

  14. future science group 9ISSN 1759-726910.4155/BFS.11.151 2012 Future Science Ltd Synthetic biology approaches to biofuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasty, Jeff

    approaches to biofuel production Editorial Biofuels (2012) 3(1), 9­12 "...it is important for synthetic there is a tendency, par- ticularly in the algae biofuel space, to prioritize high yields without sufficient regard large enough volumes of biofuels at a low enough cost to make this significant leap in the national

  15. Slab waveguide photobioreactors for microalgae based biofuel production{{ Erica Eunjung Jung,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, David

    Slab waveguide photobioreactors for microalgae based biofuel production{{ Erica Eunjung Jung Erickson*a Received 1st May 2012, Accepted 19th June 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2lc40490g Microalgae productivity. Introduction Concerns surrounding global climate change and foreign energy dependency have led

  16. Cellulosic Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The economic competitiveness of cellulosic ethanol production is highly dependent on feedstock cost, which constitutes 35–50% of the total ethanol production cost, depending on various geographical factors and the types of systems used for harvesting, collecting, preprocessing, transporting, and handling the material. Consequently, as the deployment of cellulosic ethanol biorefi neries approaches, feedstock cost and availability are the driving factors that infl uence pioneer biorefi nery locations and will largely control the rate at which this industry grows. Initial scenarios were postulated to develop a pioneer dry feedstock supply system design case as a demonstration of the current state of technology. Based on this pioneer design, advanced scenarios were developed to determine key cost barriers, needed supply system improvements, and technology advancements to achieve government and private sector cost targets. Analysis of the pioneer supply system resulted in a delivered feedstock cost to the throat of the pretreatment reactor of $37.00 per dry tonne (2002 $). Pioneer supply systems will start by using current infrastructure and technologies and be individually designed for biorefi neries using specifi c feedstock types and varieties based on local geographic conditions. As the industry develops and cost barriers are addressed, the supply systems will incorporate advanced technologies that will eliminate downstream diversity and provide a uniform, tailored feedstock for multiple biorefi neries located in different regions.

  17. Control and Optimization of Light Transfer in Photobioreactors Used for Biofuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandilian, Razmig

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    History of biofuels in the UnitedCO 2 and producing biofuels and biomass. . . . . . .Reed, “National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap”, Tech.

  18. Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fingerman, Kevin Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Indirect  emissions  from  biofuels:  How   important?"  study  of  the  EU  biofuels  mandate.  Washington,  DC,  in  India  and   Sweden."  Biofuels,  Bioproducts  and  

  19. A model for improving microbial biofuel production using a synthetic feedback loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunlop, Mary J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential for great impact. Biofuels are a promising form ofbe engineered to produce biofuels, the fuels are often toxicKeywords Feedback control Á Biofuels Á Biological control

  20. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

  1. Global Indirect Effects of U.S. Corn Ethanol Production: A Review of the Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Global Indirect Effects of U.S. Corn Ethanol Production: A Review of the Evidence Energy security) requires 36 billion gallons of ethanol by 2022 to replace about 20 percent of U.S. gasoline consumption. Since 2001 ethanol produc- tion, mainly from corn, has increased dramatically at an annual average

  2. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan, E-mail: aweewan.m@nida.ac.th [National Institute of Development Administration, International College (Major in Public Policy and Management) (Thailand)] [National Institute of Development Administration, International College (Major in Public Policy and Management) (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Thailand)] [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Thailand)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  3. Recombinant yeast with improved ethanol tolerance and related methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gasch, Audrey P. (Madison, WI); Lewis, Jeffrey A. (Madison, WI)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides isolated Elo1 and Mig3 nucleic acid sequences capable of conferring increased ethanol tolerance on recombinant yeast and methods of using same in biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering yeast using the Elo1 and, or, Mig3 nucleic acid sequences are also provided.

  4. Assessments of biofuel sustainability: air pollution and health impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsao, Chi-Chung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc.History and policy of biodiesel in Brazil. Energy Policyincluding ethanol and biodiesel is expected to grow rapidly

  5. Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    11 Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced Efficiency, and Plug and projected improvements in gasoline internal combustion engine technology are introduced rapidly 3) BIOFUELS Large scale use of biofuels, including ethanol and biodiesel 4) PLUG-IN HYBRID SUCCESS PHEVs play

  6. Biofuel Production in the Western U.S.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10 wt% moisture, andBiofuel

  7. Commercial ethanol production and marketing on a large scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuenkel, A.E.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol use has advanced because of its ability to increase gasoline octane ratings. The recent oil glut, and price decline, will affect the ethanol industry. Yet the country needs the ethanol industry to complement current efforts to eliminate projected grain surpluses. State incentives must be standardized, to provide marketing consistency. At present, ethanol is the only octane enhancer not commanding its true value. Ethanol is more effective than MTBE, Toluene, or TBA, and must take its place beside these enhancers on the market.

  8. World Biofuels Assessment; Worldwide Biomass Potential: Technology Characterizations (Milestone Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bain, R. L.

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Milestone report prepared by NREL to estimate the worldwide potential to produce and transport ethanol and other biofuels.

  9. Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

  10. Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

  11. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen-from- Ethanol: A Distributed Production System Presented at the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting Laurel, Maryland Tuesday,...

  12. Growing the renewable chemicals and advanced biofuels cluster in MN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    Growing the renewable chemicals and advanced biofuels cluster in MN #12;Renewable Chemical Value% Reduction 60% Reduction 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Gasoline Corn Ethanol Advanced Biofuel Cellulosic Biofuel Corn Ethanol 20% GHG Reduction Compared to gasoline: Advanced Biofuel 50% GHG Reduction e

  13. Supramolecular self-assembled chaos: polyphenolic lignin's barrier to cost-effective lignocellulosic biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achyuthan, Komandoor

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thereby  cost-­? effective  biofuels  production.   PMID:  effective  lignocellulosic  biofuels.   Achyuthan  KE,  effective   lignocellulosic  biofuels.  Post-­?synthesis  

  14. EA-1940: Proposed Federal Loan Guarantee for Montana Advanced Biofuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Montana Advanced Biofuels (MAB) submitted an application to DOE for a Federal loan guarantee to support construction of a multi-feedstock biorefinery that would produce approximately 115 million gallons per year of ethanol in Great Falls, Montana. The biorefinery would utilize renewable biomass in the form of barley and wheat to produce ethanol and other by-products, including wheat gluten, barley bran, and barley meal. NOTE: The EA is cancelled because the applicant withdrew from the program.

  15. Genetic and biotechnological approaches for biofuel crop improvement.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E; Ronald, Pamela C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plant genetic engineering for biofuel production: towardsbiomass feedstocks for biofuel production. Genome Biol 2008,3:354-359. 25. Fairless D: Biofuel: the little shrub that

  16. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  17. Chromatin landscaping in algae reveals novel regulation pathway for biofuels production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngan, Chew Yee; Wong, Chee-Hong; Choi, Cindy; Pratap, Abhishek; Han, James; Wei, Chia-Lin

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The diminishing reserve of fossil fuels calls for the development of biofuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable resources, including photosynthetic organisms, generating clean energy. Microalgae is one of the potential feedstock for biofuels production. It grows easily even in waste water, and poses no competition to agricultural crops for arable land. However, little is known about the algae lipid biosynthetic regulatory mechanisms. Most studies relied on the homology to other plant model organisms, in particular Arabidopsis or through low coverage expression analysis to identify key enzymes. This limits the discovery of new components in the biosynthetic pathways, particularly the genetic regulators and effort to maximize the production efficiency of algal biofuels. Here we report an unprecedented and de novo approach to dissect the algal lipid pathways through disclosing the temporal regulations of chromatin states during lipid biosynthesis. We have generated genome wide chromatin maps in chlamydomonas genome using ChIP-seq targeting 7 histone modifications and RNA polymerase II in a time-series manner throughout conditions activating lipid biosynthesis. To our surprise, the combinatory profiles of histone codes uncovered new regulatory mechanism in gene expression in algae. Coupled with matched RNA-seq data, chromatin changes revealed potential novel regulators and candidate genes involved in the activation of lipid accumulations. Genetic perturbation on these candidate regulators further demonstrated the potential to manipulate the regulatory cascade for lipid synthesis efficiency. Exploring epigenetic landscape in microalgae shown here provides powerful tools needed in improving biofuel production and new technology platform for renewable energy generation, global carbon management, and environmental survey.

  18. Analysis of advanced biofuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dec, John E.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Welz, Oliver; Yang, Yi

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. Rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C{sub 4}-C{sub 5} alcohols efficiently. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially replace ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C{sub 5} alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. The elementary autoignition reactions of isopentanol is investigated by analyzing product formation from laser-photolytic Cl-initiated isopentanol oxidation. Carbon-carbon bond-scission reactions in the low-temperature oxidation chemistry may provide an explanation for the intermediate-temperature heat release observed in the engine experiments. Overall, the results indicate that isopentanol has a good potential as a HCCI fuel, either in neat form or in blend with gasoline.

  19. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.

  20. Interactions of woody biofuel feedstock production systems with water resources: Considerations for sustainability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trettin, Carl,C.; Amatya, Devendra; Coleman, Mark.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract. Water resources are important for the production of woody biofuel feedstocks. It is necessary to ensure that production systems do not adversely affect the quantity or quality of surface and ground water. The effects of woody biomass plantations on water resources are largely dependent on the prior land use and the management regime. Experience from both irrigated and non-irrigated systems has demonstrated that woody biofuel production systems do not impair water quality. Water quality actually improves from conversion of idle or degraded agricultural lands to woody biomass plantations. Site water balance may be altered by cultivation of woody biomass plantations relative to agricultural use, due to increases in evapostranspiration (ET) and storage. Incorporation of woody biomass production plantations within the landscape provides an opportunity to improve the quality of runoff water and soil conservation. Given the centrality of water resources to the sustainability of ecosystem services and other values derived, the experience with woody biofuels feedstock production systems is positive. Keywords. Short rotation woody crop, forest hydrology, water quality, hardwood plantation.

  1. Technical Feasibility Study on Biofuels Production from Pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis oculata and Algal Bio-oil Upgrading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maguyon, Monet

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    ]. However, studies on suitability of various biomass feedstocks and development of efficient and carbon-neutral technologies for biomass-to- biofuel conversion may be required to meet this demand. Biomass for fuel production ranges from food and oil crops...

  2. Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynd, L.R.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

  3. advanced biofuels production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cell surface engineering technology is a very promising method. In biobutanol and biodiesel production, engineered host fermentation has attracted much attention; however, this...

  4. advanced biofuel production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cell surface engineering technology is a very promising method. In biobutanol and biodiesel production, engineered host fermentation has attracted much attention; however, this...

  5. High-biomass sorghums for biomass biofuel production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Packer, Daniel

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    photoperiod-sensitive (PS) hybrids within the Ma1/Ma5/Ma6 hybrid production system. High-biomass sorghums are PS and the Ma1/Ma5/Ma6 hybrid production system produces PS hybrids with PI parents by manipulating alleles at the Ma1, Ma5 and Ma6 sorghum maturity...

  6. Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fingerman, Kevin Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for   ethanol  and  biodiesel  in  the  European  Union-­?IEA  2009).   Thousand  barrels  per  day   ROW  biodiesel  Europe  Biodiesel   ROW  Ethanol   Brazil  Ethanol   US  

  7. Economic Policy and Resource Implications of Biofuel Feedstock Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adusumilli, Naveen

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    with huge taxpayer expenditures without due diligence to the consequences. The evaluation of the water quality impacts of converting pastureland to intensive biomass production for fuel in a southern Texas watershed suggest significant increases erosion...

  8. Biofuels from Corn Stover: Pyrolytic Production and Catalytic Upgrading Studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capunitan, Jewel Alviar

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to security issues in energy supply and environmental concerns, renewable energy production from biomass becomes an increasingly important area of study. Thus, thermal conversion of biomass via pyrolysis and subsequent upgrading procedures were...

  9. The Economics of Trade, Biofuel, and the Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochman, Gal; Sexton, Steven; Zilberman, David D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    productivity (e.g. , second-generation biofuels), are showndependence on land. Second generation biofuels are much moreas well as second generation biofuels, may be needed to

  10. Regional Differences in Corn Ethanol Production: Profitability and Potential Water Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higgins, Lindsey M.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Production and Use ............39 Sector Impacts ..............................................................................41 Quantification of Comprehensive Impacts...................................49 Valuation of Comprehensive Impacts... of recycled water include storm 5 water, treated waste water, and reclaimed ground water, with the proper methods, all have the potential of being used in an ethanol plant (Wenninger 2007). Figure 1. Inflows and Outflows of Water Use in Ethanol...

  11. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsanbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon, E-mail: parkp@yu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsanbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative I?B-? plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-?B, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-?B pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. - Highlights: • Ethanol increases ROS production through up-regulation of Nox2 in macrophages. • Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. • p38 MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathway modulates ethanol-induced Nox2 expression.

  12. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling price of $1.33 for the 2012 goal case process as reported in the 2007 State of Technology Model (NREL 2008). Hence, pyrolysis oil does not appear to be an economically attractive product in this scenario. Further research regarding fast pyrolysis of raw lignin from a cellulosic plant as an end product is not recommended. Other processes, such as high-pressure liquefaction or wet gasification, and higher value products, such as gasoline and diesel from fast pyrolysis oil should be considered in future studies.

  13. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biofuels Production Based on Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, R. M.; Platon, A.; Satrio, J. A.; Brown, R. C.; Hsu, D. D.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study compares capital and production costs of two biomass-to-liquid production plants based on gasification. The first biorefinery scenario is an oxygen-fed, low-temperature (870?C), non-slagging, fluidized bed gasifier. The second scenario is an oxygen-fed, high-temperature (1,300?C), slagging, entrained flow gasifier. Both are followed by catalytic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and hydroprocessing to naphtha-range (gasoline blend stock) and distillate-range (diesel blend stock) liquid fractions. Process modeling software (Aspen Plus) is utilized to organize the mass and energy streams and cost estimation software is used to generate equipment costs. Economic analysis is performed to estimate the capital investment and operating costs. Results show that the total capital investment required for nth plant scenarios is $610 million and $500 million for high-temperature and low-temperature scenarios, respectively. Product value (PV) for the high-temperature and low-temperature scenarios is estimated to be $4.30 and $4.80 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE), respectively, based on a feedstock cost of $75 per dry short ton. Sensitivity analysis is also performed on process and economic parameters. This analysis shows that total capital investment and feedstock cost are among the most influential parameters affecting the PV.

