National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for bidirectional scattering distribution

  1. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

    2011-01-21

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  2. Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.K.

    1988-06-17

    The interaction of light and matter define what we see. This interaction can be characterized by a function which relates incoming light to the distribution of outgoing or reflected light. The Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function (BRDF) is just such a function. Computer graphics scientists attempting to model this function have made simplifying assumptions about the reflecting surfaces. These simpler models have produced adequate results but only handle very uniform or isotropic surface characteristics. Reality on the other hand is filled with a variety of surface textures which result in a variety of BRDFs. This thesis broadens the class of BRDFs which can be used in computer graphics to render objects more realistically. It presents two enhancements to previous work done by the author. First, it describes a method for the approximation of surface absorption of light through the use of a computed geometric attentuation factor. This factor is computed by calculating the parts of the surface which are visible in the incident and reflecting directions. Specifically, it describes the algorithms and theory behind the visibility calculations and how it affects the reflection properties of the surface. Second, it describes a method for computing Fresnel's Law for conducting and dielectric surface materials and how Fresnel's Law affects surface reflectivity. This work also presents a method for rendering objects using the computed BRDFs. 38 refs., 29 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. WPEC subgroup 35 ""scattering angular distribution in the fast...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    WPEC subgroup 35 ""scattering angular distribution in the fast energy range"" status report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: WPEC subgroup 35 ""scattering angular...

  4. Distributions of off-diagonal scattering matrix elements: Exact results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nock, A. Kumar, S. Sommers, H.-J. Guhr, T.

    2014-03-15

    Scattering is a ubiquitous phenomenon which is observed in a variety of physical systems which span a wide range of length scales. The scattering matrix is the key quantity which provides a complete description of the scattering process. The universal features of scattering in chaotic systems is most generally modeled by the Heidelberg approach which introduces stochasticity to the scattering matrix at the level of the Hamiltonian describing the scattering center. The statistics of the scattering matrix is obtained by averaging over the ensemble of random Hamiltonians of appropriate symmetry. We derive exact results for the distributions of the real and imaginary parts of the off-diagonal scattering matrix elements applicable to orthogonally-invariant and unitarily-invariant Hamiltonians, thereby solving a long standing problem. -- Highlights: Scattering problem in complex or chaotic systems. Heidelberg approach to model the chaotic nature of the scattering center. A novel route to the nonlinear sigma model based on the characteristic function. Exact results for the distributions of off-diagonal scattering-matrix elements. Universal aspects of the scattering-matrix fluctuations.

  5. Bidirectional amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, James T.

    1986-01-01

    A bilateral circuit is operable for transmitting signals in two directions without generation of ringing due to feedback caused by the insertion of the circuit. The circuit may include gain for each of the signals to provide a bidirectional amplifier. The signals are passed through two separate paths, with a unidirectional amplifier in each path. A controlled sampling device is provided in each path for sampling the two signals. Any feedback loop between the two signals is disrupted by providing a phase displacement between the control signals for the two sampling devices.

  6. Bidirectional amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, J.T.

    1984-02-02

    A bilateral circuit is operable for transmitting signals in two directions without generation of ringing due to feedback caused by the insertion of the circuit. The circuit may include gain for each of the signals to provide a bidirectional amplifier. The signals are passed through two separate paths, with a unidirectional amplifier in each path. A controlled sampling device is provided in each path for sampling the two signals. Any feedback loop between the two signals is disrupted by providing a phase displacement between the control signals for the two sampling devices.

  7. Effects of graded distribution of scattering centers on ballistic transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitran, T. L.; Nemnes, G. A.; Ion, L.; Dragoman, Daniela

    2014-09-28

    The transmission coefficient of a two dimensional scattering region connected to ideal leads was calculated for the case of electrons interacting with an inhomogeneous distribution of repulsive or attractive scattering centers. The scattering centers with Gaussian profiles were positioned at regular intervals perpendicular to the transport direction, but were spaced according to a power law along this direction. The transmission function was obtained using a scattering formalism based on the R-matrix method. The simulations revealed that although, overall, the transmission coefficient decreases and becomes almost monotonously dependent on energy as the inhomogeneity of both attractive and repulsive scattering centers increases, the redistribution of transmission between open channels depends on the type of scattering centers.

  8. Barrier distribution of quasi-elastic backward scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitsuoka, S.; Ikezoe, H.; Nishio, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Jeong, S. C.; Ishiyama, H.; Hirayama, Y.; Imai, N.; Miyatake, H.

    2009-05-04

    In order to study the nucleus-nucleus interaction in Pb-based cold fusion, we have measured excitation functions for quasi-elastic scattering of {sup 48}Ti, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 86}Kr projectiles on {sup 208}Pb target at backward angles. The barrier distributions were derived from the first derivative of measured quasi-elastic scattering cross sections relative to the Rutherford scattering cross section. The centroids of the barrier distributions show a deviation from several predicted barrier heights toward the low energy side. The shape of the barrier distributions is well reproduced by the results of a coupled-channel calculation taking account of the coupling effects of two phonon excitations of the quadrupole vibration for the projectiles and of the octupole vibration for the {sup 208}Pb target.

  9. Polarization of photons scattered by electrons in any spectral distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Jiang, Yunguo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the quantum electrodynamics, we present a generic formalism of the polarization for beamed monochromatic photons scattered by electrons in any spectral distribution. The formulae reduce to the components of the Fano matrix when electrons are at rest. We mainly investigate the polarization in three scenarios, i.e., electrons at rest, isotropic electrons with a power-law spectrum, and thermal electrons. If the incident beam is polarized, the polarization is reduced significantly by isotropic electrons at large viewing angles; the degree of polarization caused by thermal electrons is about half of that caused by power-law electrons. If the incident bean is unpolarized, soft ?-rays can lead to about 15% polarization at viewing angles around ?/4. For isotropic electrons, one remarkable feature is that the polarization as a function of the incident photon energy always peaks roughly at 1 MeV; this is valid for both the thermal and power-law cases. This feature can be used to distinguish the model of the inverse Compton scattering from that of the synchrotron radiation.

  10. Spatial frequency spectrum of the x-ray scatter distribution in CBCT projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bootsma, G. J.; Verhaegen, F.; Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 ; Jaffray, D. A.; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9; Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: X-ray scatter is a source of significant image quality loss in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The use of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations separating primary and scattered photons has allowed the structure and nature of the scatter distribution in CBCT to become better elucidated. This work seeks to quantify the structure and determine a suitable basis function for the scatter distribution by examining its spectral components using Fourier analysis.Methods: The scatter distribution projection data were simulated using a CBCT MC model based on the EGSnrc code. CBCT projection data, with separated primary and scatter signal, were generated for a 30.6 cm diameter water cylinder [single angle projection with varying axis-to-detector distance (ADD) and bowtie filters] and two anthropomorphic phantoms (head and pelvis, 360 projections sampled every 1, with and without a compensator). The Fourier transform of the resulting scatter distributions was computed and analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. A novel metric called the scatter frequency width (SFW) is introduced to determine the scatter distribution's frequency content. The frequency content results are used to determine a set basis functions, consisting of low-frequency sine and cosine functions, to fit and denoise the scatter distribution generated from MC simulations using a reduced number of photons and projections. The signal recovery is implemented using Fourier filtering (low-pass Butterworth filter) and interpolation. Estimates of the scatter distribution are used to correct and reconstruct simulated projections.Results: The spatial and angular frequencies are contained within a maximum frequency of 0.1 cm{sup ?1} and 7/(2?) rad{sup ?1} for the imaging scenarios examined, with these values varying depending on the object and imaging setup (e.g., ADD and compensator). These data indicate spatial and angular sampling every 5 cm and ?/7 rad (?25) can be used to properly capture the scatter distribution, with reduced sampling possible depending on the imaging scenario. Using a low-pass Butterworth filter, tuned with the SFW values, to denoise the scatter projection data generated from MC simulations using 10{sup 6} photons resulted in an error reduction of greater than 85% for the estimating scatter in single and multiple projections. Analysis showed that the use of a compensator helped reduce the error in estimating the scatter distribution from limited photon simulations by more than 37% when compared to the case without a compensator for the head and pelvis phantoms. Reconstructions of simulated head phantom projections corrected by the filtered and interpolated scatter estimates showed improvements in overall image quality.Conclusions: The spatial frequency content of the scatter distribution in CBCT is found to be contained within the low frequency domain. The frequency content is modulated both by object and imaging parameters (ADD and compensator). The low-frequency nature of the scatter distribution allows for a limited set of sine and cosine basis functions to be used to accurately represent the scatter signal in the presence of noise and reduced data sampling decreasing MC based scatter estimation time. Compensator induced modulation of the scatter distribution reduces the frequency content and improves the fitting results.

  11. Bidirectional reflection functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.; Max, N.; Springmeyer, R.

    1987-04-29

    The Torrance-Sparrow model for calculating bidirectional reflection functions contains a geometrical attenuation factor to account for shadowing and occlusions in a hypothetical distribution of grooves on a rough surface. Using an efficient table-based method for determining the shadows and occlusions, we calculate the geometric attenuation factor for surfaces defined by a specific table of bump heights. Diffuse and glossy specular reflection of the environment can be handled in a unified manner by using an integral of the bidirectional reflection function times the environmental illumination, over the hemisphere of solid angle above a surface. We present a method of estimating the integral, by expanding the bidirectional reflection coefficient in spherical harmonics, and show how the coefficients in this expansion can be determined efficiently by reorganizing our geometric attenuation calculation.

  12. Bidirectional slapper detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCormick, Robert N.; Boyd, Melissa D.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a bidirectional slapper detonator. One embodiment utilizes a single bridge circuit to detonate a pair of opposing initiating pellets. A line generator embodiment uses a plurality of bridges in electrical series to generate opposing cylindrical wavefronts.

  13. WPEC subgroup 35 ""scattering angular distribution in the fast energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    range"" status report (Conference) | SciTech Connect WPEC subgroup 35 ""scattering angular distribution in the fast energy range"" status report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: WPEC subgroup 35 ""scattering angular distribution in the fast energy range"" status report Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2011-05-12 OSTI Identifier: 1067415 Report Number(s):

  14. Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Scattering Print When a crystalline sample is illuminated with x-rays, the x-rays are scattered (diffracted) into very specific directions with various intensities. Detectors are used to measure this "diffraction pattern," which is then processed by computers to deduce the arrangement of atoms within the crystal. Hard x-rays have wavelengths comparable to the distance between atoms. Essentially everything we know about the atomic structure of materials is based on results

  15. Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Print When a crystalline sample is illuminated with x-rays, the x-rays are scattered (diffracted) into very specific directions with various intensities. Detectors are used to measure this "diffraction pattern," which is then processed by computers to deduce the arrangement of atoms within the crystal. Hard x-rays have wavelengths comparable to the distance between atoms. Essentially everything we know about the atomic structure of materials is based on results from x-ray

  16. Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Print When a crystalline sample is illuminated with x-rays, the x-rays are scattered (diffracted) into very specific directions with various intensities. Detectors are used to measure this "diffraction pattern," which is then processed by computers to deduce the arrangement of atoms within the crystal. Hard x-rays have wavelengths comparable to the distance between atoms. Essentially everything we know about the atomic structure of materials is based on results from x-ray

  17. Second order classical perturbation theory for atom surface scattering: Analysis of asymmetry in the angular distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yun Pollak, Eli; Miret-Arts, Salvador

    2014-01-14

    A second order classical perturbation theory is developed and applied to elastic atom corrugated surface scattering. The resulting theory accounts for experimentally observed asymmetry in the final angular distributions. These include qualitative features, such as reduction of the asymmetry in the intensity of the rainbow peaks with increased incidence energy as well as the asymmetry in the location of the rainbow peaks with respect to the specular scattering angle. The theory is especially applicable to soft corrugated potentials. Expressions for the angular distribution are derived for the exponential repulsive and Morse potential models. The theory is implemented numerically to a simplified model of the scattering of an Ar atom from a LiF(100) surface.

  18. Bidirectional buck boost converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esser, A.A.M.

    1998-03-31

    A bidirectional buck boost converter and method of operating the same allows regulation of power flow between first and second voltage sources in which the voltage level at each source is subject to change and power flow is independent of relative voltage levels. In one embodiment, the converter is designed for hard switching while another embodiment implements soft switching of the switching devices. In both embodiments, first and second switching devices are serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a first voltage source with third and fourth switching devices serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a second voltage source. A free-wheeling diode is coupled, respectively, in parallel opposition with respective ones of the switching devices. An inductor is coupled between a junction of the first and second switching devices and a junction of the third and fourth switching devices. Gating pulses supplied by a gating circuit selectively enable operation of the switching devices for transferring power between the voltage sources. In the second embodiment, each switching device is shunted by a capacitor and the switching devices are operated when voltage across the device is substantially zero. 20 figs.

  19. Bidirectional buck boost converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esser, Albert Andreas Maria

    1998-03-31

    A bidirectional buck boost converter and method of operating the same allows regulation of power flow between first and second voltage sources in which the voltage level at each source is subject to change and power flow is independent of relative voltage levels. In one embodiment, the converter is designed for hard switching while another embodiment implements soft switching of the switching devices. In both embodiments, first and second switching devices are serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a first voltage source with third and fourth switching devices serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a second voltage source. A free-wheeling diode is coupled, respectively, in parallel opposition with respective ones of the switching devices. An inductor is coupled between a junction of the first and second switching devices and a junction of the third and fourth switching devices. Gating pulses supplied by a gating circuit selectively enable operation of the switching devices for transferring power between the voltage sources. In the second embodiment, each switching device is shunted by a capacitor and the switching devices are operated when voltage across the device is substantially zero.

  20. Time evolution analysis of the electron distribution in Thomson/Compton back-scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Curatolo, C.; Maroli, C.; Serafini, L.; Rossi, A. R.

    2013-07-28

    We present the time evolution of the energy distribution of a relativistic electron beam after the Compton back-scattering with a counter-propagating laser field, performed in the framework of the Quantum Electrodynamics, by means of the code CAIN. As the correct angular distribution of the spontaneous emission is accounted, the main effect is the formation of few stripes, followed by the diffusion of the more energetic particles toward lower values in the longitudinal phase space. The Chapman-Kolmogorov master equation gives results in striking agreement with the numerical ones. An experiment on the Thomson source at SPARC-LAB is proposed.

  1. Frequency locking and monitoring based on Bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    van Marrewijk, N.; Mirzaei, B.; Hayton, D.; Gao, J. R.; Kao, T. Y.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.

    2015-10-07

    In this study, we have performed frequency locking of a dual, forward reverse emitting third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 3.5 THz. By using both directions of THz emission in combination with two gas cells and two power detectors, we can for the first time perform frequency stabilization, while monitor the frequency locking quality independently. We also characterize how the use of a less sensitive pyroelectric detector can influence the quality of frequency locking, illustrating experimentally that the sensitivity of the detectors is crucial. Using both directions of terahertz (THz) radiation has a particular advantage for the applicationmore » of a QCL as a local oscillator, where radiation from one side can be used for frequency/phase stabilization, leaving the other side to be fully utilized as a local oscillator to pump a mixer.« less

  2. Frequency locking and monitoring based on Bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Marrewijk, N.; Mirzaei, B.; Hayton, D.; Gao, J. R.; Kao, T. Y.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.

    2015-10-07

    In this study, we have performed frequency locking of a dual, forward reverse emitting third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 3.5 THz. By using both directions of THz emission in combination with two gas cells and two power detectors, we can for the first time perform frequency stabilization, while monitor the frequency locking quality independently. We also characterize how the use of a less sensitive pyroelectric detector can influence the quality of frequency locking, illustrating experimentally that the sensitivity of the detectors is crucial. Using both directions of terahertz (THz) radiation has a particular advantage for the application of a QCL as a local oscillator, where radiation from one side can be used for frequency/phase stabilization, leaving the other side to be fully utilized as a local oscillator to pump a mixer.

  3. Total Scattering and Pair Distribution Function Analysis in Modelling Disorder in PZN

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Whitfield, Ross E.; Goossens, Darren J; Welberry, T. R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of total scattering (TS) from a powder to determine the local ordering in ferroelectric PZN (PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3) has been explored by comparison with a model established using single-crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS). While X-ray PDF analysis is discussed, the focus is on neutron diffraction results because of the greater extent of the data and the sensitivity of the neutron to oxygen atoms, the behaviour of which is important in PZN. The PDF was shown to be sensitive to many effects not apparent in the average crystal structure, including variations in the B-site—O separationmore » distances and the fact that (110) Pb2+ displacements are most likely. A qualitative comparison between SCDS and the PDF shows that some features apparent in SCDS were not apparent in the PDF. These tended to pertain to short-range correlations in the structure, rather than to interatomic separations. For example, in SCDS the short-range alternation of the B-site cations was quite apparent in diffuse scattering at (½ ½ ½), whereas it was not apparent in the PDF.« less

  4. Total Scattering and Pair Distribution Function Analysis in Modelling Disorder in PZN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, Ross E.; Goossens, Darren J; Welberry, T. R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of total scattering (TS) from a powder to determine the local ordering in ferroelectric PZN (PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3) has been explored by comparison with a model established using single-crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS). While X-ray PDF analysis is discussed, the focus is on neutron diffraction results because of the greater extent of the data and the sensitivity of the neutron to oxygen atoms, the behaviour of which is important in PZN. The PDF was shown to be sensitive to many effects not apparent in the average crystal structure, including variations in the B-site—O separation distances and the fact that (110) Pb2+ displacements are most likely. A qualitative comparison between SCDS and the PDF shows that some features apparent in SCDS were not apparent in the PDF. These tended to pertain to short-range correlations in the structure, rather than to interatomic separations. For example, in SCDS the short-range alternation of the B-site cations was quite apparent in diffuse scattering at (½ ½ ½), whereas it was not apparent in the PDF.

  5. AVTA: Bidirectional Fast Charging Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report is an analysis of bi-directional fast charging, as informed by the AVTA's testing on plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  6. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering data and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.

  7. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering datamore » and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.« less

  8. Unpolarised TMD Distribution and Fragmentation Functions from recent HERMES and COMPASS Semi-inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering Multiplicities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prokudin, Alexey; Anselmino, Mauro; Boglione, Mariaelena; Melis, Stefano; Gonzalez, J. O.

    2014-10-01

    The unpolarised transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions (TMDs) are extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experimental measurements of semi- inclusive deep inelastic scattering multiplicities for charged hadron production. A simple factorised functional form of the TMDs is adopted, with a Gaussian dependence on the intrinsic transverse momentum, which turns out to be quite adequate in shape.

  9. On-the-fly generation of differential resonance scattering probability distribution functions for Monte Carlo codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunny, E. E.; Martin, W. R. [University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Current Monte Carlo codes use one of three models to model neutron scattering in the epithermal energy range: (1) the asymptotic scattering model, (2) the free gas scattering model, or (3) the S({alpha},{beta}) model, depending on the neutron energy and the specific Monte Carlo code. The free gas scattering model assumes the scattering cross section is constant over the neutron energy range, which is usually a good approximation for light nuclei, but not for heavy nuclei where the scattering cross section may have several resonances in the epithermal region. Several researchers in the field have shown that using the free gas scattering model in the vicinity of the resonances in the lower epithermal range can under-predict resonance absorption due to the up-scattering phenomenon. Existing methods all involve performing the collision analysis in the center-of-mass frame, followed by a conversion back to the laboratory frame. In this paper, we will present a new sampling methodology that (1) accounts for the energy-dependent scattering cross sections in the collision analysis and (2) acts in the laboratory frame, avoiding the conversion to the center-of-mass frame. The energy dependence of the scattering cross section was modeled with even-ordered polynomials to approximate the scattering cross section in Blackshaw's equations for the moments of the differential scattering PDFs. These moments were used to sample the outgoing neutron speed and angle in the laboratory frame on-the-fly during the random walk of the neutron. Results for criticality studies on fuel pin and fuel assembly calculations using these methods showed very close comparison to results using the reference Doppler-broadened rejection correction (DBRC) scheme. (authors)

  10. Systems and methods for bi-directional energy delivery with galvanic isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kajouke, Lateef A.

    2013-06-18

    Systems and methods are provided for bi-directional energy delivery. A charging system comprises a first bi-directional conversion module, a second bi-directional conversion module, and an isolation module coupled between the first bi-directional conversion module and the second bi-directional conversion module. The isolation module provides galvanic isolation between the first bi-directional conversion module and the second bi-directional conversion module.

  11. Bi-directional planar slide mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, Lothar F.

    2003-11-04

    A bi-directional slide mechanism. A pair of master and slave disks engages opposite sides of the platform. Rotational drivers are connected to master disks so the disks rotate eccentrically about their respective axes of rotation. Opposing slave disks are connected to master disks on opposite sides of the platform by a circuitous mechanical linkage, or are electronically synchronized together using stepper motors, to effect coordinated motion. The synchronized eccentric motion of the pairs of master/slave disks compels smooth linear motion of the platform forwards and backwards without backlash. The apparatus can be incorporated in a MEMS device.

  12. Peculiarities of the angular distribution of laser radiation intensity scattered by laser-spark plasma in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malyutin, A A; Podvyaznikov, V A; Chevokin, V K

    2010-02-28

    The spatiotemporal study of the diagram of laser radiation scattering by the laser-spark plasma produced by 3-ns and 50-ns pulses is performed. It is shown that radiation appearing outside the laser beam cone is scattered during the first one - two nanoseconds after the air breakdown, when the spark plasma is located in the vicinity of the laser beam waist and has a shape close to spherical.

  13. Energy Distributions of Neutrons Scattered from Graphite, Light and Heavy Water, Ice, Zirconium Hydride, Lithium Hydride, Sodium Hydride and Ammonium Chloride by the Beryllium Detector Method

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Woods, A. D. B.; Brockhouse, Bertram N.; Sakamoto, M.; Sinclair, R. N.

    1960-09-12

    Energy distributions of neutrons scattered from various moderators and from several hydrogenous substances were measured at energy transfers of 0.02 to 0.24 ev. Results from experiments on graphite, light and heavy water, ice, ZrH, LiH, NaH, and NH4Cl are included. It is noted that the results are of a preliminary character; however, they are probably the most accurate measurements of high-energy transfers yet made. (J.R.D.)

  14. Single coil bistable, bidirectional micromechanical actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tabat, Ned; Guckel, Henry

    1998-09-15

    Micromechanical actuators capable of bidirectional and bistable operation can be formed on substrates using lithographic processing techniques. Bistable operation of the microactuator is obtained using a single coil and a magnetic core with a gap. A plunger having two magnetic heads is supported for back and forth linear movement with respect to the gap in the magnetic core, and is spring biased to a neutral position in which the two heads are on each side of the gap in the core. The single electrical coil is coupled to the core and is provided with electrical current to attract one of the heads toward the core by reluctance action to drive the plunger to a limit of travel in one direction. The current is then cut off and the plunger returns by spring action toward the gap, whereafter the current is reapplied to the coil to attract the other head of the plunger by reluctance action to drive the plunger to its other limit of travel. This process can be repeated at a time when switching of the actuator is required.

  15. Study of Generalized Parton Distributions and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on the nucleon with the CLAS and CLAS12 detectors at the Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baptiste Guegan

    2012-11-01

    The exclusive leptoproduction of a real photon is considered to be the "cleanest" way to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD). This process is called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) lN {yields} lN{gamma} , and is sensitive to all the four GPDs. Measuring the DVCS cross section is one of the main goals of this thesis. In this thesis, we present the work performed to extract on a wide phase-space the DVCS cross-section from the JLab data at a beam energy of 6 GeV.

  16. Light-scattering properties of a Venetian blind slat used for daylighting applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsson, Annica M.; Jonsson, Jacob C.

    2010-12-15

    The low cost, simplicity, and aesthetic appearance of external and internal shading devices, make them commonly used for daylighting and glare-control applications. Shading devices, such as Venetian blinds, screens, and roller shades, generally exhibit light scattering and/or light redirecting properties. This requires the bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) of the material to be known in order to accurately predict the daylight distribution and energy flow through the fenestration system. Acquiring the complete BSDF is not a straightforward task, and to complete the process it is often required that a model is used to complement the measured data. In this project, a Venetian blind slat with a white top surface and a brushed aluminum bottom surface was optically characterized. A goniophotometer and an integrating sphere spectrophotometer were used to determine the angle resolved and hemispherical reflectance of the sample, respectively. The acquired data were fitted to a scattering model providing one Lambertian and one angle dependent description of the surface properties. These were used in combination with raytracing to obtain the complete BSDFs of the Venetian blind system. (author)

  17. Barrier Distribution of Quasi-elastic Backward Scattering of {sup 48}Ti, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 86}Kr on {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitsuoka, S.; Ikezoe, H.; Nishio, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Jeong, S. C.

    2009-03-04

    In order to study the nucleus-nucleus interaction in Pb-based cold fusion, we have measured excitation functions for quasi-elastic scattering of {sup 48}Ti, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 86}Kr projectiles on {sup 208}Pb target at backward angles. The barrier distributions were derived from the first derivative of measured quasi-elastic scattering cross sections relative to the Rutherford scattering cross section. The centroids of the barrier distributions show a deviation from several predicted barrier heights toward the low energy side. The shape of the barrier distributions is well reproduced by the results of a coupled-channel calculation taking account of the coupling effects of two phonon excitations of the quadrupole vibration for the projectiles and of the octupole vibration for the {sup 208}Pb target.

