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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Bio-Based Phase Change Materials Research Project | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Based Phase Change Materials Research Based Phase Change Materials Research Project Bio-Based Phase Change Materials Research Project The Department of Energy is currently conducting research into the development of low cost, bio-based phase change materials for building envelopes. Because insulation keeps hot air out inside buildings during the summer and outside during the winter, developing low cost materials can both drive down the cost of insulation and reduce energy costs. Project Description This project seeks to develop a low cost manufacturing process for the production of phase change materials (PCMs), and to subsequently evaluate the PCM pellets produced to provide improved insulation in buildings. Project Partners Research is being undertaken between the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge

2

Field Testing of Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Material  

SciTech Connect

A test wall built with phase change material (PCM)-enhanced loose-fill cavity insulation was monitored for a period of about a year in the warm-humid climate of Charleston, South Carolina. The test wall was divided into various sections, one of which contained only loose-fill insulation and served as a control for comparing and evaluating the wall sections with the PCM-enhanced insulation. This report summarizes the findings of the field test.

Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Theoretical and Experimental Thermal Performance Analysis of Complex Thermal Storage Membrane Containing Bio-Based Phase Change Material (PCM)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since 2000, an ORNL research team has been testing different configurations of PCM-enhanced building envelop components to be used in residential and commercial buildings. During 2009, a novel type of thermal storage membrane was evaluated for building envelope applications. Bio-based PCM was encapsulated between two layers of heavy-duty plastic film forming a complex array of small PCM cells. Today, a large group of PCM products are packaged in such complex PCM containers or foils containing arrays of PCM pouches of different shapes and sizes. The transient characteristics of PCM-enhanced building envelope materials depend on the quality and amount of PCM, which is very often difficult to estimate because of the complex geometry of many PCM heat sinks. The only widely used small-scale analysis method used to evaluate the dynamic characteristics of PCM-enhanced building products is the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Unfortunately, this method requires relatively uniform, and very small, specimens of the material. However, in numerous building thermal storage applications, PCM products are not uniformly distributed across the surface area, making the results of traditional DSC measurements unrealistic for these products. In addition, most of the PCM-enhanced building products contain blends of PCM with fire retardants and chemical stabilizers. This combination of non-uniform distribution and non-homogenous composition make it nearly impossible to select a representative small specimen suitable for DSC tests. Recognizing these DSC limitations, ORNL developed a new methodology for performing dynamic heat flow analysis of complex PCM-enhanced building materials. An experimental analytical protocol to analyze the dynamic characteristics of PCM thermal storage makes use of larger specimens in a conventional heat-flow meter apparatus, and combines these experimental measurements with three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference modeling and whole building energy simulations. Based on these dynamic tests and modeling, ORNL researchers then developed a simplified one-dimensional (1-D) model of the PCM-enhanced building component that can be easily used in whole-building simulations. This paper describes this experimental-analytical methodology as used in the analysis of an insulation assembly containing a complex array of PCM pouches. Based on the presented short example of whole building energy analysis, this paper describes step-by-step how energy simulation results can be used for optimization of PCM-enhanced building envelopes. Limited results of whole building energy simulations using the EnergyPlus program are presented as well.

Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Yarbrough, David W [ORNL

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Building Technologies Office: Bio-Based Phase Change Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& Beyond Design Competition Buildings to Grid Integration Technology Research, Standards, & Codes Popular Links Success Stories Previous Next Lighten Energy Loads with System...

5

Bio-Based Products  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often...

6

Energy Basics: Bio-Based Products  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Share this resource Biomass Biofuels Biopower Bio-Based Products Biomass Resources Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Bio-Based Products Almost all of the products...

7

Bio-based Thermochromic Intelligent Roof Coating Research Project |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

based Thermochromic Intelligent Roof based Thermochromic Intelligent Roof Coating Research Project Bio-based Thermochromic Intelligent Roof Coating Research Project The Department of Energy is conducting research into bio-based thermochromic intelligent roof coatings. The coatings are developed from waste cooking oil. Project Description This project seeks to develop and demonstrate a waste cooking oil-based thermochromic smart roof coating technology that will adjust light transmission in response to temperature changes. This will reduce energy demands for temperature regulation. The project will also study the effects of different oil sources on coating properties. Project Partners This project is being undertaken between the Department of Energy and United Environment & Energy. Project Goals

8

Bio-Based Products | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often require less energy to produce than petroleum-based ones....

9

Bio-based ethylene able to replace petroleum as a ...  

Biomass and Biofuels Bio-based ethylene able to replace petroleum as a feedstock National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Contact NREL About This ...

10

Bio-Based Product Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:19pm Addthis Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often require less energy to produce than petroleum-based ones. Researchers have discovered that the process for making biofuels also can be used to make antifreeze, plastics, glues, artificial sweeteners, and gel for toothpaste. Other important building blocks for bio-based products are carbon monoxide and hydrogen. When biomass is heated with a small amount of oxygen, these two gases are produced in abundance. Scientists call this mixture biosynthesis gas. Biosynthesis gas can be used to make plastics and acids,

11

Bio-Based Product Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:19pm Addthis Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often require less energy to produce than petroleum-based ones. Researchers have discovered that the process for making biofuels also can be used to make antifreeze, plastics, glues, artificial sweeteners, and gel for toothpaste. Other important building blocks for bio-based products are carbon monoxide and hydrogen. When biomass is heated with a small amount of oxygen, these two gases are produced in abundance. Scientists call this mixture biosynthesis gas. Biosynthesis gas can be used to make plastics and acids,

12

Conversion of rice straw to bio-based chemicals: an integrated process using Lactobacillus brevis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conversion of rice straw to bio-based chemicals: anbiomass as a feedstock for bio-based chemical production ispositive strain is used for bio-based chemical production

Kim, Jae-Han; Block, David E.; Shoemaker, Sharon P.; Mills, David A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Bio-Based Products Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:19pm Addthis Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are...

14

Experiment 7: Heat Phase Changes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experiment 7: Heat Phase Changes Matter has 4 phases or states: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. This lab looks at the phase transitions from solid to liquid to gas. 1. Obtain the following materials: 600mL beaker of ice, thermometer, hot plate, timer. 2. Add a very small amount of water to the ice so

Peterson, Blake R.

15

MHK Technologies/bioBase | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bioBase bioBase < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage BioBase.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization BioPower Systems Pty Ltd Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Seabed mooring system Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 1 3 Discovery Concept Def Early Stage Dev Design Engineering Technology Description BioPower Systems has developed a novel singular mounting system called bioBASE This system is modeled on the seabed holdfast mechanism used by large sea plants such as the giant kelp In such systems the vertical and lateral loads that are translated to the seabed by the main shaft are re distributed into many smaller elements that engage with the bottom strata This mechanism serves to distribute the forces and alleviate excess loads The bioBASE utilises rockbolting technology for the multiple roots of the system and does not require large specialised vessels or drill rigs due to the small gauge of each bolt

16

Bibliography on Phase Change Materials in Construction ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Cell Using Light Wallboards Coupling Vacuum Isolation Panels and Phase ... of Phase Change Materials in Concrete," Solar Energy Materials and ...

2013-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

17

Building Bio-based Supply Chains: Theoretical Perspectives on Innovative Contract Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a Biofuel Feedstock in Iowa’s Bio-economy: An Iowa FarmerB IOENERGY 347 BUILDING BIO-BASED SUPPLY CHAINS pollution. 7Production of ‘Alamo’ BUILDING BIO-BASED SUPPLY CHAINS The

Endres, Jody M.; Endres, A. Bryan; Stoller, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

PHASE CHANGE DEVICE - Energy Innovation Portal  

Heating of the phase change material to initiate a change in phase can be provided by the application of ... Building Energy Efficiency; ... Solar Thermal; Startup ...

19

Polyolefin composites containing a phase change material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyolefin matrix having a phase change material such as a crystalline alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein, said polyolefin being thermally form stable; the composite is useful in forming pellets, sheets or fibers having thermal energy storage characteristics; methods for forming the composite are also disclosed.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Phase change thermal energy storage material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal energy storge composition is disclosed. The composition comprises a non-chloride hydrate having a phase change transition temperature in the range of 70.degree.-95.degree. F. and a latent heat of transformation of at least about 35 calories/gram.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Burrows, Richard W. (Conifer, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COOLING AND DOUBLE WALLBOARD COMPARISON OF THERMAL STORAGEThermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential CoolingThermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling

Feustel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

SunShot Initiative: Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload Power to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Solution...

23

Shape Stable and Highly Conductive Nano-Phase-Change Materials...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Shape Stable and Highly Conductive Nano-Phase-Change Materials Research Project Shape Stable and Highly Conductive Nano-Phase-Change Materials Research Project The Department of...

24

Super Energy Saver Heat Pump with Dynamic Hybrid Phase Change ...  

Super Energy Saver Heat Pump with Dynamic Hybrid Phase Change Material United States Patent Application

25

Sneak peek at electrofuels: Geobacter team aims for bio-based solution to solar energy storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sneak peek at electrofuels: Geobacter team aims for bio-based solution to solar energy storage a hybrid of solar and bio-power and also solve the most perplexing problem facing solar energy: energy compounds, and oxygen is released as a byproduct," Lovley explains. Solar energy powers the microbes

Lovley, Derek

26

Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

Salyer, I.O.

1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

28

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

29

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 9 figs.

Salyer, I.O.

1992-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

32

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, I.O.

1993-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

33

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garmets, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Tile structures having phase change material (PCM) component for ...  

Tile structures having phase change material (PCM) component for use in floorings and ceilings United States Patent Application

39

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels - Technology Management, Inc.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels-Technology Management, Inc. Background In this congressionally directed project, Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) will develop and demonstrate a residential scale prototype solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system at end-user sites. These small-scale systems would operate continuously on either conventional or renewable biofuels, producing cost effective, uninterruptible

40

Macroencapsulation of Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The use of a latent heat storage system using phase change materials (PCMs) is an effective way of storing thermal energy. Latent heat storage enables… (more)

Pendyala, Swetha

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Phase Change Materials and Their Impact on the Thermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Phase Change Materials and Their Impact on the Thermal Performance of Buildings. Author(s), Marsha S. Bischel, William H Frantz. On-Site

42

Phase Change Materials for Enhancing Heat Transfer in Thermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the main issues with using phase change materials is that solidification often reduces total heat transfer, reducing the efficiency of the storage system.

43

Super energy saver heat pump with dynamic hybrid phase change ...  

The at least one outdoor heat exchanger has a phase change material in thermal communication ... Building Energy Efficiency; ... Solar Thermal; Startup America;

44

Optimized Structures for Low-Profile Phase Change Thermal Spreaders.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Thin, low-profile phase change thermal spreaders can provide cooling solutions for some of today's most pressing heat flux dissipation issues. These thermal issues are only… (more)

Sharratt, Stephen A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle Solar Power Towers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper firstly introduces the principles of Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle solar power towers This heat engines use solar reservoire. When the refrigerant in an engine cylinder absorbs heat from high-temperature heat sources, refrigerant ... Keywords: refrigerant phase-change cycle, heat engines, solar power tower, finite-time thermodynamics

Dezhong Huang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Architecting phase change memory as a scalable dram alternative  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Memory scaling is in jeopardy as charge storage and sensing mechanisms become less reliable for prevalent memory technologies, such as DRAM. In contrast, phase change memory (PCM) storage relies on scalable current and thermal mechanisms. To exploit ... Keywords: dram alternative, endurance, energy, pcm, performance, phase change memory, power, scalability

Benjamin C. Lee; Engin Ipek; Onur Mutlu; Doug Burger

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

An Application of Phase Change Technology in a Greenhouse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research paper focuses on the greenhouse that needs additional heat at night to insure an inside air temperature above 20?, and applies a new type of shape-stabilized phase change material (PCM) composite wallboard to the inner surface of the north wall of the greenhouse. Through establishing the model of phase change greenhouse basing on the theory of phase change heat transfer, we research the influence of solar radiation and environment temperature on the heat transfer process in the greenhouse. We optimize the phase change temperature and enthalpy of PCM, and research the energy-saving characteristics of the greenhouses that adopt PCM wallboards during the winter season. The results show that when the phase change temperature of PCM is 26?, the enthalpy is 60kJ/kg and the mix ratio is 40%. The energy conservation rate of the greenhouse can reach 20% during the winter.

Liu, Y.; Chen, C.; Guo, H.; Yue, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Heat storage system utilizing phase change materials government rights  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal energy transport and storage system is provided which includes an evaporator containing a mixture of a first phase change material and a silica powder, and a condenser containing a second phase change material. The silica powder/PCM mixture absorbs heat energy from a source such as a solar collector such that the phase change material forms a vapor which is transported from the evaporator to the condenser, where the second phase change material melts and stores the heat energy, then releases the energy to an environmental space via a heat exchanger. The vapor is condensed to a liquid which is transported back to the evaporator. The system allows the repeated transfer of thermal energy using the heat of vaporization and condensation of the phase change material.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

2000-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

49

Solar heater with cavity and phase-change material  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar heating device comprising an insulating chamber, an aperture on the chamber, and sunfollowing means for concentrating and focusing sunlight through the aperture into the chamber. The device also has a platen in the chamber, a heat-conductive ribbed element attached to a surface on the platen, a phase-change material, a container for the phase-change material, and the platen being sealed to the container. The ribbed element dips into the phase-change material, and an air space is located above the phase-change material. The phase-change material melts at a temperature suitable for cooking food, whereby heat is provided to the platen to increase and maintain the temperature of the platen within the chamber.

Marks, A.M.

1986-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

50

Phase-change radiative thermal diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thermal diode transports heat mainly in one preferential direction rather than in the opposite direction. This behavior is generally due to the non-linear dependence of certain physical properties with respect to the temperature. Here we introduce a radiative thermal diode which rectifies heat transport thanks to the phase transitions of materials. Rectification coefficients greater than 70% and up to 90% are shown, even for small temperature differences. This result could have important applications in the development of futur contactless thermal circuits or in the conception of radiative coatings for thermal management.

Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN FLOOR TILES FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Passive solar systems integrated into residential structures significantly reduce heating energy consumption. Taking advantage of latent heat storage has further increased energy savings. This is accomplished by the incorporation of phase change materials into building materials used in passive applications. Trombe walls, ceilings and floors can all be enhanced with phase change materials. Increasing the thermal storage of floor tile by the addition of encapsulated paraffin wax is the proposed topic of research. Latent heat storage of a phase change material (PCM) is obtained during a change in phase. Typical materials use the latent heat released when the material changes from a liquid to a solid. Paraffin wax and salt hydrates are examples of such materials. Other PCMs that have been recently investigated undergo a phase transition from one solid form to another. During this process they will release heat. These are known as solid-state phase change materials. All have large latent heats, which makes them ideal for passive solar applications. Easy incorporation into various building materials is must for these materials. This proposal will address the advantages and disadvantages of using these materials in floor tile. Prototype tile will be made from a mixture of quartz, binder and phase change material. The thermal and structural properties of the prototype tiles will be tested fully. It is expected that with the addition of the phase change material the structural properties will be compromised to some extent. The ratio of phase change material in the tile will have to be varied to determine the best mixture to provide significant thermal storage, while maintaining structural properties that meet the industry standards for floor tile.

Douglas C. Hittle

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Evaluation of phase change materials for reconfigurable interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The possible use of programmable integrated circuit interconnect vias using an indirectly heated phase change material is evaluated. Process development and materials investigations are examined. Devices capable of multiple ...

Khoo, Chee Ying

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Adversary phase change detection using SOMs and text data.  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we developed a self-organizing map (SOM) technique for using web-based text analysis to forecast when a group is undergoing a phase change. By 'phase change', we mean that an organization has fundamentally shifted attitudes or behaviors. For instance, when ice melts into water, the characteristics of the substance change. A formerly peaceful group may suddenly adopt violence, or a violent organization may unexpectedly agree to a ceasefire. SOM techniques were used to analyze text obtained from organization postings on the world-wide web. Results suggest it may be possible to forecast phase changes, and determine if an example of writing can be attributed to a group of interest.

Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Warrender, Christina E.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled â??Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels.â? Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

Michael Petrik; Robert Ruhl

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

Vibration damping and heat transfer using material phase changes  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus wherein phase changes in a material can dampen vibrational energy, dampen noise and facilitate heat transfer. One embodiment includes a method for damping vibrational energy in a body. The method comprises attaching a material to the body, wherein the material comprises a substrate, a shape memory alloy layer, and a plurality of temperature change elements. The method further comprises sensing vibrations in the body. In addition, the method comprises indicating to at least a portion of the temperature change elements to provide a temperature change in the shape memory alloy layer, wherein the temperature change is sufficient to provide a phase change in at least a portion of the shape memory alloy layer, and further wherein the phase change consumes a sufficient amount of kinetic energy to dampen at least a portion of the vibrational energy in the body. In other embodiments, the shape memory alloy layer is a thin film. Additional embodiments include a sensor connected to the material.

Kloucek, Petr (Houston, TX); Reynolds, Daniel R. (Oakland, CA)

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

56

Method for preparing polyolefin composites containing a phase change material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyolefin matrix having a phase change material such as a crystalline alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein. The composite is useful in forming pellets, sheets or fibers having thermal energy storage characteristics; methods for forming the composite are also disclosed.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Storage for Power Generation. Part 1—Concepts,effectively. Thus, in power generation systems, phase changeIn addition to power generation, phase change heat transfer

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Phase-Changing Ionic Liquids: CO2 Capture with Ionic Liquids Involving Phase Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: Notre Dame is developing a new CO2 capture process that uses special ionic liquids (ILs) to remove CO2 from the gas exhaust of coal-fired power plants. ILs are salts that are normally liquid at room temperature, but Notre Dame has discovered a new class of ILs that are solid at room temperature and change to liquid when they bind to CO2. Upon heating, the CO2 is released for storage, and the ILs re-solidify and donate some of the heat generated in the process to facilitate further CO2 release. These new ILs can reduce the energy required to capture CO2 from the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant when compared to state-ofthe- art technology.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Phase-change-related degradation of catalyst layers in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Phase-change-related degradation of catalyst layers in Phase-change-related degradation of catalyst layers in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells Title Phase-change-related degradation of catalyst layers in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Hwang, Gi Suk, Hyoungchul Kim, Roger Lujan, Rangachary Mukundan, Dusan Spernjak, Rodney L. Borup, Massoud Kaviany, Moo Hwan Kim, and Adam Z. Weber Journal Electrochimica Acta Volume 95 Pagination 29 - 37 Date Published 4/2013 ISSN 00134686 Keywords degradation, Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), Freeze/thaw cycle, Membrane electrode assembly (MEA), Nanostructured thin film (NSTF), Pt/C dispersion Abstract Understanding and optimizing water and thermal management in the catalyst layer of proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells is crucial for performance and durability improvements. This is especially the case at low temperatures, where liquid water and even ice may exist. In this article, the durability of a traditional Pt/C dispersed and a nanostructure thin film (NSTF) membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) are examined under wet/dry and freeze/thaw cycles using both in situ and ex situ experiments. Multiple isothermal cold starts result in a performance degradation for the dispersed MEA, while no such a degradation is found in the NSTF. The results are consistent with stand-alone MEA tests, wherein the dispersed catalyst layer results in an exponential increase in the number and size of cracks until it delaminates from the membrane due to the impact of the freeze/thaw process within the catalyst-layer pores. The NSTF catalyst layer shows minimal crack generation without delamination since the ice forms on top of the layer. The results are useful for understanding degradation due to phase-change containing cycles.

60

Calorimetric evaluation of phase change materials for use as thermal interface materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to PCMs are also addressed. The objective of this paper is to study the phase change behavior of organicCalorimetric evaluation of phase change materials for use as thermal interface materials Zongrong August 2000 Abstract The phase change behavior of organic and inorganic phase change materials, namely

Chung, Deborah D.L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

High density phase change data on flexible substrates by thermal curing type nanoimprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, high density phase change nano-pillar device (Tera-bit per inch^2 data density) was fabricated on flexible substrates by thermal curing type nanoimprint lithography with high throughput at a relatively low temperature (120^oC). Phase change ... Keywords: Flexible nano-device, Nanoimprint lithography, Phase change memory, Phase change nano-pillar device, Tera-bit record

Sung-Hoon Hong; Jun-Ho Jeong; Kang-In Kim; Heon Lee

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Opportunities to Apply Phase Change Materials to Building Enclosures Webinar  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1, 2011 1, 2011 Opportunities to Apply Phase Change Materials to Building Enclosures Welcome to the Webinar! We will start at 2:00 PM Eastern Time Be sure that you are also dialed into the telephone conference call: Dial-in number: 888-950-6757; Pass code: 6420234 1 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Building America: Introduction November 11, 2011 Chuck Booten Chuck.Booten@nrel.gov Building Technologies Program 2 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov * Reduce energy use in new and existing residential buildings * Promote building science and systems engineering / integration approach * "Do no harm": Ensure safety, health and durability are maintained or improved

63

NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHASE CHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLARChange Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in ConcentratedChange Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

SunShot Initiative: Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Encapsulated Phase Change Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Storage for Baseload CSP Plants to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Storage for Baseload CSP Plants on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Storage for Baseload CSP Plants on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Storage for Baseload CSP Plants on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Storage for Baseload CSP Plants on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Storage for Baseload CSP Plants on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Storage for Baseload CSP Plants on

66

Thermal Performance of Phase-Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Thermal Performance of Phase-Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Cooling residential buildings in milder climates contributes significantly to peak demand mainly because of poor load factors. Peak cooling load determines the size of equipment and the cooling source. Several measures reduce cooling-system size and allow the use of lower-energy cooling sources; they include incorporating exterior walls or other elements that effectively shelter interiors from outside heat and cold, and providing thermal mass, to cool interior spaces during the day by absorbing heat and warm them at night as the mass discharges its heat. Thermal mass features may be used for storage only or serve as structural elements. Concrete, steel, adobe, stone, and brick all satisfy requirements

67

Shape Stable and Highly Conductive Nano-Phase-Change Materials Research Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Energy is currently conducting research into shape-stable and highly conductive nano-phase change materials.

68

Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload Power Phase 1 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this project is to develop and validate an innovative, scalable phase change salt thermal energy storage (TES) system that can interface with Infinia’s family of free-piston Stirling engines (FPSE). This TES technology is also appropriate for Rankine and Brayton power converters. Solar TES systems based on latent heat of fusion rather than molten salt temperature differences, have many advantages that include up to an order of magnitude higher energy storage density, much higher temperature operation, and elimination of pumped loops for most of Infinia’s design options. DOE has funded four different concepts for solar phase change TES, including one other Infinia awarded project using heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the salt. The unique innovation in this project is an integrated TES/pool boiler heat transfer system that is the simplest approach identified to date and arguably has the best potential for minimizing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The Phase 1 objectives are to design, build and test a 1-hour TES proof-of-concept lab demonstrator integrated with an Infinia 3 kW Stirling engine, and to conduct a preliminary design of a 12-hour TES on-sun prototype.

Qiu, Songgang

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Optimization of a Phase Change Heat Sink for Extreme Environments Jason Leland and Gerald Recktenwald  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-levelling in an electrical power grid. Here we consider a different application of a phase change heat sink: as the primaryOptimization of a Phase Change Heat Sink for Extreme Environments Jason Leland and Gerald--Results of numerical optimization are reported for a phase change heat sink used to cool electronic equipment in ex

Recktenwald, Gerald

70

MD Study of Phase Change of Water inside a Carbon Nanotube Tatsuto KIMURA and Shigeo MARUYAMA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

into ice crystal at 220 K or 200 K. In the case of phase change at 220 K, octagonal ice nanotube MD Study of Phase Change of Water inside a Carbon Nanotube * Tatsuto KIMURA and Shigeo MARUYAMA Dept. of Mech. Eng., The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 Phase change

Maruyama, Shigeo

71

Molecular Dynamics Study of Phase Change of Water inside a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The phase change of liquid water to ice crystal inside a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) was studiedMolecular Dynamics Study of Phase Change of Water inside a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Shigeo phase change for various cooling rates in a SWNT with various chiralities were examined. With certain

Maruyama, Shigeo

72

Thermal performance of phase change wallboard for residential cooling application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cooling of residential California buildings contributes significantly to electrical consumption and peak power demand mainly due to very poor load factors in milder climates. Thermal mass can be utilized to reduce the peak-power demand, downsize the cooling systems, and/or switch to low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices have been used in the past to overcome the shortcomings of alternative cooling sources, or to avoid high demand charges. The manufacturing of phase change material (PCM) implemented in gypsum board, plaster or other wall-covering material, would permit the thermal storage to become part of the building structure. PCMs have two important advantages as storage media: they can offer an order-of-magnitude increase in thermal storage capacity, and their discharge is almost isothermal. This allows the storage of high amounts of energy without significantly changing the temperature of the room envelope. As heat storage takes place inside the building, where the loads occur, rather than externally, additional transport energy is not required. RADCOOL, a thermal building simulation program based on the finite difference approach, was used to numerically evaluate the latent storage performance of treated wallboard. Extended storage capacity obtained by using double PCM-wallboard is able to keep the room temperatures close to the upper comfort limits without using mechanical cooling. Simulation results for a living room with high internal loads and weather data for Sunnyvale, California, show significant reduction of room air temperature when heat can be stored in PCM-treated wallboards.

Feustel, H.E.; Stetiu, C.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

A modular phase change heat exchanger for a solar oven  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modular energy storing heat exchanger designed to use pentaerythritol for thermal storage (solid-solid phase change at 182 C) is tested in an oven by circulating heat transfer oil which is electrically heated in a manner to simulate a concentrating solar collector. Three efficiencies for heating the system under controlled and measured power input are determined - the heat exchanger efficiency, the efficiency of the heater with distribution lines, and the total system efficiency. Thermal energy retention times and cooking extraction times are determined, and along with the efficiencies, are compared with the results previously reported for a nonmodular heat exchanger. The modular configuration provides a highly improved extraction rate for cooking due to its wrap-around character and its increased surface-to-volume ratio. A full scale glass model of the copper tubing of the system is described and flow observations reported demonstrating how uniformly the parallel pumping branches perform and how trapped air pockets affect pumping power. A technique for measuring pumping power is described and its application to the system is quantified to show that less than 1 watt is required to circulate the heat transfer oil even when the system includes the solar collector and its longer connecting tubes.

Bushnell, D.L.; Sohi, M. (Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Proceedings of 7th Pacific Rim Bio-based Composite Symposium. Nanjing, China. October Mechanical Properties and Decay Resistance of Wood-Polymer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Proceedings of 7th Pacific Rim Bio-based Composite Symposium. Nanjing, China. October 31-Nov. 2 Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, 100091, China.xfduan@caf.ac.cn 2 Postdoctoral Research Associate, Louisiana Forest Products Development Center, School of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana

75

Oregon State University Development of a Bio-based Industry Utilizing Organic Waste Streams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is biodiesel wastewater, or crude glycerol (CG). While the results of producing PHB, a co-polymer, from CG have goal of their research will be to implement a PHA production and composting process utilizing biodiesel the properties of the PHA co-polymers PHB and PHBV change as temperature is increased using Differential Scanning

Tullos, Desiree

76

Performance of Thermal Insulation Containing Microencapsulated Phase Change Material  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is dynamic thermal performance microencapsulated phase change material (PCM) blended with loose-fill cellulose insulation. Dynamic hot-box testing and heat-flux measurements have been made for loose-fill cellulose insulation with and without uniformly distributed microencapsulated PCM. The heat flux measurements were made with a heat-flow-meter (HFM) apparatus built in accordance with ASTM C 518. Data were obtained for 1.6 lb{sub m}/ft{sup 3} cellulose insulation containing 0 to 40 wt% PCM. Heat-flux data resulting from a rapid increase in the temperature on one side of a test specimen initially at uniform temperature were analyzed to access the effect of PCM on total heat flow. The heat flux was affected by the PCM for about 100 minutes after the temperature increase. The total heat flow during this initial period decreased linearly with PCM content from 6.5 Btu/ft{sup 2} at 0% PCM to 0.89 Btu/ft{sup 2} for 40 wt% PCM. The cellulose insulation with PCM discharged heat faster than the untreated cellulose when the hot-side temperature of the test specimen was reduced. In addition, hot-box apparatus built in accordance with ASTM C 1363 was utilized for dynamic hot-box testing of a wood stud wall assembly containing PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation. Experimental data obtained for wood-frame wall cavities containing cellulose insulation with PCM was compared with results obtained from cavities containing only cellulose insulation.

Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Yarbrough, David [R & D Services; Syed, Azam M [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHASE CHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLARMaterials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated SolarMaterials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Solid-State Phase Change Technology for Use in Passive Solar ...  

Solid-State Phase Change Technology for Use in Passive Solar Building Materials Contact Information: Jeremy Nelson Phone: 970.491.7100 Email: ...

79

Maxwell rigidity and topological constraints in amorphous phase-change networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By analyzing first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations of different telluride amorphous networks, we develop a method for the enumeration of radial and angular topological constraints, and show that the phase diagram of the most popular system Ge-Sb-Te can be split into two compositional elastic phases: a tellurium rich flexible phase and a stressed rigid phase that contains most of the materials used in phase-change applications. This sound atomic scale insight should open new avenues for the understanding of phase-change materials and other complex amorphous materials from the viewpoint of rigidity.

Micoulaut, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Boite 121, CNRS UMR 7600, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Otjacques, C.; Raty, J.-Y. [Physique de la Matiere Condensee, B5, Universite de Liege, B4000 Sart-Tilman (Belgium); Bichara, C. [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille (CINaM), CNRS and Aix-Marseille Universities, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille (France)

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

80

Micro and nanostructured surfaces for enhanced phase change heat transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-phase microchannel heat sinks are of significant interest for thermal management applications, where the latent heat of vaporization offers an efficient method to dissipate large heat fluxes in a compact device. However, ...

Chu, Kuang-Han, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Research of Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle Heat Engines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper firstly introduces the principles of Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle solar power towers This heat engines use solar reservoire. When the refrigerant in an engine cylinder absorbs heat from high-temperature heat sources, refrigerant ... Keywords: refrigerant phase-change cycle, heat engines, finite-time thermodynamics

Dezhong Huang; Fuer Wu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

HPC in phase change: towards a new execution model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HPC is entering a new phase in system structure and operation driven by a combination of technology and architecture trends. Perhaps foremost are the constraints of power and complexity that as a result of the at-lining of clock rates relies on multicore ...

