National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for bio-based products biomass

  1. Bio-Based Product Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often require less energy to produce than petroleum-based ones.

  2. Pretreated densified biomass products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  3. Biomass Energy Production Incentive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2007 South Carolina enacted the Energy Freedom and Rural Development Act, which provides production incentives for certain biomass-energy facilities. Eligible systems earn $0.01 per kilowatt-h...

  4. Assessing the Economic Viability of Bio-based Products for Missouri Value-added Crop Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

    2005-11-30

    While research and development on biobased products has continued strong over the years, parallel attention on the economics and management of such product innovation has been lacking. With the financial support of the Department of Energy, the Economics and Management of Agrobiotechnology Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia has launched a pilot graduate education program that seeks to fill the gap. Within this context, a multi-disciplinary research and teaching program has been structured with an emphasis on new product and innovation economics and management. More specifically, this pilot graduate education program has the following major objectives: (1) To provide students with a strong background in innovation economics, management, and strategy. (2) To diversify the students academic background with coursework in science and technology. (3) To familiarize the student with biobased policy initiatives through interaction with state and national level organizations and policymakers. (4) To facilitate active collaboration with industry involved in the development and production of biobased products. The pilot education program seeks to develop human capital and research output. Although the research is, initially, focused on issues related to the State of Missouri, the results are expected to have national implications for the economy, producers, consumers and environment.

  5. Research Extension and Education Programs on Bio-based Energy Technologies and Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Sam; Harper, David; Womac, Al

    2010-03-02

    The overall objectives of this project were to provide enhanced educational resources for the general public, educational and development opportunities for University faculty in the Southeast region, and enhance research knowledge concerning biomass preprocessing and deconstruction. All of these efforts combine to create a research and education program that enhances the biomass-based industries of the United States. This work was broken into five primary objective areas: • Task A - Technical research in the area of biomass preprocessing, analysis, and evaluation. • Tasks B&C - Technical research in the areas of Fluidized Beds for the Chemical Modification of Lignocellulosic Biomass and Biomass Deconstruction and Evaluation. • Task D - Analyses for the non-scientific community to provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of biomass supply, demand, technologies, markets and policies; identify a set of feasible alternative paths for biomass industry development and quantify the impacts associated with alternative path. • Task E - Efforts to build research capacity and develop partnerships through faculty fellowships with DOE national labs The research and education programs conducted through this grant have led to three primary results. They include: • A better knowledge base related to and understanding of biomass deconstruction, through both mechanical size reduction and chemical processing • A better source of information related to biomass, bioenergy, and bioproducts for researchers and general public users through the BioWeb system. • Stronger research ties between land-grant universities and DOE National Labs through the faculty fellowship program. In addition to the scientific knowledge and resources developed, funding through this program produced a minimum of eleven (11) scientific publications and contributed to the research behind at least one patent.

  6. Production of bio-based materials using photobioreactors with binary cultures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beliaev, Alex S; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Hill, Eric A; Fredrickson, Jim K

    2013-08-27

    A method, device and system for producing preselected products, (either finished products or preselected intermediary products) from biobased precursors or CO.sub.2 and/or bicarbonate. The principal features of the present invention include a method wherein a binary culture is incubated with a biobased precursor in a closed system to transform at least a portion of the biobased precursor to a preselected product. The present invention provides a method of cultivation that does not need sparging of a closed bioreactor to remove or add a gaseous byproduct or nutrient from a liquid medium. This improvement leads to significant savings in energy consumption and allows for the design of photobioreactors of any desired shape. The present invention also allows for the use of a variety of types of waste materials to be used as the organic starting material.

  7. Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change This presentation was the opening ...

  8. Initial Assessment of U.S. Refineries for Purposes of Potential Bio-Based

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oil Insertions (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Initial Assessment of U.S. Refineries for Purposes of Potential Bio-Based Oil Insertions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Initial Assessment of U.S. Refineries for Purposes of Potential Bio-Based Oil Insertions In order to meet U.S. biofuel objectives over the coming decade the conversion of a broad range of biomass feedstocks, using diverse processing options, will be required. Further, the production of both gasoline and diesel

  9. Los Alamos scientists advance biomass fuel production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos scientists advance biomass fuel production Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Los Alamos scientists advance biomass fuel production Adapting biomass waste molecules for energy production May 1, 2013 Lab research can yield energy from non-food biomass Lab research can yield energy from non-food biomass Contact Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office

  10. Hydrogen Production: Biomass Gasification | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Gasification Hydrogen Production: Biomass Gasification Photo of a man standing near a pilot-scale gasification system. Biomass gasification is a mature technology pathway that uses a controlled process involving heat, steam, and oxygen to convert biomass to hydrogen and other products, without combustion. Because growing biomass removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the net carbon emissions of this method can be low, especially if coupled with carbon capture, utilization, and

  11. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, James L.; Chen, Guang Jiong

    1998-01-01

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

  12. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

    1998-10-13

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

  13. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via ...

  14. Opportunities for Farmers in Biomass Feedstock Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Farmers in Biomass Feedstock Production Richard Hess Biomass 2014, Feedstocks Plenary July 29, 2014 Getting into the Biomass Business Crop Residue Removal; Farm Budget Plan Example Farm Statistics and Management Practices: * 1700 acres (1200 acres wheat, 500 acres potatoes) * 3 year crop rotation (wheat, wheat, potatoes) * If harvested, 1 ton / acre straw removal * Straw Contract Price ($10-$15 / ton in the field) Crop Rotation Removal Point Tons Harvested Removal Net Cost

  15. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, ...

  16. Importance of Biomass Production and Supply | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Importance of Biomass Production and Supply Importance of Biomass Production and Supply Bryce Stokes gave this presentation at the Symbiosis Conference. symbiosisconferencestokes...

  17. Opportunities for Farmers in Biomass Feedstock Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary IV: Advances in Bioenergy Feedstocks—From Field to Fuel Opportunities for Farmers in Biomass Feedstock Production J. Richard Hess, Idaho National Lab, Director of Energy Systems & Technology Division

  18. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Elizabeth; Qiao, Ming; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy D.; Kania, John

    2015-12-15

    Described are methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals in a batch and/or continuous process. The process generally involves the conversion of water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  19. Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Production and Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a midterm forecast for biomass ethanol production under three different technology cases for the period 2000 to 2020, based on projections developed from the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System. An overview of cellulose conversion technology and various feedstock options and a brief history of ethanol usage in the United States are also presented.

  20. Woody biomass production in waste recycling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockwood, D.L.; Snyder, G.H.; Sprinkle, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    Combining woody biomass production with waste recycling offers many mutual advantages, including increased tree growth and nutrient and water reclamation. Three biomass/recycling studies collectively involving Eucalyptus amplifolia, E. camaldulensis, and E. grandis, rapidly growing species potentially tolerant of high water and nutrient levels, are (1) evaluating general potential for water/nutrient recycling systems to enhance woody biomass production and to recycle water and nutrients, (2) documenting Eucalyptus growth, water use, and nutrient uptake patterns, and (3) identifying Eucalyptus superior for water and nutrient uptake in central and southern Florida. In a 1992-93 study assessing the three Eucalyptus species planted on the outside berms of sewage effluent holding ponds, position on the berms (top to bottom) and genotypes influenced tree size. The potential of the trees to reduce effluent levels in the ponds was assessed. In a stormwater holding pond planted in 1993, these Eucalyptus genotypes varied significantly for tree size but not for survival. E. camaldulensis appears generally superior when flooded with industrial stormwater. Potential sizes of ponds needed for different stormwater applications were estimated. Prolonged flooding of 4- and 5-year-old E. camaldulensis with agricultural irrigation runoff has had no observable effects on tree growth or survival. Younger E. camaldulensis, E. amplifolia, and E. grandis were assessed for water use and nutrient uptake during a Summer 1994 flooding.

  1. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Santosh Gangwal, Director-Business Development, Energy Technologies, Southern Research Institute gangwal_biomass_2014.pdf (1.36

  2. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass Gasification |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Biomass Gasification DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass Gasification These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets and example cost contributions for hydrogen production from biomass gasification. More information about targets can be found in the Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. Technical Targets: Biomass Gasification/Pyrolysis

  3. Hydrogen Production: Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming Hydrogen Production: Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming Photo of cylindrical reactor vessel and associated piping and equipment in the Thermochemical Process Development Unit at NREL Liquids derived from biomass resources-including ethanol and bio-oils-can be reformed to produce hydrogen in a process similar to natural gas reforming. Biomass-derived liquids can be transported more easily than their biomass feedstocks, allowing for semi-central

  4. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is designing and demonstrating a high productivity system to harvest, process, and transport woody biomass from southern pine plantations. The final product will be a system...

  5. Pretreated densified biomass products (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is ...

  6. Commercialization of Bio-Based Chemicals: A Successful Public...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Based Chemicals: A Successful Public-Private Partnership Commercialization of Bio-Based Chemicals: A Successful Public-Private Partnership Opening Plenary Session: Celebrating ...

  7. Hydrogen Production: Microbial Biomass Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microbial Biomass Conversion Hydrogen Production: Microbial Biomass Conversion Photo of a fermentation reactor Microbial biomass conversion processes take advantage of the ability of microorganisms to consume and digest biomass and release hydrogen. Depending on the pathway, this research could result in commercial-scale systems in the mid- to long-term timeframe that could be suitable for distributed, semi-central, or central hydrogen production scales, depending on the feedstock used. How

  8. Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change This presentation was the opening keynote of the Symbiosis Conference. symbiosis_conference_hamilton.pdf (1.4 MB) More Documents & Publications The Future of Bioenergy Feedstock Production Symbiosis Biofeedstock Conference: Expanding Commercialization of Mutualistic Microbes to Increase Feedstock Production Symbiosis

  9. Strategies for optimizing algal biology for enhanced biomass production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, Amanda N.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Sayre, Richard T.

    2015-02-02

    One of the most environmentally sustainable ways to produce high-energy density (oils) feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source) and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration has also been proposed in the intergovernmental panel on climate change report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass). To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity, it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. In addition, these strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to twofold increases in biomass productivity.

  10. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Microbial Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion | Department of Energy Microbial Biomass Conversion DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Microbial Biomass Conversion This table lists the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for hydrogen production from microbial biomass conversion. More information about targets can be found in the Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. Technical Targets: Dark Fermentative Hydrogen

  11. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Derived...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets and example cost contributions for hydrogen ...

  12. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and demonstrating a high productivity system to harvest, process, and transport woody biomass from southern pine plantations. auburnprojectabstract1.pdf More Documents &...

  13. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, ...

  14. Stowe Power Production Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stowe Power Production Plant Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Montgomery County, Pennsylvania Coordinates 40.2290075, -75.3878525 Show Map Loading map......

  15. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pine Energy Plantations High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations This abstract outlinse a project that is designing and demonstrating a...

  16. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najser, Jan E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  17. Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Energy Co-Evolution of Biofuels Lignocellulosic Biomass Microalgae ... HomeBiomass Permalink One-Pot-to-Prep Biomass for Biofuels Biofuels, Biomass, Energy, ...

  18. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case | Department of Energy Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is to enable the development of biomass technologies. PNNL-23053.pdf (0 B) More Documents & Publications Design

  19. Bio-based ethylene able to replace petroleum as a feedstock - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Early Stage R&D Early Stage R&D Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Bio-based ethylene able to replace petroleum as a feedstock National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Photosynthetic Conversion of CO2 to Fuels and Chemicals using Cyanobacteria - Accelerating Innovation Webinar Presentation (989 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Ethylene is the most

  20. The economics of biomass production in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.; Walsh, M.E.; Lichtenberg, E.; Roningen, V.O.; Shapouri, H.

    1995-12-31

    Biomass crops (e.g. poplar, willow, switchgrass) could become important feedstocks for power, liquid fuel, and chemical production. This paper presents estimates of the potential production of biomass in the US under a range of assumptions. Estimates of potential biomass crop yields and production costs from the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) are combined with measures of land rents from USDA`s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), to estimate a competitive supply of biomass wood and grass crops. Estimates are made for one potential biomass use--electric power production--where future costs of electricity production from competing fossil fuels set the demand price. The paper outlines the methodology used and limitations of the analysis.

  1. Strategies for optimizing algal biology for enhanced biomass production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barry, Amanda N.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Sayre, Richard T.

    2015-02-02

    One of the most environmentally sustainable ways to produce high-energy density (oils) feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source) and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration has also been proposed in the intergovernmental panel on climate change report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials formore » biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass). To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity, it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. In addition, these strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to twofold increases in biomass productivity.« less

  2. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  3. MHK Technologies/bioBase | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    bioBase < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage BioBase.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization BioPower Systems Pty Ltd...

  4. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  5. Superior cottonwood and eucalyptus clones for biomass production in wastewater biomass production in wastewater bioremediation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockwood, D.L.; Pisano, S.M.; McConnell, W.V.

    1996-12-31

    Fast-growing cottonwood and Eucalyptus species have wastewater bioremediation potential. To estimate genetic variation in cottonwood`s response to sewage effluent, 10 clones were planted at Tallahassee in April 1992. Progenies and/or clones of E. Ampligolia (EA). E. Camaldulensis (EC), and E. Grandis (EG) were planted in a dry stormwater retention/bioremediation pond constructed in June 1993 at Tampa. Genetic variability within cottonwood and Eucalyptus species was observed and should be utilized to optimize biomass production and nutrient uptake in wastewater bioremediation applications. On good sites with freeze risk in northern Florida, three cottonwood clones are particularly productive. While as many as four EC and EG clones are promising, one EG clone appears superior for stormwater remediation, systems in central Florida.

  6. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This independent review report assesses the 2009 state-of-the-art and 2020 projected capital cost, energy efficiency, and levelized cost for hydrogen production from biomass via gasification.

  7. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 2012. Properties of Southern Pine from DOE High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems. ... Bioresources 7(3):2996-3007 * Via, B.K., T. McDonald, and J. Fulton. 2012. Nonlinear ...

  8. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiel, Jerry

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  10. Importance of Biomass Production and Supply

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of feedstocks and overall final product cost - Improve quality of feedstocks at the ... especially in feedstock supply and logistics with production and conversion, are ...

  11. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  12. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Biomass Torrefaction is gaining attention as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties and chemical composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of approximately 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-280 C. Thus, the process can be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. The present review work looks into (a) torrefaction process and different products produced during the process and (b) solid torrefied material properties which include: (i) physical properties like moisture content, density, grindability, particle size distribution and particle surface area and pelletability; (ii) chemical properties like proximate and ultimate composition; and (iii) storage properties like off-gassing and spontaneous combustion.

  13. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  14. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  15. Next Generation Bio-Based & Sustainable Chemicals Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 6th Annual Next Generation Bio-Based & Sustainable Chemicals Summit will be hosted in New Orleans, Louisiana, from February 3–5.

  16. Issues in Value-Added Products from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2001-11-01

    While biomass conversion to energy products has been the primary focus of most development efforts over the past 30 years, process development for chemical products is an area of increasing effort more recently. Although the fuels market is likely to allow the largest impact for renewable resources in the world economy, chemical products can also be more than just niche market applications. However, the specific chemical processing required for refined chemical products requires improved chemical handling methods for separations and purifications, as well as improved catalyst systems. Development of these unit operations has lagged behind the process research focused on the finished products. This paper will describe some of the critical processing issues that need to be addressed to allow biomass feedstocks to make a real impact in the chemicals market. The paper will also describe some of the process research which has been performed or is now underway in our laboratory and others'. Areas to be discussed include biomass component separation, catalyst development for aqueous processing, and trace component effects in catalytic processing of biomass feedstocks.

  17. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more

  18. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  19. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  20. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  1. Biomass Energy Production in California 2002: Update of the California Biomass Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, G.

    2002-12-01

    An updated version of the California Biomass Energy Database, which summarizes California's biomass energy industry using data from 2000 and 2001.

  2. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass Final Report Work Performed Under: Contract No.: DE-F-G02-00ER86106 For: U.S. Department of Energy Morgantown, WV By David Ramey Environmental Energy Inc. 1253 N. Waggoner Road P.O. Box 15 Blacklick, Ohio 43004 And Shang-Tian Yang Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio State University 140 West 19 th Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 - 2004 - Table of Contents Page Proposal Face Page

  3. Methods for producing and using densified biomass products containing pretreated biomass fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2015-05-26

    A process is provided comprising subjecting a quantity of plant biomass fibers to a pretreatment to cause at least a portion of lignin contained within each fiber to move to an outer surface of said fiber, wherein a quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers is produced; and densifying the quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers to produce one or more densified biomass particulates, wherein said biomass fibers are densified without using added binder.

  4. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  5. Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing Raymond Wissinger, Manager, Renewable Energy & Chemicals, Research & Development, UOP wissinger_biomass_2014.pdf (735 KB) More Documents

  6. Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A

    2013-10-01

    The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

  7. Advanced Bio-based Jet Fuel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-based Jet Fuel Advanced Bio-based Jet Fuel This is a presentation from the November 27, 2012, Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop given by Mary Biddy (NREL). biddy_caafi_workshop.pdf (1.47 MB) More Documents & Publications Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates

  8. Methods for producing and using densified biomass products containing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A process is provided comprising subjecting a quantity of plant biomass fibers to a ... wherein a quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers is produced; and densifying ...

  9. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to

  10. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard * Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Independent Review Published for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program NREL/BK-6A10-51726 October

  11. "Trojan Horse" strategy for deconstruction of biomass for biofuels production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Hadi, Masood Z.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Thomson, James; Whalen, Maureen; Thilmony, Roger; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Sapra, Rajat

    2008-08-01

    Production of renewable biofuels to displace fossil fuels currently consumed in the transportation sector is a pressing multi-agency national priority. Currently, nearly all fuel ethanol is produced from corn-derived starch. Dedicated 'energy crops' and agricultural waste are preferred long-term solutions for renewable, cheap, and globally available biofuels as they avoid some of the market pressures and secondary greenhouse gas emission challenges currently facing corn ethanol. These sources of lignocellulosic biomass are converted to fermentable sugars using a variety of chemical and thermochemical pretreatments, which disrupt cellulose and lignin cross-links, allowing exogenously added recombinant microbial enzymes to more efficiently hydrolyze the cellulose for 'deconstruction' into glucose. This process is plagued with inefficiencies, primarily due to the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, mass transfer issues during deconstruction, and low activity of recombinant deconstruction enzymes. Costs are also high due to the requirement for enzymes and reagents, and energy-intensive and cumbersome pretreatment steps. One potential solution to these problems is found in synthetic biology; they propose to engineer plants that self-produce a suite of cellulase enzymes targeted to the apoplast for cleaving the linkages between lignin and cellulosic fibers; the genes encoding the degradation enzymes, also known as cellulases, are obtained from extremophilic organisms that grow at high temperatures (60-100 C) and acidic pH levels (<5). These enzymes will remain inactive during the life cycle of the plant but become active during hydrothermal pretreatment i.e., elevated temperatures. Deconstruction can be integrated into a one-step process, thereby increasing efficiency (cellulose-cellulase mass-transfer rates) and reducing costs. The proposed disruptive technologies address biomass deconstruction processes by developing transgenic plants encoding a suite of enzymes used

  12. Sun Grant/DOE Regional Biomass Feedstock Partnership:Herbaceous Energy Crops and CRP Land for Biomass Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review Sun Grant/DOE Regional Biomass Feedstock Partnership: Herbaceous Energy Crops and CRP Land for Biomass Production (Award # GO85041; WBS 7.6.2.5) 23-27 March 2015 Technology Area Review: Feedstock Supply and Logistics Vance Owens, Director North Central Sun Grant Center South Dakota State University This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement  Development of more accurate cost supply information and improved

  13. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E. C. D.; Laurens, L. M. L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  14. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II

  15. Liquid products from the continuous flash pyrolysis of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, D.S.; Piskorz, J.; Radlein, D.

    1985-01-01

    A bench-scale continuous flash pyrolysis unit using a fluidized bed at atmospheric pressure has been employed to investigate conditions for maximum organic liquid yields from various biomass materials. Liquid yields for poplar-aspen were reported previously, and this work describes results for the flash pyrolysis of maple, poplar bark, bagasse, peat, wheat straw, corn stover, and a crude commercial cellulose. Organic liquid yields of 60-70% mf can be obtained from hardwoods and bagasse, and 40-50% from agricultural residues. Peat and bark with lower cellulose content give lower yields. The effects of the addition of lime and of a nickel catalyst to the fluid bed are reported also. A rough correlation exists between has content and maximum organic liquid yield, but the liquid yield correlates better with the alpha-cellulose content of the biomass. General relationships valid over all reaction conditions appear to exist among the ratios of final decomposition products also, and this correlation is demonstrated for the yields of methane and carbon monoxide.

  16. August 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    One of "35 people worth knowing in the BioBased movement and industry" Biofuels Digest named the Biomass Program's Acting Director Valerie Reed as one of the "35 people worth ...

  17. Optimization of Southeastern Forest Biomass Crop Production: Watershed Scale Evaluation of the Sustainability and Productivity of Dedicated Energy Crop and Woody Biomass Operations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Southeastern Forest Biomass Crop Production: Watershed Scale Evaluation of the Sustainability and Productivity of Dedicated Energy Crop and Woody Biomass Operations May 22, 2013 Principle Investigators: George Chescheir N. C. State University Jami Nettles Weyerhaeuser Co. NC STATE UNIVERSITY Goal Statement Develop and disseminate science-based information for sustainable production of forest biofuel feedstock in the Southeast. NC STATE UNIVERSITY Quad Chart Overview 3 * Start date - Sept. 30,

  18. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Derived Liquid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reforming | Department of Energy Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets and example cost contributions for hydrogen production from biomass-derived liquid reforming. More information about targets can be found in the Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan.

  19. THE PRODUCTION OF SYNGAS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AND BIO-MASS GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. McKellar; G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien

    2008-11-01

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to improve the hydrogen production efficiency of the steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon dioxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K.

  20. Hydrogen Production from Biomass via Indirect Gasification: The Impact of NREL Process Development Unit Gasifier Correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinchin, C. M.; Bain, R. L.

    2009-05-01

    This report describes a set of updated gasifier correlations developed by NREL to predict biomass gasification products and Minimum Hydrogen Selling Price.

  1. Use of co-cultures in the production of ethanol by the fermentation of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeikus, J.G.; Ben-Bassat, A.; Lamed, R.J.; Ng, T.K.

    1983-08-23

    Production of ethanol and enzymes is disclosed by fermentation of biomass with co-cultures of C. thermocellum and C. thermohydrosulfuricum.

  2. Star Biomass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Jump to: navigation, search Name: Star Biomass Place: India Sector: Biomass Product: Plans to set up biomass projects in Rajasthan. References: Star Biomass1 This article...

  3. Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Pyrolysis Design Case Cost targets for converting biomass to renewable gasoline and ... technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. ...

  4. Mild Biomass Liquefaction Process for Economic Production of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... infrastructure Complete final project report Work with NREL to complete data mining Summary Mild methanolH 2 O-based biomass liquefaction process integrated with ...

  5. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

    2005-08-25

    Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased

  6. Economic contribution of lignins to ethanol production from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chum, H.L.; Parker, S.K.; Feinberg, D.A.; Wright, J.D.; Rice, P.A.; Sinclair, S.A.; Glasser, W.G.

    1985-05-01

    Lignin, one of the three major polymeric components of biomass (16% to 33% by weight in wood), has the highest specific heat content. Therefore, it can be burned for process fuel. Compared to coal, its fuel value is 2.2 cents/lb. This report investigates markets for lignin utilization of higher value. After lignin isolation from the process, purchase of replacement fuel (coal was analyzed), lignin sale for the manufacture of solid materials or higher value octane enhancers was evaluated. Polymeric applications evaluated were: surfactants, asphalt, carbon black, adhesives, and lignin plastics; agricultural applications were briefly reviewed. These lignins would generate coproduct credits of 25 cents to 150 cents/gallon of ethanol respectively for 7.5 cents to 60 cents/lb lignin value (isolation and eventual modification costs were taken into account). Overall markets for these polymeric applications were projected at 11 billion lb/year by the year 2000. These projections are intensities of demand and not actual shipments of lignins. In addition, this report investigates the possibility of converting lignins into mixtures of methyls aryl ethers and methyl substituted-aryl ethers which are high value octane enhancers, fully compatible with gasoline. The report intends to show that if fuel ethanol production in the billions of gallons scale occurs lignin markets would not be saturated. 10 refs., 14 figs., 36 tabs.

  7. Bio-based Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Bio-based DeicingAnti-Icing Fluids Battelle Memorial ... and typically bio-based deicinganti-icing fluids for aerospace and non-aerospace ...

  8. Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

    2000-10-15

    This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

  9. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin; Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia; Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell; Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester .

    2009-03-31

    The Mississippi Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass was formed via funding from the US Department of Energy's EPSCoR Program, which is administered by the Office of Basic Science. Funding was approved in July of 1999 and received by participating Mississippi institutions by 2000. The project was funded via two 3-year phases of operation (the second phase was awarded based on the high merits observed from the first 3-year phase), with funding ending in 2007. The mission of the Consortium was to promote the utilization of biomass, both cultured and waste derived, for the production of commodity and specialty chemicals. These scientific efforts, although generally basic in nature, are key to the development of future industries within the Southeastern United States. In this proposal, the majority of the efforts performed under the DOE EPSCoR funding were focused primarily toward the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and biogas from waste products. However, some of the individual projects within this program investigated the production of other products from biomass feeds (i.e. acetic acid and biogas) along with materials to facilitate the more efficient production of chemicals from biomass. Mississippi is a leading state in terms of raw biomass production. Its top industries are timber, poultry production, and row crop agriculture. However, for all of its vast amounts of biomass produced on an annual basis, only a small percentage of the biomass is actually industrially produced into products, with the bulk of the biomass being wasted. This situation is actually quite representative of many Southeastern US states. The research and development efforts performed attempted to further develop promising chemical production techniques that use Mississippi biomass feedstocks. The three processes that were the primary areas of interest for ethanol production were syngas fermentation, acid hydrolysis followed by hydrolyzate fermentation, and enzymatic

  10. Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S. B.; Valkenburg, C.; Walkton, C. W.; Elliott, D. C.; Holladay, J. E.; Stevens, D. J.; Kinchin, C.; Czernik, S.