  18. A Bidirectional High-Power-Quality Grid Interface With a Novel Bidirectional Noninverted Buck Boost Converter for PHEVs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onar, Omer C

    2012-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will play a vital role in future sustainable transportation systems due to their potential in terms of energy security, decreased environmental impact, improved fuel economy, and better performance. Moreover, new regulations have been established to improve the collective gas mileage, cut greenhouse gas emissions, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. This paper primarily focuses on two major thrust areas of PHEVs. First, it introduces a grid-friendly bidirectional alternating current/direct current ac/dc dc/ac rectifier/inverter for facilitating vehicle-to-grid (V2G) integration of PHEVs. Second, it presents an integrated bidirectional noninverted buck boost converter that interfaces the energy storage device of the PHEV to the dc link in both grid-connected and driving modes. The proposed bidirectional converter has minimal grid-level disruptions in terms of power factor and total harmonic distortion, with less switching noise. The integrated bidirectional dc/dc converter assists the grid interface converter to track the charge/discharge power of the PHEV battery. In addition, while driving, the dc/dc converter provides a regulated dc link voltage to the motor drive and captures the braking energy during regenerative braking.

  19. Dual parametrization of the proton generalized parton distribution functions H and E, and description of the deeply virtual Compton scattering cross sections and asymmetries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzey, V.; Teckentrup, T. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2006-09-01

    We develop the minimal model of a new leading order parametrization of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) introduced by Polyakov and Shuvaev. The model for GPDs H and E is formulated in terms of the forward quark distributions, the Gegenbauer moments of the D-term, and the forward limit of the GPD E. The model is designed primarily for small and medium-size values of x{sub B}, x{sub B}{<=}0.2. We examine two different models of the t dependence of the GPDs: the factorized exponential model and the nonfactorized Regge-motivated model. Using our model, we successfully described the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) cross section measured by H1 and ZEUS, the moments of the beam-spin A{sub LU}{sup sin{phi}}, the beam-charge A{sub C}{sup cos{phi}}, and the transversely polarized target A{sub UT}{sup sin{phi}}{sup cos{phi}} DVCS asymmetries measured by HERMES and A{sub LU}{sup sin{phi}} measured by CLAS. The data on A{sub C}{sup cos{phi}} prefer the Regge-motivated model of the t dependence of the GPDs. The data on A{sub UT}{sup sin{phi}}{sup cos{phi}} indicate that the u and d quarks carry only a small fraction of the proton total angular momentum.

  20. Extracting magnetic cluster size and its distributions in advanced perpendicular recording media with shrinking grain size using small angle x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, Virat; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Takano, Ken; Terris, Bruce D.; Hellwig, Olav; Wang, Tianhan; Wu, Benny; Graves, Catherine; Dürr, Hermann A.; Scherz, Andreas; Stöhr, Jo

    2015-05-18

    We analyze the magnetic cluster size (MCS) and magnetic cluster size distribution (MCSD) in a variety of perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media designs using resonant small angle x-ray scattering at the Co L{sub 3} absorption edge. The different PMR media flavors considered here vary in grain size between 7.5 and 9.5 nm as well as in lateral inter-granular exchange strength, which is controlled via the segregant amount. While for high inter-granular exchange, the MCS increases rapidly for grain sizes below 8.5 nm, we show that for increased amount of segregant with less exchange the MCS remains relatively small, even for grain sizes of 7.5 and 8 nm. However, the MCSD still increases sharply when shrinking grains from 8 to 7.5 nm. We show evidence that recording performance such as signal-to-noise-ratio on the spin stand correlates well with the product of magnetic cluster size and magnetic cluster size distribution.

  1. Bichromatic emission and multimode dynamics in bidirectional ring lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Serrano, Antonio; Javaloyes, Julien; Balle, Salvador

    2010-04-15

    The multimode dynamics of a two-level ring laser is explored numerically using a bidirectional traveling wave model retaining the spatial effects due to the presence of counter-propagating electric fields in the population inversion. Dynamical regimes where the emission in each direction occurs at different wavelengths are studied. Mode-locked unidirectional emission for large gain bandwidth and relatively small detuning is reported.

  2. Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-31

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

  3. Measurement of bidirectional optical properties of complex shading devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.; Warner, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorptances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. This paper describes the method of measuring the spatially averaged bidirectional optical properties using an automated, large-sample gonioradiometer/photometer, termed a ``Scanning Radiometer.`` Property measurements are presented for one of the most optically complex systems in common use, a venetian blind. These measurements will form the basis for optical system calculations used to test the method of determining performance.

  4. Active Flow Control on Bidirectional Rotors for Tidal MHK Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiu, Henry; van Dam, Cornelis P.

    2013-08-22

    A marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) tidal turbine extracts energy from tidal currents, providing clean, sustainable electricity generation. In general, all MHK conversion technologies are confronted with significant operational hurdles, resulting in both increased capital and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs. To counter these high costs while maintaining reliability, MHK turbine designs can be simplified. Prior study found that a tidal turbine could be cost-effectively simplified by removing blade pitch and rotor/nacelle yaw. Its rotor would run in one direction during ebb and then reverse direction when the current switched to flood. We dubbed such a turbine a bidirectional rotor tidal turbine (BRTT). The bidirectional hydrofoils of a BRTT are less efficient than conventional hydrofoils and capture less energy, but the elimination of the pitch and yaw systems were estimated to reduce levelized cost of energy by 7.8%-9.6%. In this study, we investigated two mechanisms for recapturing some of the performance shortfall of the BRTT. First, we developed a novel set of hydrofoils, designated the yy series, for BRTT application. Second, we investigated the use of active flow control via microtabs. Microtabs are small deployable/retractable tabs, typically located near the leading or trailing edge of an air/hydrofoil with height on the order of the boundary layer thickness (1% - 2% of chord). They deploy approximately perpendicularly to the foil surface and, like gurney flaps and plain flaps, globally affect the aerodynamics of the airfoil. By strategically placing microtabs and selectively deploying them based on the direction of the inflow, performance of a BRTT rotor can be improved while retaining bidirectional operation. The yy foils were computationally designed and analyzed. They exhibited better performance than the baseline bidirectional foil, the ellipse. For example, the yyb07cn-180 had 14.7% higher (l/d)max than an ellipse of equal thickness. The yyb07cn family also had higher c{sub p,min} than equivalently thick ellipses, indicating less susceptibility to cavitation. Microtabs applied on yy foils demonstrated improved energy capture. A series of variable speed and constant speed rotors were developed with the yyb07cn family of hydrofoils. The constant speed yyb07cn rotor (yy-B02-Rcs,opt) captured 0.45% more energy than the equivalent rotor with ellipses (e-B02-Rcs,opt). With microtabs deployed (yyμt-B02-Rcs,opt), the energy capture increase over the rotor with ellipses was 1.05%. Note, however, that microtabs must be applied judiciously to bidirectional foils. On the 18% thick ellipse, performance decreased with the addition of microtabs. Details of hydrofoil performance, microtab sizing and positioning, rotor configurations, and revenue impacts are presented herein.

  5. Scattering Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Dynamics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  6. Scattering of radiation in collisionless dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.

    2013-04-15

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves in collisionless dusty plasmas is studied in the framework of a multi-component kinetic model. The investigation focuses on the spectral distribution of the scattered radiation. Pronounced dust signatures are identified in the coherent spectrum due to scattering from the shielding cloud around the dust grains, dust acoustic waves, and dust-ion acoustic waves. The magnitude and shape of the scattered signal near these spectral regions are determined with the aid of analytical expressions and its dependence on the dust parameters is investigated. The use of radiation scattering as a potential diagnostic tool for dust detection is discussed.

  7. Imaging of the spatial distribution of atoms in an optical-breakdown plasma with one-dimensional coherent hyper-Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akimov, Denis A; Zheltikov, Aleksei M; Koroteev, Nikolai I; Naumov, A N; Fedotov, Andrei B; Miles, R B; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A

    1998-12-31

    A technique based on coherent four-wave mixing with a hyper-Raman resonance in wide beams was developed for line-by-line reconstruction of the spatial distribution of excited atoms in a laser-produced plasma. This method was used to study the spatial distribution of excited lead atoms in an optical-breakdown plasma formed on a metal target. A comparison was made of the technique of constructing plasma images line-by-line with a four-photon technique of point-by-point measurements. Estimates were obtained of the spatial resolution of the proposed technique. Potential applications of this approach in plasma diagnostics were analysed. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  8. Molecular-beam scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N/sub 2/ from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl ..-->.. NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  9. Structural characterization of Green River oil-shale at high-pressure using pair distribution function analysis and small angle x-ray scattering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locke, D. R.; Chupas, P. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Pugmire, R. J.; Winans, R. E.; Univ. of Utah

    2008-01-01

    The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances (6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond 6 {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component.

  10. Variable mode bi-directional and uni-directional computer communication system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornett, Frank N.; Jenkins, Philip N.; Bowman, Terrance L.; Placek, Joseph M.; Thorson, Gregory M.

    2004-12-14

    A variable communication systems comprising a plurality of transceivers and a control circuit connected to the transceivers to configure the transceivers to operate in a bi-directional mode and a uni-directional mode at different times using different transfer methods to transfer data.

  11. Scattering apodizer for laser beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, M.A.; Hagen, W.F.; Boyd, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.

  12. Scattering apodizer for laser beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, Mark A.; Hagen, Wilhelm F.; Boyd, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.

  13. Fenestration systems as luminaries of varying candlepower distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.

    1990-10-01

    Simulation of the performance of electric lighting systems has been successfully handled using computers, since electric lighting systems have a constant luminous output with respect to intensity and spatial distribution, usually referred to as candlepower distribution, which can be measured and used conveniently. This paper describes an approach of treating fenestration systems as luminaries of varying candlepower distribution, so that the determination of their luminous performance becomes consistent with that of electric lighting systems. The transmitted distribution through fenestration systems due to radiation from the sun, sky and ground is determined from their bidirectional transmittance and the luminance distribution of the sources of radiation. The approach is demonstrated using the experimentally determined bidirectional transmittance of a diffusive sample under the uniform, overcast and clear sky luminance distributions. 6 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Determination and application of bidirectional solar-optical properties of fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.; Klems, J.; Selkowitz, S.

    1988-03-01

    Accurate determination of the luminous and thermal performance of fenestration systems that incorporate optically complex components requires detailed knowledge of their radiant behavior. We describe a large scanning radiometer used to measure the bidirectional transmittance and reflectance of fenestration systems and components. We present examples of measured data obtained for simple non-specular samples. We describe a method of obtaining the overall properties of fenestration systems by calculation from scanning radiometer measurements of fenestration components. Finally, we describe the application of bidirectional solar-optical properties of fenestration systems to determine their luminous and thermal performance with respect to building energy consumption and occupants' comfort. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of the method, which appears to be promising.

  15. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German

    1999-01-01

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit.

  16. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1999-03-23

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit is disclosed. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit. 3 figs.

  17. Temporal Scattering And Response

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-12-15

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided tomore » easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.« less

  18. Environment scattering in GADRAS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoreson, Gregory G.; Mitchell, Dean James; Theisen, Lisa Anne; Harding, Lee T.

    2013-09-01

    Radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the angular tallies for scattered gamma-rays as a function of distance, height, and environment. Green's Functions were then used to encapsulate the results a reusable transformation function. The calculations represent the transport of photons throughout scattering surfaces that surround sources and detectors, such as the ground and walls. Utilization of these calculations in GADRAS (Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software) enables accurate computation of environmental scattering for a variety of environments and source configurations. This capability, which agrees well with numerous experimental benchmark measurements, is now deployed with GADRAS Version 18.2 as the basis for the computation of scattered radiation.

  19. Scattering Techniques and Geometries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    grains - Thin films - Texture (crystallite orientation) - Real time experiments (electrochemistry, stress-strain) Get to know your beamlines incident scattered Detector Q...

  20. Compton scattering overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartemann, F V

    2008-12-01

    An overview of linear and nonlinear Compton scattering is presented, along with a comparison with Thomson scattering. Two distinct processes play important roles in the nonlinear regime: multi-photon interactions, leading to the generation of harmonics, and radiation pressure, yielding a downshift of the radiated spectral features. These mechanisms, their influence on the source brightness, and different modeling strategies are also briefly discussed.

  1. Neutrino Nucleon Elastic Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nucleon Elastic Scattering in MiniBooNE D. Christopher Cox for the MiniBooNE Collaboration Indiana University, Bloomington, IN Abstract. Neutrino nucleon elastic scattering ν N → ν N is a fundamental process of the weak interaction, and can be used to study the structure of the nucleon. This is the third largest scattering process in MiniBooNE comprising ∼15% of all neutrino interactions. Analysis of this sample has yielded a neutral current elastic differential cross section as a function

  2. Propulsion system for a motor vehicle using a bidirectional energy converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tamor, Michael Alan; Gale, Allan Roy

    1999-01-01

    A motor vehicle propulsion system includes an electrical energy source and a traction motor coupled to receive electrical energy from the electrical energy source. The system also has a first bus provided electrical energy by the electrical energy source and a second bus of relatively lower voltage than the first bus. In addition, the system includes an electrically-driven source of reaction gas for the electrical energy source, the source of reaction gas coupled to receive electrical energy from the first bus. Also, the system has an electrical storage device coupled to the second bus for storing electrical energy at the lower voltage. The system also includes a bidirectional energy converter coupled to convert electrical energy from the first bus to the second bus and from the second bus to the first bus.

  3. Lujan Neutron Scattering Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    responds to radiological incident August 27, 2012 The Laboratory is investigating the inadvertent spread of Technetium 99 by employees and contractors at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center August 27, 2012-The Laboratory is investigating the inadvertent spread of Technetium 99 by employees and contractors at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), a multidisciplinary accelerator facility used for both civilian and national security research. The

  4. Scattering Society of America

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Majewski named Fellow of the Neutron Scattering Society of America May 9, 2016 The Neutron Scattering Society of America (NSSA) has honored Jaroslaw (Jarek) Majewski of the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (MPA-CINT) with the title of Fellow. The Society recognized Majewski for "contributions to our understanding of weakly organized two-dimensional systems, including surfactant molecules found in biological systems. Majewski's achievements Majewski received a doctorate in Materials

  5. Study of the nanobubble phase of aqueous NaCl solutions by dynamic light scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunkin, N F; Shkirin, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Burkhanov, I S; Chaikov, L L [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomkova, A K [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-30

    Aqueous NaCl solutions with different concentrations have been investigated by dynamic scattering of laser radiation. It is experimentally shown that these solutions contain scattering particles with a wide size distribution in a range of ?10 100 nm. The experimental results indirectly confirm the existence of quasi-stable gas nanobubbles in the bulk of aqueous ionic solutions. (light scattering)

  6. Inclusive Inelastic Electron Scattering from Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fomin, Nadia

    2007-10-26

    Inclusive electron scattering from nuclei at large x and Q{sup 2} is the result of a reaction mechanism that includes both quasi-elastic scattering from nucleons and deep inelastic scattering from the quark consitituents of the nucleons. Data in this regime can be used to study a wide variety of topics, including the extraction of nuclear momentum distributions, the infiuence of final state interactions and the approach to y-scaling, the strength of nucleon-nucleon correlations, and the approach to x-scaling, to name a few. Selected results from the recent experiment E02-019 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility will be shown and their relevance discussed.

  7. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern science, ranging from large-scale structures and dynamics of polymers and biological systems, to electronic properties of today's technological materials. Neutron scattering developed into a vast field, encompassing many different experimental techniques aimed at exploring different aspects of matter's atomic structure and dynamics. Modern magnetic neutron scattering includes several specialized techniques designed for specific studies and/or particular classes of materials. Among these are magnetic reflectometry aimed at investigating surfaces, interfaces, and multilayers, small-angle scattering for the large-scale structures, such as a vortex lattice in a superconductor, and neutron spin-echo spectroscopy for glasses and polymers. Each of these techniques and many others offer exciting opportunities for examining magnetism and warrant extensive reviews, but the aim of this chapter is not to survey how different neutron-scattering methods are used to examine magnetic properties of different materials. Here, we concentrate on reviewing the basics of the magnetic neutron scattering, and on the recent developments in applying one of the oldest methods, the triple axis spectroscopy, that still is among the most extensively used ones. The developments discussed here are new and have not been coherently reviewed. Chapter 2 of this book reviews magnetic small-angle scattering, and modern techniques of neutron magnetic reflectometry are discussed in Chapter 3.

  8. Scattering Of Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R

    2009-12-15

    The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches.We present a new ab initio many-body approach which derives from the combination of the ab initio no-core shell model with the resonating-group method [4]. By complementing a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, this approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. We will discuss applications to neutron and proton scattering on sand light p-shell nuclei using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and outline the progress toward the treatment of more complex reactions.

  9. Inelastic Scattering Form Factors

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-01-01

    ATHENA-IV computes form factors for inelastic scattering calculations, using single-particle wave functions that are eigenstates of motion in either a Woods-Saxon potential well or a harmonic oscillator well. Two-body forces of Gauss, Coulomb, Yukawa, and a sum of cut-off Yukawa radial dependences are available.

  10. Anisotropic Elastic Resonance Scattering model for the Neutron Transport equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed Ouisloumen; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Shadi Z. Ghrayeb

    2014-11-24

    The resonance scattering transfer cross-section has been reformulated to account for anisotropic scattering in the center-of-mass of the neutron-nucleus system. The main innovation over previous implementations is the relaxation of the ubiquitous assumption of isotropic scattering in the center-of-mass and the actual effective use of scattering angle distributions from evaluated nuclear data files in the computation of the angular moments of the resonant scattering kernels. The formulas for the high order anisotropic moments in the laboratory system are also derived. A multi-group numerical formulation is derived and implemented into a module incorporated within the NJOY nuclear data processing code. An ultra-fine energy mesh cross section library was generated using these new theoretical models and then was used for fuel assembly calculations with the PARAGON lattice physics code. The results obtained indicate a strong effect of this new model on reactivity, multi-group fluxes and isotopic inventory during depletion.

  11. What Does a Scattering Pattern Tell US?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Space sample light image Image Space lens Angular Space Q 4p sin(q) l Fourier Transform Scattering Pattern Fourier Transform Phase Problem Scattering Pattern...

  12. SU-E-I-07: An Improved Technique for Scatter Correction in PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, S; Wang, Y; Lue, K; Lin, H; Chuang, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In positron emission tomography (PET), the single scatter simulation (SSS) algorithm is widely used for scatter estimation in clinical scans. However, bias usually occurs at the essential steps of scaling the computed SSS distribution to real scatter amounts by employing the scatter-only projection tail. The bias can be amplified when the scatter-only projection tail is too small, resulting in incorrect scatter correction. To this end, we propose a novel scatter calibration technique to accurately estimate the amount of scatter using pre-determined scatter fraction (SF) function instead of the employment of scatter-only tail information. Methods: As the SF depends on the radioactivity distribution and the attenuating material of the patient, an accurate theoretical relation cannot be devised. Instead, we constructed an empirical transformation function between SFs and average attenuation coefficients based on a serious of phantom studies with different sizes and materials. From the average attenuation coefficient, the predicted SFs were calculated using empirical transformation function. Hence, real scatter amount can be obtained by scaling the SSS distribution with the predicted SFs. The simulation was conducted using the SimSET. The Siemens Biograph 6 PET scanner was modeled in this study. The Software for Tomographic Image Reconstruction (STIR) was employed to estimate the scatter and reconstruct images. The EEC phantom was adopted to evaluate the performance of our proposed technique. Results: The scatter-corrected image of our method demonstrated improved image contrast over that of SSS. For our technique and SSS of the reconstructed images, the normalized standard deviation were 0.053 and 0.182, respectively; the root mean squared errors were 11.852 and 13.767, respectively. Conclusion: We have proposed an alternative method to calibrate SSS (C-SSS) to the absolute scatter amounts using SF. This method can avoid the bias caused by the insufficient tail information and therefore improve the accuracy of scatter estimation.

  13. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the concentrator optical efficiency was found to decrease significantly with increasing aperture width beyond 0.5 m due to parasitic waveguide out-coupling loss and low-level absorption that become dominant at larger scale. A heat transfer model was subsequently implemented to predict collector fluid heat gain and outlet temperature as a function of flow rate using the optical model as a flux input. It was found that the aperture width size limitation imposed by the optical efficiency characteristics of the waveguide limits the absolute optical power delivered to the heat transfer element per unit length. As compared to state-of-the-art parabolic trough CPV system aperture widths approaching 5 m, this limitation leads to an approximate factor of order of magnitude increase in heat transfer tube length to achieve the same heat transfer fluid outlet temperature. The conclusion of this work is that scattering solar thermal concentration cannot be implemented at the scale and efficiency required to compete with the performance of current parabolic trough CSP systems. Applied within the alternate context of CPV, however, the results of this work have likely opened up a transformative new path that enables quasi-static, high efficiency CPV to be implemented on rooftops in the form factor of traditional fixed-panel photovoltaics.

  14. Measuring bi-directional current through a field-effect transistor by virtue of drain-to-source voltage measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Steven Richard

    2006-12-26

    A method and apparatus for measuring current, and particularly bi-directional current, in a field-effect transistor (FET) using drain-to-source voltage measurements. The drain-to-source voltage of the FET is measured and amplified. This signal is then compensated for variations in the temperature of the FET, which affects the impedance of the FET when it is switched on. The output is a signal representative of the direction of the flow of current through the field-effect transistor and the level of the current through the field-effect transistor. Preferably, the measurement only occurs when the FET is switched on.

  15. A New Polyethylene Scattering Law Determined Using Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavelle, Christopher M [ORNL; Liu, C [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Stone, Matthew B [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutron transport codes such as MCNP rely on accurate data for nuclear physics cross-sections to produce accurate results. At low energy, this takes the form of scattering laws based on the dynamic structure factor, S (Q, E). High density polyethylene (HDPE) is frequently employed as a neutron moderator at both high and low temperatures, however the only cross-sections available are for T =300 K, and the evaluation has not been updated in quite some time. In this paper we describe inelastic neutron scattering measurements on HDPE at 5 and 300 K which are used to improve the scattering law for HDPE. We describe the experimental methods, review some of the past HDPE scattering laws, and compare computations using these models to the measured S (Q, E). The total cross-section is compared to available data, and the treatment of the carbon secondary scatterer as a free gas is assessed. We also discuss the use of the measurement itself as a scattering law via the 1 phonon approximation. We show that a scattering law computed using a more detailed model for the Generalized Density of States (GDOS) compares more favorably to this experiment, suggesting that inelastic neutron scattering can play an important role in both the development and validation of new scattering laws for Monte Carlo work.

  16. Sigmund and WInterbon Multiple Scattering

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1985-03-01

    SWIMS calculates the angular dispersion of ion beams that undergo small-angle, incoherent multiple scattering by gaseous or solid media.

  17. Observation of Nonlinear Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotseroglou, T.

    2003-12-19

    This experiment tests Quantum Electrodynamics in the strong field regime. Nonlinear Compton scattering has been observed during the interaction of a 46.6 GeV electron beam with a 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} laser beam. The strength of the field achieved was measured by the parameter {eta} = e{var_epsilon}{sub rms}/{omega}mc = 0.6. Data were collected with infrared and green laser photons and circularly polarized laser light. The timing stabilization achieved between the picosecond laser and electron pulses has {sigma}{sub rms} = 2 ps. A strong signal of electrons that absorbed up to 4 infrared photons (or up to 3 green photons) at the same point in space and time, while emitting a single gamma ray, was observed. The energy spectra of the scattered electrons and the nonlinear dependence of the electron yield on the field strength agreed with the simulation over 3 orders of magnitude. The detector could not resolve the nonlinear Compton scattering from the multiple single Compton scattering which produced rates of scattered electrons of the same order of magnitude. Nevertheless, a simulation has studied this difference and concluded that the scattered electron rates observed could not be accounted for only by multiple ordinary Compton scattering; nonlinear Compton scattering processes are dominant for n {ge} 3.

  18. PROJECT PROFILE: Opportunistic Hybrid Communications Systems for Distributed PV Coordination (SuNLaMP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As more distributed solar power is added to the electric power grid and becomes an increasing proportion of total energy generation, the grid must support more stringent requirements to ensure continued reliable and cost-effective grid operations. New communications systems are needed to allow for bidirectional information exchange between distributed photovoltaic (PV) generators and various information and controls systems of the electric power grid. This project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will develop a hybrid communications system to meet the needs of monitoring and controlling millions of distributed PV generators, while taking advantage of existing communications infrastructure, which will greatly reduce the costs necessary to provide these services.

  19. WPEC subgroup 35 ""scattering angular distribution in the fast...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation - Nuclear Energy Agency ; May 12, 2011 ; Paris, France Research Org: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ...

  20. Lightweight PV Inverters: Dual Bi-Directional IGBTs Modules Enables Breakthrough PV Inverter Using Current Modulation Topology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-30

    Solar ADEPT Project: PV inverters convert DC power generated by modules into usable AC power. IPCs initial 30kW 94lb. PV inverter reduces the weight of comparable 30kW PV inverters by 90%reducing the cost of materials, manufacturing, shipping, and installation. With ARPA-E support, new bi-directional silicon power switches will be developed, commercialized, and utilized in IPCs next-generation PV inverter. With these components, IPC will produce 100kW inverters that weight less than 100lb., reducing the weight of conventional 3,000lb. 100kW inverters by more than 95%. The new power switches will cut IPCs $/W manufacturing cost in half, as well as further reduce indirect shipping and installation costs.

  1. EIS Distribution

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This DOE guidance presents a series of recommendations related to the EIS distribution process, which includes creating and updating a distribution list, distributing an EIS, and filing an EIS with the EPA.

  2. SciTech Connect: "neutron scattering"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    neutron scattering" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "neutron scattering" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic...

  3. Proton-Nucleus Scattering Approximations and Implications for LHC Crystal Collimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, Robert; ,

    2010-06-07

    In particle accelerators, scattered protons with energies close to the incident particles may travel considerable distances with the beam before impacting on accelerator components downstream. To analyze such problems, angular deflection and energy loss of scattered particles are the main quantities to be simulated since these lead to changes in the beam's phase space distribution and particle loss. Simple approximations for nuclear scattering processes causing limited energy loss to high-energy protons traversing matter are developed which are suitable for rapid estimates and reduced-description Monte Carlo simulations. The implications for proton loss in the Large Hadron Collider due to nuclear scattering on collimation crystals are discussed.