Thomas Sterling

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Bio-Based Resins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Fatty-acid distribution in various plant oils...in various plant oils Fatty acid C:DB (a) Canola Corn Cottonseed Linseed Olive Palm Rapeseed Soybean High oleic (b) Myristic 14:0 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 Myristoleic 14:1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Palmitic 16:0 4.1 10.9 21.6 5.5 13.7 44.4 3.0 11.0 6.4 Palmitoleic 16:1 0.3...

84

Automated baseline change detection -- Phases 1 and 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. The ABCD image processing software was installed on a robotic vehicle developed under a related DOE/FETC contract DE-AC21-92MC29112 Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) and integrated with the electronics and software. This vehicle was designed especially to navigate in DOE Waste Storage Facilities. Initial system testing was performed at Fernald in June 1996. After some further development and more extensive integration the prototype integrated system was installed and tested at the Radioactive Waste Management Facility (RWMC) at INEEL beginning in April 1997 through the present (November 1997). The integrated system, composed of ABCD imaging software and IMSS mobility base, is called MISS EVE (Mobile Intelligent Sensor System--Environmental Validation Expert). Evaluation of the integrated system in RWMC Building 628, containing approximately 10,000 drums, demonstrated an easy to use system with the ability to properly navigate through the facility, image all the defined drums, and process the results into a report delivered to the operator on a GUI interface and on hard copy. Further work is needed to make the brassboard system more operationally robust.

Byler, E.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

85

Heat transfer in porous media with fluid phase changes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A one-dimensional experimental apparatus was built to study the heat pipe phenomenon. Basically, it consists of a 25 cm long, 2.5 cm I.D. Lexane tube packed with Ottawa sand. The two ends of the tube were subjected to different tempratures, i.e., one above the boiling temperature and the other below. The tube was well insulated so that a uniform one-dimensional heat flux could pass through the sand pack. Presence of the heat pipe phenomenon was confirmed by the temperature and saturation profiles of the sand pack at the final steady state condition. A one-dimensional steady state theory to describe the experiment has been developed which shows the functional dependence of the heat pipe phenomenon on liquid saturation gradient, capillary pressure, permeability, fluid viscosity, latent heat, heat flux and gravity. Influence of the heat pipe phenomenon on wellbore heat losses was studied by use of a two-phase two-dimensional cylindrical coordinate computer model.

Su, H.J.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

SunShot Initiative: Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Storage for Baseload CSP Plants Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Storage for Baseload CSP Plants Terrafore logo Photo of gray balls grouped together. 10 to 15 millimeter capsules provide high heat transfer surface. Terrafore, under the Baseload CSP FOA, is developing novel encapsulated phase change materials (PCM) for use in thermal storage applications to significantly reduce the LCOE for baseload CSP plants. Approach Terrafore is determining a cost-effective way to produce small 10 mm to 15 mm capsules containing phase change material (PCM salt) in a suitable shell material. Large numbers of these PCM capsules provide high-heat transfer surface and store heat as sensible and latent heat of fusion of salt. The capsules with different PCMs inside the shell are stacked inside a single tank to provide a cascaded storage to effectively use the latent heat of fusion of salts over the solar collection temperature range.

87

Some aspects of the computer simulation of conduction heat transfer and phase change processes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Various aspects of phase change processes in materials are discussd including computer modeling, validation of results and sensitivity. In addition, the possible incorporation of cognitive activities in computational heat transfer is examined.

Solomon, A. D.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Energy efficient Phase Change Memory based main memory for future high performance systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phase Change Memory (PCM) has recently attracted a lot of attention as a scalable alternative to DRAM for main memory systems. As the need for high-density memory increases, DRAM has proven to be less attractive from the point of view of scaling and ... Keywords: DDR3 commodity DRAM memory system, energy efficient phase change memory, main memory, future high performance systems, energy consumption, latency issues, write energy, write endurance, cache, embedded DRAM

R. A. Bheda; Jason A. Poovey; J. G. Beu; T. M. Conte

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

A three-phase integrated model for product configuration change problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Requirements of engineers or customers may result in product configuration change with product life cycle; effective management of product configuration can actually enhance productivity and customer satisfaction. This study aims to develop a three-phase ... Keywords: Fuzzy theory, Genetic algorithm, Product configuration change, Value engineering

H. S. Wang; Z. H. Che; M. J. Wang

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Phase-Change of Water inside a SWNT Shigeo Maruyama, Tatsuto Kimura and Yasuhiro Igarashi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan The phase change of liquid water to ice crystal inside a singleMolecular Dynamics Simulation of Phase-Change of Water inside a SWNT Shigeo Maruyama, Tatsuto, the carbon atoms were cooled at the constant heat-removal rate. The phase change phenomena with various rates

Maruyama, Shigeo

91

Adversary phase change detection using S.O.M. and text data.  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we developed a self-organizing map (SOM) technique for using web-based text analysis to forecast when a group is undergoing a phase change. By 'phase change', we mean that an organization has fundamentally shifted attitudes or behaviors. For instance, when ice melts into water, the characteristics of the substance change. A formerly peaceful group may suddenly adopt violence, or a violent organization may unexpectedly agree to a ceasefire. SOM techniques were used to analyze text obtained from organization postings on the world-wide web. Results suggest it may be possible to forecast phase changes, and determine if an example of writing can be attributed to a group of interest.

Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Warrender, Christina E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Adversary phase change detection using S.O.M. and text data.  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we developed a self-organizing map (SOM) technique for using web-based text analysis to forecast when a group is undergoing a phase change. By 'phase change', we mean that an organization has fundamentally shifted attitudes or behaviors. For instance, when ice melts into water, the characteristics of the substance change. A formerly peaceful group may suddenly adopt violence, or a violent organization may unexpectedly agree to a ceasefire. SOM techniques were used to analyze text obtained from organization postings on the world-wide web. Results suggest it may be possible to forecast phase changes, and determine if an example of writing can be attributed to a group of interest.

Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Warrender, Christina E.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Research on Thermal Properties in a Phase Change Wallboard Room Based on Air Conditioning Cold Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After comparing the thermal performance parameters of an ordinary wall room to a phase change wall (PCW) room, we learn that phase change wallboard affects the fluctuation of temperature in air-conditioning room in the summer. We built a PCW room and an ordinary wall room, which are cooled by an air-conditioner. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to test the temperature field and heat flow fluctuation in these rooms. Through analyzing the data tested, we found that the mean temperature of PCW is lower than that of ordinary wall room by 1 to 2?, and PCW can lower the heat flow by 4.6W/m2. Combining phase change material with the building envelope can lower the indoor temperature, make the room thermally comfortable, and cut down the turn-on-and-off frequency of the air-conditioner and the primary investment and operating costs. It alleviates the urgent need for electricity.

Feng, G.; Li, W.; Chen, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

A Schur complement formulation for solving free-boundary, Stefan problems of phase change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Schur complement formulation that utilizes a linear iterative solver is derived to solve a free-boundary, Stefan problem describing steady-state phase change via the Isotherm-Newton approach, which employs Newton's method to simultaneously and efficiently ... Keywords: Crystal growth, Free-boundary, GMRES, Schur complement, Solidification, Stefan problem

Lisa Lun; Andrew Yeckel; Jeffrey J. Derby

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Analysis of thermal energy storage material with change-of-phase volumetric effects  

SciTech Connect

NASA's Space Station Freedom proposed hybrid power system includes photovoltaic arrays with nickel hydrogen batteries for energy storage and solar dynamic collectors driving Brayton heat engines with change-of-phase Thermal Energy Storage (TES) devices. A TES device is comprised of multiple metallic, annular canisters which contain a eutectic composition LiF-CaF2 Phase Change Material (PCM) that melts at 1040 K. A moderately sophisticated LiF-CaF2 PCM computer model is being developed in three stages considering 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D canister geometries, respectively. The 1-D model results indicate that the void has a marked effect on the phase change process due to PCM displacement and dynamic void heat transfer resistance. Equally influential are the effects of different boundary conditions and liquid PCM natural convection. For the second stage, successful numerical techniques used in the 1-D phase change model are extended to a 2-D (r,z) PCM containment canister model. A prototypical PCM containment canister is analyzed and the results are discussed.

Kerslake, T.W.; Ibrahim, M.B.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

A durable and energy efficient main memory using phase change memory technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using nonvolatile memories in memory hierarchy has been investigated to reduce its energy consumption because nonvolatile memories consume zero leakage power in memory cells. One of the difficulties is, however, that the endurance of most nonvolatile ... Keywords: endurance, low power, phase change memory

Ping Zhou; Bo Zhao; Jun Yang; Youtao Zhang

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Phase transition on CdSe thin films by changing the volume concentration of Se  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work CdSe thin films were grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD)6 onto glass substrate with approximately 2000 Å thickness. The samples have been prepared by changing the volume concentration of the solution in the range of 5-45 ... Keywords: CdSe, thin films, chemical bath, phase transitions, semiconductors

M. Rubín; J. I. Cortez; H. Juárez; E. Rosendo; T. Díaz; G. García Salgado; I. Villaverde; R. Lozada-Morales; O. Portillo-Moreno; O. Zelaya-Ngel

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

A ghost fluid method for compressible reacting flows with phase change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modified interfacial Riemann problem accounting for phase change and surface tension was developed to couple a reacting gas to a vaporizing compressible liquid. Results from the proposed numerical method compare well with empirically measured separation ... Keywords: Chemically reacting flow, Compressible multiphase flow, Ghost fluid method, Level set method, Navier-Stokes equations, Vaporization

Ryan W. Houim; Kenneth K. Kuo

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Phase I Results  

SciTech Connect

The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program is an international effort designed to systematically investigate the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and produce high resolution climate change scenarios using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) nested within atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with the A2 SRES scenario, with a common domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The program also includes an evaluation component (Phase I) wherein the participating RCMs are nested within 25 years of NCEP/DOE global reanalysis II. The grid spacing of the RCM simulations is 50 km.

Mearns, L. O.; Arritt, R.; Biner, S.; Bukovsky, Melissa; McGinnis, Seth; Sain, Steve; Caya, Daniel; Correia Jr., James; Flory, Dave; Gutowski, William; Takle, Gene; Jones, Richard; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; McDaniel, Larry; Nunes, A.; Qian, Yun; Roads, J.; Sloan, Lisa; Snyder, Mark A.

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

100

Numerical Simulation of Thermal Performance of Floor Radiant Heating System with Enclosed Phase Change Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present paper, a kind of enclosed phase change material (PCM) used in solar and low-temperature hot water radiant floor heating is investigated. On the basis of obtaining the best performance of PCM properties, a new radiant heating structure of the energy storage floor is designed,which places heat pipes in the enclosed phase change material (PCM) layer, without concrete in it. The PCM thermal storage time is studied in relation to the floor surface temperature under different low-temperature hot water temperatures. With the method of enthalpy , the PCM thermal storage time is studied under different supply water temperatures, supply water flows, distances between water wipe in the floor construction, floor covers and insulation conditions.

Qiu, L.; Wu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Heat transfer enhancement for thermal energy storage using metal foams embedded within phase change materials (PCMs)  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the experimental investigation on the solid/liquid phase change (melting and solidification) processes have been carried out. Paraffin wax RT58 is used as phase change material (PCM), in which metal foams are embedded to enhance the heat transfer. During the melting process, the test samples are electrically heated on the bottom surface with a constant heat flux. The PCM with metal foams has been heated from the solid state to the pure liquid phase. The temperature differences between the heated wall and PCM have been analysed to examine the effects of heat flux and metal foam structure (pore size and relative density). Compared to the results of the pure PCM sample, the effect of metal foam on solid/liquid phase change heat transfer is very significant, particularly at the solid zone of PCMs. When the PCM starts melting, natural convection can improve the heat transfer performance, thereby reducing the temperature difference between the wall and PCM. The addition of metal foam can increase the overall heat transfer rate by 3-10 times (depending on the metal foam structures and materials) during the melting process (two-phase zone) and the pure liquid zone. The tests for investigating the solidification process under different cooling conditions (e.g. natural convection and forced convection) have been carried out. The results show that the use of metal foams can make the sample solidified much faster than pure PCM samples, evidenced by the solidification time being reduced by more than half. In addition, a two-dimensional numerical analysis has been carried out for heat transfer enhancement in PCMs by using metal foams, and the prediction results agree reasonably well with the experimental data. (author)

Zhao, C.Y.; Lu, W.; Tian, Y. [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

Super energy saver heat pump with dynamic hybrid phase change material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heat pump has a refrigerant loop, a compressor in fluid communication with the refrigerant loop, at least one indoor heat exchanger in fluid communication with the refrigerant loop, and at least one outdoor heat exchanger in fluid communication with the refrigerant loop. The at least one outdoor heat exchanger has a phase change material in thermal communication with the refrigerant loop and in fluid communication with an outdoor environment. Other systems, devices, and methods are described.

Ally, Moonis Raza (Oak Ridge, TN); Tomlinson, John Jager (Knoxville, TN); Rice, Clifford Keith (Clinton, TN)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

103

Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

FPB: Fine-grained Power Budgeting to Improve Write Throughput of Multi-level Cell Phase Change Memory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a promising nonvolatile memory technology, Phase Change Memory (PCM) has many advantages over traditional DRAM. Multi-level Cell PCM (MLC) has the benefit of increased memory capacity with low fabrication cost. Due to high per-cell write power and ... Keywords: Multiple Level Cell, Phase Change Memory, Power Budget

Lei Jiang; Youtao Zhang; Bruce R. Childers; Jun Yang

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Shocked H2O ice: Thermal emission measurements and the criteria for phase changes during impact events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shocked H2O ice: Thermal emission measurements and the criteria for phase changes during impact/s will initiate phase changes on icy surfaces. Thus, shock-induced melting and vaporization of ice is a widespread from shocked H2O ice and derive peak and post-shock temperatures. Under shock pressures between 8

Stewart, Sarah T.

106

High-Temperature Phase Change Materials (PCM) Candidates for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is clearly understood that lower overall costs are a key factor to make renewable energy technologies competitive with traditional energy sources. Energy storage technology is one path to increase the value and reduce the cost of all renewable energy supplies. Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies have the ability to dispatch electrical output to match peak demand periods by employing thermal energy storage (TES). Energy storage technologies require efficient materials with high energy density. Latent heat TES systems using phase change material (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation like melting-solidification. PCM technology relies on the energy absorption/liberation of the latent heat during a physical transformation. The main objective of this report is to provide an assessment of molten salts and metallic alloys proposed as candidate PCMs for TES applications, particularly in solar parabolic trough electrical power plants at a temperature range from 300..deg..C to 500..deg.. C. The physical properties most relevant for PCMs service were reviewed from the candidate selection list. Some of the PCM candidates were characterized for: chemical stability with some container materials; phase change transformation temperatures; and latent heats.

Gomez, J. C.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USF’s PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000°C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

108

High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage Applications: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To store thermal energy, sensible and latent heat storage materials are widely used. Latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase change materials (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation. Molten salt PCM candidates for cascaded PCMs were evaluated for the temperatures near 320 degrees C, 350 degrees C, and 380 degrees C. These temperatures were selected to fill the 300 degrees C to 400 degrees C operating range typical for parabolic trough systems, that is, as one might employ in three-PCM cascaded thermal storage. Based on the results, the best candidate for temperatures near 320 degrees C was the molten salt KNO3-4.5wt%KCl. For the 350 degrees C and 380 degrees C temperatures, the evaluated molten salts are not good candidates because of the corrosiveness and the high vapor pressure of the chlorides.

Gomez, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Starace, A.; Turchi, C.; Ortega, J.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Low-temperature sintering and phase changes in chromite interconnect materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sintering shrinkage curves and phase changes were compared for calcium-substituted lanthanum chromates with either slight Asite enrichment or depletion. Of the former type, La[sub 0.7]Ca[sub 0.31],CrO[sub 3] that was synthesized by the glycine-nitrate method sintered to high density in air at 1250C, exhibiting two rapid-shrinkage events. Weight loss measurements corroborated XRD data showing that, prior to densiflcation, over half the Ca resided in non-perovskite phases, including CaCrO[sub 4]. In the La[sub 0.7]Ca[sub 0.31]CrO[sub 3], densification was closely associated with re-dissolution of the Ca into the perovskite.

Chick, L.A.; Armstrong, T.R.; McCready, D.E.; Coffey, G.W.; Maupin, G.D.; Bates, J.L.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Low-temperature sintering and phase changes in chromite interconnect materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sintering shrinkage curves and phase changes were compared for calcium-substituted lanthanum chromates with either slight Asite enrichment or depletion. Of the former type, La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.31},CrO{sub 3} that was synthesized by the glycine-nitrate method sintered to high density in air at 1250C, exhibiting two rapid-shrinkage events. Weight loss measurements corroborated XRD data showing that, prior to densiflcation, over half the Ca resided in non-perovskite phases, including CaCrO{sub 4}. In the La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.31}CrO{sub 3}, densification was closely associated with re-dissolution of the Ca into the perovskite.

Chick, L.A.; Armstrong, T.R.; McCready, D.E.; Coffey, G.W.; Maupin, G.D.; Bates, J.L.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Crystallization Times of Ge-Te Phase Change Materials as a Function of Composition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The crystallization times of Ge-Te phase change materials with variable Ge concentrations (29.5-72.4 at. %) were studied. A very strong dependence of the crystallization time on the composition for as-deposited, amorphous films was confirmed, with a minimum for the stoichiometric composition GeTe. The dependence is weaker for melt-quenched, amorphous material and crystallization times are between one to almost four orders of magnitude shorter than for as-deposited materials. This is promising for applications because recrystallization from the melt-quenched phase is the relevant process for optical and solid state memory, and fast crystallization and weak dependence on compositional variations are desirable.

S Raoux; H Cheng; M Caldwell; H Wong

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

Analysis of Heat Charging and Discharging on the Phase Change Energy-Storage Composite Wallboard (PCECW) in Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research paper combines the phase change material and the basal building material to constitute a kind of new phase change energy- storage composite wallboard (PCECW), applied in a residential building in Beijing. We analyzed the energy-storage characteristics of the PCECW according to phase change energy-storage theory, which is used as the storage-heat body in the “light" inner wallboards, compared to the normal “heavy" inner wallboards. Through computer simulation, we measured the effects on the heating and energy consumption of the room when the enthalpy, thermal coefficient and thickness of the PCECW were changed. The results show that the PCECW the phase change wall could effectively reduce the temperature fluctuation and the winter heating energy consumption in the residential building.

Yue, H.; Chen, C.; Liu, Y.; Guo, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Potential industrial applications for composite phase-change materials as thermal energy storage media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considerable effort has been spent by the US Department of Energy and its contractors over the last few years to develop composite phase-change materials (CPCMs) for thermal energy storage (TES). This patented TES medium consists of a phase-change material (typically a salt or metal alloy) that is retained within the porous structure of a supporting material (typically a ceramic). The objectives of this study were to (1) introduce CPCMs to industries that may not otherwise be aware of them, (2) identify potentially attractive applications for CPCM in industry, (3) determine technical requirements that will affect the design of CPCM's for specific applications, and (4) generate interest among industrial firms for employing CPCM TES in their processes. The approach in this study was to examine a wide variety of industries using a series of screens to select those industries that would be most likely to adopt CPCM TES in their processes. The screens used in this study were process temperature, presence of time-varying energy flows, energy intensity of the industry, and economic growth prospects over the next 5 years. After identifying industries that passed all of the screens, representatives of each industry were interviewed by telephone to introduce them to CPCM TES, assess technical requirements for CPCM TES in their industry, and determine their interest in pursuing applications for CPCM TES. 11 refs., 4 tabs.

Spanner, G.E.; Wilfert, G.L.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Rayleigh-Benard convection with phase changes in a Galerkin model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transition to turbulence in Rayleigh-Benard convection with phase changes and the resulting convective patterns are studied in a three-dimensional Galerkin model. Our study is focused to the conditionally unstable regime of moist convection in which the stratification is stable for unsaturated air parcels and unstable for saturated parcels. We perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the transition to convection that samples the dependence of attractors (or fixed points) in the phase space of the model on the dimensionless parameters. Conditionally unstable convection can be initiated either from a fully unsaturated linearly stable equilibrium or a fully saturated linearly unstable equilibrium. Highly localized moist convection can be found in steady state, in oscillating recharge-discharge regime or turbulent in dependence on the aspect ratio and the degree of stable stratification of the unsaturated air. Our phase space analysis predicts parameter ranges for which self-sustained convective regimes in the case of subcritical conditional instability can be observed. The observed regime transitions for moist convection bear some similarities to transitions to turbulence in simple shear flows.

Thomas Weidauer; Olivier Pauluis; Joerg Schumacher

2011-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

115

Why Phase-Change Media Are Fast and Stable: A New Approach to an Old Problem Alexander V. KOLOBOV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Why Phase-Change Media Are Fast and Stable: A New Approach to an Old Problem Alexander V. KOLOBOV Ã?, (FORTH-ICE/HT), P.O. Box 1414, 26500 Patras, Greece 4 Physics Division, School of Technology, Aristotle 8, 2005; published May 24, 2005) Present-day multimedia strongly relies on re-writable phase

Frenkel, Anatoly

116

Verification and Validation of EnergyPlus Phase Change Material Model for Opaque Wall Assemblies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phase change materials (PCMs) represent a technology that may reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in buildings. A few building energy simulation programs have the capability to simulate PCMs, but their accuracy has not been completely tested. This study shows the procedure used to verify and validate the PCM model in EnergyPlus using a similar approach as dictated by ASHRAE Standard 140, which consists of analytical verification, comparative testing, and empirical validation. This process was valuable, as two bugs were identified and fixed in the PCM model, and version 7.1 of EnergyPlus will have a validated PCM model. Preliminary results using whole-building energy analysis show that careful analysis should be done when designing PCMs in homes, as their thermal performance depends on several variables such as PCM properties and location in the building envelope.

Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

ABRUPT CHANGES OF THE PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD IN ACTIVE REGIONS AND THE IMPULSIVE PHASE OF SOLAR FLARES  

SciTech Connect

We compared time profiles of changes of the unsigned photospheric magnetic flux in active regions with those of their associated soft X-ray (SXR) bursts for a sample of 75 {>=} M5 flares well observed by Global Oscillation Network Group longitudinal magnetographs. Sixty-six of these events had stepwise changes in the spatially integrated unsigned flux during the SXR flares. In superposed epoch plots for these 66 events, there is a sharp increase in the unsigned magnetic flux coincident with the onset of the flare impulsive phase while the end of the stepwise change corresponds to the time of peak SXR emission. We substantiated this result with a histogram-based comparison of the timing of flux steps (onset, midpoint of step, and end) for representative points in the flaring regions with their associated SXR event time markers (flare onset, onset of impulsive phase, time of peak logarithmic derivative, maximum). On an individual event basis, the principal part of the stepwise magnetic flux change occurred during the main rise phase of the SXR burst (impulsive phase onset to SXR peak) for {approx}60% of the 66 cases. We find a close timing agreement between magnetic flux steps and >100 keV emission for the three largest hard X-ray (>100 keV) bursts in our sample. These results identify the abrupt changes in photospheric magnetic fields as an impulsive phase phenomenon and indicate that the coronal magnetic field changes that drive flares are rapidly transmitted to the photosphere.

Cliver, E. W. [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Petrie, G. J. D. [National Solar Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Ling, A. G. [Atmospheric Environmental Research, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

118

Superionic to superionic phase change in water: consequences for the interiors of Uranus and Neptune  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using density functional molecular dynamics free energy calculations, we show that the body-centered-cubic phase of superionic ice previously believed to be the only phase is in fact thermodynamically unstable compared to a novel phase with oxygen positions in fcc lattice sites. The novel phase has a lower proton mobility than the bc phase and may exhibit a higher melting temperature. We predict a transition between the two phases at a pressure of 1 +/- 0.5 Mbar, with potential consequences for the interiors of ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune.

Wilson, Hugh F; Militzer, Burkhard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Metallic phase-change materials for solar dynamic energy storage systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar (thermal) dynamic power systems for satellites require a heat storage system that is capable of operating the engine during eclipse. The conventional approach to this thermal storage problem is to use the latent heat of fluoride salts, which would melt during insolation and freeze during eclipse. Although candidate fluorides have large heats of fusion per unit mass, their poor thermal conductivity limits the rate at which energy can be transferred to and from the storage device. System performance is further limited by the high parasitic mass of the superalloy canisters needed to contain the salt. This report describes a new thermal storage system in which the phase-change material (PCM) is a metal (typically germanium) contained in modular graphite canisters. These modules exhibit good thermal conductivity and low parasitic mass, and they are physically and chemically stable. Prototype modules have survived over 600 melt/freeze cycles without degradation. Advanced concepts to further improve performance are described. These concepts include the selection of ternary eutectic alloys to provide a wider range of useful melting temperatures and the use of infiltration to control the location of liquid alloy and to compensate for differences in thermal expansion. 13 refs., 18 figs.

Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Heat Transfer of a Multiple Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Using a Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present study has focused on the use of coil heat exchangers (CHEs) with microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) slurries to understand if CHEs can yield greater rates of heat transfer. An experimental study was conducted using a counterflow CHE consisting of 3 helical coils. Two separate tests were conducted, one where water was used as heat transfer fluid (HTF) on the coil and shell sides, respectively; while the second one made use of MPCM slurry and water on the coil and shell sides, respectively. The NTU-effectiveness relationship of the CHE when MPCM fluid is used approaches that of a heat exchanger with a heat capacity ratio of zero. The heat transfer results have shown that when using a MPCM slurry, an increase in heat transfer rate can be obtained when compared to heat transfer results obtained using straight heat transfer sections. It has been concluded that the increased specific heat of the slurry as well as the fluid dynamics in helical coil pipes are the main contributors to the increased heat transfer.

Gaskill, Travis

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Application of phase-change materials in passive solar systems. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Institute of Energy Conversion of the University of Delaware has designed and constructed a modular, hybrid passive solar energy collection and storage unit called the Thermal Wall Panel. The Thermal Wall Panel uses the concept of energy storage in phase change materials combined with direct solar gain. In the winter of 1977-78, the Thermal Wall Panel was tested at Solar One, the Institute's solar house and laboratory. The key results and conclusions from this testing and analysis program include the following: (1) Based on measurements, a Thermal Wall Panel with movable nighttime insulation (R = 6.80) between the storage components and the outside can retain and deliver as heat an average of 45 percent of the sun's energy which falls on it during the day. (2) Based on calculations, a 120 square foot wall can provide about 25 percent of the heating needs of a 1100 square foot house. Analysis indicates that when the Thermal Wall Panel (R = 6.00 nighttime insulation) is combined with other direct gain passive solar energy systems as large, south-facing windows, 56 percent of a home's heating needs can be provided. (3) A Thermal Wall Panel can be installed into a typical home in the Mid-Atlantic Region for an incremental cost of from $6 to $8 per square foot beyond the cost of the normal wall and pay for itself in 5 to 9 years at 1978 energy costs. Also, the Thermal Wall Panel does not require any additional foundation support. (4) A computer model has been developed for the Thermal Wall Panel which shows good agreement with predicted and measured performance. Based on these results, it is recommended that full-scale testing of the system be initiated at multiple sites in the Mid-Atlantic Region.

Sliwkowski, J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Verification and Validation of EnergyPlus Conduction Finite Difference and Phase Change Material Models for Opaque Wall Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Phase change materials (PCMs) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in buildings. There are few building energy simulation programs that have the capability to simulate PCM but their accuracy has not been completely tested. This report summarizes NREL efforts to develop diagnostic tests cases to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings.

Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.; Booten, C.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Forecasting of thermal energy storage performance of Phase Change Material in a solar collector using soft computing techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of a solar collector system using sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na"2CO"3.10H"2O) as Phase Change Material (PCM) was experimentally investigated during March and collector efficiency was compared with those of convectional system including ... Keywords: Flat plate solar collector, PCM, Soft computing

Yasin Varol; Ahmet Koca; Hakan F. Oztop; Engin Avci

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

SoftPCM: Enhancing Energy Efficiency and Lifetime of Phase Change Memory in Video Applications via Approximate Write  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern video applications such as video codecs are memory-intensive. As an emerging non-volatile memory technology, phase change memory (PCM) will benefit video applications due to its high density, low leakage power and superior scalability. However, ... Keywords: Approximate write, data-comparison write, error tolerance, PCM, write endurance

Yuntan Fang; Huawei Li; Xiaowei Li

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Exploring local atomic arrangements in amorphous and metastable phase change materials with x-ray and neutron total scattering  

SciTech Connect

Very little experimental work has conclusively explored the structural transformation between the amorphous and metastable crystalline phases of phase change chalcogenides. A recent flurry of theoretical work has supported likely mechanisms for the phase transition process in Ge-Sb-Te (GST) compositions and invigorated efforts at probing local atomic arrangements experimentally. The pair distribution function (PDF) formalism of total scattering data provides directly both local structure correlations at low real-space dimensions, and intermediate range order at higher length scales, a distinct advantage for following the relevant phase transition in phase change materials (PCM). A challenge facing the field is the difficulty in distinguishing separate peak contributions to pair correlation functions in amorphous and highly disordered samples. For example, various types of local order have been reported for Ge{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} phases, including both random mixtures and discrete structural units, and both 4-fold and 6-fold coordination around Ge. We describe our efforts in advancing capabilities for extracting and refining differential or partial pair distribution function data sets by combining neutron and x-ray total scattering, with extensions to isotopic substitution and anomalous x-ray scattering. Our results combining neutron and x-ray scattering for the Ge{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} series, for example, clearly distinguish Ge-Te and Te-Te contributions in nearest neighbor correlations. Presenting an additional challenge, phase change materials with fast switching speeds (those arguably of greatest technological interest) have stable bulk crystalline phases and do not readily form glasses until reduced to small dimensions. Thin film samples are inherently difficult to probe with conventional crystallographic methods. We demonstrate successful synchrotron x-ray total scattering experiments for PCM thin films with thicknesses between 100 nm and 1 um and describe how chemical short-range order and local bonding environments vary in amorphous, metastable and crystalline GeSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4} films. Total scattering methods for powders and thin films allow for a direct comparison of PCM properties (crystallization temperature, optical contrast between phases, phase change speed, etc.) with observed local structure and motivate further exploration into the atomic configurations enabling this fascinating class of materials.