    2010-02-01

    The Biomass Program develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case is the first to establish detailed cost targest for the production of diesel and gasoline blendstock from biomass via a fast pyrolysis process.

  11. Watershed Scale Evaluation of the Sustainability and Productivity of Dedicated Energy Crop and Woody Biomass Operations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Southeastern Forest Biomass Crop Production: Watershed Scale Evaluation of the Sustainability and Productivity of Dedicated Energy Crop and Woody Biomass Operations DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review March 23, 2015 Sustainability and Strategic Analysis George Chescheir N. C. State University Jami Nettles Weyerhaeuser Company Goal Statement Develop and disseminate science-based information for sustainable production of biofuel feedstock in a forestry setting in

  12. Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-D: Working Together: Conventional Refineries and Bio-Oil R&D Technologies Corinne Valkenburg, Staff Engineer, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory biomass13_male_2-d.pdf (891.45 KB) More Documents & Publications FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil Feeds 2013

  13. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Biomass Program Review High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations DE-EE0001036 S. Taylor (Auburn University), R. Rummer (USDA Forest Service), F. Corley (Corley Land Services), G. Somerville (Tigercat), O. Fasina (Auburn University), J. Fulton (Auburn University), T. McDonald (Auburn University), M. Smidt (Auburn University), T. Gallagher (Auburn University) This project is designing and demonstrating a high productivity system to harvest, process,

  14. Sources of biomass feedstock variability and the potential impact on biofuels production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, C. Luke; Westover, Tyler L.; Emerson, Rachel M.; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Li, Chenlin

    2015-11-23

    In this study, terrestrial lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a carbon neutral and domestic source of fuels and chemicals. However, the innate variability of biomass resources, such as herbaceous and woody materials, and the inconsistency within a single resource due to disparate growth and harvesting conditions, presents challenges for downstream processes which often require materials that are physically and chemically consistent. Intrinsic biomass characteristics, including moisture content, carbohydrate and ash compositions, bulk density, and particle size/shape distributions are highly variable and can impact the economics of transforming biomass into value-added products. For instance, ash content increases by an order of magnitude between woody and herbaceous feedstocks (from ~0.5 to 5 %, respectively) while lignin content drops by a factor of two (from ~30 to 15 %, respectively). This increase in ash and reduction in lignin leads to biofuel conversion consequences, such as reduced pyrolysis oil yields for herbaceous products as compared to woody material. In this review, the sources of variability for key biomass characteristics are presented for multiple types of biomass. Additionally, this review investigates the major impacts of the variability in biomass composition on four conversion processes: fermentation, hydrothermal liquefaction, pyrolysis, and direct combustion. Finally, future research processes aimed at reducing the detrimental impacts of biomass variability on conversion to fuels and chemicals are proposed.

  15. Sources of biomass feedstock variability and the potential impact on biofuels production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Williams, C. Luke; Westover, Tyler L.; Emerson, Rachel M.; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Li, Chenlin

    2015-11-23

    In this study, terrestrial lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a carbon neutral and domestic source of fuels and chemicals. However, the innate variability of biomass resources, such as herbaceous and woody materials, and the inconsistency within a single resource due to disparate growth and harvesting conditions, presents challenges for downstream processes which often require materials that are physically and chemically consistent. Intrinsic biomass characteristics, including moisture content, carbohydrate and ash compositions, bulk density, and particle size/shape distributions are highly variable and can impact the economics of transforming biomass into value-added products. For instance, ash content increases by anmore » order of magnitude between woody and herbaceous feedstocks (from ~0.5 to 5 %, respectively) while lignin content drops by a factor of two (from ~30 to 15 %, respectively). This increase in ash and reduction in lignin leads to biofuel conversion consequences, such as reduced pyrolysis oil yields for herbaceous products as compared to woody material. In this review, the sources of variability for key biomass characteristics are presented for multiple types of biomass. Additionally, this review investigates the major impacts of the variability in biomass composition on four conversion processes: fermentation, hydrothermal liquefaction, pyrolysis, and direct combustion. Finally, future research processes aimed at reducing the detrimental impacts of biomass variability on conversion to fuels and chemicals are proposed.« less

  16. Sequencing of Multiple Clostridial Genomes Related to Biomass Conversion and Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemme, Christopher; Mouttaki, Housna; Lee, Yong-Jin; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, A; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Tice, Hope; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Detter, J. Chris; Han, Cliff; Pitluck, Sam; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mikhailova, Natalia; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy; Henrissat, Bernard; HE, Qiang; Lawson, Paul A.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Lynd, Lee R; Wiegel, Juergen; Fields, Dr. Matthew Wayne; Arkin, Adam; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Stevenson, Bradley S.; McInerney, Michael J.; Yang, Yunfeng; Dong, Hailiang; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Ding, Shi-You; Himmel, Michael E; Taghavi, Safiyh; Rubin, Edward M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    Modern methods to develop microbe-based biomass conversion processes require a system-level understanding of the microbes involved. Clostridium species have long been recognized as ideal candidates for processes involving biomass conversion and production of various biofuels and other industrial products. To expand the knowledge base for clostridial species relevant to current biofuel production efforts, we have sequenced the genomes of 20 species spanning multiple genera. The majority of species sequenced fall within the class III cellulosome-encoding Clostridium and the class V saccharolytic Thermoanaerobacteraceae. Species were chosen based on representation in the experimental literature as model organisms, ability to degrade cellulosic biomass either by free enzymes or by cellulosomes, ability to rapidly ferment hexose and pentose sugars to ethanol, and ability to ferment synthesis gas to ethanol. The sequenced strains significantly increase the number of noncommensal/nonpathogenic clostridial species and provide a key foundation for future studies of biomass conversion, cellulosome composition, and clostridial systems biology.

  17. Maintaining environmental quality while expanding biomass production: Sub-regional U.S. policy simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2013-03-01

    This paper evaluates environmental policy effects on ligno-cellulosic biomass production and environ- mental outcomes using an integrated bioeconomic optimization model. The environmental policy integrated climate (EPIC) model is used to simulate crop yields and environmental indicators in current and future potential bioenergy cropping systems based on weather, topographic and soil data. The crop yield and environmental outcome parameters from EPIC are combined with biomass transport costs and economic parameters in a representative farmer profit-maximizing mathematical optimization model. The model is used to predict the impact of alternative policies on biomass production and environmental outcomes. We find that without environmental policy, rising biomass prices initially trigger production of annual crop residues, resulting in increased greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion, and nutrient losses to surface and ground water. At higher biomass prices, perennial bioenergy crops replace annual crop residues as biomass sources, resulting in lower environmental impacts. Simulations of three environmental policies namely a carbon price, a no-till area subsidy, and a fertilizer tax reveal that only the carbon price policy systematically mitigates environmental impacts. The fertilizer tax is ineffectual and too costly to farmers. The no-till subsidy is effective only at low biomass prices and is too costly to government.

  18. Biomass pretreatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  19. Genetic manipulation of lignin reduces recalcitrance and improves biomass ethanol production from switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Fu, Chunxiang; Xiao, Xirong; Ge, Yaxin; Chen, Fang; Bouton, Joseph; Foston, Marcus; Dixon, Richard A; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Switchgrass is a leading dedicated bioenergy feedstock because it is a native, high yielding, perennial prairie grass with broad cultivation range and low agronomic input requirements. Biomass conversion research has developed pilot scale processes for production of ethanol and other alcohols but they remain costly primarily due to the intrinsic recalcitrance of biomass. We show here that switchgrass genetic modification can produce normal plants that have reduced thermochemical and enzymatic recalcitrance. Downregulation of the switchgrass caffeic O-methyltransferase gene decreases lignin content modestly, reduces the syringyl to guaiacyl lignin monomer ratio and increases the ethanol yield by up to a third using conventional biomass fermentation processes. The downregulated lines have wild-type biomass yields but require reduced pretreatment severity and 300-400% lower cellulase dosages for equivalent product yields significantly lowering processing costs. Alternately, our modified transgenic switchgrass lines should yield significantly more fermentation chemicals per hectare under identical process conditions.

  20. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    03.25.2015 Technology Area Review: Terrestrial Feedstocks Principal Investigator: Steve Taylor Organization: Auburn University This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Project Goals * Design and deploy machines and systems that can reduce delivered cost of woody biomass. - Design and

  1. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power

  2. Acid-Catalyzed Algal Biomass Pretreatment for Integrated Lipid and Carbohydrate-Based Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Nagle, N.; Davis, R.; Sweeney, N.; Van Wychen, S.; Lowell, A.; Pienkos, P. T.

    2014-11-12

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. We studied the effect of harvest timing on the conversion yields, using two algal strains; Chlorella and Scenedesmus, generating biomass with distinctive compositional ratios of protein, carbohydrate, and lipids. We found that the late harvest Scenedesmus biomass had the maximum theoretical biofuel potential at 143 gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) combined fuel yield per dry ton biomass, followed by late harvest Chlorella at 128 GGE per ton. Our experimental data show a clear difference between the two strains, as Scenedesmus was more successfully converted in this process with a demonstrated 97 GGE per ton. Our measurements indicated a release of >90% of the available glucose in the hydrolysate liquors and an extraction and recovery of up to 97% of the fatty acids from wet biomass. Techno-economic analysis for the combined product yields indicates that this process exhibits the potential to improve per-gallon fuel costs by up to 33% compared to a lipids-only process for one strain, Scenedesmus, grown to the mid-point harvest condition.

  3. Upgrading liquid products: Notes from the workshop at the international conference research in thermochemical biomass conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.C.

    1988-07-01

    A workshop was held at the International Energy Agency conference, Research in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion, on the subject of upgrading liquid products. The workshop discussion focused on the two prominent methods of liquids upgrading, catalytic hydroprocessing and catalytic cracking. Catalytic hydroprocessing as applied to biomass liquids relies heavily on petroleum developed technology; similar catalysts and operating conditions are used, although lower space velocities are typical. The need for stabilization of the pyrolytic products prior to hydroprocessing was also discussed. Catalytic cracking of biomass liquids also relies heavily on petroleum processing technology. Zeolite catalyst development has focused on the ZSM-5 of Mobil and its application to pyrolysis products. Significant olefinic gas yields are obtained in the zeolitic processing of biomass pyrolyzates and the conversion of these to liquid fuels is a primary research goal. Aromatic gasoline is the primary product in both catalytic processes. A general conclusion of the workshop participants was that the cost of liquid fuels for internal combustion engines would be higher in the foreseeable future. Due to the high cost of initial biomass liquefaction plants (including upgrading) a more likely near-term product would be aromatic chemicals produced under constrained economic circumstances. 16 refs.

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF THE VIABILITY AND EVALUATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR BIOMASS-INFUSED COAL BRIQUETTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamshad, Kourosh

    2013-12-31

    This report is the final reporting installment of the DOE project titled DEMONSTRATION OF THE VIABILITY AND EVALUATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR BIOMASS-INFUSED COAL BRIQUETTES. This rerport includes a summary of the work completed to date including the experimental methods used to acheive the results, discussions, conclusions and implications of the final product delivered by the project.

  5. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Converting biomass, an abun- dant and renewable resource, into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant atten- tion because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and...

  6. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  7. Lipid recovery from wet oleaginous microbial biomass for biofuel production: A critical review

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dong, Tao; Knoshaug, Eric P.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-06-15

    Biological lipids derived from oleaginous microorganisms are promising precursors for renewable biofuel productions. Direct lipid extraction from wet cell-biomass is favored because it eliminates the need for costly dehydration. However, the development of a practical and scalable process for extracting lipids from wet cell-biomass is far from ready to be commercialized, instead, requiring intensive research and development to understand the lipid accessibility, mechanisms in mass transfer and establish robust lipid extraction approaches that are practical for industrial applications. Furthermore, this paper aims to present a critical review on lipid recovery in the context of biofuel productions with special attention tomore » cell disruption and lipid mass transfer to support extraction from wet biomass.« less

  8. The Dark Side of Algae Cultivation. Characterizing night biomass loss in three photosynthetic algae, Chlorella sorokiniana, Nannochloropsis salina and Picochlorum sp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmundson, Scott J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2015-10-28

    Night biomass loss in photosynthetic algae is an essential parameter that is often overlooked when modeling or optimizing biomass productivities. Night respiration acts as a tax on daily biomass gains and has not been well characterized in the context of biofuel production. We examined the night biomass loss in three algae strains that may have potential for commercial biomass production (Nannochloropsis salina- CCMP1776, Chlorella sorokiniana- DOE1412, and Picochlorum sp. LANL-WT). Biomass losses were monitored by ash free dry weight (AFDW mg/L-1) and optical density (OD750) on a thermal-gradient incubator. Night biomass loss rates were highly variable (ranging from -0.006 to -0.59 day -1), species-specific, and dependent on both culture growth phase prior to the dark period and night pond temperature. In general, the fraction of biomass lost over a 10 hour dark period, which ranged from ca. 1 to 22% in our experiments, was positively correlated with temperature and declined as the culture transitioned from exponential to linear to stationary phase. The dynamics of biomass loss should be taken into consideration in algae strain selection, are critical in predictive modeling of biomass production based on geographic location and can influence the net productivity of photosynthetic cultures used for bio-based fuels or products.

  9. Methods and materials for deconstruction of biomass for biofuels production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S; Hadi, Masood Zia

    2015-05-05

    The present invention relates to nucleic acids, peptides, vectors, cells, and plants useful in the production of biofuels. In certain embodiments, the invention relates to nucleic acid sequences and peptides from extremophile organisms, such as SSO1949 and Ce1A, that are useful for hydrolyzing plant cell wall materials. In further embodiments, the invention relates to modified versions of such sequences that have been optimized for production in one or both of monocot and dicot plants. In other embodiments, the invention provides for targeting peptide production or activity to a certain location within the cell or organism, such as the apoplast. In further embodiments, the invention relates to transformed cells or plants. In additional embodiments, the invention relates to methods of producing biofuel utilizing such nucleic acids, peptides, targeting sequences, vectors, cells, and/or plants.

  10. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Biochemical and Products Platform Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biochemical and Products Platform Review held on August 7-9, 2007 in Denver, Colorado.

  11. Acid-Catalyzed Algal Biomass Pretreatment for Integrated Lipid and Carbohydrate-Based Biofuels Production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Nagle, N.; Davis, R.; Sweeney, N.; Van Wychen, S.; Lowell, A.; Pienkos, P. T.

    2014-11-12

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. We studied the effect of harvest timing on the conversion yields, using two algal strains; Chlorella and Scenedesmus, generating biomass with distinctive compositionalmore » ratios of protein, carbohydrate, and lipids. We found that the late harvest Scenedesmus biomass had the maximum theoretical biofuel potential at 143 gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) combined fuel yield per dry ton biomass, followed by late harvest Chlorella at 128 GGE per ton. Our experimental data show a clear difference between the two strains, as Scenedesmus was more successfully converted in this process with a demonstrated 97 GGE per ton. Our measurements indicated a release of >90% of the available glucose in the hydrolysate liquors and an extraction and recovery of up to 97% of the fatty acids from wet biomass. Techno-economic analysis for the combined product yields indicates that this process exhibits the potential to improve per-gallon fuel costs by up to 33% compared to a lipids-only process for one strain, Scenedesmus, grown to the mid-point harvest condition.« less

  12. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  13. Ethanol Tolerant Yeast for Improved Production of Ethanol from Biomass -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ethanol Basics Ethanol is a widely used, domesti- cally produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Fuel ethanol contains the same chemical compound as beverage alcohol, but it is denatured with a small amount of gasoline or other chemicals during the production process, making it unsafe for human consumption. Ethanol's primary market drivers are the Federal Renewable Fuel Standard requiring its use and

  14. Cellulosic Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney

    2007-10-01

    The economic competitiveness of cellulosic ethanol production is highly dependent on feedstock cost, which constitutes 3550% of the total ethanol production cost, depending on various geographical factors and the types of systems used for harvesting, collecting, preprocessing, transporting, and handling the material. Consequently, as the deployment of cellulosic ethanol biorefi neries approaches, feedstock cost and availability are the driving factors that infl uence pioneer biorefi nery locations and will largely control the rate at which this industry grows. Initial scenarios were postulated to develop a pioneer dry feedstock supply system design case as a demonstration of the current state of technology. Based on this pioneer design, advanced scenarios were developed to determine key cost barriers, needed supply system improvements, and technology advancements to achieve government and private sector cost targets. Analysis of the pioneer supply system resulted in a delivered feedstock cost to the throat of the pretreatment reactor of $37.00 per dry tonne (2002 $). Pioneer supply systems will start by using current infrastructure and technologies and be individually designed for biorefi neries using specifi c feedstock types and varieties based on local geographic conditions. As the industry develops and cost barriers are addressed, the supply systems will incorporate advanced technologies that will eliminate downstream diversity and provide a uniform, tailored feedstock for multiple biorefi neries located in different regions.

  15. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima makes an ideal substrate for anaerobic digestion because it is easy to harvest, it can use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as its carbon source, and its fermentability is higher than that of other small algae. Digestion experiments demonstrated that S. maxima can serve as the sole nutrient for biogas production and that municipal sewage sludge, when adapted to this new substrate, is very stable. During semicontinuous daily-fed trials under non-optimal conditions at an 0.06 lb volatile solids (VS)/ft/sup 3/ (0.97 kg VS/m/sup 3/) loading rate, 33-day retention time, and 86/sup 0/F (30/sup 0/C) digestion temperature, the daily methane yield was 4.2 CF/lb (0.26 m/sup 3//kg) VS added, which represents 47% of the maximum theoretical yield. Studies on optimizing the process are underway.

  16. Advancing Commercialization of Algal Biofuels Through Increased Biomass Productivity and Technology Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Xuemei; Sabarsky, Martin

    2013-09-30

    Cellana is a leading developer of algae-based bioproducts, and its pre-commercial production of marine microalgae takes place at Cellana?s Kona Demonstration Facility (KDF) in Hawaii. KDF is housing more than 70 high-performing algal strains for different bioproducts, of which over 30 have been grown outside at scale. So far, Cellana has produced more than 10 metric tons of algal biomass for the development of biofuels, animal feed, and high-value nutraceuticals. Cellana?s ALDUO algal cultivation technology allows Cellana to grow non-extremophile algal strains at large scale with no contamination disruptions. Cellana?s research and production at KDF have addressed three major areas that are crucial for the commercialization of algal biofuels: yield improvement, cost reduction, and the overall economics. Commercially acceptable solutions have been developed and tested for major factors limiting areal productivity of algal biomass and lipids based on years of R&D work conducted at KDF. Improved biomass and lipid productivity were achieved through strain improvement, culture management strategies (e.g., alleviation of self-shading, de-oxygenation, and efficient CO2 delivery), and technical advancement in downstream harvesting technology. Cost reduction was achieved through optimized CO2 delivery system, flue gas utilization technology, and energy-efficient harvesting technology. Improved overall economics was achieved through a holistic approach by integration of high-value co-products in the process, in addition to yield improvements and cost reductions.

  17. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas

  18. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  19. Catalytic hydrotreating of biomass liquefaction products to produce hydrocarbon fuels: Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1986-03-01

    Research catalytic hydrotreatment of biomass liquefaction products to a gasoline has been technically demonstrated in a bench-scale continuous processing unit. This report describes the development of the chemistry needed for hydrotreatment of both high pressure and pyrolyzate biomass liquefaction products and outlines the important processing knowledge gained by the research. Catalyst identity is important in hydrotreatment of phenolics. Hydrogenation catalysts such as palladium, copper chromite, cobalt and nickel show activity with nickel being the most active. Major products include benzene, cyclohexane, and cyclohexanone. The hydrotreating catalysts cobalt-molybdenum, nickel-molybdenum and nickel-tungsten exhibit some activity when added to the reactor in the oxide form and show a great specificity for hydrodeoxygenation of phenol without saturation of the benzene product. The sulfide form of these catalysts is much more active than the oxide form and, in the case of the cobalt-molybdenum, much of the specificity for hydrodeoxygenation is retained. Substitution on the phenolic ring has only marginal effects on the hydrotreating reaction. However, the methoxy (OCH/sub 3/) substituent on the phenol ring is thermally unstable relative to other phenolics tested. The pyrolysis products dominate the product distribution when cobalt-molybdenum is used as the hydrotreating catalyst for methoxyphenol. The product from catalytic hydrotreatment of high-pressure biomass liquefaction products confirms the model compounds studies. Catalytic processing at 350 to 400/sup 0/C and 2000 psig with the sulfided cobalt-molybdenum or nickel-molybdenum catalyst produced a gasoline-like product composed of cyclic and aromatic compounds. Oxygen contents in products were in the range of 0 to 0.7 wt % and hydrogen to carbon atomic ratios ranged from 1.5 to 2.0. 46 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Florida Biomass Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Florida Biomass Energy, LLC Place: Florida Sector: Biomass Product: Florida-based biomass project developer. References: Florida Biomass...

  1. Atlantic Biomass Conversions Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Conversions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Atlantic Biomass Conversions Inc Place: Frederick, Maryland Sector: Biomass Product: Atlantic Biomass Conversions is...

  2. Colusa Biomass Energy Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Energy Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Colusa Biomass Energy Corporation Place: Colusa, California Zip: 95932 Sector: Biomass Product: Colusa Biomass Energy...

  3. Russell Biomass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Massachusetts Sector: Biomass Product: Russell Biomass, LLC is developing a 50MW biomass to energy project at the former Westfield Paper Company site in Russell,...

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  5. Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Biomass Program develops design cases to understand the current state of conversiontechnologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. The bestavailable bench and pilot-scale conversion data are integrated with detailed process flow andengineering models to identify technical barriers where research and development could leadto significant cost improvements and to calculate production costs. Past design cases focusedon finding pathways toward cost-competitive production of ethanol. This design case is thefirst to establish detailed cost targets for the production of diesel and gasoline blendstock frombiomass via a fast pyrolysis process.

  6. Bio-based Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Bio-based DeicingAnti-Icing Fluids Battelle Memorial ... and in particular to deicinganti-icing fluids.DescriptionThis technology is for ...

  7. Commercialization of Bio-Based Chemicals: A Successful Public-Private

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partnership | Department of Energy Bio-Based Chemicals: A Successful Public-Private Partnership Commercialization of Bio-Based Chemicals: A Successful Public-Private Partnership Opening Plenary Session: Celebrating Successes-The Foundation of an Advanced Bioindustry Not All Chemicals Are Created Equal(tm)-Susan Hager, Senior Vice President, Corporate Communications and Government Affairs, Myriant b13_hager_op-1.pdf (2.41 MB) More Documents & Publications Myriant Succinic Acid Biorefinery

  8. Renewable Hydrogen Production from Biomass Pyrolysis Aqueous Phase Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7, 2015 Thermochem Conversion Review PI: Abhijeet P. Borole, Ph.D. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Co:PI's & Collaborators: S. Pavlostathis, C. Tsouris, S. Yiacoumi, Georgia Tech; P. Ye, N. Labbe, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, R. Bhave, ORNL DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Renewable Hydrogen Production from Biomass Pyrolysis Aqueous Phase 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Goal Statement * Carbon, Hydrogen and

  9. Reactive Dehydration technology for Production of Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dr. James R. Kittrell, KSE, Inc. Dr. Carl R. Dupre, KSE, Inc. Dr. Michael F. Malone (Subcontractor) U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 Project Objective Commercialize a novel reactive distillation technology using the iCARD platform (Intensified Catalytic and Reactive Distillation) for compact, inexpensive production of biomass-based

  10. Report - Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S. B.; Valkenburg, C.; Walton, C. W.; Elliott, D. C.; Holladay, J. E.; Stevens, D. J.; Kinchin, C.; Czernik, S.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this design case study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels.

  11. Vertical Integration of Biomass Saccharification of Enzymes for Sustainable Cellulosic Biofuel Production in a Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2011-05-09

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  12. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  13. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soncini, Ryan M; Means, Nicholas C; Weiland, Nathan T

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  14. Sustainable biomass products development and evaluation, Hamakua project. Final draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-01

    The PICHTR Sustainable Biomass Energy Program was developed to evaluate the potential to cultivate crops for energy production as an alternative use of lands made available by the closing of large sugar plantations. In particular, the closing of the Hamakua Sugar Company on the island of Hawaii brought a great deal of attention to the future of agriculture in this region and in the state. Many options were proposed. Several promising alternatives had been proposed for cane lands. These included dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS) for electrical energy production, cultivation of sugarcane to produce ethanol and related by-products, and the production of feed and crops to support animal agriculture. Implementation of some of the options might require preservation of large tracts of land and maintenance of the sugar mills and sugar infrastructure. An analysis of the technical, financial, and other issues necessary to reach conclusions regarding the optimal use of these lands was required. At the request of the Office of State Planning and Senator Akaka`s office, the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) established and coordinated a working group composed of state, county, federal, and private sector representatives to identify sustainable energy options for the use of idle sugar lands on the island of Hawaii. The Sustainable Biomass Energy Program`s Hamakua Project was established to complete a comprehensive evaluation of the most viable alternatives and assess the options to grow crops as a source of raw materials for the production of transportation fuel and/or electricity on the island of Hawaii. The motivation for evaluating biomass to energy conversion embraced the considerations that Hawaii`s energy security would be improved by diversifying the fuels used for transportation and reducing dependency on imported fossil fuels. The use of waste products as feedstocks could divert wastes from landfills.