  4. The CJ12 parton distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Accardi, Alberto; Owens, Jeff F.

    2013-07-01

    Three new sets of next-to-leading order parton distribution functions (PDFs) are presented, determined by global fits to a wide variety of data for hard scattering processes. The analysis includes target mass and higher twist corrections needed for the description of deep-inelastic scattering data at large x and low Q^2, and nuclear corrections for deuterium targets. The PDF sets correspond to three different models for the nuclear effects, and provide a more realistic uncertainty range for the d quark PDF compared with previous fits. Applications to weak boson production at colliders are also discussed.

  5. Elastic scattering and total cross sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahn, R.N.

    1990-03-01

    This report discusses concepts of elastic scattering and cross sections of proton-proton interactions. (LSP)

  6. Stimulated Brillouin scattering in solid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitanvis, S.M.

    1988-08-01

    We estimate the differential scattering cross-section due to SBS in a glass bead which is much larger than the wavelength of a high energy laser beam which irradiates it. We consider three possible scenarios: neither the incident nor the Stokes wavelength is on a Mie resonance; only the Stokes wavelength is on resonance; and the incident wavelength and the Stokes wavelength are on a Mie resonance. For the first two cases, we find that the SBS scattering cross-section is extremely small compared to the geometric/Mie cross-section. It follows as a corollary that SBS in a glass bead will be insufficient to shatter it in these two cases. In the last case, it is quite possible that due to the buildup of high fields on-resonance within the spherical bead, the bead might be shattered. The chance of such an event occurring in a polydisperse distribution of spherical beads is generally not expected to be very high. 3 figs.

  7. A new bidirectional generalization of (2+1)-dimensional matrix k-constrained Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chvartatskyi, O. I. Sydorenko, Yu. M.

    2013-11-15

    We introduce a new bidirectional generalization of (2+1)-dimensional k-constrained Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy ((2+1)-BDk-cKPH). This new hierarchy generalizes (2+1)-dimensional k-cKP hierarchy, (t{sub A}, ?{sub B}) and (?{sub A}, ?{sub B}) matrix hierarchies. (2+1)-BDk-cKPH contains a new matrix (1+1)-k-constrained KP hierarchy. Some members of (2+1)-BDk-cKPH are also listed. In particular, it contains matrix generalizations of Davey-Stewartson (DS) systems, (2+1)-dimensional modified Korteweg-de Vries equation and the Nizhnik equation. (2+1)-BDk-cKPH also includes new matrix (2+1)-dimensional generalizations of the Yajima-Oikawa and Melnikov systems. Binary Darboux Transformation Dressing Method is also proposed for construction of exact solutions for equations from (2+1)-BDk-cKPH. As an example the exact form of multi-soliton solutions for vector generalization of the DS system is given.

  8. Using bi-directional communications in a market-based resource allocation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chassin, David P; Pratt, Robert G

    2015-05-05

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  9. Using bi-directional communications in a market-based resource allocation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chassin, David P; Pratt, Robert G

    2014-04-01

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  10. Using bi-directional communications in a market-based resource allocation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2015-09-08

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  11. Bragg optics computer codes for neutron scattering instrument design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popovici, M.; Yelon, W.B.; Berliner, R.R.; Stoica, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Computer codes for neutron crystal spectrometer design, optimization and experiment planning are described. Phase space distributions, linewidths and absolute intensities are calculated by matrix methods in an extension of the Cooper-Nathans resolution function formalism. For modeling the Bragg reflection on bent crystals the lamellar approximation is used. Optimization is done by satisfying conditions of focusing in scattering and in real space, and by numerically maximizing figures of merit. Examples for three-axis and two-axis spectrometers are given.

  12. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distributed Energy Distributed Energy Distributed energy consists of a range of smaller-scale and modular devices designed to provide electricity, and sometimes also thermal energy, in locations close to consumers. They include fossil and renewable energy technologies (e.g., photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines, microturbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells, combustion turbines, and steam turbines); energy storage devices (e.g., batteries and flywheels); and combined heat and power systems.

  13. Single and multiple intrabeam scattering in hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Single and multiple intra-beam scattering are usually considered separately. Such separation works well for electron-positron colliders but usually yields only coarse description in the case of hadron colliders. Boltzmann type integro-differential equation is used to describe evolution of longitudinal distribution due to IBS. The finite size of the longitudinal potential well, its non-linearity and x-y coupling are taken into account. The model predictions for longitudinal and transverse distributions are compared to the experimental measurements.

  14. Distribution Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 24-26, 2012, the GTT presented a workshop on grid integration on the distribution system at the Sheraton Crystal City near Washington, DC.

  15. Light scattering from laser induced pit ensembles on high power laser optics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feigenbaum, Eyal; Elhadj, Selim; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2015-01-01

    Far-field light scattering characteristics from randomly arranged shallow Gaussian-like shaped laser induced pits, found on optics exposed to high energy laser pulses, is studied. Closed-form expressions for the far-field intensity distribution and scattered power are derived for individual pits and validated using numerical calculations of both Fourier optics and FDTD solutions to Maxwells equations. It is found that the scattered power is proportional to the square of the pit width and approximately also to the square of the pit depth, with the proportionality factor scaling with pit depth. As a result, the power scattered from shallow pitted optics is expectedmoreto be substantially lower than assuming complete scattering from the total visible footprint of the pits.less

  16. Light scattering from laser induced pit ensembles on high power laser optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feigenbaum, Eyal [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Elhadj, Selim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Matthews, Manyalibo J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Far-field light scattering characteristics from randomly arranged shallow Gaussian-like shaped laser induced pits, found on optics exposed to high energy laser pulses, is studied. Closed-form expressions for the far-field intensity distribution and scattered power are derived for individual pits and validated using numerical calculations of both Fourier optics and FDTD solutions to Maxwells equations. It is found that the scattered power is proportional to the square of the pit width and approximately also to the square of the pit depth, with the proportionality factor scaling with pit depth. As a result, the power scattered from shallow pitted optics is expected to be substantially lower than assuming complete scattering from the total visible footprint of the pits.

  17. 10th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering LANSCE 10th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering Home Abstract Lecturers Hands-On Experiments Free Day About the School Sponsors FAQ's...

  18. Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SCATTERING; ISOTOPES; LEAD; LEAD 206; LEAD 207; LEVELS; NEUTRONS; SCATTERING Inelastic neutron scattering on Pb isotopes can result in gamma rays near the signature endpoint...

  19. Arthur H. Compton and Compton Scattering

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Arthur H. Compton and Compton Scattering Resources with Additional Information * Compton Honored * Compton Scattering Arthur H. Compton Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Arthur Holly 'Compton was a professor at Washington University, studying the scattering of X-rays, when he discovered the effect that is named after him in 1922. ... The Compton effect [Compton scattering] is defined as the decrease in energy (increase in wavelength) of an X-ray or gamma ray photon, when it

  20. Inter-slice bidirectional registration-based segmentation of the prostate gland in MR and CT image sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalvati, Farzad Tizhoosh, Hamid R.; Salmanpour, Aryan; Rahnamayan, Shahryar; Rodrigues, George

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation and volume estimation of the prostate gland in magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images are necessary steps in diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of prostate cancer. This paper presents an algorithm for the prostate gland volume estimation based on the semiautomated segmentation of individual slices in T2-weighted MR and CT image sequences. Methods: The proposedInter-Slice Bidirectional Registration-based Segmentation (iBRS) algorithm relies on interslice image registration of volume data to segment the prostate gland without the use of an anatomical atlas. It requires the user to mark only three slices in a given volume dataset, i.e., the first, middle, and last slices. Next, the proposed algorithm uses a registration algorithm to autosegment the remaining slices. We conducted comprehensive experiments to measure the performance of the proposed algorithm using three registration methods (i.e., rigid, affine, and nonrigid techniques). Results: The results with the proposed technique were compared with manual marking using prostate MR and CT images from 117 patients. Manual marking was performed by an expert user for all 117 patients. The median accuracies for individual slices measured using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) were 92% and 91% for MR and CT images, respectively. The iBRS algorithm was also evaluated regarding user variability, which confirmed that the algorithm was robust to interuser variability when marking the prostate gland. Conclusions: The proposed algorithm exploits the interslice data redundancy of the images in a volume dataset of MR and CT images and eliminates the need for an atlas, minimizing the computational cost while producing highly accurate results which are robust to interuser variability.

  1. Posters Radiation Singularities, Multiple Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Posters Radiation Singularities, Multiple Scattering and Diffusion in Multifractal Clouds P. Silas, G. Brösamlen, and S. Lovejoy Department of Physics McGill University Montreal, Quebec, Canada C. Naud and D. Schertzer Université Pierre and Marie Curie Paris, France B. Watson Department of Physics St. Lawrence University Canton, New York Diffusion on One-Dimensional Multifractals (P. Silas, S. Lovejoy, D. Schertzer) Many geophysical and atmospheric fields exhibit multifractal characteristics

  2. Parity Violation in Electron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beise, Elizabeth

    2007-10-26

    About thirty years ago, electron scattering from nucleons was used [1] to identify, and then measure, the properties of the weak interaction, the only force of nature known to violate the symmetry parity. The basic technique has not fundamentally changed, which is to look for a small asymmetry in count rate from scattering a polarized electron beam from an unpolarized target. Since then, parity-violating (PV) electron scattering has developed substantially, a result of significant improvements in polarized electron beams, accelerator advancements, and developments in cryogenic targets that make it possible to carry out experiments with much higher statistical precision. In the last decade PV experiments have focused on using the complementary electron-quark flavor coupling of the weak interaction to identify and place limits on contributions of strange quark-antiquark pairs to the charge and magnetism of the proton. This observable provides a unique window into the structure of the proton since strange quark contributions can arise only from the sea of quarks and gluons that are responsible for the vast majority of the nucleon's mass. This paper will report on recent results aimed at this goal, along with a brief overview of future directions.

  3. Relativistic electron scattering by magnetosonic waves: Effects of discrete wave emission and high wave amplitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we study relativistic electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We compare results of test particle simulations and the quasi-linear theory for different spectra of waves to investigate how a fine structure of the wave emission can influence electron resonant scattering. We show that for a realistically wide distribution of wave normal angles θ (i.e., when the dispersion δθ≥0.5{sup °}), relativistic electron scattering is similar for a wide wave spectrum and for a spectrum consisting in well-separated ion cyclotron harmonics. Comparisons of test particle simulations with quasi-linear theory show that for δθ>0.5{sup °}, the quasi-linear approximation describes resonant scattering correctly for a large enough plasma frequency. For a very narrow θ distribution (when δθ∼0.05{sup °}), however, the effect of a fine structure in the wave spectrum becomes important. In this case, quasi-linear theory clearly fails in describing accurately electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We also study the effect of high wave amplitudes on relativistic electron scattering. For typical conditions in the earth's radiation belts, the quasi-linear approximation cannot accurately describe electron scattering for waves with averaged amplitudes >300 pT. We discuss various applications of the obtained results for modeling electron dynamics in the radiation belts and in the Earth's magnetotail.

  4. Gamma-ray burst polarization via Compton scattering process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Jiang, Yunguo

    2014-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation and Compton scattering are widely accepted as the most likely emission mechanisms of some astrophysical phenomena, such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and active galactic nuclei. The measurement of the polarization of photons provides a useful tool to distinguish different emission mechanisms and structures of the emission region. Based on the differential cross section of a polarized photon scattered by an unpolarized electron of any initial momentum, we derive an analytical formula of polarization for beamed photons scattered by isotropic electrons with a power-law distribution. Numerical calculations are carried out in four special cases: electrons at rest, Thomson limit, head-on collision, and monochromatic electrons. It is found that the maximum polarization can be as high as 100% for low energy photons, if the electrons are at rest. Although polarization is highly suppressed due to the isotropic electrons, a maximum value of ?10%-20% can still be achieved. The Compton scattering process can be used to explain the polarization of GRB 041219A and GRB 100826A.

  5. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project Profile: Verizon Central Office Building ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project ...

  6. Crystal defect studies using x-ray diffuse scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    Microscopic lattice defects such as point (single atom) defects, dislocation loops, and solute precipitates are characterized by local electronic density changes at the defect sites and by distortions of the lattice structure surrounding the defects. The effect of these interruptions of the crystal lattice on the scattering of x-rays is considered in this paper, and examples are presented of the use of the diffuse scattering to study the defects. X-ray studies of self-interstitials in electron irradiated aluminum and copper are discussed in terms of the identification of the interstitial configuration. Methods for detecting the onset of point defect aggregation into dislocation loops are considered and new techniques for the determination of separate size distributions for vacancy loops and interstitial loops are presented. Direct comparisons of dislocation loop measurements by x-rays with existing electron microscopy studies of dislocation loops indicate agreement for larger size loops, but x-ray measurements report higher concentrations in the smaller loop range. Methods for distinguishing between loops and three-dimensional precipitates are discussed and possibilities for detailed studies considered. A comparison of dislocation loop size distributions obtained from integral diffuse scattering measurements with those from TEM show a discrepancy in the smaller sizes similar to that described above.

  7. Various scattering properties of a new PT-symmetric non-Hermitian potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatak, Ananya; Mandal, Raka Dona Ray; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2013-09-15

    We complexify a 1-d potential V(x)=V{sub 0}cosh{sup 2}?(tanh[(x??d)/d]+tanh(?)){sup 2} which exhibits bound, reflecting and free states to study various properties of a non-Hermitian system. This potential turns out a PT-symmetric non-Hermitian potential when one of the parameters (?,d) becomes imaginary. For the case of ??i?, we have an entire real bound state spectrum. Explicit scattering states are constructed to show reciprocity at certain discrete values of energy even though the potential is not parity symmetric. Coexistence of deep energy minima of transmissivity with the multiple spectral singularities (MSS) is observed. We further show that this potential becomes invisible from the left (or right) at certain discrete energies. The penetrating states in the other case (d?id) are always reciprocal even though it is PT-invariant and no spectral singularity (SS) is present in this case. The presence of MSS and reflectionlessness is also discussed for the free states in the later case. -- Highlights: Existence of multiple spectral singularities (MSS) in PT-symmetric non-Hermitian system is shown. Reciprocity is restored at discrete positive energies even for parity non-invariant complex system. Co-existence of MSS with deep energy minima of transitivity is obtained. Possibilities of both unidirectional and bidirectional invisibility are explored for a non-Hermitian system. Penetrating states are shown to be reciprocal for all energies for PT-symmetric system.

  8. Call issued for Lujan Neutron Scattering Center proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (polarized and unpolarized) Inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy Small angle neutron scattering Neutron radiographytomography The Lujan instruments webpage...

  9. Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, K. A.; Dynes, J. F.; Lucamarini, M.; Choi, I.; Sharpe, A. W.; Yuan, Z. L. Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.

    2014-02-03

    We demonstrate quantum key distribution (QKD) with bidirectional 10 Gb/s classical data channels in a single fiber using dense wavelength division multiplexing. Record secure key rates of 2.38 Mbps and fiber distances up to 70?km are achieved. Data channels are simultaneously monitored for error-free operation. The robustness of QKD is further demonstrated with a secure key rate of 445 kbps over 25?km, obtained in the presence of data lasers launching conventional 0 dBm power. We discuss the fundamental limit for the QKD performance in the multiplexing environment.

  10. In situ resonant Raman scattering and reversible photoinduced structural change in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osada, Minoru; Kaell, Mikael; Baeckstroem, Joakim; Kakihana, Masato; Andersen, Niels Hessel; Boerjesson, Lars

    2005-06-01

    We report on bidirectional photoswitching associated with the CuO chains in oxygen-deficient YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} single crystals. By varying the wavelength of light polarized along the CuO chains, the material can be reversibly switched between two metastable states characterized by the existence or absence of a specific Raman scattering resonance. A comparison of the spectral efficiencies for this photoswitching with analogous data for the persistent photoconductivity and photoconductivity quenching effects suggests that the two phenomena have the same microscopic origin. We argue that the effects are due to photoinduced Cu-O charge-transfer excitations, which destabilize chains of different length depending on wavelength, and promote the growth of thermally inaccessible oxygen ordering configurations.

  11. Completeness for sparse potential scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Zhongwei

    2014-01-15

    The present paper is devoted to the scattering theory of a class of continuum Schrdinger operators with deterministic sparse potentials. We first establish the limiting absorption principle for both modified free resolvents and modified perturbed resolvents. This actually is a weak form of the classical limiting absorption principle. We then prove the existence and completeness of local wave operators, which, in particular, imply the existence of wave operators. Under additional assumptions on the sparse potential, we prove the completeness of wave operators. In the context of continuum Schrdinger operators with sparse potentials, this paper gives the first proof of the completeness of wave operators.

  12. Integrated, Automated Distributed Generation Technologies Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Kevin

    2014-09-30

    The purpose of the NETL Project was to develop a diverse combination of distributed renewable generation technologies and controls and demonstrate how the renewable generation could help manage substation peak demand at the ATK Promontory plant site. The Promontory plant site is located in the northwestern Utah desert approximately 25 miles west of Brigham City, Utah. The plant encompasses 20,000 acres and has over 500 buildings. The ATK Promontory plant primarily manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for both commercial and government launch systems. The original project objectives focused on distributed generation; a 100 kW (kilowatt) wind turbine, a 100 kW new technology waste heat generation unit, a 500 kW energy storage system, and an intelligent system-wide automation system to monitor and control the renewable energy devices then release the stored energy during the peak demand time. The original goal was to reduce peak demand from the electrical utility company, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), by 3.4%. For a period of time we also sought to integrate our energy storage requirements with a flywheel storage system (500 kW) proposed for the Promontory/RMP Substation. Ultimately the flywheel storage system could not meet our project timetable, so the storage requirement was switched to a battery storage system (300 kW.) A secondary objective was to design/install a bi-directional customer/utility gateway application for real-time visibility and communications between RMP, and ATK. This objective was not achieved because of technical issues with RMP, ATK Information Technology Department’s stringent requirements based on being a rocket motor manufacturing facility, and budget constraints. Of the original objectives, the following were achieved: • Installation of a 100 kW wind turbine. • Installation of a 300 kW battery storage system. • Integrated control system installed to offset electrical demand by releasing stored energy from renewable sources during peak hours of the day. Control system also monitors the wind turbine and battery storage system health, power output, and issues critical alarms. Of the original objectives, the following were not achieved: • 100 kW new technology waste heat generation unit. • Bi-directional customer/utility gateway for real time visibility and communications between RMP and ATK. • 3.4% reduction in peak demand. 1.7% reduction in peak demand was realized instead.

  13. Characterization of scatter in digital mammography from physical measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leon, Stephanie M. Wagner, Louis K.; Brateman, Libby F.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: That scattered radiation negatively impacts the quality of medical radiographic imaging is well known. In mammography, even slight amounts of scatter reduce the high contrast required for subtle soft-tissue imaging. In current clinical mammography, image contrast is partially improved by use of an antiscatter grid. This form of scatter rejection comes with a sizeable dose penalty related to the concomitant elimination of valuable primary radiation. Digital mammography allows the use of image processing as a method of scatter correction that might avoid effects that negatively impact primary radiation, while potentially providing more contrast improvement than is currently possible with a grid. For this approach to be feasible, a detailed characterization of the scatter is needed. Previous research has modeled scatter as a constant background that serves as a DC bias across the imaging surface. The goal of this study was to provide a more substantive data set for characterizing the spatially-variant features of scatter radiation at the image detector of modern mammography units. Methods: This data set was acquired from a model of the radiation beam as a matrix of very narrow rays or pencil beams. As each pencil beam penetrates tissue, the pencil widens in a predictable manner due to the production of scatter. The resultant spreading of the pencil beam at the detector surface can be characterized by two parameters: mean radial extent (MRE) and scatter fraction (SF). The SF and MRE were calculated from measurements obtained using the beam stop method. Two digital mammography units were utilized, and the SF and MRE were found as functions of target, filter, tube potential, phantom thickness, and presence or absence of a grid. These values were then used to generate general equations allowing the SF and MRE to be calculated for any combination of the above parameters. Results: With a grid, the SF ranged from a minimum of about 0.05 to a maximum of about 0.16, and the MRE ranged from about 3 to 13 mm. Without a grid, the SF ranged from a minimum of 0.25 to a maximum of 0.52, and the MRE ranged from about 20 to 45 mm. The SF with a grid demonstrated a mild dependence on target/filter combination and kV, whereas the SF without a grid was independent of these factors. The MRE demonstrated a complex relationship as a function of kV, with notable difference among target/filter combinations. The primary source of change in both the SF and MRE was phantom thickness. Conclusions: Because breast tissue varies spatially in physical density and elemental content, the effective thickness of breast tissue varies spatially across the imaging field, resulting in a spatially-variant scatter distribution in the imaging field. The data generated in this study can be used to characterize the scatter contribution on a point-by-point basis, for a variety of different techniques.

  14. Bidirectional piston valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Harry C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention is a reversing valve having an inlet, an outlet, and an inlet-outlet port. The valve is designed to respond to the introduction of relatively high-pressure fluid at its inlet or, alternatively, of lower-pressure fluid at its inlet-outlet port. The valve includes an axially slidable assembly which is spring-biased to a position where it isolates the inlet and connects the inlet-outlet port to the outlet. The admission of high-pressure fluid to the inlet displaces the slidable assembly to a position where the outlet is isolated and the inlet is connected to the inlet-outlet port. The valve is designed to minimize pressure drops and leakage. It is of a reliable and comparatively simple design.

  15. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  16. Special Distribution

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Special Distribution Issued: December 1977 ',, Radiological Survey and Decontamination of the Former Main Technical Area (TA-1) at Los Alamos, New Mexico Compiled by A. John Ahlquist Alan K. Stoker Linda K. Trocki c laboratory of, the University of California LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO 87545 An Alfirmdve Action/Equal Opportunity Employer ..-_- .-- .--.-. c T -,--... _ _._-r..l __,.. - .-,_.. ..- _._ -- .--. " . . _ . - . c- - . . . _ -. . _ . - . - . _ - - n - _ _~ ~_. __ _ ~~_ --..&e+

  17. Scattering Workshop May 16-17, 2006

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Annual SSRL Workshop on Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences: Theory and Application Tuesday, May 16 & Wednesday, May 17, 2006...

  18. Coupled-channel scattering on a torus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Peng; Dudek, Jozef Jon; Edwards, Robert G.; Szczepaniak, Adam Pawel

    2013-07-01

    Based on the Hamiltonian formalism approach, a generalized Luscher's formula for two particle scattering in both the elastic and coupled-channel cases in moving frames is derived from a relativistic Lippmann-Schwinger equation. Some strategies for extracting scattering amplitudes for a coupled-channel system from the discrete finite-volume spectrum are discussed and illustrated with a toy model of two-channel resonant scattering. This formalism will, in the near future, be used to extract information about hadron scattering from lattice QCD computations.

  19. Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NA, 2010 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR)...

  20. Double distributions and evolution equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.V. Radyushkin

    1998-05-01

    Applications of perturbative QCD to deeply virtual Compton scattering and hard exclusive meson electroproduction processes require a generalization of usual parton distributions for the case when long-distance information is accumulated in nonforward matrix elements < p{prime} {vert_bar}O(0,z){vert_bar}p > of quark and gluon light-cone operators. In their previous papers the authors used two types of nonperturbative functions parameterizing such matrix elements: double distributions F(x,y;t) and nonforward distribution functions F{sub {zeta}}(X;t). Here they discuss in more detail the double distributions (DD's) and evolution equations which they satisfy. They propose simple models for F(x,y;t=0) DD's with correct spectral and symmetry properties which also satisfy the reduction relations connecting them to the usual parton densities f(x). In this way, they obtain self-consistent models for the {zeta}-dependence of nonforward distributions. They show that, for small {zeta}, one can easily obtain nonforward distributions (in the X > {zeta} region) from the parton densities: F{sub {zeta}} (X;t=0) {approx} f(X{minus}{zeta}/2).

  1. Barrier Distributions for Cold-Fusion Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Mitsuoka, Shin-ichi; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Tsuruta, Kaoru; Watanabe, Yutaka; Jeong, Sunchan; Satou, Ken-ichiro

    2006-08-14

    Coulomb barrier distributions for the capture process in the cold fusion reactions for 48Ti, 54Cr, 56Fe, 64Ni, 70Zn projectiles incident on 208Pb target are obtained by the measurement of the quasi-elastic scattering cross sections at backward angles. The obtained barrier distributions are compared with the result of a coupled-channels calculation. It is found that the barrier distributions are well reproduced by the calculation taking account of the coupling of one phonon of the quadrupole vibration for these projectile nuclei and two phonons of the octupole vibration for 208Pb.

  2. The scattering problem for nonlocal potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolotarev, V A

    2014-11-30

    We solve the direct and inverse scattering problems for integro-differential operators which are one-dimensional perturbations of the self-adjoint second derivative operator on the half-axis. We also describe the scattering data for this class of operators. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  3. LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

    2014-11-11

    An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

  4. Measurements of transverse momentum in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering at CLAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A. Griffioen

    2012-12-01

    With mounting experimental evidence that only a small fraction of the proton's spin comes from the spins of its quarks and gluons, the quest for orbital angular momentum has begun. The parton distributions relevant to this depend on transverse quark momenta. Recent CLAS semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering measurements probe these new transverse-momentum-dependent parton distributions using longitudinally polarized beams and targets and detecting {pi}{sup +},{pi}{sup -} and {pi}{sup 0} in the final state.

  5. Constrained {gamma}Z correction to parity-violating electron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Nathan Luk; Blunden, Peter Gwithian; Melnitchouk, Wally; Thomas, Anthony W.; Young, Ross D.

    2013-11-01

    We update the calculation of {gamma}Z interference corrections to the weak charge of the proton. We show how constraints from parton distributions, together with new data on parity-violating electron scattering in the resonance region, significantly reduce the uncertainties on the corrections compared to previous estimates.