Page, Katharine [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daemen, Luc [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Proffen, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review on Sustainable thermal Energy Storage Technologies,D. , 2009, “Review on Thermal Energy Storage with PhaseW. , 2002, “Survey of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Performance improvement of Ge-Sb-Te material by GaSb doping for phase change memory  

SciTech Connect

Effects of GaSb doping on phase change characteristics of Ge-Sb-Te material are investigated by in situ resistance and x-ray diffraction measurement, optical spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystallization temperature and data retention of Ge-Sb-Te material increase significantly by the addition of GaSb, which results from the high thermal stability of amorphous GaSb. In addition, GaSb-doped Ge-Sb-Te material exhibits faster crystallization speed due to the change in electronic states as a result of the formation of chemical bonds with Ga element. Incorporation of GaSb is highly effective way to enhance the comprehensive performance of Ge-Sb-Te material for phase change memory.

Lu, Yegang [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Zhonghua; Song, Sannian; Cheng, Limin; Song, Zhitang [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shen, Xiang; Wang, Guoxiang; Dai, Shixun [Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)] [Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

128

The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Phase I Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is an international effort designed to investigate the uncertainties in regional-scale projections of future climate and produce highresolution climate change scenarios using multiple ...

Linda O. Mearns; Ray Arritt; Sébastien Biner; Melissa S. Bukovsky; Seth McGinnis; Stephan Sain; Daniel Caya; James Correia Jr.; Dave Flory; William Gutowski; Eugene S. Takle; Richard Jones; Ruby Leung; Wilfran Moufouma-Okia; Larry McDaniel; Ana M. B. Nunes; Yun Qian; John Roads; Lisa Sloan; Mark Snyder

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Phase Changes in the Evolution of the IPv4 and IPv6 AS-Level Internet Topologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we investigate the evolution of the IPv4 and IPv6 Internet topologies at the autonomous system (AS) level over a long period of time.We provide abundant empirical evidence that there is a phase transition in the growth trend of the two networks. For the IPv4 network, the phase change occurred in 2001. Before then the network's size grew exponentially, and thereafter it followed a linear growth. Changes are also observed around the same time for the maximum node degree, the average node degree and the average shortest path length. For the IPv6 network, the phase change occurred in late 2006. It is notable that the observed phase transitions in the two networks are different, for example the size of IPv6 network initially grew linearly and then shifted to an exponential growth. Our results show that following decades of rapid expansion up to the beginning of this century, the IPv4 network has now evolved into a mature, steady stage characterised by a relatively slow growth with a stable network st...

Zhang, Guoqiang; Zhou, Shi; 10.1016/j.comcom.2010.06.004

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Projected changes in late 21st century tropical cyclone frequency in thirteen coupled climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in tropical cyclone (TC) frequency under anthropogenic climate change are examined for thirteen global models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), using the OWZP TC detection method developed by the authors in ...

K. J. Tory; S. S. Chand; J. L. McBride; H. Ye; R. A. Dare

131

Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish-Engine Solar Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes the final results of the Phase II Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish-Engine Solar Power Generation project being performed by Infinia Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-FC36-08GO18157 during the project period of September 1, 2009 - August 30, 2012. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate the practicality of integrating thermal energy storage (TES) modules, using a suitable thermal salt phase-change material (PCM) as its medium, with a dish/Stirling engine; enabling the system to operate during cloud transients and to provide dispatchable power for 4 to 6 hours after sunset. A laboratory prototype designed to provide 3 kW-h of net electrical output was constructed and tested at Infinia's Ogden Headquarters. In the course of the testing, it was determined that the system's heat pipe network - used to transfer incoming heat from the solar receiver to both the Stirling generator heater head and to the phase change salt - did not perform to expectations. The heat pipes had limited capacity to deliver sufficient heat energy to the generator and salt mass while in a charging mode, which was highly dependent on the orientation of the device (vertical versus horizontal). In addition, the TES system was only able to extract about 30 to 40% of the expected amount of energy from the phase change salt once it was fully molten. However, the use of heat pipes to transfer heat energy to and from a thermal energy storage medium is a key technical innovation, and the project team feels that the limitations of the current device could be greatly improved with further development. A detailed study of manufacturing costs using the prototype TES module as a basis indicates that meeting DOE LCOE goals with this hardware requires significant efforts. Improvement can be made by implementing aggressive cost-down initiatives in design and materials, improving system performance by boosting efficiencies, and by refining cost estimates with vendor quotes in lieu of mass-based approaches. Although the prototype did not fully demonstrate performance and realize projected cost targets, the project team believes that these challenges can be overcome. The test data showed that the performance can be significantly improved by refining the heat pipe designs. However, the project objective for phase 3 is to design and test on sun the field ready systems, the project team feels that is necessary to further refine the prototype heat pipe design in the current prototype TES system before move on to field test units, Phase 3 continuation will not be pursued.

Qui, Songgang [Temple University] [Temple University; Galbraith, Ross [Infinia] [Infinia

2013-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

132

Analysis of the Changing Microbial Phase in an Underground River Anaerobic Digestion Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The underground river anaerobic fermentation system was adopted in this experiment was that a pipeline buried underground just like an underground river. The hydrolysis, acidification and degradation of initial fermentation were carried out when raw ... Keywords: underground river anaerobic digestion reactor, microbial phase, methane-producing bacteria, dominant bacteria

Bingbing Li; Xiao Bo; Zhiquan Hu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

California Winter Precipitation Change under Global Warming in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 Ensemble  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Projections of possible precipitation change in California under global warming have been subject to considerable uncertainty because California lies between the region anticipated to undergo increases in precipitation at mid-to-high latitudes and ...

J. David Neelin; Baird Langenbrunner; Joyce E. Meyerson; Alex Hall; Neil Berg

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Laminar Flow Forced Convection Heat Transfer Behavior of Phase Change Material Fluid in Straight and Staggered Pin Microchannels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microchannels have been studied extensively for electronic cooling applications ever since they were found to be effective in removing high heat flux from small areas. The rate of heat removed using microchannels depends on many factors including the geometry shape, solid and fluid materials used, and surface roughness, among others. Many configurations of microchannels have been studied with various materials and compared for their effectiveness in heat removal. However, there is little research done so far in using Phase Change Material (PCM) fluids and pin fins in microchannels to enhance the heat transfer. PCM fluids exhibit greater heat transfer when the phase change material undergoes liquid-to-solid transformation. Staggered pins in microchannels have also shown higher heat removal characteristics because of the continuous breaking and formation of the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layer; they also exhibit higher pressure drop because pins act as flow obstructers. This paper presents numerical results of circular, square, straight rectangular microchannels with various aspect ratios (1:2, 1:4 and 1:8), and rectangular microchannels with two characteristic staggered pins (square and circular, fixed height with no variation in aspect ratio). The heat transfer performance of a single phase fluid and PCM fluid in all of these microchannels and the corresponding pressure drop characteristics are also presented. An effective specific heat capacity model was used to account for the phase change process of PCM fluid. Comparison of heat transfer characteristics of single phase fluid and PCM fluid are presented for all the geometries considered. Among the straight microchannels, 1:8 geometry was found to have the highest Nusselt number. The use of PCM fluid in straight microchannels increased the Nusselt number by 3-7 percent compared to the single phase fluids. Among the staggered pin microchannels, circular pins were found to be more effective in terms of heat transfer by exhibiting higher Nusselt number. Circular pin microchannels were also found to have lower pressure drop compared to the square pin microchannels. Overall, for all the geometries considered, it was found that the PCM fluid enhances the heat transfer compared to the SPF fluid.

Kondle, Satyanarayana

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Non-local equilibrium two-phase flow model with phase change in porous media and its application to reflooding of a severely damaged reactor core  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A generalized non local-equilibrium, three-equation model was developed for the macroscopic description of two-phase flow heat and mass transfer in porous media subjected to phase change. Six pore-scale closure problems were proposed to determine all the effective transport coefficients for representative unit cells. An improved model is presented in this paper with the perspective of application to intense boiling phenomena. The objective of this paper is to present application of this model to the simulation of reflooding of severely damaged nuclear reactor cores. In case of accident at a nuclear power plant, water sources may not be available for a long period of time and the core heats up due to the residual power. Any attempt to inject water during core degradation can lead to quenching and further fragmentation of the core material. The fragmentation of fuel rods and melting of reactor core materials may result in the formation of a {sup d}ebris bed{sup .} The typical particle size in a debris bed might reach few millimeters (characteristic length-scale: 1 to 5 mm), which corresponds to a high permeability porous medium. The proposed two-phase flow model is implemented in the ICARECATHARE code, developed by IRSN to study severe accident scenarios in pressurized water reactors. Currently, the French IRSN has set up two experimental facilities to study debris bed reflooding, PEARL and PRELUDE, with the objective to validate safety models. The PRELUDE program studies the complex two phase flow of water and steam in a porous medium (diameter 180 mm, height 200 mm), initially heated to a high temperature (400 deg. C or 700 deg. C). The series of PRELUDE experiments achieved in 2010 constitute a significant complement to the database of high temperature bottom reflood experimental data. They provide relevant data to understand the progression of the quench front and the intensity of heat transfer. Modeling accurately these experiments required improvements to the reflooding model, especially in terms of the existence of various saturation regimes. The improved two-phase flow model shows a good agreement with PRELUDE experimental results.

Bachrata, A.; Fichot, F.; Quintard, M.; Repetto, G.; Fleurot, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache (France); Universite de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); IMFT - Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France) and CNRS (France); IMFT, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache (France)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Epigenetic remodelling of brain, body and behaviour during phase change in locusts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in behaviour and motor systems. They can change reversibly between two forms that differ so extensively in appearance (Figure 1A), behaviour, phy- siology, neurochemistry and morphology [13] that they were once thought to be different species. This transfor... -term solitarious locusts; optic lobes (blue), central brain (red), thoracic ganglia (green). Data for (B) and (C) are from [36]. (D) Serotonin is (i) necessary and (ii) sufficient to induce behavioural gregarization. Histograms showing proportions of locusts...

Burrows, Malcolm; Rogers, Stephen M; Ott, Swidbert R

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

137

Changing the Hilbert space structure as a consequence of gauge transformations in "extended phase space" version of quantum geometrodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the earlier works on quantum geometrodynamics in extended phase space it has been argued that a wave function of the Universe should satisfy a Schrodinger equation. Its form, as well as a measure in Schrodinger scalar product, depends on a gauge condition (a chosen reference frame). It is known that the geometry of an appropriate Hilbert space is determined by introducing the scalar product, so the Hilbert space structure turns out to be in a large degree depending on a chosen gauge condition. In the present work we analyse this issue from the viewpoint of the path integral approach. We consider how the gauge condition changes as a result of gauge transformations. In this respect, three kinds of gauge transformations can be singled out: Firstly, there are residual gauge transformations, which do not change the gauge condition. The second kind is the transformations whose parameters can be related by homotopy. Then the change of gauge condition could be described by smoothly changing function. In particular, in this context time dependent gauges could be discussed. We also suggest that this kind of gauge transformations leads to a smooth changing of solutions to the Schrodinger equation. The third kind of the transformations includes those whose parameters belong to different homotopy classes. They are of the most interest from the viewpoint of changing the Hilbert space structure. In this case the gauge condition and the very form of the Schrodinger equation would change in discrete steps when we pass from a spacetime region with one gauge condition to another region with another gauge condition. In conclusion we discuss the relation between quantum gravity and fundamental problems of ordinary quantum mechanics.

T. P. Shestakova

2005-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

138

Encapsulation of phase change materials in concrete masonry construction. Progress report No. 1, August 1977--February 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The improvement of thermal energy storage capacity of potential building materials by incorporation of phase change materials (PCM's) is being explored. Both inorganic salt hydrates and organic systems are potentially useful PCM's for encapsulation in concrete, polymer concrete, and/or polymer-impregnated concrete matrices. It is felt at this time that most PCM's melting at or above 40/sup 0/C can be encapsulated in large quantities in polymer concrete. Methods relating to the encapsulation of lower melting materials in various matrices are currently being studied.

Sansone, M J

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Dynamic Heat Flow Measurements to Study the Distribution of Phase-Change Material in an Insulation Matrix  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Phase change materials (PCMs) are used in building envelopes in many forms. The PCMs may be encased in discrete pouches or containers, or they may be distributed within another medium, such as in a board or within a loose fill product. In addition, most PCM products are blends containing fire retardants and chemical stabilizers. However, the current test method to measure the dynamic characteristics of PCMs, the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), requires specimens that are relatively uniform and very small. Considering the limitations of DSC test results when applied to more complex PCM building envelope applications, we developed a combined experimental analytical protocol to determine the amount of phase-change energy actually available to provide thermal storage. This paper presents this new methodology for performing dynamic heat flow analysis of complex PCM-enhanced building materials. The experimental analytical protocol uses a conventional heat-flow apparatus and three-dimensional (3-D), finite-difference modeling. Based upon results from this methodology, ORNL researchers developed a simplified one-dimensional (1-D) model that can be easily used in whole-building simulations. This paper describes this methodology as applied to an insulation assembly containing a complex array of PCM pouches.

Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Yarbrough, David W [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Use of Phase Change Material in a Building Wall Assembly: A Case Study of Technical Potential in Two Climates  

SciTech Connect

Phase change material (PCM), placed in an exterior wall, alters the temperature profile within the wall and thus influences the heat transport through the wall. This may reduce the net energy transport through the wall via interactions with diurnal temperature swings in the external environment or reduce the electricity needed to meet the net load through the wall by shifting the time of the peak load to a time when the cooling system operates more efficiently. This study covers a broad range of parameters that can influence the effectiveness of such a merged thermal storage-thermal insulation system. These parameters included climate, PCM location within the wall, amount of PCM, midpoint of the PCM melting and freezing range relative to the indoor setpoint temperature, temperature range over which phase change occurs, and the wall orientation. Two climates are investigated using finite difference and optimization analyses: Phoenix and Baltimore, with two utility rate schedules. Although potential savings for a PCM with optimized properties were greater when the PCM was concentrated near the inside wall surface, other considerations described here lead to a recommendation for a full-thickness application. An examination of the temperature distribution within the walls also revealed the potential for this system to reduce the amount of energy transported through the wall framing. Finally, economic benefits can exceed energy savings when time-of-day utility rates are in effect, reflecting the value of peak load reductions for the utility grid.

Childs, Kenneth W [ORNL; Stovall, Therese K [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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141

Potential Energy Savings Due to Phase Change Material in a Building Wall Assembly: An Examination of Two Climates  

SciTech Connect

Phase change material (PCM), placed in an exterior wall, alters the temperature profile within the wall and thus influences the heat transport through the wall. This may reduce the net energy transport through the wall via interactions with diurnal temperature swings in the external environment or reduce the electricity needed to meet the net load through the wall by shifting the time of the peak load to a time when the cooling system operates more efficiently. This study covers a broad range of parameters that can influence the effectiveness of such a merged thermal storage-thermal insulation system. These parameters included climate, PCM location within the wall, amount of PCM, midpoint of the PCM melting and freezing range relative to the indoor setpoint temperature, temperature range over which phase change occurs, and the wall orientation. Two climates are investigated using finite difference and optimization analyses: Phoenix and Baltimore, with two utility rate schedules. Although potential savings for a PCM with optimized properties were greater when the PCM was concentrated near the inside wall surface, other considerations described here lead to a recommendation for a full-thickness application. An examination of the temperature distribution within the walls also revealed the potential for this system to reduce the amount of energy transported through the wall framing. Finally, economic benefits can exceed energy savings when time-of-day utility rates are in effect, reflecting the value of peak load reductions for the utility grid.

Childs, Kenneth W [ORNL; Stovall, Therese K [ORNL

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.  

SciTech Connect

A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

Fuller, Thomas F. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Bandhauer, Todd (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Garimella, Srinivas (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Determination of Optical-Field Ionization Dynamics in Plasmas through the Direct Measurement of the Optical Phase Change  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detailed dynamics of an atom in a strong laser field is rich in both interesting physics and potential applications. The goal of this project was to develop a technique for characterizing high-field laser-plasma interactions with femtosecond resolution based on the direct measurement of the phase change of an optical pulse. The authors developed the technique of Multi-pulse Interferometric Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (MI-FROG), which recovers (to all orders) the phase difference between pumped and unpumped probe pulses, enabling the determination of sub-pulsewidth time-resolved phase and frequency shifts impressed by a pump pulse on a weak probe pulse. Using MI-FROG, the authors obtained the first quantitative measurements of high-field ionization rates in noble gases and diatomic molecules. They obtained agreement between the measured ionization rates an d those calculated for the noble gases and diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen using a one-dimensional fluid model and rates derived from tunneling theory. However, much higher rates are measured for diatomic oxygen than predicted by tunneling theory calculations.

Taylor, A.J.; Omenetto, G.; Rodriguez, G.; Siders, C.W.; Siders, J.L.W.; Downer, C.

1999-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

144

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & PracticeChapter 3 How Surfactants Change the Internal Properties of the Solution Phase and Related Performance Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles & Practice Chapter 3 How Surfactants Change the Internal Properties of the Solution Phase and Related Performance Properties Surfactants and Detergents eChapters Surfactants - Detergents P

145

CO2 Capture with Liquid-to-Solid Absorbents: CO2 Capture Process Using Phase-Changing Absorbents  

SciTech Connect

IMPACCT Project: GE and the University of Pittsburgh are developing a unique CO2 capture process in which a liquid absorbent, upon contact with CO2, changes into a solid phase. Once in solid form, the material can be separated and the CO2 can be released for storage by heating. Upon heating, the absorbent returns to its liquid form, where it can be reused to capture more CO2. The approach is more efficient than other solventbased processes because it avoids the heating of extraneous solvents such as water. This ultimately leads to a lower cost of CO2 capture and will lower the additional cost to produce electricity for coal-fired power plants that retrofit their facilities to include this technology.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Validation Methodology to Allow Simulated Peak Reduction and Energy Performance Analysis of Residential Building Envelope with Phase Change Materials: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Phase change materials (PCM) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in residential buildings. This paper summarizes NREL efforts to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings: the overall methodology to verify and validate Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) and PCM algorithms in EnergyPlus is presented in this study. It also shows preliminary results of three residential building enclosure technologies containing PCM: PCM-enhanced insulation, PCM impregnated drywall and thin PCM layers. The results are compared based on predicted peak reduction and energy savings using two algorithms in EnergyPlus: the PCM and Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) algorithms.

Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Thermal Performance of a Novel Heat Transfer Fluid Containing Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present research work aims to develop a new heat transfer fluid by combining multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCMs). Stable nanofluids have been prepared using different sizes of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and their properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity have been measured. Microencapsulated phase change material slurries containing microcapsules of octadecane have been purchased from Thies Technology Inc. Tests have been conducted to determine the durability and viscosity of the MPCM slurries. Heat transfer experiments have been conducted to determine the heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop of the MWCNT nanofluids and MPCM slurries under turbulent flow and constant heat flux conditions. The MPCM slurry and the MWCNT nanofluid have been combined to form a new heat transfer fluid. Heat transfer tests have been conducted to determine the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop of the new fluid under turbulent flow and constant heat flux conditions. The potential use of this fluid in convective heat transfer applications has also been discussed. The heat transfer results of the MPCM slurry containing octadecane microcapsules was in good agreement with the published literature. The thermal conductivity enhancement obtained for MWCNTs with diameter (60-100 nm) and length (0.5-40?m) was 8.11%. The maximum percentage enhancement (compared to water) obtained in the heat transfer coefficient of the MWCNT nanofluid was in the range of 20-25%. The blend of MPCMs and MWCNTs was highly viscous and displayed a shear thinning behavior. Due to its high viscosity, the flow became laminar and the heat transfer performance was lowered. It was interesting to observe that the value of the maximum local heat transfer coefficient achieved in the case of the blend (laminar flow), was comparable to that obtained in the case of the MPCM slurry (turbulent flow). The pressure drop of the blend was lower than that of the MWCNT nanofluid.

Tumuluri, Kalpana

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

The Crystallization Behavior of Stochiometric and Off-stochiometric Ga-Sb-Te Materials for Phase-Change Memory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stoichiometric Ga{sub 4}Sb{sub 6}Te{sub 3} and Ga-Sb materials were systematically studied. The alloy Ga{sub 4}Sb{sub 6}Te{sub 3} shows a fast crystallization speed, very high crystallization temperature, T{sub x}, and high electrical contrast. Although stoichiometric GaSb has similar performance and even faster crystallization speed, the electrical contrast is much lower. The other off-stoichiometric compounds we studied all have higher T{sub x} than Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} indicating a good amorphous stability. By raising the Sb/Te ratio with GaSb incorporation, T{sub x} and the recrystallization time of melt-quenched, amorphous samples can be effectively increased. The stoichiometric Ga{sub 4}Sb{sub 6}Te{sub 3} with less likelihood of phase-segregation compared to nonstoichiometric compounds is a promising candidate for phase-change memory.

H Cheng; S Raoux; J Jordan-Sweet

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

149

Dynamic High Pressure Measurements and Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Phase Changes and Vibrational Dynamics in Molecular Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rate on the phase transitions of Ice VI 17,18 and Ice VII.for the phase transitions of water ? Ice VI and Ice VI ? Iceobserve the phase transitions of water ? Ice VI and Ice VI ?

Rice, Andrew Patrick

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Efficient Heat Storage Materials: Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: MIT is developing efficient heat storage materials for use in solar and nuclear power plants. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun’s not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. MIT is designing nanostructured heat storage materials that can store a large amount of heat per unit mass and volume. To do this, MIT is using phase change materials, which absorb a large amount of latent heat to melt from solid to liquid. MIT’s heat storage materials are designed to melt at high temperatures and conduct heat well—this makes them efficient at storing and releasing heat and enhances the overall efficiency of the thermal storage and energy-generation process. MIT’s low-cost heat storage materials also have a long life cycle, which further enhances their efficiency.

None

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

151

Low-temperature thermal energy storage quarterly progress report for period July--September 1976. [Phase-change materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The document is the second in a series of quarterly progress reports covering activities funded at ORNL by the ERDA Division of Energy Storage Systems to develop low-temperature thermal energy storage (TES) technology. These systems will be based on either sensible or latent heat storage at temperatures up to approximately 250/sup 0/C. At ORNL, research efforts were continued to (a) develop a time-dependent analytical model that will describe a TES system charged with a phase-change material, (b) measure thermophysical properties and melt-freeze cyclic behavior of interesting PCM's and (c) determine crystal lattice structures of hydrated salts and their nucleators. A report on TES subsystems for application to solar energy sources was completed and is being reviewed. In the area of program management, subcontracts were signed with Clemson University, Dow Chemical Company, Suntek Research Associates, and The Franklin Institute. Detailed reviews were completed for ten unsolicited proposals related to TES. Industries, research institutions, universities, and other national laboratory participation in the TES program, for which ORNL has management responsibilities, are listed.

Hoffman, H. W.; Kedi, R. J.

1977-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

152

Encapsulation of phase change materials in concrete masonry construction. Progress report No. 3, June 1978-September 1978. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Union Carbide Nuclear Division, ORNL contract number 19Y-14279V, Encapsulation of Phase Change Materials (PCM) in Concrete Masonry Construction, is summarized. Due to program termination, the report also constitutes the final report of the program. Thermal analysis of the system Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/.10H/sub 2/O has shown that after separation upon melting, the heat of fusion is considerably higher than Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/.10H/sub 2/O. The system NaCO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O has been found to be unsuitable for PCM use. A eutectic in the MgCl/sub 2/-CaCl/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O is under consideration. It exhibits a high heat of fusion and low transition temperature range. Cylindrical shells have been cast using polymer concrete. The shells were subsequently filled with PCM and thermally cycled. No leaking of PCM occurred. Thermal measurements on PCM composite materials were continued.

Sansone, M J

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Application of phase change materials in passive solar systems. Final report, October 1, 1977-November 30, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A modular, hybrid passive solar energy collection and storage unit called the Thermal Wall Panel was designed and constructed. The Thermal Wall Panel uses the concept of energy storage in phase change materials combined with direct solar gain. Based on measurements, a Thermal Wall Panel with movable night-time insulation (R = 6.80) between the storage components and the outside can retain and deliver as heat an average of 45 percent of the sun's energy which falls on it during the day. Based on calculations, a 120 square foot wall can provide about 25 percent of the heating needs of a 1100 square foot house. Analysis indicates that when the Thermal Wall Panel (R = 6.00 nighttime insulation) is combined with other direct gain passive solar energy systems as large, south-facing windows, 56 percent of a home's heating needs can be provided. A Thermal Wall Panel can be installed into a typical home in the Mid-Atlantic Region for an incremental cost of from $6 to $8 per square foot beyond the cost of the normal wall and pay for itself in 5 to 9 years at 1978 energy costs. Also, the Thermal Wall Panel does not require any additional foundation support. A computer model has been developed for the Thermal Wall Panel which shows good agreement with predicted and measured performance.

Sliwkowski, J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Energy Basics: Bio-Based Products  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often require less energy to produce than petroleum-based ones. Researchers have discovered that the process for...

155

Pressure tunes electrical resistivity by four orders of magnitude in amorphous Ge[subscript 2]Sb[subscript 2]Te[subscript 5] phase-change memory alloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ge-Sb-Te-based phase-change memory is one of the most promising candidates to succeed the current flash memories. The application of phase-change materials for data storage and memory devices takes advantage of the fast phase transition (on the order of nanoseconds) and the large property contrasts (e.g., several orders of magnitude difference in electrical resistivity) between the amorphous and the crystalline states. Despite the importance of Ge-Sb-Te alloys and the intense research they have received, the possible phases in the temperature-pressure diagram, as well as the corresponding structure-property correlations, remain to be systematically explored. In this study, by subjecting the amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (a-GST) to hydrostatic-like pressure (P), the thermodynamic variable alternative to temperature, we are able to tune its electrical resistivity by several orders of magnitude, similar to the resistivity contrast corresponding to the usually investigated amorphous-to-crystalline (a-GST to rock-salt GST) transition used in current phase-change memories. In particular, the electrical resistivity drops precipitously in the P = 0 to 8 GPa regime. A prominent structural signature representing the underlying evolution in atomic arrangements and bonding in this pressure regime, as revealed by the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, is the reduction of low-electron-density regions, which contributes to the narrowing of band gap and delocalization of trapped electrons. At P > 8 GPa, we have observed major changes of the average local structures (bond angle and coordination numbers), gradually transforming the a-GST into a high-density, metallic-like state. This high-pressure glass is characterized by local motifs that bear similarities to the body-centered-cubic GST (bcc-GST) it eventually crystallizes into at 28 GPa, and hence represents a bcc-type polyamorph of a-GST.

Xu, M.; Cheng, Y.Q.; Wang, L.; Sheng, H.W.; Meng, Y.; Yang, W.G.; Hang, X.D.; Ma, E. (Beijing U); (JHU); (CIW); (George Mason)

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

156

Are You Ready Phase Two? Pricing Changes and Commercial Products Added to DOE High-Performance Windows Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article, for publication in Door and Window Manufacturer magazine, describes DOE's High Performance Windows Volume Purchase Program, WVPP, and how PNNL, which manages the program for DOE, is assisting DOE in the transition to the next phase (Phase II), which begins in May. While the foundation of the program will remain relatively unchanged, PNNL is employing several new strategies to continue the momentum built during the program's first full year of implementation. The program helps buyers and manufacturers to develop a market for highly insulating windows and low-E storm windows at affordable prices and thereby overcome the principal barrier of cost.

Mapes, Terry S.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Global Energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change Phase 2 Findings from an international Public-Private Sponsored Research Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This book examines the role of global energy technology in addressing climate change. The book considers the nature of the climate change challenge and the role of energy in the issue. It goes on to consider the implications for the evolution of the global energy system and the potential value of technology availability, development and deployment. Six technology systems are identified for special consideration: CO2 capture and storage, Biotechnology, Hydrogen systems, Nuclear energy, Wind and solar energy, and End-use energy technologies. In addition, consideration is given to the role of non-CO2 gases in climate change as well as the potential of technology development and deployment to reduce non-CO2 emissions. Present trends in energy R&D are examined and potentially fruitful avenues for research. The book concludes with a set of key findings.

Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Smith, Steven J.; Runci, Paul J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Stokes, Gerald M.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2  

SciTech Connect

Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative feedbacks on leakage rates, with a combination of self-enhancing and self-limiting effects. Lower viscosity and density of CO{sub 2} as compared to aqueous fluids provides a potential for self-enhancing effects during leakage, while strong cooling effects from liquid CO{sub 2} boiling into gas, and from expansion of gas rising towards the land surface, act to self-limit discharges. Strong interference between fluid phases under three-phase conditions (aqueous - liquid CO{sub 2} - gaseous CO{sub 2}) also tends to reduce CO{sub 2} fluxes. Feedback on different space and time scales can induce non-monotonic behavior of CO{sub 2} flow rates.

Pruess, K.

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

CX-006130: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CX-006130: Categorical Exclusion Determination Recovery Act: Development of Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Material CX(s) Applied: A11, B2.2, B3.6, B5.1 Date: 06212011...

160

Effects of ozone exposure on 'Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of 'Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

Correa, Savio Figueira; Brito Paiva, Luisa; Mota do Couto, Flavio; Gomes da Silva, Marcelo; Silva Sthel, Marcelo; Vargas, Helion [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mota, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany); Goncalves de Oliveira, Jurandi [Laboratorio de Melhoramento Genetico Vegetal, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miklos, Andras [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Lifshits quantum phase transitions and rearrangement of the Fermi surface upon a change in the hole concentration in high-temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Changes in the electronic structure in the normal phase of high-T{sub c} superconductors (HTSCs), viz., layered cuprates, are considered. The results of LDA + GTB calculations of the electron structure and the Fermi surface of La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} one-layer cuprates with allowance for strong correlations are compared with ARPES and quantum oscillations data. Two critical points x{sub c1} and x{sub c2} are discovered at which the rear-rangement of the Fermi surface takes place. In the vicinity of these points, changes in the thermodynamic properties at low temperatures are determined using the Lifshits ideology concerning 2.5-order quantum phase transitions. A singularity {delta}(C/T) {proportional_to} (x - x{sub e}){sup 1/2} in the electron heat capacity agrees well with the available experimental data in the vicinity of x{sub c1} {approx} 0.15. Sign reversal of the Hall constant upon doping is also considered qualitatively.

Ovchinnikov, S. G., E-mail: sgo@iph.krasn.ru; Korshunov, M. M.; Shneyder, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirenskii Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Lei Chang  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ph.D. in Theoretical Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China. Selected Recent Articles Phase diagram and critical endpoint for strongly-interacting quarks Si-xue Qin, Lei Chang,...