  15. NREL: Biomass Research - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biofuels Biomass process and sustainability analyses. ... For information on biomass policy, read congressional ... on the Yield and Product Distribution of Fast ...

  16. Evaluating lignocellulosic biomass, its derivatives, and downstream products with Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Gjersing, Erica; Davis, Mark F.

    2015-04-20

    The creation of fuels, chemicals, and materials from plants can aid in replacing products fabricated from non-renewable energy sources. Before using biomass in downstream applications, it must be characterized to assess chemical traits, such as cellulose, lignin, or lignin monomer content, or the sugars released following an acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. The measurement of these traits allows researchers to gage the recalcitrance of the plants and develop efficient deconstruction strategies to maximize yields. Standard methods for assessing biomass phenotypes often have experimental protocols that limit their use for screening sizeable numbers of plant species. Raman spectroscopy, a non-destructive, non-invasive vibrational spectroscopy technique, is capable of providing qualitative, structural information and quantitative measurements. Applications of Raman spectroscopy have aided in alleviating the constraints of standard methods by coupling spectral data with multivariate analysis to construct models capable of predicting analytes. Hydrolysis and fermentation products, such as glucose and ethanol, can be quantified off-, at-, or on-line. Raman imaging has enabled researchers to develop a visual understanding of reactions, such as different pretreatment strategies, in real-time, while also providing integral chemical information. Finally, this review provides an overview of what Raman spectroscopy is, and how it has been applied to the analysis of whole lignocellulosic biomass, its derivatives, and downstream process monitoring.

  17. Evaluating lignocellulosic biomass, its derivatives, and downstream products with Raman spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Gjersing, Erica; Davis, Mark F.

    2015-04-20

    The creation of fuels, chemicals, and materials from plants can aid in replacing products fabricated from non-renewable energy sources. Before using biomass in downstream applications, it must be characterized to assess chemical traits, such as cellulose, lignin, or lignin monomer content, or the sugars released following an acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. The measurement of these traits allows researchers to gage the recalcitrance of the plants and develop efficient deconstruction strategies to maximize yields. Standard methods for assessing biomass phenotypes often have experimental protocols that limit their use for screening sizeable numbers of plant species. Raman spectroscopy, a non-destructive, non-invasive vibrationalmore » spectroscopy technique, is capable of providing qualitative, structural information and quantitative measurements. Applications of Raman spectroscopy have aided in alleviating the constraints of standard methods by coupling spectral data with multivariate analysis to construct models capable of predicting analytes. Hydrolysis and fermentation products, such as glucose and ethanol, can be quantified off-, at-, or on-line. Raman imaging has enabled researchers to develop a visual understanding of reactions, such as different pretreatment strategies, in real-time, while also providing integral chemical information. Finally, this review provides an overview of what Raman spectroscopy is, and how it has been applied to the analysis of whole lignocellulosic biomass, its derivatives, and downstream process monitoring.« less

  18. Effect of torrefaction on biomass structure and hydrocarbon production from fast pyrolysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Neupane, Sneha; Adhikari, Sushil; Wang, Zhouhong; Ragauskas, Arthur; Pu, Yunqiao

    2015-01-27

    Torrefaction has been shown to improve the chemical composition of bio-oils produced from fast pyrolysis by lowering its oxygen content and enhancing the aromatic yield. A Py-GC/MS study was employed to investigate the effect of torrefaction temperatures (225, 250 and 275 °C) and residence times (15, 30 and 45 min) on product distribution from non-catalytic and H+ZSM-5 catalyzed pyrolysis of pinewood. During torrefaction, structural transformations in biomass constitutive polymers: hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin took place, which were evaluated using component analysis, solid state CP/MAS 13C NMR and XRD techniques. Torrefaction caused deacetylation and decomposition of hemicellulose, cleavage of aryl ethermore » linkages and demethoxylation of lignin, degradation of cellulose and an overall increase in aromaticity of biomass, all of which affected the product yield from pyrolysis of torrefied biomass. For non-catalytic pyrolysis, selectivity of phenolic compounds increased with an increase in torrefaction severity while that of furan compounds decreased. In the case of catalytic pyrolysis, the sample torrefied at 225 °C-30 min and 250 °C-15 min resulted in a significant increase in aromatic hydrocarbon (HC) and also total carbon yield (approx. 1.6 times higher) as compared to catalytic pyrolysis of non-torrefied pine. Cleavage of aryl ether linkages and demethoxylation in lignin due to torrefaction caused increased yield of phenolic compounds, which in the presence of a catalyst were dehydrated to form aromatic HC.« less

  19. Product analysis from direct liquefaction of several high-moisture biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Butner, R.S.

    1987-04-01

    Product analysis in support of the process development research in biomass direct liquefaction began at rudimentary level of determining solvent-soluble portions of the product. Analysis was soon extended to elemental analyses and proximate analyses, such as ash and moisture. Later, spectrometric analyses were performed followed by detailed chemical analyses used in conjunction with chromatographic separation techniques. At all stages of development, the significant differences in composition between the products of flash pyrolysis and high-pressure processing have been evident. While polar solvents are most effective for both products, less polar solvents such as methylene chloride and even benzene and toluene have been used as extractants for high-pressure product oils.

  20. Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2009-10-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing has been applied to biomass fast pyrolysis liquid product (bio-oil) in a bench-scale continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor system. The intent of the research was to develop process technology to convert the bio-oil into a petroleum refinery feedstock to supplement fossil energy resources and to displace imported feedstock. The project was a cooperative research and development agreement among UOP LLC, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This paper is focused on the process experimentation and product analysis undertaken at PNNL. The paper describes the experimental methods used and relates the results of the product analyses. A range of catalyst formulations were tested over a range of operating parameters including temperature, pressure, and flow-rate with bio-oil derived from several different biomass feedstocks. Effects of liquid hourly space velocity and catalyst bed temperature were assessed. Details of the process results were presented including mass and elemental balances. Detailed analysis of the products were provided including elemental composition, chemical functional type determined by mass spectrometry, and product descriptors such as density, viscosity and Total Acid Number (TAN). In summation, the paper provides an understanding of the efficacy of hydroprocessing as applied to bio-oil.

  1. Biomass torrefaction mill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  2. Lignin-Derived Carbon Fiber as a Co-Product of Refining Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langholtz, Matthew H.; Downing, Mark; Graham, Robin Lambert; Baker, Fred S.; Compere, Alicia L.; William L. Griffith; Boeman, Raymond G.; Keller, Martin

    2014-01-15

    Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg-1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%. Using lignin-derived carbon fiber in 15 million vehicles per year in the US could reduce fossil fuel consumption by 2-5 billion liters year-1, reduce CO2 emissions by about 6.7 million Mg year-1, and realize fuel savings through vehicle lightweighting of $700 to $1,600 per Mg biomass processed. The value of fuel savings from vehicle lightweighting becomes economical at carbon fiber price of $6.60 kg-1 under current fuel prices, or $13.20 kg-1 under fuel prices of about $1.16 l-1.

  3. Pathway engineering and organism development for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass using thermophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogsett, D.A.L.; Klapatch, T.A.; Lynd, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    Thermophilic bacteria collectively exemplify organisms that produce both cellulose and ethanol while fermenting both the cellulose and hemicellulose components of biomass. As a result, thermophiles could be the basis for highly streamlined and cost-effective processes for production of renewable fuels and chemicals. Recent research results involving ethanol production from thermophilic bacteria will be presented, with a primary focus on work pursuant to molecularly-based pathway engineering to increase ethanol selectivity. Specifically, we will describe the restriction endonuclease systems operative in Clostridium thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum, as well as efforts to document and improve transformation of these organisms and to clone key catabolic enzymes. In addition, selected results from fermentation studies will be presented as necessary in order to present a perspective on the status of thermophilic ethanol production.

  4. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-25

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed

  5. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-28

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using the same methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The “as received” feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be “reactor ready.” This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps

  6. Biofuel and chemical production by recombinant microorganisms via fermentation of proteinaceous biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liao, James C.; Cho, Kwang Myung; Yan, Yajun; Huo, Yixin

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are metabolically modified microorganisms characterized by having an increased keto-acid flux when compared with the wild-type organism and comprising at least one polynucleotide encoding an enzyme that when expressed results in the production of a greater quantity of a chemical product when compared with the wild-type organism. The recombinant microorganisms are useful for producing a large number of chemical compositions from various nitrogen containing biomass compositions and other carbon sources. More specifically, provided herein are methods of producing alcohols, acetaldehyde, acetate, isobutyraldehyde, isobutyric acid, n-butyraldehyde, n-butyric acid, 2-methyl-1-butyraldehyde, 2-methyl-1-butyric acid, 3-methyl-1-butyraldehyde, 3-methyl-1-butyric acid, ammonia, ammonium, amino acids, 2,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 2-methyl-1,4-butanediol, 2-methyl-1,4-butanediamine, isobutene, itaconate, acetoin, acetone, isobutene, 1,5-diaminopentane, L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, shikimic acid, mevalonate, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), isoprenoids, fatty acids, homoalanine, 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA), succinic acid, malic acid, citric acid, adipic acid, p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, tetrahydrofuran, 3-methyl-tetrahydrofuran, gamma-butyrolactone, pyrrolidinone, n-methylpyrrolidone, aspartic acid, lysine, cadeverine, 2-ketoadipic acid, and/or S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) from a suitable nitrogen rich biomass.

  7. Corrosion considerations for thermochemical biomass liquefaction process systems in biofuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P.; Keiser, James R.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Whitmer, Lysle; Thomson, Jeffery K.

    2014-11-11

    Thermochemical liquifaction processing of biomass to produce bio-derived fuels (e.g. gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, home heating oil, etc.) is of great recent interest as a renewable energy source. Approaches under investigation include direct liquefaction, hydrothermal liquefaction, hydropyrolysis, fast pyrolysis, etc. to produce energy dense liquids that can be utilized as produced or further processed to provide products of higher value. An issue with bio-oils is that they tend to contain significant concentrations of organic compounds, which make the bio-oil acidic and a potential source of corrosion issues in in transport, storage, and use. Efforts devoted to modified/further processing of bio-oils to make them less corrosive are currently being widely pursued. Another aspect that must also be addressed is potential corrosion issues in the bio-oil liquefaction process equipment itself. Depending on the specific process, bio-oil liquefaction production temperatures can reach up to 400-600 °C, and involve the presence of aggressive sulfur, and halide species from both the biomass used and/or process additives. Detailed knowledge of the corrosion resistance of candidate process equipment alloys in these bio-oil production environments is currently lacking. Lastly, this paper summarizes our recent, ongoing efforts to assess the extent to which corrosion of bio-oil process equipment may be an issue, with the ultimate goal of providing the basis to select the lowest cost alloy grades capable of providing the long-term corrosion resistance needed for future bio-oil production plants.

  8. Corrosion considerations for thermochemical biomass liquefaction process systems in biofuel production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brady, Michael P.; Keiser, James R.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Whitmer, Lysle; Thomson, Jeffery K.

    2014-11-11

    Thermochemical liquifaction processing of biomass to produce bio-derived fuels (e.g. gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, home heating oil, etc.) is of great recent interest as a renewable energy source. Approaches under investigation include direct liquefaction, hydrothermal liquefaction, hydropyrolysis, fast pyrolysis, etc. to produce energy dense liquids that can be utilized as produced or further processed to provide products of higher value. An issue with bio-oils is that they tend to contain significant concentrations of organic compounds, which make the bio-oil acidic and a potential source of corrosion issues in in transport, storage, and use. Efforts devoted to modified/further processing of bio-oilsmore » to make them less corrosive are currently being widely pursued. Another aspect that must also be addressed is potential corrosion issues in the bio-oil liquefaction process equipment itself. Depending on the specific process, bio-oil liquefaction production temperatures can reach up to 400-600 °C, and involve the presence of aggressive sulfur, and halide species from both the biomass used and/or process additives. Detailed knowledge of the corrosion resistance of candidate process equipment alloys in these bio-oil production environments is currently lacking. Lastly, this paper summarizes our recent, ongoing efforts to assess the extent to which corrosion of bio-oil process equipment may be an issue, with the ultimate goal of providing the basis to select the lowest cost alloy grades capable of providing the long-term corrosion resistance needed for future bio-oil production plants.« less

  9. Research Summary: Corrosion Considerations for Thermochemical Biomass Liquefaction Process Systems in Biofuel Production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brady, Michael P; Keiser, James R; Leonard, Donovan N; Whitmer, Lysle; Thomson, Jeffery K

    2014-01-01

    Thermochemical liquifaction processing of biomass to produce bio-derived fuels (e.g. gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, home heating oil, etc.) is of great recent interest as a renewable energy source. Approaches under investigation include direct liquefaction, hydrothermal liquefaction, hydropyrolysis, fast pyrolysis, etc. to produce energy dense liquids that can be utilized as produced or further processed to provide products of higher value. An issue with bio-oils is that they tend to contain significant concentrations of organic compounds, which make the bio-oil acidic and a potential source of corrosion issues in in transport, storage, and use. Efforts devoted to modified/further processing of bio-oilsmore » to make them less corrosive are currently being widely pursued. Another aspect that must also be addressed is potential corrosion issues in the bio-oil liquefaction process equipment itself. Depending on the specific process, bio-oil liquefaction production temperatures can reach up to 400-600 C, and involve the presence of aggressive sulfur, and halide species from both the biomass used and/or process additives. Detailed knowledge of the corrosion resistance of candidate process equipment alloys in these bio-oil production environments is currently lacking. This paper summarizes our recent, ongoing efforts to assess the extent to which corrosion of bio-oil process equipment may be an issue, with the ultimate goal of providing the basis to select the lowest cost alloy grades capable of providing the long-term corrosion resistance needed for future bio-oil production plants.« less

  10. Research Summary: Corrosion Considerations for Thermochemical Biomass Liquefaction Process Systems in Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P; Keiser, James R; Leonard, Donovan N; Whitmer, Lysle; Thomson, Jeffery K

    2014-01-01

    Thermochemical liquifaction processing of biomass to produce bio-derived fuels (e.g. gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, home heating oil, etc.) is of great recent interest as a renewable energy source. Approaches under investigation include direct liquefaction, hydrothermal liquefaction, hydropyrolysis, fast pyrolysis, etc. to produce energy dense liquids that can be utilized as produced or further processed to provide products of higher value. An issue with bio-oils is that they tend to contain significant concentrations of organic compounds, which make the bio-oil acidic and a potential source of corrosion issues in in transport, storage, and use. Efforts devoted to modified/further processing of bio-oils to make them less corrosive are currently being widely pursued. Another aspect that must also be addressed is potential corrosion issues in the bio-oil liquefaction process equipment itself. Depending on the specific process, bio-oil liquefaction production temperatures can reach up to 400-600 C, and involve the presence of aggressive sulfur, and halide species from both the biomass used and/or process additives. Detailed knowledge of the corrosion resistance of candidate process equipment alloys in these bio-oil production environments is currently lacking. This paper summarizes our recent, ongoing efforts to assess the extent to which corrosion of bio-oil process equipment may be an issue, with the ultimate goal of providing the basis to select the lowest cost alloy grades capable of providing the long-term corrosion resistance needed for future bio-oil production plants.

  11. Technoeconomic analysis of different options for the production of hydrogen from sunlight, wind, and biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Amos, W.A.

    1998-08-01

    To determine their technical and economic viability and to provide insight into where each technology is in its development cycle, different options to produce hydrogen from sunlight, wind, and biomass were studied. Additionally, costs for storing and transporting hydrogen were determined for different hydrogen quantities and storage times. The analysis of hydrogen from sunlight examined the selling price of hydrogen from two technologies: direct photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion of sunlight and photovoltaic (PV)-generated electricity production followed by electrolysis. The wind analysis was based on wind-generated electricity production followed by electrolysis. In addition to the base case analyses, which assume that hydrogen is the sole product, three alternative scenarios explore the economic impact of integrating the PV- and wind-based systems with the electric utility grid. Results show that PEC hydrogen production has the potential to be economically feasible. Additionally, the economics of the PV and wind electrolysis systems are improved by interaction with the grid. The analysis of hydrogen from biomass focused on three gasification technologies. The systems are: low pressure, indirectly-heated gasification followed by steam reforming; high pressure, oxygen-blown gasification followed by steam reforming; and pyrolysis followed by partial oxidation. For each of the systems studied, the downstream process steps include shift conversion followed by hydrogen purification. Only the low pressure system produces hydrogen within the range of the current industry selling prices (typically $0.7--$2/kg, or $5--14/GJ on a HHV basis). A sensitivity analysis showed that, for the other two systems, in order to bring the hydrogen selling price down to $2/kg, negative-priced feedstocks would be required.

  12. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  13. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  14. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten, Brent W. Auvermann, Saqib Mukhtar, Sergio Caperada Cady R. Engler, Wyatte Harman Reddy JN Robert Deotte

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  15. Effects of Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Brown; Jeffrey Morris; Patrick Richards; Joel Mason

    2010-09-30

    Demonstrating effective treatment technologies and beneficial uses for oil and gas produced water is essential for producers who must meet environmental standards and deal with high costs associated with produced water management. Proven, effective produced-water treatment technologies coupled with comprehensive data regarding blending ratios for productive long-term irrigation will improve the state-of-knowledge surrounding produced-water management. Effective produced-water management scenarios such as cost-effective treatment and irrigation will discourage discharge practices that result in legal battles between stakeholder entities. The goal of this work is to determine the optimal blending ratio required for irrigating crops with CBNG and conventional oil and gas produced water treated by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), or electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) in order to maintain the long term physical integrity of soils and to achieve normal crop production. The soils treated with CBNG produced water were characterized with significantly lower SAR values compared to those impacted with conventional oil and gas produced water. The CBNG produced water treated with RO at the 100% treatment level was significantly different from the untreated produced water, while the 25%, 50% and 75% water treatment levels were not significantly different from the untreated water. Conventional oil and gas produced water treated with EDR and RO showed comparable SAR results for the water treatment technologies. There was no significant difference between the 100% treated produced water and the control (river water). The EDR water treatment resulted with differences at each level of treatment, which were similar to RO treated conventional oil and gas water. The 100% treated water had SAR values significantly lower than the 75% and 50% treatments, which were similar (not significantly different). The results of the greenhouse irrigation study found the differences in biomass

  16. Production of High-Quality Syngas via Biomass Gasification for Catalytic Synthesis of Liquid Fuels Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project 2015 Peer Review NC A&T Renewable Energy Center -Production of High-Quality Syngas via Biomass Gasification for Catalytic Synthesis of Liquid Fuels March 26 th 2015 Technology Area Review: Biomass Gasification Ghasem Shahbazi Biological Engineering North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University Goal Statement The major goal of this project is to study an integrated biomass gasification and hot syngas cleaning process to produce high- quality syngas from woody biomass and

  17. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai Brent Auvermann Saqib Mukhtar Sergio C. Capareda Cady Engler Wyatte Harman J.N. Reddy, Robert DeOtte David B. Parker Dr. B.A. Stewart

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  18. A Bio-Based Fuel Cell for Distributed Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony Terrinoni; Sean Gifford

    2008-06-30

    The technology we propose consists primarily of an improved design for increasing the energy density of a certain class of bio-fuel cell (BFC). The BFCs we consider are those which harvest electrons produced by microorganisms during their metabolism of organic substrates (e.g. glucose, acetate). We estimate that our technology will significantly enhance power production (per unit volume) of these BFCs, to the point where they could be employed as stand-alone systems for distributed energy generation.

  19. Production of biomass fuel for resource recovery: Trash recycling in Dade County, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauriello, P.J.; Brooks, K.G.

    1997-12-01

    Dade County, Florida has been in the forefront of resources recovery from municipal solid waste since the early 1980`s. The County completed its 3,000 tons per day (six days per week) refuse derived fuel waste-to-energy facility in 1982. The Resources Recovery facility is operated under a long-term agreement with Montenay-Dade, Ltd. The trash processing capability of this facility was upgraded in 1997 to process 860 tons per day (six days per week) of trash into a biomass fuel which is used off-site to produce electrical energy. Under current Florida law, facilities like trash-to-fuel that produce alternative clean-burning fuels for the production of energy may receive credit for up to one-half of the state`s 30 percent waste reduction goal.

  20. Simulation of an integrated system for the production of methane and single cell protein from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical model was developed to simulate the operation of an integrated system for the production of methane and single-cell algal protein from a variety of biomass energy crops or waste streams. Economic analysis was performed at the end of each simulation. The model was capable of assisting in the determination of design parameters by providing relative economic information for various strategies. Three configurations of anaerobic reactors were simulated. These included fed-bed reactors, conventional stirred tank reactors, and continuously expanding reactors. A generic anaerobic digestion process model, using lumped substrate parameters, was developed for use by type-specific reactor models. The generic anaerobic digestion model provided a tool for the testing of conversion efficiencies and kinetic parameters for a wide range of substrate types and reactor designs. Dynamic growth models were used to model the growth of algae and Eichornia crassipes was modeled as a function of daily incident radiation and temperature. The growth of Eichornia crassipes was modeled for the production of biomass as a substrate for digestion. Computer simulations with the system model indicated that tropical or subtropical locations offered the most promise for a viable system. The availability of large quantities of digestible waste and low land prices were found to be desirable in order to take advantage of the economies of scale. Other simulations indicated that poultry and swine manure produced larger biogas yields than cattle manure. The model was created in a modular fashion to allow for testing of a wide variety of unit operations. Coding was performed in the Pascal language for use on personal computers.

  1. Initial Assessment of U.S. Refineries for Purposes of Potential Bio-Based Oil Insertions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Charles J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburg, Corinne; Shinn, John

    2013-04-01

    In order to meet U.S. biofuel objectives over the coming decade the conversion of a broad range of biomass feedstocks, using diverse processing options, will be required. Further, the production of both gasoline and diesel biofuels will employ biomass conversion methods that produce wide boiling range intermediate oils requiring treatment similar to conventional refining processes (i.e. fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, and hydrotreating). As such, it is widely recognized that leveraging existing U.S. petroleum refining infrastructure is key to reducing overall capital demands. This study examines how existing U.S. refining location, capacities and conversion capabilities match in geography and processing capabilities with the needs projected from anticipated biofuels production.

  2. Hebei Jiantou Biomass Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jiantou Biomass Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hebei Jiantou Biomass Power Place: Jinzhou, Hebei Province, China Zip: 50000 Sector: Biomass Product: A company engages in...

  3. Florida Biomass Energy Consortium | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Consortium Jump to: navigation, search Name: Florida Biomass Energy Consortium Place: Florida Sector: Biomass Product: Association of biomass energy companies. References: Florida...

  4. Florida Biomass Energy Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Florida Biomass Energy Group Place: Gulf Breeze, Florida Zip: 32561 Sector: Biomass Product: Florida Biomass Energy Group is a Florida...

  5. The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1990-02-01

    The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; Shahab Sokhansanj

    2011-08-01

    A Review on Torrefaction Process and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System for Biomass Processing Jaya Shankar Tumuluru1, Shahab Sokhansanj2 and Christopher T. Wright1 Idaho National Laboratory Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technologies Department Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems Group Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Abstract Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-230 C and 270-280 C. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. There is a lack of literature on the design aspects of torrefaction reactor and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes (a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and (b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed torrefier for different capacities ranging from 25-1000 kg/hr, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and

  7. %22Trojan Horse%22 strategy for deconstruction of biomass for biofuels production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Sinclair, Michael B.; Yu, Eizadora; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Hadi, Masood Z.; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary

    2011-02-01

    Production of renewable biofuels to displace fossil fuels currently consumed in the transportation sector is a pressing multiagency national priority (DOE/USDA/EERE). Currently, nearly all fuel ethanol is produced from corn-derived starch. Dedicated 'energy crops' and agricultural waste are preferred long-term solutions for renewable, cheap, and globally available biofuels as they avoid some of the market pressures and secondary greenhouse gas emission challenges currently facing corn ethanol. These sources of lignocellulosic biomass are converted to fermentable sugars using a variety of chemical and thermochemical pretreatments, which disrupt cellulose and lignin cross-links, allowing exogenously added recombinant microbial enzymes to more efficiently hydrolyze the cellulose for 'deconstruction' into glucose. This process is plagued with inefficiencies, primarily due to the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, mass transfer issues during deconstruction, and low activity of recombinant deconstruction enzymes. Costs are also high due to the requirement for enzymes and reagents, and energy-intensive cumbersome pretreatment steps. One potential solution to these problems is found in synthetic biology-engineered plants that self-produce a suite of cellulase enzymes. Deconstruction can then be integrated into a one-step process, thereby increasing efficiency (cellulose-cellulase mass-transfer rates) and reducing costs. The unique aspects of our approach are the rationally engineered enzymes which become Trojan horses during pretreatment conditions. During this study we rationally engineered Cazy enzymes and then integrated them into plant cells by multiple transformation techniques. The regenerated plants were assayed for first expression of these messages and then for the resulting proteins. The plants were then subjected to consolidated bioprocessing and characterized in detail. Our results and possible implications of this work on developing dedicated energy crops

  8. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncoveredmore » that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.« less

  9. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  10. Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Feed and Gasification The Biomass Feed and Gasification Key Technology will advance scientific knowledge of the feeding and conversion of biomass and coal-biomass mixtures as essential upstream steps for production of liquid transportation fuels with a lower net GHG emissions than conventional oil refining. Activities support research for handling and processing of coal-biomass mixtures, ensuring those mixtures are compatible with feed delivery systems, identifying potential impacts on

  11. Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-09-15

    A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) case based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.

