National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for biodiesel compressed natural

  1. The influence of biodiesel composition on compression ignition combustion and emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are to be achieved4,5 . Such factors have driven legislative alternatives to fossil fuels are necessary for the reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissionsThe influence of biodiesel composition on compression ignition combustion and emissions Paul

  2. Compressed natural gas measurement issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Freeman, P.M.

    1993-12-31

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition`s Measurement and Metering Task Group (MMTG) was established on July 1st, 1992 to develop suggested revisions to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Handbook 44-1992 (Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices) and NIST Handbook 130-1991 (Uniform Laws & Regulations). Specifically, the suggested revisions will address the sale and measurement of compressed natural gas when sold as a motor vehicle fuel. This paper briefly discusses the activities of the MMTG and its interaction with NIST. The paper also discusses the Institute of Gas Technology`s (IGT) support of the MMTG in the area of natural gas composition, their impact on metering technology applicable to high pressure fueling stations as well as conversion factors for the establishment of ``gallon gasoline equivalent`` of natural gas. The final portion of this paper discusses IGT`s meter research activities and its meter test facility.

  3. Compressed natural gas (CNG) measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Husain, Z.D.; Goodson, F.D. [Daniel Flow Products, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The increased level of environmental awareness has raised concerns about pollution. One area of high attention is the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine in and of itself is not a major pollution threat. However, the vast number of motor vehicles in use release large quantities of pollutants. Recent technological advances in ignition and engine controls coupled with unleaded fuels and catalytic converters have reduced vehicular emissions significantly. Alternate fuels have the potential to produce even greater reductions in emissions. The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) has been a significant alternative to accomplish the goal of cleaner combustion. Of the many alternative fuels under investigation, compressed natural gas (CNG) has demonstrated the lowest levels of emission. The only vehicle certified by the State of California as an Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) was powered by CNG. The California emissions tests of the ULEV-CNG vehicle revealed the following concentrations: Non-Methane Hydrocarbons 0.005 grams/mile Carbon Monoxide 0.300 grams/mile Nitrogen Oxides 0.040 grams/mile. Unfortunately, CNG vehicles will not gain significant popularity until compressed natural gas is readily available in convenient locations in urban areas and in proximity to the Interstate highway system. Approximately 150,000 gasoline filling stations exist in the United States while number of CNG stations is about 1000 and many of those CNG stations are limited to fleet service only. Discussion in this paper concentrates on CNG flow measurement for fuel dispensers. Since the regulatory changes and market demands affect the flow metering and dispenser station design those aspects are discussed. The CNG industry faces a number of challenges.

  4. Case Study - Compressed Natural Gas Refuse Fleets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-02-01

    This case study explores the use of heavy-duty refuse trucks fueled by compressed natural gas highlighting three fleets from very different types of organizations.

  5. A computational investigation of diesel and biodiesel combustion and NOx formation in a light-duty compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zihan; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Som, Sibendu

    2012-04-24

    Diesel and biodiesel combustion in a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine were simulated during a closed cycle (from IVC to EVO), using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE, coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The computational domain was constructed based on engine geometry and compression ratio measurements. A skeletal n-heptane-based diesel mechanism developed by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and a reduced biodiesel mechanism derived and validated by Luo and co-workers were applied to model the combustion chemistry. The biodiesel mechanism contains 89 species and 364 reactions and uses methyl decanoate, methyl-9- decenoate, and n-heptane as the surrogate fuel mixture. The Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) spray breakup model for diesel and biodiesel was calibrated to account for the differences in physical properties of the fuels which result in variations in atomization and spray development characteristics. The simulations were able to capture the experimentally observed pressure and apparent heat release rate trends for both the fuels over a range of engine loads (BMEPs from 2.5 to 10 bar) and fuel injection timings (from 0���° BTDC to 10���° BTDC), thus validating the overall modeling approach as well as the chemical kinetic models of diesel and biodiesel surrogates. Moreover, quantitative NOx predictions for diesel combustion and qualitative NOx predictions for biodiesel combustion were obtained with the CFD simulations and the in-cylinder temperature trends were correlated to the NOx trends."

  6. Regulated Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit Buses Regulated Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit Buses Poster presentaiton at the 2007 Diesel...

  7. Workshop Agenda: Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels, Lesssons...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agenda: Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels, Lesssons Learned for the Safe Deployment of Vehicles Workshop Agenda: Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels, Lesssons Learned...

  8. Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder These slides were presented at the Onboard...

  9. 2015 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term Natural Gas Applications 2015 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term Natural Gas...

  10. Novel Spark Plugs Improve Energy Efficiency of Compressed Natural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    use affects climate change. Vehicles operating on compressed natural gas reduce petroleum fuel use. A need exists for lightduty vehicle natural gas engine technologies to increase market penetration of compressed natural gas vehicles. These technologies must be costeffective and innovative while still

  11. Natural Gas Ethanol Flex-Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Gas Propane Electric Ethanol Flex-Fuel Biodiesel Vehicle Buyer's Guide Clean Cities 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 About This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Compressed Natural Gas and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane

  12. Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety I. Background. Due to the nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhongfei "Mark"

    Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety I. Background. Due to the nature of gas cylinders hazards of a ruptured cylinder. There are almost 200 different types of materials in gas cylinders, there are several general procedures to follow for safe storage and handling of a compressed gas cylinder: II

  13. Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2010-06-01

    This report describes how NREL used the CNG Vehicle and Infrastructure Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) model to establish guidance for fleets making decisions about using compressed natural gas.

  14. Biodiesel Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends and specifications. It also covers how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance (including in cold weather) and whether there are adverse effects on engines or other systems. Finally, it discusses biodiesel fuel quality and standards, and compares biodiesel emissions to those of diesel fuel.

  15. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-09-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

  16. Case Study - Compressed Natural Gas Refuse Fleets

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesThe Heat Is onis aTechnicalNatural

  17. Compressed natural gas vehicles motoring towards a green Beijing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ming; Kraft-Oliver, T. [International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) - Asia, Bangkok (Thailand); Guo Xiao Yan [China North Vehicle Research Institute (CNVRI), Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated. The objective of the paper is to provide information of transfer niche of CNG vehicle and equipment production in Beijing. This paper argues that the development of CNG vehicles is a cost-effective strategy for mitigating both air pollution and GHG.

  18. Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Bio-Diesel (B100)-Ignited Methane and Propane Combustion in a Four Cylinder Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker, N. T.; Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

    2011-10-05

    Different combustion strategies and fuel sources are needed to deal with increasing fuel efficiency demands and emission restrictions. One possible strategy is dual fueling using readily available resources. Propane and natural gas are readily available with the current infrastructure and biodiesel is growing in popularity as a renewable fuel. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel combustion of methane (as a surrogate for natural gas) and propane as primary fuels with biodiesel pilots in a 1.9 liter, turbocharged, 4 cylinder diesel engine at 1800 rev/min. Experiments were performed with different percentage energy substitutions (PES) of propane and methane and at different brake mean effective pressures (BMEP/bmep). Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and smoke) were also measured. Maximum PES levels for B100-methane dual fuelling were limited to 70% at 2.5 bar bmep and 48% at 10 bar bmep, and corresponding values for B100-propane dual fuelling were 64% and 43%, respectively. Maximum PES was limited by misfire at 2.5 bar bmep and the onset of engine knock at 10 bar bmep. Dual fuel BTEs approached straight B100 values at 10 bar bmep while they were significantly lower than B100 values at 2.5 bar bmep. In general dual fuelling was beneficial in reducing NOx and smoke emissions by 33% and 50%, respectively from baseline B100 levels; however, both CO and THC emissions were significantly higher than baseline B100 levels at all PES and loads.

  19. Compressed natural gas fueled vehicles: The Houston experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The report describes the experience of the City of Houston in defining the compressed natural gas fueled vehicle research scope and issues. It details the ways in which the project met initial expectations, and how the project scope, focus, and duration were adjusted in response to unanticipated results. It provides examples of real world successes and failures in efforts to commercialize basic research in adapting a proven technology (natural gas) to a noncommercially proven application (vehicles). Phase one of the demonstration study investigates, develops, documents, and disseminates information regarding the economic, operational, and environmental implications of utilizing compressed natural gas (CNG) in various truck fueling applications. The four (4) truck classes investigated are light duty gasoline trucks, medium duty gasoline trucks, medium duty diesel trucks and heavy duty diesel trucks. The project researches aftermarket CNG conversions for the first three vehicle classes and original equipment manufactured (OEM) CNG vehicles for light duty gasoline and heavy duty diesel classes. In phase two of the demonstration project, critical issues are identified and assessed with respect to implementing use of CNG fueled vehicles in a large vehicle fleet. These issues include defining changes in local, state, and industry CNG fueled vehicle related codes and standards; addressing vehicle fuel storage limitations; using standardized vehicle emission testing procedures and results; and resolving CNG refueling infrastructure implementation issues and related cost factors. The report identifies which CNG vehicle fueling options were tried and failed and which were tried and succeeded, with and without modifications. The conclusions include a caution regarding overly optimistic assessments of CNG vehicle technology at the initiation of the project.

  20. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  1. Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High Efficiency ICRE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    performance of a high compression ratio (32:1 to 74:1) high efficiency (50 to 60% BTE) ICRE operating on natural gas and gasoline

  2. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority: Compressed Natural Gas Transit Bus Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eberts, E.; Melendez, M.

    2006-04-01

    Evaluates compressed natural gas (CNG) powered transit buses at Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA), providing a comparison between them and standard diesel transit buses.

  3. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas as alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moussavi, M.; Al-Turk, M. . Civil Engineering Dept.)

    1993-12-01

    The use of alternative fuels in the transportation industry has gained a strong support in recent years. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (NG) by 25 LPG-bifuel and 14 NG-bifuel vehicles that are operated by 33 transit systems throughout Nebraska. A set of performance measures such as average fuel efficiency in kilometers per liter, average fuel cost per kilometer, average oil consumption, and average operation and maintenance cost for alternatively fueled vehicles were calculated and compared with similar performance measures of gasoline powered vehicles. The results of the study showed that the average fuel efficiency of gasoline is greater than those of LPG and NG, and the average fuel costs (dollars per kilometer) for LPG and NG are smaller than those for gasoline for most of the vehicles under this study.

  4. An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx Emissions When Fueling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine with Soy Biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Optical engine experiments suggest that near stoichiometric charge-gas mixtures in the standing premixed autoignition zone near flame lift-off length explains biodiesel NOx increase under all conditions

  5. Algae Biodiesel: Commercialization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Center conservation and biomonitoring ˇ Algae biodiesel is largest CEHMM project #12;Project Overview: The Missing replace petroleum #12;Project Overview: Local Resources for Algae Biodiesel Project Overview: Local

  6. EA-1976: Emera CNG, LLC Compressed Natural Gas Project, Florida...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emera's CNG plant facilities to receive, dehydrate, and compress gas to fill pressure vessels with an open International Organization for Standardization (ISO) container frame...

  7. Inspection of compressed natural gas cylinders on school buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring compressed natural gas (CNF)-powered school bus demonstrations in various locations around the country. Early in 1994, two non-DOE-sponsored CNG pickup trucks equipped with composite-reinforced-aluminum fuel cylinders experienced cylinder ruptures during refueling. As reported by the Gas Research Institute (GRI): ...analysis of the cylinder ruptures on the pickup trucks revealed that they were due to acid-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the overwrap. The overwrap that GRI refers to is a resin-impregnated fiber that is wrapped around the outside of the gas cylinder for added strength. Because ensuring the safety of the CNG vehicles it sponsors is of paramount concern to DOE, the Department, through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), conducted inspections of DOE-sponsored vehicles nationwide. The work had three objectives: inspection, documentation, and education. First, inspectors visited sites where CNG-powered school buses sponsored by DOE are based, and inspected the CNG cylinders for damage. Second, information learned during the inspections was collected for DOE. Third, the inspections found that the education and awareness of site personnel, in terms of cylinder damage detection, needed to be increased.

  8. Safety issues relating to the liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petru, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Railroad Commission of Texas, LP-Gas Division, is statutorily responsible for the safety aspects of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) most commonly known as LP-gas or propane, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). This presentation will address the safety issues relating to their use as alternative fuels. The paper discusses the safety of pressure vessels used for storage of the fuels at refueling facilities and the containers mounted in vehicles. Other topics include the lack of odorants in LNG, the use of protective clothing when handling cryogenic fluids, and where to obtain a copy of the safety regulations for handling these three fuels.

  9. Compressed Natural Gas (Rev 09/14) DRAFT Page 1 of 14 Examination Procedure Outline (EPO) for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EPO No. 28 Compressed Natural Gas (Rev 09/14) DRAFT Page 1 of 14 Examination Procedure Outline (EPO) for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Retail Motor-Fuel Dispensers It is recommended that this outline be followed as minimum criteria for examining retail motor-fuel dispensers used to measure compressed natural gas. Non

  10. Compressed natural gas storage optimization for natural gas vehicles. Final report, August 1993-December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, M.E.; Blazek, C.F.; Webster, C.; Wong, J.; Gambone, L.

    1996-12-01

    A major obstacle confronting the widespread acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is their substantial cost premium over conventionally fueled vehicles. Currently, as much as 70 percent of the cost premium can be related to on-board storage costs. Market growth is dependent on making NGVs more affordable and storage costs are the primary element. This report identifies and assesses the market potential of compressed natural gas storage technologies that will reduce the cost of on-board storage into the range of $0.35 to $0.50 per standard cubic foot of gas while also reducing weight. Based on weight, cost, and safety evaluations, a number of cylinder optimization options were identified with the most potential to reduce cylinder cost and weight while maintaining a high level of safety. These options included high strength steel cylinders, high strength aluminum cylinders, all-steel cylinders from tube stock, and low-cost carbon fiber.

  11. Planning and Installation Guide: North Carolina Compressed Natural Gas Fueling Stations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Introduction Are you considering installing a compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling station for your fleet of important items to consider when planning for a CNG station. Natural gas infrastructure, which is commonly - Others interested in installing a natural gas fueling station CNG fueling station under construction

  12. Physical properties of bio-diesel & Implications for use of bio-diesel in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Ra, Youngchul [ORNL; Griffin, Jelani K [ORNL; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin

    2008-01-01

    In this study we identify components of a typical biodiesel fuel and estimate both their individual and mixed thermo-physical and transport properties. We then use the estimated mixture properties in computational simulations to gauge the extent to which combustion is modified when biodiesel is substituted for conventional diesel fuel. Our simulation studies included both regular diesel combustion (DI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). Preliminary results indicate that biodiesel ignition is significantly delayed due to slower liquid evaporation, with the effects being more pronounced for DI than PCCI. The lower vapor pressure and higher liquid heat capacity of biodiesel are two key contributors to this slower rate of evaporation. Other physical properties are more similar between the two fuels, and their impacts are not clearly evident in the present study. Future studies of diesel combustion sensitivity to both physical and chemical properties of biodiesel are suggested.

  13. Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power,5Energy Works' Success OpensTRA51429 Vol. 68,Compressed

  14. Using Gasoline, Diesel, and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicles, Characterize the Significance of Lube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using Gasoline, Diesel, and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicles, Characterize the Significance from natural gas vehicles will help in the development of PM mitigation technologies. This in turn and help bring to market advanced transportation technologies that reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas

  15. A Natural Gas, High Compression Ratio, High Efficiency ICRE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Using natural gas and gasoline modeling, indications are that a free piston-floating stroke engine configuration can realize engine efficiency greater than 60 percent.

  16. Method and apparatus for dispensing compressed natural gas and liquified natural gas to natural gas powered vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis A.; Clark, Michael L.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Palmer, Gary L.

    2005-05-31

    A fueling facility and method for dispensing liquid natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or both on-demand. The fueling facility may include a source of LNG, such as cryogenic storage vessel. A low volume high pressure pump is coupled to the source of LNG to produce a stream of pressurized LNG. The stream of pressurized LNG may be selectively directed through an LNG flow path or to a CNG flow path which includes a vaporizer configured to produce CNG from the pressurized LNG. A portion of the CNG may be drawn from the CNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of LNG flowing therethrough. Similarly, a portion of the LNG may be drawn from the LNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of CNG flowing therethrough.

  17. Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends The results of a quality survey of B20 fuel in the United States were...

  18. Development of a Liquid to Compressed Natural Gas (LCNG) Fueling Station. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J. A.

    1999-06-30

    The program objective was the development of equipment and processes to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) from liquified natural gas (LNG) for heavy duty vehicular applications. The interest for this technology is a result of the increased use of alternative fuels for the reduction of emissions and dependency of foreign energy. Technology of the type developed under this program is critical for establishing natural gas as an economical alternative fuel.

  19. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO), 19992,Biodiesel production

  20. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO), 19992,Biodiesel

  1. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO), 19992,BiodieselU.S. Inputs to

  2. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO), 19992,BiodieselU.S. Inputs

  3. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO), 19992,BiodieselU.S.

  4. Natural Gas Compression Technology Improves Transport and Efficiencies, Lowers Operating Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An award-winning compressor design that decreases the energy required to compress and transport natural gas, lowers operating costs, improves efficiencies and reduces the environmental footprint of well site operations has been developed by a Massachusetts-based company with support from the U.S. Department of Energy

  5. Alternative Fuel Tool Kit Case Study on Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 5/2014 Alternative Fuel Tool Kit Case Study on Compressed Natural Gas (CNG): Build retrofit services to its clients. Its fleet consists of the following vehicles: Two 2011 CNG Ford Transit Connects Three 2009 CNG Ford Escapes Two 2012 CNG Ford E-350 Vans Three light-duty diesel vehicles

  6. Alternative fuel trucks case studies: Running refuse haulers on compressed natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-07-01

    This document details the experience of New York City`s compressed natural gas refuse haulers. These 35 ton vehicles have engines that displace 10 liters and provide 240 horsepower. Fuel economy, range, cost, maintenance, repair issues, and emissions are discussed. Photographs and figures illustrate the attributes of these alternative fuel vehicles.

  7. Compressed U.S. Natural Gas Exports (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet)Cubic1992 Consumption

  8. Compressed U.S. Natural Gas Imports (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet)Cubic1992 ConsumptionYear Jan Feb

  9. Compressed U.S. Natural Gas Exports (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep3,118,592Number ofByFuel

  10. Compressed U.S. Natural Gas Imports (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep3,118,592Number

  11. Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l DeInsulation at the EdgeBUILDINGS-TO-GRIDDepartmentanof Energy

  12. Comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) used by transit agencies in Texas. Research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lede, N.W.

    1997-09-01

    This study is a detailed comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG). The study provides data on two alternative fuels used by transit agencies in Texas. First, we examine the `state-of-the- art` in alternative fuels to established a framework for the study. Efforts were made to examine selected characteristics of two types of natural gas demonstrations in terms of the following properties: energy source characteristics, vehicle performance and emissions, operations, maintenance, reliability, safety costs, and fuel availability. Where feasible, two alternative fuels were compared with conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Environmental considerations relative to fuel distribution and use are analyzed, with a focus on examining flammability an other safety-related issues. The objectives of the study included: (1) assess the state-of-the-art and document relevant findings pertaining to alternative fuels; (2) analyze and synthesize existing databases on two natural gas alternatives: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG): and (3) compare two alterative fuels used by transit properties in Texas, and address selected aspects of alternative fuels such as energy source characteristics, vehicle performance and emissions, safety, costs, maintenance and operations, environmental and related issues.

  13. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  14. Ten Years of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Operations at SunLine Transit Agency: April 2003--December 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on the lesson learned at the SunLine Transit Agency after it converted in 1994 its entire operating transit bus fleet to compressed natural gas (CNG).

  15. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTNG NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-28

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents a survey test performed on an HBA-6 engine/compressor installed at Duke Energy's Bedford Compressor Station. This is one of several tests planned, which will emphasize identification and reduction of compressor losses. Additionally, this report presents a methodology for distinguishing losses in compressor attributable to valves, irreversibility in the compression process, and the attached piping (installation losses); it illustrates the methodology with data from the survey test. The report further presents the validation of the simulation model for the Air Balance tasks and outline of conceptual manifold designs.

  16. BuildSense Compressed natural gas (CNG) bi-fuel conversions for two Ford F-series pickup trucks.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BuildSense Compressed natural gas (CNG) bi-fuel conversions for two Ford F-series pickup trucks $141,279 $35,320 $176,599 City of Charlotte Solid Waste Services Compressed natural gas ( CNG) up fits of Cary. Wake $121,779 $40,799 $162,578 Waste Industries Fifty-two CNG up fits on refuse trucks in Raleigh

  17. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-10-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report documents the second series of tests performed on a GMW10 engine/compressor after modifications to add high pressure Fuel and a Turbocharger. It also presents baseline testing for air balance investigations and initial simulation modeling of the air manifold for a Cooper GMVH6.

  18. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Transit Bus Experience Survey: April 2009--April 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, R.; Horne, D. B.

    2010-09-01

    This survey was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect and analyze experiential data and information from a cross-section of U.S. transit agencies with varying degrees of compressed natural gas (CNG) bus and station experience. This information will be used to assist DOE and NREL in determining areas of success and areas where further technical or other assistance might be required, and to assist them in focusing on areas judged by the CNG transit community as priority items.

  19. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-07-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report documents the second series of tests performed on a turbocharged HBA-6T engine/compressor. It also presents baseline testing for air balance investigations and initial simulation modeling of the air manifold for a Cooper GMVH6.

  20. Use of an Engine Cycle Simulation to Study a Biodiesel Fueled Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Junnian

    2010-01-14

    Based on the GT-Power software, an engine cycle simulation for a biodiesel fueled direct injection compression ignition engine was developed and used to study its performance and emission characteristics. The major objectives were to establish...

  1. Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lykidis, Athanasios

    2008-01-01

    prospecting for microbial biodiesel production AthanasiosAC02-06NA25396. Abstract Biodiesel is defined as fatty acidfor the competitive production of biodiesel. 1. Introduction

  2. Analysis of the University of Texas at Austin compressed natural gas demonstration bus. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C.M.; Matthews, R.; Euritt, M.