  14. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels Â… Carbohydrates Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuildingCoalComplex(GC-72) |Reserve | DepartmentControls(FactProduction

  15. An Integrated Assessment of Location-Dependent Scaling for Microalgae Biofuel Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Andre M.; Abodeely, Jared; Skaggs, Richard; Moeglein, William AM; Newby, Deborah T.; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful development of a large-scale microalgae-based biofuels industry requires comprehensive analysis and understanding of the feedstock supply chain—from facility siting/design through processing/upgrading of the feedstock to a fuel product. The evolution from pilot-scale production facilities to energy-scale operations presents many multi-disciplinary challenges, including a sustainable supply of water and nutrients, operational and infrastructure logistics, and economic competitiveness with petroleum-based fuels. These challenges are addressed in part by applying the Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF)—an integrated multi-scale modeling, analysis, and data management suite—to address key issues in developing and operating an open-pond facility by analyzing how variability and uncertainty in space and time affect algal feedstock production rates, and determining the site-specific “optimum” facility scale to minimize capital and operational expenses. This approach explicitly and systematically assesses the interdependence of biofuel production potential, associated resource requirements, and production system design trade-offs. The IAF was applied to a set of sites previously identified as having the potential to cumulatively produce 5 billion-gallons/year in the southeastern U.S. and results indicate costs can be reduced by selecting the most effective processing technology pathway and scaling downstream processing capabilities to fit site-specific growing conditions, available resources, and algal strains.

  16. Advancing Commercialization of Algal Biofuels Through Increased Biomass Productivity and Technology Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Xuemei [Cellana LLC; Sabarsky, Martin

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellana is a leading developer of algae-based bioproducts, and its pre-commercial production of marine microalgae takes place at Cellana?s Kona Demonstration Facility (KDF) in Hawaii. KDF is housing more than 70 high-performing algal strains for different bioproducts, of which over 30 have been grown outside at scale. So far, Cellana has produced more than 10 metric tons of algal biomass for the development of biofuels, animal feed, and high-value nutraceuticals. Cellana?s ALDUO algal cultivation technology allows Cellana to grow non-extremophile algal strains at large scale with no contamination disruptions. Cellana?s research and production at KDF have addressed three major areas that are crucial for the commercialization of algal biofuels: yield improvement, cost reduction, and the overall economics. Commercially acceptable solutions have been developed and tested for major factors limiting areal productivity of algal biomass and lipids based on years of R&D work conducted at KDF. Improved biomass and lipid productivity were achieved through strain improvement, culture management strategies (e.g., alleviation of self-shading, de-oxygenation, and efficient CO2 delivery), and technical advancement in downstream harvesting technology. Cost reduction was achieved through optimized CO2 delivery system, flue gas utilization technology, and energy-efficient harvesting technology. Improved overall economics was achieved through a holistic approach by integration of high-value co-products in the process, in addition to yield improvements and cost reductions.

  17. Soil Carbon Change and Net Energy Associated with Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands: A Regional Modeling Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandaru, Varaprasad; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Link, Robert P.; Zhang, Xuesong; Post, W. M.

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of marginal lands (MLs) for biofuel production has been contemplated as a promising solution for meeting biofuel demands. However, there have been concerns with spatial location of MLs, their inherent biofuel potential, and possible environmental consequences with the cultivation of energy crops. Here, we developed a new quantitative approach that integrates high-resolution land cover and land productivity maps and uses conditional probability density functions for analyzing land use patterns as a function of land productivity to classify the agricultural lands. We subsequently applied this method to determine available productive croplands (P-CLs) and non-crop marginal lands (NC-MLs) in a nine-county Southern Michigan. Furthermore, Spatially Explicit Integrated Modeling Framework (SEIMF) using EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) was used to understand the net energy (NE) and soil organic carbon (SOC) implications of cultivating different annual and perennial production systems.

  18. Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydra...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Innovative Topics for Advanced Biofuels Cross-cutting...

  19. Biomass to ethanol : potential production and environmental impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groode, Tiffany Amber, 1979-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study models and assesses the current and future fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol produced from three feedstocks; corn grain, corn stover, and switchgrass. A life-cycle assessment approach ...

  20. Continuous production of ethanol by use of flocculent zymomonas mobilis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arcuri, Edward J. (Del Mar, CA); Donaldson, Terrence L. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is produced by means of a floc-forming strain of Zymomonas mobilis bacteria. Gas is vented along the length of a column containing the flocculent bacteria to preclude disruption of liquid flow.

  1. Biofuel Production Datasets from DOE's Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework invites users to discover the power of bioenergy through an interface that provides extensive access to research data and literature, GIS mapping tools, and collaborative networks. The Bioenergy KDF supports efforts to develop a robust and sustainable bioenergy industry. The KDF facilitates informed decision making by providing a means to synthesize, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of information in a relevant and succinct manner. It harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that can better examine the economic and environmental impacts of development options for biomass feedstock production, biorefineries, and related infrastructure. [copied from https://www.bioenergykdf.net/content/about]

    Holdings include datasets, models, and maps and the collections arel growing due to both DOE contributions and data uploads from individuals.

  2. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Dry-grind Highly Digestible Grain Sorghum Lines for Ethanol Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Joan R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential of high digestible grain sorghum (HDGS) with a modified starch protein endosperm matrix to replace corn in ethanol production was investigated using dry grind simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Preliminary...

  3. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cost Hydrogen-from- Ethanol: A Distributed Production System Presented at the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting Hilton Garden Inn...

  4. Biological production of ethanol from coal. [Quarterly technical report], December 22, 1991--March 21, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. CSTRs and CSTRs with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

  5. Biofuels from E. Coli: Engineering E. coli as an Electrofuels Chassis for Isooctane Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: Ginkgo Bioworks is bypassing photosynthesis and engineering E. coli to directly use carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce biofuels. E. coli doesn’t naturally metabolize CO2, but Ginkgo Bioworks is manipulating and incorporating the genes responsible for CO2 metabolism into the microorganism. By genetically modifying E. coli, Ginkgo Bioworks will enhance its rate of CO2 consumption and liquid fuel production. Ginkgo Bioworks is delivering CO2 to E. coli as formic acid, a simple industrial chemical that provides energy and CO2 to the bacterial system.

  6. Versatile microbial surface-display for environmental remediation and biofuels production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Cindy H.; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, wilfred

    2008-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface display is a powerful technique that utilizes natural microbial functional components to express proteins or peptides on the cell exterior. Since the reporting of the first surface-display system in the mid-1980s, a variety of new systems have been reported for yeast, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Non-conventional display methods are emerging, eliminating the generation of genetically modified microorganisms. Cells with surface display are used as biocatalysts, biosorbents and biostimulants. Microbial cell-surface display has proven to be extremely important for numerous applications ranging from combinatorial library screening and protein engineering to bioremediation and biofuels production.

  7. Fuel from Tobacco and Arundo Donax: Synthetic Crop for Direct Drop-in Biofuel Production through Re-routing the Photorespiration Intermediates and Engineering Terpenoid Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    PETRO Project: Biofuels offer renewable alternatives to petroleum-based fuels that reduce net greenhouse gas emissions to nearly zero. However, traditional biofuels production is limited not only by the small amount of solar energy that plants convert through photosynthesis into biological materials, but also by inefficient processes for converting these biological materials into fuels. Farm-ready, non-food crops are needed that produce fuels or fuel-like precursors at significantly lower costs with significantly higher productivity. To make biofuels cost-competitive with petroleum-based fuels, biofuels production costs must be cut in half.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    production targets established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS-2) as part of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. Advanced biofuels derived from...

  9. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

  10. Better Enzymes for Biofuels and Green Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Better Enzymes for Biofuels and Green Chemistry: Solving the Cofactor Imbalance Problem Imbalances for the production of biofuels or other valuable chemicals. Though several research groups have re

  11. US Biofuels Baseline and impact of extending the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    June 2011 US Biofuels Baseline and impact of extending the $0.45 ethanol blenders baseline projections for agricultural and biofuel markets.1 That baseline assumed current biofuel policy for cellulosic biofuels was assumed to expire at the end of 2012. This report compares a slightly modified

  12. A model for improving microbial biofuel production using a synthetic feedback loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunlop, Mary

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cell However, the fuel synthesis stage can be limited by the fact that biofuels are often toxic to microbial

  13. Comparative genomics of xylose-fermenting fungi for enhanced biofuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Kuo, Alan; Sato, Trey K.; Potts, Katlyn M.; Salamov, Asaf A.; LaButti, Kurt M.; Sun, Hui; Clum, Alicia; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Jin, Mingjie; Gunawan, Christa; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E.; Jeffries, Thomas W.; Zinkel, Robert; Barry, Kerrie W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic biomass is an abundant and underused substrate for biofuel production. The inability of many microbes to metabolize the pentose sugars abundant within hemicellulose creates specific challenges for microbial biofuel production from cellulosic material. Although engineered strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use the pentose xylose, the fermentative capacity pales in comparison with glucose, limiting the economic feasibility of industrial fermentations. To better understand xylose utilization for subsequent microbial engineering, we sequenced the genomes of two xylose-fermenting, beetle-associated fungi, Spathaspora passalidarum and Candida tenuis. To identify genes involved in xylose metabolism, we applied a comparative genomic approach across 14 Ascomycete genomes, mapping phenotypes and genotypes onto the fungal phylogeny, and measured genomic expression across five Hemiascomycete species with different xylose-consumption phenotypes. This approach implicated many genes and processes involved in xylose assimilation. Several of these genes significantly improved xylose utilization when engineered into S. cerevisiae, demonstrating the power of comparative methods in rapidly identifying genes for biomass conversion while reflecting on fungal ecology.

  14. Ethanol production using xylitol synthesis mutant of xylose-utilizing zymomonas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viitanen, Paul V.; McCutchen, Carol M.; Emptage, Mark; Caimi, Perry G.; Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of ethanol using a strain of xylose-utilizing Zymomonas with a genetic modification of the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase gene was found to be improved due to greatly reduced production of xylitol, a detrimental by-product of xylose metabolism synthesized during fermentation.

  15. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  16. Mapping the Potential for Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands: Differences in Definitions, Data and Models across Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Sarah M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Q. ; Tyner, W.E. ; Lu, X. Biofuels, cropland expansion, andfor lignocellulosic biofuels. Science 2010, 329, 790–792.feedstocks for cellulosic biofuels. F1000 Biol. Rep. 2012,

  17. Spectroscopic Analyses of the Biofuels-Critical Phytochemical Coniferyl Alcohol and Its Enzyme-Catalyzed Oxidation Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achyuthan, Komandoor

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses of the Biofuels-Critical Phytochemical Coniferylscreening; monolignols; biofuels 1. Introduction Plantfacing cost-effective biofuels [3]. Lignin analyses will

  18. Life of Sugar: Developing Lifecycle Methods to Evaluate the Energy and Environmental Impacts of Sugarcane Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopal, Anand Raja

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Criteria for Sustainable Biofuel Production. RSB, pages 1–and Tyner, W. (2008b). Impact of Biofuel Production on WorldClifford, P. (2009). Assessing Biofuel Crop Invasiveness: A

  19. Cassava, a potential biofuel crop in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansson, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy analysis of fuel ethanol from cassava in Thailand.of cassava-based fuel ethanol used as an alternativediversified materials for fuel ethanol production in China.

  20. Creating Markets for Green Biofuels: Measuring and improving environmental performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Brian T.; Plevin, Richard J.; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biodiesel production. Ethanol Fuel ethanol is produced muchUsing Corn Stover for Fuel Ethanol." Journal of Industrialet al. (2005). “Ethanol as Fuel: Energy, Carbon Dioxide

  1. Integrating Food Production and Biodiversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with food, and NPK fluxes at farm level. The biofuels were crude rapeseed oil, horse draft, ethanol from a combination of a workhorse and a crude rapeseed oil-fuelled tractor. Ethanol from wheat had the largest impactIntegrating Food Production and Biodiversity Energy and Scale Issues in Implementation Kristina

  2. Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

    2000-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

  3. Fuel from farms: A guide to small-scale ethanol production: Second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide presents the current status of on-farm fermentation ethanol production as well as an overview of some of the technical and economic factors. Tools such as decision and planning worksheets and a sample business plan for use in exploring whether or not to go into ethanol production are given. Specifics in production including information on the raw materials, system components, and operational requirements are also provided. Recommendation of any particular process is deliberately avoided because the choice must be tailored to the needs and resources of each individual producer. The emphasis is on providing the facts necessary to make informed judgments. 98 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Xylitol synthesis mutant of xylose-utilizing zymomonas for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Zhang, Min

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A strain of xylose-utilizing Zymomonas was engineered with a genetic modification to the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase gene resulting in reduced expression of GFOR enzyme activity. The engineered strain exhibits reduced production of xylitol, a detrimental by-product of xylose metabolism. It also consumes more xylose and produces more ethanol during mixed sugar fermentation under process-relevant conditions.

  5. A Dynamic Simulation of the Indirect Land Use Implications of Recent Biofuel Production and Use in the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The global indirect land use change (ILUC) implications of biofuel use in the United States of America (USA) from 2001 to 2010 are evaluated with a dynamic general equilibrium model. The effects of biofuels production on agricultural land area vary by year; from a net expansion of 0.17 ha per 1000 gallons produced (2002) to a net contraction of 0.13 ha per 1000 gallons (2018) in Case 1 of our simulation. In accordance with the general narrative about the implications of biofuel policy, agricultural land area increased in many regions of the world. However, oil-export dependent economies experienced agricultural land contraction because of reductions in their revenues. Reducing crude oil imports is a major goal of biofuel policy, but the land use change implications have received little attention in the literature. Simulations evaluating the effects of doubling supply elasticities for land and fossil resources show that these parameters can significantly influence the land use change estimates. Therefore, research that provides empirically-based and spatially-detailed agricultural land-supply curves and capability to project future fossil energy prices is critical for improving estimates of the effects of biofuel policy on land use.

  6. Biological production of ethanol from coal. Task 4 report, Continuous reactor studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of ethanol from synthesis gas by the anaerobic bacterium C. ljungdahlii has been demonstrated in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs), CSTRs with cell recycle and trickle bed reactors. Various liquid media were utilized in these studies including basal medium, basal media with 1/2 B-vitamins and no yeast extract and a medium specifically designed for the growth of C. ljungdahlii in the CSTR. Ethanol production was successful in each of the three reactor types, although trickle bed operation with C. ljungdahlii was not as good as with the stirred tank reactors. Operation in the CSTR with cell recycle was particularly promising, producing 47 g/L ethanol with only minor concentrations of the by-product acetate.

  7. Algenol Biofuels Inc., Integrated Pilot-Scale Biorefinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Integrated Pilot- Scale Biorefinery for Producing Ethanol from Hybrid Algae Algenol Biofuels Inc., together with its partners, will construct an integrated pilot-scale...