  12. Small-Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; McCabe, Kevin

    2015-04-30

    The research project advanced coal-to-liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes by testing and validating Chevron’s highly selective and active cobalt-zeolite hybrid Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst to convert gasifier syngas predominantly to gasoline, jet fuel and diesel range hydrocarbon liquids, thereby eliminating expensive wax upgrading operations The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) operated by Southern Company (SC) at Wilsonville, Alabama served as the host site for the gasifier slip-stream testing/demonstration. Southern Research designed, installed and commissioned a bench scale skid mounted FT reactor system (SR-CBTL test rig) that was fully integrated with a slip stream from SC/NCCC’s transport integrated gasifier (TRIGTM). The test-rig was designed to receive up to 5 lb/h raw syngas augmented with bottled syngas to adjust the H2/CO molar ratio to 2, clean it to cobalt FT catalyst specifications, and produce liquid FT products at the design capacity of 2 to 4 L/day. It employed a 2-inch diameter boiling water jacketed fixed-bed heat-exchange FT reactor incorporating Chevron’s catalyst in Intramicron’s high thermal conductivity micro-fibrous entrapped catalyst (MFEC) packing to efficiently remove heat produced by the highly exothermic FT reaction.

  13. Production of liquid fuels out of plant biomass and refuse: Methods, cost, potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woick, B.; Friedrich, R.

    1981-09-01

    Different ways of producing biomass and its conversion into high grade fuel for vehicles are reviewed with particular reference to physical and geographical factors, pertaining in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Even with the potentially small amount of biomass in the FRG, the fueling of diesel engines with rape oil or modified ethanol, which can be obtained from any cellulosic feedstock, seems to pose the fewest difficulties and promises greatest efficiency. However, the amount of fuel produced from biomass can probably only meet a very small percentage of the total amount required.

  14. Development of Agave as a dedicated biomass source: production of biofuels from whole plants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Rodriguez, Jr, Miguel; Thompson, Olivia A; Yang, Xiaohan; Yin, Hengfu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Agave species can grow well in semi-arid marginal agricultural lands around the world. Selected Agave species are used largely for alcoholic beverage production in Mexico. There are expanding research efforts to use the plentiful residues (bagasse) for ethanol production as the beverage manufacturing process only uses the juice from the central core of mature plants. Here we investigate the potential of over a dozen Agave species, including three from cold semi-arid regions of the United States, to produce biofuels using the whole plant. Results: Ethanol was readily produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from hydrolysate of ten whole Agaves with themore » use of a proper blend of biomass degrading enzymes that overcomes toxicity of most of the species tested. Unlike yeast fermentations, Clostridium beijerinckii produced butanol plus acetone from nine species tested. Butyric acid, a precursor of butanol, was also present due to incomplete conversion during the screening process. Since Agave contains high levels of free and poly-fructose which are readily destroyed by acidic pretreatment, a two step process was used developed to depolymerized poly-fructose while maintaining its fermentability. The hydrolysate from before and after dilute acid processing was used in C. beijerinckii acetone and butanol fermentations with selected Agave species. Conclusions: Results have shown Agave s potential to be a source of fermentable sugars beyond the existing beverage species to now include species previously unfermentable by yeast, including cold tolerant lines. This development may stimulate development of Agave as a dedicated feedstock for biofuels in semi-arid regions throughout the globe.« less

  15. Development of Agave as a dedicated biomass source: production of biofuels from whole plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Rodriguez, Jr, Miguel; Thompson, Olivia A; Yang, Xiaohan; Yin, Hengfu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Agave species can grow well in semi-arid marginal agricultural lands around the world. Selected Agave species are used largely for alcoholic beverage production in Mexico. There are expanding research efforts to use the plentiful residues (bagasse) for ethanol production as the beverage manufacturing process only uses the juice from the central core of mature plants. Here we investigate the potential of over a dozen Agave species, including three from cold semi-arid regions of the United States, to produce biofuels using the whole plant. Results: Ethanol was readily produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from hydrolysate of ten whole Agaves with the use of a proper blend of biomass degrading enzymes that overcomes toxicity of most of the species tested. Unlike yeast fermentations, Clostridium beijerinckii produced butanol plus acetone from nine species tested. Butyric acid, a precursor of butanol, was also present due to incomplete conversion during the screening process. Since Agave contains high levels of free and poly-fructose which are readily destroyed by acidic pretreatment, a two step process was used developed to depolymerized poly-fructose while maintaining its fermentability. The hydrolysate from before and after dilute acid processing was used in C. beijerinckii acetone and butanol fermentations with selected Agave species. Conclusions: Results have shown Agave s potential to be a source of fermentable sugars beyond the existing beverage species to now include species previously unfermentable by yeast, including cold tolerant lines. This development may stimulate development of Agave as a dedicated feedstock for biofuels in semi-arid regions throughout the globe.

  16. Fast pyrolysis of tropical biomass species and influence of water pretreatment on product distributions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe; Gupta, Vijai

    2016-03-15

    Here, the fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amountmore » of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.« less

  17. Combining Metabolic Engineering and Electrocatalysis. Application to the Production of Polyamides from Sugar

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Suastegui, Miguel; Matthiesen, John E.; Carraher, Jack M.; Hernandez, Nacu; Rodriguez Quiroz, Natalia; Okerlund, Adam; Cochran, Eric W.; Shao, Zengyi; Tessonnier, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-14

    Biorefineries aim to convert biomass into a spectrum of products ranging from biofuels to specialty chemicals. To achieve economically sustainable conversion, it is crucial to streamline the catalytic and downstream processing steps. In this work, a route that combines bio- and electrocatalysis to convert glucose into bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 is reported. An engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as the initial biocatalyst for the conversion of glucose into muconic acid, with the highest reported muconic acid titer of 559.5 mg L-1 in yeast. Without any separation, muconic acid was further electrocatalytically hydrogenated to 3-hexenedioic acid in 94 % yieldmore » despite the presence of biogenic impurities. Bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 (unsaturated polyamide-6,6) was finally obtained by polymerization of 3-hexenedioic acid with hexamethylenediamine.« less

  18. Eccleshall Biomass Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Eccleshall Biomass Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Eccleshall Biomass Ltd Place: Eccleshall, United Kingdom Zip: ST21 6JL Sector: Biomass Product: Developing a 2.2MW biomass...

  19. ESD Biomass Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ESD Biomass Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: ESD Biomass Ltd Place: Neston, United Kingdom Zip: SN13 9TZ Sector: Biomass Product: Acts as advisor to firms developing biomass...

  20. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  1. The Potential for Biomass District Energy Production in Port Graham, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Sink, Chugachmiut; Keeryanne Leroux, EERC

    2008-05-08

    This project was a collaboration between The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Chugachmiut – A Tribal organization Serving the Chugach Native People of Alaska and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Tribal Energy Program. It was conducted to determine the economic and technical feasibility for implementing a biomass energy system to service the Chugachmiut community of Port Graham, Alaska. The Port Graham tribe has been investigating opportunities to reduce energy costs and reliance on energy imports and support subsistence. The dramatic rise in the prices of petroleum fuels have been a hardship to the village of Port Graham, located on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. The Port Graham Village Council views the forest timber surrounding the village and the established salmon industry as potential resources for providing biomass energy power to the facilities in their community. Benefits of implementing a biomass fuel include reduced energy costs, energy independence, economic development, and environmental improvement. Fish oil–diesel blended fuel and indoor wood boilers are the most economical and technically viable options for biomass energy in the village of Port Graham. Sufficient regional biomass resources allow up to 50% in annual heating savings to the user, displacing up to 70% current diesel imports, with a simple payback of less than 3 years for an estimated capital investment under $300,000. Distributive energy options are also economically viable and would displace all imported diesel, albeit offering less savings potential and requiring greater capital. These include a large-scale wood combustion system to provide heat to the entire village, a wood gasification system for cogeneration of heat and power, and moderate outdoor wood furnaces providing heat to 3–4 homes or community buildings per furnace. Coordination of biomass procurement and delivery, ensuring resource reliability and technology acceptance, and arbitrating

  2. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  3. End-to-end gene fusions and their impact on the production of multifunctional biomass degrading enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizk, Mazen; Antranikian, Garabed; Elleuche, Skander

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multifunctional enzymes offer an interesting approach for biomass degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size and conformation of separate constructs play a role in the effectiveness of chimeras. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A connecting linker allows for maximal flexibility and increased thermostability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Genes with functional similarities are the best choice for fusion candidates. -- Abstract: The reduction of fossil fuels, coupled with its increase in price, has made the search for alternative energy resources more plausible. One of the topics gaining fast interest is the utilization of lignocellulose, the main component of plants. Its primary constituents, cellulose and hemicellulose, can be degraded by a series of enzymes present in microorganisms, into simple sugars, later used for bioethanol production. Thermophilic bacteria have proven to be an interesting source of enzymes required for hydrolysis since they can withstand high and denaturing temperatures, which are usually required for processes involving biomass degradation. However, the cost associated with the whole enzymatic process is staggering. A solution for cost effective and highly active production is through the construction of multifunctional enzyme complexes harboring the function of more than one enzyme needed for the hydrolysis process. There are various strategies for the degradation of complex biomass ranging from the regulation of the enzymes involved, to cellulosomes, and proteins harboring more than one enzymatic activity. In this review, the construction of multifunctional biomass degrading enzymes through end-to-end gene fusions, and its impact on production and activity by choosing the enzymes and linkers is assessed.

  4. Biomass Program Biopower Factsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    Generating electricity and thermal energy from biomass has the potential to help meet national goals for renewable energy. The forest products industry has used biomass for power and heat for many decades, yet widespread use of biomass to supply electricity to the U.S. power grid and other applications is relatively recent.

  5. Wastewater treatment with biomass carriers made from steelmaking by-product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aritome, Kiyoshi; Miki, Osamu; Okuno, Yoshio

    1995-07-01

    It is economical to use microorganisms in wastewater treatment. In steelmaking, ammonia liquor from coke-oven plant, for example, is treated using microorganisms. To treat wastewater efficiently in biological processes, the following conditions are necessary: appropriate conditions for activities of microorganisms; proper concentration of microorganisms in reactor; effective contact of wastewater and microorganisms; and reliable separation of treated wastewater and microorganisms. Three types of biomass carriers made from granulated slag to satisfy these conditions have been developed. Research efforts have been under way to apply these carriers in reduction of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater. Developed biomass carriers can reduce the volume of COD oxidation reactor and promise easy operation compared with the conventional activated sludge processes. This result has been substantialized in sewage treatment facilities, factory wastewater treatment facilities and deodorization facilities. For the future, nitrate reduction in stainless pickling wastewater with fixed-bed biomass carriers will be also investigated.

  6. Exploring the Utilization of Complex Algal Communities to Address Algal Pond Crash and Increase Annual Biomass Production for Algal Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Cyd E.

    2014-03-25

    This white paper briefly reviews the research literature exploring complex algal communities as a means of increasing algal biomass production via increased tolerance, resilience, and resistance to a variety of abiotic and biotic perturbations occurring within harvesting timescales. This paper identifies what data are available and whether more research utilizing complex communities is needed to explore the potential of complex algal community stability (CACS) approach as a plausible means to increase biomass yields regardless of ecological context and resulting in decreased algal-based fuel prices by reducing operations costs. By reviewing the literature for what we do and do not know, in terms of CACS methodologies, this report will provide guidance for future research addressing pond crash phenomena.

  7. Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

    2013-10-29

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  8. High temperature pre-digestion of corn stover biomass for improved product yields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brunecky, Roman; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Taylor, Larry E.; Tao, Ling; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2014-12-03

    Introduction: The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks remains a key step in the commercialization of biofuels. One of the barriers to cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars remains the enzymatic saccharification process step. Here, we describe a novel hybrid processing approach comprising enzymatic pre-digestion with newly characterized hyperthermophilic enzyme cocktails followed by conventional saccharification with commercial enzyme preparations. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover was subjected to this new procedure to test its efficacy. Thermal tolerant enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii were used to pre-digest pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures prior to saccharification by the commercial cellulase formulation.more » Results: We report that pre-digestion of biomass with these enzymes at elevated temperatures prior to addition of the commercial cellulase formulation increased conversion rates and yields when compared to commercial cellulase formulation alone under low solids conditions. In conclusion, Our results demonstrating improvements in rates and yields of conversion point the way forward for hybrid biomass conversion schemes utilizing catalytic amounts of hyperthermophilic enzymes.« less

  9. Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

    2013-07-02

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  10. High temperature pre-digestion of corn stover biomass for improved product yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunecky, Roman; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Taylor, Larry E.; Tao, Ling; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2014-12-03

    Introduction: The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks remains a key step in the commercialization of biofuels. One of the barriers to cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars remains the enzymatic saccharification process step. Here, we describe a novel hybrid processing approach comprising enzymatic pre-digestion with newly characterized hyperthermophilic enzyme cocktails followed by conventional saccharification with commercial enzyme preparations. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover was subjected to this new procedure to test its efficacy. Thermal tolerant enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii were used to pre-digest pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures prior to saccharification by the commercial cellulase formulation. Results: We report that pre-digestion of biomass with these enzymes at elevated temperatures prior to addition of the commercial cellulase formulation increased conversion rates and yields when compared to commercial cellulase formulation alone under low solids conditions. In conclusion, Our results demonstrating improvements in rates and yields of conversion point the way forward for hybrid biomass conversion schemes utilizing catalytic amounts of hyperthermophilic enzymes.

  11. NREL: Biomass Research - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectrometer analyzes vapors during the gasification and pyrolysis processes. NREL's biomass projects are designed to advance the production of liquid transportation fuels from...

  12. High-yield hydrogen production from biomass by in vitro metabolic engineering: Mixed sugars coutilization and kinetic modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rollin, Joseph A.; Martin del Campo, Julia; Myung, Suwan; Sun, Fangfang; You, Chun; Bakovic, Allison; Castro, Roberto; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K.; Wu, Chang-Hao; Adams, Michael W. W.; et al

    2015-04-06

    The use of hydrogen (H2) as a fuel offers enhanced energy conversion efficiency and tremendous potential to decrease greenhouse gas emissions, but producing it in a distributed, carbon-neutral, low-cost manner requires new technologies. Herein we demonstrate the complete conversion of glucose and xylose from plant biomass to H2 and CO2 based on an in vitro synthetic enzymatic pathway. Glucose and xylose were simultaneously converted to H2 with a yield of two H2 per carbon, the maximum possible yield. Parameters of a nonlinear kinetic model were fitted with experimental data using a genetic algorithm, and a global sensitivity analysis was usedmore » to identify the enzymes that have the greatest impact on reaction rate and yield. After optimizing enzyme loadings using this model, volumetric H2 productivity was increased 3-fold to 32 mmol H2∙L₋1∙h₋1. The productivity was further enhanced to 54 mmol H2∙L₋1∙h₋1 by increasing reaction temperature, substrate, and enzyme concentrations—an increase of 67-fold compared with the initial studies using this method. The production of hydrogen from locally produced biomass is a promising means to achieve global green energy production.« less

  13. High-yield hydrogen production from biomass by in vitro metabolic engineering: Mixed sugars coutilization and kinetic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rollin, Joseph A.; Martin del Campo, Julia; Myung, Suwan; Sun, Fangfang; You, Chun; Bakovic, Allison; Castro, Roberto; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K.; Wu, Chang-Hao; Adams, Michael W. W.; Senger, Ryan S.; Zhang, Y. -H. Percival

    2015-04-06

    The use of hydrogen (H2) as a fuel offers enhanced energy conversion efficiency and tremendous potential to decrease greenhouse gas emissions, but producing it in a distributed, carbon-neutral, low-cost manner requires new technologies. Herein we demonstrate the complete conversion of glucose and xylose from plant biomass to H2 and CO2 based on an in vitro synthetic enzymatic pathway. Glucose and xylose were simultaneously converted to H2 with a yield of two H2 per carbon, the maximum possible yield. Parameters of a nonlinear kinetic model were fitted with experimental data using a genetic algorithm, and a global sensitivity analysis was used to identify the enzymes that have the greatest impact on reaction rate and yield. After optimizing enzyme loadings using this model, volumetric H2 productivity was increased 3-fold to 32 mmol H2∙L₋1∙h₋1. The productivity was further enhanced to 54 mmol H2∙L₋1∙h₋1 by increasing reaction temperature, substrate, and enzyme concentrations—an increase of 67-fold compared with the initial studies using this method. The production of hydrogen from locally produced biomass is a promising means to achieve global green energy production.

  14. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten, the Proctor Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites, for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A separate Appendix provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. 26 figs., 121 tabs.

  15. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  16. Biomass Conversion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Feedstocks to Final Products To efficiently convert algae, diverse types of cellulosic biomass, and emerging feedstocks into renewable fuels, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research, development, and demonstration of technologies. This research will help ensure that these renewable fuels are compatible with today's vehicles and infrastructure. Advanced biofuels are part of the United States' "all-of-the-above" energy strategy to develop domestic energy resources and win

  17. Design Concepts for Co-Production of Power, Fuels & Chemicals Via Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, A. D.; Chen, Q.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of the program is to develop design concepts, incorporating advanced technologies in areas such as oxygen production, feed systems, gas cleanup, component separations and gas turbines, for integrated and economically viable coal and biomass fed gasification facilities equipped with carbon capture and storage for the following scenarios: (i) coproduction of power along with hydrogen, (ii) coproduction of power along with fuels, (iii) coproduction of power along with petrochemicals, and (iv) coproduction of power along with agricultural chemicals. To achieve this goal, specifically the following objectives are met in this proposed project: (i) identify advanced technology options and innovative preliminary design concepts that synergistically integrate plant subsections, (ii) develop steady state system simulations to predict plant efficiency and environmental signature, (iii) develop plant cost estimates by capacity factoring major subsystems or by major equipment items where required, and then capital, operating and maintenance cost estimates, and (iv) perform techno- economic analyses for the above described coproduction facilities. Thermal efficiencies for the electricity only cases with 90% carbon capture are 38.26% and 36.76% (HHV basis) with the bituminous and the lignite feedstocks respectively. For the coproduction cases (where 50% of the energy exported is in the form of electricity), the electrical efficiency, as expected, is highest for the hydrogen coproduction cases while lowest for the higher alcohols (ethanol) coproduction cases. The electrical efficiencies for Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases are slightly higher than those for the methanol coproduction cases but it should be noted that the methanol (as well as the higher alcohol) coproduction cases produce the finished coproduct while the Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases produce a coproduct that requires further processing in a refinery. The cross comparison of the thermal

  18. Jiangsu Guoxin Rudong Biomass Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guoxin Rudong Biomass Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jiangsu Guoxin Rudong Biomass Power Co Ltd Place: Rudong, Jiangsu Province, China Sector: Biomass Product: The...

  19. Liuzhou Xinneng Biomass Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Xinneng Biomass Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Liuzhou Xinneng Biomass Power Co Ltd Place: Guangxi Autonomous Region, China Sector: Biomass Product: China-based...

  20. Sri Balaji Biomass Power Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sri Balaji Biomass Power Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sri Balaji Biomass Power Pvt Ltd Place: Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Zip: 500003 Sector: Biomass Product:...

  1. Sinewave Biomass Power Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sinewave Biomass Power Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sinewave Biomass Power Pvt. Ltd. Place: Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India Zip: 416 012 Sector: Biomass Product:...

  2. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Center for Biomass Utilization Jump to: navigation, search Name: EERC Center for Biomass Utilization Place: Grand Forks, North Dakota Sector: Biofuels, Biomass Product: The mission...

  3. Yantai Tianli Biomass CHP Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tianli Biomass CHP Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Yantai Tianli Biomass CHP Co Ltd Place: Yantai, Shandong Province, China Zip: 265300 Sector: Biomass Product:...

  4. Huaian Huapeng Biomass Electricity Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Huaian Huapeng Biomass Electricity Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Huaian Huapeng Biomass Electricity Co. Place: Jiangsu Province, China Sector: Biomass Product: China-based...

  5. USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Power Producers Alliance Jump to: navigation, search Name: USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance Place: Sacramento, California Sector: Biomass Product: National trade...

  6. Zhulu Huada Biomass Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zhulu Huada Biomass Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zhulu Huada Biomass Co Ltd Place: Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China Sector: Biomass Product: Zhangjiakou-based...

  7. Buena Vista Biomass Power LCC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Power LCC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Buena Vista Biomass Power LCC Place: California Sector: Biomass Product: California-based firm developing and operating an 18MW...

  8. Taylor Biomass Energy LLC TBE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Energy LLC TBE Jump to: navigation, search Name: Taylor Biomass Energy, LLC (TBE) Place: Montgomery, New York Zip: 12549-9900 Sector: Biomass Product: Montgomery-based...

  9. Hebei Milestone Biomass Energy Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Milestone Biomass Energy Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hebei Milestone Biomass Energy Co Ltd Place: Hebei Province, China Zip: 50051 Sector: Biomass Product: China-based...

  10. Shanxi Milestone Biomass Energy Development Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Milestone Biomass Energy Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanxi Milestone Biomass Energy Development Co Ltd Place: China Sector: Biomass Product: China-based...

  11. Biomass Research and Development Act of 2000

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Conversion of biomass into biobased industrial products offers outstanding potential for benefit to the national interest.

  12. Feasibility study of the commercial production of densified biomass fuel at Klamath Falls, Oregon. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    The project began with assessments of local biomass resources which could serve as feedstock for a DBF plant, and the potential customer markets for DBF. Based on these analyses, a pilot densification plant was designed and installed for purposes of trial operations and evaluation. In addition, exploration for geothermal resources was conducted in order to confirm a suitable feedstock dehydration heat source. The results of this exploration, and of the pilot plant's trial operations, were then used to determine requirements for a commercial-scale DBF plant, and the feasibility of upgrading the pilot plant for commercial-scale operations.

  13. Maturation of biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology pathways for rapid expansion of biofuels production: A system dynamics perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian W.; Hsu, Dave D.; Inman, Daniel; Peterson, Steven O.

    2014-08-12

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system-dynamics simulation model intended to explore the potential for rapid expansion of the biofuels industry. The model is not predictive — it uses scenario assumptions based on various types of data to simulate industry development, emphasizing how incentives and technological learning-by-doing might accelerate industry growth. The BSM simulates major sectors of the biofuels industry, including feedstock production and logistics, conversion, distribution, and end uses, as well as interactions among sectors. The model represents conversion of biomass to biofuels as a set of technology pathways, each of which has allowable feedstocks, capital and operating costs, allowable products, and other defined characteristics. This study and the BSM address bioenergy modeling analytic needs that were identified in recent literature reviews. Simulations indicate that investments are most effective at expanding biofuels production through learning-by-doing when they are coordinated with respect to timing, pathway, and target sector within the biofuels industry. Effectiveness metrics include timing and magnitude of increased production, incentive cost and cost effectiveness, and avoidance of windfall profits. Investment costs and optimal investment targets have inherent risks and uncertainties, such as the relative value of investment in more-mature versus less mature pathways. These can be explored through scenarios, but cannot be precisely predicted. Dynamic competition, including competition for cellulosic feedstocks and ethanol market shares, intensifies during times of rapid growth. Ethanol production increases rapidly, even up to Renewable Fuel Standards-targeted volumes of biofuel, in simulations that allow higher blending proportions of ethanol in gasoline-fueled vehicles. Published 2014. This document is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Biofuels, Bioproducts, Biorefining published by John Wiley

  14. Maturation of biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology pathways for rapid expansion of biofuels production: A system dynamics perspective

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian W.; Hsu, Dave D.; Inman, Daniel; Peterson, Steven O.

    2014-08-12

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system-dynamics simulation model intended to explore the potential for rapid expansion of the biofuels industry. The model is not predictive — it uses scenario assumptions based on various types of data to simulate industry development, emphasizing how incentives and technological learning-by-doing might accelerate industry growth. The BSM simulates major sectors of the biofuels industry, including feedstock production and logistics, conversion, distribution, and end uses, as well as interactions among sectors. The model represents conversion of biomass to biofuels as a set of technology pathways, each of which has allowable feedstocks, capital and operatingmore » costs, allowable products, and other defined characteristics. This study and the BSM address bioenergy modeling analytic needs that were identified in recent literature reviews. Simulations indicate that investments are most effective at expanding biofuels production through learning-by-doing when they are coordinated with respect to timing, pathway, and target sector within the biofuels industry. Effectiveness metrics include timing and magnitude of increased production, incentive cost and cost effectiveness, and avoidance of windfall profits. Investment costs and optimal investment targets have inherent risks and uncertainties, such as the relative value of investment in more-mature versus less mature pathways. These can be explored through scenarios, but cannot be precisely predicted. Dynamic competition, including competition for cellulosic feedstocks and ethanol market shares, intensifies during times of rapid growth. Ethanol production increases rapidly, even up to Renewable Fuel Standards-targeted volumes of biofuel, in simulations that allow higher blending proportions of ethanol in gasoline-fueled vehicles. Published 2014. This document is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Biofuels, Bioproducts, Biorefining published by John

  15. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  16. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per-ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that, due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions and differing harvest, collection and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  17. WeBiomass Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 05701 Region: Greater Boston Area Sector: Biomass Product: Commercial Biomass Boiler Systems Website: www.webiomass.com Coordinates: 43.58070919775, -72.971301209182...

  18. Bioware Biomass Thermoconversion Technologies | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bioware Biomass Thermoconversion Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bioware - Biomass Thermoconversion Technologies Place: Campinas, Brazil Zip: 13084-971 Product: The...

  19. Biomass Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biomass Energy Resources Place: Dallas, Texas Product: A start up fuel processing technology References: Biomass Energy Resources1...