    1994-06-01

    A demonstration compressed natural gas (CNG) bus has been operating on The University of Texas at Austin shuttle system since 1992. This CNG vehicle, provided by the Blue Bird Company, was an opportunity for the University to evaluate the effectiveness of a CNG bus for shuttle operations. Three basic operating comparisons were made: (1) fuel consumption, (2) tire wear, and (3) vehicle performance. The bus was equipped with a data logger, which was downloaded regularly, for trip reports. Tire wear was monitored regularly, and performance tests were conducted at the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Center. Overall, the data suggest that fuel costs for the CNG bus are comparable to those for University diesel buses. This is a result of the lower fuel price for natural gas. Actual natural gas fuel consumption was higher for the CNG buses than for the diesel buses. Due to weight differences, tire wear was much less on the CNG buses. Finally, after installation of a closed-loop system, the CNG bus out-performed the diesel bus on acceleration, grade climbing ability, and speed.

  3. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-07-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents a survey site test performed on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. This test completes planned screening efforts designed to guide selection of one or more units for design analysis and testing with emphasis on identification and reduction of compressor losses. The report further presents the validation of the simulation model for the Air Balance tasks and outline of conceptual manifold designs.

  4. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-10-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first summarizes key results from survey site tests performed on an HBA-6 installed at Duke Energy's Bedford compressor station, and on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. The report then presents results of design analysis performed on the Bedford HBA-6 to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  5. Biodiesel R&D at NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.; Alleman, T.; Barnitt, R.; Clark, W.; Hayes, B.; Ireland, J.; Proc, K.; Ratcliff, M.; Thornton, M.; Whitacre, S.; Williams, A.

    2006-02-06

    Discusses NREL's biodiesel research priorities and some current research results, including those concerning biodiesel quality and stability.

  6. Biodiesel_Fuel_Management_Best_Practices_Report.pdf | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf BiodieselFuelManagemen...

  7. A comparative life cycle assessment of diesel and compressed natural gas powered refuse collection vehicles in a Canadian city

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    and CNG RCVs. c A 24% reduction of GHG emissions (CO2-equivalent) may be realized by switching from diesel to CNG. c CNG RCVs are estimated to be cost effective and may lead to reduced fuel costs. a r t i c l e i 2012 Keywords: Life cycle assessment (LCA) Compressed natural gas (CNG) Refuse collection vehicle (RCV

  8. Pacific Biodiesel: Renewable and Sustainable

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the Pacific Biodiesel topic and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

  9. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2006-05-31

    This project has documented and demonstrated the feasibility of technologies and operational choices for companies who operate the large installed fleet of integral engine compressors in pipeline service. Continued operations of this fleet is required to meet the projected growth of the U.S. gas market. Applying project results will meet the goals of the DOE-NETL Natural Gas Infrastructure program to enhance integrity, extend life, improve efficiency, and increase capacity, while managing NOx emissions. These benefits will translate into lower cost, more reliable gas transmission, and options for increasing deliverability from the existing infrastructure on high demand days. The power cylinders on large bore slow-speed integral engine/compressors do not in general combust equally. Variations in cylinder pressure between power cylinders occur cycle-to-cycle. These variations affect both individual cylinder performance and unit average performance. The magnitude of the variations in power cylinder combustion is dependent on a variety of parameters, including air/fuel ratio. Large variations in cylinder performance and peak firing pressure can lead to detonation and misfires, both of which can be damaging to the unit. Reducing the variation in combustion pressure, and moving the high and low performing cylinders closer to the mean is the goal of engine balancing. The benefit of improving the state of the engine ''balance'' is a small reduction in heat rate and a significant reduction in both crankshaft strain and emissions. A new method invented during the course of this project is combustion pressure ratio (CPR) balancing. This method is more effective than current methods because it naturally accounts for differences in compression pressure, which results from cylinder-to-cylinder differences in the amount of air flowing through the inlet ports and trapped at port closure. It also helps avoid compensation for low compression pressure by the addition of excess fuel to achieve equalizing peak firing pressure, even if some of the compression pressure differences are attributed to differences in cylinder and piston geometry, clearance, and kinematics. The combination of high-pressure fuel injection and turbocharging should produce better mixing of fuel and air in lean mixtures. Test results documented modest improvements in heat rate and efficiency and significant improvements in emissions. The feasibility of a closed-loop control of waste-gate setting, which will maintain an equivalence ratio set point, has been demonstrated. This capability allows more direct tuning to enhance combustion stability, heat rate, or emissions. The project has documented the strong dependence of heat rate on load. The feasibility of directly measuring power and torque using the GMRC Rod Load Monitor (RLM) has been demonstrated. This capability helps to optimize heat rate while avoiding overload. The crankshaft Strain Data Capture Module (SDCM) has shown the sensitivity to changes in operating conditions and how they influence crankshaft bending strain. The results indicate that: balancing reduces the frequency of high-strain excursions, advanced timing directly increases crankshaft dynamic strain, reduced speed directly reduces strain, and high-pressure fuel injection reduces crankshaft strain slightly. The project demonstrated that when the timing is advanced, the heat rate is reduced, and when the timing is retarded, the heat rate is increased. One reason why timing is not advanced as much as it might be is the potential for detonation on hot days. A low-cost knock detector was demonstrated that allowed active control to use timing to allow the heat rate benefit to be realized safely. High flow resistance losses in the pulsation control systems installed on some compressors have been shown to hurt efficiency of both compressor and engine/compressor system. Improved pulsation control systems have the potential to recover almost 10% of available engine power. Integrity enhancements and reduced component failure probability will enhance aggregate

  10. Biodiesel Performance, Costs, and Use

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    Biodiesel fuel for diesel engines is produced from vegetable oil or animal fat by the chemical process of esterification. This paper presents a brief history of diesel engine technology and an overview of biodiesel, including performance characteristics, economics, and potential demand. The performance and economics of biodiesel are compared with those of petroleum diesel.

  11. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature13526 Ramp compression of diamond to five terapascals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Thomas S.

    ­radius datafor extrasolar planets combined with equation-of- state (EOS) models for constituent materials reveal- tive heating, thus enabling higher compression and lower temperature thandoesshockcompression15-statisticalThomas­Fermimodel, originallydevelopedearlyinthepastcenturytodescribematteratextreme compressions. In these experiments, 176 laser beams deliver a total peak power of 2.2 TW

  12. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motta, R.C.; Kelly, K.J.; Warnock, W.W.

    1996-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited original equipment manufacturer (OEM) model availability. Approximately 90% of all conversions were performed on compact of full-size vans and pickups, and 90% of the conversions were to bi-fuel operation. With a positive response from the fleet managers, this program helped the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT for fiscal years 1993 and 1994, despite limited OEM model availability. The conversions also helped to establish the infrastructure needed to support further growth in the use of alternative fuel vehicles. In conclusion, the program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles. With the relatively widespread availability of OEM vehicles in the 1996 model year, the program is now being phased out.

  13. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents tests performed on a KVG103 engine/compressor installed at Duke's Thomaston Compressor Station. This is the first series of tests performed on a four-stroke engine under this program. Additionally, this report presents results, which complete a comparison of performance before and after modification to install High Pressure Fuel Injection and a Turbocharger on a GMW10 at Williams Station 60. Quarterly Reports 7 and 8 already presented detailed data from tests before and after this modification, but the final quantitative comparison required some further analysis, which is presented in Section 5 of this report. The report further presents results of detailed geometrical measurements and flow bench testing performed on the cylinders and manifolds of the Laboratory Cooper GMVH6 engine being employed for two-stroke engine air balance investigations. These measurements are required to enhance the detailed accuracy in modeling the dynamic interaction of air manifold, exhaust manifold, and in-cylinder fuel-air balance.

  14. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terrill Chang; Deanna Carveth

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to Ă?Â?Ă?¢Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?growĂ?Â?Ă?¢Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă? this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  15. Hazard analysis of compressed natural gas fueling systems and fueling procedures used at retail gasoline service stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-28

    An evaluation of the hazards associated with operations of a typical compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling station is presented. The evaluation includes identification of a typical CNG fueling system; a comparison of the typical system with ANSI/NFPA (American National Standards Institute/National Fire Protection Association) Standard 52, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel System, requirements; a review of CNG industry safety experience as identified in current literature; hazard identification of potential internal (CNG system-specific causes) and external (interface of co-located causes) events leading to potential accidents; and an analysis of potential accident scenarios as determined from the hazard evaluation. The study considers CNG dispensing equipment and associated equipment, including the compressor station, storate vessels, and fill pressure sensing system.

  16. Emissions and performance evaluation of a dedicated compressed natural gas saturn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, J.W.; Taylor, J.D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as a transportation fuel has been identified as one strategy that can help ameliorate some problems, which include a growing dependence on imported oil (and all its ramifications) and the persistent contributions that mobile sources make to urban air pollution, associated with the use of conventional petroleum fuels. The attributes and limitations of CNG as a fuel for spark-ignition engines have been presented by others. The attributes are associated with its high octane rating, low cost relative to other alternative fuels, its availability, the absence of running and diurnal evaporative emissions, and its demonstrated potential for producing extremely low exhaust emissions-particularly if the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted are expressed in terms of reactivity adjusted non-methane organic gases (RANMOG). The limitations associated with the use of CNG include its limited refueling infrastructure, the cost of refueling facilities, the cost of on-board fuel storage tanks, and its relatively low energy density. Because one impediment to CNG use is the cost associated with producing a CNG-powered vehicle, a study was initiated at the University of Tennessee under sponsorship by the Saturn Corporation to determine how a CNG vehicle (specifically, a 1991 Saturn SL1) could be engineered so it could be produced with a minimal impact on the production of the base vehicle. The present study was undertaken to further investigate the emissions reduction potential of the Saturn CNG vehicle. In the previous study the role of exhaust gas recirculation was not thoroughly investigated. Those involved in the study agreed that the NO{sub x} levels could be brought down well below California ULEV levels without increasing either the non-methane organic gases or the CO levels.

  17. Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas (H/CNG) Blend Transit Buses: October 15, 2002--September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Toro, A.; Frailey, M.; Lynch, F.; Munshi, S.; Wayne, S.

    2005-11-01

    The report covers literature and laboratory analyses to identify modification requirements of a Cummins Westport B Gas Plus engine for transit buses using a hydrogen/compressed natural fuel blend.

  18. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  19. Biodiesel Industries Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Barbara, California Zip: 93110 Product: Biodiesel producer and facility developer. References: Biodiesel Industries Inc1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding...

  20. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet), Vehicle Technologies Program ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program (VTP) Fact sheet providing questions and answers on the use of biodiesel as an alternative vehicle fuel. 47504.pdf More Documents & Publications BiodieselFuelManagemen...

  1. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan

    2011-08-25

    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  2. EFFECTS OF BIODIESEL BLENDING ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Jing

    2011-08-31

    examined as a potential substitute for conventional high-pollutant fuels because it is a biodegradable, non-toxic, and relatively clean-burning fuel generated from natural and renewable sources such as vegetable oils, animal fats, recycled restaurant... facility to study various innovations in processing and quality of renewable fuels. 3. Obtain the equipment and experience necessary to perform American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) testing of biodiesel produced at the University of Kansas...

  3. Technology demonstration of dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles at Ft. Bliss, Texas. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.A.; Yost, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    A technology demonstration program of dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles was conducted at FL Bliss, Texas to demonstrate the use of CNG as an alternative fuel. The demonstration program at FL Bliss was the first Army initiative with CNG-fueled vehicles under the legislated Alternative Motor Fuels Act. This Department of Energy (DOE)-supported fleet demonstration consisted of 48 General Services Administration (GSA)-owned, Army-leased 1992 dedicated CNG General Motors (GM) 3/4-ton pickup trucks and four 1993 gasoline-powered Chevrolet 3/4-ton pickup trucks.

  4. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: The Case of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicles in California Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbanat, Brian A.

    2001-01-01

    of the Canadian Natural Gas Vehicles Survey,” SAE 892067,2000. Gushee, David E, “Natural Gas Vehicles Stall on Way toWelfare Costs of Natural Gas Vehicles,” Resources for the

  5. Biodiesel ASTM Update and Future Technical Needs | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel ASTM Update and Future Technical Needs Biodiesel ASTM Update and Future Technical Needs Latest ASTM fuel specifications on biodiesel blends are summarized as well as...

  6. Feasibility study of Northeast Thailand Gas Pipeline Project. Final report. Part 2. Compressed natural gas. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The volume is the second part of a three part study submitted to the Petroleum Authority of Thailand. Part II analyzes the potential use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as a transportation fuel for high mileage vehicles traveling the highway system of Thailand. The study provides an initial estimate of buses and trucks that are potential candidates for converting to natural gas vehicles (NGV). CNG technology is briefly reviewed. The types of refueling stations that may be sited along the highway are discussed. The estimated capital investments and typical layouts are presented. The report also discusses the issues involved in implementing a CNG program in Thailand, such as safety, user acceptability and the government's role.

  7. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pratapas; Daniel Mather; Anton Kozlovsky

    2007-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen's significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: (1) Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion; (2) Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced; (3) Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine; (4) Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust; (5) Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust; (6) Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust; and (7) Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry. The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: (1) A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. (2) A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen. (3) The benefits of using hydrogen to extend, up to a limit, the stable operating window for HCCI combustion of natural gas at higher intake pressures, leaner air to fuel ratios or lower inlet temperatures was documented.

  8. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratapas, John; Mather, Daniel; Kozlovsky, Anton

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen’s significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: • Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion • Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced, • Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine, • Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust, • Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust, • Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust. • Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: 1. A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. 2. A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen.

  9. Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Alleman, T. L.; Waynick, J. A.; Westbrook, S. R.; Porter, S.

    2006-04-01

    This is an interim report for a study of biodiesel oxidative stability. It describes characterization and accelerated stability test results for 19 B100 samples and six diesel fuels.

  10. Biodiesel Safety and Best Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    such as waste vegetable oil, yellow grease, animal fats, and virgin vegetable oils. Small-scale biodiesel........................................................................... 1 FuelOptionsfromBiomassOilFeedstocks ......................... 1 UsingCommitment ......................................................... 5 Messiness ......................................................................... 5 Chemical,Waste

  11. Global Biodiesel Market Trends,Global Biodiesel Market Trends, Outlook and OpportunitiesOutlook and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Biodiesel Market Trends,Global Biodiesel Market Trends, Outlook and OpportunitiesPresident, Emerging Markets Online http://www.emerginghttp://www.emerging--markets.commarkets.com Author, Biodiesel 2020: A Global Market SurveyAuthor, Biodiesel 2020: A Global Market Survey Columnist

  12. 2014 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s s i sEnergyEnergy The intentNatural Gas

  13. Biodiesel is Working Hard in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of biodiesel fuel in 6 school districts throughout Kentucky. It contains usage information for each school district, as well as contact information for local Clean Cities Coordinators and Biodiesel suppliers.

  14. Characterization of Biodiesel Oxidation and Oxidation Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-08-01

    Features a literature review of 130 technical references pertaining to fatty oil and fatty ester stability chemistry in biodiesel fuels.

  15. Price of Compressed U.S. Natural Gas Exports (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan FebCubicFracking, China, and theper Thousand

  16. Price of Compressed U.S. Natural Gas Exports to Canada (Dollars per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan FebCubicFracking, China, and theper ThousandThousand Cubic

  17. Price of Compressed U.S. Natural Gas Imports (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan FebCubicFracking, China, and theper ThousandThousand

  18. Price of Compressed U.S. Natural Gas Imports from Canada (Dollars per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan FebCubicFracking, China, and theper ThousandThousandThousand Cubic

  19. Compressed U.S. Natural Gas Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet)Cubic1992 ConsumptionYear Jan Feb Mar

  20. Compressed U.S. Natural Gas Imports from Canada (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet)Cubic1992 ConsumptionYear Jan FebYear

  1. Compressed U.S. Natural Gas Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep3,118,592Number ofByFuelDecade

  2. Compressed U.S. Natural Gas Imports from Canada (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep3,118,592NumberDecade Year-0 Year-1

  3. 2015 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s s iof1 of 8 2 of 8 3 ofRuleWe We We el lc lc

  4. Workshop Notes from ""Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels: Lessons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics Âť USAJobs SearchAMERICA'SEnergyofTheDepartment of EnergyNaturalLearned for

  5. Price of Compressed Houlton ME Natural Gas Imports from Canada (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearby the PriceAlaska Natural GasFeet) Year JanThousand

  6. The Biofuel Project: Creating Bio-diesel

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    This activity introduces students to alternative fuels and gives them an opportunity to produce their own biodiesel fuel. The text of the exercise gives students a brief background in the environmental benefits of using biodiesel as a diesel substitute. The lab portion of this exercise demonstrates the basic chemistry involved in making biodiesel from vegetable oils and waste oils.

  7. World Biodiesel Markets The Outlook to 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of oils for biodiesel production and oil meals as animal feed ingredients The study also considers, including the regulatory and trade framework, feedstock supply and price developments, biodiesel production-depth profiles on Europe, the Americas and Asia/Pacific Feedstocks Biodiesel production processes Production

  8. TESC Farmhouse Biodiesel Project Processor Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 TESC Farmhouse Biodiesel Project Processor Manual #12;2 Thank you (in no particular order) to: David Rack, Sam Stout, and Kolby Bray-Hoagland for starting the Evergreen Biodiesel Project; our faculty Sara Keehfuss, Burke Anderson, Brodie Pettit (the Biodiesel Buccaneers) and Andrew York

  9. Biodiesel Engine Testing MECH-457 Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biodiesel Engine Testing MECH-457 Final Report Submitted to Jon Mikkelsen April 11, 2005 Darren at UBC has begun producing biodiesel fuel from waste cooking oils acquired from campus kitchens. Using biodiesel in a four-cylinder, 30 hp Kubota engine (V1305). This engine was chosen because it is used

  10. Natural Gas Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    must be stored onboard a vehicle in either a compressed gaseous (compressed natural gas, CNG) or liquefied (liquefied natural gas, LNG) state. Compressed Natural Gas To provide...

  11. Biodegradation of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X.; Haws, R.; Wright, B.; Reese, D.; Moeller, G.; Peterson, C.

    1995-12-31

    Biodiesel fuel test substances Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Neat Rape Oil (NR), Say Methyl Ester (SME), Soy Ethyl Ester (SEE), Neat Soy Oil (NS), and proportionate combinations of RME/diesel and REE/diesel were studied to test the biodegradability of the test substances in an aerobic aquatic environment using the EPA 560/6-82-003 Shake Flask Test Method. A concurrent analysis of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel was also performed for comparison with a conventional fuel. The highest rates of percent CO{sub 2} evolution were seen in the esterified fuels, although no significant difference was noted between them. Ranges of percent CO{sub 2} evolution for esterified fuels were from 77% to 91%. The neat rape and neat soy oils exhibited 70% to 78% CO{sub 2} evolution. These rates were all significantly higher than those of the Phillips D-2 reference fuel which evolved from 7% to 26% of the organic carbon to CO{sub 2}. The test substances were examined for BOD{sub 5} and COD values as a relative measure of biodegradability. Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF) was experimentally derived and BOD{sub 5} and COD analyses were carried out with a diluted concentration at or below the WAF. The results of analysis at WAF were then converted to pure substance values. The pure substance BOD{sub 5} and COD values for test substances were then compared to a control substance, Phillips D-2 Reference fuel. No significant difference was noted for COD values between test substances and the control fuel. (p > 0.20). The D-2 control substance was significantly lower than all test substances for BCD, values at p << 0.01. RME was also significantly lower than REE (p < 0.05) and MS (p < 0.01) for BOD{sub 5} value.

  12. Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower solubility and higher melting temperature - and with increased potential to cause vehicle performance issues. This explains why fuel-filter clogging typically occurs over the course of long, repeated diurnal cooling cycles. The elevated final melting points mean that restarting vehicles with clogged filters can be difficult even after ambient temperatures have warmed to well above CP. By examining how biodiesel impurities affect filtration and crystallization during warming and cooling cycles, NREL researchers uncovered an explanation for poor biodiesel performance at low temperatures. The observation of a eutectic point, or a concentration below which SMGs have no effect, indicates that SMGs do not have to be completely removed from biodiesel to solve low-temperature performance problems.

  13. Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G. [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL; Joyce, Blake [ORNL; Crawford, Robert W. [Rincon Ranch Consulting

    2014-06-23

    Over the past 5 years, ORNL has run 95 diesel range fuels in homogene-ous charge compression ignition (HCCI), including 40 bio-diesels and associated diesel fuels in their blending. The bio-diesel blends varied in oxygen content, iodine number, cetane, boiling point distribution, chemical composition, and some contained nitrogen. All fuels were run in an HCCI engine at 1800 rpm, in the power range of 2.5 to 4.5 bar IMEP, using intake air heating for combustion phasing control, and at a compression ratio of 10.6. The engine response to fuel variables has been analyzed statistically. Generally, the engine responded well to fuels with lower nitrogen and oxygen, lower cetane, and lower aromatics. Because of the wide range of fuels combined in the model, it provides only a broad overview of the engine response. It is recommended that data be truncated and re-modeled to obtain finer resolution of engine response to particular fuel variables.

  14. Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel in California Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel in California Overview of a...

  15. Effect of Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability, Emission and Performance Effect of Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability, Emission and Performance...

  16. Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel This study presents full quantification of...

  17. Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER)...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office: Improving Biodiesel and Other Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Biodiesel and Other Fuels' Quality Vehicle Technologies Office: Improving Biodiesel and Other Fuels' Quality For biofuels to succeed in the marketplace, they must be easy...

  19. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced...

  20. A Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature Chemistry Title A Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature Chemistry Publication Type...

  1. Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructu...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure Fractal dimensions of particle aggregates and...

  2. Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of...

  3. Biodiesel Effects on Diesel Particle Filter Performance: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R.; Ireland, J.

    2006-03-01

    Research results on the performance of biodiesel and biodiesel blends with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a diesel particle filter (DPF).

  4. Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and...