163

Improvement of Vertical Diode Properties by N-type Plasma Doping for Low-Power Phase Change Non-Volatile Memory (NVM)  

SciTech Connect

Using PH{sub 3} N-type plasma doing (PLAD), the device characteristics of high performance vertical switch diode for 50 nm phase-change NVM have been studied. Compared to the conventional beam line ion implantation, there are improvements of diode breakdown voltage (B.V.) and isolation B.V., respectively 20% and 41% by N-type PLAD doping due to the higher doping level and shallower profile in N+ region. It also shows excellent off-leakage properties less than 10 pA/cell without decreasing the Ion. From the results of this study, N-type PLAD has been demonstrated to be effective for vertical diode electrical properties as well as for high productivity.

Lee, Min Yong; Lee, H. S.; Ki, Y. J.; Sohn, Y. S.; Kang, H. S. [R and D Division, Hynix Semiconductor Inc., San 136-1, Ami-ri, Bubal-eub, Ichon-si, kyoungki-do 467-701 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, C. Y.; Park, J. W. [Varian Korea Ltd., 433-1 Mogok-dong Pyeongtaek-si Kyoungki-do 459-040 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, S. H. [Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates Inc., 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, MA 01930 (United States)

2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

164

A Comparative Heat Transfer Examination of Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) With and Without Phase Change Materials (PCMs) Using a Dynamic Wall Simulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main focus of this paper was to present data to advance the design of a previously developed thermally-enhanced structural insulated panel (SIP) that had been outfitted with phase change materials (PCMs) (Medina et al., 2008). To advance the development of the previous design, which had only been evaluated under full weather conditions, a set of well-controlled laboratory experiments was carried out. For this, a dynamic wall simulator was built, where a range of important parameters was evaluated. This was done through a comparative heat transfer examination of SIPs, with and without PCMs; where parameters, such as, foam core material of the SIP and material of the PCM holding containers (i.e., encapsulating pipes) were evaluated. Instantaneous heat transfer rates measurements are presented. The two parameters considered (i.e., foam material and pipe material) were found to have first order effects on the performance of PCM-enhanced SIPs. The PCM outfitted SIPs reduced the peak heat fluxes when compared to their own kind, but without PCM. The results indicate that SIPs with molded expanded polystyrene (EPS) cores would benefit more from the PCM enhancement than SIPs with urethane cores. PVC pipes as holding containers for the PCMs did not prove as efficient as metal pipes.

Medina, M.; Zhu, D.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Theoretical and Experimental Thermal Performance Analysis of Building Shell Components Containing Blown Fiber Glass Insulation Enhanced with Phase Change Material (PCM)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different types of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) have been tested as dynamic components in buildings during the last 4 decades. Most historical studies have found that PCMs enhance building energy performance. Some PCM-enhanced building materials, like PCM-gypsum boards or PCM-impregnated concretes have already found their limited applications in different countries. Today, continued improvements in building envelope technologies suggest that throughout Southern and Central US climates, residences may soon be routinely constructed with PCM in order to maximize insulation effectiveness and maintain low heating and cooling loads. The proposed paper presents experimental and numerical results from thermal performance studies. These studies focus on blown fiber glass insulation modified with a novel spray-applied microencapsulated PCM. Experimental results are reported for both laboratory-scale and full-size building elements tested in the field. In order to confirm theoretical predictions, PCM enhanced fiber glass insulation was evaluated in a guarded hot box facility to demonstrate heat flow reductions when one side of a test wall is subjected to a temperature increase. The laboratory work showed reductions in heat flow of 30% due to the presence of approximately 20 wt % PCM in the insulation. Field testing of residential attics insulated with blown fiber glass and PCM was completed in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Experimental work was followed by detailed whole building EnergyPlus simulations in order to generate energy performance data for different US climates. In addition, a series of numerical simulations and field experiments demonstrated a potential for application of a novel PCM fiber glass insulation as enabling technology to be utilized during the attic thermal renovations.

Miller, William A [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Yarbrough, David W [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Bianchi, Marcus V [ORNL; Smith, John B [ORNL; Fellinger, Thomas [ORNL; Kossecka, Elizabeth [Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences; Lee, Edwin S [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

A change in the temperature or a transformation of the phase of a material requires an exchange of heat with the surroundings. This exchange of heat can be used to store thermal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of heat with the surroundings. This exchange of heat can be used to store thermal energy. CurrentlyA change in the temperature or a transformation of the phase of a material requires an exchange, the storage of thermal energy is used to increase the efficiency of heating and cooling of buildings

Braun, Paul

167

ECO2M: A TOUGH2 Fluid Property Module for Mixtures of Water, NaCl, and CO2, Including Super- and Sub-Critical Conditions, and Phase Change Between Liquid and Gaseous CO2  

SciTech Connect

ECO2M is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.0) that was designed for applications to geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers. It includes a comprehensive description of the thermodynamics and thermophysical properties of H{sub 2}O - NaCl - CO{sub 2} mixtures, that reproduces fluid properties largely within experimental error for temperature, pressure and salinity conditions in the range of 10 C {le} T {le} 110 C, P {le} 600 bar, and salinity from zero up to full halite saturation. The fluid property correlations used in ECO2M are identical to the earlier ECO2N fluid property package, but whereas ECO2N could represent only a single CO{sub 2}-rich phase, ECO2M can describe all possible phase conditions for brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. This allows for seamless modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage. Flow processes can be modeled isothermally or non-isothermally, and phase conditions represented may include a single (aqueous or CO{sub 2}-rich) phase, as well as two-and three-phase mixtures of aqueous, liquid CO{sub 2} and gaseous CO{sub 2} phases. Fluid phases may appear or disappear in the course of a simulation, and solid salt may precipitate or dissolve. TOUGH2/ECO2M is upwardly compatible with ECO2N and accepts ECO2N-style inputs. This report gives technical specifications of ECO2M and includes instructions for preparing input data. Code applications are illustrated by means of several sample problems, including problems that had been previously solved with TOUGH2/ECO2N.

Pruess, K.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Bio-Based Nanocomposites Formed by Nanoparticle-Catalyzed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An Electron Microscopy Study of Nanoscale Surface and Sub-Surface ... Fabrication and Characterization of Super Strong Cellulose Nanowhisker Paper.

169

A Bio-Based Fuel Cell for Distributed Energy Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technology we propose consists primarily of an improved design for increasing the energy density of a certain class of bio-fuel cell (BFC). The BFCs we consider are those which harvest electrons produced by microorganisms during their metabolism of organic substrates (e.g. glucose, acetate). We estimate that our technology will significantly enhance power production (per unit volume) of these BFCs, to the point where they could be employed as stand-alone systems for distributed energy generation.

Anthony Terrinoni; Sean Gifford

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

170

Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

171

Building Technologies Office: Bio-based Thermochromic Intelligent...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Buildings News Building Technologies Office Announces 3 Million to Advance Building Automation Software Solutions in Small to Medium-Sized Commercial Buildings March 29,...

172

Bio-based Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids  

This invention relates in general to compositions to remove ice, snow and/or frost ("frozen precipitation") from surfaces and/or to prevent ice from forming on surfaces, and in particular to deicing/anti-icing fluids.

173

Superionic to superionic phase change in water: consequences for the interiors of Uranus and Hugh F. Wilson, Michael L. Wong1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the hydro- gen atoms. The difference in Helmholtz free energy between systems 1 and 2 governed by potential of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley Using density functional molecular dynamics free energy (DFT) free energy cal- culations, that the bcc phase is thermodynamically unstable relative to a denser

Militzer, Burkhard

174

Invited Article: A materials investigation of a phase-change micro-valve for greenhouse gas collection and other potential applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The deleterious consequences of climate change are well documented. Future climate treaties might mandate greenhouse gas(GHG) emissions measurement from signatories in order to verify compliance. The acquisition of atmospheric chemistry would benefit from low cost

Ronald P. Manginell; Matthew W. Moorman; Jerome A. Rejent; Paul T. Vianco; Mark J. Grazier; Brian D. Wroblewski; Curtis D. Mowry; Komandoor E. Achyuthan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Investigation of Secondary Phases Formation due to PH3 Interaction ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phase Change Materials for Enhancing Heat Transfer in Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) · Phase Field Simulation of ...

176

Phase Stability, Phase Transformations, and Reactive Phase ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... New Phase in Stoichiometric Cu6Sn5 and Effect of Ni Addition on Phase Stabilization in Wide Temperature Range · Optical Properties of ...

177

Phase Diagrams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 7, 2013 ... Computational Thermodynamics and Kinetics: Phase Diagrams ... TMS: Alloy Phases Committee, TMS: Chemistry and Physics of Materials ...

178

Phase five  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Phase five Phase five 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Phase five Los Alamos physicists have conclusively demonstrated the existence of a new phase of matter. November 25, 2013 Phase five Scientists still have more to learn about the exotic physics of specialty materials. What makes the cuprates special? How about a new phase of matter. Ceramic metals known as cuprates have mystified physicists for decades. They exhibit a variety of distinct phases of matter, each with its own specific properties, including a phase bearing an exotic type of magnetism, a high-temperature superconducting phase, an ordinary metal phase, a poorly understood and weird metallic phase simply called a strange metal, and an equally poorly understood metallic phase known as the pseudogap. The

179

Incorporation of Phase Change Materials in Cementitious ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the PEG molecule; when PEG enters the mix water, it ... PCM can be 'refilled' by absorbing energy from the ... are primarily in the west (Arizona and New ...

2012-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

180

Change Risk Forestry Sector Phase 1 Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Energetic, and Economic Potential of Biochar Biochar, a stable charcoal product, greatly enhances crop, and life-cycle data analysis to quantify biochar's potential. Engineering Phototropic Bacteria to Convert n. Biochar-Based Fibers for Personal Protective Equipment Replacing current technologies for chemical

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

PHASE DETECTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A phase detector circuit is described for use at very high frequencies of the order of 50 megacycles. The detector circuit includes a pair of rectifiers inverted relative to each other. One voltage to be compared is applied to the two rectifiers in phase opposition and the other voltage to be compared is commonly applied to the two rectifiers. The two result:ng d-c voltages derived from the rectifiers are combined in phase opposition to produce a single d-c voltage having amplitude and polarity characteristics dependent upon the phase relation between the signals to be compared. Principal novelty resides in the employment of a half-wave transmission line to derive the phase opposing signals from the first voltage to be compared for application to the two rectifiers in place of the transformer commonly utilized for such purpose in phase detector circuits for operation at lower frequency.

Kippenhan, D.O.

1959-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Phase and Morphological Evolution in Laser Textured Zirconia ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

phase transformation and formation of unconventional phases [11-14]. These changes are clearly manifested in the XRD spectra presented in Fig 4. One such  ...

183

Interactions of Water and Energy Mediate Responses of High-Latitude Terrestrial Ecosystems to Climate Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

referred to as “phase change”) and ice physics; (3)2.8.1). 2.3.1.2 Phase Change and Ice in the Lake Body Theany time ice occurs below water after phase change has been

Subin, Zachary Marc

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one of two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages change the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.

Hietala, V.M.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vawter, G.A.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

185

Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one or two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages changes the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.

Hietala, V.M.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vawter, G.A.

1993-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

186

Double acting stirling engine phase control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mechanical device for effecting a phase change between the expansion and compression volumes of a double-acting Stirling engine uses helical elements which produce opposite rotation of a pair of crankpins when a control rod is moved, so the phase between two pairs of pistons is changed by +.psi. and the phase between the other two pairs of pistons is changed by -.psi.. The phase can change beyond .psi.=90.degree. at which regenerative braking and then reversal of engine rotation occurs.

Berchowitz, David M. (Scotia, NY)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Phase Transformations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 9, 2013 ... O. Advanced Neutron and Synchrotron Studies of Materials: Phase .... We will describe recent advances at the Advanced Photon Source in ... Finally, we will describe upgrade plans for microdiffraction capabilities at the APS.

188

Change Log  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Change Log Change Log Change Log NERSC-8 / Trinity Benchmarks Change Log 09/03/2013 Correction applied to MiniDFT web-page (to remove inconsistency with MiniDFT README). Capability Improvement measurements do not require 10,000 MPI ranks per k-point. 08/06/2013 Various pages have changed to remove "draft" status 08/02/2013 Correction added to FLOP Counts for "Small" Single-Node Miniapplication Tests page 07/12/2013 README files updated for IOR benchmark to correct an error in wording (no code changes); README file updated for osu-micro-benchmarks (OMB) changing the tests required and conditions including reinserting some tests that had been deleted earlier 07/05/2013 README updated for mpimemu benchmark; Revised version of benchmark results spreadsheet (linked on SSP web page);

189

2013Chang  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE March 12, 2013 AOCS Announces 2013 Stephen S. Change Award Recipient AOCS is proud to announce that Alejandro G. Marangoni, Professor and Tier I Canada Research Chair Food, Health and Agin

190

Two-phase flow studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The two-phase flow program is directed at understanding the hydrodynamics of two-phase flows. The two-phase flow regime is characterized by a series of flow patterns that are designated as bubble, slug, churn, and annular flow. Churn flow has received very little scientific attention. This lack of attention cannot be justified because calculations predict that the churn flow pattern will exist over a substantial portion of the two-phase flow zone in producing geothermal wells. The University of Houston is experimentally investigating the dynamics of churn flow and is measuring the holdup over the full range of flow space for which churn flow exists. These experiments are being conducted in an air/water vertical two-phase flow loop. Brown University has constructed and is operating a unique two-phase flow research facility specifically designed to address flow problems of relevance to the geothermal industry. An important feature of the facility is that it is dedicated to two-phase flow of a single substance (including evaporation and condensation) as opposed to the case of a two-component two-phase flow. This facility can be operated with horizontal or vertical test sections of constant diameter or with step changes in diameter to simulate a geothermal well profile.

Hanold, R.J.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Shock dynamics of phase diagrams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thermodynamic phase transition denotes a drastic change of state of a physical system due to a continuous change of thermodynamic variables, as for instance pressure and temperature. The classical van der Waals equation of state is the simplest model that predicts the occurrence of a critical point associated with the gas-liquid phase transition. Nevertheless, below the critical temperature, theoretical predictions of the van der Waals theory significantly depart from the observed physical behaviour. We develop a novel approach to classical thermodynamics based on the solution of Maxwell relations for a generalised family of nonlocal entropy functions. This theory provides an exact mathematical description of discontinuities of the order parameter within the phase transition region, it explains the universal form of the equations of state and the occurrence of triple points in terms of the dynamics of nonlinear shock wave fronts.

Antonio Moro

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

192

??Novel Phase-Coherent Programmable Clock  

Direct digital synthesis (DDS) technology permits the generation of high frequency-resolved waveforms that can be changed on the nanosecond time scale (4 ns minimum). However when the DDS switches frequency, it occurs at any point in the phase ...

193

Physicochemical Perturbations of Phase Equilibriums  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The alternative approach to the displacement of gas/liquid equilibrium is developed on the basis of the Clapeyron equation. The phase transition in the system with well-established properties is taken as a reference process to search for the parameters of phase transition in the perturbed equilibrium system. The main equation, derived in the framework of both classical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, establishes a correlation between variations of enthalpies of evaporation, \\Delta (\\Delta H), which is induced by perturbations, and the equilibrium vapor pressures. The dissolution of a solute, changing the surface shape, and the effect of the external field of adsorbents are considered as the perturbing actions on the liquid phase. The model provides the unified method for studying (1) solutions, (2) membrane separations (3) surface phenomena, and (4) effect of the adsorption field; it leads to the useful relations between \\Delta (\\Delta H), on the one hand, and the osmotic pressures, the Donnan potential, the surface curvature, and the pore structure, on the other hand. The value of \\Delta(\\Delta H) has a clear physical meaning and gives a new insight into our understanding of the apparently different phenomena. The model is applicable if the change between entropies of the comparable gas phases is far more than the difference between entropies of the liquid phases.

Vladimir Kh. Dobruskin

2010-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

194

Bio-based photosynthetic conversion of CO2 and water to ...  

However, the rising cost of petroleum has led to the exploration and development of alternative, biological production systems for fuels and chemicals.

195

Building Bio-based Supply Chains: Theoretical Perspectives on Innovative Contract Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benefits of Agricultural Bioenergy , 35 B IOMASS & BFutures Market to Support Bioenergy Development, IEEE Energytechnical Barrier to Agro-Bioenergy Industry Development, 32

Endres, Jody M.; Endres, A. Bryan; Stoller, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Conversion of rice straw to bio-based chemicals: an integrated process using Lactobacillus brevis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND PROCESS ENGINEERING Conversion of rice straw to bio-LB, Bothast RJ (1999) Conversion of corn fiber to ethanol by

Kim, Jae-Han; Block, David E.; Shoemaker, Sharon P.; Mills, David A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Proceedings of the 8th Pacific Rim Bio-Based Composites Symposium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Bing Zhang2 , Linbing Wang2 , and Guangping Han3 1 School of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana and Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China, E-mail: guangpingh@hotmail.com ABSTRACT

198

Assessing the Economic Viability of Bio-based Products for Missouri Value-added Crop Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While research and development on biobased products has continued strong over the years, parallel attention on the economics and management of such product innovation has been lacking. With the financial support of the Department of Energy, the Economics and Management of Agrobiotechnology Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia has launched a pilot graduate education program that seeks to fill the gap. Within this context, a multi-disciplinary research and teaching program has been structured with an emphasis on new product and innovation economics and management. More specifically, this pilot graduate education program has the following major objectives: (1) To provide students with a strong background in innovation economics, management, and strategy. (2) To diversify the students academic background with coursework in science and technology. (3) To familiarize the student with biobased policy initiatives through interaction with state and national level organizations and policymakers. (4) To facilitate active collaboration with industry involved in the development and production of biobased products. The pilot education program seeks to develop human capital and research output. Although the research is, initially, focused on issues related to the State of Missouri, the results are expected to have national implications for the economy, producers, consumers and environment.

Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

199

Initial Assessment of U.S. Refineries for Purposes of Potential Bio-Based Oil Insertions  

SciTech Connect

This study examines how existing U.S. refining infrastructure matches in geography and processing capability with the needs projected from anticipated biofuels production. Key findings include: ? a potential shortfall in both overall hydrotreating capacity and hydrogen production capacity in refineries to manage the conversion of certain bio-derived feedstocks having high oxygen contents; ? a regional concentration of anticipated biofuel resources, placing added stress in particular refining regions (e.g. the Gulf Coast); ? uncertainties surrounding the impact of bio-derived fuel intermediates on the refiner’s ability to meet product performance and product quantity demands, and the need for better and more comprehensive chemical composition information; ? the need for considerably more data and experience on the behavior of projected biofuels feedstocks in refining processes (e.g. impacts on process performance and reliability); ? and the need to examine the optimum capital investment locations for additional processing equipment. For example, whether it is better to further refine biofuels at the new production sites, in centralized biofuel "depots", or whether the existing refining facilities should be expanded to better handle a more 'raw' biofuel.

Freeman, Charles J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburg, Corinne; Shinn, John

2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

200

Chemical Kinetic Simulation of the Combustion of Bio-based Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Due to environmental and economic issues, there has been an increased interest in the use of alternative fuels. However, before widespread use of biofuels is feasible, the compatibility of these fuels with specific engines needs to be examined. More accurate models of the chemical combustion of alternative fuels in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are necessary, and this project evaluates the performance of emissions models and uses the information gathered to study the chemical kinetics involved. The computer simulations for each alternative fuel were executed using the Chemkin chemical kinetics program, and results from the runs were compared with data gathered from an actual engine that was run under similar conditions. A new heat transfer mechanism was added to the existing model's subroutine, and simulations were then conducted using the heat transfer mechanism. Results from the simulation proved to be accurate when compared with the data taken from the actual engine. The addition of heat transfer produced more realistic temperature and pressure data for biodiesel when biodiesel's combustion was simulated in an HCCI engine. The addition of the heat transfer mechanism essentially lowered the peak pressures and peak temperatures during combustion of all fuels simulated in this project.

Ashen, Ms. Refuyat [Oak Ridge High School; Cushman, Ms. Katherine C. [Oak Ridge High School

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Bio-based fuels and chemicals: the end of the beginning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Description This research enabled Solazyme's commercial oil biomanufacturing process to use heterotrophic, cellulosic feedstocks. By the end of this research, Solazyme: · Determined the growth parameters to market. Solazyme's program of research under this Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) grant builds

Iglesia, Enrique

202

Production of bio-based materials using photobioreactors with binary cultures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method, device and system for producing preselected products, (either finished products or preselected intermediary products) from biobased precursors or CO.sub.2 and/or bicarbonate. The principal features of the present invention include a method wherein a binary culture is incubated with a biobased precursor in a closed system to transform at least a portion of the biobased precursor to a preselected product. The present invention provides a method of cultivation that does not need sparging of a closed bioreactor to remove or add a gaseous byproduct or nutrient from a liquid medium. This improvement leads to significant savings in energy consumption and allows for the design of photobioreactors of any desired shape. The present invention also allows for the use of a variety of types of waste materials to be used as the organic starting material.

Beliaev, Alex S; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Hill, Eric A; Fredrickson, Jim K

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

203

Building Bio-based Supply Chains: Theoretical Perspectives on Innovative Contract Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abengoa Advances Cellulosic Biofuel , 89 C HEMICAL & E NG ’et al. , Corn Stover as a Biofuel Feedstock in Iowa’s Bio-Potential of Switchgrass-for-biofuel Systems , 30 B IOMASS &

Endres, Jody M.; Endres, A. Bryan; Stoller, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Building Bio-based Supply Chains: Theoretical Perspectives on Innovative Contract Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemicals), farming and harvesting practices (segregations or isolation measures, equipment cleaning, monitoring for invasive tendencies), post-harvest disposition (biofuel conversion),

Endres, Jody M.; Endres, A. Bryan; Stoller, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Building Bio-based Supply Chains: Theoretical Perspectives on Innovative Contract Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

supply chain for renewable energy production, this frameworkof biomass production for renewable energy products—mayenergy production, primarily for co- firing electricity generation facilities. 1 State renewable

Endres, Jody M.; Endres, A. Bryan; Stoller, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Bio-based Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids - Energy Innovation Portal  

Typically 50-80% lower corrosivity towards steel, various aerospace alloys, cadmium-coated parts and aircraft brakes; ... Applications and Industries.

207

Building Bio-based Supply Chains: Theoretical Perspectives on Innovative Contract Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

price need not match the biomass price, but merely havecommodities. For example, the price of biomass may fluctuatecontract ties the price of biomass to the substitute 227.

Endres, Jody M.; Endres, A. Bryan; Stoller, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Building Bio-based Supply Chains: Theoretical Perspectives on Innovative Contract Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ultimately profitable, biomass supply chain. In the future,al. , Contracting for Biomass: Supply Chain Strategies forobservations of the biomass supply chain and recommendations

Endres, Jody M.; Endres, A. Bryan; Stoller, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Mainstreaming straw as a construction material : understanding the future of bio-based architectural materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a current trend in design and construction towards the use of distinct prefabricated components in the production of buildings. There is also a growing awareness by architects and builders of the environmental ...

Carbone, Christopher M. (Christopher Martin), 1975-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Building Bio-based Supply Chains: Theoretical Perspectives on Innovative Contract Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production, primarily for co- firing electricity generationseeks a biomass supply for co-firing a power plant to comply

Endres, Jody M.; Endres, A. Bryan; Stoller, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Climatic Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has been proposed as a key component in technological portfolios for managing anthropogenic climate change, since it may provide a faster and cheaper route to significant reductions in atmospheric CO2 concentrations than abating CO2 production. However, CO2 sequestration is not a perfect substitute for CO2 abatement because CO2 may leak back into the atmosphere (thus imposing future climate change impacts) and because CO2 sequestration requires energy (thus producing more CO2 and depleting fossil fuel resources earlier). Here we use analytical and numerical models to assess the economic efficiency of CO2 sequestration and analyze the optimal timing and extent of CO2 sequestration. The economic efficiency factor of CO2 sequestration can be expressed as the ratio of the marginal net benefits of sequestering CO2 and avoiding CO2 emissions. We derive an analytical solution for this efficiency factor for a simplified case in which we account for CO2 leakage, discounting, the additional fossil fuel requirement of CO2 sequestration, and the growth rate of carbon taxes. In this analytical model, the economic efficiency of CO2 sequestration decreases as the CO2 tax growth rate, leakage rates and energy requirements for CO2 sequestration increase.

Klaus Keller; David Mcinerney; David F. Bradford

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Shaping the Phase of a Single Photon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While the phase of a coherent light field can be precisely known, the phase of the individual photons that create this field, considered individually, cannot. Phase changes within single-photon wave packets, however, have observable effects. In fact, actively controlling the phase of individual photons has been identified as a powerful resource for quantum communication protocols. Here we demonstrate the arbitrary phase control of a single photon. The phase modulation is applied without affecting the photon's amplitude profile and is verified via a two-photon quantum interference measurement, which can result in the fermionic spatial behaviour of photon pairs. Combined with previously demonstrated control of a single photon's amplitude, frequency, and polarisation, the fully deterministic phase shaping presented here allows for the complete control of single-photon wave packets.

H. P. Specht; J. Bochmann; M. Muecke; B. Weber; E. Figueroa; D. L. Moehring; G. Rempe

2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

213

Causes of Robust Seasonal Land Precipitation Changes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historical simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) archive are used to calculate the zonal mean change in seasonal land precipitation for the second half of the twentieth century in response to a range of ...

Debbie Polson; Gabriele C. Hegerl; Xuebin Zhang; Timothy J. Osborn

214

Changing climate  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews a book written by a committee of the National Research Council. The book discussed the Greenhouse Effect which is a warming of the earth's atmosphere caused by the doubling of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The excess carbon dioxide is pollution derived from the burning of fossil fuels. The report suggested that the warming of the atmosphere would cause thawing of the polar regions which in turn would cause a rise in sea levels and flooding of the coastal lowlands. In addition to the flooding, the report predicted climate changes that would effect the productivity of croplands in the west. The authors of the report stressed that there was no way to avoid this warming of the earth. They suggested that people should start preparing for the inevitable.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Metastable Phase Transformations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 8, 2012 ... The omega phase is commonly observed in many commercial beta or near-beta titanium alloys on quenching from single beta phase field.

216

Physicochemical Perturbations of Phase Equilibriums  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The alternative approach to the displacement of gas/liquid equilibrium is developed on the basis of the Clapeyron equation. The phase transition in the system with well-established properties is taken as a reference process to search for the parameters of phase transition in the perturbed equilibrium system. The main equation, derived in the framework of both classical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, establishes a correlation between variations of enthalpies of evaporation, \\Delta (\\Delta H), which is induced by perturbations, and the equilibrium vapor pressures. The dissolution of a solute, changing the surface shape, and the effect of the external field of adsorbents are considered as the perturbing actions on the liquid phase. The model provides the unified method for studying (1) solutions, (2) membrane separations (3) surface phenomena, and (4) effect of the adsorption field; it leads to the useful relations between \\Delta (\\Delta H), on the one hand, and the osmotic pressures, the Donnan poten...

Dobruskin, Vladimir Kh

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

A Bayesian Approach to Statistical Inference about Climate Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Bayesian approach to statistical inference about climate change based on the two-phase regression model is presented. This approach is useful when nonobservational information is available about possible climate change. This information may ...

Andrew R. Solow

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...Alloy Phase Diagrams and Microstructure, Metals Handbook Desk Edition, ASM International, 1998, p. 95â??114...

219

PHASE TRANSITIONS, CRITICAL PHENOMENA AND EXACTLY SOLVABLE LATTICE MODELS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a pond change phase from a liquid state to solid ice. Lastly, if a horseshoe magnet is heated T100 C L G Figure 1. Schematic phase diagram of water showing the solid ice, liquid and gasPHASE TRANSITIONS, CRITICAL PHENOMENA AND EXACTLY SOLVABLE LATTICE MODELS Paul A. Pearce1

Pearce, Paul A.

220

Onyx : a phase-change memory storage array  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3.1.3 P8P Voltage and Power Requirements . . . . . . 3.2devices, the higher voltage requirement does not appear towill appear. P8P Voltage and Power Requirements Each P8P PCM

Akel, Ameen Daniel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

order-of-magnitude increase in heat capacity, and for pureenthalpy and specific heat capacity as a hyperbolic functionand, as the specific heat capacity is the first derivative

Feustel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the shortcomings of alternative cooling sources, or to avoidthe shortcomings of alternative cooling sources, or to avoidC . Blumstein; "Alternatives to Compressor Cooling in

Feustel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Metal Foams Infiltrated Commercial Phase Change Material for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The metal foam and PCM is assumed to be in thermal equilibrium. When the energy ... High Efficiency Materials for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells · Improvement of ...

224

Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

USA ABSTRACT Cooling of residential California buildings contributes significantly to electrical consumption and peak power demand

Feustel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Nanowires of Phase Change Materials for Memory Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geometry Dependence of the Strain-driven Self-rolling of Semiconductor Nanotubes · Gold Nano-Engineered Mercury Sensor for Alumina Refineries.

226

Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage and Recovery in a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Storage III: Materials, Systems and Applications Symposium ... storage (LHTES) devices, particularly for solar energy storage applications.

227

Thermophysical properties and behavioral characteristics of phase-change materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary and near-term objective of the project is to compile a handbook of compounds and mixtures that melt in the range of 90 to 250/sup 0/C and which are suitable for isothermal heat storage. Organic compounds have been screened according to bulk price, thermal stability, and safety. Compounds were selected for further consideration if they cost less than $1.10/kg and if encyclopedia articles or handbooks indicated that they were reasonably stable chemically and were not toxic or otherwise hazardous. Of seven compounds thus selected, four (urea, phthalimide, adipic acid, phthalic anhydride) have been examined by DSC and other methods. The differential scanning calorimeter was used with two fairly well-characterized PCM's to test its applicability for rapidly evaluating thermal decomposition and supercooling. With Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ . 10H/sub 2/O, DSC data indicated (a) decrease in heat of transition with thermal cycling, and (b) considerable supercooling; with 3 to 6 percent borax added, supercooling was greatly lessened but not entirely eliminated. Measurements with paraffin wax showed that this material does not supercool nor does it degrade in thermal performance with cycling. The DSC results with these two materials confirmed (and extended) thermal performance characteristics obtained by other means. However, studies of supercooling in urea and in phthalimide suggested that DSC techniques may magnify the extent of supercooling at elevated temperatures.