  8. biofuels | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biofuels biofuels Leads No leads are available at this time. New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy leads to novel discoveries in Moorella...

  9. Designer organisms for photosynthetic production of ethanol from carbon dioxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a revolutionary photosynthetic ethanol production technology based on designer transgenic plants, algae, or plant cells. The designer plants, designer algae, and designer plant cells are created such that the endogenous photosynthesis regulation mechanism is tamed, and the reducing power (NADPH) and energy (ATP) acquired from the photosynthetic water splitting and proton gradient-coupled electron transport process are used for immediate synthesis of ethanol (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH) directly from carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and water (H.sub.2O). The ethanol production methods of the present invention completely eliminate the problem of recalcitrant lignocellulosics by bypassing the bottleneck problem of the biomass technology. The photosynthetic ethanol-production technology of the present invention is expected to have a much higher solar-to-ethanol energy-conversion efficiency than the current technology and could also help protect the Earth's environment from the dangerous accumulation of CO.sub.2 in the atmosphere.

  10. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  11. On mitigating emissions leakage under biofuel policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, D; Rajagopal, D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    than 1:1 replacement of oil products with biofuel, which isshow how different oil products are affected differently

  12. Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term Supply Potential of Domestic Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Andrew; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fermentation Co-Products Fuels Ethanol Butanol Ligno-conversion process, fuel produced (ethanol in all cases),produce either ethanol or butanol fuels. Cellulosic material

  13. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Theresa L. Selfa; Dr. Richard Goe; Dr. Laszlo Kulcsar; Dr. Gerad Middendorf; Dr. Carmen Bain

    2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producersâ?? attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A â??multi-methodâ?ť or â??mixed methodâ?ť research methodology was employed for each case study.

  14. Constructing and engineering fatty acid metabolic pathways for the production of fuels and chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steen, Eric James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U Sanalysis of alternative biofuels produced from geneticallychain higher alcohols as biofuels. Nature 451, 86-9 (2008).

  15. Guide to commercial-scale ethanol production and financing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is designed to lead the potential investor through all the steps necessary to develop a business plan and prepare a feasibility analysis for a site-specific project. Emphasis is placed on marketing, financing, management, and incentives rather than primarily technical matters. The introduction provides an overview of the perspectives and issues in the alcohol fuels industry. Chapter II seeks to surface factors which affect the decisionmaking process. The chapter attempts to lead the investor step-by-step through the series of decisions and choices to be made before reaching the final decision to enter the business. Chapter III describes the types of feedstocks available and relates them to areas within the United States. Trends and fluctuations in the price of the major grain feedstocks are also discussed in terms of their potential use and value compared to other feeds. Chapter IV discusses the market potential of ethanol and its coproducts, and examines how the location of the ethanol markets in relation to those of the feedstock supplies may influence selection of a plant site. Various aspects of plant design are discussed. A 50 million gallon per year plant is analyzed to provide the general technical background and costing data required in analyzing plants of various sizes and designs. Safety aspects and environmental concerns are treated in Chapters VI and VII. The regulations are reviewed and their impact on plant design and operation is discussed. The basic elements of a business plan are described which lead to an approach for development of the feasibility study. Other information on financial assistance, regulations, current legislation, and reference material is given in the Appendices.

  16. Drought-tolerant Biofuel Crops could be a Critical Hedge for Biorefineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow, III, William R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Criteria for Sustainable Biofuel Production, Version 2.0.sustainability concepts in biofuel supply chain management:of switchgrass-for-biofuel systems. Biomass & Bioenergy,

  17. Danielle Goldtooth Paper #6 -Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lega, Joceline

    Jon Kroc Danielle Goldtooth IS 195A Paper #6 - Biofuels Green Dreams In the modern era science has. Biofuels are increasingly becoming viable alternatives to gasoline, diesel, and other non-renewable fuels." There are still many issues that must be dealt with before the production of biofuels is energy-efficient enough

  18. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

  19. adding ethanol production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alcohols and ethers in different alcohol-based products, e. g. in whisky, cognac, brandy, wine as well as in waste alcohol and alcohol beverage production, leads to the significant...

  20. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  1. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  2. Metabolic Engineering of Clostridium thermocellum for Biofuel Production (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guess, Adam [ORNL

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adam Guss of Oak Ridge National Lab on "Metabolic engineering of Clostridium thermocellum for biofuel production" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  3. Energy and Greenhouse Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Farrell, Alexander E.; Plevin, Richard J.; Jones, Andrew D.; Nemet, Gregory F.; Delucchi, Mark A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. (2005). "Ethanol as fuels: Energy, carbon dioxidebeen above $25 per barrel. Fuel Ethanol Production PetroleumFigure 1: Worldwide fuel ethanol production and petroleum

  4. The Impact of Biofuel and Greenhouse Gas Policies on Land Management, Agricultural Production, and Environmental Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Justin Scott

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation explores the combined effects of biofuel mandates and terrestrial greenhouse gas GHG mitigation incentives on land use, management intensity, commodity markets, welfare, and the full costs of GHG abatement through conceptual...

  5. The Impact of Biofuel and Greenhouse Gas Policies on Land Management, Agricultural Production, and Environmental Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Justin Scott

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation explores the combined effects of biofuel mandates and terrestrial greenhouse gas GHG mitigation incentives on land use, management intensity, commodity markets, welfare, and the full costs of GHG abatement through conceptual...

  6. Triacylglycerol Production from Corn Stover Using a Xylose-Fermenting Rhodococcus opacus Strain for Lignocellulosic Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurosawa, Kazuhiko

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are in the spotlight as a feasible source of hydrocarbon-based biofuels. Rhodococcus opacus PD630 produces large amounts of intracellular TAGs in cultivations containing high concentrations of ...

  7. Legislating Biofuels in the United States (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, W.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Legislation supporting U.S. biofuels production can help to reduce petroleum consumption and increase the nation's energy security.

  8. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in mixed-sugars medium comprising xylose, and, in particular, in the presence of acetate.

  9. Ethanol production from spent sulfite liquor fortified by hydrolysis of pulp mill primary clarifier sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritz, J.W.; Duff, S.J.B. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Some low-yield sulfite pulping operations ferment spent sulfite liquor (SSL) to remove biochemical oxygen demand associated with dissolved sugars while at the same time generating ethanol as a salable product. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of primary clarifier sludge in a medium of SSL was proposed as a means of reducing the amount of sludge to be disposed of while at the same time increasing ethanol productivity. In this article, the option of fortifying existing SSL fermenting processes with the sugars produced via in situ enzymatic hydrolysis of sulfite primary clarifier sludge (PCS) has been explored. In 100% SSL PCS hydrolysis rates as high as 3.4 g/(L{center_dot}h) were observed at an initial enzyme loading of 10 filter paper units (FPU)/g PCS. To reduce the deleterious effects of glucose inhibition, single-stage SSF was carried out using cellulose enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The production rate of ethanol in SSL was increased by as much as 25% through the SSF process. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Grazing Strategies for Beef Production Escalating energy costs and alternative cropping systems for biofuels production have

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grazing Strategies for Beef Production Escalating energy costs and alternative cropping systems with pasture-feedlot manage-· ment alternatives. Assess economic implications of beef production using an array character- istics of beef that may provide an alternative lean-to-fat composition for consum- ers. http

  11. australian biofuel industry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    terms of subsidies for biofuel production such that the supply-side responses by fossil fuel producers may more than offset the substitution to biofuels. Analytical results are...

  12. assessing biofuel crop: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    terms of subsidies for biofuel production such that the supply-side responses by fossil fuel producers may more than offset the substitution to biofuels. Analytical results are...

  13. analysis biofuels implications: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    terms of subsidies for biofuel production such that the supply-side responses by fossil fuel producers may more than offset the substitution to biofuels. Analytical results are...

  14. Biofuels `101'Michael Wilcox, Dayton Lambert and Kelly Tiller Assistant Professors, Department of Agricultural Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Biofuels `101'Michael Wilcox, Dayton Lambert and Kelly Tiller Assistant Professors, Department vehicle emissions. Biofuels Non-petroleum sources of transportation fuels include natu- ral gas (2.2 percent) and biofuels (1.1 percent). While used in small amounts now, demand for biofuels (ethanol

  15. YOKAYO BIOFUELS, INC. GRANT FOR IMPROVEMENTS AND EXPANSION OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    YOKAYO BIOFUELS, INC. GRANT FOR IMPROVEMENTS AND EXPANSION OF AN EXISTING FACILITY INITIAL STUDY-11-601) to expand an existing biofuels production facility (Yokayo Biofuels, Inc.) located at 350 Orr: THE PROPOSED PROJECT: Yokayo Biofuels, Inc. is an existing biofuels facility located at 350 Orr Springs Road

  16. Creating Markets for Green Biofuels: Measuring and improving environmental performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Brian T.; Plevin, Richard J.; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biofuel production processes, the ability to measure environmental performance, and environmental goals all advance.

  17. Potential Land Use Implications of a Global Biofuels Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurgel, Angelo C.

    In this paper we investigate the potential production and implications of a global biofuels industry. We

  18. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Purdue University report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on Carbohydrates Production....

  19. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  20. Regional Algal Biofuel Production Potential in the Coterminous United States as Affected by Resource Availability Trade-offs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The warm sunny climate and unoccupied arid lands in the American southwest are favorable factors for algae cultivation. However, additional resources affect the overall viability of specific sites and regions. We investigated the tradeoffs between growth rate, water, and CO2 availability and costs for two strains: N. salina and Chlorella sp. We conducted site selection exercises (~88,000 US sites) to produce 21 billion gallons yr-1 (BGY) of renewable diesel (RD). Experimental trials from the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-Products (NAABB) team informed the growth model of our Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT). We simulated RD production by both lipid extraction and hydrothermal liquefaction. Sites were prioritized by the net value of biofuel minus water and flue gas costs. Water cost models for N. salina were based on seawater and high salinity groundwater and for Chlorella, fresh and brackish groundwater. CO2 costs were based on a flue gas delivery model. Selections constrained by production and water were concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic coasts due to high growth rates and low water costs. Adding flue gas constraints increased the spatial distribution, but the majority of sites remained in the southeast. The 21 BGY target required ~3.8 million hectares of mainly forest (41.3%) and pasture (35.7%). Exclusion in favor of barren and scrub lands forced most production to the southwestern US, but with increased water consumption (5.7 times) and decreased economic efficiency (-38%).

  1. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  2. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncoveredmore »that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.« less

  3. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Fengli [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Johnson, Dana M. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Wang, Jinjiang [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  4. Plasma Kinetics in Electrical Discharge in Mixture of Air, Water and Ethanol Vapors for Hydrogen Enriched Syngas Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shchedrin, A I; Ryabtsev, A V; Chernyak, V Ya; Yukhymenko, V V; Olszewski, S V; Naumov, V V; Prysiazhnevych, I V; Solomenko, E V; Demchina, V P; Kudryavtsev, V S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The complex theoretical and experimental investigation of plasma kinetics of the electric discharge in the mixture of air and ethanol-water vapors is carried out. The discharge was burning in the cavity, formed by air jets pumping between electrodes, placed in aqueous ethanol solution. It is found out that the hydrogen yield from the discharge is maximal in the case when ethanol and water in the solution are in equal amounts. It is shown that the hydrogen production increases with the discharge power and reaches the saturation at high value. The concentrations of the main stable gas-phase components, measured experimentally and calculated numerically, agree well in the most cases.

  5. A New Biofuels Technology Blooms in Iowa

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cellulosic biofuels made from agricultural waste have caught the attention of many farmers and could be the next revolution in renewable biofuels production. This video shows how an innovative...

  6. EMSL - biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biofuels en New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy leads to novel discoveries in Moorella http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

  7. NREL: News Feature - NREL Science Central to Success of New Biofuels...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Science Central to Success of New Biofuels Projects: DuPont-NREL Partnership Delivered Key Innovations for Large Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Facility in Iowa February 23, 2015...

  8. A New Biofuels Technology Blooms in Iowa

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mathisen, Todd; Bruch, Don;

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic biofuels made from agricultural waste have caught the attention of many farmers and could be the next revolution in renewable biofuels production. This video shows how an innovative technology that converts waste products from the corn harvest into renewable biofuels will help the U.S. produce billions of gallons of cellulosic biofuels over the coming decade. It will also stimulate local economies and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  9. A New Biofuels Technology Blooms in Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathisen, Todd; Bruch, Don

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic biofuels made from agricultural waste have caught the attention of many farmers and could be the next revolution in renewable biofuels production. This video shows how an innovative technology that converts waste products from the corn harvest into renewable biofuels will help the U.S. produce billions of gallons of cellulosic biofuels over the coming decade. It will also stimulate local economies and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  10. Turning Bacteria into Fuel: Cyanobacteria Designed for Solar-Powered Highly Efficient Production of Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is engineering a type of photosynthetic bacteria that efficiently produce fatty acids—a fuel precursor for biofuels. This type of bacteria, called Synechocystis, is already good at converting solar energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) into a type of fatty acid called lauric acid. ASU has modified the organism so it continuously converts sunlight and CO2 into fatty acids—overriding its natural tendency to use solar energy solely for cell growth and maximizing the solar-to-fuel conversion process. ASU’s approach is different because most biofuels research focuses on increasing cellular biomass and not on excreting fatty acids. The project has also identified a unique way to convert the harvested lauric acid into a fuel that can be easily blended with existing transportation fuels.

  11. Economic feasibility of ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Brittany Danielle

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    or Sweet Sorghum and Corn to Produce Ethanol in Each Study Area............................. 73 12. Sweet Sorghum Processing Coefficients for an Ethanol Refinery.................... 74 13. Corn Processing Assumptions for Each Study Area... 22. Variable Costs to Operate a Sweet Sorghum Ethanol Refinery, 2008............. 83 23. Variable Costs to Operate a Corn Ethanol Refinery, 2008 .............................. 84 24. Land Cost and Acreage for the Ethanol Refinery in Each Study...

  12. Ethanol production for automotive fuel usage. Final technical report, July 1979-August 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenzel, R.A.; Yu, J.; Lindemuth, T.E.; Soo-Hoo, R.; May, S.C.; Yim, Y.J.; Houle, E.H.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of ethanol from potatoes, sugar beets, and wheat using geothermal resources in the Raft River area of Idaho was evaluated. The south-central region of Idaho produces approximately 18 million bushels of wheat, 1.3 million tons of sugar beets, and 27 million cwt potatoes annually. A 20-million-gallon-per-year ethanol facility has been selected as the largest scale plant that can be supported with the current agricultural resources. The conceptual plant was designed to operate on each of these three feedstocks for a portion of the year, but could operate year-round on any of them. The processing facility uses conventional alcohol technology and uses geothermal energy for all process heating. There are three feedstock preparation sections, although the liquefaction and saccharification steps for potatoes and wheat involve common equipment. The fermentation, distillation, and by-product handling sections are common to all three feedstocks. Maximum geothermal fluid requirements are approximately 6000 gpm. It is anticipated that this flow will be supplied by nine production wells located on private and BLM lands in the Raft River KGRA. The geothermal fluid will be flashed from 280/sup 0/F in three stages to supply process steam at 250/sup 0/F, 225/sup 0/F, and 205/sup 0/F for various process needs. Steam condensate plus liquid remaining after the third flash will be returned to receiving strata through six injection wells.