  20. Long Term Processing Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis plus Hydroconversion (IH2) for the Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; McLeod, Celeste; Del Paggio, Alan; Gephart, John; Starr, Jack; Hahn, John

    2013-06-09

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of a new, economical, technology named integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The life cycle analysis (LCA) shows that the use of the IH2 process to convert wood to gasoline and diesel results in a greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared to that found with fossil derived fuels. The technoeconomic analysis showed the conversion of wood using the IH2 process can produce gasoline and diesel at less than $2.00/gallon. In this project, the previously reported semi-continuous small scale IH2 test results were confirmed in a continuous 50 kg/day pilot plant. The continuous IH2 pilot plant used in this project was operated round the clock for over 750 hours and showed good pilot plant operability while consistently producing 26-28 wt % yields of high quality gasoline and diesel product. The IH2 catalyst showed good stability, although more work on catalyst stability is recommended. Additional work is needed to commercialize the IH2 technology including running large particle size biomass, modeling the hydropyrolysis step, studying the effects of process variables and building and operating a 1-50 ton/day demonstration scale plant. The IH2 is a true game changing technology by utilizing U.S. domestic renewable biomass resources to create transportation fuels, sufficient in quantity and quality to substantially reduce our reliance on foreign crude oil. Thus, the IH2 technology offers a path to genuine energy independence for the U. S., along with the creation of a significant number of new U.S. jobs to plant, grow, harvest, and process biomass crops into fungible

  1. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Combined Sustainability Assessment and Techno-Economic Analysis for the Production of Biomass-Derived High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit

    2015-11-13

    Conversion technologies for biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are being actively developed. Converting biomass into advanced hydrocarbon fuels requires detailed assessments to help prioritize research; techno-economic analysis (TEA) is a long established tool used to assess feasibility and progress. TEA provides information needed to make informed judgments about the viability of any given conceptual conversion process; it is particularly useful to identify technical barriers and measure progress toward overcoming those barriers. Expansion of the cellulosic biofuels industry at the scale needed to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard goals is also expected to have environmental impacts. Hence, the success of the biofuels industry depends not only on economic viability, but also on environmental sustainability. A biorefinery process that is economically feasible but suffers from key sustainability drawbacks is not likely to represent a long-term solution to replace fossil-derived fuels. Overarching concerns like environmental sustainability need to be addressed for biofuels production. Combined TEA and environmental sustainability assessment of emerging pathways helps facilitate biorefinery designs that are both economically feasible and minimally impactful to the environment. This study focuses on environmental sustainability assessment and techno-economic analysis for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via gasification and methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates. Results from the conceptual process design with economic analysis, along with the quantification and assessment of the environmental sustainability, are presented and discussed. Sustainability metrics associated with the production of high-octane gasoline include carbon conversion efficiency, consumptive water use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy consumption, energy return on investment and net energy value.

  3. Top Value Added Chemicals From Biomass: I. Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werpy, Todd A.; Holladay, John E.; White, James F.

    2004-11-01

    This report identifies twelve building block chemicals that can be produced from sugars via biological or chemical conversions. The twelve building blocks can be subsequently converted to a number of high-value bio-based chemicals or materials. Building block chemicals, as considered for this analysis, are molecules with multiple functional groups that possess the potential to be transformed into new families of useful molecules. The twelve sugar-based building blocks are 1,4-diacids (succinic, fumaric and malic), 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, 3-hydroxy propionic acid, aspartic acid, glucaric acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, glycerol, sorbitol, and xylitol/arabinitol. In addition to building blocks, the report outlines the central technical barriers that are preventing the widespread use of biomass for products and chemicals.

  4. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin; Elander, Richard; Hennessey, Susan M.

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  5. Fundamentals of thermochemical biomass conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overend, R.P.; Milne, T.A.; Mudge, L.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Wood and biomass ultrastructure; Cellulose, hemicellulose and extractives; Lignin; Pretreatment of biomass for thermochemical biomass conversion; A kinetic isotope effect in the thermal dehydration of cellobiose; Gasification and liquefaction of forest products in supercritical water; Thermochemical fractionation and liquefaction of wood; The pyrolysis and gasification of wood in molten hydroxide eutectics; Influence of alkali carbonates on biomass volatilization; Flash pyrolysis of biomass with reactive and non-reactive gases; Pyrolytic reactions and biomass; Product formation in the pyrolysis of large wood particles; The pyrolysis under vacuum of aspen poplar; Simulation of kraft lignin pyrolysis; and Kinetics of wood gasification by carbon dioxide and steam.

  6. Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrik, Michael; Ruhl, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels. Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

  7. Development of Genomic and Genetic Tools for Foxtail Millet, and Use of These Tools in the Improvement of Biomass Production for Bioenergy Crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doust, Andrew, N.

    2011-11-11

    The overall aim of this research was to develop genomic and genetic tools in foxtail millet that will be useful in improving biomass production in bioenergy crops such as switchgrass, napier grass, and pearl millet. A variety of approaches have been implemented, and our lab has been primarily involved in genome analysis and quantitative genetic analysis. Our progress in these activities has been substantially helped by the genomic sequence of foxtail millet produced by the Joint Genome Institute (Bennetzen et al., in prep). In particular, the annotation and analysis of candidate genes for architecture, biomass production and flowering has led to new insights into the control of branching and flowering time, and has shown how closely related flowering time is to vegetative architectural development and biomass accumulation. The differences in genetic control identified at high and low density plantings have direct relevance to the breeding of bioenergy grasses that are tolerant of high planting densities. The developmental analyses have shown how plant architecture changes over time and may indicate which genes may best be manipulated at various times during development to obtain required biomass characteristics. This data contributes to the overall aim of significantly improving genetic and genomic tools in foxtail millet that can be directed to improvement of bioenergy grasses such as switchgrass, where it is important to maximize vegetative growth for greatest biomass production.

  8. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production from Biomass via Hot-Vapor-Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; French, Richard; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-08-14

    Hot-vapor filtered bio-oils were produced from two different biomass feedstocks, oak and switchgrass, and the oils were evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. Hot-vapor filtering reduced bio-oil yields and increased gas yields. The yields of fuel carbon as bio-oil were reduced by ten percentage points by hot-vapor filtering for both feedstocks. The unfiltered bio-oils were evaluated alongside the filtered bio-oils using a fixed bed catalytic hydrotreating test. These tests showed good processing results using a two-stage catalytic hydroprocessing strategy. Equal-sized catalyst beds, a sulfided Ru on carbon catalyst bed operated at 220°C and a sulfided CoMo on alumina catalyst bed operated at 400°C were used with the entire reactor at 100 atm operating pressure. The products from the four tests were similar. The light oil phase product was fully hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection, while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.3 to 2.0%. The density of the products varied from 0.80 g/ml up to 0.86 g/ml over the period of the test with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 1.79 down to 1.57, suggesting some loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the suite of liquid fuel products from the process and the activity of the catalyst in relationship to the existing catalyst lifetime barrier for the technology.

  9. An Integrated Modeling and Data Management Strategy for Cellulosic Biomass Production Decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Muth Jr.; K. Mark Bryden; Joshua B. Koch

    2012-07-01

    Emerging cellulosic bioenergy markets can provide land managers with additional options for crop production decisions. Integrating dedicated bioenergy crops such as perennial grasses and short rotation woody species within the agricultural landscape can have positive impacts on several environmental processes including increased soil organic matter in degraded soils, reduced sediment loading in watersheds, lower green house gas (GHG) fluxes, and reduced nutrient loading in watersheds. Implementing this type of diverse bioenergy production system in a way that maximizes potential environmental benefits requires a dynamic integrated modeling and data management strategy. This paper presents a strategy for designing diverse bioenergy cropping systems within the existing row crop production landscape in the midwestern United States. The integrated model developed quantifies a wide range environmental processes including soil erosion from wind and water, soil organic matter changes, and soil GHG fluxes within a geospatial data management framework. This framework assembles and formats information from multiple spatial and temporal scales. The data assembled includes yield and productivity data from harvesting equipment at the 1m scale, surface topography data from LiDAR mapping at the less than 1m scale, soil data from US soil survey databases at the 10m to 100m scale, and climate data at the county scale. These models and data tools are assembled into an integrated computational environment that is used to determine sustainable removal rates for agricultural residues for bioenergy production at the sub-field scale under a wide range of land management practices. Using this integrated model, innovative management practices including cover cropping are then introduced and evaluated for their impact on bioenergy production and important environmental processes. The impacts of introducing dedicated energy crops onto high-risk landscape positions currently being manage in

  10. Field-to-Fuel Performance Testing of Various Biomass Feedstocks: Production and Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-Oil to Refinery Blendstocks (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, D.; Westover, T.; Howe, D.; Evans, R.; French, R.; Kutnyakov, I.

    2014-09-01

    Large-scale, cost-competitive deployment of thermochemical technologies to replace petroleum oil with domestic biofuels will require inclusion of high volumes of low-cost, diverse biomass types into the supply chain. However, a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of feedstock thermo-physical and chemical variability, particularly inorganic matter (ash), on the yield and product distribution

  11. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of biomass. Phase 1 -- Technical and business feasibility study, technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The nine-month Phase 1 feasibility study was directed toward the application of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) for the economical production and end use of hydrogen from renewable energy sources such as sewage sludge, pulp waste, agricultural wastes, and ultimately the combustible portion of municipal solid waste. Unique in comparison to other gasifier systems, the properties of supercritical water (SCW) are ideal for processing biowastes with high moisture content or contain toxic or hazardous contaminants. During Phase I, an end-to-end SCWG system was evaluated. A range of process options was initially considered for each of the key subsystems. This was followed by tests of sewage sludge feed preparation, pumping and gasification in the SCW pilot plant facility. Based on the initial process review and successful pilot-scale testing, engineering evaluations were performed that defined a baseline system for the production, storage and end use of hydrogen. The results compare favorably with alternative biomass gasifiers currently being developed. The results were then discussed with regional wastewater treatment facility operators to gain their perspective on the proposed commercial SCWG systems and to help define the potential market. Finally, the technical and business plans were developed based on perceived market needs and the projected capital and operating costs of SCWG units. The result is a three-year plan for further development, culminating in a follow-on demonstration test of a 5 MT/day system at a local wastewater treatment plant.

  12. Genetic improvement and evaluation of black cottonwood for short- rotation biomass production. Final report, 1987--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stettler, R.F.; Hinckley, T.M.; Heilman, P.E.; Bradshaw, H.D. Jr.

    1993-04-30

    This project was initiated in 1978 to serve three objectives: (1) develop genetically improved poplar cultivars offering increased productivity under short-rotation culture; (2) identify the major components of productivity in poplar and determine ways in which they can be manipulated, genetically and culturally; and (3) engage in technology transfer to regional industry and agencies so as to make poplar culture in the Pacific Northwest economically feasible. The project is aimed at capturing natural variation in the native black cottonwood. Populus trichocarpa T & G, and enhancing it through selective breeding. Major emphasis has been placed on hybridization of black cottonwood with P deltoides and P maximowiczii, more recently with p nigra. First-generation (F{sub 1}) hybrids have consistently outperformed black cottonwood by a factor of 1.5.-2. The high yields of woody biomass obtained from these clonally propagated hybrids, in rotations of 4-7 years, have fostered the establishment of large-scale plantations by the pulp and paper industry in the region. Physiological studies have helped to elucidate hybrid superiority and several of the underlying mechanisms.

  13. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  14. Conceptual process design and economics for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass through methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Humbird, David; Schaidle, Joshua; Biddy, Mary

    2015-10-28

    This paper describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas via indirect gasification, gas clean-up via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and the homologation of DME over a zeolite catalyst to high-octane gasoline-range hydrocarbon products. The current process configuration has similarities to conventional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies, but there are key distinctions, specifically regarding the product slate, catalysts, and reactor conditions. A techno-economicmore » analysis is performed to investigate the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock. The design features a processing daily capacity of 2000 tonnes (2205 short tons) of dry biomass. The process yields 271 liters of liquid fuel per dry tonne of biomass (65 gal/dry ton), for an annual fuel production rate of 178 million liters (47 MM gal) at 90% on-stream time. The estimated total capital investment for an nth-plant is $438 million. The resulting minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) is $0.86 per liter or $3.25 per gallon in 2011 US dollars. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance. Sustainability metrics for the conversion process are quantified and assessed. The potential premium value of the high-octane gasoline blendstock is examined and found to be at least as competitive as fossil-derived blendstocks. A simple blending strategy is proposed to demonstrate the potential for blending the biomass-derived blendstock with petroleum-derived intermediates. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining published by Society of Industrial Chemistry and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.« less

  15. Conceptual process design and economics for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass through methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Humbird, David; Schaidle, Joshua; Biddy, Mary

    2015-10-28

    This paper describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas via indirect gasification, gas clean-up via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and the homologation of DME over a zeolite catalyst to high-octane gasoline-range hydrocarbon products. The current process configuration has similarities to conventional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies, but there are key distinctions, specifically regarding the product slate, catalysts, and reactor conditions. A techno-economic analysis is performed to investigate the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock. The design features a processing daily capacity of 2000 tonnes (2205 short tons) of dry biomass. The process yields 271 liters of liquid fuel per dry tonne of biomass (65 gal/dry ton), for an annual fuel production rate of 178 million liters (47 MM gal) at 90% on-stream time. The estimated total capital investment for an nth-plant is $438 million. The resulting minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) is $0.86 per liter or $3.25 per gallon in 2011 US dollars. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance. Sustainability metrics for the conversion process are quantified and assessed. The potential premium value of the high-octane gasoline blendstock is examined and found to be at least as competitive as fossil-derived blendstocks. A simple blending strategy is proposed to demonstrate the potential for blending the biomass-derived blendstock with petroleum-derived intermediates. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining published by Society of Industrial Chemistry and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 2007 Biomass Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Biomass Program is actively working with public and private partners to meet production and technology needs. With the corn ethanol market growing steadily, researchers are unlocking the potential of non-food biomass sources, such as switchgrass and forest and agricultural residues. In this way, the Program is helping to ensure that cost-effective technologies will be ready to support production goals for advanced biofuels.

  17. Biomass Resource Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:22pm Addthis Biomass resources that are used directly as a fuel, or converted to another form or energy product that are available on a renewable basis are commonly referred to as feedstocks. Biomass Feedstocks Biomass feedstocks include dedicated energy crops, agricultural crops, forestry residues, algae, biomass processing residues, municipal waste, and animal waste. Dedicated Energy Crops Dedicated energy crops are non-food

  18. Biomass Feedstocks | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development » Biomass Feedstocks Biomass Feedstocks An alternate text version of this video is available online. A feedstock is defined as any renewable, biological material that can be used directly as a fuel, or converted to another form of fuel or energy product. Biomass feedstocks are the plant and algal materials used to derive fuels like ethanol, butanol, biodiesel, and other hydrocarbon fuels. Examples of biomass feedstocks include corn starch, sugarcane juice, crop

  19. Co-production of decarbonized synfuels and electricity from coal + biomass with CO{sub 2} capture and storage: an Illinois case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Larson; Giulia Fiorese; Guangjian Liu; Robert H. Williams; Thomas G. Kreutz; Stefano Consonni

    2010-07-01

    Energy, carbon, and economic performances are estimated for facilities co-producing Fischer-Tropsch Liquid (FTL) fuels and electricity from a co-feed of biomass and coal in Illinois, with capture and storage of by-product CO{sub 2}. The estimates include detailed modeling of supply systems for corn stover or mixed prairie grasses (MPG) and of feedstock conversion facilities. Biomass feedstock costs in Illinois (delivered at a rate of one million tonnes per year, dry basis) are $ 3.8/GJ{sub HHV} for corn stover and $ 7.2/GJ{sub HHV} for MPG. Under a strong carbon mitigation policy, the economics of co-producing low-carbon fuels and electricity from a co-feed of biomass and coal in Illinois are promising. An extrapolation to the United States of the results for Illinois suggests that nationally significant amounts of low-carbon fuels and electricity could be produced this way.

  20. Combined Grinding and Drying of Biomass in One Operation Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokhansanj, S

    2008-06-26

    First American Scientific Corporation (FASC) has developed a unique and innovative grinder/dryer called KDS Micronex. The KS (Kinetic Disintegration System) combines two operations of grinding and drying into a single operation which reduces dependence on external heat input. The machine captures the heat of comminution and combines it will centrifugal forces to expedite moisture extraction from wet biomass. Because it uses mechanical forces rather than providing direct heat to perform the drying operation, it is a simpler machine and uses less energy than conventional grinding and drying operations which occur as two separate steps. The entire compact unit can be transported on a flatbed trailer to the site where biomass is available. Hence, the KDS Micronex is a technology that enables inexpensive pretreatment of waste materials and biomass. A well prepared biomass can be used as feed, fuel or fertilizer instead of being discarded. Electricity and chemical feedstock produced from such biomass would displace the use of fossil fuels and no net greenhouse gas emissions would result from such bio-based operations. Organic fertilizers resulting from the KS Micronex grinding/drying process will be pathogen-free unlike raw animal manures. The feasibility tests on KS during Phase I showed that a prototype machine can be developed, field tested and the technology demonstrated for commercial applications. The present KDS machine can remove up to 400 kg/h of water from a wet feed material. Since biomass processors demand a finished product that is only 10% moist and most raw materials like corn stover, bagasse, layer manure, cow dung, and waste wood have moisture contents of the order of 50%, this water removal rate translates to a production rate of roughly half a ton per hour. this is too small for most processors who are unwilling to acquire multiple machines because of the added complexity to the feed and product removal systems. The economics suffer due to small

  1. Energy, economic and environmental implications of production of grasses as biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downing, M.; McLaughlin, S.; Walsh, M.

    1995-08-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  2. Basic mechanisms of photosynthesis and applications to improved production and conversion of biomass to fuels and chemical products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Sayed, M.; Greenbaum, E.; Wasielewski, M.

    1996-09-01

    Natural photosynthesis, the result of 3.5 billion years of evolutionary experimentation, is the best proven, functional solar energy conversion technology. It is responsible for filling the vast majority of humanity`s energy, nutritional, and materials needs. Understanding the basic physical chemical principles underlying photosynthesis as a working model system is vital to further exploitation of this natural technology. These principles can be used to improve or modify natural photosynthesis so that it is more efficient or so that it can produce unusual products such as hydrogen, methane, methanol, ethanol, diesel fuel substitutes, biodegradable materials, or other high value chemical products. Principles garnered from the natural process can also be used to design artificial photosynthetic devices that employ analogs of natural antenna and reaction center function, self-assembly and repair concepts, photoinduced charge transfer processes, photoprotection, and dark reactions that facilitate catalytic action to convert light into, useful chemical or electrical energy. The present broad understanding of many structural and functional aspects of photosynthesis has resulted from rapid recent research progress. X-ray structures of several key photosynthetic reaction centers and antenna systems are available, and the overall principles controlling photoinduced energy and electron transfer are being established.

  3. Biomass Logistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Ian Bonner; David J. Muth

    2015-04-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon “shelf-life.” The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  4. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This article investigates upgrading biomass pyrolysis vapors to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals using catalysts with different concentrations of acid sites. It shows that greater separation of acid sites makes catalysts more efficient at producing hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. The conversion of biomass into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant attention because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Biomass is a renewable resource, which is abundant worldwide and can potentially be exploited to produce transportation fuels that are less damaging to the environment. This renewable resource consists of cellulose (40–50%), hemicellulose (25–35%), and lignin (16–33%) biopolymers in addition to smaller quantities of inorganic materials such as silica and alkali and alkaline earth metals (calcium and potassium). Fast pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical technology for converting biomass into precursors for hydrocarbon fuels because it produces up to 75 wt% bio-oil,1 which can be upgraded to feedstocks and/or blendstocks for further refining to finished fuels. Bio-oil that has not been upgraded has limited applications because of the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups, derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which gives rise to high acidity, high viscosity, low heating value, immiscibility with hydrocarbons and aging during storage. Ex situ catalytic vapor phase upgrading is a promising approach for improving the properties of bio-oil. The goal of this process is to reject oxygen and produce a bio-oil with improved properties for subsequent downstream conversion to hydrocarbons.

  5. Large-Scale, Continuous-Flow Production of Stressed Biomass (Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, Jil T.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Fortney, Julian L.; Lam, Bonita R.; Hazen, Terry C.; Biggin, Mark D.

    2010-05-01

    The Protein Complex Analysis Project (PCAP, http://pcap.lbl.gov/), focuses on high-throughput analysis of microbial protein complexes in the anaerobic, sulfate-reducing organism, DesulfovibriovulgarisHildenborough(DvH).Interest in DvHas a model organism for bioremediation of contaminated groundwater sites arises from its ability to reduce heavy metals. D. vulgarishas been isolated from contaminated groundwater of sites in the DOE complex. To understand the effect of environmental changes on the organism, midlog-phase cultures are exposed to nitrate and salt stresses (at the minimum inhibitory concentration, which reduces growth rates by 50percent), and compared to controls of cultures at midlogand stationary phases. Large volumes of culture of consistent quality (up to 100 liters) are needed because of the relatively low cell density of DvHcultures (one order of magnitude lower than E. coli, for example) and PCAP's challenge to characterize low-abundance membrane proteins. Cultures are grown in continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CFSTRs) to produce consistent cell densities. Stressor is added to the outflow from the CFSTR, and the mixture is pumped through a plug flow reactor (PFR), to provide a stress exposure time of 2 hours. Effluent is chilled and held in large carboys until it is centrifuged. A variety of analyses -- including metabolites, total proteins, cell density and phospholipidfatty-acids -- track culture consistency within a production run, and differences due to stress exposure and growth phase for the different conditions used. With our system we are able to produce the requisite 100 L of culture for a given condition within a week.

  6. Analysis of the Production Cost for Various Grades of Biomass Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S Cherry; Rick A. Wood; Tyler L Westover

    2013-12-01

    Process flow sheets were developed for the thermal treatment of southern pine wood chips at four temperatures (150, 180, 230, and 270 degrees C) and two different scales (20 and 100 ton/hour). The larger capacity processes had as their primary heat source hot gas assumed to be available in quantity from an adjacent biorefinery. Mass and energy balances for these flow sheets were developed using Aspen Plus process simulation software. The hot gas demands in the larger processes, up to 1.9 million lb/hour, were of questionable feasibility because of the volume to be moved. This heat was of low utility because the torrefaction process, especially at higher temperatures, is a net heat producer if the organic byproduct gases are burned. A thermal treatment flow sheet using wood chips dried in the biorefinery to 10% moisture content (rather than 30% for green chips) with transfer of high temperature steam from the thermal treatment depot to the biorefinery was also examined. The equipment size information from all of these cases was used in several different equipment cost estimating methods to estimate the major equipment costs for each process. From these, factored estimates of other plant costs were determined, leading to estimates (+ / - 30% accuracy) of total plant capital cost. The 20 ton/hour processes were close to 25 million dollars except for the 230 degrees C case using dried wood chips which was only 15 million dollars because of its small furnace. The larger processes ranged from 64-120 million dollars. From these capital costs and projections of several categories of operating costs, the processing cost of thermally treated pine chips was found to be $28-33 per ton depending on the degree of treatment and without any credits for steam generation. If the excess energy output of the two 20 ton/hr depot cases at 270 degrees C can be sold for $10 per million BTU, the net processing cost dropped to $13/ton product starting with green wood chips or only $3 per

  7. Biomass 2014 Poster Session

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) invites students, researchers, public and private organizations, and members of the general public to submit poster abstracts for consideration for the annual Biomass Conference Poster Session. The Biomass 2014 conference theme focuses on topics that are advancing the growth of the bioeconomy, such as improvements in feedstock logistics; promising, innovative pathways for advanced biofuels; and market-enabling co-products.

  8. Flash hydrogenation of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M

    1980-01-01

    It is proposed to obtain process chemistry information on the rapid hydrogenation of biomass (wood and other agricultural products) to produce light liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels and feedstocks. The process is referred to as Flash Hydropyrolysis. The information will be of use in the design and evaluation of processes for the conversion of biomass to synthetic fuels and petrochemical feedstocks. Results obtained in an initial experiment are discussed.

  9. Biomass One Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    USA Biomass National Map Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBiomassOneBiomassFacility&oldid397204" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs...

  10. Biogas and alcohol fuels production. Proceedings of the Seminar on Biomass, Energy for City, Farm, and Industry, Chicago, IL, October 25, 26, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, J.

    1980-01-01

    Basic principles of anaerobic digestion are considered along with the status of the Imperial Valley Biogas Project, the Department of Energy program for the recovery of energy and materials from urban waste, the principles of alcohol production from wastes, the mechanical recovery of a refuse-derived cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production, and the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. Attention is given to on-farm alcohol fuel production, the current status and future role of gasohol production, methane generation from small scale farms, farmsite installations of energy harvester anaerobic digesters, biogas/composting and landfill recovery, farm-scale composting as an option to anaerobic digestion, designing a high-quality biogas system, and methane as fuel of the future. A description is presented of subjects which are related to landfill gas recovery, biogas purification with permselective membranes, and anaerobic digestion of marine biomass. Other topics studied include the application of biogas technology in India, biogas production in China, biogasification of organic wastes in the Republic of the Philippines, and economics and operational experience of full-scale anaerobic dairy manure digester.