Cantor, S

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

HEAT TRANSFER IN POROUS MEDIA WITH FLUID PHASE CHANGES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

percent compared with heat conduction alone. likely to occurThus, in addition to heat conduction, a large amount ofFourier's law for heat conduction, and the mass balance and

Su, Ho-Jeen.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Phase Changes in Bulk Material II and Surface Degradation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In particular, the commonly observed parabolic growth at the thick film stage is obtained without any a priori assumption, which is compared to the classical ...

230

Off-peak cooling using phase change material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electric utilities in the United States are faced with continued rapid growth in electrical demand. The traditional response to growth in demand has been the expansion of generating capacity. However, economic, ...

Benton, Charles Crisp

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Optimization of Phase Change Heat Transfer in Biporous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aspectcs of Boiling Heat Transfer”. PhD Thesis dissertation,Celled Foams”. Numerical Heat Transfer, Vol. 54, issue 1,Dimensional Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer”. Numerical Heat

Reilly, Sean

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Phase Change Materials – An Overview - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stellite Coatings on Hot Work Tool Steels for Tooling Applications in Semi-Solid Processing of Steels · Surface Modification of Nanostructured Materials for ...

233

Optimization of Phase Change Heat Transfer in Biporous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transfer analysis of a loop heat pipe with biporous wicks”.Planes”. Frontiers in Heat Pipes Journal 1, 013001 (2010).transfer model of a loop heat pipe with a bidisperse wick

Reilly, Sean

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Optimization of Phase Change Heat Transfer in Biporous Media.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As the heat transfer demands placed on small electronics devices increase, the demand for efficient evaporators for heat pipes and spreaders will increase in kind.… (more)

Reilly, Sean

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

HEAT TRANSFER IN POROUS MEDIA WITH FLUID PHASE CHANGES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cotter, T. P. : "Theory of Heat Pipe," Report No. LA-3246-L. : "Two Component Heat Pipes, It Propress in Astronauticsthe successful. The 'heat pipe ph periments were quite

Su, Ho-Jeen.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Optimized Structures for Low-Profile Phase Change Thermal Spreaders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

F. , 1998, “Micro Heat Pipes,” Microscale Energy Transport,M, 2011, “Multi-Artery Heat Pipe Spreader: Lateral LiquidStudy of a Flat Plate Heat Pipe by Means of Confocal

Sharratt, Stephen A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Irradiation Induced Phase Change and Microstructures in X-750 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A New Model for Predicting the Oxidation/Gasification of Nuclear Graphite .... Strengthened Steels via Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering.

238

Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shielded by means of a radiant barrier. The floor is made ofVented, shielded by radiant barrier Wallboard: Conventional

Feustel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Phase-change thermal energy storage: Final subcontract report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research and development described in this document was conducted within the US Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Technology Program. The goal of this program is to advance the engineering and scientific understanding of solar thermal technology and to establish the technology base from which private industry can develop solar thermal power production options for introduction into the competitive energy market. Solar thermal technology concentrates the solar flux using tracking mirrors or lenses onto a receiver where the solar energy is absorbed as heat and converted into electricity or incorporated into products as process heat. The two primary solar thermal technologies, central receivers and distributed receivers, employ various point and line-focus optics to concentrate sunlight. Current central receiver systems use fields of heliostats (two-axes tracking mirrors) to focus the sun's radiant energy onto a single, tower-mounted receiver. Point focus concentrators up to 17 meters in diameter track the sun in two axes and use parabolic dish mirrors or Fresnel lenses to focus radiant energy onto a receiver. Troughs and bowls are line-focus tracking reflectors that concentrate sunlight onto receiver tubes along their focal lines. Concentrating collector modules can be used alone or in a multimodule system. The concentrated radiant energy absorbed by the solar thermal receiver is transported to the conversion process by a circulating working fluid. Receiver temperatures range from 100{degree}C in low-temperature troughs to over 1500{degree}C in dish and central receiver systems. 12 refs., 119 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Lab announces security changes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lab announces security changes Lab announces security changes The Laboratory is implementing several changes to its security procedures as the result of a recent security...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Locality phase prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As computer memory hierarchy becomes adaptive, its performance increasingly depends on forecasting the dynamic program locality. This paper presents a method that predicts the locality phases of a program by a combination of locality profiling and run-time ... Keywords: dynamic optimization, locality analysis and optimization, phase hierarchy, program phase analysis and prediction, reconfigurable architecture

Xipeng Shen; Yutao Zhong; Chen Ding

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...of two-phase fields meet also is limited by thermodynamics. That is, the angle must be such that the extension of each beyond the point of intersection projects into a two-phase field, rather than a one-phase

243

change_address_111609  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CHANGE OF ADDRESS and EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION CHANGE OF ADDRESS and EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION TO: HUMAN RESOURCES DATE: Z# Social Security # Print First Name Print Middle Name or Initial Print Last Name (Currently in Payroll System) Complete appropriate changes: NAME CHANGE: Print Name Change to ADDRESS CHANGE: Mailing Address City State Zip

244

Changing Faces, Changing Government | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Changing Faces, Changing Government Changing Faces, Changing Government Changing Faces, Changing Government May 24, 2012 - 3:24pm Addthis Changing Faces, Changing Government What are the key facts? The Energy Department incorporated metrics into funding programs to track minority participation; conducted robust outreach to business associations, utilizing a corporate enterprise system to capture and track small business awards to AAPI-owned businesses; incorporated AAPI businesses into its Small Business Advisory Group; and leveraged its Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization to target areas of high Asian American populations where there are DOE offices and facilities. Editor's Note: This blog was originally posted by the White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, by their Deputy

245

Connecting Changing Ocean Circulation with Changing Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of changing ocean currents on climate change is evaluated by comparing an earth system model’s response to increased CO2 with and without an ocean circulation response. Inhibiting the ocean circulation response, by specifying a ...

Michael Winton; Stephen M. Griffies; Bonita L. Samuels; Jorge L. Sarmiento; Thomas L. Frölicher

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Combined Grinding and Drying of Biomass in One Operation Phase I  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

First American Scientific Corporation (FASC) has developed a unique and innovative grinder/dryer called KDS Micronex. The KS (Kinetic Disintegration System) combines two operations of grinding and drying into a single operation which reduces dependence on external heat input. The machine captures the heat of comminution and combines it will centrifugal forces to expedite moisture extraction from wet biomass. Because it uses mechanical forces rather than providing direct heat to perform the drying operation, it is a simpler machine and uses less energy than conventional grinding and drying operations which occur as two separate steps. The entire compact unit can be transported on a flatbed trailer to the site where biomass is available. Hence, the KDS Micronex is a technology that enables inexpensive pretreatment of waste materials and biomass. A well prepared biomass can be used as feed, fuel or fertilizer instead of being discarded. Electricity and chemical feedstock produced from such biomass would displace the use of fossil fuels and no net greenhouse gas emissions would result from such bio-based operations. Organic fertilizers resulting from the KS Micronex grinding/drying process will be pathogen-free unlike raw animal manures. The feasibility tests on KS during Phase I showed that a prototype machine can be developed, field tested and the technology demonstrated for commercial applications. The present KDS machine can remove up to 400 kg/h of water from a wet feed material. Since biomass processors demand a finished product that is only 10% moist and most raw materials like corn stover, bagasse, layer manure, cow dung, and waste wood have moisture contents of the order of 50%, this water removal rate translates to a production rate of roughly half a ton per hour. this is too small for most processors who are unwilling to acquire multiple machines because of the added complexity to the feed and product removal systems. The economics suffer due to small production rates, because the labor costs are a much larger fraction of the production cost. The goal for further research and development work is to scale up the KDS technology incorporating findings from Phase I into a machine that has superior performance characteristics.

Sokhansanj, S.

2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

247

NGNP PHASE I REVIEW  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

REVIEW REVIEW NEAC REACTOR TECHNOLOGY SUBCOMMITTEE FINAL REPORT JUNE 15, 2011 EPACT 2005 REQUIREMENTS * FIRST PROJECT PHASE REVIEW-On a determination by the Secretary that the appropriate activities under the first project phase under subsection (b)(1) are nearly complete, the Secretary shall request the NERAC to conduct a comprehensive review of the Project and to report to the Secretary the recommendation of the NERAC concerning whether the Project is ready to proceed to the second project phase under subsection (b)(2) NGNP PROJECT PHASES (1) FIRST PHASE.-A first project phase shall be conducted to- (A) select and validate the appropriate technology under subsection (a)(1); (B) carry out enabling research, development, and demonstration activities on technologies and components under

248

Gymnastics in Phase Space  

SciTech Connect

As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Crystal phase identification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for determining the crystalline phase and crystalline characteristics of a sample. This invention provides a method and apparatus for unambiguously identifying and determining the crystalline phase and crystalline characteristics of a sample by using an electron beam generator, such as a scanning electron microscope, to obtain a backscattered electron Kikuchi pattern of a sample, and extracting crystallographic and composition data that is matched to database information to provide a quick and automatic method to identify crystalline phases.

Michael, Joseph R. (Albuquerque, NM); Goehner, Raymond P. (Albuquerque, NM); Schlienger, Max E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

A new phase in palladium hydride technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two plateaux are observed in both the absorption and desorption isotherms of palladium hydride. For the absorption isotherm, a change in plateau pressure is observed at a hydrogen-to-metal (H/M) ratio of about 0.35 for all temperatures studied. For the desorption isotherm, the change in plateau pressure appears to be a function of temperature, ranging from an H/M ratio of 0.18 at 80{degrees}C to 0.3 at 140{degrees}C. These data are interpreted as being experimentally observed boundaries to an equilibrium phase line located in the miscibility gap of the palladium/hydrogen phase diagram. This new phase does not appear to be a stoichiometric compounds, but rather its composition seems to vary with temperature. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Walters, R.T.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

A new phase in palladium hydride technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two plateaux are observed in both the absorption and desorption isotherms of palladium hydride. For the absorption isotherm, a change in plateau pressure is observed at a hydrogen-to-metal (H/M) ratio of about 0.35 for all temperatures studied. For the desorption isotherm, the change in plateau pressure appears to be a function of temperature, ranging from an H/M ratio of 0.18 at 80{degrees}C to 0.3 at 140{degrees}C. These data are interpreted as being experimentally observed boundaries to an equilibrium phase line located in the miscibility gap of the palladium/hydrogen phase diagram. This new phase does not appear to be a stoichiometric compounds, but rather its composition seems to vary with temperature. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Walters, R.T.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Phase Transition - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dec 24, 2003 ... Another example is the order-disorder phases in binary alloy such as brass. The copper and zinc atoms occupy alternate sites in a regular ...

253

NGNP PHASE I REVIEW  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

REVIEW NEAC REACTOR TECHNOLOGY SUBCOMMITTEE CURRENT STATUS DECEMBER 9, 2010 EPACT 2005 REQUIREMENTS * FIRST PROJECT PHASE REVIEW-On a determination by the Secretary that the...

254

ARM - Measurement - Cloud phase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

property that captures the state o f the hydrometeors within a cloud (liquid, ice, or mixed-phase). This is distinct from cloud type that involves property descriptors...

255

Phase Stability II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and Mo-Pu-U are presented with a discussion on phase identification versus ... the formulation of more robust principles of kinetics and path selection.

256

Biology and Phase Transition - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dec 24, 2003 ... next · up · previous. Next: Kaufman and percolation Up: Phase Transition Models in Previous: Phase Transition Models in ...

257

Detecting Climate Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The likelihood ratio of the data for a hypothesis of some change, relative to the hypothesis of no change, is a suitable statistical measure for the detection of climate change. Likelihood ratios calculated on the basis of Angell and Korshover's (...

Edward S. Epstein

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Superconducting phase qubits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental progress is reviewed for superconducting phase qubit research at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The phase qubit has a potential advantage of scalability, based on the low impedance of the device and the ability to microfabricate ... Keywords: 03.65.Yz, 03.67.Lx, 85.25.Cp, Decoherence, Quantum computation, Qubits, Superconductivity

John M. Martinis

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

UPVG phase 2 report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Utility PhotoVoltaic Group (UPVG), supported by member dues and a grant from the US Department of Energy, has as its mission the acceleration of the use of cost-effective small-scale and emerging large-scale applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of electric utilities and their customers. Formed in October, 1992, with the support of the American Public Power Association, Edison Electric Institute, and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, the UPVG currently has 90 members from all sectors of the electric utility industry. The UPVG`s efforts as conceived were divided into four phases: Phase 0--program plan; Phase 1--organization and strategy development; Phase 2--creating market assurance; and Phase 3--higher volume purchases. The Phase 0 effort developed the program plan and was completed early in 1993. The Phase 1 goal was to develop the necessary background information and analysis to lead to a decision as to which strategies could be undertaken by utilities to promote greater understanding of PV markets and achieve increased volumes of PV purchases. This report provides the details of the UPVG`s Phase 2 efforts to initiate TEAM-UP, its multiyear, 50-MW hardware initiative.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

The Residential Sector: Changing Markets, Changing Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residential customers in the U.S. are confronted with markets for home services that continue to change rapidly. Not only are markets for traditional "utilities" such as telecommunications services, energy services, and entertainment services transitioning to competitive choice scenarios, but the technology which customers use in each of these arenas is changing rapidly as well. This report outlines the way that customers are responding to these changing market dynamics, in terms of the way they think ab...

1999-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor phase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

phase phase ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor phase Hydrometeor phase such as liquid ice or mixed phase Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Value-Added Products VISST : Minnis Cloud Products Using Visst Algorithm (Process) VISSTPX04G08V2MINNIS : VISST-derived pixel-level products from satellite GOES8, version 2 VISSTPX04G08V3MINNIS : VISST-derived pixel-level products from satellite GOES8, version 3

262

Arc Flash Phase II Work Practices Survey Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Arc Flash Phase II Work Practices Survey was conducted as part of an EPRI project aimed at helping utilities understand and prepare for changing National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) and Occupational Safety and Safety Administration (OSHA) arc flash regulations. These changes can have significant implications for utility work practices, protective schema, and personal protection. The results of this survey are summarized in this report. The Phase II Survey is the second of two surveys EPRI has condu...

2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

263

Geometric phase in optics and angular momentum of light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physical mechanism for the geometric phase in terms of angular momentum exchange is elucidated. It is argued that the geometric phase arising out of the cyclic changes in the tranverse mode space of the Gaussian light beams is a manifestation of the cycles in the momentum space of the light. Nonconservation of angular momentum in the spontaneous parametric down-conversion for the classical light beams is proposed to be related with the geometric phase.

S C Tiwari

2004-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

264

Causes of Robust Seasonal Land Precipitation Changes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historical simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archive are used to calculate the zonal-mean change in seasonal land precipitation for the second half of the twentieth century in response to a range of ...

Debbie Polson; Gabriele C. Hegerl; Xuebin Zhang; Timothy J. Osborn

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Economics of Phased Gasification-Combined-Cycle Plants: Utility Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phased gasification-combined-cycle power plants can help utilities match load growth and respond to changes in demand and fuel prices. After evaluating the economic merits of phased additions, seven utilities considered the technology a viable option for electricity generation in the 1990s.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Quick-change filter cartridge  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.

Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Ortiz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking phases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking phases in the phase diagram of the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, concentrating on phases with one-dimensional modulations. It is found that the first-order transition line in the phase diagram of homogeneous phases gets completely covered by an inhomogeneous phase which is bordered by second-order transition lines. The inhomogeneous phase turns out to be remarkably stable when vector interactions are included.

Buballa, M., E-mail: michael.buballa@physik.tu-darmstadt.de; Carignano, S., E-mail: carignano@crunch.ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Nickel, D., E-mail: mdjn@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Institute for Nuclear Theory (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Phase transformation of Mg-Fe alloys  

SciTech Connect

An Mg-Fe alloy system prepared through mechanical alloying (MA) was structurally analyzed. MA can produce single-phase bcc alloys using Mg concentrations up to about 15 mol %. Use of conventional average structure analysis and x-ray pair-distribution function method enabled the long-range and short-range order structures of the Mg-Fe alloys to be bridged. The substituted Mg atoms were randomly arranged in the low-Mg composition but started to have an order structure. The partially ordered Mg-Fe alloy undergoes an austenitic (cubic) to martensitic (orthorhombic) phase change, as increasing Mg composition.

Yoneda, Yasuhiro [Synchrotron Radiation Research Unit, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Abe, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Takeshi [Department of Material development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Uchida, Hirohisa [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate and Undergraduate Schools of Engineering, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Faster Phase Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop several algorithms for performing quantum phase estimation based on basic measurements and classical post-processing. We present a pedagogical review of quantum phase estimation and simulate the algorithm to numerically determine its scaling in circuit depth and width. We show that the use of purely random measurements requires a number of measurements that is optimal up to constant factors, albeit at the cost of exponential classical post-processing; the method can also be used to improve classical signal processing. We then develop a quantum algorithm for phase estimation that yields an asymptotic improvement in runtime, coming within a factor of log* of the minimum number of measurements required while still requiring only minimal classical post-processing. The corresponding quantum circuit requires asymptotically lower depth and width (number of qubits) than quantum phase estimation.

Krysta M. Svore; Matthew B. Hastings; Michael Freedman

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

270

Selecting Ensemble Members to Provide Regional Climate Change Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate model ensembles, such as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 3 (CMIP3), are used to characterize broadscale ranges of projected regional climate change and their impacts. The 17-member Hadley Centre perturbed physics GCM ...

Carol F. McSweeney; Richard G. Jones; Ben B. B. Booth

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Overpotential-Dependent Phase Transformation Pathways  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An objective in battery development for higher storage energy density is the design of compounds that can accommodate maximum changes in ion concentration over useful electrochemical windows. Not surprisingly, many storage compounds undergo phase transitions in situ, including production of metastable phases. Unique to this environment is the frequent application of electrical over- and underpotentials, which are the electrical analogs to undercooling and superheating. Surprisingly, overpotential effects on phase stability and transformation mechanisms have not been studied in detail. Here we use synchrotron X-ray diffraction performed in situ during potentiostatic and galvanostatic cycling, combined with phase-field modeling, to reveal a remarkable dependence of phase transition pathway on overpotential in the model olivine Li{sub 1-x}FePO{sub 4}. For a sample of particle size {approx}113 nm, at both low (e.g., 75 mV) overpotentials a crystal-to-crystal olivine transformation dominates, whereas at intermediate overpotentials a crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition is preferred. As particle sizes decrease to the nanoscale, amorphization is further emphasized. Implications for battery use and design are considered.

Y Kao; M Tang; N Meethong; J Bai; W Carter; Y Chiang

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

272

Gyroid Phase in Nuclear Pasta  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear matter is considered to be inhomogeneous at subnuclear densities that are realized in supernova cores and neutron star crusts, and the structures of nuclear matter change from spheres to cylinders, slabs, cylindrical holes and spherical holes as the density increases. In this letter, we discuss other possible structures, that is, gyroid and double-diamond morphologies, which are periodic bicontinuous structures discovered in a block copolymer. Utilizing the compressible liquid drop model, we evaluate their surface and Coulomb energies and show that there is a chance of gyroid appearance near the transition point from a cylinder to a slab. This interesting analogy between nuclear and polymer systems is not merely qualitative. The volume fraction at the phase transition is also similar for the two systems. Although the five shapes listed initially have been long thought to be the only major constituents of so-called nuclear pasta at subnuclear densities, our findings imply that this may not be the case and suggest that more detailed studies on nuclear pasta including the gyroid phase are needed.

Ken'ichiro Nakazato; Kazuhiro Oyamatsu; Shoichi Yamada

2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

273

Subject: Changes to the 2001 NCEP Operational MRF/AVN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Sundqvist et al.(1989). The precipitation rate P is parameterized following Zhao and Carr (1997) for ice with respect to water phase or ice phase depending on the temperature. Unlike the operational model, the new changes were in parameterization of cloud material, modification of the radiation heat loss from clouds

274

For Edison Phase 1 users  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

For Edison Phase 1 users For Edison Phase 1 users You can run jobs in the same way as you did on the phase 1 system, but keep in mind that the number of cores per node is 24...

275

Change in historic buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Change in historic buildings is inevitable. If these changes are not well-managed, the cityscape will be threatened because a city is composed of buildings. A good city should combine both growth and preservation. Controlling ...

Yin, Chien-Ni

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Another View of Phase Diagrams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 2D phase fraction charts these are lines where the fraction equals one. However another type of diagram can be drawn using lines where the phase fraction ...

277

Software change contracts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Incorrect program changes including regression bugs, incorrect bug-fixes, incorrect feature updates are pervasive in software. These incorrect program changes affect software quality and are difficult to detect/correct. In this paper, we propose the ... Keywords: JML, change contract, regression testing, software evolution

Dawei Qi; Jooyong Yi; Abhik Roychoudhury

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Federal Energy Management Program: Continuous Change Institutional Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Continuous Change Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance

279

GEOPHYSICALRESEARCHLETTERS,VOL. 13, NO. 5, PAGES448-451, MAY1986 PHASE TRANSITIONS AND CONVECTION IN ICY SATELLITES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thermal expansion. Linear stability analyses are carried out for ice layers with a phase change at the midplane. Two exothermic phase transitions (ice I - ice II, ice VI - ice VIII) and two endothermic transitions (ice I - ice III, ice II - ice V) are considered. For the exothermic cases, the phase change can

Bercovici, David

280

Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium--Validation Phase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Geological Sequestration Geological Sequestration Consortium-Validation Phase Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected seven partnerships, through its Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) initiative, to determine the best approaches for capturing and permanently storing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), a greenhouse gas (GHG) which can contribute to global climate change. The RCSPs are made up of state and local agencies, coal companies, oil and gas companies, electric utilities,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

ISDSN Sensor System Phase One Test Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Phase 1 Test Report documents the test activities and results completed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) sensor systems that will be deployed in the meso-scale test bed (MSTB) at Florida International University (FIU), as outlined in the ISDSN-MSTB Test Plan. This report captures the sensor system configuration tested; test parameters, testing procedure, any noted changes from the implementation plan, acquired test data sets, and processed results.

Gail Heath

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Iterative phase estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give an iterative algorithm for phase estimation of a parameter theta, which is within a logarithmic factor of the Heisenberg limit. Unlike other methods, we do not need any entanglement or an extra rotation gate which can perform arbitrary rotations with almost perfect accuracy: only a single copy of the unitary channel and basic measurements are needed. Simulations show that the algorithm is successful. We also look at iterative phase estimation when depolarizing noise is present. It is seen that the algorithm is still successful provided the number of iterative stages is below a certain threshold.

Caleb J O'Loan

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

283

Striped phases from holography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss new types of second order phase transitions in holography by constructing striped black holes in D=4 with $AdS_{4}$ asymptotics. In the context of $AdS/CFT$, they provide the gravity duals to field theory phases in which translational symmetry is spontaneously broken due to the formation of current density waves. These black holes are associated to three dimensional CFTs at finite temperature and deformed by a uniform chemical potential. We numerically solve a non-linear system of PDEs in order to construct the black hole geometries and extract some of their thermodynamic properties.

Aristomenis Donos

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

284

Linear phase compressive filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

A phase-space model for Pleistocene ice volume  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a phase-space model that simulates Pleistocene ice volume changes based on Earth's orbital parameters. Terminations in the model are triggered by a combination of ice volume and orbital forcing and agree well with age estimates for Late Pleistocene terminations. The average phase at which model terminations begin is approximately 90 +/- 90 degrees before the maxima in all three orbital cycles. The large variability in phase is likely caused by interactions between the three cycles and ice volume. Unlike previous ice volume models, this model produces an orbitally driven increase in 100-kyr power during the mid-Pleistocene transition without any change in model parameters. This supports the hypothesis that Pleistocene variations in the 100-kyr power of glacial cycles could be caused, at least in part, by changes in Earth's orbital parameters, such as amplitude modulation of the 100-kyr eccentricity cycle, rather than changes within the climate system.

Imbrie, John Z; Lisiecki, Lorraine E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with climate change practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change. Contents: Foreword; Preface; Summary for policymakers; Technical Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Framing issues; 3. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context; 4. Energy supply; 5. Transport and its infrastructure; 6. Residential and commercial buildings; 7. Industry; 8. Agriculture; 9. Forestry; 10. Waste management; 11. Mitigation from a cross sectoral perspective; 12. Sustainable development and mitigation; 13. Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements. 300 figs., 50 tabs., 3 annexes.

Metz, B.; Davidson, O.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L. (eds.)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

1960-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

288

Examples of Phase Diagrams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...The phase diagram of the lead-tin system ( Fig. 31 ) shows the importance of the low-melting eutectic in this system to the success of lead-tin solders. While solders having tin contents between 18.3 to 61.9%

289

Phase Field Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 6, 2013 ... The anisotropic solid-vapor surface energy for a 2D PFC hexagonal crystal is ... Finally, we examine the dynamic case of step-flow growth of a crystal into ... Thermal and Dispersed-Phase Analysis of Nano Fluid Using CFD-A Hybrid ... gas turbine power generation systems because of its high melting point, ...

290

Phase behavior of DODAB aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

Phase behavior of DODAB aqueous solution, prepared without sonication, was studied by adiabatic scanning calorimetry. Measurements revealed four phase transitions with the temperatures 35.2, 39.6, 44.6, and 52.4 Degree-Sign C at heating and one transition at the temperature 40.4 Degree-Sign C at cooling. The first three transitions at heating occur in unilamellar vesicles. The first and third transitions correspond to the subgel-gel and gelliquid phase transitions, corresponding enthalpy jumps are equal to 33 and 49 kJ/mol. The second transition appears after some aging and is similar to gel-ripple phase transition in a DPPC solution, with the enthalpy jump under the transition exceeding 7.4 kJ/mol. The transition occurs in unilamellar vesicles. The transition at the temperature 52.4 Degree-Sign C occurs in another subsystem of the solution, which we believe to be multilamellar vesicles. The enthalpy jump at this transition is equal to 97 kJ/mol, and data analysis suggests that this is a subgel-liquid transition. The phase transition at cooling is the liquid-gel transition in unilamellar vesicles. During the measurements, a slow evolution of the solution occurs, consisting in a change of concentrations of unilamellar and multilamellar vesicles. This transformation mainly occurs at low temperatures.

Voronov, V. P.; Kuryakov, V. N.; Muratov, A. R., E-mail: muratov@ogri.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Oil and Gas Research Institute (Russian Federation)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Thermodynamic phase profiles of optically thin midlatitude clouds and their relation to temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

parameterizations of cloud phase in general circulation models. However, other aircraft campaigns and different in the Arctic. The relationship between ice phase occurrence and temperature only slightly changes between cloud interest, as they occur in a temperature range where cloud phase can either be liquid, ice, or mixed

292

Stephen S. Chang Award  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recognizing scientists or technologists who have made decisive accomplishments in research for the improvement or development of products related to lipids. Stephen S. Chang Award ...

293

Recent Changes to OOF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... direction of the principal stress, ie, the amount of energy that would ... Changed output/stress/statistics/type=invariant to eigenvalues and added a new ...

2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

294

ICC Code Changes May 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Phase I Emergency Recall Operation. ... All other elevators will remain in normal service unless a Phase I emergency recall is manually initiated. ...

2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

295

PETSc: Documentation: Changes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Changes Home Download Features Documentation Manual pages and Users Manual Referencing PETSc Tutorials Installation AMS Changes dev 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0.0 2.3.3 2.3.2 2.3.1 2.3.0...

296

Estimating frequency of change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many online data sources are updated autonomously and independently. In this article, we make the case for estimating the change frequency of data to improve Web crawlers, Web caches and to help data mining. We first identify various scenarios, where ... Keywords: Change frequency estimation, Poisson process

Junghoo Cho; Hector Garcia-Molina

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Characterizing Web Document Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The World Wide Web is growing and changing at an astonishing rate. For the information in the web to be useful, web information systems such as search engines have to keep up with the growth and change of the web. In this paper we study how web documents ...

Lipyeow Lim; Min Wang; Sriram Padmanabhan; Jeffrey Scott Vitter; Ramesh C. Agarwal

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

NETL: Carbon Storage - Regional Partnership Validation Phase (Phase II)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Validation Phase (Phase II) Projects Validation Phase (Phase II) Projects The Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships' (RCSP) Validation Phase focuses on validating the most promising regional opportunities to deploy CCS technologies by building upon the accomplishments of the Characterization Phase. Two different CO2 storage approaches are being pursued in this phase: geologic and terrestrial carbon storage. The Validation Phase includes 20 geologic and 11 terrestrial CO2 storage projects. Efforts are being conducted to: Validate and refine current reservoir simulations for CO2 storage projects. Collect physical data to confirm CO2 storage potential and injectivity estimates. Demonstrate the effectiveness of monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) technologies. Develop guidelines for well completion, operations, and abandonment.

299

Silicon photonics thermal phase shifter with reduced temperature range  

SciTech Connect

Optical devices, phased array systems and methods of phase-shifting an input signal are provided. An optical device includes a microresonator and a waveguide for receiving an input optical signal. The waveguide includes a segment coupled to the microresonator with a coupling coefficient such that the waveguide is overcoupled to the microresonator. The microresonator received the input optical signal via the waveguide and phase-shifts the input optical signal to form an output optical signal. The output optical signal is coupled into the waveguide via the microresonator and transmitted by the waveguide. At an operating point of the optical device, the coupling coefficient is selected to reduce a change in an amplitude of the output optical signal and to increase a change in a phase of the output optical signal, relative to the input optical signal.