  13. Regional, economic, and environmental effects of traditional and biotechnologically enhanced ethanol production processes in Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerrero Compeán, Roberto

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change, food security, and energy efficiency have become universal challenges for global economic development and environmental conservation that demand in-depth multidisciplinary research. Biofuels have emerged ...

  14. Sources of Corn for Ethanol Production in the United States: A Review and Decomposition Analysis of the Empirical Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of corn for ethanol production in the United States quintupled between 2001 and 2009, generating concerns that this could lead to the conversion of forests and grasslands around the globe, known as indirect land-use change (iLUC). Estimates of iLUC and related food versus fuel concerns rest on the assumption that the corn used for ethanol production in the United States would come primarily from displacing corn exports and land previously used for other crops. A number of modeling efforts based on these assumptions have projected significant iLUC from the increases in the use of corn for ethanol production. The current study tests the veracity of these assumptions through a systematic decomposition analysis of the empirical data from 2001 to 2009. The logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method (Type I) was used to estimate contributions of different factors to meeting the corn demand for ethanol production. Results show that about 79% of the change in corn used for ethanol production can be attributed to changes in the distribution of domestic corn consumption among different uses. Increases in the domestic consumption share of corn supply contributed only about 5%. The remaining contributions were 19% from added corn production, and 2% from stock changes. Yield change accounted for about two-thirds of the contributions from production changes. Thus, the results of this study provide little support for large land-use changes or diversion of corn exports because of ethanol production in the United States during the past decade.

  15. Energy and Greenhouse Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Farrell, Alexander E.; Plevin, Richard J.; Jones, Andrew D.; Nemet, Gregory F.; Delucchi, Mark A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    barrel. Fuel Ethanol Production Petroleum Price $ per gallonfuel ethanol production and petroleum prices Sources:issue of joint production arises in petroleum refineries. A

  16. Direct Conversion of Plant Biomass to Ethanol by Engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Daehwan [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Cha, Minseok [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Westpheling, Janet [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is the most widely used renewable transportation biofuel in the United States, with the production of 13.3 billion gallons in 2012 [John UM (2013) Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States]. Despite considerable effort to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, chemical pretreatment and the addition of saccharolytic enzymes before microbial bioconversion remain economic barriers to industrial deployment [Lynd LR, et al. (2008) Nat Biotechnol 26(2):169-172]. We began with the thermophilic, anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, which efficiently uses unpretreated biomass, and engineered it to produce ethanol. Here we report the direct conversion of switchgrass, a nonfood, renewable feedstock, to ethanol without conventional pretreatment of the biomass. This process was accomplished by deletion of lactate dehydrogenase and heterologous expression of a Clostridium thermocellum bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Whereas wild-type C. bescii lacks the ability to make ethanol, 70% of the fermentation products in the engineered strain were ethanol [12.8 mM ethanol directly from 2% (wt/vol) switchgrass, a real-world substrate] with decreased production of acetate by 38% compared with wild-type. Direct conversion of biomass to ethanol represents a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing, offering the potential for carbon neutral, cost-effective, sustainable fuel production.

  17. SEE ALSO SIDEBARS: RECOURCES SOLARRESOURCES BIOMASS & BIOFUELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    373 SEE ALSO SIDEBARS: RECOURCES · SOLARRESOURCES · BIOMASS & BIOFUELS Engineered and Artificial, and the production of liquid biofuels for transportation is growing rapidly. However, both traditional biomass energy and crop-based biofuels technologies have negative environmental and social impacts. The overall research

  18. Author's personal copy Distributed hydrogen production from ethanol in a microfuel processor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    -reactors? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526 5. Integrated reactor system for steam reforming of ethanol and CO cleanup/microchannels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 5.2. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 2.1.1. Steam reforming (SR

  19. Algal Biofuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office's (BETO's) Algae Program is carrying out a long-term applied research and development (R&D) strategy to increase the yields and lower the costs of algal biofuels by working with partners to develop new technologies, to integrate technologies at commercially-relevant scales, and conduct crosscutting analyses to understand the potential and challenges of an algal biofuel industry that is capable of annually producing billions of gallons of renewable diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels. These activities are integrated with BETO's longstanding approach to accelerate the commercialization of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  20. Biofuel breakdown | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuel breakdown Biofuel breakdown SCF1 frees plant sugars in lignin for sustainable biofuels Lignin, the tough woody polymer in the walls of plant, binds and protects cellulose...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels "Bionic" Liquids from Lignin: Joint BioEnergy Institute Results Pave the Way for Closed-Loop Biofuel Refineries On December 11, 2014, in Biofuels, Biomass, Capabilities,...

  2. Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Agency, Biofuels for Transport, Organization forJohnson, Potential for Biofuels for Transport in DevelopingMitigation Through Biofuels in the Transport Sector, Status

  3. Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    08 Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels Draft Report (May be citedLIFECYCLE ANALYSES OF BIOFUELS Draft manuscript (may belifecycle analysis (LCA) of biofuels for transportation has

  4. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

  5. Pilot Scale Integrated Biorefinery for Producing Ethanol from Hybrid Algae: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-389

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pienkos, P. T.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This collaboration between Algenol Biofuels Inc. and NREL will provide valuable information regarding Direct to Ethanol technology. Specifically, the cooperative R&D will analyze the use of flue gas from industrial sources in the Direct to Ethanol process, which may demonstrate the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously producing a valuable product, i.e., ethanol. Additionally, Algenol Biofuels Inc. and NREL will develop both a techno-economic model with full material and energy balances and an updated life-cycle analysis to identify greenhouse gas emissions relative to gasoline, each of which will provide a better understanding of the Direct to Ethanol process and further demonstrate that it is a breakthrough technology with varied and significant benefits.

  6. Utilization of agricultural wastes for production of ethanol. Progress report, October 1979-May 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, B.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project proposes to develop methods to utilize agricultural wastes, especially cottonseed hulls and peanut shells to produce ethanol. Initial steps will involve development of methods to break down cellulose to a usable form of substrates for chemical or biological digestion. The process of ethanol production will consist of (a) preparatory step to separate fibrous (cellulose) and non-fibrous (non-cellulosic compounds). The non-cellulosic residues which may include grains, fats or other substrates for alcoholic fermentation. The fibrous residues will be first pre-treated to digest cellulose with acid, alkali, and sulfur dioxide gas or other solvents. (b) The altered cellulose will be digested by suitable micro-organisms and cellulose enzymes before alcoholic fermentation. The digester and fermentative unit will be specially designed to develop a prototype for pilot plant for a continuous process. The first phase of the project will be devoted toward screening of a suitable method for cellulose modification, separation of fibrous and non-fibrous residues, the micro-organism and enzyme preparations. Work is in progress on: the effects of various microorganisms on the degree of saccharification; the effects of higher concentrations of acids, alkali, and EDTA on efficiency of microbial degradation; and the effects of chemicals on enzymatic digestion.

  7. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Final report, April 1994--July 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Breshears, F.S.; Gaines, L.D.; Hays, K.S.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program was to develop a commercial process for producing ethanol from refinery waste gases. this report presents results from the development phases. The major focus of this work was the preparation of the prototype design which will demonstrate this technology in a 2.5 lb/hr ethanol production facility. Additional areas of focus included efforts in obtaining an industrial partner to help finance the prototype, and advanced engineering experiments concentrating on process optimization in various areas needing future development and optimization. The advanced engineering experiments were performed in the laboratory in these areas: treatment and use of recycle water from distillation back to fermentation; alternative methods of removing cells from the fermentation broth; the fermentation of streams containing CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} alone, with little to no CO present; dealing with methanogen contaminants that are capable of fermenting CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} to methane; and acetate tolerance by the culture. Results from the design, industrial partner search and the laboratory R&D efforts are discussed in this report.

  8. Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants PSO Project No. 6356 July 2008 Renewable Energy and Transport #12;2 Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels)...............................................................................7 2. Production of Ash Products from Mixed Biofuels

  9. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M; Farrell, Alexander E; Plevin, Richard J; Jones, Andrew D; Nemet, Gregory F; Delucchi, Mark A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. (2005). "Ethanol as fuels: Energy, carbon dioxidebeen above $25 per barrel. Fuel Ethanol Production PetroleumFigure 1: Worldwide fuel ethanol production and petroleum

  10. Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fingerman, Kevin Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in  tar  sand  petroleum  production  becomes  mixed  with  water  used  in  petroleum  production  varies  greatly,  of  oil  sand  petroleum  production.   Their  application  

  11. Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fingerman, Kevin Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water  from   Production  of  Crude  Oil,  Natural  Gas,  water  required  for  production  of  crude  oil  through  consumption  for  production   of  crude  oil  in  the  

  12. Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O. [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences] [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology] [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-products generated from CGW biomass processing.

  13. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A. (Energy Systems)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  14. Biofuels in the U.S. Transportation Sector (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sustained high world oil prices and the passage of the Energy Policy Act 2005 (EPACT) have encouraged the use of agriculture-based ethanol and biodiesel in the transportation sector; however, both the continued growth of the biofuels industry and the long-term market potential for biofuels depend on the resolution of critical issues that influence the supply of and demand for biofuels. For each of the major biofuelscorn-based ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, and biodieselresolution of technical, economic, and regulatory issues remains critical to further development of biofuels in the United States.

  15. Climate change and health costs of air emissions from biofuels and gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    Climate change and health costs of air emissions from biofuels and gasoline Jason Hilla,b,1 on the source of land used to produce biomass for biofuels, on the magnitude of any indirect land use that may result, and on other as yet unmeasured environmental impacts of biofuels. fine particulate matter ethanol

  16. Fuel from wastewater : harnessing a potential energy source in Canada through the co-location of algae biofuel production to sources of effluent, heat and CO2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passell, Howard David; Whalen, Jake (SmartWhale Consulting, Dartmouth, NS, CA); Pienkos, Philip P. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO); O'Leary, Stephen J. (National Research Council Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, Halifax, NS, CA); Roach, Jesse Dillon; Moreland, Barbara D.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the 'production' footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada's NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific productivities of selected algal strains will eventually be incorporated into this model.

  17. Pacific Ethanol, Inc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    facility in an existing pulp mill to demonstrate the production of cellulosic ethanol from lignocellulosic (wood) extract. CEO or Equivalent: Edward Paslawski, Chairman...

  18. Increasing Biofuel Deployment through Renewable Super Premium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by 2022 (EISA 2007) RENEWABLE FUEL STANDARD * BETO Office Goal: "Enable nation-wide production of biofuels compatible with today's transportation infrastructure, reduce...

  19. Cassava, a potential biofuel crop in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansson, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    18-673389 Keywords: cassava; bioethanol; biofuel; metabolicRecently, cassava-derived bioethanol production has beenbenefits compared to other bioethanol- producing crops in

  20. FERMENTATION OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BY MICROORGANISMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, S.L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    batch fermentation the concentrations of acetic, and butyricthat acetic acid may fate in fermentations conducted by B.acid fermentation are ethanol , CO^, and acetic, succinic,

  1. FERMENTATION OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BY MICROORGANISMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, S.L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that acetic acid may fate in fermentations conducted by B.fermentation the concentrations of acetic, and butyric acidsthe mixed acid fermentation are ethanol , CO^, and acetic,

  2. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2008 State of Technology Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humbird, D.; Aden, A.

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An update to the FY 2007 assessment of the state of technical research progress toward biochemical process goals, quantified in terms of Minimum Ethanol Selling Price.

  3. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bovine serum albumin, Aspen model Introduction Overcominganalysis were conducted using Aspen Plus software based onand simulation model using Aspen, the cost of fuel ethanol

  4. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1996 19950414. Municipal solid waste processing facility andconversion of municipal-solid-waste to ethanol. Biotechnol.Bioconversion of municipal solid waste to glucose for bio-

  5. Biodiesel Production From Animal Fats And Its Impact On The Diesel Engine With Ethanol-Diesel Blends: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darunde Dhiraj S; Prof Deshmukh Mangesh M

    Abstract — Mainly animal fats and vegetable oils are used for the production of biodiesel. Several types of fuels can be derived from triacylglycerol-containing feedstock. Biodiesel which is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterifying the oil or fat with an alcohol (methanol/ethanol) under mild conditions in the presence of a base catalyst. This paper discuses fuel production, fuel properties, environmental effects including exhaust emissions and co-products. This also describes the use of glycerol which is the by-product in esterification process along with biodiesel. The impact of blending of biodiesel with ethanol and diesel on the diesel engine has described.

  6. Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies...

  7. Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  8. The Renewable Fuel Standard and Ethanol Pricing: A Sensitivity Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNair, Robert

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    of biofuel. The current Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel use by 2022. A large proportion of the mandate is to consist of corn-based ethanol. Most ethanol is consumed in the U.S. as a 10 percent blend of ethanol...

  9. Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    the potential effects of increased biofuel use, we evaluated six representative analyses of fuel ethanol that large-scale use of ethanol for fuel will almost certainly require cellulosic technology. E nergy in the future because of two federal policies: a /0.51 tax credit per gallon of ethanol used as motor fuel

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Advanced Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Biofuels Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks On February 26, 2013, in Biofuels, Biomass,...

  11. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Dalal, Rajen (Chicago, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  12. Ethanol Conversion to Hydrocarbons on HZSM-5: Effect of Reaction Conditions and Si/Al Ratio on the Product Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon over HZSM-5 zeolite with different Si/Al ratios was investigated under various reaction conditions. The catalyst with a higher Si/Al ratio (low acid density) deactivated faster and generated more unsaturated compounds at a similar time-on-stream. Temperature affects the catalytic activity with respect to liquid hydrocarbon generation and the hydrocarbon product composition. At lower temperatures (~300°C), the catalyst deactivated faster with respect to the liquid hydrocarbon formation. Higher temperatures (~400°C) reduced the formation of liquid range hydrocarbons and formed more gaseous fractions. Weight hourly space velocity was also found to affect product selectivity with higher weight hourly space velocity leading to a higher extent of ethylene formation. The experimental results were analyzed in terms of the product composition and the coke content with respect to catalyst time-on-stream and compared with the catalyst lifetime with respect to the variables tested on the conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon.