  11. Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

  12. Biomass Feedstocks for Renewable Fuel Production: A review of the impacts of feedstock and pretreatment on the yield and product distribution of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Carpenter; Stefan Czernik; Whitney Jablonski; Tyler L. Westover

    2014-02-01

    Renewable transportation fuels from biomass have the potential to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and diversify global fuel supplies. Thermal conversion by fast pyrolysis converts up to 75% of the starting plant material (and its energy content) to a bio-oil intermediate suitable for upgrading to motor fuel. Woody biomass, by far the most widely-used and researched material, is generally preferred in thermochemical processes due to its low ash content and high quality bio-oil produced. However, the availability and cost of biomass resources, e.g. forest residues, agricultural residues, or dedicated energy crops, vary greatly by region and will be key determinates in the overall economic feasibility of a pyrolysis-to-fuel process. Formulation or blending of various feedstocks, combined with thermal and/or chemical pretreatment, could facilitate a consistent, high-volume, lower-cost biomass supply to an emerging biofuels industry. However, the impact of biomass type and pretreatment conditions on bio-oil yield and quality, and the potential process implications, are not well understood. This literature review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the effect of feedstock and pretreatments on the yield, product distribution, and upgradability of bio-oil.

  13. Advanced Biomass Gasification Technologies Inc ABGT | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Gasification Technologies Inc ABGT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Biomass Gasification Technologies Inc. (ABGT) Place: New York, New York Zip: 10036 Product:...

  14. Biomass Gas Electric LLC BG E | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Electric LLC BG E Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biomass Gas & Electric LLC (BG&E) Place: Norcross, Georgia Zip: 30092 Sector: Biomass Product: Project developer...

  15. National Bio Energy Co Ltd formerly Guoneng Biomass Power Ltd...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd.) Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100005 Sector: Biomass Product: Invest in, build and run biomass power plants. Coordinates: 39.90601, 116.387909 Show Map...

  16. National Bio Energy Gongzhuling Biomass Power Plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gongzhuling Biomass Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name: National Bio Energy Gongzhuling Biomass Power Plant Place: China Product: A subsidiary company of National Bio...

  17. Biomass Investment Group Inc BIG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Investment Group Inc BIG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biomass Investment Group Inc (BIG) Place: Asheville, North Carolina Zip: 28806 Sector: Biomass Product: Developing...

  18. Phoenix Renewable Energy Phoenix Biomass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phoenix Biomass Jump to: navigation, search Name: Phoenix Renewable Energy (Phoenix Biomass) Place: Hot Springs, Arkansas Product: Arkansas-based pellet producer References:...

  19. 6th International Conference on Algal Biomass, Biofuels and Bioproduct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The conference will cover all areas of emerging technologies in the algal biomass field-from biology, biomass production, cultivation, harvesting, and extraction to feedstock ...

  20. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; C. Neal Stewart Jr.

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanolmore » (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.« less

  1. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; C. Neal Stewart Jr.

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  2. Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.

    1993-08-10

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

  3. Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L.; Black, Stuart K.; Diebold, James P.; Kreibich, Roland E.

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

  4. Bio-based photosynthetic conversion of CO2 and water to replace...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has been identified and quantified by three independent techniques: GCMS, H+-NMR, and HPLC. The extrapolated photosynthetic production rate of the intermediate is at least 150...

  5. Pan China Puyang Biomass CHP Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Puyang Biomass CHP Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pan-China(Puyang) Biomass CHP Co., Ltd. Place: Puyang, Henan Province, China Zip: 455000 Sector: Biomass Product:...

  6. BMP Biomasse Projekt GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: BMP Biomasse Projekt GmbH Place: Radolfzell, Germany Zip: 78315 Sector: Biomass Product: Germany-based biomass project developer and...

  7. Methods for pretreating biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2015-03-03

    A method of alkaline pretreatment of biomass, in particular, pretreating biomass with gaseous ammonia.

  8. Biomass Oil Analysis: Research Needs and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-06-01

    Report analyzing the use of biomass oils to help meet Office of the Biomass Program goals of establishing a commercial biorefinery by 2010 and commercilizing at least four biobased products.

  9. Biomass Equipment & Materials Compensating Tax Deduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2005, New Mexico adopted a policy to allow businesses to deduct the value of biomass equipment and biomass materials used for the processing of biopower, biofuels, or biobased products in...

  10. Biomass One LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biomass One LP Place: White City, Oregon Product: Owner and operator of a 25MW wood fired cogeneration plant in Oregon. References: Biomass One...

  11. New market potential: Torrefaction of Woody Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J. Richard Hess

    2015-07-01

    According to researchers in Idaho National Laboratory’s Bioenergy Program, torrefaction of woody biomass could reduce variability in biomass feedstock and enable development of a commodity-type product for green energy generation and usage.

  12. AgraPure Mississippi Biomass Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackwell,D.A; Broadhead, L.W.; Harrell, W.J.

    2006-03-31

    The AgraPure Mississippi Biomass project was a congressionally directed project, initiated to study the utilization of Mississippi agricultural byproducts and waste products in the production of bio-energy and to determine the feasibility of commercialization of these agricultural byproducts and waste products as feedstocks in the production of energy. The final products from this project were two business plans; one for a Thermal plant, and one for a Biodiesel/Ethanol plant. Agricultural waste fired steam and electrical generating plants and biodiesel plants were deemed the best prospects for developing commercially viable industries. Additionally, oil extraction methods were studied, both traditional and two novel techniques, and incorporated into the development plans. Mississippi produced crop and animal waste biomasses were analyzed for use as raw materials for both industries. The relevant factors, availability, costs, transportation, storage, location, and energetic value criteria were considered. Since feedstock accounts for more than 70 percent of the total cost of producing biodiesel, any local advantages are considered extremely important in developing this particular industry. The same factors must be evaluated in assessing the prospects of commercial operation of a steam and electrical generation plant. Additionally, the access to the markets for electricity is more limited, regulated and tightly controlled than the liquid fuel markets. Domestically produced biofuels, both biodiesel and ethanol, are gaining more attention and popularity with the consuming public as prices rise and supplies of foreign crude become less secure. Biodiesel requires no major modifications to existing diesel engines or supply chain and offers significant environmental benefits. Currently the biodiesel industry requires Federal and State incentives to allow the industry to develop and become self-sustaining. Mississippi has available the necessary feedstocks and is

  13. Comparison of Biomass and Lipid Production under Ambient Carbon Dioxide Vigorous Aeration and 3% Carbon Dioxide Condition Among the Lead Candidate Chlorella Strains Screened by Various Photobioreactor Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Naoko; Barnes, Austin; Jensen, Travis; Noel, Eric; Andlay, Gunjan; Rosenberg, Julian N.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Guarnieri, Michael T.; Oyler, George A.

    2015-09-01

    Chlorella species from the UTEX collection, classified by rDNA-based phylogenetic analysis, were screened based on biomass and lipid production in different scales and modes of culture. Lead candidate strains of C. sorokiniana UTEX 1230 and C. vulgaris UTEX 395 and 259 were compared between conditions of vigorous aeration with filtered atmospheric air and 3% CO2 shake-flask cultivation. We found that the biomass of UTEX 1230 produced 2 times higher at 652 mg L-1 dry weight under both ambient CO2 vigorous aeration and 3% CO2 conditions, while UTEX 395 and 259 under 3% CO2 increased to 3 times higher at 863 mg L-1 dry weight than ambient CO2 vigorous aeration. The triacylglycerol contents of UTEX 395 and 259 increased more than 30 times to 30% dry weight with 3% CO2, indicating that additional CO2 is essential for both biomass and lipid accumulation in UTEX 395 and 259.

  14. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  15. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Appendices to the final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The final report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten Island, the Proctor and Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. This appendix to the final report provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations.

  16. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOEs ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  17. Low-Cost Bio-Based Carbon Fibers for High-Temperature Processing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    progress towards LBCF supply chain, from raw lignin to carbon fiber to products. Lignin Carbon Fiber Rigid insulation Team GrafTech is a leader in graphite materials science ...

  18. Fixed Bed Biomass Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Bielenberg

    2006-03-31

    The report details work performed by Gazogen to develop a novel biomass gasifier for producimg electricity from commercially available hardwood chips. The research conducted by Gazogen under this grant was intended to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new means of producing electricity from wood chips and other biomass and carbonaceous fuels. The technical feasibility of the technology has been furthered as a result of the DOE grant, and work is expected to continue. The economic feasibility can only be shown when all operational problems have been overocme. The technology could eventually provide a means of producing electricity on a decentralized basis from sustainably cultivated plants or plant by-products.

  19. Lyonsdale Biomass LLC Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lyonsdale Biomass LLC Biomass Facility Facility Lyonsdale Biomass LLC Sector Biomass Location Lewis County, New York...

  20. Biomass One LP Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LP Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Biomass One LP Biomass Facility Facility Biomass One LP Sector Biomass Location Jackson County, Oregon Coordinates 42.334535,...

  1. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  2. Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the feeding and conversion of biomass and coal-biomass mixtures as essential upstream ... Activities support research for handling and processing of coal-biomass mixtures, ensuring ...

  3. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model and local biomass processing depots for sustainable biofuel production: Integrated life cycle assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eranki, Pragnya L.; Manowitz, David H.; Bals, Bryan D.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2013-07-23

    An array of feedstock is being evaluated as potential raw material for cellulosic biofuel production. Thorough assessments are required in regional landscape settings before these feedstocks can be cultivated and sustainable management practices can be implemented. On the processing side, a potential solution to the logistical challenges of large biorefi neries is provided by a network of distributed processing facilities called local biomass processing depots. A large-scale cellulosic ethanol industry is likely to emerge soon in the United States. We have the opportunity to influence the sustainability of this emerging industry. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model estimates land allocations for different cellulosic feedstocks at biorefinery scale without displacing current animal nutrition requirements. This model also incorporates a network of the aforementioned depots. An integrated life cycle assessment is then conducted over the unified system of optimized feedstock production, processing, and associated transport operations to evaluate net energy yields (NEYs) and environmental impacts.

  4. Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lignocellulosic Biomass - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  5. Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NEEDS 2006 Database Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleTracyBiomassBiomassFacility&oldid398234" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs...

  6. Biomass shock pretreatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  7. Biomass Energy Services Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Services Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biomass Energy Services Inc Place: Tifton, Georgia Zip: 31794 Product: Biodiesel plant developer in Cordele, Georgia. References:...

  8. Biomass Resources Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resources Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biomass Resources Corporation Place: West Palm Beach, Florida Zip: 33401 Product: The Company has established a unique...

  9. Multitrade Biomass Holdings LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Holdings LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Multitrade Biomass Holdings LLC Place: Ridgeway, Virginia Zip: 24148-0000 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Virginia-based developer...

  10. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - May 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The conference will cover all areas of emerging technologies in algal biology, biomass production, cultivation, harvesting, extraction, bioproducts, and econometrics. The event ...

  11. NREL: Biomass Research - Biochemical Conversion Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL researchers are working to improve the efficiency and economics of the biochemical ... that can coferment all the sugars in biomass to improve ethanol production economics. ...

  12. Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of liquid fuels: Subcontract progress report, 1 March 1984-28 February 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Sinskey, A.J.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1987-07-01

    This project is a coordinated effort to develop process technology for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its utilization for the production of liquid fuels. Current efforts are based on our prior success in developing a single-step microbiological process for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. This process utilizes a mixed culture of Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic celluloytic anaerobe which degrades cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars and Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobe which produces high concentrations of ethanol from both hexoses and pentoses. These studies focus on the use of C. thermocellum and its cellulases for enhanced saccharification of lignocellulose and on the direct fermentation of lignocellulose to liquid fuel. Efforts on saccharification are directed to facilitate the adoption of existing fermentation ethanol plants for cellulosic substrates and to overcome the rate limiting step of saccharification in the mixed culture. 9 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of High Throughput Screening Methods in Picking up Differences between Cultivars of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindedam, Jane; Bruun, Sander; Jorgensen, Henning; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; DeMartini, Jaclyn D.; Wyman, Charles E.; Felby, Claus

    2014-07-01

    Here, we present a unique evaluation of three advanced high throughput pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis systems (HTPH-systems) for screening of lignocellulosic biomass for enzymatic saccharification. Straw from 20 cultivars of winter wheat from two sites in Denmark was hydrothermally pretreated and enzymatically processed in each of the separately engineered HTPH-systems at 1) University of California, Riverside, 2) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Colorado, and 3) University of Copenhagen (CPH). All three systems were able to detect significant differences between the cultivars in the release of fermentable sugars, with average cellulose conversions of 57%, 64%, and 71% from Riverside, NREL and CPH, respectively. We found the best correlation of glucose yields between the Riverside and NREL systems (R2 = 0.2139), and the best correlation for xylose yields was found between Riverside and CPH (R2 = 0.4269). The three systems identified Flair as the highest yielding cultivar and Dinosor, Glasgow, and Robigus as low yielding cultivars. Despite different conditions in the three HTPH-systems, the approach of microscale screening for phenotypically less recalcitrant feedstock seems sufficiently robust to be used as a generic analytical platform.

  14. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate

  15. Feedstock Supply and Logistics:Biomass as a Commodity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    impacts on conversion performance. * Logistics: Systems for harvesting, collecting, ... to improve biomass quality, reduce costs, and increase productivity. 2 BIOENERGY ...

  16. EERE Success Story-Nationwide: The Nation's First Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    construct and start production of bio-based succinic acid in ... that reduces greenhouse gas by 94% compared to the ... trans-form renewable biomass resources into commercially ...

  17. Subtask 3.11 - Production of CBTL-Based Jet Fuels from Biomass-Based Feedstocks and Montana Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Ramesh

    2014-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used

  18. Assessment of Biomass Energy Opportunities for the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Haase

    2005-09-30

    Assessment of biomass energy and biobased product manufacturing opportunities for the Red Lake Tribe.

  19. Biomass process handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  20. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: 2011 State of Technology and Projections to 2017

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Male, Jonathan L.

    2012-02-01

    Review of the the status of DOE funded research for converting biomass to liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating for fiscal year 2011.

  1. Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of liquid fuels: Subcontract progress report, 1 March 1983-29 February 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Sinskey, A.J.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1987-07-01

    This project is a coordinated effort to develop process technology for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its utilization for the production of liquid fuels. Current efforts are based on our prior success in developing a single-step microbiological process for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. This process utilizes a mixed culture of Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic cellulolytic anaerobe which degrades cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars, and Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, a thermo anaerobe which produces high concentrations of ethanol from both hexoses and pentoses. The proposed studies will focus on the use of C. thermocellum and its cellulases for enhanced saccharification of lignocellulose and on the direct fermentation of lignocellulose to the liquid fuel, butanol. Efforts on saccharification are directed to facilitate the adoption of existing fermentation ethanol plants for cellulosic substrates and to overcome the rate limiting step of saccharification in the mixed culture. The effort on butanol will extend the concept of direct fermentation to the production of this liquid fuel. 14 refs.

  2. Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of liquid fuels: Subcontract progress report, 1 September 1981-28 February 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Sinskey, A.J.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1987-07-01

    This project is a coordinated effort to develop process technology for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its utilization for the production of liquid fuels. Current efforts are based on our prior success in developing a single-step microbiological process for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. This process utilizes a mixed culture of Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic cellulolytic anaerobe which degrades cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars, and Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobe which produces high concentrations of ethanol from both hexoses and pentoses. The proposed studies will focus on the use of C. thermocellum and its cellulases for enhanced saccharification of lignocellulose and on the direct fermentation of lignocellulose to the liquid fuel, butanol. Efforts on saccharification are directed to facilitate the adoption of existing fermentation ethanol plants for cellulosic substrates and to overcome the rate limiting step of saccharification in the mixed culture. The effort on butanol will extend the concept of direct fermentation to the production of this liquid fuel.

  3. Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of liquid fuels: Subcontract progress report, 1 March 1981-31 August 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Sinskey, A.J.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1987-07-01

    This project is a coordinated effort to develop process technology for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its utilization for the production of liquid fuels. Current efforts are based on our prior success in developing a single-step microbiological process for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. This process utilizes a mixed culture of Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic cellulolytic anaerobe which degrades cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars, and C. thermosaccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobe which produces high concentrations of ethanol from both hexoses and pentoses. The proposed studies will focus on the use of C. therocellum and its cellulases for enhanced saccharification of lignocellulose and on the direct fermentation of lignocellulose to the liquid fuel, butanol. Efforts on saccharification are directed to facilitate the adoption of existing fermentation ethanol plants for cellulosic substrates and to overcome the rate limiting step of saccharification in the mixed culture. The effort on butanol will extend the concept of direct fermentation to the production of this fuel. 55 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of liquid fuels: Subcontract progress report, 1 March 1982-31 August 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Sinskey, A.J.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1987-07-01

    This project is a coordinated effort to develop process technology for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its utilization for the production of liquid fuels. Current efforts are based on our prior success in developing a single-step microbiological process for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. This process utilizes a mixed culture of Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic cellulolytic anaerobe which degrades cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars, and Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobic which produces high concentrations of ethanol from both hexoses and pentoses. The proposed studies will focus on the use of C. thermocellum and its cellulases for enhanced saccharification of lignocellulose and on the direct fermentation of lignocellulose to the liquid fuel, butanol. Efforts on saccharification are directed to facilitate the adoption of existing fermentation ethanol plants for cellulosic substrates and to overcome the rate limiting step of saccharification in the mixed culture. The effort on butanol will extend the concept of direct fermentation to the production of this liquid fuel.

  5. Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of liquid fuels: Subcontract progress report, 1 September 1982-28 February 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Sinskey, A.J.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1987-07-01

    This project is a coordinated effort to develop process technology for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and its utilization for the production of liquid fuels. Current efforts are based on our prior success in developing a single-step microbiological process for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. This process utilizes a mixed culture of Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic cellulolytic anaerobe which degrades cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars, and Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobe which produces high concentrations of ethanol from both hexoses and pentoses. The proposed studies will focus on the use of C. thermocellum and its cellulases for enhanced saccharification of lignocellulose and on the direct fermentation of lignocellulose to the liquid fuel, butanol. Efforts on saccharification are directed to facilitate the adoption of existing fermentation ethanol plants for cellulosic substrates and to overcome the rate limiting step of saccharification in the mixed culture. The effort on butanol will extend the concept of direct fermentation to the production of this liquid fuel.

  6. Clean fractionation of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Feedstocks (AF) program is forging new links between the agricultural community and the chemicals industry through support of research and development (R & D) that uses `green` feedstocks to produce chemicals. The program promotes cost-effective industrial use of renewable biomass as feedstocks to manufacture high-volume chemical building blocks. Industrial commercialization of such processes would stimulate the agricultural sector by increasing the demand of agricultural and forestry commodities. New alternatives for American industry may lie in the nation`s forests and fields. The AF program is conducting ongoing research on a clean fractionation process. This project is designed to convert biomass into materials that can be used for chemical processes and products. Clean fractionation separates a single feedstock into individual components cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.

  7. Biomass Sales and Use Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To qualify for the exemption, the biomass material must be utilized in the production of energy, including the production of electricity, steam, or both electricity and steam. Pellets and fuels...

  8. Thermal Use of Biomass in The United States | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from on-site waste products.3 Related Links Biomass Industrial Biomass Energy Consumption and Electricity Net Generation by Industry and Energy Source, 2008 Historical...

  9. Science Activities in Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concern plant growth and the environment, byproducts of biomass, and energy contained in different types of biomass. Provided by the Department of Energy's National Renewable...

  10. NREL: Biomass Research - Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilities At NREL's state-of-the-art biomass research facilities, researchers design and optimize processes to convert renewable biomass feedstocks into transportation fuels and...

  11. NREL: Biomass Research - Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is then separated, purified, and recovered for use as a transportation fuel. NREL biomass researchers and scientists have strong capabilities in many facets of biomass...

  12. Biomass Analytical Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diversity and performance, The chemical and physical properties of biomass and biomass feedstocks are characterized as they move through the supply chain to various conversion...

  13. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with

  14. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-07-01

    At the Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory, NREL scientists have more than 20 years of experience supporting the biomass conversion industry. They develop, refine, and validate analytical methods to determine the chemical composition of biomass samples before, during, and after conversion processing. These high-quality compositional analysis data are used to determine feedstock compositions as well as mass balances and product yields from conversion processes.

  15. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  16. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slininger, Patricia J.; Shea-Andersh, Maureen A.; Thompson, Stephanie R.; Dien, Bruce S.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Balan, Venkatesh; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Dale, Bruce E; Cotta, Michael A

    2015-04-09

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock useful for the production of fuel-grade ethanol via the processing steps of pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. Traditional industrial yeasts do not ferment xylose and are not able to grow, survive, or ferment in concentrated hydrolyzates that contain enough sugar to support economical ethanol recovery since they are laden with toxic byproducts generated during pretreatment. Repetitive culturing in two types of concentrated hydrolyzates was applied along with ethanol challenged xylose-fed continuous culture to force targeted evolution of the native pentose fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis strain NRRL Y-7124 maintained in the ARSmore » Culture Collection, Peoria, IL. Isolates collected from various enriched populations were screened and ranked based on relative xylose uptake rate and ethanol yield. Ranking on hydrolyzates with and without nutritional supplementation was used to identify those isolates with best performance across diverse conditions. Robust S. stipitis strains adapted to perform very well in enzyme hydrolyzates of high solids loading ammonia fiber expansion-pretreated corn stover (18% weight per volume solids) and dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated switchgrass (20% w/v solids) were obtained. Improved features include reduced initial lag phase preceding growth, significantly enhanced fermentation rates, improved ethanol tolerance and yield, reduced diauxic lag during glucose-xylose transition, and ability to accumulate >40 g/L ethanol in <167 h when fermenting hydrolyzate at low initial cell density of 0.5 absorbance units and pH 5 to 6.« less

  17. Biomass Fueling America’s Growing Clean Energy Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Biomass is the most abundant biological material on the planet. It is renewable; it grows almost everywhere; and it provides fuel, power, chemicals, and many other products. Find out how biomass is helping grow America's clean energy economy.

  18. Biomass Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Biomass Program's mission, strategic goals, and research approach.

  19. Biomass Webinar Presentation Slides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Download presentation slides for the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on biomass renewable energy.

  20. Biomass treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  1. Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

  2. Biomass Energy Data Book, 2011, Edition 4

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wright, L.; Boundy, B.; Diegel, S. W.; Davis, S. C.

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability.

  3. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boundy, Robert Gary; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2010-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the third edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  4. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boundy, Robert Gary; Diegel, Susan W; Wright, Lynn L; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2011-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also two appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  5. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Lynn L; Boundy, Robert Gary; Badger, Philip C; Perlack, Robert D; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2009-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the second edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, assumptions for selected tables and figures, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  6. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Lynn L; Boundy, Robert Gary; Perlack, Robert D; Davis, Stacy Cagle; Saulsbury, Bo

    2006-09-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of the Biomass Program and the Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis in the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use. This is the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book and is currently only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and BioOil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is about the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include measures of conversions, biomass characteristics and assumptions for selected tables and figures. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  7. Biomass energies: resources, links, constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smil, V.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: radiation and photosynthesis; primary production and biomass; resources; wood for energy; silviculture; requirements and effects; crop residues; residues for energy conversion; sugar crops and grain; cassava; fuel crops; aquatic plants; freshwater plants; ocean algae; animal wastes; Chinese biogas generation; and ecodisasters.

  8. AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation Plenary IV: Advances in Bioenergy Feedstocks-From Field to Fuel AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation Glenn Farris, Marketing Manager Biomass, AGCO Corporation farris_biomass_2014.pdf (2.11 MB) More Documents & Publications High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Feedstock Supply and Logistics Feedstock Supply and

  9. Biomass Production and Nitrogen Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Principal Investigator: M. Cristina Negri Organization: Argonne National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted ...

  10. Methane production from marine biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1980-01-01

    The overall concept of the giant brown kelp farm and conversion system, the integrated research program engaged in its study, and IGT's work on biogasification process development are discussed. A summary of results to date on anaerobic digestion will be emphasized. (MHR)

  11. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Liberia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass resources meet about 99.5% of the Liberian population?s energy needs so they are vital to basic welfare and economic activity. Already, traditional biomass products like firewood and charcoal are the primary energy source used for domestic cooking and heating. However, other more efficient biomass technologies are available that could open opportunities for agriculture and rural development, and provide other socio-economic and environmental benefits.The main objective of this study is to estimate the biomass resources currently and potentially available in the country and evaluate their contribution for power generation and the production of transportation fuels. It intends to inform policy makers and industry developers of the biomass resource availability in Liberia, identify areas with high potential, and serve as a base for further, more detailed site-specific assessments.

  12. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    Industries and municipalities generate substantial amounts of biomass as high-moisture waste streams, such as animal manure, food processing sludge, stillage from ethanol production, and municipal wastewater sludge.

  13. Biomass Engineering Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Engineering Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biomass Engineering Ltd Place: Newton-le-Willows, United Kingdom Zip: WA12 8DN Product: The company designs and manufactures small...

  14. Biomass Fuels Ltd BFL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd BFL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biomass Fuels Ltd (BFL) Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: EC1Y 2BJ Sector: Renewable Energy Product: London-based company that secures...

  15. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  16. Biomass 2014 Draft Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass 2014 Draft Agenda All topics and times are tentative and subject to change. Page | 1 BIOMASS 2014: Growing the Future Bioeconomy July 29-30, 2014, Washington Convention ...

  17. Clean fractionation of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The US DOE Alternative Feedstocks (AF) program is forging new links between the agricultural community and the chemicals industry through support of research and development (R&D) that uses green feedstocks to produce chemicals. The program promotes cost-effective industrial use of renewable biomass as feedstocks to manufacture high-volume chemical building blocks. Industrial commercialization of such processes would stimulate the agricultural sector by increasing the demand of agricultural and forestry commodities. A consortium of five DOE national laboratories has been formed with the objectives of providing industry with a broad range of expertise and helping to lower the risk of new process development through federal cost sharing. The AF program is conducting ongoing research on a clean fractionation process, designed to convert biomass into materials that can be used for chemical processes and products. The focus of the clean fractionation research is to demonstrate to industry that one technology can successfully separate all types of feedstocks into predictable types of chemical intermediates.