Lentine, Anthony L; Kekatpure, Rohan D; DeRose, Christopher; Davids, Paul; Watts, Michael R

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

300

Studies of phase separable soluble polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The technique of phase labeling has the ability to greatly enhance synthetic protocol by simplifying purification and increasing efficiency. Traditional insoluble supports offer efficient and simple recovery of the Â?phase taggedÂ? material but suffer from problems inherent to their heterogeneous nature. A solution to these problems has been to utilize phase separable soluble polymers in the design of Â?smartÂ? responsive systems that offer the option of homogenous reaction conditions with heterogeneous separation conditions. The subject of this dissertation focuses on the application of soluble polymeric phase tags in systems where the miscibility between solid-liquid and liquid-liquid systems is thermally induced. Low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) oligomers were investigated as phase anchors for SCS palladacycle catalysts. The oligomeric PEG chains were sufficient to engender polar phase solubility in a heptane-DMA thermomorphic system. Microwave irradiation of these thermomorphic mixtures of palladium complexes and substrates was a viable scheme to recycle and significantly shorten reaction times for simple Heck reactions of aryl iodides. Soluble polymeric supports possessing a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) were utilized in the sequestration of the S-triazine herbicide, atrazine, from contaminated water samples. The ability of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) to sequester hydrophobic guests like atrazine was examined. A functionalized PNIPAM derivative containing secondary cyclic amines exhibited superior sequestration ability that was credited to the covalent binding of the atrazine. In order to facilitate the design of tailored, thermally responsive, smart polymers, a high throughput temperature gradient microfluidic device was used to obtain LCST data in a fast, accurate manner. The specific ion effects of various alkali metal halide salts on the LCST of PNIPAM were investigated. The high precision in the measurements enabled more subtle effects such as changes in solvent isotope, polymer microstructure, molecular weight, and importance of end group effects on the LCST of poly(N-alkylacrylamide)s to be evaluated.

Furyk, Steven Michael

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Automated Phase Design and Timing Adjustment for Signal Phase Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we describe the design processes of human traffic engineers and the development of an automated system that solves the problem of timing adjustment in signal phase sequence design. i>Signal phase sequencing refers to the sequence of ... Keywords: automated design, case-based reasoning, signal phase design, traffic management

L. Wang; C. C. Hayes; R. R. Penner

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership--Validation Phase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Validation Phase Validation Phase Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected seven partnerships, through its Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) initiative, to determine the best approaches for capturing and permanently storing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), a greenhouse gas (GHG) which can contribute to global climate change. The RCSPs are made up of state and local agencies, coal companies, oil and gas companies, electric utilities,

303

Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership--Development Phase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development Phase Development Phase Background As part of a comprehensive effort to assess options for sustainable energy systems, the U.S. Department of Energy has selected seven regional partnerships, through its Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) initiative, to determine the best approaches for capturing and permanently storing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), a greenhouse gas (GHG) which can contribute to global climate change. The partnerships are

304

Climate Change | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation Climate Change Climate Change Learn about the effects climate change can have on our energy supplies and infrastructure and explore a...

305

Phase 1 -- 2  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 2 Revised 8/7/02 " "Sample Statement of Work - Standard Service Offerings for Contractor-Identified Project" "Task #","Task Title","Work Scope","Deliverable","Agency Requirements" " " "Phase Two - Initial Project Development" "2-1","DO RFP Development - Direct Support","Based upon interviews Agency/site staff and consultation support, FEMP Services will prepare DO RFP for Agency/site. FEMP Services will provide onsite or telecon review of draft DO RFP with agency staff. FEMP Services will prepare 2nd draft DO RFP based on telecon and written agency review comments and recommendations. ","Draft DO RFP Document. On-site review of draft DO RFP.

306

Holographic striped phases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss new types of instabilities of D=4 electrically charged AdS-Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black branes that involve neutral pseudo-scalars. The instabilities spontaneously break translational invariance and are associated with the dual three-dimensional CFTs, at finite temperature and fixed chemical potential with respect to a global abelian symmetry, acquiring striped phases. We show that such instabilities are present for the infinite class of skew-whiffed $AdS_4\\times SE_7$ solutions of D=11 supergravity, albeit at a lower temperature than the known superfluid instabilities.

Aristomenis Donos; Jerome P. Gauntlett

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

307

Composition and Phases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Characteristics of phase constituents in aluminum-rich aluminum alloys...25% Ni Branched polyhedra Al 3 Ti Tetragonal, I4/mmm a = 3.848 c = 8.596 36.5â??37.5% Ti 25% Ti Platelets AlSb Cubic, F43m a = 6.096 81.9% Sb 50% Sb Compact particles Al 6 V Hexagonal, P6 3 /mmc a = 7.718 c = 17.15 23.8% V 14.3% V Dispersed particles Al 11 V Cubic, Im3 a = 14.586 15.1â??15.9% V 8.3% V...

308

Phase 1 --2  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 2 Rev 4-01-05 " "Statement of Work - Standard Service Offerings for Contractor-Identified Project at (insert project site)" "Task #","Task Title","Work Scope","Deliverable","Agency Requirements" " " "Phase Two - Initial Project Development" "2-1","DO RFP Development - Direct Support","Based upon interviews Agency/site staff and consultation support, FEMP Services will prepare DO RFP for Agency/site. FEMP Services will provide onsite or telecon review of draft DO RFP with agency staff. FEMP Services will prepare 2nd draft DO RFP based on telecon and written agency review comments and recommendations. ","Draft DO RFP Document. On-site review of draft DO RFP.

309

Retrieval of Cloud Phase Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Data during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment  

SciTech Connect

Improving climate model predictions over Earth's polar regions requires a comprehensive knowledge of polar cloud microphysics. Over the Arctic, there is minimal contrast between the clouds and background snow surface, making it difficult to detect clouds and retrieve their phase from space. Snow and ice cover, temperature inversions, and the predominance of mixed-phase clouds make it even more difficult to determine cloud phase. Also, since determining cloud phase is the first step toward analyzing cloud optical depth, particle size, and water content, it is vital that the phase be correct in order to obtain accurate microphysical and bulk properties. Changes in these cloud properties will, in turn, affect the Arctic climate since clouds are expected to play a critical role in the sea ice albedo feedback. In this paper, the IR trispectral technique (IRTST) is used as a starting point for a WV and 11-{micro}m brightness temperature (T11) parameterization (WVT11P) of cloud phase using MODIS data. In addition to its ability to detect mixed-phase clouds, the WVT11P also has the capability to identify thin cirrus clouds overlying mixed or liquid phase clouds (multiphase ice). Results from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) MODIS phase model (AMPHM) are compared to the surface-based cloud phase retrievals over the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site and to in-situ data taken from University of North Dakota Citation (CIT) aircraft which flew during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE). It will be shown that the IRTST and WVT11P combined to form the AMPHM can achieve a relative high accuracy of phase discrimination compared to the surface-based retrievals. Since it only uses MODIS WV and IR channels, the AMPHM is robust in the sense that it can be applied to daytime, twilight, and nighttime scenes with no discontinuities in the output phase.

Spangenberg, D.; Minnis, P.; Shupe, M.; Uttal, T.; Poellot, M.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

310

Climate change cripples forests  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality will cause forest and species distributions to change substantially. October 1, 2012 A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the Southwest United States. Photo courtesy A. Park Williams. A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the Southwest United States. Photo courtesy A. Park Williams. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email "There will still be wet winters, but they will more often be followed by warm summers, putting stress on trees and limiting their ability to respond

311

Climate change cripples forests  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate change cripples forests Climate change cripples forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality will cause forest and species distributions to change substantially. October 1, 2012 A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the Southwest United States. Photo courtesy A. Park Williams. A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the Southwest United States. Photo courtesy A. Park Williams. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email "There will still be wet winters, but they will more often be followed by warm summers, putting stress on trees and limiting their ability to respond

312

Climate change cripples forests  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality will cause forest and species distributions to change substantially. October 1, 2012 A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the Southwest United States. Photo courtesy A. Park Williams. A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the Southwest United States. Photo courtesy A. Park Williams. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email "There will still be wet winters, but they will more often be followed by warm summers, putting stress on trees and limiting their ability to respond

313

Global Climate Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

When President Bush announced his Global Climate Change Initiative in February 2002, he committed the United States to a new strategy to cut greenhouse gas emissions over the next...

314

chang-98.pdf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from Models and Collocated AVHRR and ERBE Satellite Observations F.-L. Chang and Z. Li Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada S. A. Ackerman Department of...

315

The changing climate  

SciTech Connect

The earth owes its hospitable climate to the greenhouse effect, but now the effect threatens to intensify, rapidly warming the planet. Rising concentrations of carbon dioxide and other gases are the cause. The danger of warming is serious enough to warrant prompt action. The paper examines data on atmospheric warming and attempts to project effects into the future using atmospheric models. Three kinds of response to the threat are described: technical measures to counteract climatic change; adaptation to the changing climate; and prevention.

Schneider, S.H.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Phase-multiplication holography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This disclosure relates generally to nondestructive testing for identifying structural characteristics of an object by scanned holographic techniques using a known source of radiation, such as electromagnetic or acoustical radiation. It is an object of this invention to provide an apparatus and method for synthetic aperture expansion in holographic imaging applications to construct fringe patterns capable of holographic reproduction where aperture restrictions in nondestructive testing applications would conventionally make such imaging techniques impossible. The apparatus and method result in the production of a sharply defined frontal image of structural characteristics which could not otherwise be imaged because they occur either near the surface of the object or are confined by geometry restricting aperture dimensions available for scanning purposes. The depth of the structural characteristic below the surface of the object can also be determined by the reconstruction parameters which produce the sharpest focus. Lateral resolution is established by simulated reduction in the radiation wavelength and may easily be an order of magnitude less than the electromagnetic wavelength in the material or 2 times the standard depth of penetration. Since the phase multiplication technique is performed on the detected data, the penetration depth available due to the longer wavelength signals applied to the test object remains unchanged. The phase multiplication technique can also be applied to low frequency acoustic holography, resulting in a test which combines excellent penetration of difficult materials with high resolution images.

Collins, H.D.; Prince, J.M.; Davis, T.J.

1982-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

317

Phase 1 -- 4  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4" 4" "Statement of Work - Optional Service Offerings for Contractor-Identified Project" "Task #","Task Title","Work Scope","Deliverable","Agency Requirements" " " "Phase Two - Initial Project Development" "Replace Std Task# 2-1","DO RFP Development - On Site Consultation","FEMP Services will provide technical consultation resources at the Agency's site to assist in the integration of the site's requirements into the DO RFP template.","Oral Comments","Agency staff will draft DO RFP. Provide copies to FEMP Services staff for review." "Phase Three - Negotiations and Award" "Replace Std Task# 3-4","Final Proposal Review - Direct Support","FEMP Services will provide direct technical resources to review final proposal. Review will include assessment of ESPC-unique data such as markups, performance period expenses, and financing interest rates. FEMP Services will assure that price schedules have been filled out correctly. ESCO specified equipment will be evaluated for its appropriateness and installation expense (labor and material). FEMP Services will coordinate and assemble agency and FEMP Services questions and issues for Agency CO to be presented to ESCO for discussions and negotiations. ","Telecon Advice and Written comments and recommendations","Agency will provide FEMP Services staff copies of final proposal with emphasis on selected equipment compatibility with agency performance requirements. Agency shall ensure applicable acquisition team members review final proposal. Agency will generate site questions or issues prior to scheduled telecons with FEMP Services staff. Agency will review questions and issues for ESCO discussions. Agency CO will submit questions and issues to ESCO."

318

GEA Development Phases | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » GEA Development Phases Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home GEA Development Phases The information for this page was taken directly from Geothermal Reporting Terms and Definitions: A Guide to Reporting Resource Development Progress and Results to the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA, November 2010) Gea.jpg The Geothermal Energy Association's (GEA) Geothermal Reporting Terms and Definitions are a guideline for geothermal developers to use when submitting geothermal resource development information to GEA for public dissemination in its annual US Geothermal Power Production and Development

319

Property:Project Phase | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Phase Phase Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Project Phase Property Type Text This is a property of type String. Pages using the property "Project Phase" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) M MHK Projects/40MW Lewis project + Phase 2 + MHK Projects/ADM 3 + Phase ? + MHK Projects/ADM 4 + Phase ? + MHK Projects/ADM 5 + Phase 2 + MHK Projects/AW Energy EMEC + Phase 3 + MHK Projects/AWS II + Phase 1 + MHK Projects/Admirality Inlet Tidal Energy Project + Phase 1 + MHK Projects/Agucadoura + Phase 3 + MHK Projects/Alaska 1 + Phase 0 + MHK Projects/Alaska 13 + Phase ? + MHK Projects/Alaska 17 + Phase 0 + MHK Projects/Alaska 18 + Phase 0 + MHK Projects/Alaska 24 + Phase 0 + MHK Projects/Alaska 25 + Phase 0 + MHK Projects/Alaska 28 + Phase 0 +

320

Phase equilibrium studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A phase equilibrium model has been developed for the SRC-I process, as well as the other coal liquefaction processes. It is applicable to both vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid equilibria; it also provides an approximate but adequate description of aqueous mixtures where the volatile electrolyte components dissociate to form ionic species. This report completes the description of the model presented in an earlier report (Mathias and Stein, 1983a). Comparisons of the model to previously published data on coal-fluid mixtures are presented. Further, a preliminary analysis of new data on SRC-I coal fluids is presented. Finally, the current capabilities and deficiencies of the model are discussed. 25 references, 17 figures, 30 tables.

Mathias, P.M.; Stein, F.P.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Options Study - Phase II  

SciTech Connect

The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to identify any nuclear fuel cycle technology or option that may result in a significant beneficial impact to the issues as compared to the current U.S. approach of once-through use of nuclear fuel in LWRs or similar reactors followed by direct disposal of UNF. This approach was taken because incremental differences may be difficult to clearly identify and justify due to the large uncertainties that can be associated with the specific causes of the issues. Phase II of this Options Study continued the review of nuclear fuel cycle options that was initiated and documented during Phase I, concentrating on reviewing and summarizing the potential of integrated nuclear fuel cycles. However, based on the reviews of previous studies and available data, it was not always possible to clearly determine sufficiently large differences between the various fuel cycle and technology options for some of the issues or evaluation measures, for example, in cases where only incremental differences with respect to the issues might be achieved regardless of the fuel cycle option or technologies being considered, or where differences were insufficient to clearly rise above the uncertainties.

R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Independently variable phase and stroke control for a double acting Stirling engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A phase and stroke control apparatus for the pistons of a Stirling engine includes a ring on the end of each piston rod in which a pair of eccentrics is arranged in series, torque transmitting relationship. The outer eccentric is rotatably mounted in the ring and is rotated by the orbiting ring; the inner eccentric is mounted on an output shaft. The two eccentrics are mounted for rotation together within the ring during normal operation. A device is provided for rotating one eccentric with respect to another to change the effective eccentricity of the pair of eccentrics. A separately controlled phase adjustment is provided to null the phase change introduced by the change in the orientation of the outer eccentric, and also to enable the phase of the pistons to be changed independently of the stroke change.

Berchowitz, David M. (Scotia, NY)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Reduce Climate Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduce Climate Change Reduce Climate Change Highway vehicles release about 1.5 billion metric tons of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere each year-mostly in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2)-contributing to global climate change. Each gallon of gasoline you burn creates 20 pounds of CO2. That's roughly 5 to 9 tons of CO2 each year for a typical vehicle. more... How can a gallon of gasoline create 20 pounds of carbon dioxide? It seems impossible that a gallon of gasoline, which weighs about 6.3 pounds, could produce 20 pounds of carbon dioxide (CO2) when burned. However, most of the weight of the CO2 doesn't come from the gasoline itself, but the oxygen in the air. When gasoline burns, the carbon and hydrogen separate. The hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water (H2O), and carbon combines with oxygen

324

Global Climate Change Links  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Climate Change Links Global Climate Change Links This page provides links to web pages that we at CDIAC feel do a responsible job of presenting information and discussion pertinent to the science behind the global climate change ("global warming") debate. These sites include those on both sides of the debate; some asserting that global warming is a clear and present danger, and others that might be labeled global warming "skeptics." Some of these sites don't take a position per se; they exist to offer the public objective scientific information and results on our present understanding of the climate system. The list is not intended to be comprehensive, by any means. We hope it will be especially helpful for those who may be just beginning their research into global

325

Continuous multi-phase feeding of broiler chickens  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Continuous multi-phase feeding of broiler chickens was evaluated to optimize broiler nutrition and minimize environmental impact related to excess nitrogen in poultry manure. Four experiments were conducted. Experiments 1 and 2 studied effects of continuous multi-phase feeding during a 3-week starting period using battery brooders while experiments 3 and 4 evaluated multi-phase feeding during a traditional 7-week growing period using both battery brooders and floor pens. In the first and second experiments, the nutrient content of the multi-phase diets was changed every 24 hours in comparison to single-phase feeding. Results indicated that during the starter period, continuous multi-phase feeding had no significant influence on feed consumption, daily gain, feed to gain ratio or fecal nitrogen. In the third and fourth experiments, a four phase industry type broiler feeding program was compared to intensive multi-phase feeding programs created by linearly blending three different diets based on typical industry nutrient values and a commercial nutrient modeling computer program (EFG Natal®). In both intensive multi-phase feeding programs, the diets were changed every three days over a 7-week growth period. Broilers in experiment 3 were raised in Petersime battery brooders to primarily access nitrogen balance while birds in experiment 4 were raised in a floor pen on pine shaving litter to resemble commercial broiler production. The results indicated that intensive multi-phase feeding improved body weight gain and feed to gain ratio only in weeks 5 and 6 but not during the overall 7-week period. Nitrogen excretion and nitrogen retention were unaffected by the intensive multi-phase feeding systems. Economic analysis indicated that intensive multi-phase feeding programs could potentially lower feed costs per kilogram of gain. However, the high cost of implementing a continuous multi-phase feeding system may not justify the relatively small gain in lower feed cost per kilogram of gain. In conclusion, continuous multi-phase feeding of broiler chickens using corn-soy diets does not appear to be justified by either increased performance or reduced nitrogen excretion.

Nasril

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Vermont Climate Change Indicators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate change indicators are developed for Vermont in recent decades based on the trends in freeze dates, the length of the growing season, the frozen period of small lakes, and the onset of spring. These trends, which show a consistent pattern ...

Alan K. Betts

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Organisational change through influence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Influence is a phenomenon underpinning many types of interactions in both human and artificial organisations, and has a significant impact on the operation of the organisation. If influence can be examined at the ... Keywords: Formal specification and analysis/verification, Organisational changes, Organisations, Software agents

Mairi Mccallum; Wamberto W. Vasconcelos; Timothy J. Norman

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Climate Change Reference Book  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report was prepared for DOE Deputy Assistant Secretary for Renewable Energy, in 1988, by Meridian Corporation, Alexandria, Va. It set the environmental impacts of geothermal power in the context of those of other renewables, coal, and nuclear. While this is a compendium from largely secondary sources, it gives estimates for CO2 per GWh for the three phases of resource extraction, facility construction, and facility operation. Tons of concrete and steel used are estimated. System include hydrothermal (dry steam, flashed, binary), geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma. (DJE 2005)

None

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Phase structure of soliton molecules  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Temporal optical soliton molecules were recently demonstrated; they potentially allow further increase of data rates in optical telecommunication. Their binding mechanism relies on the internal phases, but these have not been experimentally accessible so far. Conventional frequency-resolved optical gating techniques are not suited for measurement of their phase profile: Their algorithms fail to converge due to zeros both in their temporal and their spectral profile. We show that the VAMPIRE (very advanced method of phase and intensity retrieval of E-fields) method performs reliably. With VAMPIRE the phase profile of soliton molecules has been measured, and further insight into the mechanism is obtained.

Hause, A.; Hartwig, H.; Seifert, B.; Stolz, H.; Boehm, M.; Mitschke, F. [Universitaet Rostock, Institut fuer Physik, Rostock (Germany)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

'Multi-Phase' Steel Microstructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Application of Conical Beam X-Ray Tomography to Multi-Phase Materials ... Digital Construction and Characterization of Reticulated Porous Microstructures ...

331

Phase Transformation and Microstructural Evolution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... Yunzhi Wang, Ohio State University. Scope, Phase transformation is still one of the most effective and efficient means to produce desired ...

332

Kinetics/Phase Transformations: Visualizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VISUALS: Animation and video of solidification of solid crystals from a liquid ... JOM article including phase field and level set model animations, 0, 710, Cathy ...

333

Method for aqueous phase reactions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for converting liquid organic material in a mixture into a product utilizing a catalyst in the form of a plurality of porous particles wherein each particle is a support having nickel metal catalytic phase or reduced nickel deposited thereon in a first dispersed phase and an additional metal deposited onto the support in a second dispersed phase. The additional metal is effective in retarding or reducing agglomeration or sintering of the nickel metal catalytic phase without substantially affecting the catalytic activity, thereby increasing the life time of the catalyst.

Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Hart, Todd R. (Kennewick, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Phasing Out the Phase Problem in Interfacial Crystallography  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BESSRC/XOR BESSRC/XOR Phasing Out the Phase Problem in Interfacial Crystallography Photo of Paul Fenter (left) and Zhan Zhang at the mineral-fluid interface spectrometer at 12-ID-D (BESSRC/XOR). Paul Fenter (left) and Zhan Zhang at the mineral-fluid interface spectrometer at 12-ID-D (BESSRC/XOR). Since the advent of dedicated synchrotron radiation facilities, the applications of x-ray diffraction and scattering for structure determination have expanded to include a broad range of materials, from proteins and interfaces to nanoparticles. However, the well-known "phase problem" of crystallography limits these applications. The phase problem arises because the complete description of a structure requires a complex structure factor having both a magnitude and a phase. The measured x-ray

335

Climate Change and National Security  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate change is increasingly recognized as having national security implications, which has prompted dialogue between the climate change and national security communities—with resultant advantages and differences. Climate change research has ...

Elizabeth L. Malone

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Climate change risk and response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate Change Center White Paper. Cayan, Dan, PeterClimate Change Center White Paper. Cayan, Daniel R. , EdwinClimate Change Center White Paper. duVair, Pierre, Douglas

Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Atomic Phase Conjugation From a Bose Condensate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... phase conjugation is rapidly destroyed by incoherent ... sponta- neous emission rapidly destroy phase conjugation ... DF Walls, and BC Sanders, Phys. ...

2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

338

Chang-F-L  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Droplet Size Distribution on the Effect of Droplet Size Distribution on the Determination of Cloud Droplet Effective Radius F.-L. Chang and Z. Li ESSIC/Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, Maryland F.-L. Chang Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Introduction Cloud microphysical processes can provide links between cloud radiative effect and hydrological cycle and create several feedback mechanisms linking clouds and climate. For instance, the aerosols can affect the climate through their indirect effect on clouds, which modifies cloud microphysical properties and hence cloud radiative properties, proving an increase in cloud albedo and a net radiative cooling (Twomey et al. 1984; Charlson et al. 1992). The key microphysical parameters affecting both radiation

339

Frogs that change sex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Frogs that change sex Frogs that change sex Name: Mike A Smola Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why can frogs (some species) change sex? Replies: This is a complex subject. Several studies have exposed some of the answers to this question, but a definitive answer is yet to be made. It all boils down to the level of which genes are activated. Studies have shown that the sex chromosomes are not necessarily the determining factor. The traditional display of a female is when an individual has two X chromosomes present. When one of these genes is a Y, it is a male. This tends to be the case for most organisms that sport individuals that are different sexes. However, the Y chromosomes has been almost always a male determining chromosome, but with molecular biology and genetic engineering techniques, a male can be made from a XX combination and females have developed from XY combinations. These are extremely rare, but they have given insight to the fact that there are other factors beside X and Y chromosomes that determine sex, probably a gene found in both chromosomes.

340

The phase diagram of hydrogen in ultra thin films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper, we discuss changes in the phase diagram of hydrogen in both bilayer (i.e. 200-2000 {Angstrom} Nb/100 {Angstrom} Pd on glass) and multilayer configurations. Comparison of x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity and volumetric measurements of the films before and after hydrogen charging indicate that the phase equilibria between a correlated (high concentration) and a dilute phase of hydrogen in Nb is not sensitive to the number of layers in the films. On the other hand, the experimental methods show different behavior for 200 {Angstrom} thick Nb films and thicker (>400 {Angstrom}) Nb layers. The diffraction results also show that, while charging with hydrogen, the Nb layers mainly expand along the surface normal of the films, while the Pd layers expand in all directions equally, and transform to the bulk {alpha} phase.

Jisrawi, N.M.; Ruckman, M.W.; Reisfeld, G.; Wiesmann, H.; Loeb, F; Gallego, E.; Gorelik, Y.; Thurston, T.R.; Strongin, M.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply: Phase 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Phase 2 program objectives are to (1) demonstrate concept feasibility, (2) develop a preliminary design, and (3) complete Phase 3 engineering development and ground test plans. The approach to accomplish these objectives is to prove technical feasibility of our baseline design early in the program while maintaining flexibility to easily respond to changing requirements and advances in technology. This approach recognizes that technology is advancing rapidly while the operational phase MSNPS is 15 to 20 years in the future. This plan further recognizes that the weapons platform and Advanced Launch System (ALS) are in very early program definition stages; consequently, their requirements, interfaces, and technological basis will evolve. This document outlines the Phase 2 plan along with task scheduling of the various program aspects.

Not Available

1989-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

342

Climate change risk and response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate Change and Electricity Demand: Applying the NewClimate Change and Electricity Demand in California. ”Extreme Heat, and Electricity Demand in California. ”

Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Three phase downhole separator process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Three Phase Downhole Separator Process (TPDSP) is a process which results in the separation of all three phases, (1) oil, (2) gas, and (3) water, at the downhole location in the well bore, water disposal injection downhole, and oil and gas production uphole.

Cognata, Louis John (Baytown, TX)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

344

CHEM2D. 2-D, 3-Phase Chemical Flood Simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CHEM2D is a two-dimensional, three-phase, nine component, finite difference chemical flood simulator. It can model primary depletion, waterfloods, polymer floods, and micellar/polymer floods using heterogeneous one or two-dimensional (areal or cross-sectional) reservoir descriptions. This includes the ability to model primary depletion and waterflooding of an undersaturated oil reservoir and a polymer flood in which gels are injected with polymer or cross-linking chemicals are injected. One injection well and up to four production wells are available. The user may specify well performance as either rate or pressure constrained, and both a constant time-step size and a variable time-step size based on extrapolation of concentration changes are available as options. The major physical phenomena modeled in CHEM2D are: adsorption, capillary pressure, capillary trapping, cation exchange, dilution, dispersion, interfacial tension, binary and ternary phase behavior, relative permeability, specific densities, and polymer properties (inaccessible pore volume, non-Newtonian viscosity and shear thinning, and permeability reduction). Components include water, oil, surfactant, polymer, total nonsorbing anions, calcium, alcohol, calcium-surfactant complex, and sodium. Components may partition amongst the aqueous, oleic, and microemulsion phases. An auxiliary program, PHASE, is included to provide the CHEM2D user with a tool for looking directly at the phase behavior of a system. PHASE is the phase behavior calculation of CHEM2D coupled with a driving program for generating ternary phase behavior input data and for writing out tabular results. It can be used to compute phase concentrations and saturations as a function of effective salinity and total component concentrations and phase saturations (relative volumes) as a function of effective salinity for a fixed set of total component concentrations.

Burtch, F.W. [USDOE Bartlesville Energy Technology Center, OK (United States)

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Phase-sensitive flow cytometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This report describes phase-sensitive flow cytometer (FCM) which provides additional FCM capability to use the fluorescence lifetime of one or more fluorochromes bound to single cells to provide additional information regarding the cells. The resulting fluorescence emission can be resolved into individual fluorescence signals if two fluorochromes are present or can be converted directly to a decay lifetime from a single fluorochrome. The excitation light for the fluorochromes is modulated to produce an amplitude modulated fluorescence pulse as the fluorochrome is excited in the FCM. The modulation signal also forms a reference signal that is phase-shifted a selected amount for subsequent mixing with the output modulated fluorescence intensity signal in phase-sensitive detection circuitry. The output from the phase-sensitive circuitry is then an individual resolved fluorochrome signal or a single fluorochrome decay lifetime, depending on the applied phase shifts.

Steinkamp, J.A.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

Phase stable rf transport system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an RF transport system which delivers a phase-stable RF signal to a load, such as an RF cavity of a charged particle accelerator. A circuit generates a calibration signal at an odd multiple frequency of the RF signal where the calibration signal is superimposed with the RF signal on a common cable that connects the RF signal with the load. Signal isolating diplexers are located at both the RF signal source end and load end of the common cable to enable the calibration to be inserted and extracted from the cable signals without any affect on the RF signal. Any phase shift in the calibration signal during traverse of the common cable is then functionally related to the phase shift in the RF signal. The calibration phase shift is used to control a phase shifter for the RF signal to maintain a stable RF signal at the load.

Curtin, M.T.; Natter, E.F.; Denney, P.M.

1991-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

347

Phase stable RF transport system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An RF transport system delivers a phase-stable RF signal to a load, such as an RF cavity of a charged particle accelerator. A circuit generates a calibration signal at an odd multiple frequency of the RF signal where the calibration signal is superimposed with the RF signal on a common cable that connects the RF signal with the load. Signal isolating diplexers are located at both the RF signal source end and load end of the common cable to enable the calibration to be inserted and extracted from the cable signals without any affect on the RF signal. Any phase shift in the calibration signal during traverse of the common cable is then functionally related to the phase shift in the RF signal. The calibration phase shift is used to control a phase shifter for the RF signal to maintain a stable RF signal at the load.

Curtin, Michael T. (Los Alamos, NM); Natter, Eckard F. (San Francisco, CA); Denney, Peter M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Phase-sensitive flow cytometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A phase-sensitive flow cytometer (FCM) provides additional FCM capability to use the fluorescence lifetime of one or more fluorochromes bound to single cells to provide additional information regarding the cells. The resulting fluorescence emission can be resolved into individual fluorescence signals if two fluorochromes are present or can be converted directly to a decay lifetime from a single fluorochrome. The excitation light for the fluorochromes is modulated to produce an amplitude modulated fluorescence pulse as the fluorochrome is excited in the FCM. The modulation signal also forms a reference signal that is phase-shifted a selected amount for subsequent mixing with the output modulated fluorescence intensity signal in phase-sensitive detection circuitry. The output from the phase-sensitive circuitry is then an individual resolved fluorochrome signal or a single fluorochrome decay lifetime, depending on the applied phase shifts. 15 figures.

Steinkamp, J.A.

1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

349

Phase diagrams in the lattice RPM model: from order-disorder to gas-liquid phase transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The phase behavior of the lattice restricted primitive model (RPM) for ionic systems with additional short-range nearest neighbor (nn) repulsive interactions has been studied by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. We obtain a rich phase behavior as the nn strength is varied. In particular, the phase diagram is very similar to the continuum RPM model for high nn strength. Specifically, we have found both gas-liquid phase separation, with associated Ising critical point, and first-order liquid-solid transition. We discuss how the line of continuous order-disorder transitions present for the low nn strength changes into the continuum-space behavior as one increases the nn strength and compare our findings with recent theoretical results by Ciach and Stell [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 91}, 060601 (2003)].