  5. Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison 1 Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and reactant comparison 2 Questions and Hypotheses Question 1 Can we make biodiesel at a lower cost than at a lower cost than buying fuel at a gas station. ii. Alternative hypothesis: Buying fuel at the pump costsBiodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison 1 Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison Burke Anderson

  6. Biodiesel research progress 1992-1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyson, K.S.

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fuels Development began evaluating the potential of various alternative fuels, including biodiesel, as replacement fuels for traditional transportation fuels. Biodiesel is derived from a variety of biological materials from waste vegetable grease to soybean oil. This alkyl ester could be used as a replacement, blend, or additive to diesel fuel. This document is a comprehensive summary of relevant biodiesel and biodiesel-related research, development demonstration, and commercialization projects completed and/or started in the US between 1992 and 1997. It was designed for use as a reference tool to the evaluating biodiesel`s potential as a clean-burning alternative motor fuel. It encompasses, federally, academically, and privately funded projects. Research projects are presented under the following topical sections: Production; Fuel characteristics; Engine data; Regulatory and legislative activities; Commercialization activities; Economics and environment; and Outreach and education.

  7. Survey of the Quality and Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends in the United States in 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Alleman, T. L.; Ratcliffe, M.; Moens, L.; Lawrence, R.

    2005-10-01

    Reports results gathered in 2004 from quality and stability surveys in the United States of biodiesel (B100) and 20% biodiesel (B20) in petroleum diesel.

  8. Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Discusses reasons and physical significance of cool-flame behavior of biodiesel on improving low temperature diesel combustion deer11jacobs.pdf More Documents &...

  9. A Numerical Investigation into the Anomalous Slight NOx Increase when Burning Biodiesel: A New (Old) Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban-Weiss, G A; Chen, J Y; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

    2007-01-30

    Biodiesel is a notable alternative to petroleum derived diesel fuel because it comes from natural domestic sources and thus reduces dependence on diminishing petroleum fuel from foreign sources, it likely lowers lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, and it lowers an engine's emission of most pollutants as compared to petroleum derived diesel. However, the use of biodiesel often slightly increases a diesel engine's emission of smog forming nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) relative to petroleum diesel. In this paper, previously proposed theories for this slight NOx increase are reviewed, including theories based on biodiesel's cetane number, which leads to differing amounts of charge preheating, and theories based on the fuel's bulk modulus, which affects injection timing. This paper proposes an additional theory for the slight NO{sub x} increase of biodiesel. Biodiesel typically contains more double bonded molecules than petroleum derived diesel. These double bonded molecules have a slightly higher adiabatic flame temperature, which leads to the increase in NOx production for biodiesel. Our theory was verified using numerical simulations to show a NOx increase, due to the double bonded molecules, that is consistent with observation. Further, the details of these numerical simulations show that NOx is predominantly due to the Zeldovich mechanism.

  10. WSF Biodiesel Demonstration Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington State University; University of Idaho; The Glosten Associates, Inc.; Imperium Renewables, Inc.

    2009-04-30

    In 2004, WSF canceled a biodiesel fuel test because of “product quality issues” that caused the fuel purifiers to clog. The cancelation of this test and the poor results negatively impacted the use of biodiesel in marine application in the Pacific Northwest. In 2006, The U.S. Department of Energy awarded the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency a grant to manage a scientific study investigating appropriate fuel specifications for biodiesel, fuel handling procedures and to conduct a fuel test using biodiesel fuels in WSF operations. The Agency put together a project team comprised of experts in fields of biodiesel research and analysis, biodiesel production, marine engineering and WSF personnel. The team reviewed biodiesel technical papers, reviewed the 2004 fuel test results, designed a fuel test plan and provided technical assistance during the test. The research reviewed the available information on the 2004 fuel test and conducted mock laboratory experiments, but was not able to determine why the fuel filters clogged. The team then conducted a literature review and designed a fuel test plan. The team implemented a controlled introduction of biodiesel fuels to the test vessels while monitoring the environmental conditions on the vessels and checking fuel quality throughout the fuel distribution system. The fuel test was conducted on the same three vessels that participated in the canceled 2004 test using the same ferry routes. Each vessel used biodiesel produced from a different feedstock (i.e. soy, canola and yellow grease). The vessels all ran on ultra low sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel. The percentage of biodiesel was incrementally raised form from 5 to 20 percent. Once the vessels reached the 20 percent level, they continued at this blend ratio for the remainder of the test. Fuel samples were taken from the fuel manufacturer, during fueling operations and at several points onboard each vessel. WSF Engineers monitored the performance of the fuel systems and engines. Each test vessel did experience a microbial growth bloom that produced a build up of material in the fuel purifiers similar to material witnessed in the 2004 fuel test. A biocide was added with each fuel shipment and the problem subsided. In January of 2009, the WSF successfully completed an eleven month biodiesel fuel test using approximately 1,395,000 gallons of biodiesel blended fuels. The project demonstrated that biodiesel can be used successfully in marine vessels and that current ASTM specifications are satisfactory for marine vessels. Microbial growth in biodiesel diesel interface should be monitored. An inspection of the engines showed no signs of being negatively impacted by the test.

  11. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the disadvantages of homogeneous transesterification, such as the presence of salts in the glycer

  12. Dieselzymes: development of a stable and methanol tolerant lipase for biodiesel production by directed evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korman, Tyler P; Sahachartsiri, Bobby; Charbonneau, David M; Huang, Grace L; Beauregard, Marc; Bowie, James U

    2013-01-01

    J, Campelo JM, Romero AA: Biodiesel as feasible petrol fueltowards ever greener biodiesel production. Biotechnol Adv 3.T, Bielecki S: Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis - key factors

  13. Optimizing Biodiesel Production of a Cell-Free System by Feedback System Control Scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yitong

    2014-01-01

    Ma, F. , Hanna, M.A. , 1999. Biodiesel production: a review.Chisti, Y. , 2007. Biodiesel from microalgae. BiotechnologyDemirbas, A. , 2005. Biodiesel production from vegetable

  14. Biodiesel from microalgae beats Yusuf Chisti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biodiesel from microalgae beats bioethanol Yusuf Chisti School of Engineering, Massey University and bioethanol are the two potential renewable fuels that have attracted the most attention. As demonstrated here, biodiesel and bioethanol produced from agricul- tural crops using existing methods cannot sustainably

  15. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO), 19992,

  16. Compression embedding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-07-07

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.

  17. Compression embedding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Bradley, Jonathan N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%.

  18. Comparative analysis of the atomization characteristics of fifteen biodiesel fuel types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, C.A.W.; Watts, K.C.

    2000-04-01

    Engine results using biofuels have varied considerably in the reported literature. This article addresses two potential sources of this variation, atomization differences and impurities due to lack of quality control during production. Atomization is the first process encountered during the combustion of fuels in a compression ignition engine and is largely determined by the fuel's viscosity and surface tension. Previous work using five experimentally produced methyl ester biodiesel fuels showed that the viscosity and surface tension could be predicted from their fatty acid ester composition, and the atomization characteristics in turn could be predicted from their viscosity and surface tension. This article utilizes the results of that work to give a quantitative comparison of the atomization characteristics of fifteen biodiesel fuel types using the fuel's viscosity and surface tension, predicted directly from the fatty acid composition of the fuels. Except for coconut and rapeseed biodiesel fuels, all of the rest of the 15 biodiesel fuels had similar atomization characteristics. Since the most likely contaminant in the fuel from the processing was residual glycerides, their effect on viscosity and surface tension was studied experimentally and their effect on the atomization characteristics was computed.

  19. Compression embedding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-03-10

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique is disclosed. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method. 11 figs.

  20. Compression embedding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Bradley, Jonathan N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method.

  1. Enterprise converting buses to biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rental car customers may be able to breathe a little easier during their next trip to the airport. Alamo Rent A Car, Enterprise Rent-A-Car, and National Car Rental, all brands operated by the subsidiaries of Enterprise Holdings, are converting their airport shuttle buses to run on biodiesel fuel. The move is a good one for the environment, and will ultimately reduce the company’s carbon emissions. “We are saving 420,000 gallons of petroleum diesel,”  says Lee Broughton, director of corporate identity and sustainability for Enterprise Holdings.    

  2. Taua Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing CapacityVectren)ModelTalbotts LtdTarlton, Ohio: EnergyTaua Biodiesel Jump

  3. General Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway Edit HistoryGearyAtomics Jump to:Biodiesel

  4. Infinifuel Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8, 13 (Vt.Infinifuel Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search

  5. Maryland Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to: navigation, searchScotland Jump to:Marshall Islands:MartinBiodiesel

  6. Northern Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg, Oregon: EnergyNongqishi ElectricElecCompanyNorthern Biodiesel

  7. Soyminas Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeter BatterySolarfin JumpOpenColorado) JumpSoyminas Biodiesel Jump to:

  8. Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

  9. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-11-01

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  10. Comparison of Simulated and Experimental Combustion of Biodiesel Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    The effect of biodiesel content on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine performance has been investigated both experimentally and by computer simulation. Combustion experiments were performed in a single cylinder HCCI engine using blends of soy biodiesel in ultra low sulfur diesel, with concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 vol% and equivalence ratios ( ) from 0.38 to 0.48. Data from the engine tests included combustion analysis and exhaust composition analysis with standard gaseous emissions equipment. The engine utilized a custom port fuel injection strategy to provide highly premixed charges of fuel and air, making it possible to compare the results with single zone chemical kinetics simulations that were performed using CHEMKIN III, with a reaction set including 670 species and over 3000 reactions. The reaction mechanism incorporated equations for the combustion of a paraffinic fuel, n-heptane, and an oxygenated component, methyl butanoate, as well as reactions for the formation of NOx. The zero-dimensional model did a reasonably good job of predicting the HCCI combustion event, correctly predicting intake temperature effects on the phasing of both low temperature heat release (LTHR) and the main combustion event. It also did a good job of predicting the magnitude of LTHR. Differences between the simulation and experimental data included the dependence on biodiesel concentration and the duration of both LTHR and the main combustion event. The probable reasons for these differences are the changing derived cetane number (DCN) of the model fuel blend with biodiesel concentration, and the inability of the model to account for stratification of temperature and . The simulation also showed that concentrations of intermediate species produced during LTHR are dependent on the magnitude of LTHR, but otherwise the addition of biodiesel has no discernable effect.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More places to shareNatural GasToolsBiodiesel

  12. BIODIESEL BLENDS IN SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2001-12-01

    Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel that is derived from processing vegetable oils from various sources, such as soy oil, rapeseed or canola oil, and also waste vegetable oils resulting from cooking use. Brookhaven National laboratory initiated an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This report is a result of this work performed in the laboratory. A number of blends of varying amounts of a biodiesel in home heating fuel were tested in both a residential heating system and a commercial size boiler. The results demonstrate that blends of biodiesel and heating oil can be used with few or no modifications to the equipment or operating practices in space heating. The results also showed that there were environmental benefits from the biodiesel addition in terms of reductions in smoke and in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The latter result was particularly surprising and of course welcome, in view of the previous results in diesel engines where no changes had been seen. Residential size combustion equipment is presently not subject to NOx regulation. If reductions in NOx similar to those observed here hold up in larger size (commercial and industrial) boilers, a significant increase in the use of biodiesel-like fuel blends could become possible.

  13. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

    2013-03-15

    Petroleum-based liquid hydrocarbons is exclusively major energy source in the transportation sector. Thus, it is the major CO{sub 2} source which is the associated with greenhouse effect. In the United States alone, petroleum consumption in the transportation sector approaches 13.8 million barrels per day (Mbbl/d). It is corresponding to a release of 0.53 gigatons of carbon per year (GtC/yr), which accounts for approximate 7.6 % of the current global release of CO{sub 2} from all of the fossil fuel usage (7 GtC/yr). For the long term, the conventional petroleum production is predicted to peak in as little as the next 10 years to as high as the next 50 years. Negative environmental consequences, the frequently roaring petroleum prices, increasing petroleum utilization and concerns about competitive supplies of petroleum have driven dramatic interest in producing alternative transportation fuels, such as electricity-based, hydrogen-based and bio-based transportation alternative fuels. Use of either of electricity-based or hydrogen-based alternative energy in the transportation sector is currently laden with technical and economical challenges. The current energy density of commercial batteries is 175 Wh/kg of battery. At a storage pressure of 680 atm, the lower heating value (LHV) of H{sub 2} is 1.32 kWh/liter. In contrast, the corresponding energy density for gasoline can reach as high as 8.88 kWh/liter. Furthermore, the convenience of using a liquid hydrocarbon fuel through the existing infrastructures is a big deterrent to replacement by both batteries and hydrogen. Biomass-derived ethanol and bio-diesel (biofuels) can be two promising and predominant U.S. alternative transportation fuels. Both their energy densities and physical properties are comparable to their relatives of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel, however, biofuels are significantly environmental-benign. Ethanol can be made from the sugar-based or starch-based biomass materials, which is easily fermented to create ethanol. In the United States almost all starch ethanol is mainly manufactured from corn grains. The technology for manufacturing corn ethanol can be considered mature as of the late 1980s. In 2005, 14.3 % of the U.S. corn harvest was processed to produce 1.48 x10{sup 10} liters of ethanol, energetically equivalent to 1.72 % of U.S. gasoline usage. Soybean oil is extracted from 1.5 % of the U.S. soybean harvest to produce 2.56 x 10{sup 8} liters of bio-diesel, which was 0.09 % of U.S. diesel usage. However, reaching maximum rates of bio-fuel supply from corn and soybeans is unlikely because these crops are presently major contributors to human food supplies through livestock feed and direct consumption. Moreover, there currently arguments on that the conversion of many types of many natural landscapes to grow corn for feedstock is likely to create substantial carbon emissions that will exacerbate globe warming. On the other hand, there is a large underutilized resource of cellulose biomass from trees, grasses, and nonedible parts of crops that could serve as a feedstock. One of the potentially significant new bio-fuels is so called "cellulosic ethanol", which is dependent on break-down by microbes or enzymes. Because of technological limitations (the wider variety of molecular structures in cellulose and hemicellulose requires a wider variety of microorganisms to break them down) and other cost hurdles (such as lower kinetics), cellulosic ethanol can currently remain in lab scales. Considering farm yields, commodity and fuel prices, farm energy and agrichemical inputs, production plant efficiencies, byproduct production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and other environmental effects, a life-cycle evaluation of competitive indicated that corn ethanol yields 25 % more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas soybean bio-diesel yields 93 % more. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12 % by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41 % by bio-diesel. Bio-diesel also releases less ai

  14. Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kudela, Raphael M.

    range of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane and biohydrogen. Biodiesel production systems using microalgae. Keywords Algae . Carbon sequestration . Biofuel . Biogas . Biohydrogen . Biomethane . Bioreactor. Lipid . Oil . Raceway pond . Triacylglycerides . Review Abbreviations BTL biomass

  15. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, William Payton

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a function of time and proximity of the bubble boundary to the well. For all simulations reported here, with a formation radius above 50 m the maximum methane composition in the produced gas phase was less than 0.5%. This report provides an initial investigation of CAES in a depleted natural gas reservoir, and the results will provide useful guidance in CAES system investigation and design in the future.

  16. Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. biodiesel vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  17. Impact of Biodiesel on Fuel System Component Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, B.

    2005-09-01

    A study of the effects of biodiesel blends on fuel system components and the physical characteristics of elastomer materials.

  18. Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses reasons and physical significance of cool-flame behavior of biodiesel on improving low temperature diesel combustion

  19. Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study presents full quantification of biodiesel's impact on emissions and fuel economy with the inclusion of DPF regeneration events.

  20. Controls and Measurements of KU Engine Test Cells for Biodiesel, SynGas, and Assisted Biodiesel Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cecrle, Eric Daniel

    2011-04-06

    the following: University of Kansas's Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, and a unique Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture. The main...

  1. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Biodiesel Engine Compatibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MECH 456 Biodiesel Engine Compatibility Study Submitted to: Dr 456 Biodiesel Engine Compatibility Study i Executive Summary The objectives of this project were to show the effects of varying U.B.C. biodiesel content in fuel on engine performance, to observe

  2. Biosolids for Biodiesel USDA SBIR 2003-000450

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Biosolids for Biodiesel USDA SBIR 2003-000450 Phase I Final Report Prepared by Emerald Ranches #12;Biosolids for Biodiesel USDA SBIR 2003-000450 Phase I Final Report Background The goal of this Phase I for the production of biodiesel fuel. It is desirable to use biosolids as a fertilizer for canola for two reasons

  3. Reachability Analysis of Stochastic Hybrid Systems: A Biodiesel Production System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    Reachability Analysis of Stochastic Hybrid Systems: A Biodiesel Production System Derek Riley problem because it provides a formal framework to analyze complex systems. Biodiesel production is a realistic biochemical process that can be modeled and analyzed using SHS methods. Analysis of a biodiesel

  4. Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering ­ Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator Currently 70 biodiesel boiler system to drive a steam engine generator. This system is to provide electricity the customer needs, a boiler fueled by biodiesel and outputting to a steam engine was decided upon. The system

  5. Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Compressed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG ..............................................................................................................9 North Carolina CNG Case Study of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0006083. #12;2 6/2014 Introduction to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) What

  6. Acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, B.; Haws, R.; Little, D.; Reese, D.; Peterson, C.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    This study develops data on the acute aquatic toxicity of selected biodiesel fuels which may become subject to environmental effects test regulations under the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The test substances are Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Methyl Soyate (MS), a biodiesel mixture of 20% REE and 80% Diesel, a biodiesel mixture of 50% REE and diesel, and a reference substance of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel. The test procedure follows the Daphnid Acute Toxicity Test outlined in 40 CFR {section} 797.1300 of the TSCA regulations. Daphnia Magna are exposed to the test substance in a flow-through system consisting of a mixing chamber, a proportional diluter, and duplicate test chambers. Novel system modifications are described that accommodate the testing of oil-based test substances with Daphnia. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an EC50, an effective concentration producing immobility in 50% of the test specimen.

  7. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    2007-09-17

    that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production...

  8. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

    2013-04-01

    The Wisconsin State Energy Office�¢����s (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost�¢���effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally�¢���friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  9. A numerical investigation into the anomalous slight NOx increase when burning biodiesel; A new (old) theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Chen, J.Y.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    G. et al, 2005. The Biodiesel Handbook. AOCS Publishing,x Increase When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory GeorgeIncrease When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory. Fuel

  10. Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)-Powered Vehicles Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed...

  11. Containerized compressed natural gas shipping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skarvelis, Georgios V

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, the demand for energy is increasing. It is necessary to develop new ways to distribute the energy using economically feasible solutions. In this project an Ultra Large Container Ship is used that can ...

  12. Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zummo, Michael M; Munson, J; Derr, A; Zemple, T; Bray, S; Studer, B; Miller, J; Beckler, J; Hahn, A; Martinez, P; Herndon, B; Lee, T; Newswanger, T; Wassall, M

    2012-03-30

    Many obvious and significant concerns arise when considering the concept of small-scale biodiesel production. Does the fuel produced meet the stringent requirements set by the commercial biodiesel industry? Is the process safe? How are small-scale producers collecting and transporting waste vegetable oil? How is waste from the biodiesel production process handled by small-scale producers? These concerns and many others were the focus of the research preformed in the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation project over the last three years. This project was a unique research program in which undergraduate engineering students at Messiah College set out to research the feasibility of small-biodiesel production for application on a campus of approximately 3000 students. This Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program developed out of almost a decade of small-scale biodiesel research and development work performed by students at Messiah College. Over the course of the last three years the research team focused on four key areas related to small-scale biodiesel production: Quality Testing and Assurance, Process and Processor Research, Process and Processor Development, and Community Education. The objectives for the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project included the following: 1. Preparing a laboratory facility for the development and optimization of processors and processes, ASTM quality assurance, and performance testing of biodiesel fuels. 2. Developing scalable processor and process designs suitable for ASTM certifiable small-scale biodiesel production, with the goals of cost reduction and increased quality. 3. Conduct research into biodiesel process improvement and cost optimization using various biodiesel feedstocks and production ingredients.

  13. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide: Fourth Edition (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-01-01

    Intended for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and its blends, this guide contains procedures for handling and using these fuels.

  14. Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends Bob McCormick (PI) with Colleen Alexander, Teresa Alleman, Robb Barnitt, Wendy Clark, John Ireland, Keith...

  15. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

    2006-11-01

    Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

  16. Biodiesel Utilization: Update on Recent Analytical Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; Luecke, J.; Thornton, M.; McAlpin, C.

    2009-05-01

    To understand and increase the use of biodiesel, analytical methods need to be shared and compared to ensure that accurate data are gathered on this complex fuel.

  17. Biodiesel Quality in the United States | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Diesel Injection Shear-Stress Advanced Nozzle (DISSAN) Microstructural Contol of the Porous Si3N4 Ceramics Consisted...

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: ASTM Biodiesel Specifications

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternativeASTM Biodiesel Specifications

  19. Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, S.C.

    2002-11-14

    This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric drive system. Vehicles on U. S. highways have been propelled by ICEs for several decades. Heavy-duty vehicles have typically been fueled by diesel fuel, and light-duty vehicles have been fueled by gasoline. The hazards and risks posed by ICE vehicles are well understood and have been generally accepted by the public. The economy, durability, and safety of ICE vehicles have established a standard for other types of vehicles. Heavy-duty (i.e., heavy) HEVs have recently been introduced to U. S. roadways, and the hazards posed by these heavy HEVs can be compared with the hazards posed by ICE vehicles. The benefits of heavy HEV technology are based on their potential for reduced fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions, while the disadvantages are the higher acquisition cost and the expected higher maintenance costs (i.e., battery packs). The heavy HEV is more suited for an urban drive cycle with stop-and-go driving conditions than for steady expressway speeds. With increasing highway congestion and the resulting increased idle time, the fuel consumption advantage for heavy HEVs (compared with conventional heavy vehicles) is enhanced by the HEVs' ability to shut down. Any increase in fuel cost obviously improves the economics of a heavy HEV. The propulsion system for a heavy HEV is more complex than the propulsion system for a conventional heavy vehicle. The heavy HEV evaluated in this study has in effect two propulsion systems: an ICE fueled by CNG and an electric drive system with additional complexity and failure modes. This additional equipment will result in a less reliable vehicle with a lower availability than a conventional heavy vehicle. Experience with heavy HEVs to date supports this observation. The key safety concern for the electric drive system is the higher voltages and currents that are required in the electric drive system. Faults that could expose personnel to these electric hazards must be considered, addressed, and minimized. The key issue for the CNG-fueled ICE is containment of the high-pressure natural gas. Events that can result in a release of natural gas with the possibility of subsequent ignition are of concern. These safety issues are discussed. The heavy HEV has the potential to have a safety record that is comparable to that of the conventional vehicle, but adequate attention to detail will be required.