  18. Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Group Meeting Presentation Guidance at a Glance Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting November 6 and 7 2007 R. J. Evans, NREL D. M. Steward, NREL Innovation / Overview Biomass pyrolysis produces a liquid product, bio-oil, which contains a wide spectrum of components that can be efficiently, stored, and shipped, to a site for renewable hydrogen production and converted to H2 at moderate severity

  19. Biomass Characterization | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extractability, Bioenergy Research (2016) Compositional Analysis of Biomass Reference Materials: Results from an Interlaboratory Study, Bioenergy Research (2015) View all ...

  20. Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy Biomass is any organic material that has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy, such as plants, agricultural crops or residues, municipal wastes, and algae. DOE is focusing on new and better ways to make liquid transportation fuels, or "biofuels," like ethanol, biodiesel, and renewable gasoline. DOE is also investigating the potential of producing power and a range of products from biomass. Biomass

  1. Biomass Program Peer Review Sustainability Platform | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Review Sustainability Platform Biomass Program Peer Review Sustainability Platform Presentation on the Update to the Billion-Ton Study, including differences between the Update and the 2005 Billion-Ton Sudy, assumptions, and findings. bt2_webinar.pdf (2.29 MB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry Importance of Biomass Production and Supply ECOWAS - GBEP REGIONAL BIOMASS RESOURCE ASSESSMENT WORKSHOP

  2. Small Modular Biomass Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-12-01

    This fact sheet provides information about modular biomass systems. Small modular biomass systems can help supply electricity to rural areas, businesses, and the billions of people who live without power worldwide. These systems use locally available biomass fuels such as wood, crop waste, animal manures, and landfill gas.

  3. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of waste

  4. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zygarlicke, C J; Schmidt, D D; Olson, E S; Leroux, K M; Wocken, C A; Aulich, T A; WIlliams, K D

    2008-07-28

    Biomass utilization is one solution to our nation’s addiction to oil and fossil fuels. What is needed now is applied fundamental research that will cause economic technology development for the utilization of the diverse biomass resources in the United States. This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) applied fundamental research project contributes to the development of economical biomass utilization for energy, transportation fuels, and marketable chemicals using biorefinery methods that include thermochemical and fermentation processes. The fundamental and basic applied research supports the broad scientific objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program, especially in the area of developing alternative renewable biofuels, sustainable bioenergy, technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental remediation. Its deliverables include 1) identifying and understanding environmental consequences of energy production from biomass, including the impacts on greenhouse gas production, carbon emission abatement, and utilization of waste biomass residues and 2) developing biology-based solutions that address DOE and national needs related to waste cleanup, hydrogen production from renewable biomass, biological and chemical processes for energy and fuel production, and environmental stewardship. This project serves the public purpose of encouraging good environmental stewardship by developing biomass-refining technologies that can dramatically increase domestic energy production to counter current trends of rising dependence upon petroleum imports. Decreasing the nation’s reliance on foreign oil and energy will enhance national security, the economy of rural communities, and future competitiveness. Although renewable energy has many forms, such as wind and solar, biomass is the only renewable energy source that can be governed through agricultural methods and that has an energy density that can realistically compete with

  5. Food Security and Nutrition NONE 09 BIOMASS FUELS; BIOFUELS;...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition NONE 09 BIOMASS FUELS; BIOFUELS; PRODUCTION; AGRICULTURE; ENERGY POLICY; SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS; SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT;...

  6. BT16 Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops Factsheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... forests, municipal solid wastes, urban wood waste, and algae, the report includes an evaluation of biomass supply potentially available through production on agricultural land. ...

  7. NREL: Biomass Research - NREL Cyanobacteria Ramps Up Photosynthesis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    passed it to other photosynthetic microbes and green plants. Photosynthesis powers biomass growth in plants and algae, which are potential feedstocks for bioenergy production....

  8. Biomass and Waste-to-Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic Digestion & Biogas: Industry Perspectives ... waste and manure, and municipal commercial food waste. ... Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast ...

  9. Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Prepared By Terry Brown, Jeffrey Morris, Patrick Richards and Joel...

  10. NREL: Biomass Research - Biomass Characterization Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Characterization Capabilities A photo of a man wearing a white lab coat and looking into a large microscope. A researcher uses an Atomic Force Microscope to image enzymes...

  11. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. , Portland, OR )

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  12. Biomass pre-treatment for co-production of high-concentration C5- and C6-carbohydrates and their derivatives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dumesic, James A.; Martin Alonso, David; Luterbacher, Jeremy Scott

    2016-06-07

    Described is a method of processing biomass to separate it into a liquid fraction enriched in solubilized C5-sugar-containing oligomers and C-5 sugar monomers and a solid fraction enriched in substantially insoluble cellulose and C6-sugar-containing oligomers. The method includes the steps of reacting biomass with a solvent system comprising water, at least one lactone, or at least one furan, or at least one cyclic ether, and at least one acid, for a time and at a temperature to yield the liquid and solid fractions. The liquid and solid fractions may then be separated. Gamma-valeroloactone is a preferred lactone for use in the solvent system. Tetrahydrofuran is a preferred furan species for use in the solvent system.

  13. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  14. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.

    2007-12-25

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  15. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.

    2014-07-08

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  16. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.; Lynd, Lee R.; Laser, Mark

    2013-03-12

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  17. NREL: Biomass Research - Webmaster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to reply. Your name: Your email address: Your message: Send Message Printable Version Biomass Research Home Capabilities Projects Facilities Research Staff Working with Us Data &...

  18. Biomass Processing Photolibrary

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

  19. Biomass: Wood as Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coordinator USDA Forest Service State & Private Forestry ... habitat and forest health Modern Woody Biomass ... Requires manual fuel delivery & stoking Pellets Meter ...

  20. Process for treating biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-08-11

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  1. Process for treating biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Timothy J; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-11-04

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  2. Biomass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    technologies that are used for biomass thermal and combined heat and power (CHP) plants are direct combustion and gasification systems. Direct combustion systems are the...

  3. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To support research and development (R&D) planning efforts within the Thermochemical Conversion Program, the Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted the Biomass Indirect Liquefaction (IDL)...

  4. Overview of biomass technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The biomass overview of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  5. Co-firing biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Tennant, D.

    2009-11-15

    Concern about global warming has altered the landscape for fossil-fuel combustion. The advantages and challenges of co-firing biomass and coal are discussed. 2 photos.

  6. Biomass Feasibility Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipscomb, Brian

    2015-03-30

    Feasibility study to determine technical and economic viability of a co-generation biomass fuel power plant for the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes.

  7. Major Biomass Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference International gathering to focus on business successes, technology updates, facility tours ...

  8. Biomass: Biogas Generator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BIOGAS GENERATOR Curriculum: Biomass Power (organic chemistry, chemicalcarbon cycles, plants, energy resourcestransformations) Grade Level: Middle School (6-8) Small groups (3 to ...

  9. Gasification-based biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  10. Biomass Energy Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Energy Basics We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy"-the energy from plants and plant-derived materials-since people began burning wood to cook food and keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can also be used. These include food crops, grassy and woody plants, residues from agriculture or forestry, oil-rich algae, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes. Even the fumes from landfills (which are

  11. Direct-fired biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The direct-fired biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  12. Diesel fuel from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuester, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A project to convert various biomass materials to diesel type transportation fuel compatible with current engine designs and the existing distribution system is described. A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction approach is used. The system consists of a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide followed by a catalytic liquefaction step to convert the synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbon fuel. The major emphasis on the project at the present time is to maximize product yield. A level of 60 gals of diesel type fuel per ton of feedstock (dry, ash free basis) is expected. Numerous materials have been processed through the conversion system without any significant change in product quality (essentially C/sub 7/-C/sub 17/ paraffinic hydrocarbons with cetane indicies of 50+). Other tasks in progress include factor studies, process simplification, process control and scale-up to a 10 ton/day Engineering Test Facility. 18 references, 4 figures, 9 tables.

  13. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols -- FY 2007 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities.

  14. Wheelabrator Westchester Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Westchester Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wheelabrator Westchester Biomass Facility Facility Wheelabrator Westchester Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal...

  15. Biomass Power Association (BPA) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Biomass Power Association (BPA) AgencyCompany Organization: Biomass Power Association Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, -...

  16. Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Materials as an Energy Storage Medium in Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Abhari, Mr. Ramin; Shukla, Dr. Nitin; Kosny, Dr. Jan

    2015-01-01

    A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of phase change material (PCM) in building envelope systems. Several studies have reported the energy saving potential of PCM in building envelopes. However, wide application of PCMs in building applications has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel paraffin product made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application, with the ultimate goal of commercializing a low-cost PCM platform. The low-cost PCM pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation, installed in external walls and field-tested under natural weatherization conditions for a period of several months. In addition, several PCM samples and PCM-cellulose samples were prepared under controlled conditions for laboratory-scale testing. The laboratory tests were performed to determine the phase change properties of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation both at microscopic and macroscopic levels. This article presents the data and analysis from the exterior test wall and the laboratory-scale test data. PCM behavior is influenced by the weather and interior conditions, PCM phase change temperature and PCM distribution within the wall cavity, among other factors. Under optimal conditions, the field data showed up to 20% reduction in weekly heat transfer through an external wall due to the PCM compared to cellulose-only insulation.

  17. Biomass Research Program

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

    2013-05-28

    INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. NREL: Biomass Research - Projects in Biomass Process and Sustainabilit...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects in Biomass Process and Sustainability Analyses Researchers at NREL use biomass process and sustainability analyses to understand the economic, technical, and global ...

  19. NREL: Biomass Research - Capabilities in Biomass Process and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities in Biomass Process and Sustainability Analyses A photo of a woman and four ... A team of NREL researchers uses biomass process and sustainability analyses to bridge the ...

  20. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is facing many challenges on its path of reconstruction and development. Among all its pressing needs, the country would benefit from the development and implementation of an energy strategy. In addition to conventional energy sources, the Afghan government is considering alternative options such as energy derived from renewable resources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal). Biomass energy is derived from a variety of sources -- plant-based material and residues -- and can be used in various conversion processes to yield power, heat, steam, and fuel. This study provides policymakers and industry developers with information on the biomass resource potential in Afghanistan for power/heat generation and transportation fuels production. To achieve this goal, the study estimates the current biomass resources and evaluates the potential resources that could be used for energy purposes.

  2. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. NREL: Biomass Research - Research Staff

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thomas.Foust@nrel.gov Bratis, Adam Management, Biomass Laboratory Program Manager Adam.Bratis@nrel.gov Chum, Helena Management, Biomass Fellow Helena.Chum@nrel.gov Pienkos,...

  4. NREL: Biomass Research Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photo of a technician completing a laboratory procedure Biomass Compositional Analysis Find laboratory analytical procedures for standard biomass analysis. Photo of the Integrated...

  5. Investigating and Using Biomass Gases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigating and Using Biomass Gases Grades: 9-12 Topic: Biomass Authors: Eric Benson and Melissa Highfill Owner: National Renewable Energy Laboratory This educational material is...

  6. SERI biomass program annual technical report: 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, P.W.; Corder, R.E.; Hill, A.M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M.Z.

    1983-02-01

    The biomass with which this report is concerned includes aquatic plants, which can be converted into liquid fuels and chemicals; organic wastes (crop residues as well as animal and municipal wastes), from which biogas can be produced via anerobic digestion; and organic or inorganic waste streams, from which hydrogen can be produced by photobiological processes. The Biomass Program Office supports research in three areas which, although distinct, all use living organisms to create the desired products. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) supports research on organisms that are themselves processed into the final products, while the Anaerobic Digestion (ADP) and Photo/Biological Hydrogen Program (P/BHP) deals with organisms that transform waste streams into energy products. The P/BHP is also investigating systems using water as a feedstock and cell-free systems which do not utilize living organisms. This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1982.

  7. Hydropyrolysis of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Steinberg, M.

    1992-01-01

    The pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of biomass was investigated. Experimental runs using the biomass (Poplar wood sawdust) were performed using a tubular reactor of dimensions 1 inch inside diameter and 8 feet long heated at a temperature of 800 C and pressures between 450 and 750 psig. At low heat-up rate the reaction precedes in two steps. First pyrolysis takes place at temperatures of 300 to 400 c and subsequent hydropyrolysis takes place at 700 C and above. This is also confirmed by pressurized thermogravimetric analysis (PTGA). Under conditions of rapid heat-up at higher temperatures and higher hydrogen pressure gasification and hydrogasification of biomass is especially effective in producing carbon monoxide and methane. An overall conversion of 88 to 90 wt % of biomass was obtained. This value is in agreement with the previous work of flash pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of biomass for rapid heat-up and short residence time. Initial rates of biomass conversion indicate that the rate increases significantly with increase in hydrogen pressure. At 800 C and 755 psig the initial rate of biomass conversion to gases is 0.92 1/min.

  8. Liquefaction of Forest Biomass to Drop-inŽ Hydrocarbon Biofuels...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquefaction of Forest Biomass to "Drop-in" Hydrocarbon Biofuels Contract EE0005974 March ... of technologies for production of biofuels and biobased products * Supports the ...

  9. USDA, DOE Announce $18 Million Solicitation for Biomass Research and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development | Department of Energy $18 Million Solicitation for Biomass Research and Development USDA, DOE Announce $18 Million Solicitation for Biomass Research and Development June 11, 2007 - 1:40pm Addthis WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced a combined total of up to $18 million will be available for research and development of biomass-based products, biofuels, bioenergy and related processes. USDA and DOE are

  10. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion of Biomass to Fuels New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels Scientists made a major step forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into fuels. February 7, 2013 Artist's conception of the process: Researchers open up a component of the biofuel molecule, called a furan ring, to make it easier to chemically alter. Opening these rings into linear chains is a necessary step in the production of energy-dense fuels, so these linear chains can then be converted

  11. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fuels and Power in a Mature Market (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this

  12. Biomass 2014: Growing the Future Bioeconomy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Events » Conferences » Biomass 2014: Growing the Future Bioeconomy Biomass 2014: Growing the Future Bioeconomy Bioenergy: America's Energy Future is a short documentary film showcasing examples of bioenergy innovations across the biomass supply chain and the United States. The film highlights a few stories of individuals and companies who are passionate about achieving the promise of biofuels and addressing the challenges of developing a thriving bioeconomy. This outreach product supports

  13. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  14. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1984-08-01

    Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

  15. Biomass Basics Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is hosting a Biomass Basics Webinar on August 27, 2015, from 4:00-4:40pm EDT. This webinar will provide high school students and teachers with background...

  16. NREL: Biomass Research - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Below are news stories related to NREL biomass research. Subscribe to the RSS feed RSS . Learn about RSS. June 3, 2015 NREL Cyanobacteria Ramps Up Photosynthesis-and New...

  17. The ultimate biomass refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bungay, H.R. )

    1988-01-01

    Bits and pieces of refining schemes and both old and new technology have been integrated into a complete biomass harvesting, processing, waste recycle, and marketing complex. These choices are justified with economic estimates and technology assessments.

  18. Biomass Basics Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    August 27, 2015 Biomass Basics Alexis Martin Fellow, Bioenergy Technologies Office Department of Energy 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Agenda * Overview of Bioenergy * Biomass to Biofuels Life Cycle * Importance of Bioenergy * 2016 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge 3 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Questions and Comments Please record any questions and comments you may have during the webinar and send them to BioenergizeME@ee.doe.gov As a follow-up to the webinar, the presenter(s) will

  19. Algae Biomass Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 9th annual Algae Biomass Summit will be hosted at the Washington Marriot Wardman Park in Washington D.C., September 29 – October 2, 2015. The event will gather leaders in algae biomass from all sectors. U.S. Department of Energy Undersecretary Franklin Orr will give a keynote address at the conference, and Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Director Jonathan, Algae Program Manager Alison Goss Eng, and the BETO Algae Team will be in attendance.

  20. High-Speed Biomass Recalcitrance Pipeline Speeds Up Bio-Mass Analysis -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal High-Speed Biomass Recalcitrance Pipeline Speeds Up Bio-Mass Analysis Robotic pipeline allows for rapid analysis of optimal substrate/enzyme combination for efficient bio-fuel production. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Ames Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryPipeline analysis speeds up the process for the selection of plant species with the lowest natural recalcitrance (resistance to sugar conversion) as well as the

  1. Biomass 2011 Conference Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Conference Agenda Biomass 2011 Conference Agenda Biomass 2011 Conference Agenda bio2011_full_agenda.pdf (620.42 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass 2009 Conference Agenda Biomass 2010 Conference Agenda Biomass 2012

  2. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols – FY 2007 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities. This report, which was originally published in December 2008, has been revised primarily to correct information presented in Appendix B -- Base Case Flow Sheets and Model Results. The corrections to Appendix B include replacement of several pages in Table B.1 that duplicated previous pages of the table. Other changes were made in Appendix B to correct inconsistencies between stream labels presented in the tables and the stream labels in the figures.

  3. Rapid Solar-Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Syngas - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Rapid Solar-Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Syngas Production of synthesis gas or hydrogen by gasification or pyrolysis of biological feedstocks using solar-thermal energy. University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The invention provides processes that perform biomass gasification or pyrolysis for production of hydrogen, synthesis gas, liquid fuels, or other

  4. The Future of Bioenergy Feedstock Production

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2 Bioenergy Technologies Office background Feedstock assessment, production and logistics Biomass yield improvements Sustainable feedstock production Future...

  5. Improvements of biomass deconstruction enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sale, K. L.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and DSM Innovation, Inc. collaborated on the investigation of the structure and function of cellulases from thermophilic fungi. Sandia's role was to use its expertise in protein structure determination and X-ray crystallography to solve the structure of these enzymes in their native state and in their substrate and product bound states. Sandia was also tasked to work with DSM to use the newly solved structure to, using computational approaches, analyze enzyme interactions with both bound substrate and bound product; the goal being to develop approaches for rationally designing improved cellulases for biomass deconstruction. We solved the structures of five cellulases from thermophilic fungi. Several of these were also solved with bound substrate/product, which allowed us to predict mutations that might enhance activity and stability.

  6. Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skelton, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  7. Evaluation of wastewater treatment requirements for thermochemical biomass liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.C. )

    1992-04-01

    Biomass can provide a substantial energy source. Liquids are preferred for use as transportation fuels because of their high energy density and handling ease and safety. Liquid fuel production from biomass can be accomplished by any of several different processes including hydrolysis and fermentation of the carbohydrates to alcohol fuels, thermal gasification and synthesis of alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct extraction of biologically produced hydrocarbons such as seed oils or algae lipids, or direct thermochemical conversion of the biomass to liquids and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. This report discusses direct thermochemical conversion to achieve biomass liquefaction and the requirements for wastewater treatment inherent in such processing. 21 refs.

  8. Macroalgae as a Biomass Feedstock: A Preliminary Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-26

    A thorough of macroalgae analysis as a biofuels feedstock is warranted due to the size of this biomass resource and the need to consider all potential sources of feedstock to meet current biomass production goals. Understanding how to harness this untapped biomass resource will require additional research and development. A detailed assessment of environmental resources, cultivation and harvesting technology, conversion to fuels, connectivity with existing energy supply chains, and the associated economic and life cycle analyses will facilitate evaluation of this potentially important biomass resource.

  9. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs. | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs. Presentation at the May 9, 2012, Pyrolysis Oil Workship on biomass derivatives competitive with heating oil costs. pyrolysis_levine.pdf (733.32 KB) More Documents & Publications Challenge # 1. Feedstock & Production Thermochemical Conversion Proceeses to Aviation Fuels A Review of DOE Biofuels Program

  10. Center for BioEnergy Sustainability | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and the ultimate sustainability of biomass production for conversion to biofuels and bio-based products. The Center for BioEnergy Sustainability, or CBES, is a Center at Oak...

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions … an important trait for biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    production of bioenergy crops? | Department of Energy Arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions … an important trait for biomass production of bioenergy crops? Arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions … an important trait for biomass production of bioenergy crops? This presentation was given by Heike Bucking at the Symbiosis Conference. symbiosis_conference_bucking.pdf (2.21 MB) More Documents & Publications CX-005436: Categorical Exclusion Determination Symbiosis Conference Speaker and Attendee

  12. Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United States Department of Agriculture Partner: Farm Service Agency Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass...

  13. Transportation fuels from biomass via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2013-09-21

    Biomass is a renewable source of carbon, which could provide a means to reduce the greenhouse gas impact from fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Biomass is the only renewable source of liquid fuels, which could displace petroleum-derived products. Fast pyrolysis is a method of direct thermochemical conversion (non-bioconversion) of biomass to a liquid product. Although the direct conversion product, called bio-oil, is liquid; it is not compatible with the fuel handling systems currently used for transportation. Upgrading the product via catalytic processing with hydrogen gas, hydroprocessing, is a means that has been demonstrated in the laboratory. By this processing the bio-oil can be deoxygenated to hydrocarbons, which can be useful replacements of the hydrocarbon distillates in petroleum. While the fast pyrolysis of biomass is presently commercial, the upgrading of the liquid product by hydroprocessing remains in development, although it is moving out of the laboratory into scaled-up process demonstration systems.

  14. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  15. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  16. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  17. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Appendix A. Feasibility study of methane production via catalytic gasification of 2000 tons of wood per day

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the economic feasibility of producing substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The plant design in this study was developed from information on gasifier operation supplied by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The plant is designed to process 2000 tons per day of dry wood to SNG. Plant production is 21.6 MM scfd of SNG with a HHV of 956 Btu per scf. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to SNG are included. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $95,115,000 - September, 1980 basis. Gas production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. For utility financing, the gas production costs are respectively $5.09, $5.56, $6.50, and $8.34 per MM Btu for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton delivered to the plant at a moisture content of 49.50 wt %. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $6.62, $7.11, $8.10, and $10.06 per MM Btu. The cost calculated by the utility financing method includes a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency without taking an energy credit for by-product char is 58.3%.

  18. Biofuels - Biomass Feedstock - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Biofuels - Biomass Feedstock Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology ...

  19. Randolph Electric Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Randolph Electric Biomass Facility Facility Randolph Electric Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Norfolk County,...

  20. Berlin Gorham Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gorham Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Berlin Gorham Biomass Facility Facility Berlin Gorham Sector Biomass Location Coos County, New Hampshire Coordinates...

  1. Westchester Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Westchester Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Westchester Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location...

  2. Shasta 2 Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2 Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Shasta 2 Biomass Facility Facility Shasta 2 Sector Biomass Owner Wheelabrator Location Anderson, California Coordinates...

  3. Biodyne Pontiac Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pontiac Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Biodyne Pontiac Biomass Facility Facility Biodyne Pontiac Sector Biomass Facility Type Non-Fossil Waste Location...

  4. San Marcos Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Marcos Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name San Marcos Biomass Facility Facility San Marcos Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location San Diego County,...

  5. Okeelanta 2 Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2 Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Okeelanta 2 Biomass Facility Facility Okeelanta 2 Sector Biomass Owner Florida Crystals Location South Bay, Florida Coordinates...

  6. Sunset Farms Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Farms Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Sunset Farms Biomass Facility Facility Sunset Farms Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Travis County, Texas...

  7. East Bridgewater Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bridgewater Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name East Bridgewater Biomass Facility Facility East Bridgewater Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location...

  8. Biodyne Lyons Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lyons Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Biodyne Lyons Biomass Facility Facility Biodyne Lyons Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Cook County,...

  9. Reliant Conroe Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Conroe Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Reliant Conroe Biomass Facility Facility Reliant Conroe Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Montgomery...

  10. Plummer Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plummer Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Plummer Biomass Facility Facility Plummer Sector Biomass Owner Wood Power Location Plummer, Idaho Coordinates...

  11. Otay Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Otay Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Otay Biomass Facility Facility Otay Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location San Diego County, California...

  12. SPI Sonora Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sonora Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name SPI Sonora Biomass Facility Facility SPI Sonora Sector Biomass Owner Sierra Pacific Industries Location Sonora, California...

  13. Wheelabrator Saugus Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Saugus Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wheelabrator Saugus Biomass Facility Facility Wheelabrator Saugus Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid Waste...

  14. Biodyne Peoria Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Peoria Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Biodyne Peoria Biomass Facility Facility Biodyne Peoria Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Peoria County,...

  15. Zilkha Biomass Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zilkha Biomass Energy LLC Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Zilkha Biomass Energy LLC Name: Zilkha Biomass Energy LLC Address: 1001 McKinney Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77002...

  16. Mecca Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plant Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Mecca Plant Biomass Facility Facility Mecca Plant Sector Biomass Location Riverside County, California Coordinates...

  17. Biodyne Springfield Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Springfield Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Biodyne Springfield Biomass Facility Facility Biodyne Springfield Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location...

  18. Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database () | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database Title: Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Biomass ...

  19. Kiefer Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kiefer Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kiefer Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Kiefer Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location...

  20. Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler Uses a Combination of Wood Waste and Tire-Derived Fuel In 2011, the ...

  1. Gas turbine power generation from biomass gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Litt, R.D.; Overend, R.P.; Bain, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Biomass Power Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has as a major goal the development of cost-competitive technologies for the production of power from renewable biomass crops. The gasification of biomass provides the potential to meet this goal by efficiently and economically producing a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in high efficiency gas turbines or as a substitute fuel in other combustion devices such as boilers, kilns, or other natural gas fired equipment. This paper discusses the development of the use of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for power generation systems. Projected process economics are presented along with a description of current experimental operations coupling a gas turbine power generation system to the research scale gasifier.

  2. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2001-05-01

    In summary, stoker-fired boilers that cofire or switch to biomass fuel may potentially have to deal with ash behavior issues such as production of different concentrations and quantities of fine particulate or aerosols and ash-fouling deposition. Stoker boiler operators that are considering switching to biomass and adding potential infrastructure to accommodate the switch may also at the same time be looking into upgrades that will allow for generating additional power for sale on the grid. This is the case for the feasibility study being done currently for a small (<1-MW) stoker facility at the North Dakota State Penitentiary, which is considering not only the incorporation of a lower-cost biomass fuel but also a refurbishing of the stoker boiler to burn slightly hotter with the ability to generate more power and sell excess energy on the grid. These types of fuel and boiler changes can greatly affect ash behavior issues.