Alexandre Diehl; Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos

2004-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

350

Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle October 8, 2013 - 11:13am Addthis Because it takes time to establish institutional change, Federal agencies need multiyear plans that continuously work to achieve, reinforce, and improve significant and persistent sustainability goals. Sustainability efforts ultimately may fail unless organizational change becomes "the way we do business." This principle is in line with organization research showing that institutional change is a multiyear process. Methods Institutional change is a long process that requires patience and persistence. For instance, the trial period for a new behavior must be long enough to allow people to form new habits. The key is to think long-term

351

The effects of viscous forces on three-phase relative permeability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of Three-Phase Relative Permeability Project (BE9) is to develop guidelines for improving the accuracy of three-phase relative permeability determinations. This report summarizes previous studies and explains the progress made at NIPER on studying the effect of variations in viscous forces on three-phase relative permeabilities by changing the viscosity of both wetting and nonwetting phases. Significant changes were observed due to viscosity variations. An increase in oil viscosity reduced the relative permeability to gas; an increase in brine/(wetting-phase) viscosity reduced the relative permeability to brine. A slight increase in gas relative permeability was also observed. These observations suggest that the viscosities of both oil and water influence three-phase permeability data. During this study, data scatter was sometimes encountered which was comparable to that of published results. The causes of this scatter are outlined in this report and remedial attempts are discussed. 20 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

Maloney, D.R.; Mahmood, S.M.; Honarpour, M.M.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

1994 PROPOSED EXECUTION PHASE BUDGET1994 PROPOSED EXECUTION PHASE BUDGET CHANGES IN BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLESCHANGES IN BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flux tower site (42.54jN and 72.18jW, 340 m elevation) is located within Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA

New Hampshire, University of

353

Rate of Change of Heat Storage of the World Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results or a Fourier analysis of climatological fields of the monthly rate of change of heat storage for the world ocean are presented. The amplitude and Phase of the first harmonic are shown, as well as the percent variance of the annual cycle ...

Sydney Levitus

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Enzymatic temperature change indicator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

Klibanov, Alexander M. (Newton, MA); Dordick, Jonathan S. (Iowa City, IA)

1989-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

355

Modulating the phase structure of black D6 branes in canonical ensemble  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There exists a dramatic difference in phase structure between charged black Dp-branes with $p liquid-gas type. However, when the two are combined to form D0/D6, the resulting phase diagram finally gets changed dramatically to the wanted one, containing now the above liquid-gas type. This change arises from the interaction between D6 and the delocalized D0.

J. X. Lu; Ran Wei

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

356

UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING PHASE 3 RESTRUCTURED (3R)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This scope document defines the work scope for accomplishing the design of the GE MS7001H and MS9001H (7H and 9H) combined-cycle power systems under the original ATS Phase 3 DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-95MC31176, and incorporates changes in scope required to convert Phase 3 to the ''restructured'' Phase 3R as defined in Amendment A012 to the Cooperative Agreement.

Unknown

2000-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

357

Holographic insulator/superconductor phase transition in Born-Infeld electrodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We studied holographic insulator/superconductor phase transition in the framework of Born-Infeld electrodynamics both numerically and analytically. First we numerically study the effects of the Born-Infeld electrodynamics on the phase transition, find that the critical chemical potential is not changed by the Born-Infeld parameter. Then we employ the variational method for the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem to analytically study the phase transition. The analytical results obtained are found to be consistent with the numerical results.

Nan Bai; Yi-Hong Gao; Guan-Bu Qi; Xiao-Bao Xu

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

358

NIST Testimony on Climate Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Testimony on Climate Change. 2009. Monitoring, Measurement and Verification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions II: The ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

359

SASE FEL at the TESLA Facility, Phase 2 The TESLA Test Facility FEL team  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SASE FEL at the TESLA Facility, Phase 2 The TESLA Test Facility FEL team June 2002, TESLA-FEL 2002-01 #12;SASE FEL at the TESLA Facility, Phase 2 Abstract The last description of the TESLA Test Facility FEL has been written in 1995 (TESLA- FEL report 95-03). Since then, many changes have developed

360

Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Davis, W. Jr. (Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, TN (USA)); Cochran, H.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

NREL: Computational Science - Christopher Chang  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

intelligence and high-performance computational methods for catalyst identification and optimization Condensed-phase homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reaction mechanisms...

362

Two-phase flow modeling with discrete particles  

SciTech Connect

The design of efficient heat exchangers in which the working fluid changes phase requires accurate modeling of two-phase fluid flow. The local Navier-Stokes equations form the basic continuum equations for this flow situation. However, the local instantaneous model using these equations is intractable for afl but the simplest problems. AH the practical models for two-phase flow analysis are based on equations that have been averaged over control volumes. These models average out the detailed description within the control volumes and rely on flow regime maps to determine the distribution of the two phases within a control volume. Flow regime maps depend on steady state models and probably are not correct for dynamic models. Numerical simulations of the averaged two-phase flow models are usually performed using a two-fluid Eulerian description for the two phases. Eulerian descriptions have the advantage of having simple boundary conditions, but the disadvantage of introducing numerical diffusion, i.e., sharp interfaces are not maintained as the flow develops, but are diffused. Lagrangian descriptions have the advantage of being able to track sharp interfaces without diffusion, but they have the disadvantage of requiring more complicated boundary conditions. This paper describes a numerical scheme and attendant computer program, DISCON2, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between the intractable local instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. This new model uses a combination of an Eulerian and a Lagrangian representation of the two phases. The dispersed particles (bubbles or drops) are modeled individually using a large representative number of particles, each with their own Lagrangian description. The continuous phases (liquid or gas) use an Eulerian description.

Mortensen, G.A. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Trapp, J.A. (Colorado Univ., Denver, CO (United States) EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

363

Greenhouse Gas Policy Influences Climate via Direct Effects of Land-Use Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proposed climate mitigation measures do not account for direct biophysical climate impacts of land-use change (LUC), nor do the stabilization targets modeled for phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) representative ...

Andrew D. Jones; William D. Collins; James Edmonds; Margaret S. Torn; Anthony Janetos; Katherine V. Calvin; Allison Thomson; Louise P. Chini; Jiafu Mao; Xiaoying Shi; Peter Thornton; George C. Hurtt; Marshall Wise

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Climate Change Projections in CESM1(CAM5) Compared to CCSM4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future climate change projections for phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are presented for the Community Earth System Model version 1 that includes the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 [CESM1(CAM5)]. These results ...

Gerald A. Meehl; Warren M. Washington; Julie M. Arblaster; Aixue Hu; Haiyan Teng; Jennifer E. Kay; Andrew Gettelman; David M. Lawrence; Benjamin M. Sanderson; Warren G. Strand

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

CO2-Induced Changes in Interannual Temperature and Precipitation Variability in 19 CMIP2 Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CO2-induced changes in the interannual variability of monthly surface air temperature and precipitation are studied using 19 model experiments participating in the second phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP2). The magnitude ...

Jouni Räisänen

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Seasonal Changes in Solar Radiation and Relative Humidity in Europe in Response to Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future seasonal changes in surface incident solar radiation and relative humidity (RH) over Europe and adjacent ocean areas were assessed based on phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) model ensemble. Under the A1B scenario, ...

Kimmo Ruosteenoja; Petri Räisänen

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Detectability of Changes in the Walker Circulation in Response to Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in the gradients in sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature (SST) along the equatorial Pacific are analyzed in observations and 101 numerical experiments performed with 37 climate models participating in the fifth phase of the ...

Pedro N. DiNezio; Gabriel A. Vecchi; Amy C. Clement

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

The Response of Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover to a Changing Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A snowpack model sensitivity study, observed changes of snow cover in the NOAA satellite dataset, and snow cover simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multimodel dataset are used to provide new insights into ...

Ross D. Brown; Philip W. Mote

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Assessing Future Changes in the East Asian Summer Monsoon Using CMIP5 Coupled Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future changes in the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) are estimated from historical and Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6) experiments of the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The historical runs show ...

Kyong-Hwan Seo; Jung Ok; Jun-Hyeok Son; Dong-Hyun Cha

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Will There Be a Significant Change to El Niño in the Twenty-First Century?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response to anthropogenic climate change is assessed in the following 1° nominal resolution Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations:...

Samantha Stevenson; Baylor Fox-Kemper; Markus Jochum; Richard Neale; Clara Deser; Gerald Meehl

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Summary of Changes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to to Procedure 200.4 Records Management Revised Version Issued as P 200.4B LM Procedure 200.4, Records Management of 3/14/07 has undergone revisions. The procedure has been revised to reflect changes in definitions and formatting and to reflect LM's increased emphasis on electronic records. Please replace LM Procedure 200.4A with LM Procedure 200.4B. The most recent and official controlled hard copy version of this document resides with LM's Directives Coordinator. An electronic version of the controlled document has been placed on the LM Intranet for employee use. Printed hard copies of this electronic version are considered uncontrolled documents. INITIATED BY: Office of Business Operations NO. OF PAGES/ATTACHMENTS: 19 pages, 9 attachments

372

Liquid-gas phase transition in finite nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a finite temperature Thomas-Fermi framework, we calculate density distributions of hot nuclei enclosed in a freeze-out volume of few times the normal nuclear volume and then construct the caloric curve, with and without inclusion of radial collective flow. In both cases, the calculated specific heats $C_v$ show a peaked structure signalling a liquid-gas phase transition. Without flow, the caloric curve indicates a continuous phase transition whereas with inclusion of flow, the transition is very sharp. In the latter case, the nucleus undergoes a shape change to a bubble from a diffuse sphere at the transition temperature.

J. N. De; S. K. Samaddar; S. Shlomo

1997-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

373

Helicase on DNA: A Phase coexistence based mechanism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a phase coexistence based mechanism for activity of helicases, ubiquitous enzymes that unwind double stranded DNA. The helicase-DNA complex constitutes a fixed-stretch ensemble that entails a coexistence of domains of zipped and unzipped phases of DNA, separated by a domain wall. The motor action of the helicase leads to a change in the position of the fixed constraint thereby shifting the domain wall on dsDNA. We associate this off-equilibrium domain wall motion with the unzipping activity of helicase. We show that this proposal gives a clear and consistent explanation of the main observed features of helicases.

Somendra M. Bhattacharjee; Flavio Seno

2002-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

374

Nanoparticle Gas-Phase Electrophoresis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Nanoparticle Gas-Phase Electrophoresis ... L f d f ? = L f /d f , f is the fraction of diffuse gas collisions with the cylinder -V + and where ? ? ...

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

375

Phase Relationships in Rene' 95  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

1980 quantitative phase relationship information is indeed rare. .... by x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. (EDS) appears similar. The "M" portion is ... size particles, and have determined that the average secondary. DAS ranges from about 1 ...

376

Self-adjoint phase operator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

and E.V. Damaskinskii ... 1 . Introduction. The problem of quantizing classical action-phase (angle) .... of the ordinary canonical operators Q and P in L2([0, 1])).

377

Electronic properties of ordered quasicrystals and related phases  

SciTech Connect

A study of the electronic properties of the well-order icosahedral (i-) phases and related crystalline and amorphous phases is presented. Barely metallic behavior is observed in the ordered i-crystals, including high resistivities with large temperature coefficients, low electronic densities of states at the Fermi energy, large values of the low-temperature Hall coefficients, and unusual temperature dependences of the Hall coefficients and the thermoelectric powers. Rapid variations of these properties with small changes in composition are observed. Similar behavior is seen in crystalline approximate structures, which are close crystalline analogues of the i-phase. With increasing structural disorder in disordered i-phases and in the totally disordered amorphous (a-) phases, the familiar metallic-glass-like electronic properties are restored. This behavior is due to band structure effects. The high resistivities, low densities of states, and low carrier densities are due to the structural scattering mechanism of the Fermi-surface-Jones-zone interaction, which is enhanced due to the high degree of structural ordering and, in the i-phases, due to the icosahedral symmetry. The unusual temperature dependences of the Hall coefficients and thermoelectric powers, as well as the rapid variation of the electronic properties with small changes in composition, support the existence of a rapidly varying density of states on a fine energy scale, on the order of 26 MeV. The existence of these band structure effects is further supported by the effects of structural disorder on the electronic properties, with disorder restoring the free-electron metallic-glass-like electronic properties. The temperature dependence of the conductivity at high temperatures displays a concave upward curvature in a wide variety of icosahedral, amorphous, and crystalline phases which have high resistivity values.

Biggs, B.D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Study Climate and Global Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What We Study How We Study Prepare The Nation For Change Assess the U.S. Climate Make Our Science Accessible Link Climate Change & Health Provide Data and Tools Coordinate Internationally Study Climate and Global Change Print E-mail Deforestation What is global change? "Global change" refers to changes in the global environment that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life. This includes alterations in: Climate Land productivity Oceans or other water resources Atmospheric chemistry Ecological systems Demographic and socioeconomic trends What is global change research? According to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, "Global change research" refers to the study, monitoring, assessment, prediction, and information management activities used to describe and understand the:

379

ARM - Baseline Change Request Guidelines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DocumentsBaseline Change Request Guidelines DocumentsBaseline Change Request Guidelines Page Contents Introduction Submit a BCR BCR Process Flowchart Baseline Change Request Guidelines Introduction Baseline Change Requests (BCR) are used by the ARM Infrastructure as a process to provide configuration control and for formally requesting and documenting changes within the ARM Infrastructure. Configuration Control: BCRs are required for changes to instruments, data systems, data processes, datastreams, measurement methods, and facilities. They help ensure that all aspects of the ARM Infrastructure are consulted prior to implementing changes. Seemingly minor changes can have significant repercussions throughout the Facility and therefore, NO change to an operational instrument, computer, facility, or other system can or will be

380

Property:GEADevelopmentPhase | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GEADevelopmentPhase GEADevelopmentPhase Jump to: navigation, search Property Name GEADevelopmentPhase Property Type Page Description GEA Development Phase, as characterized by their Annual U.S. Geothermal Power Production and Development Report. See GEA_Development_Phases Allows Values Phase I - Resource Procurement and Identification;Phase II - Resource Exploration and Confirmation;Phase III - Permitting and Initial Development;Phase IV - Resource Production and Power Plant Construction Subproperties This property has the following 77 subproperties: A Abraham Hot Springs Geothermal Area Adak Geothermal Area Akun Strait Geothermal Area Akutan Fumaroles Geothermal Area Alum Geothermal Area Alvord Hot Springs Geothermal Area Amedee Geothermal Area Arrowhead Hot Springs Geothermal Area

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Dynamic Phase Transitions in Coupled Motor Proteins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of interactions on dynamics of coupled motor proteins is investigated theoretically. A simple stochastic discrete model, that allows to calculate explicitly the dynamic properties of the system, is developed. It is shown that there are two dynamic regimes, depending on the interaction between the particles. For strong interactions the motor proteins move as one tight cluster, while for weak interactions there is no correlation in the motion of the proteins, and the particle separation increases steadily with time. The boundary between two dynamic phases is specified by a critical interaction that has a non-zero value only for the coupling of the asymmetric motor proteins, and it depends on the temperature and the transitions rates. At the critical interaction there is a change in a slope for the mean velocities and a discontinuity in the dispersions of the motor proteins as a function of the interaction energy.

Evgeny B. Stukalin; Anatoly B. Kolomeisky

2005-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

382

Improving Phase Measurement Procedures for Pump-Probe Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Pump-probe experiments use a visible laser to excite an atom or molecule, while an X-ray pulse measures its shape. The phases and pulse times of each beam are used to calculate the object's positing at a given time - a moving picture of the chemical reaction. Currently, the fastest X-ray pulses can travel a time-length of five femtoseconds. However, present-day phase measurements can only be done as quickly as 50 femtoseconds. The purpose of this research is to explore ways in which phase-timing measurements can be improved. Three experiments are undergone to find the key factors in phase-timing. Different frequency mixers, the radio frequency (RF) components used for phase measurement, are tested for the highest sensitivity. These same mixers are then tested using two different power splitters for the lowest noise-to-sensitivity ratio. Lastly, the temperature dependency of phase is explored by testing each component at a range of temperatures to see how the phase is affected. This research demonstrated that certain mixers were more sensitive than others; on average, one mixer performed the best with a sensitivity of 0.0230 V/ps. The results also showed that same mixer combined with one splitter gave the best noise-to-sensitivity ratio overall with an average of 6.95E-04 fs/{radical}(Hz). All the components tested exhibited a temperature-dependent phase change (ranging from 1.69 to 81.6 fs/{sup o}C); the same mixer that performed at the highest sensitivity with the least noise had a significantly greater phase change than the other two. In conclusion, the experiments showed that a temperature-controlled environment is most appropriate for phase measurement. They also demonstrated that mixers are not significantly noisy and that certain types of mixers may perform better than others, which could be accounted for in their construction. The results of this research encourage further investigation into the study of different mixers and other RF components used in pump-probe experiments.

Not Available

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

383

Tropical Cyclones and Climate Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Whether the characteristics of tropical cyclones have changed or will change in a warming climate — and if so, how — has been the subject of considerable investigation, often with conflicting results. Large amplitude ...

Knutson, Thomas R.

384

Climate Change | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Climate Change Climate Change November 19, 2013 Statement on U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz's Travel to Istanbul, Turkey U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz will travel to...

385

The Atlantic Climate Change Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and ...

Robert L. Molinari; David Battisti; Kirk Bryan; John Walsh

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Combined Analysis: structure-texture-microstructure-phase-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combined Analysis: structure-texture-microstructure-phase- stresses-reflectivity determination by x #12;Combined Analysis: structure-texture-microstructure-phase-stresses- reflectivity determination ................................................................................................. 83 2.10.1 The phase problem in diffraction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

387

Evaluating Heuristic Optimization Phase Order Search Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Program-specific or function-specific optimization phase sequences are universally accepted to achieve better overall performance than any fixed optimization phase ordering. A number of heuristic phase order space search algorithms have been devised ...

Prasad A. Kulkarni; David B. Whalley; Gary S. Tyson

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Phase measurement system using a dithered clock  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A phase measurement system is disclosed which measures the phase shift between two signals by dithering a clock signal and averaging a plurality of measurements of the phase differences between the two signals. 8 figures.

Fairley, C.R.; Patterson, S.R.

1991-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

389

Phase-1 of Edison Arrives at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Phase 1 of Edison Arrives at NERSC Phase 1 of Edison Arrives at NERSC November 27, 2012 Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab Phase 1 of NERSC's newest supercomputer, named...

390

Climate change risk and response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electricity rates and expenditures that accompany these changes may not be as well. Most of the state’

Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Climate Change and Aluminum - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 25, 2008 ... Softcover book: Carbon Dioxide Reduction Metallurgy. Knowledge Product: Sustainability, Climate Change, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions ...

392

Temperature-Driven Structural Phase Transition for Trapped Ions and a Proposal for its Experimental Detection  

SciTech Connect

A Wigner crystal formed with trapped ions can undergo a structural phase transition, which is determined only by the mechanical conditions on a classical level. Instead of this classical result, we show that through consideration of quantum and thermal fluctuation, a structural phase transition can be driven solely by a change in the system's temperature. We determine a finite-temperature phase diagram for trapped ions using the renormalization group method and the path integral formalism, and propose an experimental scheme to observe the predicted temperature-driven structural phase transition, which is well within the reach of the current ion trap technology.

Gong Zhexuan; Lin, G.-D.; Duan, L.-M. [Department of Physics and MCTP, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

393

How NGPL validates its two-phase flow program  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas Pipeline Company (NGPL) has completed a series of studies where liquid flow in gas pipelines is simulated in a two-phase flow program. This analysis determines the relationship between the amount of liquids in a natural gas pipe line and the Weymouth efficiency of the pipe line. To assure valid conclusions, the analysis was broken down into two parts, first, the two-phase flow program was tested against actual data collected by the American Gas Association. Second, curves were developed to show the change in efficiency compared to changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio. It is concluded that where liquids are present in natural gas pipe lines, there will be a decrease in efficiency. NGPL's program eliminates the underdesigning and overdesigning that results when using a 90% Weymouth efficiency, provided that accurate estimates of liquid-togas ratio are available when pipe lines are designed.

Ludwig, M.S.; Remington, W.M.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Hummon, M.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Pulsed Ponderomotive Phase Plate - Industrial Partnerships Office  

Ability to adjust the size and phase shift profile of the phase plate through laser parameters; Potential Applications. High-contrast, ...

396

Transient well testing in two-phase geothermal reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of well test analysis techniques in two-phase geothermal reservoirs has been conducted using a three-dimensional, two-phase, wellbore and reservoir simulation model. Well tests from Cerro Prieto and the Hawaiian Geothermal project have been history matched. Using these well tests as a base, the influence of reservoir permeability, porosity, thickness, and heat capacity, along with flow rate and fracturing were studied. Single and two-phase transient well test equations were used to analyze these tests with poor results due to rapidly changing fluid properties and inability to calculate the flowing steam saturation in the reservoir. The injection of cold water into the reservoir does give good data from which formation properties can be calculated.

Aydelotte, S.R.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Third moments of conserved charges in QCD phase diagram  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We point out that the third moments of conserved charges, the baryon and electric charge numbers, and energy, as well as their mixed moments, change their signs around the QCD phase boundary in the temperature and baryon chemical potential plane. These signs can be measured in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and will give clear information on the phase structure of QCD and the state of the system in the early stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions. The behaviors of these moments on the temperature axis and at small quark chemical potential can be analyzed in lattice QCD simulations. We emphasize that the third moments obtained on the lattice, together with the experimental results, will provide a deep understanding about the QCD phase diagram and the location of the state created in heavy ion collisions.

Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Ejiri, Shinji

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project: Phase I accomplishments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase I efforts. The rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include decisions to use Echelon LonWorks networking protocol and Microsoft Access for the data system needs, a preliminary design for the plutonium canning system glovebox, identification of facilities and materials available for the demonstration, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, and a preliminary list of available sensor technologies. Recently imposed changes in the overall project schedule and scope are also discussed and budgetary requirements for competition of Phase II presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase I deliverables.

Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Crawford, D.C. [and others

1997-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation accompanies Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, a follow-on to Phase 1, which examined the operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation on the electric power system in the West and was one of the largest variable generation studies to date. High penetrations of variable generation can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 calculated these costs and emissions, and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of variable generation on the fossil-fueled fleet. The presentation highlights the scope of the study and results.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.; King, J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics The Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics Group is dedicated to developing and applying spectroscopic and theoretical tools to challenging problems in chemical physics related to reactivity, structure, dynamics and kinetics of transient species. Recent theoretical work has included advances in exact variational solution of vibrational quantum dynamics, suitable for up to five atoms in systems where large amplitude motion or multiple strongly coupled modes make simpler approximations inadequate. Other theoretical work, illustrated below, applied direct dynamics, quantum force trajectory calculations to investigate a series of reactions of the HOCO radical. The potential energy surface for the OH + CO/ H + CO2 reaction, showing two barriers (TS1 and TS2) and the deep HOCO well along the minimum energy pathway. The inset figure shows the experimental and calculated reactivity of HOCO with selected collision partners. See J.S. Francisco, J.T. Muckerman and H.-G. Yu, "HOCO radical chemistry,"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Phase Conjugation in Quantum Optomechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the phase conjugate coupling of a pair of optomechanical oscillator modes driven by the time-dependent beat-note due to a two-color optical field. The dynamics of the direct and phase conjugate modes exhibit familiar time-reversed qualities, leading to opposite sign temperatures for the modes in the classical regime of operation, but these features are limited by quantum effects due to the non-commutative nature of quantum mechanical operators. The effects are measurable by read-out of the oscillator via a qubit. As a potential application of this system in sensing, we discuss a protocol applying phase-conjugate swaps to cancel external forces acting on the system.

L. F. Buchmann; E. M. Wright; P. Meystre

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

402

Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership--Validation Phase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership-Validation Phase Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected seven partnerships, through its Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) initiative, to determine the best approaches for capturing and permanently storing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), a greenhouse gas (GHG) which can contribute to global climate change. The RCSPs are made up of state and local agencies, coal companies, oil and gas companies, electric utilities,

403

West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership--Validation Phase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership-Validation Phase Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected seven partnerships, through its Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) initiative, to determine the best approaches for capturing and permanently storing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), a greenhouse gas (GHG) which can contribute to global climate change. The RCSPs are made up of state and local agencies, coal companies, oil and gas companies,

404

Southwest Regional Partnership for Carbon Sequestration--Validation Phase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Southwest Regional Partnership for Southwest Regional Partnership for Carbon Sequestration-Validation Phase Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected seven partnerships, through its Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) initiative, to determine the best approaches for capturing and permanently storing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), a greenhouse gas (GHG) which can contribute to global climate change. The RCSPs are made up of state and local agencies, coal companies, oil and gas companies, electric utilities,

405

Climate Change | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate Change Climate Change Climate Change The Office of Climate Change Policy and Technology (PI-50), located within the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), serves as the focal point within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the development, coordination, and implementation of DOE-related aspects of climate change technical programs, policies, and initiatives. The mission of the Office of Climate Change Policy and Technology is to accelerate the development and deployment of advanced technologies and best practices to mitigate climate change. To the extent delegated by the Secretary, the Office provides planning, analysis, and technical advisory services to other Federal agencies, and to Cabinet and sub-Cabinet-level interagency committees, working on climate

406

ARM - Engineering Change Request & Engineering Change Order Guidelines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Change Request & Change Request & Engineering Change Order Guidelines Page Contents: Guideline for Starting a Request for a New ARM Product, Capability, or Functionality Engineering Task Tracking Tool Tracking Capabilities Getting Closure, the Baseline Change Request Glossary Engineering Change Request & Engineering Change Order Guidelines Requesting Engineered Products and Services in ARM Guideline for Starting a Request for a New ARM Product, Capability, or Functionality The purpose of this guideline is to establish a method that members of the ARM Infrastructure team may use to submit requests for products and services from the ARM Engineering Group. The concept of "new product, capability, or functionality" refers to the idea that requests the ARM Infrastructure Team to make to the Engineering Group that will ultimately

407

Climate Change at Annual Timescales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

closest to the Sun, the intensity of solar insolation at theorbit where ? lat sun (?) is the solar phase as a functionwhere F sun is the (normalized) force of solar insolation

Stine, Alexander Robin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Instantons in the Higgs Phase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When instantons are put into the Higgs phase, vortices are attached to instantons. We construct such composite solitons as 1/4 BPS states in five-dimensional supersymmetric U(Nc) gauge theory with Nf(>=Nc) fundamental hypermultiplets. We solve the hypermultiplet BPS equation and show that all 1/4 BPS solutions are generated by an Nc x Nf matrix which is holomorphic in two complex variables, assuming the vector multiplet BPS equation does not give additional moduli. We determine the total moduli space formed by topological sectors patched together and work out the multi-instanton solution inside a single vortex with complete moduli. Small instanton singularities are interpreted as small sigma-model lump singularities inside the vortex. The relation between monopoles and instantons in the Higgs phase is also clarified as limits of calorons in the Higgs phase. Another type of instantons stuck at an intersection of two vortices and dyonic instantons in the Higgs phase are also discussed.

Minoru Eto; Youichi Isozumi; Muneto Nitta; Keisuke Ohashi; Norisuke Sakai

2004-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

409

Predicting locality phases for dynamic memory optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic data, cache, and memory adaptation can significantly improve program performance when they are applied on long continuous phases of execution that have dynamic but predictable locality. To support phase-based adaptation, this paper defines the ... Keywords: Dynamic optimization, Locality analysis and optimization, Phase hierarchy, Program phase prediction, Reconfigurable architecture

Xipeng Shen; Yutao Zhong; Chen Ding

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Quantum phase transition from the topological viewpoint  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study targets quantum phases which are characterized by topological properties and no associated with the symmetry breaking. We concern ourselves primarily with the transitions among these quantum phases. This type of quantum phase transition was investigated by $G$-cobordism in unified framework. This framework provides a useful method to investigate a new quantum phase.

Izumi Tanaka

2013-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

411

Supersolid phase of cold fermionic polar molecules in two-dimensional optical lattices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study a system of ultracold fermionic polar molecules in a two-dimensional square lattice interacting via both the long-range dipole-dipole interaction and a short-range on-site attractive interaction. Singlet-superfluid, change density wave, and supersolid phases are found to exist in the system. We map out the zero-temperature phase diagram and find that the supersolid phase is considerably stabilized by the dipole-dipole interaction and thus can exist over a large region of filling factors. We study the melting of the supersolid phase with increasing temperature, map out a finite-temperature phase diagram of the system at fixed filling, and determine the parameter region where the supersolid phase can possibly be observed in experiments.

He Liang; Hofstetter, Walter [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Manifestation of a nonclassical Berry phase of an electromagnetic field in atomic Ramsey interference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Berry phase acquired by an electromagnetic field undergoing an adiabatic and cyclic evolution in phase space is a purely quantum-mechanical effect of the field. However, this phase is usually accompanied by a dynamical contribution and cannot be manifested in any light-beam interference experiment because it is independent of the field state. We here show that such a phase can be produced using an atom coupled to a quantized field and driven by a slowly changing classical field, and it is manifested in atomic Ramsey interference oscillations. We also show how this effect may be applied to one-step implementation of multiqubit geometric phase gates, which is impossible by previous geometric methods. The effects of dissipation and fluctuations in the parameters of the pump field on the Berry phase and visibility of the Ramsey interference fringes are analyzed.

Shi-Biao Zheng

2012-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

413

Manifestation of a nonclassical Berry phase of an electromagnetic field in atomic Ramsey interference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Berry phase acquired by an electromagnetic field undergoing an adiabatic and cyclic evolution in phase space is a purely quantum-mechanical effect of the field. However, this phase is usually accompanied by a dynamical contribution and cannot be manifested in any light-beam interference experiment because it is independent of the field state. We here show that such a phase can be produced using an atom coupled to a quantized field and driven by a slowly changing classical field, and it is manifested in atomic Ramsey interference oscillations. We also show how this effect may be applied to one-step implementation of multiqubit geometric phase gates, which is impossible by previous geometric methods. The effects of dissipation and fluctuations in the parameters of the pump field on the Berry phase and visibility of the Ramsey interference fringes are analyzed.