  6. Longitudinal target-spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seder, E.; Biselli, A.; Pisano, S.; Niccolai, S.; Smith, G. D.; Joo, K.; Adhikari, K.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, W.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Carlin, C.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D’Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hirlinger Saylor, N.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Senderovich, I.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tian, Y.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.

    2015-01-22

    A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6-GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for ep → e'p'y events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in Q2, xB, t and Φ, for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), at leading twist the t dependence of these asymmetries provides insight on the spatial distribution of the axial charge of the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. In conclusion, these results bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even GPDs.

  7. Longitudinal target-spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Seder, E.; Biselli, A.; Pisano, S.; Niccolai, S.; Smith, G. D.; Joo, K.; Adhikari, K.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; et al

    2015-01-22

    A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6-GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for ep → e'p'y events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in Q2, xB, t and Φ, for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), at leading twist the t dependence of these asymmetries provides insight on the spatial distribution of the axialmore » charge of the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. In conclusion, these results bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even GPDs.« less

  8. Performance Assessment of Bi-Directional Knotless Tissue-Closure Devices in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters, 2009 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Bryson, Amanda J.

    2012-11-09

    The purpose of this report is to assess the performance of bi-directional knotless tissue-closure devices for use in tagging juvenile salmon. This study is part of an ongoing effort at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to reduce unwanted effects of tags and tagging procedures on the survival and behavior of juvenile salmonids, by assessing and refining suturing techniques, suture materials, and tag burdens. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the knotless (barbed) suture, using three different suture patterns (treatments: 6-point, Wide “N”, Wide “N” Knot), to the current method of suturing (MonocrylTM monofilament, discontinuous sutures with a 2×2×2×2 knot) used in monitoring and research programs with a novel antiseptic barrier on the wound (“Second Skin”).

  9. Self-Organizing Maps and Parton Distribution Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Holcomb, Simonetta Liuti, D. Z. Perry

    2011-05-01

    We present a new method to extract parton distribution functions from high energy experimental data based on a specific type of neural networks, the Self-Organizing Maps. We illustrate the features of our new procedure that are particularly useful for an anaysis directed at extracting generalized parton distributions from data. We show quantitative results of our initial analysis of the parton distribution functions from inclusive deep inelastic scattering.

  10. Extractions of polarized and unpolarized parton distribution functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    An overview of our ongoing extractions of parton distribution functions of the nucleon is given. First JAM results on the determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions from world data on polarized deep-inelastic scattering are presented first, and followed by a short report on the status of the JR unpolarized parton distributions. Different aspects of PDF analysis are briefly discussed, including effects of the nuclear structure of targets, target-mass corrections and higher twist contributions to the structure functions.

  11. Biological cell classification by multiangle light scattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzman, G.C.; Crowell, J.M.; Mullaney, P.F.

    1975-06-03

    The specification is directed to an apparatus and method for detecting light scattering from a biological cell. Light, preferably from a coherent source of radiation, intercepts an individual biological cell in a stream of cells passing through the beam. Light scattered from the cell is detected at a selected number of angles between 0 and 90/sup 0/ to the longitudinal axis of the beam with a circular array of light responsive elements which produce signals representative of the intensity of light incident thereon. Signals from the elements are processed to determine the light-scattering pattern of the cell and therefrom its identity.

  12. The Effect of Gas Absorption on the Scattered Radiation in the Solar Almucantar: Results of Numerical Simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Absorption on the Scattered Radiation in the Solar Almucantar: Results of Numerical Simulation T. Yu. Chesnokova, K. M. Firsov, I. M. Nasrtdinov, S. M. Sakerin, V. V. Veretennikov, and T. B. Zhuravleva Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction The methods for reconstruction of the aerosol optical characteristics (e.g., aerosol size distribution, and single-scattering albedo) from diffuse and direct radiation measured in the solar almucantar has been widely used during the

  13. Predicting X-ray diffuse scattering from translation–libration–screw structural ensembles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Wall, Michael E.; Jackson, Colin J.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Fraser, James S.

    2015-07-28

    Identifying the intramolecular motions of proteins and nucleic acids is a major challenge in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Because Bragg diffraction describes the average positional distribution of crystalline atoms with imperfect precision, the resulting electron density can be compatible with multiple models of motion. Diffuse X-ray scattering can reduce this degeneracy by reporting on correlated atomic displacements. Although recent technological advances are increasing the potential to accurately measure diffuse scattering, computational modeling and validation tools are still needed to quantify the agreement between experimental data and different parameterizations of crystalline disorder. A new tool, phenix.diffuse, addresses this need by employing Guinier's equation to calculate diffuse scattering from Protein Data Bank (PDB)-formatted structural ensembles. As an example case, phenix.diffuse is applied to translation–libration–screw (TLS) refinement, which models rigid-body displacement for segments of the macromolecule. To enable the calculation of diffuse scattering from TLS-refined structures, phenix.tls_as_xyz builds multi-model PDB files that sample the underlying T, L and S tensors. In the glycerophosphodiesterase GpdQ, alternative TLS-group partitioning and different motional correlations between groups yield markedly dissimilar diffuse scattering maps with distinct implications for molecular mechanism and allostery. These methods demonstrate how, in principle, X-ray diffuse scattering could extend macromolecular structural refinement, validation and analysis.

  14. Airborne aerosol in situ measurements during TCAP: A closure study of total scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni; Sedlacek, Arthur; Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail; Barnard, James; Chand, Duli; Flynn, Connor; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John; Tomlinson, Jason; Fast, Jerome

    2015-07-31

    We present a framework for calculating the total scattering of both non-absorbing and absorbing aerosol at ambient conditions from aircraft data. Our framework is developed emphasizing the explicit use of chemical composition data for estimating the complex refractive index (RI) of particles, and thus obtaining improved ambient size spectra derived from Optical Particle Counter (OPC) measurements. The feasibility of our framework for improved calculations of total scattering is demonstrated using three types of data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) aircraft during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Namely, these data types are: (1) size distributions measured by a suite of OPC’s; (2) chemical composition data measured by an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a Single Particle Soot Photometer; and (3) the dry total scattering coefficient measured by a integrating nephelometer and scattering enhancement factor measured with a humidification system. We demonstrate that good agreement (~10%) between the observed and calculated scattering can be obtained under ambient conditions (RH < 80%) by applying chemical composition data for the RI-based correction of the OPC-derived size spectra. We also demonstrate that ignoring the RI-based correction or using non-representative RI values can cause a substantial underestimation (~40%) or overestimation (~35%) of the calculated scattering, respectively.

  15. Predicting X-ray diffuse scattering from translation–libration–screw structural ensembles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Wall, Michael E.; Jackson, Colin J.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Fraser, James S.

    2015-07-28

    Identifying the intramolecular motions of proteins and nucleic acids is a major challenge in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Because Bragg diffraction describes the average positional distribution of crystalline atoms with imperfect precision, the resulting electron density can be compatible with multiple models of motion. Diffuse X-ray scattering can reduce this degeneracy by reporting on correlated atomic displacements. Although recent technological advances are increasing the potential to accurately measure diffuse scattering, computational modeling and validation tools are still needed to quantify the agreement between experimental data and different parameterizations of crystalline disorder. A new tool, phenix.diffuse, addresses this need by employing Guinier'smore » equation to calculate diffuse scattering from Protein Data Bank (PDB)-formatted structural ensembles. As an example case, phenix.diffuse is applied to translation–libration–screw (TLS) refinement, which models rigid-body displacement for segments of the macromolecule. To enable the calculation of diffuse scattering from TLS-refined structures, phenix.tls_as_xyz builds multi-model PDB files that sample the underlying T, L and S tensors. In the glycerophosphodiesterase GpdQ, alternative TLS-group partitioning and different motional correlations between groups yield markedly dissimilar diffuse scattering maps with distinct implications for molecular mechanism and allostery. These methods demonstrate how, in principle, X-ray diffuse scattering could extend macromolecular structural refinement, validation and analysis.« less

  16. Airborne aerosol in situ measurements during TCAP: A closure study of total scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kassianov, Evgueni; Sedlacek, Arthur; Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail; Barnard, James; Chand, Duli; Flynn, Connor; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John; et al

    2015-07-31

    We present a framework for calculating the total scattering of both non-absorbing and absorbing aerosol at ambient conditions from aircraft data. Our framework is developed emphasizing the explicit use of chemical composition data for estimating the complex refractive index (RI) of particles, and thus obtaining improved ambient size spectra derived from Optical Particle Counter (OPC) measurements. The feasibility of our framework for improved calculations of total scattering is demonstrated using three types of data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) aircraft during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Namely, these data types are: (1) size distributions measured by amore » suite of OPC’s; (2) chemical composition data measured by an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a Single Particle Soot Photometer; and (3) the dry total scattering coefficient measured by a integrating nephelometer and scattering enhancement factor measured with a humidification system. We demonstrate that good agreement (~10%) between the observed and calculated scattering can be obtained under ambient conditions (RH < 80%) by applying chemical composition data for the RI-based correction of the OPC-derived size spectra. We also demonstrate that ignoring the RI-based correction or using non-representative RI values can cause a substantial underestimation (~40%) or overestimation (~35%) of the calculated scattering, respectively.« less

  17. Neutron Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other) Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other) ...

  18. Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser-produced plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large ...

  19. Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors Low-energy spin excitations have been...

  20. PSTD Simulations of Multiple Light Scattering in 3-D Macrocsopic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PSTD Simulations of Multiple Light Scattering in 3-D Macrocsopic Random Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PSTD Simulations of Multiple Light Scattering in 3-D ...

  1. Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study of Water Confined in Carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study of Water Confined in Carbon Nanopores Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study of Water Confined in...

  2. 2012 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School | Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School LANSCE 2012 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School Home About the School Hands-On Experiments Quick Links Application - Closed Schedule Poster...

  3. 2012 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School | Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School LANSCE 2011 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School Home NSS 2011 About the School Lecturers Hands-On Experiments Quick Links Application Schedule...

  4. Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and Fracture in EGS Environments Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and Fracture in EGS ...

  5. Plane wave method for elastic wave scattering by a heterogeneous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plane wave method for elastic wave scattering by a heterogeneous fracture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plane wave method for elastic wave scattering by a ...

  6. Rapidity divergences and deep inelastic scattering in the endpoint...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rapidity divergences and deep inelastic scattering in the endpoint region Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapidity divergences and deep inelastic scattering in the ...

  7. Measurement of the elastic scattering /sup 12/C+/sup 28/Si at energies 56 MeV--69 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHEN Wen-qing; YIN Shu-zhi; GUO Zhong-yan; ZHU Yong-tai; CHEN Ju-shen; WU En-chiu; GUO Chi-di; FENG En-pu; XIE Yaun-xiang

    1985-07-01

    The angular distributions of the elastic scattering reaction /sup 12/C+/sup 28/Si have been measured at the energies 69.5 MeV, 66 MeV, 59 MeV, 56 MeV using a large area position sensitive ionization chamber. The experimental data are fitted in the framework of the optical model. The probable reasons of the oscillations and enhancement of the elastic scattering angular distributions are discussed.

  8. Thomson Scattering Lineshape Fitting for Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-02-04

    HFIT30 is used for interpreting lineshape (intensity versus frequency) data from Thomson and Rayleigh light scattering from a plasma, to obtain temperatures and number densities of the component species in the plasma.

  9. Association of scattering matrices in quantum networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almeida, F.A.G.; Macdo, A.M.S.

    2013-06-15

    Algorithms based on operations that associate scattering matrices in series or in parallel (analogous to impedance association in a classical circuit) are developed here. We exemplify their application by calculating the total scattering matrix of several types of quantum networks, such as star graphs and a chain of chaotic quantum dots, obtaining results with good agreement with the literature. Through a computational-time analysis we compare the efficiency of two algorithms for the simulation of a chain of chaotic quantum dots based on series association operations of (i) two-by-two centers and (ii) three-by-three ones. Empirical results point out that the algorithm (ii) is more efficient than (i) for small number of open scattering channels. A direct counting of floating point operations justifies quantitatively the superiority of the algorithm (i) for large number of open scattering channels.

  10. Relativistic Thomson Scatter from Factor Calculation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this program is calculate the fully relativistic Thomson scatter from factor in unmagnetized plasmas. Such calculations are compared to experimental diagnoses of plasmas at such facilities as the Jupiter laser facility here a LLNL.

  11. What Does a Scattering Pattern Tell US?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    amplitude e iwt Phase difference Phase difference S e i (ri Q) A(DK) fi A(Q) Fourier Transform ( ri ) DK Q 4p sin(q) l Lensless Imaging Sample Space Scattering Space...

  12. A-BC Exact Coupled Channel Scattering

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-02

    VIVAS2 computes the scattering S-matrix and transition probabilities for the collision of an S-state atom, A, with a sigma-state diatomic molecule, BC.

  13. What Does a Scattering Pattern Tell US?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    light image Image Space lens Can we create the image without a lens? Angular Space Math Q 4p sin(q) l Lensless Imaging Sample Space Scattering Space sample light image lens...

  14. Light-scattering studies of silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-02-01

    Due to its combination of transparency and low thermal conductivity, aerogel holds considerable promise for use as insulating window materials for residential and commercial applications. This paper reports on the preliminary investigation of the optical and scattering properties of silica aerogels. It briefly describes the properties of aerogels important for window glazing applications. The optical properties are then described, followed by a discussion of the scattering measurements and their interpretation.

  15. Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron and X-ray Scattering Neutron and X-ray Scattering When used together, neutrons and high-energy x-rays provide a supremely powerful scientific tool for mining details about the structure of materials. Combining neutrons and high-energy x-rays to explore the frontiers of materials in extreme environments. Illuminating previously inaccessible time and spatial scales. Enabling in situ research to design, discover, and control materials. Get Expertise Donald Brown Email Pushing the limits of

  16. American Conference on Neutron Scattering 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillen, J. Ardie

    2014-12-31

    Scientists from the around the world converged in Knoxville, TN to have share ideas, present technical information and contribute to the advancement of neutron scattering. Featuring over 400 oral/poster presentations, ACNS 2014 offered a strong program of plenary, invited and contributed talks and poster sessions covering topics in soft condensed matter, hard condensed matter, biology, chemistry, energy and engineering applications in neutron physics – confirming the great diversity of science that is enabled by neutron scattering.

  17. Nonlinear Brightness Optimization in Compton Scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hartemann, Fred V.; Wu, Sheldon S. Q.

    2013-07-26

    In Compton scattering light sources, a laser pulse is scattered by a relativistic electron beam to generate tunable x and gamma rays. Because of the inhomogeneous nature of the incident radiation, the relativistic Lorentz boost of the electrons is modulated by the ponderomotive force during the interaction, leading to intrinsic spectral broadening and brightness limitations. We discuss these effects, along with an optimization strategy to properly balance the laser bandwidth, diffraction, and nonlinear ponderomotive force.

  18. Resonances in pi-K scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, David J.

    2014-06-23

    We have obtained clear signals of resonances in coupled-channel pi K - eta K scattering. Using distillation and a large basis of operators we are able to extract a precise spectrum of energy levels using the variational method. These energies are analysed using inelastic extensions of the Luescher method to obtain scattering amplitudes that clearly describe S, P and D wave resonances, corresponding to the physical K_0^*(1430), the K^*(892) and the K_2^*(1430).

  19. 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering LANSCE » 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering Home Abstract Lecturers Lecturer Abstracts Hands-On Experiments Free Day About the School Sponsors FAQ's Quick Links Application - Closed Reference Form - closed Schedule- tentative Poster Contacts School: neutronschool@lanl.gov School Co-Directors: A. Llobet allobet@lanl.gov H. Nakotte hnakotte@nmsu.edu Local Organizing Committee: Edwin Fohtung (Co-Chair) efohtung@nmsu.edu Ph:575.646.5631 Graham King

  20. Scattering Workshop May 16-17, 2006

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workshop on Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences: Theory and Application. group shot on the steps of bldg 41 (Click image for a hi-res version) Date: May 16 (Lectures) May 17 (Hands-on practical session) Location: SSRL Overview: Modern synchrotron-based X-ray scattering (SR-XRS) techniques offer the ability to probe nano- and atomic-scale structures and order/disorder relationships that critically govern the properties of advanced technological and

  1. Probing the Quantum State of a 1D Bose Gas Using Off-Resonant Light Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sykes, A. G.; Ballagh, R. J.

    2011-12-30

    We present a theoretical treatment of coherent light scattering from an interacting 1D Bose gas at finite temperatures. We show how this can provide a nondestructive measurement of the atomic system states. The equilibrium states are determined by the temperature and interaction strength, and are characterized by the spatial density-density correlation function. We show how this correlation function is encoded in the angular distribution of the fluctuations of the scattered light intensity, thus providing a sensitive, quantitative probe of the density-density correlation function and therefore the quantum state of the gas.

  2. The Mean and Scatter of the Velocity Dispersion-Optical Richness Relation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for MaxBCG Galaxy Clusters (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The Mean and Scatter of the Velocity Dispersion-Optical Richness Relation for MaxBCG Galaxy Clusters Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Mean and Scatter of the Velocity Dispersion-Optical Richness Relation for MaxBCG Galaxy Clusters The distribution of galaxies in position and velocity around the centers of galaxy clusters encodes important information about cluster mass and structure. Using the maxBCG galaxy cluster

  3. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., q.sub.max /q.sub.min.congruent.100.

  4. Efficient Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Plasmonic Scattering Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothberg, Lewis

    2012-11-30

    Our project addressed the DOE MYPP 2020 goal to improve light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to 75% (Core task 6.3). As noted in the 2010 MYPP, the greatest opportunity for improvement is in the extraction of light from [OLED] panels. There are many approaches to avoiding waveguiding limitations intrinsic to the planar OLED structure including use of textured substrates, microcavity designs and incorporating scattering layers into the device structure. We have chosen to pursue scattering layers since it addresses the largest source of loss which is waveguiding in the OLED itself. Scattering layers also have the potential to be relatively robust to color, polarization and angular distributions. We note that this can be combined with textured or microlens decorated substrates to achieve additional enhancement.

  5. Cross sections for electron scattering by propane in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, G. L. C. de; Lee, M.-T.; Sanches, I. P.; Rawat, P.; Iga, I.; Santos, A. S. dos; Machado, L. E.; Sugohara, R. T.; Brescansin, L. M.; Homem, M. G. P.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2010-07-15

    We present a joint theoretical-experimental study on electron scattering by propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Calculated elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer as well as total (elastic + inelastic) and total absorption cross sections are reported for impact energies ranging from 2 to 500 eV. Also, experimental absolute elastic cross sections are reported in the 40- to 500-eV energy range. A complex optical potential is used to represent the electron-molecule interaction dynamics. A theoretical method based on the single-center-expansion close-coupling framework and corrected by the Pade approximant is used to solve the scattering equations. The experimental angular distributions of the scattered electrons are converted to absolute cross sections using the relative flow technique. The comparison of our calculated with our measured results, as well as with other experimental and theoretical data available in the literature, is encouraging.

  6. Deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li at an energy of 25 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtebayev, N.; Artemov, S. V.; Duisebayev, B. A.; Kerimkulov, Zh. K.; Kuranov, S. B.; Sakuta, S. B.

    2010-05-15

    At an energy of 25 MeV and in the angular range 7{sup o}-175{sup o} in the laboratory frame, angular distributions were measured for elastic deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li nuclei and for the respective inelastic-scattering processes accompanied by the transitions to the ground state (1+) of the {sup 6}Li nucleus and to its excited state at E{sub x} = 2.186 MeV (J{sup {pi}} = 3{sup +}). The resulting data were analyzed on the basis of the optical model of the nucleus and the coupled-reaction-channel method with allowance for the mechanism of alpha-particle-cluster exchange. It is shown that only upon including, in the analysis, channel coupling and the exchange mechanism can the experimental cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering be reproduced over the entire range of angles.

  7. BIOISIS: Biological Macromolecules by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tainer, John [Scripps Research Institute; Hura, Greg [LBNL; Rambo, Robert P. [LBNL

    BIOISIS is an open access database dedicated to the study of biological macromolecules by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). BIOISIS aims to become the complete source for the deposition, distribution and maintenance of small angle X-ray scattering data and technologies. The database is designed around the concept of an experiment and relates a specific experiment to a set of genes, organisms, computational models and experimental data. As of May 2012, BIOSIS contains 7,118 genes covering four different organisms. Forty-two modeled structures are available. Clicking on a structures reveals scattering curves, experimental conditions, and experimental values. The data are collected at Beamline 12.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS).[Copied with editing from http://www.bioisis.net/about

  8. Multiple scattering of electrons in solids and molecules: A cluster-model approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia de Abajo, F. J.; Van Hove, M. A.; Fadley, C. S.

    2001-02-15

    A method for the simulation of electron scattering and diffraction in solids and molecules within the cluster approach is presented with explicit applications to photoelectron diffraction, electron scattering in molecules, and low-energy electron diffraction. No approximations are made beyond the muffin-tin model, and, in particular, an exact representation of the free-electron Green function is used. All multiple-scattering paths are accounted for up to an order of scattering that ensures convergence. The method relies upon a convenient separation of the free-electron Green function in rotation matrices and translations along the z axis, which greatly reduces the computation time and storage demand. The evaluation of the multiple-scattering expansion is implemented using the fully convergent recursion method, which permits one to perform an iterative refinement of the final-state wave function, as expressed in the basis set of spherical harmonics attached to each atom of the cluster. Examples are offered in which the direct multiple-scattering expansion and the more elaborated simultaneous relaxation method fail to converge, whereas the recursion method leads to convergence. The computation time needed by the resulting computer program of electron diffraction in atomic clusters to determine the self-consistently scattered wave function is proportional to N{sup 2}(l{sub max}+1){sup 3}, where N is the number of atoms in the cluster and l{sub max} is the maximum angular momentum for which the scattering phase shifts take non-negligible values. Within this method it is possible to establish that in practical cases N>1000 might be needed for a convergence of the cluster size, although the angular averaging inherent in many experiments may reduce this. The recursion method was also modified to reduce the effort in computing angular distributions of photoelectrons and low-energy diffracted electrons, which now require negligible time for each angle of emission once the wave function has been determined for a given electron energy. Angle and energy distributions of core-level photoemission, elastic scattering of electrons from a free molecule, and low-energy electron diffraction in large-unit-cell surfaces are calculated.

  9. Explicit spatial scattering for load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel discrete-event simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thulasidasan, Sunil; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Romero, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the problem of load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel, discrete-event simulations executed on high-performance computing clusters, focusing on simulations where computational and messaging load tend to be spatially clustered. Such domains are frequently characterized by the presence of geographic 'hot-spots' - regions that generate significantly more simulation events than others. Examples of such domains include simulation of urban regions, transportation networks and networks where interaction between entities is often constrained by physical proximity. Noting that in conservatively synchronized parallel simulations, the speed of execution of the simulation is determined by the slowest (i.e most heavily loaded) simulation process, we study different partitioning strategies in achieving equitable processor-load distribution in domains with spatially clustered load. In particular, we study the effectiveness of partitioning via spatial scattering to achieve optimal load balance. In this partitioning technique, nearby entities are explicitly assigned to different processors, thereby scattering the load across the cluster. This is motivated by two observations, namely, (i) since load is spatially clustered, spatial scattering should, intuitively, spread the load across the compute cluster, and (ii) in parallel simulations, equitable distribution of CPU load is a greater determinant of execution speed than message passing overhead. Through large-scale simulation experiments - both of abstracted and real simulation models - we observe that scatter partitioning, even with its greatly increased messaging overhead, significantly outperforms more conventional spatial partitioning techniques that seek to reduce messaging overhead. Further, even if hot-spots change over the course of the simulation, if the underlying feature of spatial clustering is retained, load continues to be balanced with spatial scattering leading us to the observation that spatial scattering can often obviate the need for dynamic load balancing.

  10. Inelastic pion scattering by /sup 13/C at low energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, J.H.

    1987-03-01

    Angular distributions for inelastically scattered pions were obtained for several states in /sup 13/C at an incident energy of 65 MeV. The data include results from both ..pi../sup +/ and ..pi../sup -/ measurements. In addition, ..pi../sup -/ measurements were made at T/sub ..pi../ = 50 MeV at one angle to give a two point fixed-q excitation function. The data are compared to theory and the data of others. As might be expected, medium corrections are shown to be considerably more important at low energies than at resonance. This is true for inelastic transitions of multipolarity 0,2 and 3. Parameters derived from an analysis of elastic pion scattering and SCX data also provide an adequate description of the inelastic transitions. The charge asymmetry in the cross sections for the 9/2/sup +/ state that was seen at resonance persists at these energies. This result is consistent with an impulse approximation treatment of the spin-flip amplitude. This is true even though the incoming energy of the pions is far below the range where the validity of an impulse treatment is expected. 65 refs., 45 figs.

  11. A Process for Modelling Diffuse Scattering from Disordered Molecular Crystals, Illustrated by Application to Monoclinic 9-Chloro-10-methylanthracene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Goossens, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse scattering from a crystal contains valuable information about the two-body correlations (related to the nanoscale order) in the material. Despite years of development, the detailed analysis of single crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS) has yet to become part of the everyday toolbox of the structural scientist. Recent decades have seen the pair distribution function approach to diffuse scattering (in fact, total scattering) from powders become a relatively routine tool. However, analysing the detailed, complex, and often highly anisotropic three-dimensional distribution of SCDS remains valuable yet rare because there is no routine method for undertaking the analysis. At present, analysis requiresmore » significant investment of time to develop specialist expertise, which means that the analysis of diffuse scattering, which has much to offer, is not incorporated thorough studies of many compounds even though it has the potential to be a very useful adjunct to existing techniques. This article endeavours to outline in some detail how the diffuse scattering from a molecular crystal can be modelled relatively quickly and largely using existing software tools. It is hoped this will provide a template for other studies. To enable this, the entire simulation is included as deposited material.« less

  12. Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehman, S K

    2011-07-06

    How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and seismic migration in which wide band time series are shifted but not to form images per se. Section 3 presents a mostly graphically-based motivation and summary of delay, scale, and sum beamforming. The model for incident field propagation in free space is derived in Section 4 under specific assumptions. General object scattering is derived in Section 5 and simplified under the Born approximation in Section 6. The model of this section serves as the basis in the derivation of time-domain migration. The Foldy-Lax, full point scatterer scattering, method is derived in Section 7. With the previous forward models in hand, delay, scale, and sum beamforming is derived in Section 8. Finally, proof-of-principle experiments are present in Section 9.