  3. 1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

  4. BIOMASS TO BIO-OIL BY LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-10

    Significant efforts have been devoted to develop processes for the conversion of biomass, an abundant and sustainable source of energy, to liquid fuels and chemicals, in order to replace diminishing fossil fuels and mitigate global warming. Thermochemical and biochemical methods have attracted the most attention. Among the thermochemical processes, pyrolysis and liquefaction are the two major technologies for the direct conversion of biomass to produce a liquid product, often called bio-oil. This chapter focuses on the liquefaction, a medium-temperature and high-pressure thermochemical process for the conversion of biomass to bio-oil. Water has been most commonly used as a solvent and the process is known as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Fundamentals of HTL process, key factors determining HTL behavior, role of catalyst in HTL, properties of produced bio-oil, and the current status of the technology are summarized. The liquefaction of biomass by using organic solvents, a process called solvolysis, is also discussed. A wide range of biomass feedstocks have been tested for liquefaction including wood, crop residues, algae, food processing waste, and animal manure.

  5. DOE Thermochemical Users Facility A Proving Ground for Biomass Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2003-11-01

    The National Bioenergy Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides a state-of-the-art Thermochemical Users Facility (TCUF) for converting renewable, biomass feedstocks into a variety of products.

  6. Feedstock Supply and Logistics:Biomass as a Commodity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The growing U.S. bioindustry is poised to convert domestic biomass resources into the full range of fuels and products needed to reduce U.S. oil imports and boost economic growth.

  7. Feedstock Supply and Logistics: Biomass as a Commodity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The growing U.S. bioindustry is poised to convert domestic biomass resources into the full range of fuels and products needed to reduce U.S. oil imports and boost economic growth.

  8. Biomass Program Factsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    The emerging U.S. bioindustry is using a range of biomass resources to provide a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels and electric power. Displacing an increasing portion of our imported oil with renewable, domestic bioenergy will provide clear benefits:Reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; A cleaner, more secure energy future; Sustainable transportation fuels; Opportunities for economic growth

  9. Biomass Scenario Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique, carefully validated, state-of-the-art dynamic model of the domestic biofuels supply chain which explicitly focuses on policy issues, their feasibility, and potential side effects. It integrates resource availability, physical/technological/economic constraints, behavior, and policy. The model uses a system dynamics simulation (not optimization) to model dynamic interactions across the supply chain.

  10. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  11. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  12. NREL: Learning - Biomass Energy Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Energy Basics Photo of a farmer standing in a field and inspecting corn crops. We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy"-the energy from plants and plant-derived...

  13. Biomass Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education & Workforce Development » Resources » Biomass Basics Biomass Basics Biomass is an energy resource derived from organic matter, which includes wood, agricultural waste, and other living-cell material that can be burned to produce heat energy. It also includes algae, sewage, and other organic substances that may be used to make energy through chemical processes. Biomass currently supplies about 3% of total U.S. energy consumption in the form of electricity, process heat, and

  14. Future Bioeconomy Supported by More Than One Billion Tons of Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential | Department of Energy Future Bioeconomy Supported by More Than One Billion Tons of Biomass Potential Future Bioeconomy Supported by More Than One Billion Tons of Biomass Potential July 12, 2016 - 2:15pm Addthis Within 25 years, the United States could produce enough biomass to support a bioeconomy, including renewable aquatic and terrestrial biomass resources that could be used for energy and to develop products for economic, environmental, social, and national security benefits.

  15. A survey of state clean energy fund support for biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, Garrett; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-08-20

    This survey reviews efforts by CESA member clean energy funds to promote the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. For each fund, details are provided regarding biomass eligibility for support, specific programs offering support to biomass projects, and examples of supported biomass projects (if available). For the purposes of this survey, biomass is defined to include bio-product gasification, combustion, co-firing, biofuel production, and the combustion of landfill gas, though not all of the programs reviewed here take so wide a definition. Programs offered by non-CESA member funds fall outside the scope of this survey. To date, three funds--the California Energy Commission, Wisconsin Focus on Energy, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority--have offered programs targeted specifically at the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. We begin by reviewing efforts in these three funds, and then proceed to cover programs in other funds that have provided support to biomass projects when the opportunity has arisen, but otherwise do not differentially target biomass relative to other renewable technologies.

  16. Reburn system with feedlot biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Annamalai, Kalyan; Sweeten, John M.

    2005-12-13

    The present invention pertains to the use of feedlot biomass as reburn fuel matter to reduce NO.sub.x emissions. According to one embodiment of the invention, feedlot biomass is used as the reburn fuel to reduce NO.sub.x. The invention also includes burners and boiler in which feedlot biomass serves a reburn fuel.

  17. Biomass 2009 Conference Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    09 Conference Agenda Biomass 2009 Conference Agenda Biomass 2009 Conference Agenda bio2009_full_agenda.pdf (323.99 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass 2010 Conference Agenda Biomass 2011 Conference Agenda ICAM Workshop

  18. Biomass 2010 Conference Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Conference Agenda Biomass 2010 Conference Agenda Biomass 2010 Conference Agenda bio2010_full_agenda.pdf (299 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass 2009 Conference Agenda Biomass 2011 Conference Agenda QTR Cornerstone Workshop 2014

  19. High-Yielding Method for Converting Biomass to Fermentable Sugars for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuel Production - Energy Innovation Portal High-Yielding Method for Converting Biomass to Fermentable Sugars for Biofuel Production Inventors: Ronald Raines, Joseph Binder Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Lignocellulosic biomass is a very desirable feedstock for biofuel production. If the fermentation process for lignocellulose could be optimized, conversion of this biomass could yield 25 to 50 billion gallons of

  20. Economics of producing fuel pellets from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, S.; Sokhansanj, S.; Bi, X.; Turhollow, A.

    2006-05-15

    An engineering economic analysis of a biomass pelleting process was performed for conditions in North America. The pelletization of biomass consists of a series of unit operations: drying, size reduction, densifying, cooling, screening, and warehousing. Capital and operating cost of the pelleting plant was estimated at several plant capacities. Pellet production cost for a base case plant capacity of 6 t/h was about $51/t of pellets. Raw material cost was the largest cost element of the total pellet production cost followed by personnel cost, drying cost, and pelleting mill cost. An increase in raw material cost substantially increased the pellet production cost. Pellet plants with a capacity of more than 10 t/h decreased the costs to roughly $40/t of pellets. Five different burner fuels - wet sawdust, dry sawdust, biomass pellets, natural gas, and coal were tested for their effect on the cost of pellet production. Wet sawdust and coal, the cheapest burner fuels, produced the lowest pellet production cost. The environmental impacts due to the potential emissions of these fuels during the combustion process require further investigation.

  1. ECONOMICS OF PRODUCING FUEL PELLETS FROM BIOMASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F

    2005-09-01

    An engineering economic analysis of a biomass pelleting process was performed for conditions in North America. The biomass pelleting process consists of a series of unit operations namely drying, size reduction, pelletization, cooling, screening and warehousing. Capital and operating cost of the pelleting plant was estimated at several plant capacities. Pellet production cost for a base case plant capacity of 6 t/h was about $51/t of pellets. Raw material cost was the largest cost factor on the total pellet production cost followed by personnel cost, drying cost and pelleting mill cost. An increase in raw material cost substantially increased the pellet production cost. Large-scale pellet plants with a plant capacity of more than 10t/h decreased the costs to roughly $40/t of pellets. Five different burner fuels wet sawdust, dry sawdust, biomass pellets, natural gas and coal were tested for their effect on the cost of pellet production. Wet sawdust and coal, the cheapest burner fuels, produced the lowest pellet production cost. Tthe environmental impacts due to the potential emissions of these fuels during the combustion process require further investigation.

  2. FY12 Biomass Program Congressional Budget Request

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-02-01

    FY12 budget and funding for the Biomass Program biomass and biorefinery systems research development and deployment.

  3. Metro Wastewater Reclamation District Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wastewater Reclamation District Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Metro Wastewater Reclamation District Biomass Facility Facility Metro Wastewater Reclamation...

  4. NREL: Biomass Research - Thermochemical Conversion Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and commercialization of biomass gasification is the integration of the gasifier with downstream syngas processing. ... Biomass Characterization Biochemical Conversion Thermochemical ...

  5. Solar thermochemical fuel production. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 14 SOLAR ENERGY; BIOMASS; GASIFICATION; LIQUID FUELS; OXIDES; PRODUCTION; REDOX REACTIONS; SOLAR ...

  6. Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via ...

  7. Roadmap for Bioenergy and Biobased Products in the United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 Roadmap for Bioenergy and Biobased Products in the United States Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee Biomass Research and Development Initiative October...

  8. DOE and USDA Select Projects for more than $24 Million in Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon jointsolicitation2009dl.pdf More Documents & Publications Roadmap for Bioenergy and Biobased Products in the United States Feedstock Supply and Logistics:Biomass as a ...

  9. Biomass 2012 Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Agenda Biomass 2012 Agenda Detailed agenda from the July 10-11, 2012, Biomass conference--Biomass 2012: Confronting Challenges, Creating Opportunities - Sustaining a Commitment to Bioenergy. bio2012_final_agenda.pdf (340.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass 2013 Agenda Biomass 2011 Conference Agenda Biomass 2010

  10. Biomass 2013 Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Agenda Biomass 2013 Agenda This agenda outlines the sessions and events for Biomass 2013 in Washington, D.C., July 31-August 1. biomass_2013_agenda.pdf (322.3 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass 2010 Conference Agenda Biomass 2012 Agenda Biomass 2009

  11. Variation in Biomass Composition Components among Forage, Biomass, Sorghum-Sudangrass, and Sweet Sorghum Types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefaniak, T. R.; Dahlberg, J. A.; Bean, B. W.; Dighe, N.; Wolfrum, E. J.; Rooney, W. L.

    2012-07-01

    Alternative biomass sources must be developed if the United States is to meet the goal in the U.S. Energy Security Act of 2007 to derive 30% of its petroleum from renewable sources, and several different biomass crops are currently in development. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is one such crop that will be an important feedstock source for biofuel production. As composition influences productivity, there exists a need to understand the range in composition observed within the crop. The goal of this research was to assess the range in dietary fiber composition observed within different types of biomass sorghums. A total of 152 sorghum samples were divided into the four end-use types of sorghum: biomass, forage, sorghum-sudangrass, and sweet. These samples were analyzed chemically using dietary fiber analysis performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using published protocols. Significant variation among the groups was detected for glucan and ash. Positive and highly significant correlations were detected between structural carbohydrates in the biomass and sweet sorghums while many of these correlations were negative or not significant in the forage and sorghum-sudangrass types. In addition, a wide range of variation was present within each group indicating that there is potential to manipulate the composition of the crop.

  12. Global repowering opportunities for biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demeter, C.P.; Gray, E.E.; Lindsey, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    Global demand for electricity is growing during a time of significant structural change in electric markets. Many countries are creating more competitive markets for power production and sales through regulation and ownership structure. Governments are reducing monopolies, enhancing competition and unbundling electricity services. Equipment suppliers, developers, and service providers are expanding into the global market. Meeting future electric energy needs has forced the power community to examine alternatives to Greenfield Development. Repowering existing facilities to gain a competitive advantage is a promising option. Repowering has the potential to offer increased capacity, heat rate reductions, and improved environmental profiles in a manner consistent with an asset and capital deployment rationalization strategy that appears to characterize the future of the power industry. It is also a defensive strategy for extending the life of existing assets. The breadth of repowering options continues to expand as technologies are introduced to increase plant capacities, efficiencies or both. Some options such as feedwater heater repowering appear to offer advantages to repowering with biomass fuels as an alternative to natural gas projects. By repowering solid fueled facilities, developed and developing countries can receive multiple benefits. Most developing countries are largely agrarian with traditional policies that have relied on trickle-down rural development. By turning agricultural and forestry by-products into commodities, farmers and foresters can benefit from a sustainable source of income. As power demand and biomass requirements are expanded to a regional scale, the government can reduce some agricultural subsidies and shift that money to other economically and socially beneficial programs. Furthermore, rural development can minimize rural-to-urban flight and thus lessen the strain on already overburdened urban infrastructure.

  13. DOE 2014 Biomass Conference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 Biomass Conference Jim Williams Senior Manager American Petroleum Institute July 29, 2014 DRAFT 7/28/14 Let's Agree with the Chicken Developing & Implementing Fuels & Vehicle Standards * Let Free Markets Work - Mandates and subsidies distort the free market - Must meet consumers' needs - Follow automobile company recommendations as found in owner's manuals - Changes must be compatible with transportation fuel infrastructure * Use Sound Science - Adopt a systems approach, addressing

  14. Hydrolysis of biomass material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Orth, Rick J.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail

    2004-02-17

    A method for selective hydrolysis of the hemicellulose component of a biomass material. The selective hydrolysis produces water-soluble small molecules, particularly monosaccharides. One embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A second embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently enzymatically hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A third embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose by heating the biomass material to greater than 110.degree. C. resulting in an aqueous portion that includes the solubilized hemicellulose and a water insoluble solids portion and subsequently separating the aqueous portion from the water insoluble solids portion. A fourth embodiment is a method for making a composition that includes cellulose, at least one protein and less than about 30 weight % hemicellulose, the method including solubilizing at least a portion of hemicellulose present in a biomass material that also includes cellulose and at least one protein and subsequently separating the solubilized hemicellulose from the cellulose and at least one protein.

  15. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr.

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  16. BETO Project Improves Production of Renewable Chemical from Cellulosic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Feedstocks | Department of Energy Project Improves Production of Renewable Chemical from Cellulosic Feedstocks BETO Project Improves Production of Renewable Chemical from Cellulosic Feedstocks October 13, 2015 - 1:43pm Addthis Renewable chemical company Genomatica made significant progress toward increasing the range of feedstocks that can be used to commercially produce high-quality bio-based chemicals, in a project funded by the Energy Department's Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO).

  17. Final Report DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER83817 Integrated Reactor Design for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Sourced Reactants Streams Using the Aqueous-Phase Carbohydrate Reforming (ACR) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randy D. Cortright

    2005-05-04

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation research project Virent Energy Systems (Virent) attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of generating high yields of hydrogen by developing the appropriate reactor system for the novel liquid-phase reforming of aqueous-phase carbohydrate streams derived from biomass. In this project platinum-based catalysts were initially utilized to establish the technical feasibility of reactor design for reforming carbohydrates found in biomass to hydrogen.

  18. Biomass fuel use in agriculture under alternative fuel prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hillsman, E.L.; Tepel, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    A linear programming model is used to analyze cost-competitiveness of biomass fuels in agricultural applications for the projected year 1990. With all else held constant, the prices of conventional fuels are increased and analytically compared to prices for biomass fuel products across a variety of end uses. Potential penetration of biomass fuels is measured as the share of each conventional fuel for which cost savings could be realized by substituting biomass fuels. This study examines the cost competitiveness of biomass fuels produced on farms, relative to conventional fuels (diesel, gasoline, natural gas, LPG, fuel oil, and electricity), as the prices of conventional fuels change. The study is targeted at the year 1990 and considers only fuel use in the agricultural sector. The method of analysis is to project fuel demands for ten farm operations in the year 1990 and to match these with biomass fuel substitutes from ten feedstock and nine process alternatives. In all, 61 feedstock/process combinations are possible. The matching of fuel demands and biomass fuels occurs in a linear programming model that seeks to meet fuel demands at minimum cost. Two types of biomass fuel facilities are considered, assuming a decentralized fuel distribution system. The first includes on-farm production units such as oil presses, low-Btu gasifiers, biogas digestors and direct combustion units. The second type of facility would be run by a farm co-operative. The primary data describing the biomass technologies are cost per unit output, where costs are calculated as first-year capital charges, plus al l allocable operating expenses, less any by-products of value. All costs assume commercial purchase of equipment. Homemade or makeshift installations are not considered. 1 reference.

  19. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region`s net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region`s energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  20. Port Graham Village - Biomass Feasibility Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Biomass District Energy Production in Port Graham, Alaska November 7, 2007 Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program Port Graham Tribal Council Involvement * Pat Noman, Chief * Olga Foman, Second Chief * Fran Norman, Tribal Administrator * Charlie Sink, Technical Representative Port Graham Tribal Council and Port Graham, Alaska * Port Graham Tribal Council is the village administrator * There are approximately 150 Tribal Members * ANCSA formed Port Graham Village Corporation owns a majority

  1. BIOMASS-TO-ENERGY FEASIBILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cecil T. Massie

    2002-09-03

    The purpose of this study was to assess the economic and technical feasibility of producing electricity and thermal energy from biomass by gasification. For an economic model we chose a large barley malting facility operated by Rahr Malting Co. in Shakopee, Minnesota. This plant provides an excellent backdrop for this study because it has both large electrical loads and thermal loads that allowed us to consider a wide range of sizes and technical options. In the end, eleven scenarios were considered ranging from 3.1 megawatts (MWe) to 19.8 MWe. By locating the gasification and generation at an agricultural product processing plant with large electrical and thermal loads, the expectation was that some of the limitations of stand-alone biomass power plants would be overcome. In addition, since the process itself created significant volumes of low value biomass, the hope was that most of the biomass gathering and transport issues would be handled as well. The development of low-BTU gas turbines is expected to fill a niche between the upper limit of multiple spark ignited engine set systems around 5 MWe and the minimum reasonable scale for steam turbine systems around 10 MWe.

  2. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, M.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    Now that public attention has grown increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, the commercial use of biomass could greatly accelerate. Renewable feedstocks like biomass can provide better environmentally balanced sources of energy and other nonfood products than fossil fuels. The future of biomass is uncertain, however, because public attention focuses on both its potential and its challenges. This paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 and 4 catalog the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large-scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups: wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier: gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 provides a conclusion and summary.

  3. International Biomass Conference and Expo

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The International Biomass Conference and Expo will be held April 11–14, 2016, in Charlotte, North Carolina, and will gather bioeconomy experts across the supply chain. Bioenergy Technologies Office Technology Manager Elliott Levine will be moderating a panel titled, “The Near-Term Opportunity for Biomass as a Low-Carbon Coal Supplement or Replacement.” The panel will focus on the technological challenges and opportunities in the potential for biomass to replace coal.

  4. A Hybrid Catalytic Route to Fuels from Biomass Syngas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 21, 2013 Gasification Mike Schultz, PhD., Project PI A Hybrid Catalytic Route to Fuels from Biomass Syngas Project Goal A hybrid biorefinery design that enables the production of jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels from waste biomass System Integration, Optimization and Analysis Integration Gasification & Syngas Conditioning Fermentation & Alcohol Recovery Catalysis Catalysis Gasoline Jet Fuel Diesel Butadiene MEK EtOH 2,3BD Wood Stover Switchgrass Improve Economics and Process

  5. Modified Yeast with Enhanced Tolerance for GVL Biomass Solvent - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Modified Yeast with Enhanced Tolerance for GVL Biomass Solvent Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Gamma-valerolactone (GVL) is an inexpensive solvent derived from biomass that can be used to break apart tough lignocellulose into fermentable sugars including xylose and glucose. GVL-based techniques are a potentially transformative breakthrough in biofuel production (for more information see WARF reference

  6. DOE, USDA Announce Funding for Biomass Research and Development Initiative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy DOE, USDA Announce Funding for Biomass Research and Development Initiative DOE, USDA Announce Funding for Biomass Research and Development Initiative May 6, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) today jointly announced up to $33 million in funding for research and development of technologies and processes to produce biofuels, bioenergy and high-value biobased products, subject to annual appropriations. These

  7. Biomass Rapid Analysis Network (BRAN)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Helping the emerging biotechnology industry develop new tools and methods for real-time analysis of biomass feedstocks, process intermediates and The Biomass Rapid Analysis Network is designed to fast track the development of modern tools and methods for biomass analysis to accelerate the development of the emerging industry. The network will be led by industry and organized and coordinated through the National Renewable Energy Lab. The network will provide training and other activities of interest to BRAN members. BRAN members will share the cost and work of rapid analysis method development, validate the new methods, and work together to develop the training for the future biomass conversion workforce.

  8. Biomass Burning Observation Project Specifically,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pacific Northwest region and in the vicinity of Memphis, Tennessee, as part of the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP). The aircraft will fly through smoke plumes from...

  9. System and process for biomass treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

    2013-08-20

    A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

  10. Biomass Webinar Text Version | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Text Version Biomass Webinar Text Version Dowload the text version of the audio from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on biomass. DOE Office of Indian Energy Foundational Course Webinar on Biomass: Text Version (153.94 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Webinar Presentation Slides Assessing Energy Resources Webinar Text Version Transcript: Biomass Clean Cities Webinar - Workforce Development

  11. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  12. 1994 Washington State directory of Biomass Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    This is the fourth edition of the Washington Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities, the first edition was published in 1987. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of and basic information about known biomass producers and users within the state to help demonstrate the importance of biomass energy in fueling our state`s energy needs. In 1992 (latest statistical year), estimates show that the industrial sector in Washington consumed nearly 128 trillion Btu of electricity, nearly 49.5 trillion Btu of petroleum, over 82.2 trillion Btu of natural gas, and over 4.2 trillion Btu of coal. Facilities listed in this directory generated approximately 114 trillion Btu of biomass energy - 93 trillion were consumed from waste wood and spent chemicals. In the total industrial energy picture, wood residues and chemical cooking liquors placed second only to electricity. This directory is divided into four main sections biogas production, biomass combustion, ethanol production, and solid fuel processing facilities. Each section contains maps and tables summarizing the information for each type of biomass. Provided in the back of the directory for reference are a conversion table, a table of abbreviations, a glossary, and an index. Chapter 1 deals with biogas production from both landfills and sewage treatment plants in the state. Biogas produced from garbage and sewage can be scrubbed and used to generate electricity. At the present time, biogas collected at landfills is being flared on-site, however four landfills are investigating the feasibility of gas recovery for energy. Landfill biogas accounted for approximately 6 percent of the total biomass reported. Sewage treatment biogas accounted for 0.6 percent. Biogas generated from sewage treatment plants is primarily used for space and process heat, only one facility presently scrubs and sells methane. Together, landfill and sewage treatment plant biogas represented over 6.6 percent of the total biomass reported.

  13. Potential for biomass electricity in four Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Tantlinger, J.; Kaya, M.

    1997-12-31

    Of all forms of renewable energy, biomass offers the best near-term opportunity for supplying a significant portion of the world`s need for electric power. Biomass is especially competitive when fuel supply costs are partially defrayed as production activities associated with the processing of another product, e.g., sugar, rice, or vegetable oil. Not only do such processing situations provide cost savings, they also generate very large supplies of fuel and therefore can contribute significantly to the local energy mix. Access to ample supplies of competitively-priced biomass feedstocks is only one of several factors needed to encourage the use of biomass for power generation; equally important is a healthy market for electricity, i.e., need for large blocks of additional power and sufficient strength in the economy to attract investment in new capacity. Worldwide, the Asia-Pacific region is projected to have the greatest need for new generating capacity in the next decade and shows the highest rate of economic growth, making it an attractive market for biomass power. Also critical to the expansion of bioenergy is the adoption of positive, stable policies on energy production, distribution, and sale, that encourage the generation and use of electricity from biomass. The aforementioned three factors--adequate biomass supplies, increasing demand for electricity, and supportive policies--are examined for four Asian countries, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Information presented for each of the four countries include the types and amounts of bioresidues and their associated electric power generation potential; present and future supplies and demand for electricity; and existing or planned government and utility policies that could impact the generation and use of biomass power.

  14. Northeast regional biomass program. Retrospective, 1983--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savitt, S.; Morgan, S.

    1995-01-01

    Ten years ago, when Congress initiated the Regional Biomass Energy Program, biomass fuel use in the Northeast was limited primarily to the forest products industry and residential wood stoves. An enduring form of energy as old as settlement in the region, residential wood-burning now takes its place beside modern biomass combustion systems in schools and other institutions, industrial cogeneration facilities, and utility-scale power plants. Biomass today represents more than 95 percent of all renewable energy consumed in the Northeast: a little more than one-half quadrillion BTUs yearly, or five percent of the region`s total energy demand. Yet given the region`s abundance of overstocked forests, municipal solid waste and processed wood residues, this represents just a fraction of the energy potential the biomass resource has to offer.This report provides an account of the work of the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) over it`s first ten years. The NRBP has undertaken projects to promote the use of biomass energy and technologies.

  15. Process for concentrated biomass saccharification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan M.; Seapan, Mayis; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2010-10-05

    Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

  16. Overview of the Biomass Scenario Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Steve

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the structure of the October 2012 version of the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) in considerable detail, oriented towards readers with a background or interest in the underlying modeling structures. Readers seeking a less-detailed summary of the BSM may refer to Peterson (2013). BSM aims to provide a framework for exploring the potential contribution of biofuel technologies to the transportation energy supply for the United States over the next several decades. The model has evolved significantly from the prototype developed as part of the Role of Biomass in America" tm s Energy Future (RBAEF) project. BSM represents the supply chain surrounding conversion pathways for multiple fuel products, including ethanol, butanol, and infrastructure-compatible biofuels such as diesel, jet fuel, and gasoline.

  17. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  18. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  19. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  20. NREL: Energy Analysis - Biomass Technology Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Biomass-fired integrated gasification combined-cycle system using a biomass energy crop Pulverized coal boiler representing an average U.S. coal-fired power plant Cofiring biomass ...