  13. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 3. Engineering development. Annual report, April 1, 1995--May 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C; Gaddy, J.L.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refineries discharge large volumes of H2, CO, and CO 2 from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This R&D program seeks to develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol for blending with gasoline. A 200,000 BPD refinery could produce up to 38 million gallons ethanol per year. The program is being conducted in 3 phases: II, technology development; III, engineering development; and IV, demonstration. Phase I, exploratory development, has been completed. The research effort has yielded two strains (Isolates O-52 and C-01) which are to be used in the pilot studies to produce ethanol from CO, CO2, and H2 in petroleum waste gas. Results from single continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) laboratory tests have shown that 20-25 g/L ethanol can be produced with < 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Laboratory studies with two CSTRs in series have yielded ethanol concentrations of 30-35 g/L with 2-4 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Water recycle from distillation back to the fermenter shows that filtration of the water before distillation eliminates the recycle of toxic materials back to the fermenter. Product recovery in the process will use direct distillation to the azeotrope, followed by adsorption to produce neat ethanol. This is less energy intensive than e.g. solvent extraction, azeotropic distillation, or pervaporation. Economic projections are quite attractive; the economics are refinery stream dependent and thus vary depending on refinery location and operation.

  14. Making Photosynthetic Biofuel Renewable: Recovering Phosphorus from Residual Biomass J. M. Gifford and P. Westerhoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Making Photosynthetic Biofuel Renewable: Recovering Phosphorus from Residual Biomass J. M. Gifford to global warming. Biofuel from phototrophic microbes like algae and bacteria provides a viable substitute improves biofuel sustainability by refining phosphorus recycling. Biomass Production Residual Biomass

  15. Life of Sugar: Developing Lifecycle Methods to Evaluate the Energy and Environmental Impacts of Sugarcane Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopal, Anand Raja

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    75 My View on the use of Biofuels in Low Carbon FuelCLCAs of Byproduct-based Biofuels . . . . . . . 49 5 FullLCA GHG Emissions of Biofuels using various Co-product

  16. Transformation of Sorbitol to Biofuels by Heterogeneous Catalysis: Chemical and Industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Transformation of Sorbitol to Biofuels by Heterogeneous Catalysis: Chemical and Industrial ainsi que des exemples d'applications industrielles. Abstract -- Transformation of Sorbitol to Biofuels and biodiesel production led to first generation biofuels. Nowadays, research is focused on lignocellulosic

  17. Mascoma Announces Major Cellulosic Biofuel Technology Breakthrough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the flexibility to run on numerous biomass feedstocks including wood chips, tall grasses, corn stover (residual biofuels from cellulosic biomass. The company's Consolidated Bioprocessing method converts non-food biomass feedstocks #12;into cellulosic ethanol through the use of a patented process that eliminates the need

  18. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project undertaken by GLBRC (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center) Area 4 (Sustainability) modelers is to develop a national capability to model feedstock supply, ethanol production, and biogeochemical impacts of cellulosic biofuels. The results of this project contribute to sustainability goals of the GLBRC; i.e. to contribute to developing a sustainable bioenergy economy: one that is profitable to farmers and refiners, acceptable to society, and environmentally sound. A sustainable bioenergy economy will also contribute, in a fundamental way, to meeting national objectives on energy security and climate mitigation. The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a spatially explicit national geodatabase for conducting biofuel simulation studies; (2) model biomass productivity and associated environmental impacts of annual cellulosic feedstocks; (3) simulate production of perennial biomass feedstocks grown on marginal lands; and (4) locate possible sites for the establishment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. To address the first objective, we developed SENGBEM (Spatially Explicit National Geodatabase for Biofuel and Environmental Modeling), a 60-m resolution geodatabase of the conterminous USA containing data on: (1) climate, (2) soils, (3) topography, (4) hydrography, (5) land cover/ land use (LCLU), and (6) ancillary data (e.g., road networks, federal and state lands, national and state parks, etc.). A unique feature of SENGBEM is its 2008-2010 crop rotation data, a crucially important component for simulating productivity and biogeochemical cycles as well as land-use changes associated with biofuel cropping. We used the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) model to simulate biomass productivity and environmental impacts of annual and perennial cellulosic feedstocks across much of the USA on both croplands and marginal lands. We used data from LTER and eddy-covariance experiments within the study region to test the performance of EPIC and, when necessary, improve its parameterization. We investigated three scenarios. In the first, we simulated a historical (current) baseline scenario composed mainly of corn-, soybean-, and wheat-based rotations as grown existing croplands east of the Rocky Mountains in 30 states. In the second scenario, we simulated a modified baseline in which we harvested corn and wheat residues to supply feedstocks to potential cellulosic ethanol biorefineries distributed within the study area. In the third scenario, we simulated the productivity of perennial cropping systems such as switchgrass or perennial mixtures grown on either marginal or Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands. In all cases we evaluated the environmental impacts (e.g., soil carbon changes, soil erosion, nitrate leaching, etc.) associated with the practices. In summary, we have reported on the development of a spatially explicit national geodatabase to conduct biofuel simulation studies and provided initial simulation results on the potential of annual and perennial cropping systems to serve as feedstocks for the production of cellulosic ethanol. To accomplish this, we have employed sophisticated spatial analysis methods in combination with the process-based biogeochemical model EPIC. This work provided the opportunity to test the hypothesis that marginal lands can serve as sources of cellulosic feedstocks and thus contribute to avoid potential conflicts between bioenergy and food production systems. This work, we believe, opens the door for further analysis on the characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks as major contributors to the development of a sustainable bioenergy economy.

  19. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  20. A GIS COST MODEL TO ASSESS THE AVAILABILITY OF FRESHWATER, SEAWATER, AND SALINE GROUNDWATER FOR ALGAL BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A key advantage of using microalgae for biofuel production is the ability of some algal strains to thrive in waters unsuitable for conventional crop irrigation such as saline groundwater or seawater. Nonetheless, the availability of sustainable water supplies will provide significant challenges for scale-up and development of algal biofuels. We conduct a limited techno-economic assessment based on the availability of freshwater, saline groundwater, and seawater for use in open pond algae cultivation systems. We explore water issues through GIS-based models of algae biofuel production, freshwater supply, and cost models for supplying seawater and saline groundwater. We estimate that combined, within the coterminous US these resources can support production on the order of 9.46E+7 m3 yr-1 (25 billion gallons yr-1) of renewable biodiesel. Achievement of larger targets requires the utilization of less water efficient sites and relatively expensive saline waters. Geographically, water availability is most favorable for the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida peninsula, where evaporation relative to precipitation is moderate and various saline waters are economically available. As a whole, barren and scrub lands of the southwestern US have limited freshwater supplies so accurate assessment of alternative waters is critical.

  1. Evaluation of Microbial Communities from Extreme Environments as Inocula in a Carboxylate Platform for Biofuel Production from Cellulosic Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cope, Julia Lee

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The carboxylate biofuels platform (CBP) involves the conversion of cellulosic biomass into carboxylate salts by a mixed microbial community. Chemical engineering approaches to convert these salts to a variety of fuels (diesel, gasoline, jet fuel...

  2. THE POTENTIAL OF FRESHWATER MACROALGAE AS A BIOFUELS FEEDSTOCK AND THE INFLUENCE OF NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY ON FRESHWATER MACROALGAL BIOMASS PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun, Jin-Ho

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive efforts have been made to evaluate the potential of microalgae as a biofuel feedstock during the past 4-5 decades. However, filamentous freshwater macroalgae have numerous characteristics that favor their potential use as an alternative...

  3. Biofuels Overview CLIMATETECHBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page | 1 May 2009 Biofuels Overview CLIMATETECHBOOK What are Biofuels? A biofuel is defined as any dependence on petroleum-based fuels, biofuels are gaining increasing attention as one possible solution. Biofuels offer a way to produce transportation fuels from renewable sources or waste materials and to help

  4. Consolidated Bio-Processing of Cellulosic Biomass for Efficient Biofuel Production Using Yeast Consortium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Garima

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bioprocessing for bioethanol production using Saccharomycesconversion to bioethanol in a single bioreactor by b) a CBPof lignocellulose to bioethanol refers to the combining of

  5. Biofuels: 1995 project summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Domestic transportation fuels are derived primarily from petroleum and account for about two-thirds of the petroleum consumption in the United States. In 1994, more than 40% of our petroleum was imported. That percentage is likely to increase, as the Middle East has about 75% of the world`s oil reserves, but the United States has only about 5%. Because we rely so heavily on oil (and because we currently have no suitable substitutes for petroleum-based transportation fuels), we are strategically and economically vulnerable to disruptions in the fuel supply. Additionally, we must consider the effects of petroleum use on the environment. The Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The day-to-day research activities, which address these issues, are managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BSD focuses its research on biofuels-liquid and gaseous fuels made from renewable domestic crops-and aggressively pursues new methods for domestically producing, recovering, and converting the feedstocks to produce the fuels economically. The biomass resources include forage grasses, oil seeds, short-rotation woody crops, agricultural and forestry residues, algae, and certain industrial and municipal waste streams. The resulting fuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, and ethers.

  6. Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    be used to synthesise petrol or diesel via Fischer-Tropsch reactions, or produce hydrogen via water gas shift reactions. Alternatively, the bio-oil product of fast pyrolysis may be upgraded to produce petrol that the minimum cost of petrol and diesel production is 0.86 $ litre-1 when a bio-oil feedstock is upgraded

  7. Impact of demand-enhancing farm policy on the agricultural sector: a firm level simulation of ethanol production subsidies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wasson, Leta Susanne

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U. S. Fuel Ethanol Production 2. 4 Dry Milling Process 2. 5 Wet Milling Process 22 27 29 30 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A ricultural Polic Sett'n Agriculture has long been an industry of instability. Commodity surpluses along with low prices... of reducing stocks. Arguments against demand enhancement state that this sort of policy will do nothing more than increase the already large U. S. stocks of commodities. Proponents of demand enhancement see such policies as a means of reducing surpluses...

  8. Regional Differences in Corn Ethanol Production: Profitability and Potential Water Demands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higgins, Lindsey M.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    to location differences. Changes in consumptive water use in the Texas High Plains, Southern Minnesota, and the Central Valley of California, as impacted by current and proposed grain-based ethanol plants were addressed. In addition, this research assesses...

  9. Engineering microbial biofuel tolerance and export using efflux pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunlop, Mary

    REPORT Engineering microbial biofuel tolerance and export using efflux pumps Mary J Dunlop1 16.9.10; accepted 6.4.11 Many compounds being considered as candidates for advanced biofuels for biofuel production because the engineered microbes must balance production against survival. Cellular

  10. Global Assessments and Guidelines for Sustainable Liquid Biofuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Assessments and Guidelines for Sustainable Liquid Biofuel Production in Developing Countries Biofuel Production in Developing Countries FINAL REPORT A GEF Targeted Research Project Organized by Bernd for Sustainable Liquid Biofuels. A GEF Targeted Research Project. Heidelberg/Paris/Utrecht/Darmstadt, 29 February

  11. Biofuels | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels The biofuel supply chain affects quantity and quality of water in a variety of ways. The biofuel supply chain affects quantity and quality of water in a variety of ways....

  12. Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Balances for a Range of Biofuel Options, Project Number8. F UELCYCLE EMISSIONS FOR BIOFUEL VEHICLES IN DIFFERENTch. and LEM % ch. For a few biofuel lifecycles there can be

  13. Engineering microbial biofuel tolerance and export using efflux pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunlop, Mary

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biofuel production. Two pumps consistently survived thethe native E. coli pump Molecular Systems Biology 2011 3biofuel tolerance using ef?ux pumps MJ Dunlop et al A A.

  14. Video: A New Biofuels Technology Blooms in Iowa

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cellulosic biofuels made from agricultural residue have caught the attention of many farmers and could be the next revolution in renewable biofuels production. This video shows how an innovative...

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EnergyBiomassBiofuels Biofuels Sandia researchers are turning cellulosic biomass into jet fuel. Global demand for energy has risen dramatically in recent years, yet the world...

  16. Strategic Perspectives on Biofuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary V: Biofuels and Sustainability: Acknowledging Challenges and Confronting MisconceptionsQuantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG EmissionsLee R. Lynd,...

  17. Biofuels Information Center

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuels Information Center BETO 2015 Peer Review Kristi Moriarty March 24, 2015 2 Goal Statement * The purpose of the Biofuels Information Center (BIC) task is to increase...

  18. Screening Prosopis (Mesquite or Algarrobo) for Biofuel Production on Semiarid Lands1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    salars is because of its capability to extract water from the atmosphere, or from its ability to develop with 600 mm total water applica- tion. Dry matter production of 14,000 kg/ha has been obtained at projected harvested costs of $23.00 per ton or $1.35 per million Btu and com- pare favorably with natural gas, heating

  19. Assessments of biofuel sustainability: air pollution and health impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsao, Chi-Chung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of using corn stover for fuel ethanol. Journal of IndustrialL. , Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in3), 257-267. 34. 2008 World Fuel Ethanol Production. http://

  20. Vertical Integration of Biomass Saccharification of Enzymes for Sustainable Cellulosic Biofuel Production in a Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  1. Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (the Act) outlined a national energy strategy that called for reducing the nation's dependency on petroleum imports. The Act directed the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to promote and expand the use of renewable fuels. The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has evaluated a wide range of potential fuels and has concluded that cellulosic ethanol is one of the most promising near-term prospects. Ethanol is widely recognized as a clean fuel that helps reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants. Furthermore, cellulosic ethanol produces less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or any of the other alternative transportation fuels being considered by DOE.