  13. Geometric phases in a scattering process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H. D.; Yi, X. X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-08-15

    The study of geometric phase in quantum mechanics has so far been confined to discrete (or continuous) spectra and trace-preserving evolutions. By considering only the transmission channel, a scattering process with internal degrees of freedom is neither a discrete spectrum problem nor a trace-preserving process. We explore the geometric phase in the scattering process by taking only the transmission process into account. We find that the geometric phase can be calculated by the same method as in unitary evolution. The interference visibility depends on the transmission amplitude. The dependence of the geometric phase on the barrier strength and the spin-spin coupling constant is also presented and discussed.

  14. Diffractive Scattering and Gauge/String Duality

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Tan, Chung-I [Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States

    2009-09-01

    High-energy diffractive scattering will be discussed based on Gauge/String duality. As shown by Brower, Polchinski, Strassler and Tan, the ubiquitous Pomeron emerges naturally in gauge theories with string-theoretical descriptions. Its existence is intimately tied to gluons, and also to the energy-momentum tensor. With a confining dual background metric, the Pomeron can be interpreted as a 'massive graviton'. In a single unified step, both its infrared and ultraviolet properties are dealt with, reflecting confinement and conformal symmetry respectively. An effective field theory for high-energy scattering can be constructed. Applications based on this approach will also be described.

  15. Scattering theory with localized non-Hermiticities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Znojil, Miloslav [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-15

    In the context of the recent interest in solvable models of scattering mediated by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians (cf. H. F. Jones, Phys. Rev. D 76, 125003 (2007)) we show that the well-known variability of the ad hoc choice of the metric {theta} which defines the physical Hilbert space of states can help us to clarify several apparent paradoxes. We argue that with a suitable {theta}, a fully plausible physical picture of the scattering can be recovered. Quantitatively, our new recipe is illustrated on an exactly solvable toy model.

  16. The scattering of f- and p-modes from ensembles of thin magnetic flux tubes: an analytical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Chris S.; Cally, Paul S.

    2014-08-20

    Motivated by the observational results of Braun, we extend the model of Hanson and Cally to address the effect of multiple scattering of f and p modes by an ensemble of thin vertical magnetic flux tubes in the surface layers of the Sun. As in the observational Hankel analysis, we measure the scatter and phase shift from an incident cylindrical wave in a coordinate system roughly centered in the core of the ensemble. It is demonstrated that although thin flux tubes are unable to interact with high-order fluting modes individually, they can indirectly absorb energy from these waves through the scatters of kink and sausage components. It is also shown how the distribution of absorption and phase shift across the azimuthal order m depends strongly on the tube position as well as on the individual tube characteristics. This is the first analytical study into an ensembles multiple-scattering regime that is embedded within a stratified atmosphere.

  17. Compact, Interactive Electric Vehicle Charger: Gallium-Nitride Switch Technology for Bi-directional Battery-to-Grid Charger Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    ADEPT Project: HRL Laboratories is using gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors to create battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs) that are more compact and efficient than traditional EV chargers. Reducing the size and weight of the battery charger is important because it would help improve the overall performance of the EV. GaN semiconductors process electricity faster than the silicon semiconductors used in most conventional EV battery chargers. These high-speed semiconductors can be paired with lighter-weight electrical circuit components, which helps decrease the overall weight of the EV battery charger. HRL Laboratories is combining the performance advantages of GaN semiconductors with an innovative, interactive battery-to-grid energy distribution design. This design would support 2-way power flow, enabling EV battery chargers to not only draw energy from the power grid, but also store and feed energy back into it.

  18. Effects of the scatter in sunspot group tilt angles on the large-scale magnetic field at the solar surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, J.; Cameron, R. H.; Schssler, M.

    2014-08-10

    The tilt angles of sunspot groups represent the poloidal field source in Babcock-Leighton-type models of the solar dynamo and are crucial for the build-up and reversals of the polar fields in surface flux transport (SFT) simulations. The evolution of the polar field is a consequence of Hale's polarity rules, together with the tilt angle distribution which has a systematic component (Joy's law) and a random component (tilt-angle scatter). We determine the scatter using the observed tilt angle data and study the effects of this scatter on the evolution of the solar surface field using SFT simulations with flux input based upon the recorded sunspot groups. The tilt angle scatter is described in our simulations by a random component according to the observed distributions for different ranges of sunspot group size (total umbral area). By performing simulations with a number of different realizations of the scatter we study the effect of the tilt angle scatter on the global magnetic field, especially on the evolution of the axial dipole moment. The average axial dipole moment at the end of cycle 17 (a medium-amplitude cycle) from our simulations was 2.73 G. The tilt angle scatter leads to an uncertainty of 0.78 G (standard deviation). We also considered cycle 14 (a weak cycle) and cycle 19 (a strong cycle) and show that the standard deviation of the axial dipole moment is similar for all three cycles. The uncertainty mainly results from the big sunspot groups which emerge near the equator. In the framework of Babcock-Leighton dynamo models, the tilt angle scatter therefore constitutes a significant random factor in the cycle-to-cycle amplitude variability, which strongly limits the predictability of solar activity.

  19. Neutron Scattering of Residual Hydrogen in 1,4-Dioxane-D8 Liquid. Understanding Measurements with Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Almeida, Valmor F.; Liu, Hongjun; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Kidder, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    That incoherent scattering from protiated molecular liquids adds a constant background to the measured scattering intensity is well known, but less appreciated is the fact that coherent scattering is also induced by the presence of hydrogen in a deuterated liquid. In fact, the scattering intensity can be very sensitive, in the small-q region, with respect to the amounts and distribution of residual H in the system. We used 1,4-dioxane liquid to demonstrate that the partial structure factors of the HD and DD atom pairs contribute significantly to inter-molecular scattering and that uncertainty in the extent of deuteration account for discrepancies between simulations and measurements. Both contributions to uncertainty have similar magnitudes: scattering interference of the hydrogen-deuterium pair, and complementary interference from the deuterium-deuterium pair by virtue of chemical inhomogeneity. This situation arises in practice since deuteration of liquids is often 99% or less. A combined experimental and extensive computational study of static thermal neutron scattering of 1,4-dioxane demonstrates the foregoing. We show, through simulations, that the reason for the differences is the content of protiated dioxane (vendors quote 1%). We estimate that up to 5% (at 298K and at 343K) protiated mole fraction may be involved in generating the scattering differences. Finally, we find that the particular distribution of hydrogen in the protiated molecules affects the results significantly; here we considered molecules to be either fully protiated or fully deuterated. This scenario best reconciles the computational and experimental results, and leads us to speculate that the deuteration synthesis process tends to leave a molecule either fully deuterated or fully protiated. Although we have used 1,4-dioxane as a model liquid, the effects described in this study extend to similar liquids and similar systematic experimental/computational studies can be performed to either understand measurements or calibrate/validate molecular dynamics models.

  20. Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, Stanley E.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Prather, William S.

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman-scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

  1. Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, S.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman- scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

  2. EIA - Coal Distribution

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal > Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal distribution by origin State, destination State, consumer category, method of transportation; foreign coal distribution by major coal-exporting state and method of transportation; and domestic and foreign coal distribution by origin state. Year Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of

  3. Semiclassical multi-phonon theory for atom-surface scattering: Application to the Cu(111) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daon, Shauli; Pollak, Eli

    2015-05-07

    The semiclassical perturbation theory of Hubbard and Miller [J. Chem. Phys. 80, 5827 (1984)] is further developed to include the full multi-phonon transitions in atom-surface scattering. A practically applicable expression is developed for the angular scattering distribution by utilising a discretized bath of oscillators, instead of the continuum limit. At sufficiently low surface temperature good agreement is found between the present multi-phonon theory and the previous one-, and two-phonon theory derived in the continuum limit in our previous study [Daon, Pollak, and Miret-Arts, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 201103 (2012)]. The theory is applied to the measured angular distributions of Ne, Ar, and Kr scattered from a Cu(111) surface. We find that the present multi-phonon theory substantially improves the agreement between experiment and theory, especially at the higher surface temperatures. This provides evidence for the importance of multi-phonon transitions in determining the angular distribution as the surface temperature is increased.

  4. Periodically distributed objects with quasicrystalline diffraction pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolny, Janusz Strzalka, Radoslaw; Kuczera, Pawel

    2015-03-30

    It is possible to construct fully periodically distributed objects with a diffraction pattern identical to the one obtained for quasicrystals. These objects are probability distributions of distances obtained in the statistical approach to aperiodic structures distributed periodically. The diffraction patterns have been derived by using a two-mode Fourier transform—a very powerful method not used in classical crystallography. It is shown that if scaling is present in the structure, this two-mode Fourier transform can be reduced to a regular Fourier transform with appropriately rescaled scattering vectors and added phases. Detailed case studies for model sets 1D Fibonacci chain and 2D Penrose tiling are discussed. Finally, it is shown that crystalline, quasicrystalline, and approximant structures can be treated in the same way.

  5. Application of electrically invisible antennas to the modulated scatterer technique

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crocker, Dylan A.; Donnell, Kristen M.

    2015-09-16

    The modulated scatterer technique (MST) has shown promise for applications in microwave imaging, electric field mapping, and materials characterization. Traditionally, MST scatterers are dipoles centrally loaded with an element capable of modulation (e.g., a p-i-n diode). By modulating the load element, signals scattered from the MST scatterer are also modulated. However, due to the small size of such scatterers, it can be difficult to reliably detect the modulated signal. Increasing the modulation depth (MD; a parameter related to how well the scatterer modulates the scattered signal) may improve the detectability of the scattered signal. In an effort to improve themore » MD, the concept of electrically invisible antennas is applied to the design of MST scatterers. This paper presents simulations and measurements of MST scatterers that have been designed to be electrically invisible during the reverse bias state of the modulated element (a p-i-n diode in this case), while producing detectable scattering during the forward bias state (i.e., operate in an electrically visible state). Furthermore, the results using the new design show significant improvement to the MD of the scattered signal as compared with a traditional MST scatterer (i.e., dipole centrally loaded with a p-i-n diode).« less

  6. Application of electrically invisible antennas to the Modulated Scatterer Technique

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crocker, Dylan A.; Donnell, Kristen M.

    2015-09-16

    The modulated scatterer technique (MST) has shown promise for applications in microwave imaging, electric field mapping, and materials characterization. Traditionally, MST scatterers are dipoles centrally loaded with an element capable of modulation (e.g., a p-i-n diode). By modulating the load element, signals scattered from the MST scatterer are also modulated. However, due to the small size of such scatterers, it can be difficult to reliably detect the modulated signal. Increasing the modulation depth (MD; a parameter related to how well the scatterer modulates the scattered signal) may improve the detectability of the scattered signal. In an effort to improve themore » MD, the concept of electrically invisible antennas is applied to the design of MST scatterers. Our paper presents simulations and measurements of MST scatterers that have been designed to be electrically invisible during the reverse bias state of the modulated element (a p-i-n diode in this case), while producing detectable scattering during the forward bias state (i.e., operate in an electrically visible state). Furthermore, the results using the new design show significant improvement to the MD of the scattered signal as compared with a traditional MST scatterer (i.e., dipole centrally loaded with a p-i-n diode).« less

  7. Application of electrically invisible antennas to the Modulated Scatterer Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, Dylan A.; Donnell, Kristen M.

    2015-09-16

    The modulated scatterer technique (MST) has shown promise for applications in microwave imaging, electric field mapping, and materials characterization. Traditionally, MST scatterers are dipoles centrally loaded with an element capable of modulation (e.g., a p-i-n diode). By modulating the load element, signals scattered from the MST scatterer are also modulated. However, due to the small size of such scatterers, it can be difficult to reliably detect the modulated signal. Increasing the modulation depth (MD; a parameter related to how well the scatterer modulates the scattered signal) may improve the detectability of the scattered signal. In an effort to improve the MD, the concept of electrically invisible antennas is applied to the design of MST scatterers. Our paper presents simulations and measurements of MST scatterers that have been designed to be electrically invisible during the reverse bias state of the modulated element (a p-i-n diode in this case), while producing detectable scattering during the forward bias state (i.e., operate in an electrically visible state). Furthermore, the results using the new design show significant improvement to the MD of the scattered signal as compared with a traditional MST scatterer (i.e., dipole centrally loaded with a p-i-n diode).

  8. Application of electrically invisible antennas to the modulated scatterer technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, Dylan A.; Donnell, Kristen M.

    2015-09-16

    The modulated scatterer technique (MST) has shown promise for applications in microwave imaging, electric field mapping, and materials characterization. Traditionally, MST scatterers are dipoles centrally loaded with an element capable of modulation (e.g., a p-i-n diode). By modulating the load element, signals scattered from the MST scatterer are also modulated. However, due to the small size of such scatterers, it can be difficult to reliably detect the modulated signal. Increasing the modulation depth (MD; a parameter related to how well the scatterer modulates the scattered signal) may improve the detectability of the scattered signal. In an effort to improve the MD, the concept of electrically invisible antennas is applied to the design of MST scatterers. This paper presents simulations and measurements of MST scatterers that have been designed to be electrically invisible during the reverse bias state of the modulated element (a p-i-n diode in this case), while producing detectable scattering during the forward bias state (i.e., operate in an electrically visible state). Furthermore, the results using the new design show significant improvement to the MD of the scattered signal as compared with a traditional MST scatterer (i.e., dipole centrally loaded with a p-i-n diode).

  9. Measurement of the Neutron Radius of 208Pb Through Parity-Violation in Electron Scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abrahamyan, Sergey; Albataineh, Hisham; Aniol, Konrad; Armstrong, David; Armstrong, Whitney; Averett, Todd; Babineau, Benjamin; Barbieri, A.; Bellini, Vincenzo; Beminiwattha, Rakitha; et al

    2012-03-15

    We report the first measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry APV in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 208Pb. APV is sensitive to the radius of the neutron distribution (Rn). The result APV = 0.656 ± 0.060 (stat) ± 0.013 (syst) corresponds to a difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions Rn-Rp = 0.33-0.18+0.16 fm and provides the first electroweak observation of the neutron skin which is expected in a heavy, neutron-rich nucleus.

  10. Hadron mass corrections in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guerrero Teran, Juan Vicente; Ethier, James J.; Accardi, Alberto; Casper, Steven W.; Melnitchouk, Wally

    2015-09-24

    We found that the spin-dependent cross sections for semi-inclusive lepton-nucleon scattering are derived in the framework of collinear factorization, including the effects of masses of the target and produced hadron at finite Q2. At leading order the cross sections factorize into products of parton distribution and fragmentation functions evaluated in terms of new, mass-dependent scaling variables. Furthermore, the size of the hadron mass corrections is estimated at kinematics relevant for current and future experiments, and the implications for the extraction of parton distributions from semi-inclusive measurements are discussed.

  11. Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XSD-IXN XSD-IXN Home Staff Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering The Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering group operates beamlines at APS Sectors 3, 9 and 30....

  12. Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs You are accessing a document from...

  13. Apparatus and method for spectroscopic analysis of scattering media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strobl, Karlheinz; Bigio, Irving J.; Loree, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and method for spectroscopic analysis of scattering media. Subtle differences in materials have been found to be detectable from plots of intensity as a function of wavelength of collected emitted and scattered light versus wavelength of excitation light.

  14. S-wave scattering of strangeness -3 baryons (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    S-wave scattering of strangeness -3 baryons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: S-wave scattering of strangeness -3 baryons You are accessing a document from the ...

  15. Small-angle neutron scattering measurement of deuterium trapping at dislocations and grain boundaries in palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuser, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering measurements have been performed on deformed single and polycrystalline palladium with and without deuterium dissolved in the solution phase at room temperature. The purpose of these experiments was to directly measure the spatial distribution of trapped deuterium at dislocations in the deformed metal. The net scattering cross section for the same smaple with and without deuterium shows a behavior expected from deuterium correlation with dislocations froming rod-like scattering structures. The measured cross sections indicate the trapped deuterium is within 2 to 3 Burgers vectors of the dislocation core. On average 1 to 3 deuterons per {angstrom} are trapped at the dislocations in the deformed samples. The measurements also indicate the straight, rod-like correlation geometry extends on average 50 to 100 {angstrom} along the dislocations. Dislocation densities on the order of 5 {times} 10{sup 11} cm/cm{sup 3} were found for all samples investigated. Net scattering from a well annealed polycrystalline palladium sample exhibiting a behavior expected from spherical shells has been observed. This net scattering is attributed to deuterium trapping at grain boundaries in the polycrystalline sample. net scattering in excess of that expected from deuterium correlated at dislocations was also observed in a deformed polycrystalline measurement. This too is attributed to deuterium trapping at grain boundaries. The dislocation substructure of the deformed palladium samples was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This analysis illustrated the cellular arrangement that evolved in palladium during cold working. The presence of MnO particles also was confirmed by TEM analysis.

  16. SXST 2014 - 7th SSRL School on Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    important techniques including small angle scattering, thin-film scattering, powder diffraction, structure refinement and surface x-ray scattering. The school will address topics...

  17. Deeply virtual Compton Scattering cross section measured with CLAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guegan, Baptistse

    2014-09-01

    The Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) provide a new description of nucleon structure in terms of its elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Including and extending the information provided by the form factors and the parton distribution functions, they describe the correlation between the transverse position and the longitudinal momentum fraction of the partons in the nucleon. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), the electroproduction of a real photon on a single quark in the nucleon eN --> e'N'g, is the exclusive process most directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. A dedicated experiment to study DVCS with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has been carried out using a 5.9-GeV polarized electron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target, allowing us to collect DVCS events in the widest kinematic range ever explored in the valence region : 1.0 < Q2 < 4.6 GeV2, 0.1 < xB < 0.58 and 0.09 < -t < 2.0 GeV2. In this paper, we show preliminary results of unpolarized cross sections and of polarized cross section differences for the DVCS channel.

  18. 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering | About the School

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    students calculate results About the LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering The annual Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) School on Neutron Scattering is 9- to 10-day school focusing on specific science topics to which neutron scattering makes a critical impact. The focus-driven agenda makes it distinct from other neutron schools in the nation. The LANSCE Neutron Scattering School began in 2004 and it has had a continuous and successful run to this day. General School Format The first day

  19. Jefferson Lab experiment works to clarify Real Compton Scattering |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab experiment works to clarify Real Compton Scattering Real Compton Scattering experiment spokespeople The Real Compton Scattering experiment spokespeople take a short break for a photo. From left is Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, JLab staff scientist; Charles Hyde-Wright, physics professor at Old Dominion University; and Alan Nathan, physics professor at the University of Illinois and chair of the JLab Users Group. Jefferson Lab experiment works to clarify Real Compton Scattering January

  20. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables...

  1. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Systems Integration team funds distribution grid integration research and development (R&D) activities to address the technical issues that surround distribution grid planning,...

  2. About Industrial Distributed Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office's (AMO's) Industrial Distributed Energy activities build on the success of predecessor DOE programs on distributed energy and combined heat and power (CHP) while...

  3. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report ...

  4. Multiple Scattering Measurements in the MICE Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.; Neuffer, D.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under construction at RAL, will test a prototype cooling channel for a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. The cooling channel aims to achieve, using liquid hydrogen absorbers, a 10% reduction in transverse emittance. The change in 4D emittance will be determined with an accuracy of 1% by measuring muons individually. Step IV of MICE will make the first precise emittance-reduction measurements of the experiment. Simulation studies using G4MICE, based on GEANT4, find a significant difference in multiple scattering in low Z materials, compared with the standard expression quoted by the Particle Data Group. Direct measurement of multiple scattering using the scintillating-fibre trackers is found to be possible, but requires the measurement resolution to be unfolded from the data.

  5. Alternating current response of carbon nanotubes with randomly distributed impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirai, Daisuke; Watanabe, Satoshi [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takahiro [Department of Electrical Engineering and Department of Liberal Arts (Physics), Tokyo University of Science, 6-3-1 Niijuku, Katsushika, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan)

    2014-10-27

    The increasing need for nanodevices has necessitated a better understanding of the electronic transport behavior of nanomaterials. We therefore theoretically examine the AC transport properties of metallic carbon nanotubes with randomly distributed impurities. We find that the long-range impurity scattering increases the emittance, but does not affect the DC conductance. The estimated dwell time of electrons increases with the potential amplitudes. That is, multiple scattering by the impurities increases the kinetic inductance in proportion to the dwell time, which eventually increases the emittance. We believe that our findings can contribute significantly to nanodevice development.

  6. Contraband detection via neutron elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomberg, H.J.; Charatis, G.; Brundage, J.

    1993-04-01

    Reliable detection of explosives and narcotics depends on generating signatures of compounds which characterize them. Major explosives and also alkaloid narcotics contain unique concentrations of Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N), and Oxygen (O). The kinematic energy shifts of neutrons scattered through angles larger than 140{degrees} allows separate determinations of C, N, and O; ratios of N/C and O/C together give clear signatures of the presence of plastic explosives or narcotics. The ability to detect these signatures under conditions similar to those that would obtain for airport screening has been demonstrated for neutrons for energies less {le} 3 MeV. Strong N resonances and a deep window for scattering from O enhance the confidence of element quantification. Detection of contraband in large cargo containers presents a much more difficult problem. Use of higher energy neutrons is now being tested for shielding penetration, so narcotic signatures could be identified behind the shielding of cargo containers. Scattered neutron spectra, or {open_quotes}signatures{close_quotes} of different organic compounds will be presented.

  7. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROGRAM PROJECT PROFILE Distributed Energy Project Profile * Verizon System Technical Overview During ... to the grid-a connected generation limit of 3 MVA set by the ...

  8. Azimuthal asymmetries in unpolarized Drell-Yan processes and the Boer-Mulders distributions of antiquarks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Barone,S. Melis,A. Prokudin

    2010-12-01

    Using a previous extraction of the quark Boer-Mulders distributions from semiinclusive deep inelastic scattering data, we fit the unpolarized Drell-Yan data on the $\\cos 2 \\phi$ asymmetry, determining the antiquark Boer-Mulders distributions. A good agreement with the data is found in the region of low $q_T$, where the transverse-momentum factorization approach applies.

  9. Electron kinetic effects on interferometry, polarimetry and Thomson scattering measurements in burning plasmas (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Hartog, D. J. Den; Duff, J.; Parke, E.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.

    2014-11-15

    At anticipated high electron temperatures in ITER, the effects of electron thermal motion on Thomson scattering (TS), toroidal interferometer/polarimeter (TIP), and poloidal polarimeter (PoPola) diagnostics will be significant and must be accurately treated. The precision of the previous lowest order linear in ? = T{sub e}/m{sub e}c{sup 2} model may be insufficient; we present a more precise model with ?{sup 2}-order corrections to satisfy the high accuracy required for ITER TIP and PoPola diagnostics. The linear model is extended from Maxwellian to a more general class of anisotropic electron distributions that allows us to take into account distortions caused by equilibrium current, ECRH, and RF current drive effects. The classical problem of the degree of polarization of incoherent Thomson scattered radiation is solved analytically exactly without any approximations for the full range of incident polarizations, scattering angles, and electron thermal motion from non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic. The results are discussed in the context of the possible use of the polarization properties of Thomson scattered light as a method of T{sub e} measurement relevant to ITER operational scenarios.

  10. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  11. Molecular anisotropy effects in carbon K-edge scattering: depolarized diffuse scattering and optical anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, Kevin H.

    2014-07-14

    Some polymer properties, such as conductivity, are very sensitive to short- and intermediate-range orientational and positional ordering of anisotropic molecular functional groups, and yet means to characterize orientational order in disordered systems are very limited. We demonstrate that resonant scattering at the carbon K-edge is uniquely sensitive to short-range orientation correlations in polymers through depolarized scattering at high momentum transfers, using atactic polystyrene as a well-characterized test system. Depolarized scattering is found to coexist with unpolarized fluorescence, and to exhibit pronounced anisotropy. We also quantify the spatially averaged optical anisotropy from low-angle reflectivity measurements, finding anisotropy consistent with prior visible, x-ray absorption, and theoretical studies. The average anisotropy is much smaller than that in the depolarized scattering and the two have different character. Both measurements exhibit clear spectral signatures from the phenyl rings and the polyethylene-like backbone. Discussion focuses on analysis considerations and prospects for using this depolarized scattering for studies of disorder in soft condensed matter.

  12. SU-E-J-175: Proton Dose Calculation On Scatter-Corrected CBCT Image: Feasibility Study for Adaptive Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Y; Winey, B; Sharp, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate feasibility of proton dose calculation on scattercorrected CBCT images for the purpose of adaptive proton therapy. Methods: Two CBCT image sets were acquired from a prostate cancer patient and a thorax phantom using an on-board imaging system of an Elekta infinity linear accelerator. 2-D scatter maps were estimated using a previously introduced CT-based technique, and were subtracted from each raw projection image. A CBCT image set was then reconstructed with an open source reconstruction toolkit (RTK). Conversion from the CBCT number to HU was performed by soft tissue-based shifting with reference to the plan CT. Passively scattered proton plans were simulated on the plan CT and corrected/uncorrected CBCT images using the XiO treatment planning system. For quantitative evaluation, water equivalent path length (WEPL) was compared in those treatment plans. Results: The scatter correction method significantly improved image quality and HU accuracy in the prostate case where large scatter artifacts were obvious. However, the correction technique showed limited effects on the thorax case that was associated with fewer scatter artifacts. Mean absolute WEPL errors from the plans with the uncorrected and corrected images were 1.3 mm and 5.1 mm in the thorax case and 13.5 mm and 3.1 mm in the prostate case. The prostate plan dose distribution of the corrected image demonstrated better agreement with the reference one than that of the uncorrected image. Conclusion: A priori CT-based CBCT scatter correction can reduce the proton dose calculation error when large scatter artifacts are involved. If scatter artifacts are low, an uncorrected CBCT image is also promising for proton dose calculation when it is calibrated with the soft-tissue based shifting.