  20. Reachability Analysis of a Biodiesel Production System Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    Reachability Analysis of a Biodiesel Production System Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems Derek Riley defines the creation of biodiesel from soybean oil and methanol. Modeling and analyzing the biodiesel. In this paper we model a biodiesel production system as a stochastic hybrid system, and we present

  1. Biodiesel Sim: Crowdsourcing Simulations for Complex Model Analysis Derek Riley, Xiaowei Zhang, Xenofon Koutsoukos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    Biodiesel Sim: Crowdsourcing Simulations for Complex Model Analysis Derek Riley, Xiaowei Zhang Computation, Biodiesel Abstract Biodiesel is an alternative fuel source that can be easily made by novices of the proces- sor. A biodiesel processor is a complex system that can be modeled and simulated using formal

  2. Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production from cooking oil is to simultaneously optimize and heat integrate the production of biodiesel from each of the different oil sources in the design. When using algae oil, the optimal process employs alkali as catalyst with a production cost of 0

  3. Optimal biodiesel production using bioethanol: Towards process integration.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Optimal biodiesel production using bioethanol: Towards process integration. Kristen Severson using bioethanol from algae following four different transesterification paths: alkali, enzymatic@cmu.edu (I.E. Grossmann) #12;1.-Introduction. Biodiesel and bioethanol are the most important liquid biofuels

  4. Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

    2009-04-08

    Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

  5. Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    molybdenum dioxide displays excellent behavior as catalytic material for the oxidative reforming of bothOxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide Jessica Whalen, Oscar Marin Flores, Su candidate as an effective catalyst for biodiesel. Few papers have been published on the topic of catalytic

  6. Biodiesel 2014: FAME and Misfortune?

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6RU Ntight oil plays:

  7. Microsoft Word - Biodiesel.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO) Highlights1 M E R OU.S.29 1

  8. Biodiesel Buccaneers Brodie Burke Sara

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with a stroboscope and tachometer #12;Alcohols and Catalysts Methanol (coal, natural gas or wood) is most commonly-reacted oil Cloud point tests: the lower the cloud point the higher the quality The 1 cylinder engine ran off, of higher quality and much less is needed. Ethanol is vastly more expensive and a higher quantity is used

  9. Biodiesel - SSC Process - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura|Bilayer Graphene GetsBiodiesel - SSC Process Idaho

  10. Midwest Biodiesel Producers LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO isMickeyWestNewOhio:Midstate ElectricBiodiesel

  11. Buffalo Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC JumpBiossenceBrunswick, Maine: Energy Resources JumpBiodiesel Inc

  12. Rix Biodiesel Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,EnergyEast Jump to:Ridgway, Colorado:RistmaRix Biodiesel

  13. San Francisco Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-bRenewableSMUD Wind FarmSmartSociety JumpBiodiesel Jump

  14. Tellurian Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ Automation Jump to:Information 8) JumpTellurian Biodiesel Inc

  15. Bay Biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminexInformationArkansas: Energy Resources Jump to:Biodiesel LLC

  16. General Biodiesel Incorporated | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskeyFootprintGEXAGemini Solar Development Company JumpBiodiesel

  17. Biodiesel Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETO Quiz -Technologies forBigBiodiesel Fuel Basics

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsas a Vehicle FuelFuelingBiodiesel

  19. Robustness of Compressed Sensing in Sensor Networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hern, Brett

    2008-05-22

    Compressed sensing is a new theory that is based on the fact that many natural images can be sparsely represented in an orthonormal wavelet basis. This theory holds valuable implications for wireless sensor networks because power and bandwidth...

  20. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, Olivier; Pitz, William J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2010-05-15

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet-stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. (author)

  1. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-21

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

  2. Biodiesel production using waste frying oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charpe, Trupti W. [Chemical Engineering Department, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Rathod, Virendra K., E-mail: vk.rathod@ictmumbai.edu.in [Chemical Engineering Department, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. {yields} Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. {yields} Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. {yields} Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil.

  3. Algal Harvesting for Biodiesel Production: Comparing Centrifugation and Electrocoagulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kovalcik, Derek John

    2013-08-09

    Electrocoagulation was compared to centrifugation at pilot scale for harvesting Nannochloris oculata and Nannochloropsis salina for biodiesel production. The pilot scale testing is a proof of concept and no optimization ...

  4. Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fractal dimensions of particle aggregates and the fringe lengths and fringe tortuosity within the primary soot particles has been assessed as functions of load, rail pressure, and biodiesel content.

  5. www.postersession.com Performance Analysis of Cottonseed Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    and Lubricants. Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 58-75, June 2011. ˇ Cottonseed contains many similar qualities consumption. ˇ Cottonseed biodiesel was shown to have a similar lower heating value to diesel indicating

  6. Impact of Biodiesel Metals on the Performance and Durability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Performance and Durability of DOC and DPF Technologies Impact of Biodiesel Metals on the Performance and Durability of DOC and DPF Technologies Poster presented at the 16th...

  7. Fact #662: February 14, 2011 World Biodiesel Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Europe has been the dominant region for biodiesel production with increased production each year since 2005. North America has been a distant second led by the United States until 2009. In 2009, U...

  8. Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from vegetable oils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myint, Lay L.

    2009-05-15

    ???????????????????????? 12 2.3 Fatty Acid Methyl Ester???????????????????. 12 2.4 Comparison of Different Oil Prices in the United States??????... 15 2.5 Biodiesel Production Plant Capacities using Different Feedstocks??... 16 2.6 Molecular Structure of Soap...?????????????????.. 18 2.7 Emulsification of Bioidiesel by Soap??????????????. 18 2.8 Intermediate Steps in Biodiesel Transesterification????????... 21 3.1 Schematic of Proposed Process Design?????????????. 26 4.1 Process Synthesis?????????????????????... 27 4...

  9. Design and Analysis of Flexible Biodiesel Processes with Multiple Feedstocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokoo-Aikins, Grace Amarachukwu

    2011-10-21

    oil and methyl esters of other oils as diesel fuel (Knothe et al., 1997, Knothe, 2001). Prior to World War II biodiesel continued to be developed and utilized but widespread use of biodiesel was deterred by the low cost of petroleum derived fuels... and non-food crops, wastes, genetically engineered and recombinant sources (such as plants and microorganisms), oils and other sources that do not fit into any of these categories. The focus for a sustainable biorefinery is agricultural, food industry...

  10. Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.; Jarvis, E.; Dunahay, T.; Roessler, P.; Zeiler, K. ); Sprague, S. )

    1993-05-01

    The primary goal of the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project is to develop the technology for growing microalgae as a renewable biomass feedstock for the production of a diesel fuel substitute (biodiesel), thereby reducing the need for imported petroleum. Microalgae are of interest as a feedstock because of their high growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions, and because the oils (lipids) they produce can be extracted and converted to substitute petroleum fuels such as biodiesel. Microalgae can be grown in arid and semi-arid regions with poor soil quality, and saline water from aquifers or the ocean can be used for growing microalgae. Biodiesel is an extremely attractive candidate to fulfill the need for a diesel fuel substitute. Biodiesel is a cleaner fuel than petroleum diesel; it is virtually free of sulfur, and emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulates during combustion are significantly reduced in comparison to emissions from petroleum diesel. Biodiesel provides essentially the same energy content and power output as petroleum-based diesel fuel.

  11. Compressed gas manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  12. The Characterization of Two-Stage Ignition Effects on Late Injection Low Temperature Combustion Using Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tompkins, Brandon T

    2015-08-12

    combustion in a medium duty diesel engine with both petroleum diesel and biodiesel fuels and to determine the influence of such behavior on LTC torque and emissions. Three experiments were performed to meet these objectives: the first studies two operating...

  13. Natural Resources Research, Vol. 14, No. 1, March 2005 ( C 2005) DOI: 10.1007/s11053-005-4679-8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Natural Resources Research, Vol. 14, No. 1, March 2005 ( C 2005) DOI: 10.1007/s11053% more fossil energy than the biodiesel fuel produced (Note, the energy yield from soy oil per hectare fossil energy than the biodiesel fuel produced. KEY WORDS: Energy, biomass, fuel, natural resources

  14. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies ftp01lee.pdf More...

  15. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Discusses the impact of Na in biodiesel...

  16. Fact #700: November 7, 2011 Biodiesel Consumption is on the Rise for 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration began tracking biodiesel consumption in 2001. For the first few years biodiesel consumption remained relatively low – well under one thousand barrels per...

  17. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine The objective of the current...

  18. BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring onboard fuel monitoring of fuel and biofuel qualities using an optical sensor for engine...

  19. Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel...

  20. Evaluation and Comparison of Test Methods to Measure the Oxidation Stability of Neat Biodiesel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, S. R.

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare and evaluate several candidate test methods for evaluating oxidation stability of biodiesel.

  1. Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for biodiesel.

  2. Parametric internal waves in a compressible fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Kausik S; Bhattacharyay, A

    2007-01-01

    We describe the effect of vibration on a confined volume of fluid which is density stratified due to its compressibility. We show that internal gravity-acoustic waves can be parametrically destabilized by the vibration. The resulting instability is similar to the classic Faraday instability of surface waves, albeit modified by the compressible nature of the fluid. It may be possible to observe experimentally near a gas-liquid critical point.

  3. DOE Announces Over $8 Million to Increase Use and Availability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    biodiesel blends. Two projects are focused on infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Successful implementation of the planned...

  4. Experimental study of the oxidation of large surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental study of the oxidation of large surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels Mohammed of the oxidation of two blend surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels, n-decane/n-hexadecane and n-alkanes and methyl esters. Keywords: Oxidation; Diesel; Biodiesel; Methyl esters; n-Decane; n-Hexadecane; Methyl

  5. Sustainable distributed biodiesel manufacturing under uncertainty: An interval-parameter-programming-based approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yinlun

    Sustainable distributed biodiesel manufacturing under uncertainty: An interval A sophisticated biodiesel manufacturing study demonstrated methodological efficacy. a r t i c l e i n f o Article Simulation Uncertainty a b s t r a c t Biodiesel, a clean-burning alternative fuel, can be produced using

  6. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO{sub 2} and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD{sub 5} and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population.

  7. Compressed Gas Cylinder Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of pressure from a compressed gas cylinder and pose a serious threat to life and property. To minimize risk cylinders to and from a designated work are

  8. Laser Compression of Tantalum /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Chia-Hui

    2013-01-01

    of this container was filled with aerogel, which acts as aafter laser compression. Aerogel was designed to deceleratein this geometry. The aerogel did not introduce any

  9. Los Alamos National Laboratory considers the use of biodiesel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matlin, M. K.

    2002-01-01

    A new EPA-approved alternative fuel, called biodiesel, may soon be used at Los Alamos National Laboratory in everything from diesel trucks to laboratory equipment. Biodiesel transforms vegetable oils into a renewable, cleaner energy source that can be used in any machinery that uses diesel fuel. For the past couple years, the Laboratory has been exploring the possibility of switching over to soybean-based biodiesel. This change could lead to many health and environmental benefits, as well as help reduce the nation's dependence on foreign oil. Biodiesel is a clean, renewable diesel fuel substitute made from soybean and other vegetable oil crops, as well as from recycled cooking oils. A chemical process breaks down the vegetable oil into a usable form. Vegetable oil has a chain of about 18 carbons and ordinary diesel has about 12 or 13 carbons. The process breaks the carbon chains of the vegetable oil and separates out the glycerin (a fatty substance used in creams and soaps). The co-product of glycerin can be used by pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies, as well as many other markets. Once the chains are shortened and the glycerin is removed from the oil, the remaining liquid is similar to petroleum diesel fuel. It can be burned in pure form or in a blend of any proportion with petroleum diesel. To be considered an alternative fuel source by the EPA, the blend must be at least 20 percent biodiesel (B20). According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), biodiesel is America's fastest growing alternative fuel.

  10. Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind Biodiesel Project Green

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmiston, Jessica L

    2012-09-28

    Through extensive collaboration, Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind (AIDB) is Alabama's first educational entity to initiate a biodiesel public education, student training and production program, Project Green. With state and national replication potential, Project Green benefits local businesses and city infrastructures within a 120-mile radius; provides alternative education to Alabama school systems and to schools for the deaf and blind in Appalachian States; trains students with sensory and/or multiple disabilities in the acquisition and production of biodiesel; and educates the external public on alternative fuels benefits.

  11. LAPPED TRANSFORMS COMPRESSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Queiroz, Ricardo L.

    Chapter 6 LAPPED TRANSFORMS FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION Ricardo L. de Queiroz Digital Imaging Technology aspects of lapped transforms and their applications to image compression. It is a subject that has been extensively studied mainly because lapped transforms are closely related to filter banks, wavelets, and time

  12. Scalable Communication Trace Compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agarwal, Khushbu

    2010-05-17

    Characterizing the communication behavior of parallel programs through tracing can help understand an application’s characteristics, model its performance, and predict behavior on future systems. However, lossless communication traces can get prohibitively large, causing programmers to resort to variety of other techniques. In this paper, we present a novel approach to lossless communication trace compression. We augment the sequitur compression algorithm to employ it in communication trace compression of parallel programs. We present optimizations to reduce the memory overhead, reduce size of the trace files generated, and enable compression across multiple processes in a parallel program. The evaluation shows improved compression and reduced overhead over other approaches, with up to 3 orders of magnitude improvement for the NAS MG benchmark. We also observe that, unlike existing schemes, the trace files sizes and the memory overhead incurred are less sensitive to, if not independent of, the problem size for the NAS benchmarks.

  13. Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This initial class demonstrates how to compute the current cost of your plant's compressed...

  14. Development and Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates for Compression Ignition Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Skeletal mechanism features reduction by a factor of 37 in size while retaining good accuracy and comprehensiveness, compared with detailed mechanism that consists of 3299 species and 10806 reactions

  15. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity. Retrofit technologies that address the challenges of slow-speed integral compression are: (1) optimum turndown using a combination of speed and clearance with single-acting operation as a last resort; (2) if single-acting is required, implement infinite length nozzles to address nozzle pulsation and tunable side branch absorbers for 1x lateral pulsations; and (3) advanced valves, either the semi-active plate valve or the passive rotary valve, to extend valve life to three years with half the pressure drop. This next generation of slow-speed compression should attain 95% efficiency, a three-year valve life, and expanded turndown. New equipment technologies that address the challenges of large-horsepower, high-speed compression are: (1) optimum turndown with unit speed; (2) tapered nozzles to effectively reduce nozzle pulsation with half the pressure drop and minimization of mechanical cylinder stretch induced vibrations; (3) tunable side branch absorber or higher-order filter bottle to address lateral piping pulsations over the entire extended speed range with minimal pressure drop; and (4) semi-active plate valves or passive rotary valves to extend valve life with half the pressure drop. This next generation of large-horsepower, high-speed compression should attain 90% efficiency, a two-year valve life, 50% turndown, and less than 0.75 IPS vibration. This program has generated proof-of-concept technologies with the potential to meet these ambitious goals. Full development of these identified technologies is underway. The GMRC has committed to pursue the most promising enabling technologies for their industry.

  16. Aridity and Algae: Biodiesel Production in Arizona Jenna Bloxom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Aridity and Algae: Biodiesel Production in Arizona Jenna Bloxom Advisor: Dr. Scott Whiteford Center resources. Often excluded from the typical water- related concerns associated with biofuels as algae as the best location in the world to grow algae, the state of Arizona is now home to several premier algae

  17. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-17

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  18. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-20

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  19. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, Olivier; Pitz, William J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2008-08-15

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran and co-workers for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet-stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels. (author)

  20. Engineering for sustainable development for bio-diesel production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayanan, Divya

    2009-05-15

    on their performance. The SD indicator priority score and each individual alternative’s performance score together are used to determine the most sustainable alternative. The proposed methodology for ESD is applied for bio-diesel production in this thesis. The results...

  1. Coalition Cooperation Defines Roadmap for E85 and Biodiesel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-06-01

    This Clean Cities success story relates how Colorado's Colorado Biofuels Coalition was formed and provides guidance on forming other such coalitions. This Colorado's coalition sucessfully increase the number of fueling stations providing biofuels and has goals to the number even more. Plans also include assisting with financing infrastructure, making alternative fuels available to more fleets, and educating about E85 and biodiesel use.

  2. GAS TURBINES AND BIODIESEL : A CLARIFICATION OF THE RELATIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 GAS TURBINES AND BIODIESEL : A CLARIFICATION OF THE RELATIVE NOX INDICES OF FAME, GASOIL ("tallow"). A key factor for the use of biofuels in gas turbines is their Emissions Indices (NOx, CO, VOC to gas turbines is very scarce. Two recent, independent field tests carried out in Europe (RME

  3. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    engine (typically Otto, Diesel, or Atkinson- cycle) vehicles running on gasoline, diesel, bio-diesel, ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, liquefied propane

  4. Unburned lubricant produces 60%90% of organic carbon emissions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles ˇ New and aged lubricants representative fuel, biodiesel, and CNG The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems

  5. National Parks Clean Up with Alternative Fuels | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fuel vehicles and infrastructure (including biodiesel, compressed natural gas, E85-ethanol, and propane). As a result of industry partnerships, Toyota donated 23 Prius...

  6. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

    1997-03-25

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace`s equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image. 16 figs.

  7. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, Chi-Yung (San Francisco, CA); Petrich, Loren I. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

  8. Electrochemical method for producing a biodiesel mixture comprising fatty acid alkyl esters and glycerol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, YuPo J; St. Martin, Edward J

    2013-08-13

    The present invention relates to an integrated method and system for the simultaneous production of biodiesel from free fatty acids (via esterification) and from triglycerides (via transesterification) within the same reaction chamber. More specifically, one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for the production of biodiesel using an electrodeionization stack, wherein an ion exchange resin matrix acts as a heterogeneous catalyst for simultaneous esterification and transesterification reactions between a feedstock and a lower alcohol to produce biodiesel, wherein the feedstock contains significant levels of free fatty acid. In addition, because of the use of a heterogeneous catalyst, the glycerol and biodiesel have much lower salt concentrations than raw biodiesel produced by conventional transesterification processes. The present invention makes it much easier to purify glycerol and biodiesel.

  9. Effect of Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability, Emission and Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Jatropha is a drought-resistant, non-edible plant that can be grown on marginal land and used in the production of biodiesel fuel.

  10. Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance and Long-term Durability of Advanced Aftertreatment Systems Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term Durability of Advanced Aftertreatment...

  11. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of the current research is to assess differences in NOx emissions between biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels, resulting from fundamental issues and system-response issues.

  12. Compressed and Liquid Gas Usage Policy Faculty must fill out and submit the gas usage form when picking up compressed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manley, Steven L.

    Compressed and Liquid Gas Usage Policy ˇ Faculty must fill out and submit the gas usage form when for gases in the future. Effective July 1, 2011 College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Approved

  13. BNL Compressed Natural Gas Release Investigation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: Michael Kretschmann, P.E., Manager, Fire Protection Engineering - Brookhaven National Laboratory

  14. Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cylinder, translated and presented by J. P. Hsu, PhD, Smart Chemistry #12;Reason for Defect Analysis of CNG Composite Cylinder ˇ Safety Issue - Four explosion accidents of auto used CNG composite material cylinders resulting huge personnel and vehicles loss. ˇ Low Compliance Rate ­ Inspect 12119 Auto used CNG composite

  15. Isentropic Compression of Argon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Oona; J.C. Solem; L.R. Veeser, C.A. Ekdahl; P.J. Rodriquez; S.M. Younger; W. Lewis; W.D. Turley

    1997-08-01

    We are studying the transition of argon from an insulator to a conductor by compressing the frozen gas isentropically to pressures at which neighboring atomic orbitals overlap sufficiently to allow some electron motion between atoms. Argon and the other rare gases have closed electron shells and therefore remain montomic, even when they solidify. Their simple structure makes it likely that any measured change in conductivity is due to changes in the atomic structure, not in molecular configuration. As the crystal is compressed the band gap closes, allowing increased conductivity. We have begun research to determine the conductivity at high pressures, and it is our intention to determine the compression at which the crystal becomes a metal.

  16. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  17. Biodiesel is produced from a wide variety of oilseed crops. In Europe, canola is the major biodiesel crop while in the U.S. soybeans dominate. Montana State University researchers have developed a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Technology Biodiesel is produced from a wide variety of oilseed crops. In Europe, canola is the major biodiesel crop while in the U.S. soybeans dominate. Montana State University researchers have plants used for biodiesel. Seed oil content increases are induced by puroindoline genes which promote

  18. Biodiesel and the Advanced Biofuel Market | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy|Make Fuels and Chemicals | DepartmentBiodiesel

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternativeASTMInfrastructureBiodiesel

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender Pump Dispensers toStation Locations toBiodiesel

  1. PERFORMANCE OF THE CAPSTONE C30 MICROTURBINE ON BIODIESEL BENDS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2007-01-01

    This report will describe the tests of biodiesel blends as a fuel in a Capstone oil fired microturbine (C30) with a nominal rating of 30 kW. The blends, in ASTM No. 2 heating oil, ranged from 0% to 100% biodiesel. No changes were made to the microturbine system for operation on the blends. Apart from the data that the control computer acquires on various turbine parameters, measurements were made in the hot gas exhaust from the turbine. The results from this performance testing and from the atomization tests reported previously provide some insight into the use of biodiesel blends in microturbines of this type. The routine use of such blends would need more tests to establish that the life of the critical components of the microturbine are not diminished from what they are on the baseline diesel or heating fuel. Of course, the extension to 'widespread' use of such blends in generating systems based on the microturbine is also determined by economic and other considerations.

  2. Implementation of Engine Control and Measurement Strategies for Biofuel Research in Compression-Ignition Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangus, Michael D.