  2. Assessing Habitat for Avian Species in Assessing Habitat for Avian Species in an Integrated Forage/Biofuels an Integrated Forage/Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    in an Integrated Forage/Biofuels an Integrated Forage/Biofuels Management System Management System in the Midin NWSG mixes beneficial to forage, biofuels production, and wildlife habitatp , 3. identify wildlife habitat benefits associated with varying forage and biofuels management strategies 4. identify optimum

  3. Nipa (Nypa fruticans) sap as a potential feedstock for ethanol production Pramila Tamunaidu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    . Introduction Currently the global ethanol supply is produced mainly from sugar and starch feedstocks. Sugar these feedstocks rely heavily on non-renewable fossil fuels and exploitation of forest lands which has negative cutting down the plant as in sugarcane which consequently produces large biomass waste such as straw

  4. Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  5. Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  6. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M; Farrell, Alexander E; Plevin, Richard J; Jones, Andrew D; Nemet, Gregory F; Delucchi, Mark A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    barrel. Fuel Ethanol Production Petroleum Price $ per gallonfuel ethanol production and petroleum prices Sources:issue of joint production arises in petroleum refineries. A

  7. Vermont Biofuels Initiative: Local Production for Local Use to Supply a Portion of Vermont�s Energy Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Sawyer; Ellen Kahler

    2009-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Vermont Biofuels initiative (VBI) is the Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund�s (VSJF) biomass-to-biofuels market development program. Vermont is a small state with a large petroleum dependency for transportation (18th in per capita petroleum consumption) and home heating (55% of all households use petroleum for heating). The VBI marks the first strategic effort to reduce Vermont�s dependency on petroleum through the development of homegrown alternatives. As such, it supports the four key priorities of the U.S. Department of Energy�s Multi-year Biomass Plan: 1.) Dramatically reduce dependence on foreign oil; 2.) Promote the use of diverse, domestic and sustainable energy resources; 3.) Reduce carbon emissions from energy production and consumption; 4.) Establish a domestic bioindustry. In 2005 VSJF was awarded with a $496,000 Congressionally directed award from U.S. Senator Patrick Leahy. This award was administered through the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG36- 05GO85017, hereafter referred to as DOE FY05) with $396,000 to be used by VSJF for biodiesel development and $100,000 to be used by the Vermont Department of Public Service for methane biodigester projects. The intent and strategic focus of the VBI is similar to another DOE funded organization� the Biofuels Center of North Carolina�in that it is a nonprofit driven, statewide biofuels market development effort. DOE FY05 funds were expensed from 2006 through 2008 for seven projects: 1) a feedstock production, logistics, and biomass conversion research project conducted by the University of Vermont Extension; 2) technical assistance in the form of a safety review and engineering study of State Line Biofuels existing biodiesel production facility; 3) technical assistance in the form of a safety review and engineering study of Borderview Farm�s proposed biodiesel production facility; 4) technology and infrastructure purchases for capacity expansion at Green Technologies, LLC, a waste vegetable biodiesel producer; 5) technical assistance in the form of feasibility studies for AgNorth Biopower LLC�s proposed multi-feedstock biodigester; 6) technology and infrastructure purchases for the construction of a �Cow Power� biodigester at Gervais Family Farm; and 7) the education and outreach activities of the Vermont Biofuels Association. DOE FY05 funded research, technical assistance, and education and outreach activities have helped to provide Vermont farmers and entrepreneurs with important feedstock production, feedstock logistics, and biomass conversion information that did not exist prior as we work to develop an instate biodiesel sector. The efficacy of producing oilseed crops in New England is now established: Oilseed crops can grow well in Vermont, and good yields are achievable given improved harvesting equipment and techniques. DOE FY05 funds used for technology and infrastructure development have expanded Vermont�s pool of renewable electricity and liquid fuel generation. It is now clear that on-farm energy production provides an opportunity for Vermont farmers and entrepreneurs to reduce on-farm expenditures of feed and fuel while providing for their energy security. Meanwhile they are developing new value-added revenue sources (e.g., locally produced livestock meal), retaining more dollars in the local economy, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boas, Harold P.

    Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant? JAMES M. GRIFFIN & RACHAEL DAHL The Mosbacher Institute VOLUME 3 | ISSUE 2 | 2012 2012 RELAXING THE ETHANOL MANDATE The severity of the drought of 2012 affecting for ethanol production, 6.72 BB for domestic food and feed and the remainder for exports (Figure 1). The USDA

  9. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slininger, Patricia J; Shea-Andersh, Maureen A; Thompson, Stephanie R; Dien, Bruce S; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Balan, Venkatesh; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Dale, Bruce E; Cotta, Michael A

    2015-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock useful for the production of fuel-grade ethanol via the processing steps of pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. Traditional industrial yeasts do not ferment xylose and are not able to grow, survive, or ferment in concentrated hydrolyzates that contain enough sugar to support economical ethanol recovery since they are laden with toxic byproducts generated during pretreatment.

  10. Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup

    Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion Rajiv Bharadwaj such as cellulases and hemicellulases is a limiting and costly step in the conversion of biomass to biofuels. Lignocellulosic (LC) biomass is an abundant and potentially carbon-neutral resource for production of biofuels

  11. Media Framing and Public Attitudes Toward Biofuels Ashlie Delshad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Media Framing and Public Attitudes Toward Biofuels Ashlie Delshad Department of Political Science between media framing and public opinion on the issue of biofuels--transportation fuels made from plants, animal products, or organic waste. First, the paper investigates how media framing of biofuels has

  12. II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    15 II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17 The previous chapter analysed biofuels production. GHG policies18 that create a carbon price either through an emissions trading system or directly by taxing GHG emissions also generate increased demand for biofuels. They do so by raising

  13. Nottingham Business School Biofuels Market and Policy Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul

    Nottingham Business School Biofuels Market and Policy Governance The last decade has seen a dramatic growth in the global production and consumption of biofuels, as a rapidly- rising number triggered growing concerns about the downsides from different types of biofuel. This, in turn, presents

  14. FULLY FUNDED DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BIOFUELS RESEARCH INTERNSHIP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildermuth, Mary C

    FULLY FUNDED DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BIOFUELS RESEARCH INTERNSHIP AT PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY Position Description The overall project objective is to utilize marine microalgae for biofuels (i.e., lipids for biodiesel or jet biofuel) production. The student will set up a series

  15. AN OVERVIEW OF BIOFUELS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH CAROLINA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S.; French, T.

    2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The South Carolina Bio-Energy Research Collaborative is working together on the development and demonstration of technology options for the production of bio-fuels using renewable non-food crops and biomass resources that are available or could be made available in abundance in the southeastern United States. This collaboration consists of Arborgen LLC, Clemson University, Savannah River National Laboratory, and South Carolina State University, with support from Dyadic, Fagen Engineering, Renewed World Energies, and Spinx. Thus far, most work has centered on development of a fermentation-based process to convert switchgrass into ethanol, with the concomitant generation of a purified lignin stream. The process is not feed-specific, and the work scope has recently expanded to include sweet sorghum and wood. In parallel, the Collaborative is also working on developing an economical path to produce oils and fuels from algae. The Collaborative envisions an integrated bio-fuels process that can accept multiple feedstocks, shares common equipment, and that produces multiple product streams. The Collaborative is not the only group working on bio-energy in South Carolina, and other companies are involved in producing biomass derived energy products at an industrial scale.

  16. Global Economic Effects of USA Biofuel Policy and the Potential Contribution from Advanced Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gbadebo Oladosu; Keith Kline; Paul Leiby; Rocio Uria-Martinez; Maggie Davis; Mark Downing; Laurence Eaton

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the global economic effects of the USA renewable fuel standards (RFS2), and the potential contribution from advanced biofuels. Our simulation results imply that these mandates lead to an increase of 0.21 percent in the global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2022, including an increase of 0.8 percent in the USA and 0.02 percent in the rest of the world (ROW); relative to our baseline, no-RFS scenario. The incremental contributions to GDP from advanced biofuels in 2022 are estimated at 0.41 percent and 0.04 percent in the USA and ROW, respectively. Although production costs of advanced biofuels are higher than for conventional biofuels in our model, their economic benefits result from reductions in oil use, and their smaller impacts on food markets compared with conventional biofuels. Thus, the USA advanced biofuels targets are expected to have positive economic benefits.

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: Biofuels Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SystemsRenewable EnergyBiomassBiofuelsBiofuels Publications Biofuels Publications Undergirded by the powerful capabilities, state-of-the-art facilities, and brilliant minds that...

  18. Biofuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Addthis Text Version Photo of a woman in goggles handling a machine filled with biofuels. Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels produced from biomass. Most biofuels are used...

  19. Biofuels from Microalgae and Seaweeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Benemann, John; Metting, F. Blaine

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    8.1 Introduction: Seaweeds and microalgae have a long history of cultivation as sources of commercial products (McHugh 2003; Pulz and Gross 2004). They also have been the subject of extensive investigations related to their potential as fuel source since the 1970s (Chynoweth 2002). As energy costs rise, these photosynthetic organisms are again a focus of interest as potential sources of biofuels, particularly liquid transportation fuels. There have been many recent private sector investments to develop biofuels from microalgae, in part building on a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program from 1976 to 1996 which focused on microalgal oil production (Sheehan et al. 1998). Seaweed cultivation has received relatively little attention as a biofuel source in the US, but was the subject of a major research effort by the DOE from 1978 to 1983 (Bird and Benson 1987), and is now the focus of significant interest in Japan, Europe and Korea...

  20. Improving biofuel production | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high SMR activity and favorable stability in the presence of simulated biomass-derived syngas-a fuel gas mixture primarily of hydrogen and carbon monoxide-which can be further...

  1. Effect of guar gum upon the partition coefficients of diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and ethanol in acidified milk products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Chih-Yang

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in acidified milk 35 ANOVA of the partition coefficients of diacetyl in acidified milk 36 Effect of concentration of SNF on the partition coefficients (Kd) of ethanol at 0% milk fat and 3, 6, and 9ppm ethanol at 30'C. . . . . 40 Effect of concentration... of SNF on the partition coefficients (Kd) of ethanol at 10% milk fat and 3, 6, and 9ppm ethanol at 30'C. . . . . 41 Effect of concentration of SNF on the partition coefficients (Kd) of ethanol at 20% milk fat and 3, 6, and 9ppm ethanol at 30'C...

  2. Potential for Biofuel-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Rationale and Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    1 Potential for Biofuel-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Rationale and Potential By Bruce biofuel usage. Biofuel feedstocks are a source of raw material that can be transformed into petroleum for coal. In the USA, liquid fuel biofuel production has not proven to be broadly economically feasible

  3. CONNECTICUT BIOFUELS TECHNOLOGY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARTONE, ERIK

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    DBS Energy Inc. (“DBS”) intends on using the Connecticut Biofuels Technology Project for the purpose of developing a small-scale electric generating systems that are located on a distributed basis and utilize biodiesel as its principle fuel source. This project will include research and analysis on the quality and applied use of biodiesel for use in electricity production, 2) develop dispatch center for testing and analysis of the reliability of dispatching remote generators operating on a blend of biodiesel and traditional fossil fuels, and 3) analysis and engineering research on fuel storage options for biodiesel of fuels for electric generation.

  4. Insect Science (2010) 17, 117, DOI 10.1111/j.1744-7917.2009.01310.x Arthropods and biofuel production systems in North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landis, Doug

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Insect Science (2010) 17, 1­17, DOI 10.1111/j.1744-7917.2009.01310.x REVIEW Arthropods and biofuel 000 ha of US crop and forest lands to meet federally-mandated targets for renewable biofuels that inhabit them. We review the literature on dedicated biofuel crops and biomass harvest from forests to look

  5. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten, the Proctor Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites, for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A separate Appendix provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. 26 figs., 121 tabs.

  6. Soil and variety effects on energy use and carbon emissions associated with switchgrass-based ethanol production in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.; Baldwin, Brian S.; Lang, David J.; Kiniry, James R.

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    High biomass production potential, wide adaptability, low input requirement, and low environmental risk make switchgrass an economically and ecologically viable energy crop.The inherent variablity in switchgrass productivity due to variations in soil and variety could affect the sustainability and eco-friendliness of switchgrass-based ethanol production. This study examined the soil and variety effects on these variables. Three locations in Mississippi were selected based on latitude and potential acreage. Using ALMANAC, switchgrass biomass yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and varities. The simulated yields were fed to IBSAL to compute energy use and CO2 emissions in various operations in the biomass supply From the energy and emissions values, the sustainability and eco-friendliness of ethanol production were determined using net energy value (NEV) and carbon credit balance (CCB) as indicators, respectively. Soil and variety effects on NEV and CCB were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results showed significant differences in NEV and CCB across soils and varieties. Both NEV and CCB increased in the direction of heavier to lighter soils and on the order of north-upland , south-upland, north-lowland, and south-lowland varieties. Only north-upland and south-lowland varieties were significantly significantly different because they were different in both cytotype and ecotype. Gaps between lowland and upland varieties were smaller in a dry year than in a wet year. The NEV and CCB increased in the direction of dry to wet year. From south to north, they decreased for lowland cytotypes but increased for upland cytotypes. Thus, the differences among varieties decreased northwards.

  7. Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

  8. Biofuels in Minnesota: A Success Story

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PDF provides a Minnesota biofuels success story. It shows the timeline of state actions, the number of biodiesel plants in the state, production and consumption rates, and the NextGen Energy Initiative.

  9. D o s s i e r Second and Third Generation Biofuels: Towards Sustainability and Competitiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    D o s s i e r Second and Third Generation Biofuels: Towards Sustainability and Competitiveness available for the production of bio-product or biofuels. In comparison with wood lignins which contain

  10. The Science Behind Cheaper Biofuels | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the metabolic processes in rapeseed plants to optimize production of plant oils for biofuels. Shown above are developing embryos extracted from a growing rapeseed plant. The...

  11. Whole Turf Algae to biofuels-final-sm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Whole Turf Algae Polyculture Biofuels The production and conversion of whole turf algae polyculture maximizes fuels, chemicals and nutrients New Approach to Algal Biomass...

  12. of Biofuels Sustainable Feedstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Next Generation of Biofuels Sustainable Feedstocks Cost-Competitive Options #12;Photos courtesy the evolutionary code for an entirely new generation of biofuels capable of transforming the American automobile biofuels at a cost competitive with that of gasoline. Equally important, they are using crops

  13. Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Andress, Comparison of Ethanol Fuel Cycles in the GHG ModelsD. Pimentel, “Ethanol Fuels: Energy Balance, Economics, andUsing Corn Stover for Fuel Ethanol,” Journal of Industrial

  14. Carbon Accounting and Economic Model Uncertainty of Emissions from Biofuels-Induced Land Use Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plevin, Richard J; Beckman, Jayson; Golub, Alla A; Witcover, Julie; O'??Hare, Michael

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    demand: Comparison of models and results for marginal biofuels production from different feedstocks; EC Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy:

  15. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and fermentation) rate and increasing the production of neutral products at the expense of acetic andand acetic acid concen- trations on the rate of fermentationacetic acid production (data not shown). all fermentation

  16. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and acetic acid concen- trations on the rate of fermentationacetic acid production (data not shown). all fermentationand fermentation) rate and increasing the production of neutral products at the expense of acetic and other acids.

  17. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production In shake flasks, Chaetomium trilaterat~ -2264 grows in pelletProduction In shake flask, Chaetomium trilaterate No. 2264 grows in pellet

  18. An Assessment of Land Availability and Price in the Coterminous United States for Conversion to Algal Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Realistic economic assessment of land-intensive alternative energy sources (e.g., solar, wind, and biofuels) requires information on land availability and price. Accordingly, we created a comprehensive, national-scale model of these parameters for the United States. For algae-based biofuel, a minimum of 1.04E+05 km2 of land is needed to meet the 2022 EISA target of 2.1E+10 gallons year-1. We locate and quantify land types best converted. A data-driven model calculates the incentive to sell and a fair compensation value (real estate and lost future income). 1.02E+6 km2 of low slope, non-protected land is relatively available including croplands, pasture/ grazing, and forests. Within this total there is 2.64E+5 km2 of shrub and barren land available. The Federal government has 7.68E+4 km2 available for lease. Targeting unproductive lands minimizes land costs and impacts to existing industries. However, shrub and barren lands are limited by resources (water) and logistics, so land conversion requires careful consideration.