  13. Non-coherent continuum scattering as a line polarization mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Pino Alemán, T.; Manso Sainz, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J. E-mail: rsainz@iac.es

    2014-03-20

    Line scattering polarization can be strongly affected by Rayleigh scattering at neutral hydrogen and Thomson scattering at free electrons. Often a depolarization of the continuum results, but the Doppler redistribution produced by the continuum scatterers, which are light (hence, fast), induces more complex interactions between the polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. Here we formulate and solve the radiative transfer problem of scattering line polarization with non-coherent continuum scattering consistently. The problem is formulated within the spherical tensor representation of atomic and light polarization. The numerical method of solution is a generalization of the Accelerated Lambda Iteration that is applied to both the atomic system and the radiation field. We show that the redistribution of the spectral line radiation due to the non-coherence of the continuum scattering may modify the shape of the emergent fractional linear polarization patterns significantly, even yielding polarization signals above the continuum level in intrinsically unpolarizable lines.

  14. Distributed Wind Ordinances: Slides

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    an introduction to distributed wind projects and a brief overview of topics to consider when developing a distributed wind energy ordinance. Distributed Wind Ordinances Photo from Byers and Renier Construction, NREL 18820 Distributed Wind Ordinances The U.S. Department of Energy defines distributed wind projects as: (a) The use of wind turbines, on- or off-grid, at homes, farms and ranches, businesses, public and industrial facilities, or other sites to offset all or a portion of the local

  15. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an introduction to distributed wind projects and a brief overview of topics to consider when developing a distributed wind energy ordinance. Distributed Wind Ordinances Photo from Byers and Renier Construction, NREL 18820 Distributed Wind Ordinances The U.S. Department of Energy defines distributed wind projects as: (a) The use of wind turbines, on- or off-grid, at homes, farms and ranches, businesses, public and industrial facilities, or other sites to offset all or a portion of the local

  16. Stimulated Raman scattering of laser dye mixtures dissolved in multiple scattering media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, V P; Komyshan, A O; Tikhonov, E A; Olkhovyk, L A

    2014-10-31

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of a mixture of rhodamine 6G and pyrromethene 605 laser dyes in vesicular films is studied. It is shown that a peculiar interaction of dyes occurs under conditions of multiple scattering of light from vesicles. This interaction manifests itself as SRS excitation of one of the dyes by random lasing of the other dye, provided that the random lasing spectrum overlaps the Stokes lines of the first dye. In addition, there is energy transfer between molecules of these dyes if their luminescence and absorption spectra overlap. The results obtained confirm that the mechanism of SRS from laser dyes in multiple scattering media is similar to that in coherent-active Raman spectroscopy. These results extend the possibility of determining the vibrational spectrum of dye molecules from their secondary radiation in these media. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  17. Sandia Energy - Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distribution Grid Integration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Grid Integration Distribution Grid Integration Distribution Grid...

  18. Dispersion corrections to parity violating electron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorchtein, M.; Horowitz, C. J. [Nuclear Theory Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Ramsey-Musolf, M. J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-08-04

    We consider the dispersion correction to elastic parity violating electron-proton scattering due to {gamma}Z exchange. In a recent publication, this correction was reported to be substantially larger than the previous estimates. In this paper, we study the dispersion correction in greater detail. We confirm the size of the disperion correction to be {approx}6% for the QWEAK experiment designed to measure the proton weak charge. We enumerate parameters that have to be constrained to better than relative 30% in order to keep the theoretical uncertainty for QWEAK under control.

  19. Transient Rayleigh scattering from single semiconductor nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montazeri, Mohammad; Jackson, Howard E.; Smith, Leigh M.; Yarrison-Rice, Jan M.; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-12-04

    Transient Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy is a new pump-probe technique to study the dynamics and cooling of photo-excited carriers in single semiconductor nanowires. By studying the evolution of the transient Rayleigh spectrum in time after excitation, one can measure the time evolution of the density and temperature of photo-excited electron-hole plasma (EHP) as they equilibrate with lattice. This provides detailed information of dynamics and cooling of carriers including linear and bimolecular recombination properties, carrier transport characteristics, and the energy-loss rate of hot electron-hole plasma through the emission of LO and acoustic phonons.

  20. Resonant and non-resonant magnetic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWhan, D.B.; Hastings, J.B.; Kao, C.C.; Siddons, D.P.

    1991-12-31

    The tunability and the polarization of synchrotron radiation open upon new possibilities for the study of magnetism. Studies on magnetic materials performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source are reviewed, and thy fall into four areas: structure, evolution of magnetic order, separation of L and S, and resonance effects. In the vicinity of atomic absorption edges, the Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism, and resonant magnetic scattering are all related resonance effects which measure the spin polarized density of states. The production and analysis of polarized beams are discussed in the context of the study of magnetism with synchrotron radiation.

  1. Resonant and non-resonant magnetic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWhan, D.B.; Hastings, J.B.; Kao, C.C.; Siddons, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    The tunability and the polarization of synchrotron radiation open upon new possibilities for the study of magnetism. Studies on magnetic materials performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source are reviewed, and thy fall into four areas: structure, evolution of magnetic order, separation of L and S, and resonance effects. In the vicinity of atomic absorption edges, the Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism, and resonant magnetic scattering are all related resonance effects which measure the spin polarized density of states. The production and analysis of polarized beams are discussed in the context of the study of magnetism with synchrotron radiation.

  2. MFTF Thomson scattering: a system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, A.M.

    1980-09-11

    This report documents the design effort for a Thomson scattering diagnostic system for MFTF. The principal problem is obtaining enough photons, in the presence of a poorly known background, to make satisfactory measurements. No currently available laser will yield enough photons to do this. Design concepts for imaging and detection are discussed. The ability of components to survive in the high-radiation environment of MFTF is identified as an important problem. The transition to MFTF-B makes many of the problems identified here more serious.

  3. Doubly Distributed Transactions

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-08-25

    Doubly Distributed Transactions (D2T) offers a technique for managing operations from a set of parallel clients with a collection of distributed services. It detects and manages faults. Example code with a test harness is also provided

  4. Distributed Wind 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Distributed Wind 2015 is committed to the advancement of both distributed and community wind energy. This two day event includes a Business Conference with sessions focused on advancing the...

  5. Neutron scattering studies of premartensitic phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Elastic neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering are ideal techniques for studying premartensitic behavior in metallic alloys. By necessity, real, bulk samples are probed replete with their intrinsic defects. Also, because of the properties of the neutron it is straightforward to probe the behavior of the phonon modes away from the zone center which is probed in the normal ultrasonic techniques. A wide variety of alloys exhibiting martensitic transformations have been studied. It will be shown that most systems undergoing diffusionless transformations exhibit premartensitic behavior in that precursor effects are seen at temperatures well above the martensitic transformation temperature, T{sub M}. This behavior manifests itself in an anomalous temperature dependence of the energy of a particular phonon mode as the temperature approaches T{sub M}. The wavevector of this mode is frequently away from the zone center (i.e., q {ne} O). This softening is nearly always accompanied by elastic diffuse scattering at the same wavevector. Particular examples to be discussed are the alkali metals, {omega}-phase materials and Ni-based alloys. 34 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Building the Distribution Grid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Edison Quadrennial Energy Review Electricity Transmission, Storage and Distribution - West ... optimal locations, additional investment, and barriers to deployment of ...

  7. Atom-diatom scattering dynamics of spinning molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eyles, C. J.; Flo, J.; Averbukh, I. Sh.; Leibscher, M.

    2015-01-14

    We present full quantum mechanical scattering calculations using spinning molecules as target states for nuclear spin selective atom-diatom scattering of reactive D+H{sub 2} and F+H{sub 2} collisions. Molecules can be forced to rotate uni-directionally by chiral trains of short, non-resonant laser pulses, with different nuclear spin isomers rotating in opposite directions. The calculations we present are based on rotational wavepackets that can be created in this manner. As our simulations show, target molecules with opposite sense of rotation are predominantly scattered in opposite directions, opening routes for spatially and quantum state selective scattering of close chemical species. Moreover, two-dimensional state resolved differential cross sections reveal detailed information about the scattering mechanisms, which can be explained to a large degree by a classical vector model for scattering with spinning molecules.

  8. TSAR2.3. Temporal Scattering And Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLeod, R.R.; Ray, S.L.; Laguna, G.; Allison, M.; Cabral, B.

    1991-12-01

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided to easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.

  9. Azimuthal angle dependence of dijet production in unpolarized hadron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Zhun; Schmidt, Ivan [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile) and Center of Subatomic Physics, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2008-08-01

    We study the azimuthal angular dependence of back-to-back dijet production in unpolarized hadron scattering H{sub A}+H{sub B}{yields}J{sub 1}+J{sub 2}+X, arising from the product of two Boer-Mulders functions, which describe the transverse spin distribution of quarks inside an unpolarized hadron. We find that when the dijet is of two identical quarks (J{sub q}+J{sub q}) or a quark-antiquark pair (J{sub q}+J{sub q}), there is a cos{delta}{phi} angular dependence of the dijet, with {delta}{phi}={phi}{sub 1}-{phi}{sub 2}, and {phi}{sub 1} and {phi}{sub 2} are the azimuthal angles of the two individual jets. In the case of J{sub q}+J{sub q} production, we find that there is a color factor enhancement in the gluonic cross section, compared with the result from the standard generalized parton model. We estimate the cos{delta}{phi} asymmetry of dijet production at RHIC, showing that the color factor enhancement in the angular dependence of J{sub q}+J{sub q} production will reverse the sign of the asymmetry.

  10. Elastic scattering of /sup 16/O by /sup 28/Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkolnik, V.; Dehnhard, D.; Franey, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Differential cross sections were measured in small angular steps at forward angles for the elastic scattering of /sup 16/O from /sup 28/Si, /sup 29/Si, and /sup 30/Si at E/sub lab/ = 60 MeV and from /sup 28/Si at six other incident energies between 45 and 63 MeV. The angular position of a peak in the diffraction pattern at theta/sub c.m./approx. =75/sup 0/ was measured as a function of the incident energy between 55 and 63 MeV in 0.5 MeV steps. Close fits to these angular distributions and those of other authors at energies between 41 and 81 MeV, some spanning the whole angular range up to 180/sup 0/, and the excitation functions at 90/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/, were obtained in an optical model analysis. A consistent description of the data was found by the use of a surface-transparent and parity-dependent potential with a real part able to generate a pocket in the total potential. The real and imaginary strengths depend quite strongly and smoothly on the incident energy. This potential shows a transition from surface transparency to strong absorption as E/sub lab/ approaches 81 MeV. The ambiguities in the strengths of the potential are discussed. The broad dispersive potential resonances which are present in several partial waves at every energy are also discussed and their relative importance is examined.

  11. 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering | FAQ's

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frequently Asked Questions Who can apply? The LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering is intended primarily for graduate students & post-docs in the topical area of that year's school. Undergraduate students applying to the school, who plan on pursuing an advanced degree after graduation, will be taken into consideration. What are the main objectives of the school? to attract new users to the neutron-scattering community, to increase diversity among expert neutron scatterers, to broaden the

  12. Raman scattering in a whispering mode optical waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1982-01-01

    A device and method for Raman scattering in a whispering mode optical waveguide. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature .rho. p for confining the beam to increase intensity. A Raman scattering medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Raman scattering is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction path lengths which are achieved in a small volume.

  13. A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from electron plasma waves on OMEGA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA A reflective optical transport system has been designed for the OMEGA Thomson-scattering diagnostic. A Schwarzschild objective that uses two concentric spherical

  14. Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering Monday, September 10, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Keoki Seu Seminar: With the advent of free electron lasers there has been interest in using coherent x-rays to probe condensed matter systems. Resonant scattering with x-rays allow elemental specificity with magnetic contrast, and coherent light leads to speckle in the scattered pattern due to interference from waves exiting the sample.

  15. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Laverdure, Nathaniel A.; Knudsen, Peter N.; Arenius, Dana M.; Barrios, Matthew N.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  16. Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated Phonons in Fcc ... Sponsoring Org: DOE - BASIC ENERGY SCIENCESUNIVERSITY Country of Publication: United ...

  17. Test of factorization in diffractive deep inelastic scattering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Test of factorization in diffractive deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Test of factorization in diffractive deep ...

  18. Neutrino Coherent Scattering Rates at Direct Dark Matter Detectors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutrino Coherent Scattering Rates at Direct Dark Matter Detectors Citation Details ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  19. Diffraction scattering computed tomography: a window into the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    tomography: a window into the structures of complex nanomaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Diffraction scattering computed tomography: a window into the ...

  20. Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shallow core levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering involving shallow core levels Authors: ...

  1. Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inelastic neutron scattering on Pb isotopes can result in gamma rays near the signature ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 73; CROSS SECTIONS; ...

  2. Signal evaluations using singular value decomposition for Thomson scattering diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tojo, H., E-mail: tojo.hiroshi@jaea.go.jp; Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Itami, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Funaba, H.; Hayashi, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    This paper provides a novel method for evaluating signal intensities in incoherent Thomson scattering diagnostics. A double-pass Thomson scattering system, where a laser passes through the plasma twice, generates two scattering pulses from the plasma. Evaluations of the signal intensities in the spectrometer are sometimes difficult due to noise and stray light. We apply the singular value decomposition method to Thomson scattering data with strong noise components. Results show that the average accuracy of the measured electron temperature (T{sub e}) is superior to that of temperature obtained using a low-pass filter (<20 MHz) or without any filters.

  3. Temperature effects of resonance scattering for epithermal neutrons...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Temperature effects of resonance scattering for epithermal neutrons in MCNP Authors: Brown, Forrest B 1 ; Kiedrowski, Brian C 1 ; Sunny, Eva E 2 ; Martin, William R ...

  4. Neutrino Coherent Scattering Rates at Direct Dark Matter Detectors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutrino Coherent Scattering Rates at Direct Dark Matter Detectors Citation Details ... Sponsoring Org: US DOE Office of Science (DOE SC);Laboratory Directed Research and ...

  5. Robert Hofstadter, Electron Scattering, the Structure of the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Robert Hofstadter, Electron Scattering, the Structure of the Nucleons, and Scintillation ... After receiving a B.S. from The City College of New York in 1935, Robert Hofstadter ...

  6. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B.; Rohde, C. A.; Tellier, L. L.; Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  7. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  8. Lattice Waves, Spin Waves, and Neutron Scattering

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.

    1962-03-01

    Use of neutron inelastic scattering to study the forces between atoms in solids is treated. One-phonon processes and lattice vibrations are discussed, and experiments that verified the existence of the quantum of lattice vibrations, the phonon, are reviewed. Dispersion curves, phonon frequencies and absorption, and models for dispersion calculations are discussed. Experiments on the crystal dynamics of metals are examined. Dispersion curves are presented and analyzed; theory of lattice dynamics is considered; effects of Fermi surfaces on dispersion curves; electron-phonon interactions, electronic structure influence on lattice vibrations, and phonon lifetimes are explored. The dispersion relation of spin waves in crystals and experiments in which dispersion curves for spin waves in Co-Fe alloy and magnons in magnetite were obtained and the reality of the magnon was demonstrated are discussed. (D.C.W)

  9. Technical Report: Rayleigh Scattering Combustion Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Wyatt; Hecht, Ethan

    2015-07-29

    A laser Rayleigh scattering (LRS) temperature diagnostic was developed over 8 weeks with the goal of studying oxy-combustion of pulverized coal char in high temperature reaction environments with high concentrations of carbon dioxide. Algorithms were developed to analyze data collected from the optical diagnostic system and convert the information to temperature measurements. When completed, the diagnostic will allow for the kinetic gasification rates of the oxy-combustion reaction to be obtained, which was previously not possible since the high concentrations of high temperature CO2 consumed thermocouples that were used to measure flame temperatures inside the flow reactor where the combustion and gasification reactions occur. These kinetic rates are important for studying oxycombustion processes suitable for application as sustainable energy solutions.

  10. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2009-08-28

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  11. A phenomenological study of photon production in low energy neutrino nucleon scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, James P; Goldman, Terry J

    2009-01-01

    Low energy photon production is an important background to many current and future precision neutrino experiments. We present a phenomenological study of t-channel radiative corrections to neutral current neutrino nucleus scattering. After introducing the relevant processes and phenomenological coupling constants, we will explore the derived energy and angular distributions as well as total cross-section predictions along with their estimated uncertainties. This is supplemented throughout with comments on possible experimental signatures and implications. We conclude with a general discussion of the analysis in the context of complimentary methodologies. This is based on a talk presented at the DPF 2009 meeting in Detroit MI.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of nanophase zirconia : reverse micelle method and neutron scattering study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X.

    1998-11-23

    Zirconia is an important transition-metal oxide for catalytic applications. It has been widely used in automotive exhaust treatment, methanol synthesis, isomerization, alkylation, etc. [1]. Nanophase materials have unique physiochemical properties such as quantum size effects, high surface area, uniform morphology, narrow size distribution, and improvement of sintering rates[2]. Microemulsion method provides the means for controlling the microenvironment under which specific chemical reactions may occur in favoring the formation of homogeneous, nanometer-size particles. In this paper, we report the synthesis of nanophase zirconia and the characterization of the microemulsions as well as the powders by small- and wide-angle neutron scattering techniques.

  13. Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering: application to the study of quantum dot lattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buljan, Maja Radi?, Nikola; Bernstorff, Sigrid; Drai?, Goran; Bogdanovi?-Radovi?, Iva; Hol, Vclav

    2012-01-01

    The modelling of grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) from three-dimensional quantum dot lattices is described. The ordering of quantum dots in three-dimensional quantum dot lattices is investigated by grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Theoretical models describing GISAXS intensity distributions for three general classes of lattices of quantum dots are proposed. The classes differ in the type of disorder of the positions of the quantum dots. The models enable full structure determination, including lattice type, lattice parameters, the type and degree of disorder in the quantum dot positions and the distributions of the quantum dot sizes. Applications of the developed models are demonstrated using experimentally measured data from several types of quantum dot lattices formed by a self-assembly process.

  14. Scattering lengths and medium and high energy {pi}{pi} scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Buettiker, P.

    1996-11-01

    Crucial tests of chiral perturbation theory and determinations of chiral coupling constants rely on fine details of dispersion relation analysis of {pi}{pi} scattering data. Whereas a recent Roy equation analysis of low energy {ital S} and {ital P} waves with {ital a}{sup 0}{sub 0} in the range predicted by standard one-loop chiral perturbation theory, yielded sharp determinations of certain {ital S}- and {ital P}-wave threshold parameters only, we now extend the discussion to medium and high energy. This is shown to contribute to the {ital D}-wave scattering lengths {ital a}{sup 0}{sub 2} and {ital a}{sup 2}{sub 2} significantly, roughly 10{percent} and 30{percent} of their central experimental values, remaining consistent with chiral predictions. Results of our Roy equation fits to the {ital F}-wave scattering length {ital a}{sup 1}{sub 3}, a quantity for which two-loop chiral perturbation theory holds important predictions, are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. Influence of reabsorption and reemission on stimulated Raman scattering of polymethine dyes in multiple scattering media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, V P; Komyshan, A O; Smaliuk, A P; Prygodiuk, O A; Ishchenko, A A; Olkhovyk, L A

    2013-12-31

    It is shown that reabsorption of the luminescence radiation in the range of its overlapping with the absorption spectrum and the following reemission to a long-wavelength range may noticeably affect the process of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in polymethine dyes in multiple scattering media (MSM). This is related to the fact that SRS in such media occurs jointly with the random lasing (RL), which favors SRS and makes up with it a united nonlinear process. Reemission into the long-wavelength spectrum range amplified in MSM causes the RL spectrum to shift to longer wavelengths and initiates the long-wavelength band of RL, in which a main part of the lasing energy is concentrated. This weakens or completely stops the SRS if the band is beyond the range of possible spectral localisation of Stokes lines. This process depends on the efficiency of light scattering, dye concentration, temperature and pump intensity; hence, there exist optimal values of these parameters for obtaining SRS in MSM. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  16. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyα photons, since the Lyα line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ∼300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  17. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2001 (Thousand Short Tons) DESTINATION: Alabama State of Origin by...

  18. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is...

  19. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  20. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TF RailroadVesselShip Fuel It is also noted that Destination State code of "X Export" indicates movements to foreign destinations. 1 68 Domestic Coal Distribution...

  1. Distribution of Correspondence

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-08-30

    Defines correct procedures for distribution of correspondence to the Naval Reactors laboratories. Does not cancel another directive. Expired 8-30-97.

  2. Resonant scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by dressed quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Danhong; Cardimona, Dave; Easter, Michelle; Gumbs, Godfrey; Maradudin, A. A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-06-23

    The resonant scattering of surface plasmon-polariton waves (SPP) by embedded semiconductor quantum dots above the dielectric/metal interface is explored in the strong-coupling regime. In contrast to non-resonant scattering by a localized dielectric surface defect, a strong resonant peak in the spectrum of the scattered field is predicted that is accompanied by two side valleys. The peak height depends nonlinearly on the amplitude of SPP waves, reflecting the feedback dynamics from a photon-dressed electron-hole plasma inside the quantum dots. This unique behavior in the scattered field peak strength is correlated with the occurrence of a resonant dip in the absorption spectrum of SPP waves due to the interband photon-dressing effect. Our result on the scattering of SPP waves may be experimentally observable and applied to spatially selective illumination and imaging of individual molecules.

  3. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-05-10

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  4. Scattering of particles with internal degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slipushenko, S. V.; Tur, A. V.; Yanovsky, V. V.

    2013-08-15

    The scattering of particles with a small number of internal degrees of freedom is considered. Billiard formalism is used to study the scattering of two such structurally complex particles. The main scattering characteristics are found. Various types of scattering modes are revealed. In particular, a mode is detected when the velocity of motion of such particles away from each other is higher than their approach velocity before the collision. The scattering of such particles is shown to occur after a finite number of collisions. A generalized Newton law is proposed for the collision of particles with a small number of degrees of freedom, and the form of the effective coefficient of restitution is found.

  5. Initial characterization of mudstone nanoporosity with small angle neutron scattering using caprocks from carbon sequestration sites.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCray, John; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Mouzakis, Katherine; Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Rother, Gernot

    2010-11-01

    Geological carbon sequestration relies on the principle that CO{sub 2} injected deep into the subsurface is unable to leak to the atmosphere. Structural trapping by a relatively impermeable caprock (often mudstone such as a shale) is the main trapping mechanism that is currently relied on for the first hundreds of years. Many of the pores of the caprock are of micrometer to nanometer scale. However, the distribution, geometry and volume of porosity at these scales are poorly characterized. Differences in pore shape and size can cause variation in capillary properties and fluid transport resulting in fluid pathways with different capillary entry pressures in the same sample. Prediction of pore network properties for distinct geologic environments would result in significant advancement in our ability to model subsurface fluid flow. Specifically, prediction of fluid flow through caprocks of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration reservoirs is a critical step in evaluating the risk of leakage to overlying aquifers. The micro- and nanoporosity was analyzed in four mudstones using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). These mudstones are caprocks of formations that are currently under study or being used for carbon sequestration projects and include the Marine Tuscaloosa Group, the Lower Tuscaloosa Group, the upper and lower shale members of the Kirtland Formation, and the Pennsylvanian Gothic shale. Total organic carbon varies from <0.3% to 4% by weight. Expandable clay contents range from 10% to {approx}40% in the Gothic shale and Kirtland Formation, respectively. Neutrons effectively scatter from interfaces between materials with differing scattering length density (i.e. minerals and pores). The intensity of scattered neutrons, I(Q), where Q is the scattering vector, gives information about the volume of pores and their arrangement in the sample. The slope of the scattering data when plotted as log I(Q) vs. log Q provides information about the fractality or geometry of the pore network. Results from this study, combined with high-resolution TEM imaging, provide insight into the differences in volume and geometry of porosity between these various mudstones.

  6. Fast, Quantitative, and Nondestructive Evaluation on Hydrided LWR Fuel Cladding by Small Angle Incoherent Neutron Scattering of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Yong; Qian, Shuo; Littrell, Ken; Parish, Chad M; Plummer, Lee K

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distribution of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor can be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.

  7. Research on the elastic scattering of 5--7 MeV/A /sup 14/N by /sup 59/Co and /sup 51/V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Wen-qing; Zhu Yong-tai; Zhang Yu-hu; Zhan Wen-long; Qiao Wei-min; Zhang Zhen; Wu En-chiu; Yen Shu-zhi; Fan Guo-ying; Miao He-bin

    1986-04-01

    The energy spectra and angular distributions produced by 5--7 MeV/A /sup 14/N ions on /sup 59/Co and /sup 51/V are measured by using a semiconductor detector. The atomic numbers and quantities of the contaminating heavy elements are determined. The angular distributions of the elastic scattering are fitted by using a general Fresnel model. The possibility of extracting the quasielastic cross section from the fitting procedure is discussed.