    2014-05-31

    this finite energy supply. One promising option for the transportation sector is biodiesel derived from various feedstocks. In order to perform viable research in the area of sustainable biodiesel, a multi-disciplinary effort to study the entire biodiesel...

  3. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Investigation of Solid Acid Catalyst Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acid Catalyst Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel Elliot James Nash University of British Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel By Elliot James Nash Thesis CHBE 493/494 4 April 2013 The Faculty;ii Abstract The adoption of biodiesel as an alternative fuel is gaining momentum despite its large

  4. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIARegional energyEIA-782APetroleum &

  5. Towards the optimal integrated production of biodiesel with internal recycling of methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    the use of autoreforming for a production cost 0f $0.61/gal, 3.34MJ/gal of energy consumption and 0.79gal1 Towards the optimal integrated production of biodiesel with internal recycling of methanol of the production methanol from glycerol and its integration in the production of biodiesel from algae. We propose

  6. Applications of Highly Cross Linked Mixed Bed Ion Exchange Resins in Biodiesel Processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamal, Yousuf

    2010-10-12

    is far below the petro-diesel consumption and demand. To increase the availability of biodiesel in the market, new methods of biodiesel production must be developed to take advantage of the plentiful low quality waste derived feed stocks that currently...

  7. Biodiesel Supply and Consumption in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The historical biodiesel consumption data published in the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review March 2009 edition were revised to account for imports and exports. Table 10.4 of the Monthly Energy Review was expanded to display biodiesel imports, exports, stocks, stock change, and consumption. Similar revisions were made in the April 2009 edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  8. Biodiesel Clears the Air in Underground Mines, Clean Cities, Fact Sheet, June 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Mining companies are using biodiesel in their equipment to help clear the air of diesel particulate matter (DPM). This action improves air quality and protects miners' lungs. Though using biodiesel has some challenges in cold weather, tax incentives, and health benefits make it a viable option.

  9. An Intensified Reaction/Product Recovery Process for the Continuous Production of Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Biodiesel Cooperative Research into Biobased Fuels between ORNL and Nu-Energie Biodiesel: This project transfer and small business development through the commercialization of energy-saving technologies from the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy that leverages a 50/50 DOE/industry cost

  10. Pollutant Emissions from Biodiesels in Diesel Engine Tests and On-road Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Yue

    2012-08-31

    and HC emissions. The H: C ratio, ratio of saturated fatty acids and degree of unsaturation of biodiesels all had a substantial effect on NO emissions. Density measurement was an easy way to predict total NOx from biodiesels. Methods of running on...

  11. Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Poster...

  12. Development and Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: CFD Simulations and Experiments to Determine the Feasibility of Various Alternate Fuels for Compression Ignition Engine Applications...

  13. Transit Users Group Supports Transit Agencies with Natural Gas Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-04-01

    Fact sheet describes the benefits of the Transit Users Group, which supports transit groups with compressed natural gas (CNG) buses.

  14. Random Operator Compressions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen Ng; Meg Walters

    2014-09-19

    Let $A$ be a Hermitian operator of order $n$. We show that for $k\\leq n$ sufficiently large, the eigenvalues of a compression of $A$ to a $k$-dimensional subspace are almost the same for all subspaces. We prove this result using the methods introduced in a paper by Chatterjee and Ledoux on eigenvalues of principle submatrices. We show that by choosing an appropriate Markov chain, the methods of Chatterjee and Ledoux can be applied to give a more general result on operator compressions. As an additional application of this method, we prove concentration of measure of the length of the longest increasing subsequence of a random walk distributed under the invariant measure for the asymmetric exclusion process.

  15. Compression Technology and Needs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLake Paiute Reservation | Department ofCompressed HydrogenŽ

  16. The California Biodiesel Alliance CBA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeterInformation Policy and Development PlanBiodiesel Alliance CBA

  17. Big Daddy s Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformation BeaufortBentMichigan:Greece)Daddy s Biodiesel Inc Jump to:

  18. Biodiesel of Las Vegas Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYorkColoradoBelcherCarbonAlgeneBioLogicalBiodiesel of Las

  19. Biodiesel Revs Up Its Applications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, IncBio Centers Announcement at the NationalBiodiesel Revs Up

  20. Avalanches in wood compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tero Mäkinen; Amandine Miksic; Markus Ovaska; Mikko J. Alava

    2015-06-15

    Wood is a multi-scale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power-laws. The stress- strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using Digital Image Correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  1. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria as biodiesel feedstock.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffing, Anne M.; Trahan, Christine Alexandra; Jones, Howland D. T.

    2013-01-01

    Algal biofuels are a renewable energy source with the potential to replace conventional petroleum-based fuels, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The economic feasibility of commercial algal fuel production, however, is limited by low productivity of the natural algal strains. The project described in this SAND report addresses this low algal productivity by genetically engineering cyanobacteria (i.e. blue-green algae) to produce free fatty acids as fuel precursors. The engineered strains were characterized using Sandia's unique imaging capabilities along with cutting-edge RNA-seq technology. These tools are applied to identify additional genetic targets for improving fuel production in cyanobacteria. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates successful fuel production from engineered cyanobacteria, identifies potential limitations, and investigates several strategies to overcome these limitations. This project was funded from FY10-FY13 through the President Harry S. Truman Fellowship in National Security Science and Engineering, a program sponsored by the LDRD office at Sandia National Laboratories.

  2. 3 , LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) -165oC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    . GTL CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), GTW (Gas to Wire), NGH . CNG () . NGH () . NGH . CNG , ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) . . . .ANG CNG . #12;

  3. R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen Storage Technologies Workshops R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen...

  4. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in Indian Locomotives (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2009-03-01

    With India's transportation sector relying heavily on imported petroleum-based fuels, the Planning Commission of India and the Indian government recommended the increased use of blended biodiesel in transportation fleets, identifying Jatropha as a potentially important biomass feedstock. The Indian Oil Corporation and Indian Railways are collaborating to increase the use of biodiesel blends in Indian locomotives with blends of up to B20, aiming to reduce GHG emissions and decrease petroleum consumption. To help evaluate the potential for Jatropha-based biodiesel in achieving sustainability and energy security goals, this study examines the life cycle, net GHG emission, net energy ratio, and petroleum displacement impacts of integrating Jatropha-based biodiesel into locomotive operations in India. In addition, this study identifies the parameters that have the greatest impact on the sustainability of the system.

  5. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomberlin, Jeff

    of petroleum. Bioethanol and biodiesel are two kinds of biofuel. Biomass resources can be converted be developed with cheap waste, such as dairy manure, to produce bioethanol (Liao et al., 2008; Predojevic

  6. Investigating the Use of Ion Exchange Resins for Processing Biodiesel Feedstocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamal, Yousuf 1973-

    2012-11-27

    at a larger market share within the existing US economy. Alternative feedstocks must also be examined for their ability to produce biodiesel and additional recoverable organics. Use of ion exchange resins under low temperature and pressure...

  7. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  8. Application of Real Options Analysis in the Valuation of Investment in Biodiesel Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeboah, F. E.; Shahbazi, A.; Yeboah, O.A.; Singh, H.; Holcomb, F. H.

    2011-01-01

    to value investment projects that have flexibility in them tend to underestimate the values of the projects, because they fail to capture the value of the flexibility embedded in such projects. For biodiesel production, such flexibility may include...

  9. Emissions comparison between petroleum diesel and biodiesel in a medium-duty diesel engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tompkins, Brandon T.

    2009-05-15

    Biofuels have become very important topics over the past decade due to the rise in crude oil prices, fear of running out of crude oil, and environmental impact of emissions. Biodiesel is a biofuel that is made from plant ...

  10. Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light Duty Tier 2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Tier 2 Engine and Aftertreatment Systems Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light Duty Tier 2 Engine and Aftertreatment Systems Presentation given at 2007 Diesel...

  11. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Chicken Processing Wastewater and Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foucault, Lucas Jose

    2011-10-21

    The main objective of this thesis was to study the anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater from a chicken processing facility and of crude glycerol from local biodiesel operations. The AD of these substrates was conducted in bench-scale reactors...

  12. Process simulation, integration and optimization of blending of petrodiesel with biodiesel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ting

    2009-05-15

    of payback period (PP) for the three options????????100 5.15 Comparison of net CO2 life-cycle emissions for petroleum diesel and biodiesel blends???????...????????????.102 5.16 Net CO2 emission vs. blend price of biodiesel blend... quantities significantly rely on enhanced hydrotreating technology, which is the major method to produce ULSD at this time (EIA, 2001). 4 Conventional hydrotreating is a commercially proven refining process that inputs feedstock together with hydrogen...

  13. Data Compression with Prime Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon Chalmers

    2005-11-16

    A compression algorithm is presented that uses the set of prime numbers. Sequences of numbers are correlated with the prime numbers, and labeled with the integers. The algorithm can be iterated on data sets, generating factors of doubles on the compression.

  14. Understanding the Basics of Compressed Air Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herron, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Compressed air can be a manufacturing facilities' most expensive utility. Estimates and actual measurements of compressed air systems indicate ten to thirty-five percent of all compressed air generated is lost to leakage or improper use. Proper...

  15. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses the impact of Na in biodiesel on three emission control devices: the diesel particulate filter, diesel oxidation catalyst, and zeolyte-based SCR catalyst

  16. Compressed Air Storage Strategies; Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Technologies Program Suggested Actions * Review the plant's compressed air demand patterns to determine whether storage would be beneficial. * Examine the compressed...

  17. Updatingga Tradition The NewYellowShuttleBus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyte, Michael

    bus prototype with a natural gas powertrain. This prototype will have added amenities to support can be manufactured with several drivetrains, including, but not limited to, compressed natural gas, liquid natural gas, propane and bio-diesel. #12;

  18. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  19. Strategic Utilization of Paper/Wood Waste for Biodiesel Fuel Art J. Ragauskas, Institute of Paper Science and Technology; Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strategic Utilization of Paper/Wood Waste for Biodiesel Fuel Art J. Ragauskas, Institute of Paper lignocellulosics to biodiesel fuel Feedstocks ABSTRACT This poster examines the potential of utilizing waste paper

  20. The following are appendices A, B1 and B2 of our paper, "Integrated Process Modeling and Product Design of Biodiesel Manufacturing", that appears in the Industrial and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y. A.

    Design of Biodiesel Manufacturing", that appears in the Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research a Biodiesel Process Model To access NIST TDE Data Engine in Aspen Plus version 2006.5 or V7.0 Step 1. Enter

  1. Making Compressed Air System Decisions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porri, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-96-04-32.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5121 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-96-04-32.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 MAKING COMPRESSED AIR... SYSTEM DECISIONS Richard E. Porri Product Manager ABSTRACT This paper presents a decision making process that will pennit the design, installation and operation ofa high efficiency and reliable compressed air system. The design of a compressed air...

  2. Steady-State Multiplicity and Stability of Thermal Equilibria in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    internal exhaust gas recirculation from previous combustion cycle. It is shown that the thermal equilibria to the autoignition nature, HCCI engines sustain high compression ratio similar to Compression Ignition (CI) engines of the charge properties, namely, temperature, pressure, and composition at the In- take Valve Closing (IVC

  3. Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compressio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High Efficiency ICRE Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High...

  4. Guidance Document CompressedGases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    gases are toxic, flammable, pyrophoric, or corrosive. Liquefied compressed gases (cryogenic liquids of exposure may be delayed. Cold "Burns": Rapidly escaping gas from a cylinder can cause destruction freezing

  5. DATA COMPRESSION USING WAVELETS: ERROR ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1910-90-11

    algorithms that introduce differences between the original and compressed data in ... to choose an error metric that parallels the human visual system, so that image .... signal data along a communications channel, one sends integer codes that ...

  6. Compressed/Liquid Hydrogen Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Currently, DOE's physical hydrogen storage R&D focuses on the development of high-pressure (10,000 psi) composite tanks, cryo-compressed tanks, conformable tanks, and other advanced concepts...

  7. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  8. High compression rate text summarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branavan, Satchuthananthavale Rasiah Kuhan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on methods for condensing large documents into highly concise summaries, achieving compression rates on par with human writers. While the need for such summaries in the current age of information overload ...

  9. Biodiesel is produced from a wide variety of oilseed crops. In Europe, canola is the major biodiesel crop while in the U.S. soybeans dominates. Montana State University and USDA researchers have

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    for License Increased Oil Yield in Oilseed Crops to Enhance Biodiesel Production #12; have developed a protein that can be expressed in a variety of oilseed crops to increase the oil yield to work for a broad range of oilseed plants including biodiesel and cereal crops. Increased oil

  10. Robust Header Compression for Multimedia Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reisslein, Martin

    JSQ Testbed #12;Motivation and Introduction ˇ Wireless link is highly error-prone ˇ Large round trip on lossy links with long round trip times #12;Metric for compression performance ˇ Compression efficiency ­ Compressed header size versus original header size ˇ Compression transparency ­ Decompressed headers has

  11. Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European 2008 Abstract Biogenic emissions of carbonaceous greenhouse gases and N2O turn out to be important determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European

  12. Formation Kinetics of Nitric Oxide of Biodiesel Relative to Petroleum Diesel under Comparable Oxygen Equivalence Ratio in a Homogeneous Reactor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathore, Gurlovleen K.

    2011-10-21

    of the methyl esters relative to the n-heptane in biodiesel surrogate perhaps indicates the favorable role of fuel-bound oxygen in the fuel’s combustion. The low utilization of oxygen by the biodiesel surrogate could not be explained in this study. The dominance...

  13. An empirical analysis on the adoption of alternative fuel vehicles:The case of natural gas vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    resulted in poor quality of natural gas fuel and vehiclequality after the implementation of compressed natural gas (quality standards (Soubbotina and Sheram, 2000). Availability of natural gas

  14. Calais, ME Natural Gas Exports to Canada

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2,131 452 1,028 6,952 13,425 2,694 2007-2014 Pipeline Prices 5.62 4.53 4.46 4.30 8.45 6.22 2007-2014 Compressed Natural Gas Volumes 0 115 217 2012-2014 Compressed Natural Gas...

  15. Biodiesel from aquatic species. Project report: FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.M.; Sprague, S.; Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Zeiler, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    Researchers in the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project focus on the use of microalgae as a feedstock for producing renewable, high-energy liquid fuels. The program`s basic premise is that microalgae, which have been called the most productive biochemical factories in the world, can produce up to 30 times more oil per unit of growth area than land plants. It is estimated that 150 to 400 barrels of oil per acre per year (0.06 to 0.16 million liters/hectar) could be produced with microalgal oil technology. Initial commercialization of this technology is envisioned for the desert Southwest because this area provides high solar radiation and offers flat land that has few competing uses (hence low land costs). Similarly, there are large saline aquifers with few competing uses in the region. This water source could provide a suitable, low-cost medium for the growth of many microalgae. The primary area of research during FY 1993 was the effort to genetically improve microalgae in order to control the timing and magnitude of lipid accumulation. Increased lipid content will have a direct effect on fuel price, and the control of lipid content is a major project goal. The paper describes progress on the following: culture collection; molecular biology of lipid biosynthesis; microalgal transformation; and environmental, safety, and health and quality assurance.

  16. Modeling the Auto-Ignition of Biodiesel Blends with a Multi-Step Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toulson, Dr. Elisa [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Allen, Casey M [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, Dennis J [Michigan State University, East Lansing; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Schock, Harold [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in using biodiesel in place of or in blends with petrodiesel in diesel engines; however, biodiesel oxidation chemistry is complicated to directly model and existing surrogate kinetic models are very large, making them computationally expensive. The present study describes a method for predicting the ignition behavior of blends of n-heptane and methyl butanoate, fuels whose blends have been used in the past as a surrogate for biodiesel. The autoignition is predicted using a multistep (8-step) model in order to reduce computational time and make this a viable tool for implementation into engine simulation codes. A detailed reaction mechanism for n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends was used as a basis for validating the multistep model results. The ignition delay trends predicted by the multistep model for the n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends matched well with that of the detailed CHEMKIN model for the majority of conditions tested.

  17. UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Lee, Doh-Won [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Swartz, Matthew M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

  18. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Bradley E.; Kabir, Md. E.; Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  19. Mechanical compression attenuates normal human bronchial epithelial wound healing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arold, Stephen P.; Malavia, Nikita; George, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    Open Access Research Mechanical compression attenuatesto the application of mechanical compression in the presenceResults: We found that mechanical compression and scrape

  20. Fact Sheet: Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage (August...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage (August 2013) Fact Sheet: Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage (August 2013) SustainX will demonstrate an isothermal compressed air...

  1. Pulse compression and modelocking by using TPA in silicon waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tien, En-Kuang; Yuksek, Nuh S; Qian, Feng; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2007-01-01

    F. Qian, O. Boyraz, “Pulse Compression and Modelocking byPulse compression and modelocking by using TPA in silicona novel broadband pulse compression and modelocking scheme

  2. Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage: Performance and Cost Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compressed Hydrogen Storage: Performance and Cost Review Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage: Performance and Cost Review Presented at the R&D Strategies for Compressed,...

  3. Image Compression by Back Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cottrell, Garrison W.

    CHAPTER 9 Image Compression by Back Propagation: An Example of Extensional Programming* GARRISON W the case with the computatiolls associated with basic cognitive pro- cesses such as vision and audition techniques. The technique we employ is known as back propagation. developed by l1umelhart, Hinton

  4. Compressed Gas EHS-2200-WEB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Compressed Gas Safety EHS-2200-WEB Register and launch through http://axess.stanford.edu Course title and STARS number: General Safety & Emergency Preparedness EHS-4200-WEB Chemical Safety for Laboratories EHS-1900-WEB Biosafety EHS-1500-WEB Radiation Safety Training EHS-5250 Laser Safety EHS-4820-WEB

  5. The role of natural gas as a vehicle transportation fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Paul Jarod

    2010-01-01

    This thesis analyzes pathways to directly use natural gas, as compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG), in the transportation sector. The thesis focuses on identifying opportunities to reduce market ...

  6. Compressed Gas Cylinder Safe Handling, Use and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Compressed Gas Cylinder Safe Handling, Use and Storage 2012 Workplace Safety and Environmental Protection #12;i College/Unit: Workplace Safety and Environmental Protection Procedure Title: Compressed Gas................................................ 4 7 General Gas Cylinder Information

  7. Compressive multi-mode superresolution display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heide, Felix

    Compressive displays are an emerging technology exploring the co-design of new optical device configurations and compressive computation. Previously, research has shown how to improve the dynamic range of displays and ...

  8. Advanced Management of Compressed Air Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This training is designed to help end users as well as industry solution providers learn...

  9. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2010-05-01

    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  10. Mass Production of Biodiesel From Algae UROP Summer 2008 Project Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    1 Mass Production of Biodiesel From Algae UROP Summer 2008 Project Proposal Steven A. Biorn Faculty energy products from algae. The first step in this process is to select species of algae with high growth of green algae. Once the oils have been extracted, the remnants of the algae contain protein, starches

  11. Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine From Various Biodiesel Feedstock 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

    2011-02-22

    in the total hydrocarbon and CO2 emissions, as blends were increased from B20 to B100, was also found to be an indication of better combustion using biodiesel fuels than petroleum diesel. However, NOx emissions were higher, predominantly at low speeds for most...

  12. Advantages of Biofuels B100 biodiesel has many benefits over traditional, petroleum-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advantages of Biofuels B100 biodiesel has many benefits over traditional, petroleum-based diesel-produced biofuels. Environmental & Social Benefits Decreases emissions of fossil fuels that contribute to climate-powered vessel fleet to biofuels and bio-lubricants. This effort produced the first federal vessel to run

  13. Supporting Information for: A Global Comparison of National Biodiesel Production Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    -specific vegetable oil production for feedstock i, country j FAO 2005 Units = metric tons APj Aggregate vegetable oil production for country j FAO 2005 Units = metric tons PEOij Potential exports of processed vegetable oilSupporting Information for: A Global Comparison of National Biodiesel Production Potentials Matt

  14. Analysis of Biodiesel Blends Samples Collected in the United States in 2008 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    NREL sampled and tested the quality of U.S. B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel) in 2008; 32 samples from retail locations and fleets were tested against a proposed ASTM D7467 B6-B20 specification, now in effect.

  15. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, “Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.”

  16. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels Jason- out reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodie- sel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested

  17. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Biodiesel and Other Technologies Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-28

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biodiesel and Other Technologies, held on August 14th and 15th in Golden, Colorado.

  18. Operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on biodiesel with a partial oxidation reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N, Shekhawat, D.; Gemmen, R.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Office of Research & Development (NETL/ORD) has successfully demonstrated the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using reformed biodiesel. The biodiesel for the project was produced and characterized by West Virginia State University (WVSU). This project had two main aspects: 1) demonstrate a catalyst formulation on monolith for biodiesel fuel reforming; and 2) establish SOFC stack test stand capabilities. Both aspects have been completed successfully. For the first aspect, in–house patented catalyst specifications were developed, fabricated and tested. Parametric reforming studies of biofuels provided data on fuel composition, catalyst degradation, syngas composition, and operating parameters required for successful reforming and integration with the SOFC test stand. For the second aspect, a stack test fixture (STF) for standardized testing, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the Solid Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program, was engineered and constructed at NETL. To facilitate the demonstration of the STF, NETL employed H.C. Starck Ceramics GmbH & Co. (Germany) anode supported solid oxide cells. In addition, anode supported cells, SS441 end plates, and cell frames were transferred from PNNL to NETL. The stack assembly and conditioning procedures, including stack welding and sealing, contact paste application, binder burn-out, seal-setting, hot standby, and other stack assembly and conditioning methods were transferred to NETL. In the future, fuel cell stacks provided by SECA or other developers could be tested at the STF to validate SOFC performance on various fuels. The STF operated on hydrogen for over 1000 hrs before switching over to reformed biodiesel for 100 hrs of operation. Combining these first two aspects led to demonstrating the biodiesel syngas in the STF. A reformer was built and used to convert 0.5 ml/min of biodiesel into mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas.) The syngas was fed to the STF and fuel cell stack. The results presented in this experimental report document one of the first times a SOFC has been operated on syngas from reformed biodiesel.