  19. Europe report discloses biofuels' embarrassing secret

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    According to a recently released European Union (EU) internal document, biofuels can produce up to four times more greenhouse gas emissions than the conventional diesel or gasoline they are intended to replace. Conventional gasoline and diesel emit around 85 kilograms of CO2-equivalent per gigajoule of energy. For biofuels to make any sense, they have to beat this by a margin, or else why bother given all the negative externalities associated with growing biofuels? The EU study suggests that the carbon footprint of typical European biofuels is in the range of 100--150 and North American soybeans score around 340 -- at least four times higher than conventional transportation fuels. By contrast, Latin American sugar cane and bioethanol from palm oil from Southeast Asia, is relatively better at 82 and 74 kilograms per gigajoule, respectively. But even in these cases, it is far from clear if biofuels are superior to conventional fuels due to the many externalities associated with biofuels, including clearing of virgin forests and loss of habitat and biodiversity. Moreover, biofuel production in many regions competes directly with food production, resulting in higher food costs.

  20. Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul Ramsey County, Minnesota September with the Gopher State Ethanol, St. Paul, Ramsey County, Minnesota. It is based on a formal site evaluation....................................................................................................................... 3 Ethanol Production

  1. The grass is half-full : new biofuels from field to wheel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moseman, Andrew (Andrew Garet)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current biofuels market in the United States is dominated by ethanol made from corn. But corn ethanol has limitations that will prevent it from displacing a large amount of fossil fuel use in the U.S. To achieve that ...

  2. Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered Thermophilic and Ethanol-Tolerant Geobacillus Strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Yinjie J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: currentcharacterization of two novel ethanol-tolerant facultative-Lin Y, Tanaka S. 2006. Ethanol fermentation from biomass

  3. A laboratory and pilot plant scaled continuous stirred reactor separator for the production of ethanol from sugars, corn grits/starch or biomass streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, M.C.; Lei, Shuiwang; Zhou, Chongde

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved bio-reactor has been developed to allow the high speed, continues, low energy conversion of various substrates to ethanol. The Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) incorporates gas stripping of the ethanol using a recalculating gas stream between cascading stirred reactors in series. We have operated a 4 liter lab scale unit, and built and operated a 24,000 liter pilot scale version of the bioreactor. High rates of fermentation are maintained in the reactor stages using a highly flocculent yeast strain. Ethanol is recovered from the stripping gas using a hydrophobic solvent absorber (isothermal), after which the gas is returned to the bioreactor. Ethanol can then be removed from the solvent to recover a highly concentrated ethanol product. We have applied the lab scale CSRS to sugars (glucose/sucrose), molasses, and raw starch with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the starch granules (SSF). The pilot scale CSRS has been operated as a cascade reactor using dextrins as a feed. Operating data from both the lab and pilot scale CSRS are presented. Details of how the system might be applied to cellulosics, with some preliminary data are also given.

  4. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  5. Feasibility of Steam Hydrogasification of Microalgae for Production of Synthetic Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suemanotham, Amornrat

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and second generation biofuels: A comprehensive review.Production of liquid biofuels from renewable resources.al. , Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae

  6. Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol, Agricultural Economic Report Number 721, Economic Research Service, United States

  7. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yongchao [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Liao, James C [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to significantly alter the mixture of fermentation products. The initial application of this system successfully engineered a strain with high ethanol productivity from complex biomass substrates.

  8. Georgia Biofuel Directory A directory of Georgia industries that use biofuels.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgia Biofuel Directory · A directory of Georgia industries that use biofuels. · Completed in May _________________________________________________________________ 3 Biofuels_____________________________________________________________________ 4 Biofuel Use in Georgia that Burn Self-Generated Biofuels as of May 2003__ 4 Chart 1.0 Biofuel Use from Contacted

  9. The Effects of Timber as a Biofuel on the Occupancy and Habitat Suitability of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    1 The Effects of Timber as a Biofuel on the Occupancy and Habitat Suitability of the Indiana Bat of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries Introduction · Biofuel: ­ National Security ­ Stimulate Local Economies Negative Impacts of Biofuel Production ­ Decreased Site Productivity/Decreased Soil Conservation

  10. Evanescent Photosynthesis: A new approach to sustainable biofuel Matthew D. Ooms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    Evanescent Photosynthesis: A new approach to sustainable biofuel production by Matthew D. Ooms #12;Abstract Evanescent Photosynthesis: A new approach to sustainable biofuel production Matthew D biofuel and other high value compounds through direct conversion of CO2 and water using energy from

  11. Biofuel Economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel; Holmes, Brad; Simmons, Blake; Blanch, Harvey

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As concerns regarding increasing energy prices, global warming and renewable resources continue to grow, so has scientific discovery into agricultural biomass conversion. Plant Biomass Conversion addresses both the development of plant biomass and conversion technology, in addition to issues surrounding biomass conversion, such as the affect on water resources and soil sustainability. This book also offers a brief overview of the current status of the industry and examples of production plants being used in current biomass conversion efforts.

  12. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12771 Efficient ethanol production from brown macroalgae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    Asteromyces cruciatus4 . The genomic integration and overexpression of the gene encodingthis transporter not contain lignin, simple biorefinery processes such as milling, leaching and extraction can separate sustainable food production13 (see Supplementary Discussion for a brown macroalgae biorefinery description

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: lignocellulosic biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lignocellulosic biofuels Sandia Video Featured by DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office On December 10, 2014, in Biofuels, Biomass, Capabilities, Energy, Facilities, JBEI, News, News &...

  14. Ethanol production by Escherichia coli strains co-expressing Zymomonas PDC and ADH genes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Conway, Tyrrell (Lincoln, NE); Alterthum, Flavio (Gainesville, FL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel operon and plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase activities of Zymomonas mobilis are described. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of microorganisms or eukaryotic cells and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of microorganisms or cells.

  15. Review: Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production Simone Brethauer, Charles E. Wyman *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    with powerful economic, environmental, and strategic attributes, but production costs must be competitive. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction According to the recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel to 379 ppm in 2005, primarily as a result of fossil fuel use (IPCC, 2007). Overall, petroleum

  16. Enhanced Ethanol Production from De-Ashed Paper Sludge by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation and Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, L.; Wang, W.; Pallapolu, V. R.; Lee, Y. Y.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A previous study demonstrated that paper sludges with high ash contents can be converted to ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) or simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF). High ash content in the sludge, however, limited solid loading in the bioreactor, causing low product concentration. To overcome this problem, sludges were de-ashed before SSF and SSCF. Low ash content in sludges also increased the ethanol yield to the extent that the enzyme dosage required to achieve 70% yield in the fermentation process was reduced by 30%. High solid loading in SSF and SSCF decreased the ethanol yield. High agitation and de-ashing of the sludges were able to restore the part of the yield loss caused by high solid loading. Substitution of the laboratory fermentation medium (peptone and yeast extract) with corn steep liquor did not bring about any adverse effects in the fermentation. Fed-batch operation of the SSCF and SSF using low-ash content sludges was effective in raising the ethanol concentration, achieving 47.8 g/L and 60.0 g/L, respectively.

  17. Dynamics of Evolution in the Global Fuel-Ethanol Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Jin Hooi; Reiner, David

    that critical success factor is the important determinants of inter-firm governance mode. Keywords Inter-firm governance, Biofuels, Entry, Vertical integration JEL Classification L11? L70?N5? Q42 Contact jinhooi@gmail.com; jhc41@cam.ac.uk Publication... % of the global gasoline fuel market in 20094. Bio-ethanol, or biofuels in a broader sense, has attracted substantial research. There is a growing body of literature related to biofuels, which has been primarily preoccupied with policy instruments (Sorda et...

  18. Biofuels and Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    residues, or other kinds of plant-based "biomass feedstocks". Ethanol is typically made from plant biomass

  19. Biofuel Supply Chain Infrastructure Optimizing the Evolution of Cellulosic Biofuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biofuel Supply Chain Infrastructure Optimizing the Evolution of Cellulosic Biofuel Center infrastructure. Cellulosic-based ad- vanced biofuel has a target of 21 billion gallons by 2022 and requires into a national economic model of biofuel sustainability. Cellulosic biomass relocates the demand

  20. A National-Scale Comparison of Resource and Nutrient Demands for Algae-Based Biofuel Production by Lipid Extraction and Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Algae’s high productivity provides potential resource advantages over other fuel crops. However, demand for land, water, and nutrients must be minimized to avoid impacts on food production. We apply our national-scale, open-pond, growth and resource models to assess several biomass to fuel technological pathways based on Chlorella. We compare resource demands between hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and lipid extraction (LE) to meet 1.89E+10 and 7.95E+10 L yr-1 biofuel targets. We estimate nutrient demands where post-fuel biomass is consumed as co-products and recycling by anaerobic digestion (AD) or catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG). Sites are selected through prioritization based on fuel value relative to a set of site-specific resource costs. The highest priority sites are located along the Gulf of Mexico coast, but potential sites exist nationwide. We find that HTL reduces land and freshwater consumption by up to 46% and saline groundwater by around 70%. Without recycling, nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) demand is reduced 33%, but is large relative to current U.S. agricultural consumption. The most nutrient-efficient pathways are LE+CHG for N and HTL+CHG for P (by 42%). Resource gains for HTL+CHG are offset by a 344% increase in N consumption relative to LE+CHG (with potential for further recycling). Nutrient recycling is essential to effective use of alternative nutrient sources. Modeling of utilization availability and costs remains, but we find that for HTL+CHG at the 7.95E+10 L yr-1 production target, municipal sources can offset 17% of N and 40% of P demand and animal manures can generally meet demands.

  1. Computer Modeling of Carbon Metabolism Enables Biofuel Engineering (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to reduce the cost of biofuels, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has merged biochemistry with modern computing and mathematics. The result is a model of carbon metabolism that will help researchers understand and engineer the process of photosynthesis for optimal biofuel production.

  2. Implications of Three Biofuel Crops for Beneficial Arthropods in Agricultural Landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landis, Doug

    Implications of Three Biofuel Crops for Beneficial Arthropods in Agricultural Landscapes Mary A Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010 Abstract Production of biofuel feedstocks in agricultural landscapes and generalist natural enemies in three model biofuel crops: corn, switch- grass, and mixed prairie, we tested

  3. 16 CSA News March 2013 thanol from corn has been the primary biofuel for liq-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    16 CSA News March 2013 E thanol from corn has been the primary biofuel for liq- uid fuels in the United States, but perennial cellulosic biofuels are on the horizon. Intensive corn production with large of nitrogen losses on large, tile-drained fields planted with perennial biofuels in the Midwest of the United

  4. MSU biofuels research fills need for new sources July 28, 2006 --By Carol Flaherty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    MSU biofuels research fills need for new sources July 28, 2006 -- By Carol Flaherty The words are becoming familiar, even if the products aren't: biofuel, biobased, biodiesel, bioethanol. All refer to fuel collaborators are investigating Montana's potential for producing biofuels using "biomass," which refers to all

  5. Impacts of Land-Use and Biofuels Policy on Climate: Temperature and Localized Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impacts of Land-Use and Biofuels Policy on Climate: Temperature and Localized Impacts Willow on recycled paper #12;1 Impacts of Land-Use and Biofuels Policy on Climate: Temperature and Localized Impacts to agricultural production, including growing biofuels, and (ii) Observed Land Supply Response (OLSR

  6. D o s s i e r Second and Third Generation Biofuels: Towards Sustainability and Competitiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    D o s s i e r Second and Third Generation Biofuels: Towards Sustainability and Competitiveness biofuels will have an important part to take in the energy transition as far as fuels are concerned. Using biofuels, the BTL route consists in the production of middle dis- tillates (Diesel and jet fuel) via

  7. Energy Policy 36 (2008) 15381544 Promoting biofuels: Implications for developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Policy 36 (2008) 1538­1544 Promoting biofuels: Implications for developing countries Jo¨ rg 2008 Abstract Interest in biofuels is growing worldwide as concerns about the security of energy supply, however, production costs of biofuels are typically much higher than those of fossil fuels. As a result

  8. HARNESSING PLANT BIOMASS FOR BIOFUELS AND BIOMATERIALS Plant surface lipid biosynthetic pathways and their utility for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    HARNESSING PLANT BIOMASS FOR BIOFUELS AND BIOMATERIALS Plant surface lipid biosynthetic pathways and their utility for metabolic engineering of waxes and hydrocarbon biofuels Reinhard Jetter1,2,* and Ljerka Kunst1 biosynthetic pathways can be used in metabolic engineering of plants for the production of hydrocarbon biofuels

  9. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Wolfe, Amy K [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the nations studied, Brazil is the source of about two-thirds of available supplies, followed distantly by Argentina (12%), India and the CBI region.

  10. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the nations studied, Brazil is the source of about two-thirds of available supplies, followed distantly by Argentina (12%), India and the CBI region.

  11. The Future of Biofuels | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Future of Biofuels The Future of Biofuels Addthis Description Secretary Chu discusses why feedstock grasses such as miscanthus could be the future of biofuels. Speakers...

  12. ON THE INDIRECT EFFECT OF BIOFUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zilberman, D; Barrows, G; Hochman, G; Rajagopal, D

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and H. de Gorter. 2011. Biofuel Policies and Carbon Leakage.Environmental Impact of Biofuel Policies. Energy Policy.sions and Uncertainty for Biofuel Policies. Energy Policy.

  13. Cassava, a potential biofuel crop in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansson, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cassava, a potential biofuel crop in China Christer Janssoncassava; bioethanol; biofuel; metabolic engineering; Chinathe potentials of cassava in the biofuel sector and point to

  14. On mitigating emissions leakage under biofuel policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, D; Rajagopal, D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that are applicable to biofuel policies and beyond. Thisso marginal land for biofuel crops is limited. EnergyIndirect emissions of biofuel policies Figure 1 provides a

  15. Enzymes with agriculture and biofuel applications | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes with agriculture and biofuel applications Enzymes with agriculture and biofuel applications Released: November 20, 2014 Enzyme insights may help agriculture, biofuels Plant...