Zheng, Shi-Biao

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

climate change | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

climate change climate change Dataset Summary Description This dataset, made available by the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), presents summer and winter precipitation for England and Wales, and the percent change from the baseline (1961 - 1990 average). The original source of the data is the Hadley Centre. Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Date Released March 12th, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords climate change precipitation UK Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 1 Excel file: Precipitation, 1874 - 2009 (xls, 68.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment (Does not have "National Statistics" status) Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 1874 - 2009 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below

415

Climate Change | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Climate Change Climate Change Climate Change View our interactive climate vulnerability map to learn more about how climate change could impact energy supplies and delivery near your home. | Map by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. View our interactive climate vulnerability map to learn more about how climate change could impact energy supplies and delivery near your home. | Map by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. Addressing the effects of climate change is a top priority of the Energy Department. As global temperature rise, wildfires, drought and high electricity demand put stress on the nation's energy infrastructure. And severe weather -- the leading cause of power outages and fuel supply disruption in the United States -- is projected to worsen,

416

Climate change risk and response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

basket, changes in electricity rates can have far-reachingand assuming constant electricity rates, Auffhammer (2008)a rise (30 percent) in electricity rates in 2020 and 2040

Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Life-Changing Drug Design  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

facilities are aimed at designing more effective drugs with fewer side effects. Life-Changing Drug Design One notable example is vemurafenib, a drug designed by...

418

Renewable Energy and Climate Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Renewable Energy and Climate Change Symposium in Honor of 2009 and 2010 ACS Fellows in the Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Division Helena Chum, NREL Research Fellow August...

419

Changes in dimethyl sulfide oceanic distribution due to climate change  

SciTech Connect

Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major precursors for aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer over much of the remote ocean. Here we report on coupled climate simulations with a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemical model for DMS distribution and fluxes using present-day and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. We find changes in zonal averaged DMS flux to the atmosphere of over 150% in the Southern Ocean. This is due to concurrent sea ice changes and ocean ecosystem composition shifts caused by changes in temperature, mixing, nutrient, and light regimes. The largest changes occur in a region already sensitive to climate change, so any resultant local CLAW/Gaia feedback of DMS on clouds, and thus radiative forcing, will be particularly important. A comparison of these results to prior studies shows that increasing model complexity is associated with reduced DMS emissions at the equator and increased emissions at high latitudes.

Elliott, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Erickson III, David J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Changes in Dimethyl Sulfide Oceanic Distribution due to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major precursors for aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer over much of the remote ocean. Here they report on coupled climate simulations with a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemical model for DMS distribution and fluxes using present-day and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. They find changes in zonal averaged DMS flux to the atmosphere of over 150% in the Southern Ocean. This is due to concurrent sea ice changes and ocean ecosystem composition shifts caused by changes in temperature, mixing, nutrient, and light regimes. The largest changes occur in a region already sensitive to climate change, so any resultant local CLAW/Gaia feedback of DMS on clouds, and thus radiative forcing, will be particularly important. A comparison of these results to prior studies shows that increasing model complexity is associted with reduced DMS emissions at the equator and increased emissions at high latitudes.

Cameron-Smith, P; Elliott, S; Maltrud, M; Erickson, D; Wingenter, O

2011-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

MID-CYCLE CHANGES IN ETA CARINAE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In late 2006, ground-based photometry of {eta} Car plus the Homunculus showed an unexpected decrease in its integrated apparent brightness, an apparent reversal of its long-term brightening. Subsequent Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFPC2 photometry of the central star in the near-UV showed that this was not a simple reversal. This multi-wavelength photometry did not support increased extinction by dust as the explanation for the decrease in brightness. A spectrum obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Gemini-South telescope revealed subtle changes mid-way in {eta} Car's 5.5 yr spectroscopic cycle when compared with HST/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra at the same phase in the cycle. At mid-cycle the secondary star is 20-30 AU from the primary. We suggest that the spectroscopic changes are consistent with fluctuations in the density and velocity of the primary star's wind, unrelated to the 5.5 yr cycle but possibly related to its latitude-dependent morphology. We also discuss subtle effects that must be taken into account when comparing ground-based and HST/STIS spectra.

Martin, John C. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Illinois, Springfield, IL 62703 (United States); Davidson, Kris; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Mehner, Andrea [Astronomy Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Phase changes of ambient particles in the Southern Great Plains of Scot T. Martin,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

October 2008; published 18 November 2008. [1] A new instrument, a 1 Ã? 3 tandem differential mobility, and Riverside, California. Using a hygroscopic-growth tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA), Pitchford deployed previously, and such an instrument could be expected to provide more sensitivity, new statistics

423

Group III-selenides: new silicon compatible semiconducting materials for phase change memory applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This project investigates a series of III-Selenide materials (III xSey), where III=Al, Ga and In, through study of the interacting chemical, kinetic and structural constraints… (more)

Lu, Chih-Yuan, 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Photochemical and Photovoltaic Solar Energy Converters,”of solar energy in either photovoltaic or solar thermalphotovoltaic (PV) systems,[13,82,83] and solar thermal systems (energy

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Techniques,” Energy Conversion and Management, 39 (11),Applications,” Energy Conversion and Management, 45 , pp.2011, “Low-grade Heat Conversion into Power Using Organic

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Simplified Numerical Description of Latent Storage Characteristics for Phase Change Wallboard  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

structure as thermal storage for heating and cooling ofthermal mass, and • utilize low-energy heating and coolinglow- energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices

Fuestel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Simplified Numerical Description of Latent Storage Characteristics for Phase Change Wallboard  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the short-comings of alternative cooling sources or to avoidthe short-comings of alternative cooling sources or to avoidC. Blumstein; "Alternatives to Compressor Cooling in

Fuestel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Out of Phase Relationship between Boreal Spring and Summer Decadal Rainfall Changes in South China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multivariate empirical orthogonal function (MV-EOF) analysis for 1979-2010 shows that low-level circulation and rainfall over East Asia experienced a significant decadal shift around mid-1990s. During boreal spring (March-May), the first ...

Zhiwei Zhu; Tim Li; Jinhai He

429

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enhancement in Pool Boiling of Nano-fluids,” InternationalLiquid Spreading Due to Nano/Microstructures on the CriticalWicking Action of Micro/Nano Structures on Pool Boiling

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Power extraction from a hot stream in the presence of phase change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exchanger, where the water temperature remains constant. In this case the spatial distribution of the m . w) #12;forced to match the smooth distribution of the hot-gas temperature. The second complication which the m . w stream boils, and ®nally, the surface As that superheats the steam. The simplicity

Ordonez, Juan C.

431

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a working molecular solar energy conversion system where noEnergy Storage and Conversion System ..74Thermal (MOST) Energy Storage and Conversion System In this

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13 (2), pp. 318–and Challenges for a Sustainable Energy Future,” Nature,Storage,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14 (3),

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Anomalous thermal conduction characteristics of phase change composites with single walled carbon nanotube inclusions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transport path in a non-linear way which is in consistent with the simulation results reported in Ref.23. Besides, recent simulation study suggest that alkane molecules surrounding the nanotubes when frozen. Wang, H. Q. Xie, and Z. Xin, Thermochim. Acta 488 (1-2), 39 (2009). 9 R. Zheng, J. Gao, J. Wang, and G

Maruyama, Shigeo

434

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat Exchangers,” Applied Thermal Engineering, 25 (1), pp.Raad P. E. , 2008, “Thermal Challenges in Next-GenerationAssessment of High-Heat-Flux Thermal Management Schemes,”

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STUDY FOR SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS, Ottawa, Ontario: 1999.Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants A Thesis submittedConcentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants by Corey Lee Hardin

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2009, “Solar Thermal Power Plants,” The European PhysicalThermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Power Plants,”fuel based power plants, and most nuclear and solar thermal

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Liquid-vapour phase change : nucleate boiling of pure fluid and nanofluid under different gravity levels.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research was a step towards the comprehension of the nano-particles interaction with bubbles created during boiling. It was aimed at solving the controversies of… (more)

Diana, Antoine

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Encapsulation of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Thermal energy storage is a major contributor to bridge the gap between energy demand (consumption) and energy production (supply) by concentrating solar power. The utilization… (more)

Nath, Rupa

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Experimental evaluation of phase change material building walls using small passive test boxes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Macroencapsulated PCM cemented within masonry building blocks can markedly increase the effectiveness of an equivalent volume of concrete for use as a mass wall for passive solar applications. Various hydrocarbons and hydrated salts were tested. The test procedure and results are presented and discussed. Of the PCM's tested, the most promising candidate material is calcium chloride hexahydrate. The best performing PCM blocks performed on a par with a massive masonry design. (WHK)

Collier, R.K.; Grimmer, D.P.

1979-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

440

A Physical Basis For Changes in the Phases of the Summer Monsoon over India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The summer monsoon over India is described as “active” when large parts of India, particularly the central parts and the west coast receive normal or above normal rainfall. It is described as having a “break” when the rainfall is below normal ...

P. S. Pant

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Simplified Numerical Description of Latent Storage Characteristics for Phase Change Wallboard  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

USA ABSTRACT Cooling of residential California buildings contributes significantly to electrical consumption and peak power demand.

Fuestel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Thermal Management of Batteries in Advanced Vehicles Using Phase-Change Materials (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Powerpoint presentation examines battery thermal management using PCM and concludes excellent performance in limiting peak temperatures at short period extensive battery use; although, vehicle designers will need to weigh the potential increase in mass and cost associated with adding PCM against the anticipated benefits.

Kim, G.-H.; Gonder, J.; Lustbader, J.; Pesaran, A.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the replacement of non-renewable energy production. Unlikereplacement of non-renewable energy sources. The thermal

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organometallic Frames for Solar Energy Storage, Berkeley. [and Photovoltaic Solar Energy Converters,” American ChemicalNocera D. G. , 2010, “Solar Energy Supply and Storage for

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar radiation. .3] The diurnal nature of solar radiation and dependence onright) when exposed to solar radiation. There are several

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during Solidification on Heat Exchanger Tube .. 14 FigureGPM flow rate through the heat exchanger. For the Therminol15 Heat Exchanger

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Small Passages of Compact Heat- Exchangers,” InternationalA. L. , 1984, Compact Heat Exchangers, McGraw-Hill Book

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Wetting and phase-change phenomena on micro/nanostructures for enhanced heat transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Micro/nanostructures have been extensively studied to amplify the intrinsic wettability of materials to create superhydrophilic or superhydrophobic surfaces. Such extreme wetting properties can influence the heat transfer ...

Xiao, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

demonstrated how well a molten salt thermal storage systembased CSP plant. Cold molten salt is pumped from a largetemperature and send to a hot molten salt tank. Salt is then

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PLANTS,” Eurosun 2010,COST REDUCTION STUDY FOR SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS, Ottawa,Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants A Thesis

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigation of a High Flux Heat Pipe Heat Sink,” JournalBoiling in a Flat Grooved Heat Pipe,” International JournalReay D. A. , 1976, Heat Pipes, Pergamon Press, Elmsford. [

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. a. , 2012, “Molecular Solar Thermal (MOST) Energy Storageand Nocera D. G. , 2010, “Solar Energy Supply and Storage20] Kalogirou S. a. , 2004, “Solar Thermal Collectors and

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Polyethylene composites containing a phase change material having a C14 straight chain hydrocarbon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyethylene matrix having a straight chain alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein, said polyethylene being crosslinked to such a degree that said polyethylene matrix is form stable and said polyethylene matrix is capable of absorbing at least 10% by weight of said straight chain alkyl hydrocarbon; the composite is useful in forming pellets or sheets having thermal energy storage characteristics.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar thermal power (CSP) systems. Background and motivation2 Figure 2: Schematic of Sensible Heat Based CSP Plant[3 Figure 3: Schematic of PCM Based CSP Plant[

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the system. A pair of RTD’s was utilized at each inletA total of 19 thermocouples, 8 RTD’s, and 2 flow meters were

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Design of an instrumented microchannel device for characterization of phase change nanofluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the energy needs of the world continue to grow, it becomes increasingly important to investigate alternative sources of energy. Solar energy is one of our most abundant sources of renewable energy, and researching ways ...

Suabedissen, Karl J. (Karl John)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

The design of sustainable wireless sensor network node using solar energy and phase change memory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sustainability of wireless sensor network (WSN) is crucial to its economy and efficiency. While previous works have focused on solving the energy source limitation through solar energy harvesting, we reveal in this paper that sensor node's lifespan could ...

Ping Zhou, Youtao Zhang, Jun Yang

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

PhaseII1.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stakeholder Meeting Stakeholder Meeting DOE-NETL Proposed Phase II Large Scale Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program September 12, 2002 Meeting Summary A meeting was held in Arlington, VA on September 12 on DOE-NETL's plans to go forward with a second phase of field testing of advanced mercury control technology. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Air Quality III Conference and was attended by approximately 53 representatives from the coal and electric-utility industries, technology developers, EPA, and other interested parties (see attached attendees list). Scott Renninger provided a brief overview of DOE-NETL's current mercury field testing program. A summary of the results from an earlier stakeholder meeting held in Washington on June 4 were also presented as a starting point for discussion to help

459

Light-driven phase shifter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A light-driven phase shifter is provided for modulating a transmission light beam. A gaseous medium such as argon is provided with electron energy states excited to populate a metastable state. A tunable dye laser is selected with a wavelength effective to deplete the metastable electron state and may be intensity modulated. The dye laser is directed through the gaseous medium to define a first optical path having an index of refraction determined by the gaseous medium having a depleted metastable electron state. A transmission laser beam is also directed through the gaseous medium to define a second optical path at least partially coincident with the first optical path. The intensity of the dye laser beam may then be varied to phase modulate the transmission laser beam. 2 figs.

Early, J.W.

1986-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

460

Light-driven phase shifter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A light-driven phase shifter is provided for modulating a transmission light beam. A gaseous medium such as argon is provided with electron energy states excited to populate a metastable state. A tunable dye laser is selected with a wavelength effective to deplete the metastable electron state and may be intensity modulated. The dye laser is directed through the gaseous medium to define a first optical path having an index of refraction determined by the gaseous medium having a depleted metastable electron state. A transmission laser beam is also directed through the gaseous medium to define a second optical path at least partially coincident with the first optical path. The intensity of the dye laser beam may then be varied to phase modulate the transmission laser beam.

Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project Probability/Coordination Study Resident Fish and Wildlife Impacts Phase III, 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Phase III began in 1995 with the overall goal of quantifying changes in resident fish habitat in the Snake River Basin upstream of Brownlee Reservoir resulting from the release of salmon flow augmentation water.

Leitzinger, Eric J. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Ferromagnetic state and phase transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evidence is summarized attesting that the standard exchange field theory of ferromagnetism by Heisenberg has not been successful. It is replaced by the crystal field and a simple assumption that spin orientation is inexorably associated with the orientation of its carrier. It follows at once that both ferromagnetic phase transitions and magnetization must involve a structural rearrangement. The mechanism of structural rearrangements in solids is nucleation and interface propagation. The new approach accounts coherently for ferromagnetic state and its manifestations.

Yuri Mnyukh

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

463

Final Report: Sensorpedia Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL s) Phase 3 development of Sensorpedia, a sensor information sharing platform. Sensorpedia is ORNL s Wikipedia for Sensors. The overall goal of Sensorpedia is to enable global scale sensor information sharing for scientific research, national security and defense, public health and safety, emergency preparedness and response, and general community awareness and outreach.

Gorman, Bryan L [ORNL; Resseguie, David R [ORNL

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Phase comparator apparatus and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention finds especially useful application for interferometer measurements made in plasma fusion devices (e.g., for measuring the line integral of electron density in the plasma). Such interferometers typically use very high intermediate frequencies (e.g., on the order of 10 to 70 MHz) and therefore the phase comparison circuitry should be a high speed circuit with a linear transfer characteristic so as to accurately differentiate between small fractions of interference fringes.

Coffield, F.E.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15  

SciTech Connect

The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.

Schaefer, T.; Shuryak, E.

1999-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

466

Prepare The Nation For Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Prepare The Nation For Change Print E-mail What Is Adaptation and Mitigation? Adaptation An adjustment in natural and/or human systems to a new or changing environment that exploits beneficial opportunities and moderates negative impacts. Mitigation An intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases and other climate warming agents. This intervention could include approaches devised to: reduce emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere to enhance their removal from the atmosphere through storage in geological formations, soils, biomass, or the ocean How do we prepare for global change? Global change is affecting many aspects of society, livelihoods, and the environment. Across the United States and around the world, people are making decisions to effectively minimize (mitigate) and prepare for (adapt) global change.

467

ICCS Area 2, Phase 2 Renewal Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10, 2010 10, 2010 1. When does Phase II start date? Assume July 1? Answer: Per the FOA, "Projects that are selected for Phase 2 will receive no more than a 4 month extension to Phase 1 to allow DOE and the Phase 2 Recipient(s) sufficient time to negotiate the full scope and budget for Phase 2. DOE reserves the right to award Phase 2 anytime during this 4 month period". DOE will not extend a Phase 1 project beyond September 30, 2010; therefore, it is likely that no more than a 3 month extension will be provided. Further, depending upon the positive cooperation and responsiveness of the Phase 2 Recipient, DOE will be able to make the full Phase 2 award more quickly. Any start date proposed by the Recipient is subject to negotiation with DOE if the project is selected.

468

Change in Pacific nitrogen content tied to climate change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 For immediate release: 12/15/2013 | NR-13-12-04 High Resolution Image Living and fossilized coral are gathered from dives in the Hawaiian Islands. A Lawrence Livermore scientist and collaborators have studied coral to determine that a long-term shift in nitrogen content in the Pacific Ocean has occurred as a result of climate change. Image courtesy of NOAA Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory. Change in Pacific nitrogen content tied to climate change Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Using deep sea corals gathered near the Hawaiian Islands, a Lawrence Livermore scientist, in collaboration with UC Santa Cruz colleagues, has determined that a long-term shift in nitrogen content in the Pacific Ocean has occurred as a result of climate change.

469

Climate ChangeClimate Change and Runoff Managementand Runoff Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

% ) Radiated by atmosphere as heat (66%) Heat radiated by the earth Heat Troposphere Lower Stratosphere (ozone · Result: a statistical range of probable climate change GCM grid Downscaled (8x8 km) grid D. Vimont, UW

Sheridan, Jennifer

470

Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

Reed, Bryan W. (Livermore, CA)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

471

Quantum gates and their coexisting geometric phases  

SciTech Connect

Geometric phases arise naturally in a variety of quantum systems with observable consequences. They also arise in quantum computations when dressed states are used in gating operations. Here we show how they arise in these gating operations and how one may take advantage of the dressed states producing them. Specifically, we show that for a given, but arbitrary Hamiltonian, and at an arbitrary time {tau}, there always exists a set of dressed states such that a given gate operation can be performed by the Hamiltonian up to a phase {phi}. The phase is a sum of a dynamical phase and a geometric phase. We illustrate the dressed phase for several systems.

Wu Lianao [Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48011 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, Basque Country University (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Bishop, C. Allen [Physics Department, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901-4401 (United States); Byrd, Mark S. [Physics Department, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901-4401 (United States); Computer Science Department, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

472

Appendix C. Changes to the API  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... OOF2: The Manual. Appendix C. Changes to the API. Prev, Appendix C. Changes to the API. Table of Contents. C.1. Changes ...

2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

473

Climate Change Science Institute | Clean Energy | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate Change Science Institute SHARE Climate Change Science Institute To advance understanding of the Earth system, describe the consequences of climate change, and evaluate and...

474

Global Environmental Change and Human Security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with human rights, human security or environmental change ifEnvironmental Change and Human Security By Matthew, RichardChange and Human Security. Cambridge, Massachusetts &

Kunnas, Jan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Geometric phase of a central spin coupled to an antiferromagnetic environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the spin-wave approximation, we study the geometric phase (GP) of a central spin (signal qubit) coupled to an antiferromagnetic (AF) environment under the application of an external global magnetic field. The external magnetic field affects the GP of the qubit directly and also indirectly through its effect on the AF environment. We find that when the applied magnetic field is increased to the critical magnetic field point, the AF environment undergoes a spin-flop transition, a first-order phase transition, and at the same time the GP of the qubit changes abruptly to zero. This sensitive change of the GP of a signal qubit to the parameter change of a many-body environment near its critical point may serve as another efficient tool or witness to study the many-body phase transition. The influences of the AF environment temperature and crystal anisotropy field on the GP are also investigated.

Xiao-Zhong Yuan; Hsi-Sheng Goan; Ka-Di Zhu

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

476

Liquid-gas phase transition and its order in finite nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The liquid-gas phase transition in finite nuclei is studied in a heated liquid-drop model where the drop is assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium with the vapour emanated from it. Changing pressure along the liquid-gas coexistence line of the systems, symmetric or asymmetric, suggests that the phase transition is a continuous one. This is further corroborated from the study of the thermal evolution of the entropy at constant pressure.

Tapas Sil; S. K. Samaddar; J. N. De; S. Shlomo

2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

477

Performance monitoring for new phase dynamic optimization of instruction dispatch cluster configuration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a processor having multiple clusters which operate in parallel, the number of clusters in use can be varied dynamically. At the start of each program phase, the configuration option for an interval is run to determine the optimal configuration, which is used until the next phase change is detected. The optimum instruction interval is determined by starting with a minimum interval and doubling it until a low stability factor is reached.

Balasubramonian, Rajeev (Sandy, UT); Dwarkadas, Sandhya (Rochester, NY); Albonesi, David (Ithaca, NY)

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

478

CO2-Induced Climate Change in CMIP2 Experiments: Quantification of Agreement and Role of Internal Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CO2-induced changes in surface air temperature, precipitation, and sea level pressure are compared between model experiments participating in the second phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP2). A statistical formalism is ...

Jouni Räisänen

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Spatial Patterns of Precipitation Change in CMIP5: Why the Rich Do Not Get Richer in the Tropics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in the patterns of tropical precipitation (P) and circulation are analyzed in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) GCMs under the representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. A robust weakening of the ...

Robin Chadwick; Ian Boutle; Gill Martin

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Phase Equilibria: On-line tutorials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Virtual chemistry experiments showing s->l->g phase diagrams, 0, 862, Cathy Rohrer ... Binary phase diagram tutorial, 0, 947, Cathy Rohrer, 2/11/2007 2:42 PM

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bio-based phase change" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

A Focus On Mixed-Phase Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phase composition and microphysical structure of clouds define the manner in which they modulate atmospheric radiation and contribute to the hydrologic cycle. Issues regarding cloud phase partitioning and transformation come to bear directly ...

Matthew D. Shupe; John S. Daniel; Gijs de Boer; Edwin W. Eloranta; Pavlos Kollias; Edward P. Luke; Charles N. Long; David D. Turner; Johannes Verlinde

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Constructing an Optimisation Phase Using Grammatical Evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Invariant Hoisting Common Subexpression Elimination Dead Code Elimination Block Reordering Current Approaches #12;Alexander/Gratton Current Approaches · Phase seqencing Loop Invariant Hoisting Common/Gratton Current Approaches · Phase seqencing Loop Invariant Hoisting Common Subexpression Elimination Dead Code

Alexander, Brad

483

Phases in Iron-Base Superalloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

catted by athe u and a phtiti wuz qtie di66c~~~L ... such as a, Laves, G and u phase can in- .... CT phase, with the decrease in the elongation being less sen-.

484

Edison Phase II Compute Cabinets Arrive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Edison Phase II Compute Cabinets Arrive at NERSC Edison Phase II Compute Cabinets Arrive at NERSC June 27, 2013 by Zhengji Zhao (1 Comments) The compute cabinets were shiped to...

485

Martensitic Phase Transformations and Functional Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phase Transformation and Microstructural Evolution: Martensitic Phase ... of Bordeaux; Francisca Caballero, National Center for Metallurgical Research ... The finding challenges the conventional view that martensite always returns to ... The experimental data are explained in terms of both mechanical and chemical effects.

486

Cloud Particle Phase Determination with the AVHRR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An accurate determination of cloud particle phase is required for the retrieval of other cloud properties from satellite and for radiative flux calculations in climate models. The physical principles underlying phase determination using the ...

Jeffrey R. Key; Janet M. Intrieri

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAMMA TITANIUM ALUMINIDES: I: Phase ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

They are disordered solution phases: liquid, (Ti, Al), (Ti, Al), (Al); ordered intermetallic phases: 2Ti3Al, TiAl, TiAl3 and stoichiometric compounds: TiAl2, Ti2Al5.

488

Frequently Asked Global Change Questions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Asked Global Change Questions Asked Global Change Questions This page lists global change questions that have been received at CDIAC and the answers that were provided to a diverse audience. If you have a question relating to carbon dioxide and global change and cannot find the answer you need here, you can "Ask Us a Question", and we will be glad to try to help you. Questions Should we grow trees to remove carbon in the atmosphere? What are the present tropospheric concentrations, global warming potentials (100 year time horizon), and atmospheric lifetimes of CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CCl4, methyl chloroform, HCFC-22, sulphur hexafluoride, trifluoromethyl sulphur pentafluoride, perfluoroethane, and surface ozone? Where can I find information on the naming of halocarbons?

489

Marathon pacing and elevation change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analysis of marathon pacing and elevation change is presented. It is based on an empirical observation of how the pace of elite and non-elite marathon runners change over the course of the marathon and a simple approximation of the energy cost of ascent and decent. It was observed that the pace of the runners slowed in a regular manner that could be broken up into four regions. That observation can be used to project target paces for a desired marathon finish time. However, that estimate fails to take in to account the energetic costs of elevation changes (hills) along the marathon course. Several approximations are made to give a coarse estimate of target paces for marathon run on courses with significant elevation changes, i.e. a hilly course. The 2012 Oakland Marathon course is used as and example of a hilly course and the times of 23 finishers are examined.

Elliott, J B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Building Regulatory Capacity for Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regulatory Capacity for Change PRESENTED BY Sarah Spencer-Workman, LEED AP July 27, 2011 "How to identify and review laws relevant to buildings and find places and opportunities...

491

Nature Climate Change features Los  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nature Climate Change features Los Alamos forest research February 27, 2013 New print edition of journal tags tree-stress project for cover story LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Feb. 27,...

492

book review: Climate change mapped  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6596  news and update  book review  Climate change mapped atlas is more than just a book of maps.  By  that criterion than  just  a  science  book.   It  also covers climate 

Shanahan, Mike

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Climate Change - The Way Forward  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Washington, DC May 14 -17, 2001 Concerns that the continued use of fossil fuels will in some way cause adverse changes to the world's climate can be...

494

Building Regulatory Capacity for Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regulatory Capacity for Regulatory Capacity for Change PRESENTED BY Sarah Spencer-Workman, LEED AP July 27, 2011 "How to identify and review laws relevant to buildings and find places and opportunities that can accept changes that would support building energy objectives" Presentation Highlights Rulemaking Community and Stakeholder Identification To Support Code Changes Engagement: Building Capacity for Change Pay It Forward RULEMAKING : Plan Development and Research of Laws Relevant to Buildings How is it conducted? 'Landscape' Review Key words or phrases to look for Identify "home rule" jurisdictions Update and review cycle built in 'Landscape' Review:

495

Phase-Covariant Quantum Benchmarks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give a quantum benchmark for teleportation and quantum storage experiments suited for pure and mixed test states. The benchmark is based on the average fidelity over a family of phase-covariant states and certifies that an experiment can not be emulated by a classical setup, i.e., by a measure-and-prepare scheme. We give an analytical solution for qubits, which shows important differences with standard state estimation approach, and compute the value of the benchmark for coherent and squeezed states, both pure and mixed.

Calsamiglia, J; Muñoz-Tàpia, R; Bagán, E

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Phase-Covariant Quantum Benchmarks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give a quantum benchmark for teleportation and quantum storage experiments suited for pure and mixed test states. The benchmark is based on the average fidelity over a family of phase-covariant states and certifies that an experiment can not be emulated by a classical setup, i.e., by a measure-and-prepare scheme. We give an analytical solution for qubits, which shows important differences with standard state estimation approach, and compute the value of the benchmark for coherent and squeezed states, both pure and mixed.

J. Calsamiglia; M. Aspachs; R. Munoz-Tapia; E. Bagan

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

497

Vapor phase heat transport systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vapor phase heat-transport systems are being tested in two of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The systems consist of an active fin-and-tube solar collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by a pump or by a self-pumping scheme. In one of the test cells the liquid was self-pumped to the roof-mounted collector 17 ft above the condenser. A mechanical valve was designed and tested that showed that the system could operate in a completely passive mode. Performance comparisons have been made with a passive water wall test cell.

Hedstrom, J.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Phase Transition in Reconstituted Chromatin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By observing reconstituted chromatin by fluorescence microscopy (FM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we found that the density of nucleosomes exhibits a bimodal profile, i.e., there is a large transition between the dense and dispersed states in reconstituted chromatin. Based on an analysis of the spatial distribution of nucleosome cores, we deduced an effective thermodynamic potential as a function of the nucleosome-nucleosome distance. This enabled us to interpret the folding transition of chromatin in terms of a first-order phase transition. This mechanism for the condensation of chromatin is discussed in terms of its biological significance.

Tonau Nakai; Kohji Hizume; Shige. H. Yoshimura; Kunio Takeyasu; Kenichi Yoshikawa

2004-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

499

More is the Same; Phase Transitions and Mean Field Theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper Looks at the early theory of phase transitions. It considers a group of related concepts derived from condensed matter and statistical physics. The key technical ideas here go under the names of "singularity", "order parameter", "mean field theory", and "variational method". In a less technical vein, the question here is how can matter, ordinary matter, support a diversity of forms. We see this diversity each time we observe ice in contact with liquid water or see water vapor, "steam", come up from a pot of heated water. Different phases can be qualitatively different in that walking on ice is well within human capacity, but walking on liquid water is proverbially forbidden to ordinary humans. These differences have been apparent to humankind for millennia, but only brought within the domain of scientific understanding since the 1880s. A phase transition is a change from one behavior to another. A first order phase transition involves a discontinuous jump in a some statistical variable of the syste...

Kadanoff, Leo P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Inducing Transformational Energy Technological Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reducing risks of severe climate change in the latter part of the 20th Century is likely to require not only incremental improvements in known energy technologies, but the discovery of transformational new energy technologies. This paper reviews current knowledge about both demand and supply aspects of the challenge of accelerating transformational change, considering both economic and policy incentives, including targeted government funding of research and development, and several other schools of thought about drivers of scientific discovery and innovation.

Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z