  19. Soybean and Coconut Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Manbae [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO/dx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NO/dx emissions. Compared with conventional diesel combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NO/dx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%). ULSD, soybean B5, and coconut B5 showed no difference in exhaust emissions. However, PM emissions increased slightly for soybean B20 and coconut B20. NO/dx emissions increased significantly for soybean B20, while those for coconut B20 were comparable to ULSD. Differences in the chemical and physical properties of soybean and coconut biodiesel fuels compared with ULSD, such as higher fuel-borne oxygen, greater viscosity, and higher boiling temperatures, play a key role in combustion processes and, therefore, exhaust emissions. Furthermore, the highly unsaturated ester composition in soybean biodiesel can be another factor in the increase of NO/dx emissions.

  20. Natural gas industry directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-11-01

    This directory has information on the following: associations and organizations; exploration and production; gas compression; gas processors; gathering and transmission companies; liquefied natural gas; local distribution companies; marketing firms; regulatory agencies; service companies; suppliers and manufacturers; and regional buyer`s guide.

  1. Conservative regularization of compressible flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnaswami, Govind S; Thyagaraja, Anantanarayanan

    2015-01-01

    Ideal Eulerian flow may develop singularities in vorticity w. Navier-Stokes viscosity provides a dissipative regularization. We find a local, conservative regularization - lambda^2 w times curl(w) of compressible flow and compressible MHD: a three dimensional analogue of the KdV regularization of the one dimensional kinematic wave equation. The regulator lambda is a field subject to the constitutive relation lambda^2 rho = constant. Lambda is like a position-dependent mean-free path. Our regularization preserves Galilean, parity and time-reversal symmetries. We identify locally conserved energy, helicity, linear and angular momenta and boundary conditions ensuring their global conservation. Enstrophy is shown to remain bounded. A swirl velocity field is identified, which transports w/rho and B/rho generalizing the Kelvin-Helmholtz and Alfven theorems. A Hamiltonian and Poisson bracket formulation is given. The regularized equations are used to model a rotating vortex, channel flow, plane flow, a plane vortex ...

  2. Analysis of Coconut-Derived Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel Fuel Samples from the Philippines: Task 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    NREL tested Philippines coconut biodiesel samples of neat and blended fuels. Results show that the current fuel quality standards were met with very few exceptions. Additional testing is recommended.

  3. Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Hoseok

    2012-07-16

    Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the ...

  4. Operational and policy implications of managing uncertainty in quality and emissions of multi-feedstock biodiesel systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gül?en, Ece

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative transportation fuel to petrodiesel, biodiesel has been widely promoted within national energy portfolio targets across the world. Early estimations of low lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of ...

  5. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  6. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  7. A COMBINED REACTION/PRODUCT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell, J.F., Jr.; McFarlane, J.; Schuh, D.L.; Tsouris, C; Day, J.N. (Nu-Energie, LLC); Hullette, J.N. (Nu-Energie, LLC)

    2009-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nu-Energie, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for the purpose of demonstrating and deploying a novel technology for the continuous synthesis and recovery of biodiesel from the transesterification of triglycerides. The focus of the work was the demonstration of a combination Couette reactor and centrifugal separator - an invention of ORNL researchers - that facilitates both product synthesis and recovery from reaction byproducts in the same apparatus. At present, transesterification of triglycerides to produce biodiesel is performed in batch-type reactors with an excess of a chemical catalyst, which is required to achieve high reactant conversions in reasonable reaction times (e.g., 1 hour). The need for long reactor residence times requires use of large reactors and ancillary equipment (e.g., feed and product tankage), and correspondingly large facilities, in order to obtain the economy of scale required to make the process economically viable. Hence, the goal of this CRADA was to demonstrate successful, extended operation of a laboratory-scale reactor/separator prototype to process typical industrial reactant materials, and to design, fabricate, and test a production-scale unit for deployment at the biodiesel production site. Because of its ease of operation, rapid attainment of steady state, high mass transfer and phase separation efficiencies, and compact size, a centrifugal contactor was chosen for intensification of the biodiesel production process. The unit was modified to increase the residence time from a few seconds to minutes*. For this application, liquid phases were introduced into the reactor as separate streams. One was composed of the methanol and base catalyst and the other was the soy oil used in the experiments. Following reaction in the mixing zone, the immiscible glycerine and methyl ester products were separated in the high speed rotor and collected from separate ports. Results from laboratory operations showed that the ASTM specification for bound acylglycerides was achieved only at extended reaction times ({approx}25 min) using a single-stage batch contact at elevated temperature and pressure. In the single-pass configuration, the time required gives no throughput advantage over the current batch reaction process. The limitation seems to be the presence of glycerine, which hinders complete conversion because of reversible reactions. Significant improvement in quality was indicated after a second and third passes, where product from the first stage was collected and separated from the glycerine, and further reacted with a minor addition of methanol. Chemical kinetics calculations suggest that five consecutive stages of 2 min residence time would produce better than ASTM specification fuel with no addition of methanol past the first stage. Additional stages may increase the capital investment, but the increase should be offset by reduced operating costs and a factor of 3 higher throughput. Biodiesel, a mixture of methyl esters, is made commercially from the transesterification of oil, often soy oil (see Reaction 1). The kinetics of the transesterification process is rapid; however, multiphase separations after the synthesis of the fuel can be problematic. Therefore, the process is typically run in batch mode. The biodiesel fuel and the glycerine product take several hours to separate. In addition, to push yields to completion, an excess of methoxide catalyst is typically used, which has to be removed from both the biodiesel and the glycerine phase after reaction. Washing steps are often employed to remove free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable saponification. Standards for biodiesel purity are based either on the removal of contaminants before the oil feedstock is esterified or on the separation of unwanted by-products. Various methods have been examined to enhance either the pretreatment of biodiesel feedstocks or the posttreatment of reaction products, including the use of a cavitation reactor in the process i

  8. Evaluating metalorganic frameworks for natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    suited for light-duty passenger vehicles. For instance, compressed natural gas (CNG) requires expensive and cargo space. Even with compression to 250 bar, the energy density of CNG (near 9 MJ LŔ1 ) is only 26% that of gasoline,2a leading to a signicant reduction in the driving range of a vehicle. Moreover, CNG refueling

  9. cleanenergyfuels.com Natural Gas Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    1 cleanenergyfuels.com Natural Gas Solutions for Transportation December 7, 2012 #12 Gas As a Transportation Fuel About Clean Energy Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Port Trucking LNG Station;2 cleanenergyfuels.com Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Taxis Airport Vehicles Transit Buses Leading Provider of Natural

  10. Impact of the Fuel Molecular Structure on the Oxidation Process of Real Diesel fuels According to Storage Conditions and Biodiesel Content

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hydrocarbon profilers can provide a clear understanding of complex interactions between fuel chemistry, storage conditions, and quantity of biodiesel over time.

  11. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

  12. Alternative Fuel School Buses Earn High Marks: Reprint from Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 5, No. 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-11-01

    A two-page article on school buses that run on alternative fuels including biodiesel and compressed natural gas. Reprinted from Alternative Fuel News, published by the Clean Cities Program of DOE.

  13. Alternative Fuel Driver Training Companion Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Training manual serves as a companion to alternative fuel training presentations on the fueling and use of vehicles that run on compressed natural gas, biodiesel, E85, and propane.

  14. Alternative Fueling Station Locator App Provides Info at Your...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    can fuel up with biodiesel (B20), natural gas (compressed andor liquefied), electricity, ethanol (E85) and propane. Users first choose the type of fuel they need. The app then...

  15. Online Planning Tools Make Road Trips a Snap | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the alternative fuel you choose-including biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electricity, E85 (a blend of up to 85% ethanol), or propane-along a specific geographic route. There...

  16. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN FUEL STATION William E. Liss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for compressed natural gas vehicles. The integrated natural gas-to-hydrogen system includes a high efficiency on leveraging of developments in the stationary PEM fuel cell and compressed natural gas vehicle market sectorsDEVELOPMENT OF A NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN FUEL STATION William E. Liss P: 847-768-0753; E: william

  18. STATE OF CALIFORNIA --NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , liquefied natural gas, liquefied propane gas, E-85, and hydrogen. Alternative fueled vehicles: Battery, compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, E-85, or hydrogen powered vehicles. Application of this solicitation these terms shall be defined as follows: Alternative Fuel: Electric, compressed natural gas

  19. A Compressed Air Reduction Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    > the mos t bene fie i a1. The> data displayed a wide variance of compressed air consumption rates which can be attributed to packing problems, since all other usage points are minimal and constant. The readings taken dlJring the "press running" mode... life, incorporates molybdenum disulfide lubrication, high tensile strength, excellent memory, seals from zero to 15,000 PSIG, and has an average life span of five to six times longer than the NCD pack in9. There is one ci i sadvantage to using...

  20. General Compression | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskeyFootprintGEXAGemini Solar Development CompanyCompression

  1. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith Edward (Kobe, JP); Moser, William Elliott (Peoria, IL); Roozenboom, Stephan Donald (Washington, IL); Knox, Kevin Jay (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  2. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during continuous operation under DPF regeneration events. During the second stage of HD testing, the ULSD lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.5% to 0.8%, while for B20, lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.6% to 1.0%, but the fuel in the oil was 36% biodiesel. For the LD vehicle tests, the frequency of DPF regeneration events was observed to be the same for both ULSD and B20. No significant difference between the two fuels' estimated soot loading was detected by the engine control unit (ECU), although a 23% slower rate of increase in differential pressure across DPF was observed with B20. It appears that the ECU estimated soot loading is based on the engine map, not taking advantage of the lower engine-out particulate matter from the use of biodiesel. After 4,000 miles of LD vehicle operation with ULSD, fuel dilution in the lube-oil samples showed total dilution levels of 4.1% diesel. After 4,000 miles of operation with B20, total fuel in oil dilution levels were 6.7% consisting of 3.6% diesel fuel and 3.1% biodiesel. Extrapolation to the 10,000-mile oil drain interval with B20 suggests that the total fuel content in the oil could reach 12%, compared to 5% for operation on ULSD. Analysis of the oil samples also included measurement of total acid number, total base number, viscosity, soot, metals and wear scar; however, little difference in these parameters was noted.

  3. Methods and catalysts for making biodiesel from the transesterification and esterification of unrefined oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yan, Shuli (Detroit, MI); Salley, Steven O. (Grosse Pointe Park, MI); Ng, K. Y. Simon (West Bloomfield, MI)

    2012-04-24

    A method of forming a biodiesel product and a heterogeneous catalyst system used to form said product that has a high tolerance for the presence of water and free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil feedstock is disclosed. This catalyst system may simultaneously catalyze both the esterification of FAA and the transesterification of triglycerides present in the oil feedstock. The catalyst system according to one aspect of the present disclosure represents a class of zinc and lanthanum oxide heterogeneous catalysts that include different ratios of zinc oxide to lanthanum oxides (Zn:La ratio) ranging from about 10:0 to 0:10. The Zn:La ratio in the catalyst is believed to have an effect on the number and reactivity of Lewis acid and base sites, as well as the transesterification of glycerides, the esterification of fatty acids, and the hydrolysis of glycerides and biodiesel.

  4. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report Storage - Challenges and Opportunities Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company...

  5. Optimization Online - Compressed Sensing Off the Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sep 13, 2012 ... Compressed Sensing Off the Grid. Gongguo Tang(gtang5 ***at*** wisc.edu) Badri Narayan Bhaskar(bnbhaskar ***at*** wisc.edu) Parikshit ...

  6. High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion An optimized dual-fuel PCCI concept, RCCI, is proposed. deer10reitz.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  7. Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

    2011-06-01

    It is estimated that operating continuously on a B20 fuel containing the current allowable ASTM specification limits for metal impurities in biodiesel could result in a doubling of ash exposure relative to lube-oil derived ash. The purpose of this study was to determine if a fuel containing metals at the ASTM limits could cause adverse impacts on the performance and durability of diesel emission control systems. An accelerated durability test method was developed to determine the potential impact of these biodiesel impurities. The test program included engine testing with multiple DPF substrate types as well as DOC and SCR catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of cordierite, aluminum titanate, or silicon carbide DPFs after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure of a cordierite DPF to 435,000 mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in the thermal shock resistance parameter. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher HC slip and a reduction in NO{sub 2} formation. The metal-zeolite SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000 mile equivalent aging. This catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF, showed a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle.

  8. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  9. Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement Vouchers TheIncentiveAlternativeBiodiesel

  10. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System - Compressed Air Tip Sheet #5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-08-01

    BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing how to determine the right air quality for compressed air systems.

  11. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

    2010-09-30

    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  12. Quality Parameters and Chemical Analysis for Biodiesel Produced in the United States in 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; Chupka, G.

    2013-03-01

    Samples of biodiesel (B100) from producers and terminals in 2011were tested for critical properties: free and total glycerin, flash point, cloud point, oxidation stability, cold soak filterability, and metals. Failure rates for cold soak filterability and oxidation stability were below 5%. One sample failed flash point due to excess methanol. One sample failed oxidation stability and metal content. Overall, 95% of the samples from this survey met biodiesel quality specification ASTM D6751. In 2007, a sampling of B100 from production facilities showed that nearly 90% met D6751. In samples meeting D6751, calcium was found above the method detection limit in nearly half the samples. Feedstock analysis revealed half the biodiesel was produced from soy and half was from mixed feedstocks. The saturated fatty acid methyl ester concentration of the B100 was compared to the saturated monoglyceride concentration as a percent of total monoglyceride. The real-world correlation of these properties was very good. The results of liquid chromatograph measurement of monoglycerides were compared to ASTM D6751. Agreement between the two methods was good, particularly for total monoglycerides and unsaturated monoglycerides. Because only very low levels of saturated monoglycerides measured, the two methods had more variability, but the correlation was still acceptable.

  13. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  14. Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

    2011-04-01

    An accelerated durability test method determined the potential impact of biodiesel ash impurities, including engine testing with multiple diesel particulate filter substrate types, as well as diesel oxidation catalyst and selective catalyst reduction catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of a DPF after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in thermal shock resistance. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher hydrocarbon slip and a reduction in NO2 formation. The SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging. The SCR catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF and exposed to B20 exhaust suffered a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. The results of this study suggest that long-term operation with B20 at the current specification limits for alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities will adversely impact the performance of DOC, DPF and SCR systems.

  15. EIA-22M, Monthly Biodiesel Production Survey Page 1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers forecast for summer1 7 682, 122M,

  16. A New Approach for Fingerprint Image Compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazieres, Bertrand

    1997-12-01

    The FBI has been collecting fingerprint cards since 1924 and now has over 200 million of them. Digitized with 8 bits of grayscale resolution at 500 dots per inch, it means 2000 terabytes of information. Also, without any compression, transmitting a 10 Mb card over a 9600 baud connection will need 3 hours. Hence we need a compression and a compression as close to lossless as possible: all fingerprint details must be kept. A lossless compression usually do not give a better compression ratio than 2:1, which is not sufficient. Compressing these images with the JPEG standard leads to artefacts which appear even at low compression rates. Therefore the FBI has chosen in 1993 a scheme of compression based on a wavelet transform, followed by a scalar quantization and an entropy coding : the so-called WSQ. This scheme allows to achieve compression ratios of 20:1 without any perceptible loss of quality. The publication of the FBI specifies a decoder, which means that many parameters can be changed in the encoding process: the type of analysis/reconstruction filters, the way the bit allocation is made, the number of Huffman tables used for the entropy coding. The first encoder used 9/7 filters for the wavelet transform and did the bit allocation using a high-rate bit assumption. Since the transform is made into 64 subbands, quite a lot of bands receive only a few bits even at an archival quality compression rate of 0.75 bit/pixel. Thus, after a brief overview of the standard, we will discuss a new approach for the bit-allocation that seems to make more sense where theory is concerned. Then we will talk about some implementation aspects, particularly for the new entropy coder and the features that allow other applications than fingerprint image compression. Finally, we will compare the performances of the new encoder to those of the first encoder.

  17. Density Matrix in Quantum Mechanics and Distinctness of Ensembles Having the Same Compressed Density Matrix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gui Lu Long; Yi-Fan Zhou; Jia-Qi Jin; Yang Sun; Hai-Woong Lee

    2006-04-20

    We clarify different definitions of the density matrix by proposing the use of different names, the full density matrix for a single-closed quantum system, the compressed density matrix for the averaged single molecule state from an ensemble of molecules, and the reduced density matrix for a part of an entangled quantum system, respectively. We show that ensembles with the same compressed density matrix can be physically distinguished by observing fluctuations of various observables. This is in contrast to a general belief that ensembles with the same compressed density matrix are identical. Explicit expression for the fluctuation of an observable in a specified ensemble is given. We have discussed the nature of nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing. We show that the conclusion that there is no quantum entanglement in the current nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing experiment is based on the unjustified belief that ensembles having the same compressed density matrix are identical physically. Related issues in quantum communication are also discussed.

  18. Composite nature of fresh skin revealed during compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Benjamin J.; Boddy, Rachael L.; Bo, Chiara; Arora, Hari; Jardine, Andrew P.; Williams, Alun; Proud, William G.; Brown, Katherine A.

    2014-11-01

    support, as well as Imperial College London. The Institute of Shock Physics acknowledges the support of the Atomic Weapon Establishment, Aldermaston, UK and Imperial College London. We thank we thank Madeline Fordham and Louise Webster... to Overpressures from Air Blast, The Symposium on Effectiveness Analysis Techniques for Non-Nuclear Warheads Against Surface Targets, Dahlgren, Virginia, 1962. 7. Bass, C. R.; Rafaels, K. A.; Salzar, R. S. Pulmonary injury risk assessment for short...

  19. Workshop Notes from ""Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Hydrogen Fuels Workshop Safety and Regulatory Structure for CNG, CNG-Hydrogen Vehicles and Fuels in India International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. Data on the 2012 Honda Civic CNG is available in downloadable form.

  1. DOE Announces Webinars on Compressed Natural Gas Infrastructure...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the webinar. Past Webinars August 19: Live Webinar on Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies Webinar Sponsor: Fuel Cell Technologies Office...

  2. NJ Compressed Natural Gas Refuse Trucks, Shuttle Buses and Infrastructure |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIX FOrigin ofAllen Lichvar FEof Energy NEWNGV

  3. NJ Compressed Natural Gas Refuse Trucks, Shuttle Buses and Infrastructure |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIX FOrigin ofAllen Lichvar FEof Energy NEWNGVDepartment of

  4. NJ Compressed Natural Gas Refuse Trucks, Shuttle Buses and Infrastructure |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIX FOrigin ofAllen Lichvar FEof Energy NEWNGVDepartment

  5. State Energy Program Helping Arkansans Convert to Compressed Natural Gas |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4EnergySolidof2StandardFOA InformationalDepartment of

  6. Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8, 20153Daniel Boff AboutofPlumbingUtilities,FuelDeep

  7. EA-1976: Emera CNG, LLC Compressed Natural Gas Project, Florida |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of Energy 8:Final EnvironmentalFinalDraftFinding of

  8. Workshop Agenda: Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels, Lesssons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics Âť USAJobs SearchAMERICA'SEnergyofTheDepartment of Energy

  9. DOE Announces Webinars on Compressed Natural Gas Infrastructure, an

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:IAbout Us Âť ContactCountyEnergyofSuperiorAdvanced

  10. Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesThe Heat Is onis aTechnical Report

  11. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesThe Heat Is onis3 Annual41 Spring2Costs

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Compressed Natural Gas Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlenderBusiness Case for E85 Fuel Retailers to

  13. Compression Progress, Pseudorandomness, & Hyperbolic Discounting Moshe Looks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    time t, h( t), may be encoded in a program p that generates the data h( t) as output by exploiting said generator (PRNG) using an unknown but accessible random seed, n bits long. Assuming that the PRNG is of high highly compressed), and en- tirely unpredictable (incompressible and not expected to yield to compression

  14. Shock compression of liquid hydrazine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, B.O.; Chavez, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) is a propellant used by the Air Force and NASA for aerospace propulsion and power systems. Because the propellant modules that contain the hydrazine can be subject to debris impacts during their use, the shock states that can occur in the hydrazine need to be characterized to safely predict its response. Several shock compression experiments have been conducted in an attempt to investigate the detonability of liquid hydrazine; however, the experiments results disagree. Therefore, in this study, we reproduced each experiment numerically to evaluate in detail the shock wave profiles generated in the liquid hydrazine. This paper presents the results of each numerical simulation and compares the results to those obtained in experiment. We also present the methodology of our approach, which includes chemical kinetic experiments, chemical equilibrium calculations, and characterization of the equation of state of liquid hydrazine.

  15. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner is disclosed. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50--800 kg/m{sup 3} (0.05--0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization. 4 figs.

  16. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50-800 kg/m.sup.3 (0.05-0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization.

  17. Secure Compressed Reading in Smart Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Sheng; Chen, Minghua; Yan, Jianxin; Jaggi, Sidharth

    2012-01-01

    Smart Grids measure energy usage in real-time and tailor supply and delivery accordingly, in order to improve power transmission and distribution. For the grids to operate effectively, it is critical to collect readings from massively-installed smart meters to control centers in an efficient and secure manner. In this paper, we propose a secure compressed reading scheme to address this critical issue. We observe that our collected real-world meter data express strong temporal correlations, indicating they are sparse in certain domains. We adopt Compressed Sensing technique to exploit this sparsity and design an efficient meter data transmission scheme. Our scheme achieves substantial efficiency offered by compressed sensing, without the need to know beforehand in which domain the meter data are sparse. This is in contrast to traditional compressed-sensing based scheme where such sparse-domain information is required a priori. We then design specific dependable scheme to work with our compressed sensing based ...

  18. Revealing the potential of Compressed Earth Blocks : a visual narration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabie, Omar

    2008-01-01

    Compressed Earth Blocks (CEB) is a developed earth technology, in which unbaked brick is produced by compressing raw soil using manual, hydraulic, or mechanical compressing machines. Revealing the potential of an affordable ...