  16. Biofuels: Review of Policies and Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janda, Karel; Kristoufek, Ladislav; Zilberman, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of ?rst and second generation biofuels: A comprehensive re-of the second generation biofuels and a successful develop-R. Timilsina. Second generation biofuels: Economics and

  17. Bioproducts and Biofuels - Growing Together! | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioproducts and Biofuels - Growing Together Bioproducts and Biofuels - Growing Together Breakout Session 2B-Integration of Supply Chains II: Bioproducts-Enabling Biofuels and...

  18. Biofuels Market Opportunities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuels Market Opportunities Biofuels Market Opportunities Breakout Session 2C-Fostering Technology Adoption II: Expanding the Pathway to Market Biofuels Market Opportunities John...

  19. Using System Dynamics to Model the Transition to Biofuels in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, B.; Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.; Peterson, S.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transitioning to a biofuels industry that is expected to displace about 30% of current U.S. gasoline consumption requires a robust biomass-to-biofuels system-of-systems that operates in concert with the existing markets. This paper discusses employing a system dynamics approach to investigate potential market penetration scenarios for cellulosic ethanol and to help government decision makers focus on areas with greatest potential.

  20. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production...

  1. The President's Biofuels Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biofuels Initiative Neil Rossmeissl Office of the Biomass Program Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Why Can't We Regulate Our Way There? 25 20 15 10 5 0 1970 1980 1990 2000...

  2. Sandia's Biofuels Program

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Simmons, Blake; Singh, Seema; Lane, Todd; Reichardt, Tom; Davis, Ryan

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia's biofuels program is focused on developing next-generation, renewable fuel solutions derived from biomass. In this video, various Sandia researchers discuss the program and the tools they employ to tackle the technical challenges they face.

  3. Sandia's Biofuels Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Blake; Singh, Seema; Lane, Todd; Reichardt, Tom; Davis, Ryan

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia's biofuels program is focused on developing next-generation, renewable fuel solutions derived from biomass. In this video, various Sandia researchers discuss the program and the tools they employ to tackle the technical challenges they face.

  4. Research Advances Cellulosic Ethanol, NREL Leads the Way (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure highlights NREL's recent advances in cellulosic ethanol production. Research at NREL addresses both biochemical and thermochemical processes.

  5. Clean Cities: Ethanol Basics, Fact Sheet, October 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Document answers frequently asked questions about ethanol as a transportation fuel, including those on production, environmental effects, and vehicles.

  6. Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity UseFoot) Year Jan2009 2010 2011

  7. Weekly Ethanol Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand expected toallBlender

  8. What is the Viability of Cellulosic Ethanol as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels in today's Economy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    mandates for cellulosic ethanol production, spurring an increase in bioethanol companies looking to profit

  9. Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Bob McCormick (PI) With Teresa Alleman, Jon Burton, Earl Christensen, Gina Chupka, Wendy Clark, Lisa Fouts, John Ireland, Mike Lammert, Jon...

  10. GLOBAL BIOFUELS OUTLOOK MAELLE SOARES PINTO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GLOBAL BIOFUELS OUTLOOK 2010-2020 MAELLE SOARES PINTO DIRECTOR BIOFUELS EUROPE & AFRICA WORLD BIOFUELS MARKETS, ROTTERDAM MARCH 23, 2011 #12;Presentation Overview · Global Outlook ­ Biofuels Mandates in 2010 ­ Total Biofuels Supply and Demand ­ Regional Supply and Demand Outlook to 2020 ­ Biofuels

  11. Transportation Biofuels in the US A Preliminary Innovation Systems Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggert, Anthony

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    support for ethanol and biodiesel in the United States.Biodiesel ..and $1.8 billion for biodiesel production [9]. The third

  12. Transportation Biofuels in the USA Preliminary Innovation Systems Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggert, Anthony

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    support for ethanol and biodiesel in the United States.Biodiesel ..and $1.8 billion for biodiesel production [9]. The third

  13. Milestone Reached: New Process Reduces Cost and Risk of Biofuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Upgrading Why Bio-Oil Turns to Gunk - 90 Seconds of Discovery Lab Discovery: Water Leads to Chemical that "Gunks Up" Biofuels Production Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum...

  14. Milestone Reached: New Process Reduces Cost and Risk of Biofuel...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Addthis Related Articles Milestone Reached: New Process Reduces Cost and Risk of Biofuel Production from Bio-Oil Upgrading Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum Why Bio-Oil Turns...

  15. Biofuels: Microbially Generated Methane and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Thomas K.

    Biofuels: Microbially Generated Methane and Hydrogen Michael J McAnulty, Pennsylvania State, Thomas K; and Ferry, James G (March 2013) Biofuels: Microbially Generated Methane and Hydrogen. In: e

  16. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap MAY 2010 BIOMASS PROGRAM U.S. DOE 2010. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  17. BioFuels Atlas (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation for biennial merit review of Biofuels Atlas, a first-pass visualization tool that allows users to explore the potential of biomass-to-biofuels conversions at various locations and scales.

  18. Bioproducts and Biofuels – Growing Together!

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2B—Integration of Supply Chains II: Bioproducts—Enabling Biofuels and Growing the Bioeconomy Bioproducts and Biofuels – Growing Together! Andrew Held, Senior Director, Deployment and Engineering, Virent, Inc.

  19. Meeting the Demand for Biofuels: Impact on Land Use and Carbon Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khanna, Madhu; Jain, Atul; Onal, Hayri; Scheffran, Jurgen; Chen, Xiaoguang; Erickson, Matt; Huang, Haixiao; Kang, Seungmo.

    2011-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research was to develop an integrated, interdisciplinary framework to investigate the implications of large scale production of biofuels for land use, crop production, farm income and greenhouse gases. In particular, we examine the mix of feedstocks that would be viable for biofuel production and the spatial allocation of land required for producing these feedstocks at various gasoline and carbon emission prices as well as biofuel subsidy levels. The implication of interactions between energy policy that seeks energy independence from foreign oil and climate policy that seeks to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions for the optimal mix of biofuels and land use will also be investigated. This project contributes to the ELSI research goals of sustainable biofuel production while balancing competing demands for land and developing policy approaches needed to support biofuel production in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner.

  20. Effect of milk composition upon the partition coefficents of diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and ethanol in acidified milk products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kai-Ping

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for acetaldehyde 40 ANOVA for the effect of experimental parameters on the partition coefficients for ethanol 41 Effect of solids-not-fat (SNF) concentration on the partition coefficient (Kd) of diacetyl at 20 ppm in milk under different incubation... temperatures 45 Effect of solids-not-fat (SNF) concentration on the partition coefficient (Kd) of diacetyl at 40 ppm in milk under different incubation temperatures 46 Effect of solids-not-fat (SNF) concentration on the partition coefficient (Kd...

  1. What’s the Issue? Changing Frames of Ethanol Policy in Congress and the Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiner, Sarah

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    our use of fossil fuels” and “Ethanol does not help reduce2011 Note: Ethanol production data from the Renewable Fuelsand fuel mandate programs to a growing suite of ethanol

  2. U.S. and China Increase Biofuels Cooperation Ahead of the Third...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Reform Commission (NDRC) agreed to strengthen and expand cooperation on biofuels production and use, ahead of the third U.S. - China Strategic Economic Dialogue set...

  3. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called �dedicated bioenergy crops� including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a major portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

  4. Biofuels in Oregon and Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PNNL-17351 Biofuels in Oregon and Washington A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory #12;#12;Biofuels in Oregon and Washington, particularly in light of the recent growth experienced by the biofuels industry in the Midwest. Policymakers

  5. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap MAY 2010 BIOMASS PROGRAM #12;#12;U.S. DOE 2010. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Biomass Program. Visit http://biomass.energy.gov for more information National Algal Biofuels

  6. The Ecological Impact of Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    The Ecological Impact of Biofuels Joseph E. Fargione,1 Richard J. Plevin,2 and Jason D. Hill3 1 land-use change Abstract The ecological impact of biofuels is mediated through their effects on land, air, and water. In 2008, about 33.3 million ha were used to produce food- based biofuels

  7. Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios Final report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies #12;Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios Final report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies By André of this project are to provide structured and clear data on the availability and performance of biofuels

  8. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  9. Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term Supply Potential of Domestic Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Andrew; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term SupplyAugust 22, 2007 Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-significant amount of liquid biofuel (equivalent to 30-100%

  10. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis of Biorefinery Siting Based on Cellulosic Feedstock Grown on Marginal Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project undertaken by GLBRC (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center) Area 4 (Sustainability) modelers is to develop a national capability to model feedstock supply, ethanol production, and biogeochemical impacts of cellulosic biofuels. The results of this project contribute to sustainability goals of the GLBRC; i.e. to contribute to developing a sustainable bioenergy economy: one that is profitable to farmers and refiners, acceptable to society, and environmentally sound. A sustainable bioenergy economy will also contribute, in a fundamental way, to meeting national objectives on energy security and climate mitigation. The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a spatially explicit national geodatabase for conducting biofuel simulation studies and (4) locate possible sites for the establishment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. To address the first objective, we developed SENGBEM (Spatially Explicit National Geodatabase for Biofuel and Environmental Modeling), a 60-m resolution geodatabase of the conterminous USA containing data on: (1) climate, (2) soils, (3) topography, (4) hydrography, (5) land cover/ land use (LCLU), and (6) ancillary data (e.g., road networks, federal and state lands, national and state parks, etc.). A unique feature of SENGBEM is its 2008-2010 crop rotation data, a crucially important component for simulating productivity and biogeochemical cycles as well as land-use changes associated with biofuel cropping. ARRA support for this project and to the PNNL Joint Global Change Research Institute enabled us to create an advanced computing infrastructure to execute millions of simulations, conduct post-processing calculations, store input and output data, and visualize results. These computing resources included two components installed at the Research Data Center of the University of Maryland. The first resource was 'deltac': an 8-core Linux server, dedicated to county-level and state-level simulations and PostgreSQL database hosting. The second resource was the DOE-JGCRI 'Evergreen' cluster, capable of executing millions of simulations in relatively short periods. ARRA funding also supported a PhD student from UMD who worked on creating the geodatabases and executing some of the simulations in this study. Using a physically based classification of marginal lands, we simulated production of cellulosic feedstocks from perennial mixtures grown on these lands in the US Midwest. Marginal lands in the western states of the US Midwest appear to have significant potential to supply feedstocks to a cellulosic biofuel industry. Similar results were obtained with simulations of N-fertilized perennial mixtures. A detailed spatial analysis allowed for the identification of possible locations for the establishment of 34 cellulosic ethanol biorefineries with an annual production capacity of 5.6 billion gallons. In summary, we have reported on the development of a spatially explicit national geodatabase to conduct biofuel simulation studies and provided simulation results on the potential of perennial cropping systems to serve as feedstocks for the production of cellulosic ethanol. To accomplish this, we have employed sophisticated spatial analysis methods in combination with the process-based biogeochemical model EPIC. The results of this study will be submitted to the USDOE Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework as a way to contribute to the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry. This work provided the opportunity to test the hypothesis that marginal lands can serve as sources of cellulosic feedstocks and thus contribute to avoid potential conflicts between bioenergy and food production systems. This work, we believe, opens the door for further analysis on the characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks as major contributors to the development of a sustainable bioenergy economy.

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Utilization of diets containing graded levels of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to manufacture fuel ethanol (Rosentrater and Muthukumarappan, 2006). In 2008, 174 operating ethanol plantsORIGINAL ARTICLE Utilization of diets containing graded levels of ethanol production co-Pascual, 2000), fuel-based DDGS are a co-product of dry mill pro- cessing, where primarily corn is used

  12. Food for fuel: The price of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albino, Dominic K; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion of corn to ethanol in the US since 2005 has been a major cause of global food price increases during that time and has been shown to be ineffective in achieving US energy independence and reducing environmental impact. We make three key statements to enhance understanding and communication about ethanol production's impact on the food and fuel markets: (1) The amount of corn used to produce the ethanol in a gallon of regular gas would feed a person for a day, (2) The production of ethanol is so energy intensive that it uses only 20% less fossil fuel than gasoline, and (3) The cost of gas made with ethanol is actually higher per mile because ethanol reduces gasoline's energy per gallon.

  13. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  14. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

  15. Final Report on Development of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, Christopher D.; Kenealy, William R.; Shaw, A. Joe; Raman, Babu; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Brown, Steven D.; Davison, Brian H.; Covalla, Sean F.; Sillers, W. Ryan; Xu, Haowen; Tsakraklides, Vasiliki; Hogsett, David A.

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addressed the need for economical technology for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels, specifically the conversion of pretreated hardwood to ethanol. The technology developed is a set of strains of the bacterium Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and an associated fermentation process for pretreated hardwood. Tools for genetic engineering and analysis of the organism were developed, including a markerless mutation method, a complete genome sequence and a set of gene expression profiles that show the activity of its genes under a variety of conditions relevant to lignocellulose conversion. Improved strains were generated by selection and genetic engineering to be able to produce higher amounts of ethanol (up to 70 g/L) and to be able to better tolerate inhibitory compounds from pretreated hardwood. Analysis of these strains has generated useful insight into the genetic basis for desired properties of biofuel producing organisms. Fermentation conditions were tested and optimized to achieve ethanol production targets established in the original project proposal. The approach proposed was to add cellulase enzymes to the fermentation, a method called Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). We had reason to think SSF would be an efficient approach because the optimal temperature and pH for the enzymes and bacterium are very close. Unfortunately, we discovered that commercially available cellulases are inactivated in thermophilic SSF by a combination of low redox potential and ethanol. Despite this, progress was made against the fermentation targets using bacterial cellulases. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum may still prove to be a commercially viable technology should cellulase enzyme issues be addressed. Moreover, the organism was demonstrated to produce ethanol at approximately theoretical yield from oligomeric hemicellulose extracts, an ability that may prove to be uniquely valuable in pretreatment configurations in which cellulose and hemicellulose are separated.

  16. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Appendices to the final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The final report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten Island, the Proctor and Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. This appendix to the final report provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations.

  17. Ethanol Plant Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarkets EnergyConsumption5 15Environmental

  18. PNNL Aviation Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plaza, John; Holladay, John; Hallen, Rich

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial airplanes really don’t have the option to move away from liquid fuels. Because of this, biofuels present an opportunity to create new clean energy jobs by developing technologies that deliver stable, long term fuel options. The Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with industrial partners on processes to convert biomass to aviation fuels.

  19. Biofuels supply chain characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Anindya, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol can be made from agricultural residues like wheat straw and from crops dedicated to energy use, like switchgrass. We study the logistics aspects of this transformation and determine the main characteristics of the ...

  20. Lifecycle Analyses of Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    switchgrass, and wood; biodiesel from soy No model per se;Diesel (crude oil) (g/mi) Biodiesel (SD100 (soy)) Ethanol (switchgrass, and wood; biodiesel from soybeans; methanol,