  8. Single spin asymmetries in charged kaon production from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y X; Wang, Y; Allada, K; Aniol, K; Annand, J R; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A; Dutta, C; Dutta, D; El Fassi, L; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Katich, J; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; LeRose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H -J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Munoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J -C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

    2014-11-01

    We report the first measurement of target single spin asymmetries of charged kaons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of electrons off a transversely polarized 3He target. Both the Collins and Sivers moments, which are related to the nucleon transversity and Sivers distributions, respectively, are extracted over the kinematic range of 0.1

  9. Structure of low-density nanoporous dielectrics revealed by low-vacuum electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucheyev, S O; Toth, M; Baumann, T F; Hamza, A V; Ilavsky, J; Knowles, W R; Thiel, B L; Tileli, V; van Buuren, T; Wang, Y M; Willey, T M

    2006-06-05

    We use low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy to image directly the ligament and pore size and shape distributions of representative aerogels over a wide range of length scales ({approx} 10{sup 0}-10{sup 5} nm). The images are used for unambiguous, real-space interpretation of small-angle scattering data for these complex nanoporous systems.

  10. Single spin asymmetries in charged kaon production from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Y X; Wang, Y; Allada, K; Aniol, K; Annand, J R; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; et al

    2014-11-01

    We report the first measurement of target single spin asymmetries of charged kaons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of electrons off a transversely polarized 3He target. Both the Collins and Sivers moments, which are related to the nucleon transversity and Sivers distributions, respectively, are extracted over the kinematic range of 0.1

  11. Elastic scattering measurements for {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}Al system at RIBRAS facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morcelle, V.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Morais, M. C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Gasques, L.; Pires, K. C. C.; Condori, R. P.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Barioni, A.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Zamora, J. C.

    2013-05-06

    Elastic scattering angular distribution measurements of {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}Al system were performed at the laboratory energy of 15.6 MeV. The {sup 7}Be secondary beam was produced by the proton transfer reaction {sup 3}He({sup 6}Li,{sup 7}Be) and impinged on {sup 27}Al and {sup 197}Au targets, using the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, RIBRAS. The elastic angular distribution was obtained within the angular range of 15{sup 0} - 80{sup 0} at the center of mass frame. Optical model calculations have been performed using the Woods- Saxon form factors and the Sao Paulo potential to fit the experimental data. The total reaction cross section was derived.

  12. Distribution Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Variable distributed generation Dispatchable distributed generation Electric vehicle charging and electrolyzers Energy storage Building and industrial loads and demand response ...

  13. Self-calibration of photometric redshift scatter in weak-lensing surveys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Pengjie; Pen, Ue -Li; Bernstein, Gary

    2010-06-11

    Photo-z errors, especially catastrophic errors, are a major uncertainty for precision weak lensing cosmology. We find that the shear-(galaxy number) density and density-density cross correlation measurements between photo-z bins, available from the same lensing surveys, contain valuable information for self-calibration of the scattering probabilities between the true-z and photo-z bins. The self-calibration technique we propose does not rely on cosmological priors nor parameterization of the photo-z probability distribution function, and preserves all of the cosmological information available from shear-shear measurement. We estimate the calibration accuracy through the Fisher matrix formalism. We find that, for advanced lensing surveys such as themore » planned stage IV surveys, the rate of photo-z outliers can be determined with statistical uncertainties of 0.01-1% for z < 2 galaxies. Among the several sources of calibration error that we identify and investigate, the galaxy distribution bias is likely the most dominant systematic error, whereby photo-z outliers have different redshift distributions and/or bias than non-outliers from the same bin. This bias affects all photo-z calibration techniques based on correlation measurements. As a result, galaxy bias variations of O(0.1) produce biases in photo-z outlier rates similar to the statistical errors of our method, so this galaxy distribution bias may bias the reconstructed scatters at several-σ level, but is unlikely to completely invalidate the self-calibration technique.« less

  14. Self-calibration of photometric redshift scatter in weak-lensing surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Pengjie; Pen, Ue -Li; Bernstein, Gary

    2010-06-11

    Photo-z errors, especially catastrophic errors, are a major uncertainty for precision weak lensing cosmology. We find that the shear-(galaxy number) density and density-density cross correlation measurements between photo-z bins, available from the same lensing surveys, contain valuable information for self-calibration of the scattering probabilities between the true-z and photo-z bins. The self-calibration technique we propose does not rely on cosmological priors nor parameterization of the photo-z probability distribution function, and preserves all of the cosmological information available from shear-shear measurement. We estimate the calibration accuracy through the Fisher matrix formalism. We find that, for advanced lensing surveys such as the planned stage IV surveys, the rate of photo-z outliers can be determined with statistical uncertainties of 0.01-1% for z < 2 galaxies. Among the several sources of calibration error that we identify and investigate, the galaxy distribution bias is likely the most dominant systematic error, whereby photo-z outliers have different redshift distributions and/or bias than non-outliers from the same bin. This bias affects all photo-z calibration techniques based on correlation measurements. As a result, galaxy bias variations of O(0.1) produce biases in photo-z outlier rates similar to the statistical errors of our method, so this galaxy distribution bias may bias the reconstructed scatters at several-? level, but is unlikely to completely invalidate the self-calibration technique.

  15. WINDExchange: Distributed Wind

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Distributed Wind Photo of a small wind turbine next to a farm house with a colorful sunset in the background. The distributed wind market includes wind turbines and projects of many sizes, from small wind turbines less than 1 kilowatt (kW) to multi-megawatt wind farms. The term "distributed wind" describes off-grid or grid-connected wind turbines at homes, farms and ranches, businesses, public and industrial facilities, and other sites. The turbines can provide all of the power used at

  16. Method for measuring multiple scattering corrections between liquid scintillators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Verbeke, J. M.; Glenn, A. M.; Keefer, G. J.; Wurtz, R. E.

    2016-04-11

    In this study, a time-of-flight method is proposed to experimentally quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between scintillators. An array of scintillators is characterized in terms of crosstalk with this method by measuring a californium source, for different neutron energy thresholds. The spectral information recorded by the scintillators can be used to estimate the fractions of neutrons multiple scattering. With the help of a correction to Feynman's point model theory to account for multiple scattering, these fractions can in turn improve the mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation.

  17. Exploiting Universality in Atoms with Large Scattering Lengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braaten, Eric

    2012-05-31

    The focus of this research project was atoms with scattering lengths that are large compared to the range of their interactions and which therefore exhibit universal behavior at sufficiently low energies. Recent dramatic advances in cooling atoms and in manipulating their scattering lengths have made this phenomenon of practical importance for controlling ultracold atoms and molecules. This research project was aimed at developing a systematically improvable method for calculating few-body observables for atoms with large scattering lengths starting from the universal results as a first approximation. Significant progress towards this goal was made during the five years of the project.

  18. Resonant x-ray magnetic scattering in holmium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, D.

    1991-01-01

    We review the results of resonant x-ray magnetic scattering experiments on the rare earth metal holmium. When the incident incident x-ray energy is tuned near the L{sub III} absorption edge, large resonant enhancements of the magnetic scattering and resonant integer harmonics are observed. These results are analyzed within the theory of x-ray resonance exchange scattering assuming electric dipole (2p {yields} 5d) and quadrupole (2p {yields} 4f) transitions among atomic orbitals. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Distributed Wind Energy Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join instructor Brent Summerville for a fun and interactive workshop at Appalachian State University's Small Wind Research and Demonstration Site. Learn about a variety of distributed wind energy...

  20. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  1. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  2. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation ... YearQuarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 ...

  3. Domestic and Foreign Distribution

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2008 Final May 2010 Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2008 (Thousand Short Tons) State Region Domestic Foreign...

  4. Distributed Energy Resource Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: A series of orders issued on July 15, 2015 in  Docket 2015-53-E, Docket 2015-54-E, and Docket 2015-55-E approved the incentive programs for South Carolina's Distributed Energy Resource...

  5. Extracting Scattering Phase-Shifts in Higher Partial-Waves from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extracting Scattering Phase-Shifts in Higher Partial-Waves from Lattice QCD Calculations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Extracting Scattering Phase-Shifts in Higher...

  6. Measuring the Scatter of the Mass-Richness Relation in Galaxy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measuring the Scatter of the Mass-Richness Relation in Galaxy Clusters in Photometric ... Title: Measuring the Scatter of the Mass-Richness Relation in Galaxy Clusters in ...

  7. Distributed generation hits market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The pace at which vendors are developing and marketing gas turbines and reciprocating engines for small-scale applications may signal the widespread growth of distributed generation. Loosely defined to refer to applications in which power generation equipment is located close to end users who have near-term power capacity needs, distributed generation encompasses a broad range of technologies and load requirements. Disagreement is inevitable, but many industry observers associate distributed generation with applications anywhere from 25 kW to 25 MW. Ten years ago, distributed generation users only represented about 2% of the world market. Today, that figure has increased to about 4 or 5%, and probably could settle in the 20% range within a 3-to-5-year period, according to Michael Jones, San Diego, Calif.-based Solar Turbines Inc. power generation marketing manager. The US Energy Information Administration predicts about 175 GW of generation capacity will be added domestically by 2010. If 20% comes from smaller plants, distributed generation could account for about 35 GW. Even with more competition, it`s highly unlikely distributed generation will totally replace current market structures and central stations. Distributed generation may be best suited for making market inroads when and where central systems need upgrading, and should prove its worth when the system can`t handle peak demands. Typical applications include small reciprocating engine generators at remote customer sites or larger gas turbines to boost the grid. Additional market opportunities include standby capacity, peak shaving, power quality, cogeneration and capacity rental for immediate demand requirements. Integration of distributed generation systems--using gas-fueled engines, gas-fired combustion engines and fuel cells--can upgrade power quality for customers and reduce operating costs for electric utilities.

  8. A general framework and review of scatter correction methods in x-ray cone-beam computerized tomography. Part 1: Scatter compensation approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruehrnschopf, Ernst-Peter; Klingenbeck, Klaus

    2011-07-15

    Since scattered radiation in cone-beam volume CT implies severe degradation of CT images by quantification errors, artifacts, and noise increase, scatter suppression is one of the main issues related to image quality in CBCT imaging. The aim of this review is to structurize the variety of scatter suppression methods, to analyze the common structure, and to develop a general framework for scatter correction procedures. In general, scatter suppression combines hardware techniques of scatter rejection and software methods of scatter correction. The authors emphasize that scatter correction procedures consist of the main components scatter estimation (by measurement or mathematical modeling) and scatter compensation (deterministic or statistical methods). The framework comprises most scatter correction approaches and its validity also goes beyond transmission CT. Before the advent of cone-beam CT, a lot of papers on scatter correction approaches in x-ray radiography, mammography, emission tomography, and in Megavolt CT had been published. The opportunity to avail from research in those other fields of medical imaging has not yet been sufficiently exploited. Therefore additional references are included when ever it seems pertinent. Scatter estimation and scatter compensation are typically intertwined in iterative procedures. It makes sense to recognize iterative approaches in the light of the concept of self-consistency. The importance of incorporating scatter compensation approaches into a statistical framework for noise minimization has to be underscored. Signal and noise propagation analysis is presented. A main result is the preservation of differential-signal-to-noise-ratio (dSNR) in CT projection data by ideal scatter correction. The objective of scatter compensation methods is the restoration of quantitative accuracy and a balance between low-contrast restoration and noise reduction. In a synopsis section, the different deterministic and statistical methods are discussed with respect to their properties and applications. The current paper is focused on scatter compensation algorithms. The multitude of scatter estimation models will be dealt with in a separate paper.

  9. Spectral softening in the X-RAY afterglow of GRB 130925A as predicted by the dust scattering model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Yi-Nan; Shao, Lang, E-mail: lshao@hebtu.edu.cn [Department of Space Science and Astronomy, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) usually occur in a dense star-forming region with a massive circumburst medium. The small-angle scattering of intense prompt X-ray emission off the surrounding dust grains will have observable consequences and sometimes can dominate the X-ray afterglow. In most of the previous studies, only the Rayleigh-Gans (RG) approximation is employed for describing the scattering process, which works accurately for the typical size of grains (with radius of a ? 0.1 ?m) in the diffuse interstellar medium. When the size of the grains may significantly increase, as in a more dense region where GRBs would occur, the RG approximation may not be valid enough for modeling detailed observational data. In order to study the temporal and spectral properties of the scattered X-ray emission more accurately with potentially larger dust grains, we provide a practical approach using the series expansions of anomalous diffraction (AD) approximation based on the complicated Mie theory. We apply our calculations to understand the puzzling X-ray afterglow of recently observed GRB 130925A that showed a significant spectral softening. We find that the X-ray scattering scenarios with either AD or RG approximation adopted could well reproduce both the temporal and spectral profile simultaneously. Given the plateau present in the early X-ray light curve, a typical distribution of smaller grains as in the interstellar medium would be suggested for GRB 130925A.

  10. Nonreciprocal wave scattering on nonlinear string-coupled oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepri, Stefano; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2014-12-01

    We study scattering of a periodic wave in a string on two lumped oscillators attached to it. The equations can be represented as a driven (by the incident wave) dissipative (due to radiation losses) system of delay differential equations of neutral type. Nonlinearity of oscillators makes the scattering non-reciprocal: The same wave is transmitted differently in two directions. Periodic regimes of scattering are analyzed approximately, using amplitude equation approach. We show that this setup can act as a nonreciprocal modulator via Hopf bifurcations of the steady solutions. Numerical simulations of the full system reveal nontrivial regimes of quasiperiodic and chaotic scattering. Moreover, a regime of a chaotic diode, where transmission is periodic in one direction and chaotic in the opposite one, is reported.

  11. Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & workshops IXN Group Useful Links Current APS status ESAF System GUP System X-Ray Science Division My APS Portal Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering Sector 3 is...

  12. Imaging an event horizon: mitigation of scattering toward Sagittarius A*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Lu, Ru-Sen; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Pankratius, Victor; Johnson, Michael D.; Narayan, Ramesh; Vertatschitsch, Laura E.; Bouman, Katherine L.; Zoran, Daniel; Freeman, William T.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Broderick, Avery E.; Gwinn, Carl R.

    2014-11-10

    The image of the emission surrounding the black hole in the center of the Milky Way is predicted to exhibit the imprint of general relativistic (GR) effects, including the existence of a shadow feature and a photon ring of diameter ?50 ?as. Structure on these scales can be resolved by millimeter-wavelength very long baseline interferometry. However, strong-field GR features of interest will be blurred at ? ? 1.3 mm due to scattering by interstellar electrons. The scattering properties are well understood over most of the relevant range of baseline lengths, suggesting that the scattering may be (mostly) invertible. We simulate observations of a model image of Sgr A* and demonstrate that the effects of scattering can indeed be mitigated by correcting the visibilities before reconstructing the image. This technique is also applicable to Sgr A* at longer wavelengths.

  13. Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in large scale-length laser-produced plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser-produced plasmas You ...

  14. NN inversion potentials intermediate energy proton-nucleus elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arellano, H.F.; Brieva, F.A.; Love, W.G.; Geramb, H.V. von

    1995-10-01

    Recently developed nucleon-nucleon interactions using the quantum inverse scattering method shed new fight on the off-shell properties of the internucleon effective force for nucleon-nucleus scattering. Calculations of proton elastic scattering from {sup 40}Ca and {sup 208}Pb in the 500 MeV region show that variations in off-shell contributions are determined to a great extent by the accuracy with which the nucleon-nucleon phase shifts are reproduced. The study is based on the full-folding approach to the nucleon-nucleus optical potential which allows a deep understanding of the interplay between on- and off-shell effects in nucleon scattering. Results and the promising extension offered by the inversion potentials beyond the range of validity of the low-energy internucleon forces will be discussed.

  15. Elastic Hadron Scattering on Li Isotopes at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhusupov, M.A.; Imambekov, O.; Ibraeva, E.T.

    2005-01-01

    The elastic scattering of hadrons (protons, charged pions, and positively charged kaons) on {sup 6,7,8}Li nuclei is analyzed on the basis of Glauber-Sitenko diffraction theory. A few nuclear-wave-function versions found within two- and three-particle potential cluster models are used in the calculations. It is shown that the application of these wave functions in diffraction theory makes it possible to describe adequately the experimental differential cross sections and analyzing powers in hadron scattering at intermediate energies. In this study, particular attention is given to a comparison of the scattering of different particles on the same target nucleus, as well as to a comparison of scattering of particles of the same sort on different target nuclei.

  16. Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    where the scattering vector q that can only be reached in reflection. The method is Fourier transform holography, where the exit wave from a sample interferes with a reference...

  17. Time dependence of Bragg forward scattering and self-seeding...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Time dependence of Bragg forward scattering and self-seeding of hard x-ray free-electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time dependence of Bragg ...

  18. Ultraviolet Thomson scattering measurements of the electron feature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Ultraviolet Thomson scattering measurements of the electron feature with an energetic 263 nm probe Authors: Ross, J S ; Divol, L ; Sorce, C ; Froula, D H ; Glenzer, S H ...

  19. Elastic Scattering LIDAR Data Acquisition Visualization and Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-10-12

    ELASTIC/EVIEW is a software system that controls an elastic scattering atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instrument. It can acquire elastic scattering LIDAR data using this system and produce images of one, two, and three-dimensional atmospheric data on particulates and other atmospheric pollutants. The user interface is a modern menu driven syatem with appropriate support for user configuration and printing files.

  20. General integral relations for the description of scattering states using

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the hyperspherical adiabatic basis (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect General integral relations for the description of scattering states using the hyperspherical adiabatic basis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: General integral relations for the description of scattering states using the hyperspherical adiabatic basis In this work we investigate 1+2 reactions within the framework of the hyperspherical adiabatic expansion method. With this aim two integral relations, derived from

  1. Implementing Rational Surface Locations Measured From Thomson Scattering Into

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implementing Rational Surface Locations Measured From Thomson Scattering Into MSTfit by Curtis A. Johnson Senior Thesis (Physics) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison 2014 i Abstract Measurements of rational surface (RS) locations in the Madison Symmetric Torus as measured by Thomson Scattering (TS) have been implemented in the equilibrium reconstruction program MSTfit. Possible correlated errors between diagnostics show a small impact on the equilibrium reconstruction done by MSTfit. TS RS

  2. Inelastic neutron scattering as a possible background for neutrinoless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    double-beta decay experiments (Conference) | SciTech Connect Inelastic neutron scattering as a possible background for neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inelastic neutron scattering as a possible background for neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Authors: Boswell, Melissa S [1] ; Devlin, Matthew J. [1] ; Elliott, Steven R [1] ; Fotiadis, Nikolaos [1] ; Hime, Andrew [1] ; Nelson, Ronald O. [1] ; Guiseppe, Vincente E. [2] ; Mei, D. M.

  3. Inelastic neutron scattering as a possible background for neutrinoless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    double-beta decay experiments (Conference) | SciTech Connect Inelastic neutron scattering as a possible background for neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inelastic neutron scattering as a possible background for neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided

  4. Multiple scattering effects in fission neutron outputs (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Conference: Multiple scattering effects in fission neutron outputs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multiple scattering effects in fission neutron outputs Authors: Taddeucci, Terry N [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2011-02-24 OSTI Identifier: 1053153 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-01326; LA-UR-11-1326 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Fission fprogram Review, ;

  5. Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    involving shallow core levels (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering involving shallow core levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering involving shallow core levels Authors: Wray, L. Andrew ; Yang, Wanli ; Eisaki, Hiroshi ; Hussain, Zahid ; Chuang, Yi-De Publication Date: 2012-11-19 OSTI Identifier: 1101794 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal

  6. Resonances in Coupled ?K??K Scattering from Quantum Chromodynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.; Thomas, Christopher E.; Wilson, David J.

    2014-10-01

    Using first-principles calculation within Quantum Chromodynamics, we are able to reproduce the pattern of experimental strange resonances which appear as complex singularities within coupled ?K, ?K scattering amplitudes. We make use of numerical computation within the lattice discretized approach to QCD, extracting the energy dependence of scattering amplitudes through their relation- ship to the discrete spectrum of the theory in a finite-volume, which we map out in unprecedented detail.

  7. Neutron Scatter Camera for Radiaton Detection - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Neutron Scatter Camera for Radiaton Detection Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (839 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia's neutron scatter camera is an innovative design which combines the benefits of gamma ray imaging with fast neutron imaging. The camera

  8. Oak Ridge Neutron Scattering Capabilities Continue to Expand (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Oak Ridge Neutron Scattering Capabilities Continue to Expand Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oak Ridge Neutron Scattering Capabilities Continue to Expand No abstract prepared. Authors: Ekkebus, Allen E [1] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL Publication Date: 2009-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 948856 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Notiziario Neutroni E Luce di Sincrotrone; Journal Volume: 14;

  9. Observation of the Second Harmonic in Thomson Scattering from Relativistic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrons (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Observation of the Second Harmonic in Thomson Scattering from Relativistic Electrons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation of the Second Harmonic in Thomson Scattering from Relativistic Electrons A free relativistic electron in an electromagnetic field is a pure case of a light-matter interaction. In the laboratory environment, this interaction can be realized by colliding laser pulses with electron beams

  10. Rapidity divergences and deep inelastic scattering in the endpoint region

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Rapidity divergences and deep inelastic scattering in the endpoint region Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapidity divergences and deep inelastic scattering in the endpoint region Authors: Fleming, Sean ; Labun, Ou Z. Publication Date: 2015-05-12 OSTI Identifier: 1179737 Grant/Contract Number: FG02-06ER41449; FG02-04ER41338 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review D Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 91;

  11. BUILDING A NETWORK FOR NEUTRON SCATTERING EDUCATION (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect BUILDING A NETWORK FOR NEUTRON SCATTERING EDUCATION Citation Details In-Document Search Title: BUILDING A NETWORK FOR NEUTRON SCATTERING EDUCATION × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is

  12. Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Techniques | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic Techniques Wednesday, September 5, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Gang Chen Seminar: Structures at atomic scales are traditionally determined through X-ray crystallography that amplifies scattering intensities by introducing spatial periodicity. For amorphous materials and many macromolecules, such as viruses, proteins and biofilms, it is hard to

  13. Majewski named Fellow of the Neutron Scattering Society of America

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Majewski named Fellow of the Neutron Scattering Society of America Majewski named Fellow of the Neutron Scattering Society of America The Society recognized Majewski for "contributions to our understanding of weakly organized two-dimensional systems, including surfactant molecules found in biological systems." May 9, 2016 Jaroslaw (Jarek) Majewski Jaroslaw (Jarek) Majewski Communications Office (505) 667-7000 The American Physical Society named him as Fellow for his contributions to

  14. Temperature effects of resonance scattering for epithermal neutrons in MCNP

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Temperature effects of resonance scattering for epithermal neutrons in MCNP Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature effects of resonance scattering for epithermal neutrons in MCNP Authors: Brown, Forrest B [1] ; Kiedrowski, Brian C [1] ; Sunny, Eva E [2] ; Martin, William R [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory UNIV. OF MICHIGAN [UNIV. OF MICHIGAN Publication Date: 2011-11-10 OSTI

  15. Enhanced reaction rates in NDP analysis with neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downing, R. Gregory

    2014-04-15

    Neutron depth profiling (NDP) makes accessible quantitative information on a few isotopic concentration profiles ranging from the surface into the sample a few micrometers. Because the candidate analytes for NDP are few, there is little interference encountered. Furthermore, neutrons have no charge so mixed chemical states in the sample are of no direct concern. There are a few nuclides that exhibit large probabilities for neutron scattering. The effect of neutron scattering on NDP measurements has not previously been evaluated as a basis for either enhancing the reaction rates or as a source of measurement error. Hydrogen is a common element exhibiting large neutron scattering probability found in or around sample volumes being analyzed by NDP. A systematic study was conducted to determine the degree of signal change when neutron scattering occurs during analysis. The relative signal perturbation was evaluated for materials of varied neutron scattering probability, concentration, total mass, and geometry. Signal enhancements up to 50% are observed when the hydrogen density is high and in close proximity to the region of analysis with neutron beams of sub thermal energies. Greater signal enhancements for the same neutron number density are reported for thermal neutron beams. Even adhesive tape used to position the sample produces a measureable signal enhancement. Because of the shallow volume, negligible distortion of the NDP measured profile shape is encountered from neutron scattering.

  16. Fast, Quantitative, and Nondestructive Evaluation on Hydrided LWR Fuel Cladding by Small Angle Incoherent Neutron Scattering of Hydrogen

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Littrell, Ken; Parish, Chad M

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distributionmore » of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor can be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.« less

  17. Transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelhardt, Michael G. [New Mexico State University; Musch, Bernhard U. [Tech. University Munich; Haegler, Philipp G. [Tech. University Munich; Negele, John W. [MIT; Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg

    2013-08-01

    A fundamental structural property of the nucleon is the distribution of quark momenta, both parallel as well as perpendicular to its propagation. Experimentally, this information is accessible via selected processes such as semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and the Drell-Yan process (DY), which can be parametrized in terms of transversemomentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs). On the other hand, these distribution functions can be extracted from nucleon matrix elements of a certain class of bilocal quark operators in which the quarks are connected by a staple-shaped Wilson line serving to incorporate initial state (DY) or final state (SIDIS) interactions. A scheme for evaluating such matrix elements within lattice QCD is developed. This requires casting the calculation in a particular Lorentz frame, which is facilitated by a parametrization of the matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes. Exploratory results are presented for the time-reversal odd Sivers and Boer-Mulders transverse momentum shifts.

  18. Distributed data transmitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Kenneth Dewayne; Dunson, David

    2008-06-03

    A distributed data transmitter (DTXR) which is an adaptive data communication microwave transmitter having a distributable architecture of modular components, and which incorporates both digital and microwave technology to provide substantial improvements in physical and operational flexibility. The DTXR has application in, for example, remote data acquisition involving the transmission of telemetry data across a wireless link, wherein the DTXR is integrated into and utilizes available space within a system (e.g., a flight vehicle). In a preferred embodiment, the DTXR broadly comprises a plurality of input interfaces; a data modulator; a power amplifier; and a power converter, all of which are modularly separate and distinct so as to be substantially independently physically distributable and positionable throughout the system wherever sufficient space is available.