  19. Triangle Alternative Transportation Fuels First Responder Training Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fueling sites. Vehicles deployed include compressed natural gas (CNG), propane (LPG), hybrid electric includes biodiesel, E85, CNG, LPG, and electric charging. As part of this project, the North Carolina Solar) Vehicle Technology Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicle Technology Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vehicle

  20. Avalanches, Plasticity, and Ordering in Colloidal Crystals Under Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. McDermott; C. J. Olson Reichhardt; C. Reichhardt

    2015-03-09

    Using numerical simulations we examine colloids with a long-range Coulomb interaction confined in a two-dimensional trough potential undergoing dynamical compression. As the depth of the confining well is increased, the colloids move via elastic distortions interspersed with intermittent bursts or avalanches of plastic motion. In these avalanches, the colloids rearrange to minimize their colloid-colloid repulsive interaction energy by adopting an average lattice constant that is isotropic despite the anisotropic nature of the compression. The avalanches take the form of shear banding events that decrease or increase the structural order of the system. At larger compressions, the avalanches are associated with a reduction of the number of rows of colloids that fit within the confining potential, and between avalanches the colloids can exhibit partially crystalline or even smectic ordering. The colloid velocity distributions during the avalanches have a non-Gaussian form with power law tails and exponents that are consistent with those found for the velocity distributions of gliding dislocations. We observe similar behavior when we subsequently decompress the system, and find a partially hysteretic response reflecting the irreversibility of the plastic events.

  1. Rapid Compression Machine ? A Key Experimental Device to Effectively...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compression Machine A Key Experimental Device to Effectively Collaborate with Basic Energy Sciences Rapid Compression Machine A Key Experimental Device to Effectively...

  2. Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge Training Program:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Executive Summary Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge Training Program: Executive Summary This is the executive summary of a report on an evaluation of the Compressed Air...

  3. Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge Training Program:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge Training Program: Final Report This is the final report on an evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge (CAC) training...

  4. New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Presentation given at...

  5. High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Most accurate and detailed chemical kinetic...

  6. Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured Polysiloxane...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured Polysiloxane Elastomers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured...

  7. COLLOQUIUM: Compressed Air Energy Storage: The Bridge to Our...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Compressed Air Energy Storage: The Bridge to Our Renewable Energy Future Mr. Al Cavallo Consultant Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a proven,...

  8. Graphene physics and insulator-metal transition in compressed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Graphene physics and insulator-metal transition in compressed hydrogen Title: Graphene physics and insulator-metal transition in compressed hydrogen Authors: Naumov, Ivan I. ;...

  9. Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine...

  10. Technical Assessment: Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage for Vehicular...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment: Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage for Vehicular Applications Technical Assessment: Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage for Vehicular Applications Technical report...

  11. 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report...

  12. Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications...

  13. Research and Development Strategies for Compressed & Cryo-Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for Compressed & Cryo-Hydrogen Storage Systems - Workshop Summary Report Research and Development Strategies for Compressed & Cryo-Hydrogen Storage Systems - Workshop...

  14. Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications Technical report...

  15. Open Issues in the Development of Safety Standards for Compressed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues in the Development of Safety Standards for Compressed Hydrogen Storage at SAE-International Open Issues in the Development of Safety Standards for Compressed Hydrogen...

  16. Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel Economy and Emissions Estimates Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel...

  17. Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI)...

  18. Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions Reduction over Transient Driving Cycles Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

  19. H2A Delivery: Forecourt Compression & Storage Optimization (Part...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery: Forecourt Compression & Storage Optimization (Part II) H2A Delivery: Forecourt Compression & Storage Optimization (Part II) Presentation by Matthew Hooks of TIAX at the...

  20. PHELIX for flux compression studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Peter J; Rousculp, Christopher L; Reinovsky, Robert E; Reass, William A; Griego, Jeffrey R; Oro, David M; Merrill, Frank E

    2010-06-28

    PHELIX (Precision High Energy-density Liner Implosion eXperiment) is a concept for studying electromagnetic implosions using proton radiography. This approach requires a portable pulsed power and liner implosion apparatus that can be operated in conjunction with an 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The high resolution (< 100 micron) provided by proton radiography combined with similar precision of liner implosions driven electromagnetically can permit close comparisons of multi-frame experimental data and numerical simulations within a single dynamic event. To achieve a portable implosion system for use at high energy-density in a proton laboratory area requires sub-megajoule energies applied to implosions only a few cms in radial and axial dimension. The associated inductance changes are therefore relatively modest, so a current step-up transformer arrangement is employed to avoid excessive loss to parasitic inductances that are relatively large for low-energy banks comprising only several capacitors and switches. We describe the design, construction and operation of the PHELIX system and discuss application to liner-driven, magnetic flux compression experiments. For the latter, the ability of strong magnetic fields to deflect the proton beam may offer a novel technique for measurement of field distributions near perturbed surfaces.

  1. Table 4. Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, October 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S. Coke515 2.494 2.484Biodiesel producers and

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I NLoans TheCounty Schools Biodiesel and Propane

  3. Method for compression of binary data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berlin, G.J.

    1996-03-26

    The disclosed method for compression of a series of data bytes, based on LZSS-based compression methods, provides faster decompression of the stored data. The method involves the creation of a flag bit buffer in a random access memory device for temporary storage of flag bits generated during normal LZSS-based compression. The flag bit buffer stores the flag bits separately from their corresponding pointers and uncompressed data bytes until all input data has been read. Then, the flag bits are appended to the compressed output stream of data. Decompression can be performed much faster because bit manipulation is only required when reading the flag bits and not when reading uncompressed data bytes and pointers. Uncompressed data is read using byte length instructions and pointers are read using word instructions, thus reducing the time required for decompression. 5 figs.

  4. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  5. Method for compression of binary data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berlin, Gary J. (Beech Island, SC)

    1996-01-01

    The disclosed method for compression of a series of data bytes, based on LZSS-based compression methods, provides faster decompression of the stored data. The method involves the creation of a flag bit buffer in a random access memory device for temporary storage of flag bits generated during normal LZSS-based compression. The flag bit buffer stores the flag bits separately from their corresponding pointers and uncompressed data bytes until all input data has been read. Then, the flag bits are appended to the compressed output stream of data. Decompression can be performed much faster because bit manipulation is only required when reading the flag bits and not when reading uncompressed data bytes and pointers. Uncompressed data is read using byte length instructions and pointers are read using word instructions, thus reducing the time required for decompression.

  6. An advanced vapor-compression desalination system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lara Ruiz, Jorge Horacio Juan

    2006-04-12

    Currently, the two dominant desalination methods are reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF). RO requires large capital investment and maintenance, whereas MSF is too energy intensive. An innovative vapor-compression desalination system...

  7. Photon level chemical classification using digital compressive ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David S. Wilcox

    2012-11-09

    Oct 12, 2012 ... programmable binary optical filters designed to minimize the error in the chemical classification (or con- ...... troscopy, thus highlighting the power of compressive detection. ... Since the mirror switching time of our DMD.

  8. Compressing measurements in quantum dynamic parameter estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magesan, Easwar

    We present methods that can provide an exponential savings in the resources required to perform dynamic parameter estimation using quantum systems. The key idea is to merge classical compressive sensing techniques with ...

  9. Analysis of Arithmetic Coding for Data Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Paul G.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

    1992-01-01

    Arithmetic coding, in conjunction with a suitable probabilistic model, can pro- vide nearly optimal data compression. In this article we analyze the e ect that the model and the particular implementation of arithmetic ...

  10. Compression and Creep of Venice Lagoon Sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanzeni, Alex

    A laboratory test program was conducted to evaluate the one-dimensional (1D) compression and creep properties of intact sand (and silty-sand) samples from a deep borehole at the Malamocco Inlet to the Venice Lagoon. The ...

  11. Turbulence Modeling for Compressible Shear Flows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez Elizondo, Carlos Arturo 1981-

    2012-11-15

    by requiring consistency between model and direct numerical simulation asymptotic behavior in compressible homogeneous shear flow. The closure models are employed to compute high-speed mixing-layers and boundary layers in a differential Reynolds stress modeling...

  12. Compressing spatio-temporal trajectories Joachim Gudmundsson a, Jyrki Katajainen b,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolle, Thomas

    of this author was partially supported by the Danish Natural Science Research Council under contract 272 advances in location-aware devices, surveillance systems and electronic transaction networks are producing compression power was in most cases well over 90%. However, their approach has two main drawbacks that we

  13. GreenHunter Biodiesel Refinery Grand Opening | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11, SolarMat 4"GloriaGreenRemarks as Prepared for

  14. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: Achievements of structural genomicsOfficeDescriptionSciTech Connect

  15. Biodiesel Offers a Renewable Alternative | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUSEnergy|| Department- DirectorTechnology ModelShannon

  16. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing Bacteria (Technical Report) |concentration of Ti (Journal Article)SciTechSciTech

  17. Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy of aerosols in(Journal Article) | SciTechArticle)(Conference) |

  18. Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy of aerosols in(Journal Article) | SciTechArticle)(Conference)

  19. Exergy Analysis of Industrial Air Compression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bader, W. T.; Kissock, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    outdoor air temperature 50?F Average indoor air temperature 80?F Ambient air pressure 14.7 psia Compressed air pressure 115 psig = 129.7 psia Energy-Saving Recommendations Five recommendations to reduce operating costs of the compressed air system... were made. The first was to lower the activation setpoint pressure to 100 psig and standby setpoint pressure to 110 psig. This would reduce average plant air pressure from 115 to 105 psig, cutting energy costs and reducing wear and...

  20. Lossy compression of weak lensing data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vanderveld, R. Ali; Bernstein, Gary M.; Stoughton, Chris; Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Dobke, Benjamin M.

    2011-07-12

    Future orbiting observatories will survey large areas of sky in order to constrain the physics of dark matter and dark energy using weak gravitational lensing and other methods. Lossy compression of the resultant data will improve the cost and feasibility of transmitting the images through the space communication network. We evaluate the consequences of the lossy compression algorithm of Bernstein et al. (2010) for the high-precision measurement of weak-lensing galaxy ellipticities. This square-root algorithm compresses each pixel independently, and the information discarded is by construction less than the Poisson error from photon shot noise. For simulated space-based images (without cosmicmore ťrays) digitized to the typical 16 bits per pixel, application of the lossy compression followed by image-wise lossless compression yields images with only 2.4 bits per pixel, a factor of 6.7 compression. We demonstrate that this compression introduces no bias in the sky background. The compression introduces a small amount of additional digitization noise to the images, and we demonstrate a corresponding small increase in ellipticity measurement noise. The ellipticity measurement method is biased by the addition of noise, so the additional digitization noise is expected to induce a multiplicative bias on the galaxies measured ellipticities. After correcting for this known noise-induced bias, we find a residual multiplicative ellipticity bias of m {approx} -4 x 10-4. This bias is small when compared to the many other issues that precision weak lensing surveys must confront, and furthermore we expect it to be reduced further with better calibration of ellipticity measurement methods.Ť less

  1. Nonlinear compressions in merging plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messer, S.; Case, A.; Wu, L.; Brockington, S.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2013-03-15

    We investigate the dynamics of merging supersonic plasma jets using an analytic model. The merging structures exhibit supersonic, nonlinear compressions which may steepen into full shocks. We estimate the distance necessary to form such shocks and the resulting jump conditions. These theoretical models are compared to experimental observations and simulated dynamics. We also use those models to extrapolate behavior of the jet-merging compressions in a Plasma Jet Magneto-Inertial Fusion reactor.

  2. Comparison of Real-World Fuel Use and Emissions for Dump Trucks Fueled with B20 Biodiesel Versus Petroleum Diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    Versus Petroleum Diesel By H. Christopher Frey, Ph.D. Professor Department of Civil, Construction 2006 Annual Meeting CD-ROM Paper revised from original submittal. #12;Frey and Kim 1 ABSTRACT Diesel-world in-use on-road emissions of selected diesel vehicles, fueled with B20 biodiesel and petroleum diesel

  3. ICCBT 2008 -F -(07) pp79-94 Palm Biodiesel an Alternative Green Renewable Energy for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ducatelle, Frederick

    ICCBT 2008 - F - (07) ­ pp79-94 ICCBT2008 Palm Biodiesel an Alternative Green Renewable Energy increased the interest on alternative energy sources. Clean and renewable biofuels have been touted as an alternative source of green renewable energy through a survey conducted from previously researched findings

  4. Fundamental Study of the Oxidation Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions of Model Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, T. T.

    2010-07-18

    In this study, the oxidation characteristics of biodiesel fuels are investigated with the goal of contributing toward the fundamental understanding of their combustion characteristics and evaluating the effect of using these alternative fuels on engine performance as well as on the environment. The focus of the study is on pure fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME,) that can serve as surrogate compounds for real biodiesels. The experiments are conducted in the stagnation-flow configuration, which allows for the systematic evaluation of fundamental combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the focus is primarily on the pollutant emission characteristics of two C{sub 4} FAMEs, namely, methyl-butanoate and methyl-crotonate, whose behavior is compared with that of n-butane and n-pentane. To provide insight into the mechanisms of pollutant formation for these fuels, the experimental data are compared with computed results using a model with consistent C1-C4 oxidation and NOx formation kinetics.

  5. Probing nuclear compressibility via fragmentation in Au+Au reactions at 35 AMeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yogesh K. Vermani; Rajiv Chugh; Aman D. Sood

    2010-09-23

    The molecular dynamics study of fragmentation in peripheral $^{197}$Au +$^{197}$Au collisions at 35 MeV/nucleon is presented to probe the nuclear matter compressibility in low density regime. The yields of different fragment species, rapidity spectra, and multiplicities of charged particles with charge $3\\leq Z \\leq 80$ are analyzed at different peripheral geometries employing a soft and a hard equations of state. Fragment productions is found to be quite insensitive towards the choice of nucleon-nucleon cross sections allowing us to constrain nuclear matter compressibility. Comparison of calculated charged particle multiplicities with the experimental data indicates preference for the \\emph{soft} nature of nuclear matter.

  6. Developing New Alternative Energy in Virginia: Bio-Diesel from Algae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatcher, Patrick

    2012-03-29

    The overall objective of this study was to select chemical processing equipment, install and operate that equipment to directly convert algae to biodiesel via a reaction patented by Old Dominion University (Pat. No. US 8,080,679B2). This reaction is a high temperature (250- 330{degrees}C) methylation reaction utilizing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to produce biodiesel. As originally envisioned, algal biomass could be treated with TMAH in methanol without the need to separately extract triacylglycerides (TAG). The reactor temperature allows volatilization and condensation of the methyl esters whereas the spent algae solids can be utilized as a high-value fertilizer because they are minimally charred. During the course of this work and immediately prior to commencing, we discovered that glycerol, a major by-product of the conventional transesterification reaction for biofuels, is not formed but rather three methoxylated glycerol derivatives are produced. These derivatives are high-value specialty green chemicals that strongly upgrade the economics of the process, rendering this approach as one that now values the biofuel only as a by-product, the main value products being the methoxylated glycerols. A horizontal agitated thin-film evaporator (one square foot heat transfer area) proved effective as the primary reactor facilitating the reaction and vaporization of the products, and subsequent discharge of the spent algae solids that are suitable for supplementing petrochemicalbased fertilizers for agriculture. Because of the size chosen for the reactor, we encountered problems with delivery of the algal feed to the reaction zone, but envision that this problem could easily disappear upon scale-up or can be replaced economically by incorporating an extraction process. The objective for production of biodiesel from algae in quantities that could be tested could not be met, but we implemented use of soybean oil as a surrogate TAG feed to overcome this limitation. The positive economics of this process are influenced by the following: 1. the weight percent of dry algae in suspension that can be fed into the evaporator, 2. the alga species’ ability to produce a higher yield of biodiesel, 3. the isolation of valuable methoxylated by-products, 4. recycling and regeneration of methanol and TMAH, and 5. the market value of biodiesel, commercial agricultural fertilizer, and the three methoxylated by-products. The negative economics of the process are the following: 1. the cost of producing dried, ground algae, 2. the capital cost of the equipment required for feedstock mixing, reaction, separation and recovery of products, and reactant recycling, and 3. the electrical cost and other utilities. In this report, the economic factors and results are assembled to predict the commercialization cost and its viability. This direct conversion process and equipment discussed herein can be adapted for various feedstocks including: other algal species, vegetable oil, jatropha oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, and other TAG containing raw materials as a renewable energy resource.

  7. Biodiesel Emissions Testing with a Modern Diesel Engine - Equipment Only: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-399

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the emissions and performance impact of biodiesel in a modern diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter. This testing is in support of the Non-Petroleum Based Fuels (NPBF) 2010 Annual Operating Plan (AOP).

  8. Fast electron microscopy via compressive sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Kurt W; Anderson, Hyrum S; Wheeler, Jason W

    2014-12-09

    Various technologies described herein pertain to compressive sensing electron microscopy. A compressive sensing electron microscope includes a multi-beam generator and a detector. The multi-beam generator emits a sequence of electron patterns over time. Each of the electron patterns can include a plurality of electron beams, where the plurality of electron beams is configured to impart a spatially varying electron density on a sample. Further, the spatially varying electron density varies between each of the electron patterns in the sequence. Moreover, the detector collects signals respectively corresponding to interactions between the sample and each of the electron patterns in the sequence.

  9. Efficient Parallel Text Compression on GPUs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiaoxi

    2012-02-14

    is the combination of LZ77 and arithmetic coding. The dictionary com- pressor produces a stream of literal symbols and phrase references, which encodes one symbol at a time by the range encoder, using a model to make a probability prediction of each bit. The GPU... with range coding. To speedup, we design and implement parallel range encoding on GPUs. Finally we copy the compressed data from device to host and output them to the compressed file. 10 CHAPTER IV PARALLEL FINDER AND MERGER A. Parallel Match Finder We...

  10. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1989-01-01

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter.

  11. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, M.C.

    1989-03-28

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter. 18 figs.

  12. Utilization of CO2 as cushion gas for porous media compressed air energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    of compressed air energy storage electric power systems.RH, Compressed Air Energy Storage: Theory, Resources, andmedia compressed air energy storage (PM-CAES): theory and

  13. Compressive spectral method for the simulation of the water waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayindir, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an approach for decreasing the computational effort required for the spectral simulations of the water waves is introduced. Signals with majority of the components zero, are known as the sparse signals. Like majority of the signals in the nature it can be realized that water waves are sparse either in time or in the frequency domain. Using the sparsity property of the water waves in the time or in the frequency domain, the compressive sampling algorithm can be used as a tool for improving the performance of the spectral simulation of the water waves. The methodology offered in this paper depends on the idea of using a smaller number of spectral components compared to the classical spectral method with a high number of components. After performing the time integration with a smaller number of spectral components and using the compressive sampling technique, it is shown that the water wave field can be reconstructed with a significantly better efficiency compared to the classical spectral method w...

  14. Oil-free centrifugal hydrogen compression technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heshmat, Hooshang

    2014-05-31

    One of the key elements in realizing a mature market for hydrogen vehicles is the deployment of a safe and efficient hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure on a scale that can compete economically with current fuels. The challenge, however, is that hydrogen, being the lightest and smallest of gases with a lower viscosity and density than natural gas, readily migrates through small spaces and is difficult to compresses efficiently. While efficient and cost effective compression technology is crucial to effective pipeline delivery of hydrogen, the compression methods used currently rely on oil lubricated positive displacement (PD) machines. PD compression technology is very costly, has poor reliability and durability, especially for components subjected to wear (e.g., valves, rider bands and piston rings) and contaminates hydrogen with lubricating fluid. Even so called “oil-free” machines use oil lubricants that migrate into and contaminate the gas path. Due to the poor reliability of PD compressors, current hydrogen producers often install duplicate units in order to maintain on-line times of 98-99%. Such machine redundancy adds substantially to system capital costs. As such, DOE deemed that low capital cost, reliable, efficient and oil-free advanced compressor technologies are needed. MiTi’s solution is a completely oil-free, multi-stage, high-speed, centrifugal compressor designed for flow capacity of 500,000 kg/day with a discharge pressure of 1200 psig. The design employs oil-free compliant foil bearings and seals to allow for very high operating speeds, totally contamination free operation, long life and reliability. This design meets the DOE’s performance targets and achieves an extremely aggressive, specific power metric of 0.48 kW-hr/kg and provides significant improvements in reliability/durability, energy efficiency, sealing and freedom from contamination. The multi-stage compressor system concept has been validated through full scale performance testing of a single stage with helium similitude gas at full speed in accordance with ASME PTC-10. The experimental results indicated that aerodynamic performance, with respect to compressor discharge pressure, flow, power and efficiency exceeded theoretical prediction. Dynamic testing of a simulated multistage centrifugal compressor was also completed under a parallel program to validate the integrity and viability of the system concept. The results give strong confidence in the feasibility of the multi-stage design for use in hydrogen gas transportation and delivery from production locations to point of use.

  15. Recent Advances in Detailed Chemical Kinetic Models for Large Hydrocarbon and Biodiesel Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Herbinet, O; Mehl, M

    2009-03-30

    n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for these two primary reference fuels for diesel, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Also, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. Methyl decanoate and methyl stearate are large methyl esters that are closely related to biodiesel fuels, and kinetic models for these molecules have also been developed. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the fuel molecule size and structure on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  16. ZnO nanoparticle catalysts for use in biodiesel production and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2014-11-25

    A method of forming a biodiesel product and a heterogeneous catalyst system used to form said product that has a high tolerance for the presence of water and free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil feedstock is disclosed. This catalyst system may simultaneously catalyze both the esterification of FAA and the transesterification of triglycerides present in the oil feedstock. The catalyst system is comprised of a mixture of zinc oxide and a second metal oxide. The zinc oxide includes a mixture of amorphous zinc oxide and zinc oxide nanocrystals, the zinc nanocrystals having a mean grain size between about 20 and 80 nanometers with at least one of the nanocrystals including a mesopore having a diameter of about 5 to 15 nanometers. Preferably, the second metal oxide is a lanthanum oxide, the lanthanum oxide being selected as one from the group of La.sub.2CO.sub.5, LaOOH, and combinations or mixtures thereof.

  17. Impact of Biodiesel on the Oxidation Kinetics and Morphology of Diesel Particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We compare the oxidation characteristics of four different diesel particulates generated with a modern light-duty engine. The four particulates represent engine fueling with conventional ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), biodiesel, and two intermediate blends of these fuels. The comparisons discussed here are based on complementary measurements implemented in a laboratory micro-reactor, including temperature programmed desorption and oxidation, pulsed isothermal oxidation, and BET surface area. From these measurements we have derived models that are consistent with the observed oxidation reactivity differences. When accessible surface area effects are properly accounted for, the oxidation kinetics of the fixed carbon components were found to consistently exhibit an Arrhenius activation energy of 113 6 kJ/mol. Release of volatile carbon from the as-collected particulate appears to follow a temperaturedependent rate law.

  18. ESTERFIP, a transesterification process to produce biodiesel from renewable energy source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hennico, A.; Chodorge, J.A. [Institut Francais Du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1995-12-31

    The IFP ESTERFIP process, is based on the catalytic transesterification of fatty oils (rapeseed oil, soybean oil, palm oil, cottonseed oil, etc.): Vegetable Oils (Triglycerides) + Methanol----Esters + Glycerol. The press consists of the following major steps: Transesterification of the vegetable oil (obtained by classical grain trituration and partially refining) by dry methanol in the presence of a basic catalyst; Decantation to completely separate the esters from the glycerine; Water washing and purification of the ester phase to climinate the last traces of catalyst particles; Vacuum evaporation of the ester product to recover traces of remaining alcohol and water; Purification of the glycerine by-product; Environmental advantages of bio-diesel versus conventional diesel fuel are: No sulfur nor aromatics; Presence of oxygen in the molecular composition; Renewable energy; Highly biodegradable. Technical aspects of the Esterfip process as well as diesel fuel applications will be described.

  19. Federal and State Ethanol and Biodiesel Requirements (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act 2005 requires that the use of renewable motor fuels be increased from the 2004 level of just over 4 billion gallons to a minimum of 7.5 billion gallons in 2012, after which the requirement grows at a rate equal to the growth of the gasoline pool. The law does not require that every gallon of gasoline or diesel fuel be blended with renewable fuels. Refiners are free to use renewable fuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, in geographic regions and fuel formulations that make the most sense, as long as they meet the overall standard. Conventional gasoline and diesel can be blended with renewables without any change to the petroleum components, although fuels used in areas with air quality problems are likely to require adjustment to the base gasoline or diesel fuel if they are to be blended with renewables.

  20. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2010-01-22

    New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

  1. Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID) [Ammon, ID; Carney, Francis H. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-29

    An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through an expander creating work output. A compressor may be driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream.

  2. Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. B. Andresen; W. Bertsche; P. D. Bowe; C. C. Bray; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; J. Fajans; M. C. Fujiwara; R. Funakoshi; D. R. Gill; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; R. S. Hayano; M. E. Hayden; R. Hydomako; M. J. Jenkins; L. V. Jorgensen; L. Kurchaninov; R. Lambo; N. Madsen; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; S. Seif El Nasr; D. M. Silveira; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; J. S. Wurtele; Y. Yamazaki

    2008-06-30

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.

  3. Energy Efficiency in Compressed Air Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hingorani, A.; Pavlov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Energy use in compressed air systems accounts for typically 10% of the total industrial electricity consumption. It also accounts for close to 99% of the CO2 footprint of an air compressor and approximately 80% of the life cycle costs of a...

  4. Compression Ring Wedged TF Coils (16)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Compression Ring Wedged TF Coils (16) Double Wall Vacuum Vessel Internal Shielding Control Coil W as an extension of the existing advanced tokamak program leading to an attractive magnetic fusion reactor (e among confinement, MHD self-heating, stability, edge physics and wave-particle interactions

  5. Compressed Sensing Off the Grid Gongguo Tang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recht, Ben

    Compressed Sensing Off the Grid Gongguo Tang , Badri Narayan Bhaskar , Parikshit Shah are not assumed to lie on a grid, but can assume any values in the normalized frequency domain [0, 1]. An atomic a discretization procedure to reduce the continuous parameter space to a finite set of grid points [1, 3, 22, 25

  6. Advanced Controls for Industrial Compressed Air Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vold, P.; Gabel, S.; Carmichael, L.; Curtner, K.; Cirillo, N. C. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    at a Goulds Pumps manufacturing plant in Seneca Falls, New York, and is currently undergoing field testing. The compressed air system will optimize the energy efficiency of the 7 compressor system (1,850hp) at Goulds, while reducing system pressure...

  7. Internal combustion engine with compound air compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, M.A.; Paul, A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine in combination with a compound air compression system. It comprises: a reciprocator with at least one cylinder, at least one piston reciprocal in the cylinder and a combustion chamber formed in substantial part by portions of the piston and cylinder, the reciprocator having a drive shaft; a rotary compressor having a drive shaft mechanically coupled to the drive shaft of the reciprocator, the rotary compressor having a Wankel-type, three-lobe, epitrochiodal configuration sides having a conduit conjected to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air to the reciprocator; a turbocharged with a gas turbine and a turbocompressor, the turbocompressor having an air conduit connected to the expander side of the rotary compressor; and a bypass conduit with a valve means connecting the turbocharger to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air directly to the reciprocator wherein the drive shaft of the reciprocator and the drive shaft of the compressor have connecting means for transmitting mechanical energy to the reciprocator at mid to high operating speeds of the engine when the turbocharge supplies compressed air to the rotary compressor and, at least in part, drives the rotary compressor.

  8. Largeamplitude compressive "sawtooth" magnetic field oscillations in the Martian magnetosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Largeamplitude compressive "sawtooth" magnetic field oscillations in the Martian magnetosphere J. S of largeamplitude "sawtooth" magnetic field oscillations in the induced magnetosphere of Mars and discuss, and J. P. Eastwood (2011), Largeamplitude compressive "sawtooth" magnetic field oscillations

  9. Improving Compressed Air System Efficiency- Know What You Really Need 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrell, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    Compressed air is often the most expensive utility in an industrial facility, and cost-effective efficiency opportunities in both the production and use of compressed air are often ignored by facility operators. Leaks, inappropriate uses...

  10. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    many facilities. Almost every industrial plant, from a small machine shop to an immense pulp and paper mill, has some type of compressed air system. In many cases, the compressed...

  11. Mechanical compression drives cancer cells toward invasive phenotype

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tse, Janet M.

    Uncontrolled growth in a confined space generates mechanical compressive stress within tumors, but little is known about how such stress affects tumor cell behavior. Here we show that compressive stress stimulates migration ...

  12. CO? compression for capture-enabled power systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suri, Rajat

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to evaluate a new carbon dioxide compression technology - shock compression - applied specifically to capture-enabled power plants. Global warming has increased public interest in carbon ...

  13. GPSZip : semantic representation and compression system for GPS using coresets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Cathy, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    We present a semantic approach for compressing mobile sensor data and focus on GPS streams. Unlike popular text-compression methods, our approach takes advantage of the fact that agents (robotic, personal, or vehicular) ...

  14. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-11-30

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a hybrid energy storage and generation concept that has many potential benefits especially in a location with increasing percentages of intermittent wind energy generation. The objectives of the NYSEG Seneca CAES Project included: for Phase 1, development of a Front End Engineering Design for a 130MW to 210 MW utility-owned facility including capital costs; project financials based on the engineering design and forecasts of energy market revenues; design of the salt cavern to be used for air storage; draft environmental permit filings; and draft NYISO interconnection filing; for Phase 2, objectives included plant construction with a target in-service date of mid-2016; and for Phase 3, objectives included commercial demonstration, testing, and two-years of performance reporting. This Final Report is presented now at the end of Phase 1 because NYSEG has concluded that the economics of the project are not favorable for development in the current economic environment in New York State. The proposed site is located in NYSEG’s service territory in the Town of Reading, New York, at the southern end of Seneca Lake, in New York State’s Finger Lakes region. The landowner of the proposed site is Inergy, a company that owns the salt solution mining facility at this property. Inergy would have developed a new air storage cavern facility to be designed for NYSEG specifically for the Seneca CAES project. A large volume, natural gas storage facility owned and operated by Inergy is also located near this site and would have provided a source of high pressure pipeline quality natural gas for use in the CAES plant. The site has an electrical take-away capability of 210 MW via two NYSEG 115 kV circuits located approximately one half mile from the plant site. Cooling tower make-up water would have been supplied from Seneca Lake. NYSEG’s engineering consultant WorleyParsons Group thoroughly evaluated three CAES designs and concluded that any of the designs would perform acceptably. Their general scope of work included development of detailed project construction schedules, capital cost and cash flow estimates for both CAES cycles, and development of detailed operational data, including fuel and compression energy requirements, to support dispatch modeling for the CAES cycles. The Dispatch Modeling Consultant selected for this project was Customized Energy Solutions (CES). Their general scope of work included development of wholesale electric and gas market price forecasts and development of a dispatch model specific to CAES technologies. Parsons Brinkerhoff Energy Storage Services (PBESS) was retained to develop an air storage cavern and well system design for the CAES project. Their general scope of work included development of a cavern design, solution mining plan, and air production well design, cost, and schedule estimates for the project. Detailed Front End Engineering Design (FEED) during Phase 1 of the project determined that CAES plant capital equipment costs were much greater than the $125.6- million originally estimated by EPRI for the project. The initial air storage cavern Design Basis was increased from a single five million cubic foot capacity cavern to three, five million cubic foot caverns with associated air production wells and piping. The result of this change in storage cavern Design Basis increased project capital costs significantly. In addition, the development time required to complete the three cavern system was estimated at approximately six years. This meant that the CAES plant would initially go into service with only one third of the required storage capacity and would not achieve full capability until after approximately five years of commercial operation. The market price forecasting and dispatch modeling completed by CES indicated that the CAES technologies would operate at only 10 to 20% capacity factors and the resulting overall project economics were not favorable for further development. As a result of all of these factors, the Phase 1 FEED developed an installe

  15. Summary of Compression Testing of U-10Mo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Burkes, Douglas

    2012-10-31

    The mechanical properties of depleted uranium plus 10 weight percent molybdenum alloy have been evaluated by high temperature compression testing.

  16. Technology alternatives to CFC/HCFC vapor compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.

    1996-08-01

    Phaseouts of CFCs and HCFCs to protect the stratospheric ozone layer have caused many developments in replacement or alternative technologies for heat pumping. Some of this effort has been of an ``evolutionary`` nature where the designs of conventional vapor compression systems were adapted to use chlorine-free refrigerants. Other alternatives are more radical departures from conventional practice such as operating above the critical point of an alternative refrigerant. Revolutionary changes in technology based on cycles sor principles not commonly associated with refrigeration have also attracted interest. Many of these technologies are being touted because they are ``ozone-safe`` or because they do not use greenhouse gases as refrigerants. Basic principles and some advantages and disadvantages of each technology are discussed in this paper.

  17. Making a Cement Tray for Compression Molding of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    Making a Cement Tray for Compression Molding of Shape&Roll Prosthetic Foot Cores Andrew Hansen, Ph, MS and Andrew Hansen, PhD. #12;A lever compression molding device for fabrication of Shape entitled "Making a Cement Upper Molding Surface for Compression Molding of Shape&Roll Prosthetic Foot Cores

  18. Efficient Resampling, Compression and Rendering of Metallic and Pearlescent Paint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behnke, Sven

    Efficient Resampling, Compression and Rendering of Metallic and Pearlescent Paint Martin Rump, Ralf}@cs.uni-bonn.de Abstract An interesting class of materials are metallic and pearlescent paints. They pose serious and pearlescent paint by compressing measured data. But until now the compression of the image based part is done

  19. Modern Compressed Air Piping Selection and Design Can Have a Great Impact on Your Compressed Air Energy Dollars 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Ormer, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces new concepts in compressed air piping, sizing, and system design beyond the conventional pipe sizing charts and standard system layout guide lines. The author shows how compressed air velocity has a very significant impact...

  20. 2014- LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term Natural Gas Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Please note: To view the complete docket listing, please click the 'Docket Index' link pertaining to a particular docket. Docket Indexes and Service Lists that are not listed can be obtained by...

  1. Michael Cooney, a researcher with the UH Manoa Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, in his lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King Founder & Owner Pacific Biodiesel Technologies, LLC. 808.877.3144 info@biodiesel.com Renewable at Manoa are working with Maui based company Pacific Biodiesel to develop a way to make water from Biodiesel Technologies, LLC. Wastewater from dishwashing and cleaning kitchens would clog sewer lines

  2. Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    stations ˇ Alt fuel stations (CNG, LNG, E-85, biodiesel) ˇ H2, CNG, LNG storage #12;5 Future Concerns

  3. Convective Heat Transport in Compressible Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akira Furukawa; Akira Onuki

    2002-02-01

    We present hydrodynamic equations of compressible fluids in gravity as a generalization of those in the Boussinesq approximation used for nearly incompressible fluids. They account for adiabatic processes taking place throughout the cell (the piston effect) and those taking place within plumes (the adiabatic temperature gradient effect). Performing two-dimensional numerical analysis, we reveal some unique features of plume generation and convection in transient and steady states of compressible fluids. As the critical point is approached, overall temperature changes induced by plume arrivals at the boundary walls are amplified, giving rise to overshoot behavior in transient states and significant noises of the temperature in steady states. The velocity field is suggested to assume a logarithmic profile within boundary layers. Random reversal of macroscopic shear flow is examined in a cell with unit aspect ratio. We also present a simple scaling theory for moderate Rayleigh numbers.

  4. Compression of ground-motion data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    Ground motion data has been recorded for many years at Nevada Test Site and is now stored on thousands of digital tapes. The recording format is very inefficient in terms of space on tape. This report outlines a method to compress the data onto a few hundred tapes while maintaining the accuracy of the recording and allowing restoration of any file to the original format for future use. For future digitizing a more efficient format is described and suggested.

  5. Training: Compressed Air Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavings forTitleJuly 2012 Training WorkandCompressed

  6. UBC vehicles to run on natural gas by fallEighteen UBC vehicles operated by the Department of Physical Plant will

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    UBC vehicles to run on natural gas by fallEighteen UBC vehicles operated by the Department." The conversioninvolves mounting oneach UBC vehicle a400-pound cylinder of natural gas compressed to 2 of Physical Plant will be running on compressed natural gas instead of gasoline by theend of September

  7. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  8. Homogenous charge compression ignition engine having a cylinder including a high compression space

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agama, Jorge R.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Maloney, Ronald P.; Faletti, James J.; Clarke, John M.

    2003-12-30

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogeneous charge compression engines. In these engines, fuel is injected upstream or directly into the cylinder when the power piston is relatively close to its bottom dead center position. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder as the power piston advances to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the power piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. Thus, the present invention divides the homogeneous charge between a controlled volume higher compression space and a lower compression space to better control the start of ignition.

  9. Compression, Restoration, Re-sampling, Compressive Sensing: Fast Transforms in Digital Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaroslavsky, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Transform image processing methods are methods that work in domains of image transforms, such as Discrete Fourier, Discrete Cosine, Wavelet and alike. They are the basic tool in image compression, in image restoration, in image re-sampling and geometrical transformations and can be traced back to early 1970-ths. The paper presents a review of these methods with emphasis on their comparison and relationships, from the very first steps of transform image compression methods to adaptive and local adaptive transform domain filters for image restoration, to methods of precise image re-sampling and image reconstruction from sparse samples and up to "compressive sensing" approach that has gained popularity in last few years. The review has a tutorial character and purpose.

  10. Compressive spectral method for the simulation of the water waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cihan Bayindir

    2015-12-19

    In this paper an approach for decreasing the computational effort required for the spectral simulations of the water waves is introduced. Signals with majority of the components zero, are known as the sparse signals. Like majority of the signals in the nature it can be realized that water waves are sparse either in time or in the frequency domain. Using the sparsity property of the water waves in the time or in the frequency domain, the compressive sampling algorithm can be used as a tool for improving the performance of the spectral simulation of the water waves. The methodology offered in this paper depends on the idea of using a smaller number of spectral components compared to the classical spectral method with a high number of components. After performing the time integration with a smaller number of spectral components and using the compressive sampling technique, it is shown that the water wave field can be reconstructed with a significantly better efficiency compared to the classical spectral method with a high number of spectral components, especially for long time evolutions. For the sparse water wave model in the time domain the well-known solitary wave solutions of the Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation is considered. For the sparse water wave model in the frequency domain the well-known Airy (linear) ocean waves with Jonswap spectrum is considered. Utilizing a spectral method, it is shown that by using a smaller number of spectral components compared to the classical spectral method with a high number of components, it is possible to simulate the sparse water waves with negligible error in accuracy and a great efficiency especially for large time evolutions.

  11. Lithium modified zeolite synthesis for conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayoub, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.ayoub@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia and School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 43000, Pinang (Malaysia); Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi, E-mail: chzuhairi@usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 43000, Pinang (Malaysia); Inayat, Abrar, E-mail: abrar.inayat@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Basic zeolite has received significant attention in the catalysis community. These zeolites modified with alkaline are the potential replacement for existing zeolite catalysts due to its unique features with added advantages. The present paper covers the preparation of lithium modified zeolite Y (Li-ZeY) and its activity for solvent free conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol via etherification process. The modified zeolite was well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Nitrogen Adsorption. The SEM images showed that there was no change in morphology of modified zeolite structure after lithium modification. XRD patterns showed that the structure of zeolite was sustained after lithium modification. The surface properties of parent and modified zeolite was also observed N{sub 2} adsortion-desorption technique and found some changes in surface area and pore size. In addition, the basic strength of prepared materials was measured by Hammet indicators and found that basic strength of Li-ZeY was highly improved. This modified zeolite was found highly thermal stable and active heterogamous basic catalyst for conversion of solvent free glycerol to polyglycerol. This reaction was conducted at different temperatures and 260 °C was found most active temperature for this process for reaction time from 6 to 12 h over this basic catalyst in the absence of solvent.

  12. IDAHO BIODIESEL INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECT DOE'S INITIATIVE ON COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS WITH STATES FOR RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION GRANT NO. DE-FC36-02GO12021. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CROCKETT, JOHN

    2006-12-31

    The Idaho Energy Division issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) on March 14, 2006, inviting qualified licensed fuel wholesalers, fuel retailers, and vehicle fleet operators to provide proposals to construct and/or install infrastructure for biodiesel utilization in Idaho. The intent was to improve the ability of private and/or non-Federal public entities in Idaho to store, transport, or offer for sale biodiesel within the state. The RFP provided up $100,000 for co-funding the projects with a minimum 50% cash cost match. Four contracts were subsequetnly awarded that resulted in three new bidodiesel storage facilities immediately serving about 45 fueling stations from Sandpoint to Boise. The project also attracted considerable media attention and Idaho became more knowledgeable about biodiesel.

  13. International magnetic pulse compression workshop: (Proceedings)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.; Siemens, P.D.

    1991-04-01

    A few individuals have tried to broaden the understanding of specific and salient pulsed-power topics. One such attempt is this documentation of a workshop on magnetic switching as it applies primarily to pulse compression (power transformation), affording a truly international perspective by its participants under the initiative and leadership of Hugh Kirbie and Mark Newton of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and supported by other interested organizations. During the course of the Workshop at Granlibakken, a great deal of information was amassed and a keen insight into both the problems and opportunities as to the use of this switching approach was developed. The segmented workshop format proved ideal for identifying key aspects affecting optimum performance in a variety of applications. Individual groups of experts addressed network and system modeling, magnetic materials, power conditioning, core cooling and dielectrics, and finally circuits and application. At the end, they came together to consolidate their input and formulate the workshop's conclusions, identifying roadblocks or suggesting research projects, particularly as they apply to magnetic switching's trump card--its high-average-power-handling capability (at least on a burst-mode basis). The workshop was especially productive both in the quality and quantity of information transfer in an environment conducive to a free and open exchange of ideas. We will not delve into the organization proper of this meeting, rather we wish to commend to the interested reader this volume, which provides the definitive and most up-to-date compilation on the subject of magnetic pulse compression from underlying principles to current state of the art as well as the prognosis for the future of magnetic pulse compression as a consensus of the workshop's organizers and participants.

  14. Coke cake behavior under compressive forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

    1997-12-31

    The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

  15. Low emissions compression ignited engine technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Gerald N. (Dunlap, IL); Kilkenny, Jonathan P. (Peoria, IL); Fluga, Eric C. (Dunlap, IL); Duffy, Kevin P. (East Peoria, IL)

    2007-04-03

    A method and apparatus for operating a compression ignition engine having a cylinder wall, a piston, and a head defining a combustion chamber. The method and apparatus includes delivering fuel substantially uniformly into the combustion chamber, the fuel being dispersed throughout the combustion chamber and spaced from the cylinder wall, delivering an oxidant into the combustion chamber sufficient to support combustion at a first predetermined combustion duration, and delivering a diluent into the combustion chamber sufficient to change the first predetermined combustion duration to a second predetermined combustion duration different from the first predetermined combustion duration.

  16. High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL)

    2008-12-23

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

  17. The Many Faces of a Compressed Air Audit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemp, H. L.

    2006-01-01

    of the production and compressed air-consuming end uses in the site. Consider: • 60% to 75% of the economic savings are projects in the demand side – improvements that not only save money, but also often improve quality and productivity – capital equipment..., have “in house”-developed audit teams or groups. Most of these personnel are well trained in basic compressed air theory as applied on the supply side, specifically with their specific type and brand of equipment. Compressed air systems...

  18. Formation of Hydro-acoustic Waves in Weakly Compressible Fluid Interacting with Viscous Weakly Compressible Seabed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, James T.

    Formation of Hydro-acoustic Waves in Weakly Compressible Fluid Interacting with Viscous Weakly@udel.edu, giorgio.bellotti@uniroma3.it 1. Objective Enhancement of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) Hydro/s) [2]. Study of the characteristics of hydro-acoustic waves generated by sudden sea bottom motion

  19. Guidelines for Selecting a Compressed Air System Service Provider

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    facilities in achieving greater reliability, improved quality control, and lower operating costs for their compressed air systems. The CAC encourages facilities to take a...

  20. Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI Combustion Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine Study of the...