  19. Distributed data transmitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Kenneth Dewayne; Dunson, David

    2006-08-08

    A distributed data transmitter (DTXR) which is an adaptive data communication microwave transmitter having a distributable architecture of modular components, and which incorporates both digital and microwave technology to provide substantial improvements in physical and operational flexibility. The DTXR has application in, for example, remote data acquisition involving the transmission of telemetry data across a wireless link, wherein the DTXR is integrated into and utilizes available space within a system (e.g., a flight vehicle). In a preferred embodiment, the DTXR broadly comprises a plurality of input interfaces; a data modulator; a power amplifier; and a power converter, all of which are modularly separate and distinct so as to be substantially independently physically distributable and positionable throughout the system wherever sufficient space is available.

  20. Distributed Sensors Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-08-30

    The Distributed Sensors Simulator (DSS) is an infrastructure that allows the user to debug and test software for distributed sensor networks without the commitment inherent in using hardware. The flexibility of DSS allows developers and researchers to investigate topological, phenomenological, networking, robustness, and scaling issues; explore arbitrary algorithms for DSNs; and is particularly useful as a proof-of-concept tool. The user provides data on node location and specifications, defines event phenomena, and plugs in the application(s)more » to run. DSS in turn provides the virtual environmental embedding — but exposed to the user like no true embedding could ever be.« less

  1. Surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopic waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lascola, Robert J; McWhorter, Christopher S; Murph, Simona H

    2015-04-14

    A waveguide for use with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is provided that includes a base structure with an inner surface that defines a cavity and that has an axis. Multiple molecules of an analyte are capable of being located within the cavity at the same time. A base layer is located on the inner surface of the base structure. The base layer extends in an axial direction along an axial length of an excitation section. Nanoparticles are carried by the base layer and may be uniformly distributed along the entire axial length of the excitation section. A flow cell for introducing analyte and excitation light into the waveguide and a method of applying nanoparticles may also be provided.

  2. A new Stark decelerator based surface scattering instrument for studying energy transfer at the gas-surface interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelhart, Daniel P.; Grätz, Fabian; Wagner, Roman J. V.; Wodtke, Alec M.; Schäfer, Tim; Haak, Henrik; Meijer, Gerard

    2015-04-15

    We report on the design and characterization of a new apparatus for performing quantum-state resolved surface scattering experiments. The apparatus combines optical state-specific molecule preparation with a compact hexapole and a Stark decelerator to prepare carrier gas-free pulses of quantum-state pure CO molecules with velocities controllable between 33 and 1000 m/s with extremely narrow velocity distributions. The ultrahigh vacuum surface scattering chamber includes homebuilt ion and electron detectors, a closed-cycle helium cooled single crystal sample mount capable of tuning surface temperature between 19 and 1337 K, a Kelvin probe for non-destructive work function measurements, a precision leak valve manifold for targeted adsorbate deposition, an inexpensive quadrupole mass spectrometer modified to perform high resolution temperature programmed desorption experiments and facilities to clean and characterize the surface.

  3. Role of channel coupling and deuteron-exchange mechanisms in anomalous alpha-particle scattering on {sup 6}Li

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakuta, S. B.; Artemov, S.V.; Burtebaev, N.; Kerimkulov, Zh.; Novatsky, B. G.; Stepanov, D.N.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2009-12-15

    A unified description of existing experimental data on alpha-particle scattering by {sup 6}Li over the broad energy range from 18 to 166 MeV was obtained with allowance for channel-coupling effects and mechanisms involving the exchange of a deuteron cluster. Angular distributions were analyzed on the basis of the optical model and the coupled reaction channels method. It was shown that the inclusion of channel coupling and the contributions from one- and two-step exchangemechanismsmakes it possible to describe special features of the behavior of differential cross sections for both elastic and inelastic scattering in a full energy range. Optimum values found for the parameters of optical potentials agree with the parameters of the global potential proposed previously for nuclei in the mass region A > 12.

  4. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  5. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  6. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  7. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

    1998-03-01

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  8. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  9. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  10. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  11. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  12. Distributed Wind | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Wind Distributed Wind The Wind Program's activities in wind technologies in distributed applications-or distributed wind-address the performance and reliability challenges associated with smaller turbines by focusing on technology development, testing, certification, and manufacturing. What is Distributed Wind? Photo of a turbine behind a school. The Wind Program defines distributed wind in terms of technology application, based on a wind plant's location relative to end-use and

  13. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  14. Distributed Energy Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the National Clean Energy Summit 8.0 in Nevada, President Obama announced that the Loan Programs Office (LPO) has issued guidance for potential applicants on the kinds of Distributed Energy Projects it can support, in the form of supplements to its existing Renewable Energy and Efficient Energy (REEE) Projects and Advanced Fossil Energy Projects solicitations.

  15. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 State Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 14,828 4,508 19,336 Alaska 825 698 1,524 Arizona 13,143 - 13,143...

  16. Distribution Category: Water R

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Distribution Category: Water R e a c t o r Safety- R e s e a r c h - - A n a l y s i s ... 8 10 I TOTAL VOLUMETRIC FLUX, ms Fig. 9. Fully Developed Air-Water Flow Data.30 ANL Neg. ...

  17. Annual Emergency Preparedness Grant Distributed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Emergency Preparedness Grant Distributed The Emergency Preparedness Working Group (EPWG) recently came together to distribute approximately 415,000 in grant funding for ...

  18. Meausrement of the Neutron Radius of {sup 208}Pb Through Parity Violation in Electron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak

    2013-05-31

    In contrast to the nuclear charge densities, which have been accurately measured with electron scattering, the knowledge of neutron densities still lack precision. Previous model-dependent hadron experiments suggest the difference between the neutron radius, R{sub n}, of a heavy nucleus and the proton radius, R{sub p}, to be in the order of several percent. To accurately obtain the difference, R{sub n}-R{sub p}, which is essentially a neutron skin, the Jefferson Lab Lead ({sup 208}Pb) Radius Experiment (PREX) measured the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from {sup 208}Pb at an energy of 1.06 GeV and a scattering angle of 5{degrees}#14;. Since Z{sup 0} boson couples mainly to neutrons, this asymmetry provides a clean measurement of R{sub n} with respect to R{sub p}. PREX was conducted at the Jefferson lab experimental Hall A, from March to June 2010. The experiment collected a final data sample of 2x#2;10{sup 7} helicity-window quadruplets. The measured parity-violating electroweak asymmetry A{sub PV} = 0.656 {+-}#6; 0.060 (stat) {+-}#6; 0.014 (syst) ppm corresponds to a difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions, R{sub n}-R{sub p} = 0.33{sup +0.16}{sub -0.18} fm and provides the #12;first electroweak observation of the neutron skin as expected in a heavy, neutron-rich nucleus. The value of the neutron radius of {sup 208}Pb has important implications for models of nuclear structure and their application in atomic physics and astrophysics such as atomic parity non-conservation (PNC) and neutron stars.

  19. The AharonovBohm effect in scattering theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sitenko, Yu.A.; Vlasii, N.D.

    2013-12-15

    The AharonovBohm effect is considered as a scattering event with nonrelativistic charged particles of the wavelength which is less than the transverse size of an impenetrable magnetic vortex. The quasiclassical WKB method is shown to be efficient in solving this scattering problem. We find that the scattering cross section consists of two terms, one describing the classical phenomenon of elastic reflection and another one describing the quantum phenomenon of diffraction; the AharonovBohm effect is manifested as a fringe shift in the diffraction pattern. Both the classical and the quantum phenomena are independent of the choice of a boundary condition at the vortex edge, providing that probability is conserved. We show that a propagation of charged particles can be controlled by altering the flux of a magnetic vortex placed on their way. -- Highlights: AharonovBohm effect as a scattering event. Impenetrable magnetic vortex of nonzero transverse size. Scattering cross section is independent of a self-adjoint extension employed. Classical phenomenon of elastic reflection and quantum phenomenon of diffraction. AharonovBohm effect as a fringe shift in the diffraction pattern.

  20. Siegert pseudostate formulation of scattering theory: Two-channel case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sitnikov, George V.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.

    2003-03-01

    Siegert pseudostates (SPS) are a finite basis representation of Siegert states (SS) for finite-range potentials. This paper presents a generalization of the SPS formulation of scattering theory, originally developed by Tolstikhin, Ostrovsky, and Nakamura [Phys. Rev. A 58, 2077 (1998)] for s-wave scattering in the one-channel case, to s-wave scattering in the two-channel case. This includes the investigation of the properties of orthogonality and completeness of two-channel SPS and the derivation of the SPS expansions for the two-channel Green function, wave function, and scattering matrix. Similar to the one-channel case, two types of expansions for the scattering matrix are obtained: one has a form of a sum and requires the knowledge of both the SPS eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, while the other has a form of a product and involves the eigenvalues only. As the size of the basis tends to infinity, the product formulas obtained here in terms of SPS coincide with those given by Le Couteur [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 256, 115 (1960)] in terms of SS; all the other relations, as far as we know, have no counterparts in the literature. Partial widths of resonances in the case when both channels are open for decay are identified in terms of SPS - a feature that is absent in the one-channel case. The results are illustrated by numerical calculations for two model potentials.

  1. Detection of nonlinear picosecond acoustic pulses by time-resolved Brillouin scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusev, Vitalyi E.

    2014-08-14

    In time-resolved Brillouin scattering (also called picosecond ultrasonic interferometry), the time evolution of the spatial Fourier component of an optically excited acoustic strain distribution is monitored. The wave number is determined by the momentum conservation in photon-phonon interaction. For linear acoustic waves propagating in a homogeneous medium, the detected time-domain signal of the optical probe transient reflectivity shows a sinusoidal oscillation at a constant frequency known as the Brillouin frequency. This oscillation is a result of heterodyning the constant reflection from the sample surface with the Brillouin-scattered field. Here, we present an analytical theory for the nonlinear reshaping of a propagating, finite amplitude picosecond acoustic pulse, which results in a time-dependence of the observed frequency. In particular, we examine the conditions under which this information can be used to study the time-evolution of the weak-shock front speed. Depending on the initial strain pulse parameters and the time interval of its nonlinear transformation, our theory predicts the detected frequency to either be monotonically decreasing or oscillating in time. We support these theoretical predictions by comparison with available experimental data. In general, we find that picosecond ultrasonic interferometry of nonlinear acoustic pulses provides access to the nonlinear acoustic properties of a medium spanning most of the GHz frequency range.

  2. First JAM results on the determination of polarized parton distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    The Jefferson Lab Angular Momentum (JAM) collaboration is a new initiative aimed to the study of the angular-momentum-dependent structure of the nucleon. First results on the determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions from world data on polarized deep-inelastic scattering will be presented and compared with previous determinations from other groups. Different aspects of global QCD analysis will be discussed, including effects due to nuclear structure, higher twist, and target-mass corrections, as well as the impact of different data selections.

  3. First JAM results on the determination of polarized parton distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Accardi, Alberto; Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro; Melnitchouk, Wally

    2014-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Angular Momentum (JAM) Collaboration is a new initiative to study the angular momentum dependent structure of the nucleon. First results on the determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions at intermediate and large x from world data on polarized deep-inelastic scattering are presented. Different aspects of global QCD analysis are discussed, including the effects of nuclear structure of deuterium and {sup 3}He targets, target mass corrections and higher twist contributions to the g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} structure functions.

  4. Multipartite secure state distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duer, W.; Briegel, H.-J.; Calsamiglia, J.

    2005-04-01

    We introduce the distribution of a secret multipartite entangled state in a real-world scenario as a quantum primitive. We show that in the presence of noisy quantum channels (and noisy control operations), any state chosen from the set of two-colorable graph states (Calderbank-Shor-Steane codewords) can be created with high fidelity while it remains unknown to all parties. This is accomplished by either blind multipartite entanglement purification, which we introduce in this paper, or by multipartite entanglement purification of enlarged states, which offers advantages over an alternative scheme based on standard channel purification and teleportation. The parties are thus provided with a secret resource of their choice for distributed secure applications.

  5. Scattering from Colloid-Polymer Conjugates with Excluded Volume Effect

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xin; Smith, Gregory Scott; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2015-01-01

    This work presents scattering functions of conjugates consisting of a colloid particle and a self-avoiding polymer chain as a model for protein-polymer conjugates and nanoparticle-polymer conjugates in solution. The model is directly derived from the two-point correlation function with the inclusion of excluded volume effects. The dependence of the calculated scattering function on the geometric shape of the colloid and polymer stiffness is investigated. The model is able to describe the experimental scattering signature of the solutions of suspending hard particle-polymer conjugates and provide additional conformational information. This model explicitly elucidates the link between the global conformation of a conjugatemore » and the microstructure of its constituent components.« less

  6. Paper area density measurement from forward transmitted scattered light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koo, Jackson C.

    2001-01-01

    A method whereby the average paper fiber area density (weight per unit area) can be directly calculated from the intensity of transmitted, scattered light at two different wavelengths, one being a non-absorpted wavelength. Also, the method makes it possible to derive the water percentage per fiber area density from a two-wavelength measurement. In the optical measuring technique optical transmitted intensity, for example, at 2.1 microns cellulose absorption line is measured and compared with another scattered, optical transmitted intensity reference in the nearby spectrum region, such as 1.68 microns, where there is no absorption. From the ratio of these two intensities, one can calculate the scattering absorption coefficient at 2.1 microns. This absorption coefficient at this wavelength is, then, experimentally correlated to the paper fiber area density. The water percentage per fiber area density can be derived from this two-wavelength measurement approach.

  7. A Double Scattering Analytical Model For Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barradas, N. P.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; Darakchieva, V.

    2011-06-01

    We present an analytical model for calculation of double scattering in elastic recoil detection measurements. Only events involving the beam particle and the recoil are considered, i.e. 1) an ion scatters off a target element and then produces a recoil, and 2) an ion produces a recoil which then scatters off a target element. Events involving intermediate recoils are not considered, i.e. when the primary ion produces a recoil which then produces a second recoil. If the recoil element is also present in the stopping foil, recoil events in the stopping foil are also calculated. We included the model in the standard code for IBA data analysis NDF, and applied it to the measurement of hydrogen in Si.

  8. Scattering from Colloid-Polymer Conjugates with Excluded Volume Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xin; Smith, Gregory Scott; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2015-01-01

    This work presents scattering functions of conjugates consisting of a colloid particle and a self-avoiding polymer chain as a model for protein-polymer conjugates and nanoparticle-polymer conjugates in solution. The model is directly derived from the two-point correlation function with the inclusion of excluded volume effects. The dependence of the calculated scattering function on the geometric shape of the colloid and polymer stiffness is investigated. The model is able to describe the experimental scattering signature of the solutions of suspending hard particle-polymer conjugates and provide additional conformational information. This model explicitly elucidates the link between the global conformation of a conjugate and the microstructure of its constituent components.

  9. Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamboa, E.J.; Huntington, C.M.; Trantham, M.R.; Keiter, P.A; Drake, R.P.; Montgomery, David; Benage, John F.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    2012-05-04

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  10. Inelastic magnetic neutron scattering in CePd{sub 3}.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, J. M.; Fanelli, V. R.; Goremychkin, E. A.; Osborn, R.; Bauer, E. D.; McClellan, K. J.; Christianson, A. D.; Univ. of California at Irvine; LANL; ORNL

    2008-01-01

    We have performed time-of-flight neutron scattering measurements on a single crystal of the intermediate valence compound CePd{sub 3}. At 10 K, a Kondo-esque inelastic magnetic scattering peak occurs near {Delta}E = 60 meV with maximum intensity for momentum transfer Q near the (1/2, 1/2, 0) zone boundary. Spectral weight is transferred to lower energy as Q varies until at zone center the intensity at 60 meV is considerably weaker. These results are in qualitative accord with predictions of the Anderson lattice. The Q-dependence may resolve an older controversy concerning the low-temperature scattering. We discuss the relationship of these results to our recent results in YbAl{sub 3}.

  11. Properly Understanding the Impacts of Distributed Resources on Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Adhikari, Sarina; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    The subject paper discusses important impacts of distributed resources on distribution networks and feeders. These include capacity, line losses, voltage regulation, and central system support (such as volt/var via central generators and substation) as the number, placement and penetration levels of distributed resources are varied. Typically, the impacts of distributed resources on the distribution system are studied by using steady-state rather than dynamic analysis tools. However, the response time and transient impacts of both system equipment (such as substation/feeder capacitors) and distributed resources needs to be taken into account and only dynamic analysis will provide the full impact results. ORNL is wrapping up a study of distributed resources interconnected to a large distribution system considering the above variables. A report of the study and its results will be condensed into a paper for this panel session. The impact of distributed resources will vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system. The question is how high of a penetration of distributed resource can be accommodated on the distribution feeder/system without any major changes to system operation, design and protection. The impacts most surely will vary depending upon load composition, distribution and level. Also, it is expected that various placement of distributed resources will impact the distribution system differently.

  12. Symmetric generalized binomial distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, H.; Curado, E. M. F.; Instituto Nacional de Cincia e Tecnologia - Sistemas Complexos, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ ; Gazeau, J. P.; APC, UMR 7164, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 75205 Paris ; Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S. E-mail: evaldo@cbpf.br E-mail: ligia@cbpf.br

    2013-12-15

    In two recent articles, we have examined a generalization of the binomial distribution associated with a sequence of positive numbers, involving asymmetric expressions of probabilities that break the symmetry win-loss. We present in this article another generalization (always associated with a sequence of positive numbers) that preserves the symmetry win-loss. This approach is also based on generating functions and presents constraints of non-negativeness, similar to those encountered in our previous articles.

  13. MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 December 20, 2007 MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION FROM: MICHAEL W. OWEN /<f /c / DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF LEGACY MANAGEM.ENT SUBJECT: Compliance with Established Policies and Guidance for Contractor Work Force Restructuring As you know, the Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the Department's fical point for all work force restructuring actions. As a reminder of policies and guidance that should continue to be followed when implementing work force

  14. Distributed generation implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzy, L.; O`Sullivan, J.B.; Jacobs, K.; Major, W.

    1999-11-01

    The overall economics of a distributed generation project is based on cost elements which include: Equipment and financing, fuel, displaced electricity cost, operation and maintenance. Of critical importance is how the facility is managed, including adequate provision for a comprehensive operator training program. Proper equipment maintenance and fuel procurement policy will also lead to greater system availability and optimal system economics. Various utility tariffs are available which may be economically attractive, with an added benefit to the utility of providing a peak shaving resource during peak periods. Changing modes of operation of the distributed generation system may affect staff readiness, require retraining and could affect maintenance costs. The degree of control and oversight that is provided during a project`s implementation and construction phases will impact subsequent maintenance and operating costs. The long term effect of siting impacts, such as building facades that restrict turbine inlet airflow will affect subsequent operations and require supplemental maintenance action. It is possible to site a variety of distributed generation technologies in settings which vary from urban to remote unattended locations with successful results from both an economic and operational perspective.

  15. LIDAR Thomson scattering for advanced tokamaks. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molvik, A.W.; Lerche, R.A.; Nilson, D.G.

    1996-03-18

    The LIDAR Thomson Scattering for Advanced Tokamaks project made a valuable contribution by combining LLNL expertise from the MFE Program: tokamak design and diagnostics, and the ICF Program and Physics Dept.: short-pulse lasers and fast streak cameras. This multidisciplinary group evaluated issues involved in achieving a factor of 20 higher high spatial resolution (to as small as 2-3 mm) from the present state of the art in LIDAR Thomson scattering, and developed conceptual designs to apply LIDAR Thomson scattering to three tokamaks: Upgraded divertor measurements in the existing DIII-D tokamak; Both core and divertor LIDAR Thomson scattering in the proposed (now cancelled) TPX; and core, edge, and divertor LIDAR Thomson scattering on the presently planned International Tokamak Experimental Reactor, ITER. Other issues were evaluated in addition to the time response required for a few millimeter spatial resolution. These include the optimum wavelength, 100 Hz operation of the laser and detectors, minimizing stray light - always the Achilles heel of Thomson scattering, and time dispersion in optics that could prevent good spatial resolution. Innovative features of our work included: custom short pulsed laser concepts to meet specific requirements, use of a prism spectrometer to maintain a constant optical path length for high temporal and spatial resolution, the concept of a laser focus outside the plasma to ionize gas and form an external fiducial to use in locating the plasma edge as well as to spread the laser energy over a large enough area of the inner wall to avoid laser ablation of wall material, an improved concept for cleaning windows between shots by means of laser ablation, and the identification of a new physics issue - nonlinear effects near a laser focus which could perturb the plasma density and temperature that are to be measured.

  16. Exploration of deeply virtual Compton scattering on the neutron in the Hall A of Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malek Mazouz

    2006-12-08

    Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) are universal functions which provide a comprehensive description of hadron properties in terms of quarks and gluons. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is the simplest hard exclusive process involving GPDs. In particular, the DVCS on the neutron is mostly sensitive to E, the less constrained GPD, wich allows to access to the quark angular momentum. The first dedicated DVCS experiment on the neutron ran in the Hall A of Jefferson Lab in fall 2004. The high luminosity of the experiment and the resulting background rate recquired specific devices which are decribed in this document. The analysis methods and the experiment results, leading to preliminary constraints on the GPD E, are presented.

  17. Internal Energy Dependence of Molecular Condensation Coefficients Determined from Molecular Beam Surface Scattering Experiments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Sibener, S. J.; Lee, Y. T.

    1978-05-01

    An experiment was performed which confirms the existence of an internal mode dependence of molecular sticking probabilities for collisions of molecules with a cold surface. The scattering of a velocity selected effusive beam of CCl{sub 4} from a 90 K CC1{sub 4} ice surface has been studied at five translational velocities and for two different internal temperatures. At a surface temperature of 90 K (approx. 99% sticking probability) a four fold increase in reflected intensity was observed for the internally excited (560 K) CC1{sub 4} relative to the room temperature (298 K) CC1{sub 4} at a translational velocity of 2.5 X 10{sup 4} cm/sec. For a surface temperature of 90 K all angular distributions were found to peak 15{sup 0} superspecularly independent of incident velocity.

  18. Study of quasielastic scattering using charged-current νμ-iron interactions in the MINOS near detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adamson, P.

    2015-01-08

    Kinematic distributions from an inclusive sample of 1.41×106 charged-current νμ interactions on iron, obtained using the MINOS near detector exposed to a wide-band beam with peak flux at 3 GeV, are compared to a conventional treatment of neutrino scattering within a Fermi gas nucleus. Results are also used to guide the selection of a subsample enriched in quasielastic νμFe interactions, containing an estimated 123,000 quasielastic events of incident energies 1 < Eν < 8 GeV, with < Eν > = 2.79 GeV. Four additional subsamples representing topological and kinematic sideband regions to quasielastic scattering are also selected for the purposemore » of evaluating backgrounds. Comparisons using subsample distributions in four-momentum transfer Q2 show the Monte Carlo model to be inadequate at low Q2. Its shortcomings are remedied via inclusion of a Q2-dependent suppression function for baryon resonance production, developed from the data. A chi-square fit of the resulting Monte Carlo simulation to the shape of the Q2 distribution for the quasielastic-enriched sample is carried out with the axial-vector mass MA of the dipole axial-vector form factor of the neutron as a free parameter. Furthermore, the effective MA which best describes the data is 1.23+0.13-0.09(fit)+0.12-0.15(syst) GeV.« less

  19. Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering study of the magnetization

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dynamics driven by Spin Hall effect in a transversely magnetized NiFe nanowire (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering study of the magnetization dynamics driven by Spin Hall effect in a transversely magnetized NiFe nanowire Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering study of the magnetization dynamics driven by Spin Hall effect in a transversely magnetized NiFe nanowire We employed micro-focused Brillouin light

  20. Solid phases of spatially nanoconfined oxygen: A neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojda, Danny [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitt Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wallacher, Dirk; Hofmann, Tommy, E-mail: tommy.hofmann@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Baudoin, Simon; Hansen, Thomas [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Huber, Patrick [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)] [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    We present a comprehensive neutron scattering study on solid oxygen spatially confined in 12 nm wide alumina nanochannels. Elastic scattering experiments reveal a structural phase sequence known from bulk oxygen. With decreasing temperature cubic ?-, orthorhombic ?- and monoclinic ?-phases are unambiguously identified in confinement. Weak antiferromagnetic ordering is observed in the confined monoclinic ?-phase. Rocking scans reveal that oxygen nanocrystals inside the tubular channels do not form an isotropic powder. Rather, they exhibit preferred orientations depending on thermal history and the very mechanisms, which guide the structural transitions.

  1. Design of the polarization multi-pass Thomson scattering system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Kawahata, K.; Funaba, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Yoshikawa, M.; Morimoto, M.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Minami, T. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    A novel configuration of the multi-pass Thomson scattering (TS) system is proposed to improve the time resolution and accuracy of electron temperature measurements by use of a polarization control technique. This configuration can realize a perfect coaxial multi-passing at each pass, and the number of round trips is not limited by the optical configuration. To confirm the feasibility of the new method, we installed this system in the GAMMA 10 plasma system. As a result, the integrated scattering signal of the double-pass configuration is about two times larger than that of the single-pass configuration. These results are in good agreement with the design.

  2. Precision electroweak studies using parity violation in electron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paschke, Kent D,

    2013-11-01

    The nature of new neutral-current interactions can be revealed at the low-energy precision frontier, where studies of parity-violation in electron scattering will complement the energy-frontier studies at the LHC. Measurements of the parity-violating observable APV - the cross-section asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized target - are sensitive to possible contact interactions from new physics at multi-TeV mass scales. The 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and a new, high-intensity beam at Mainz offer opportunities for significant improvements in measurements of electron-electron and electron-quark parity-violating interactions.

  3. Neutron Scattering | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Neutron Scattering of CeNi at the SNS-ORNL: A Preliminary Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron Scattering of CeNi at the SNS-ORNL: A Preliminary Report Authors: Mirmelstein, A V ; Podlesnyak, A ; Kolesnikov, A I ; Saporov, B ; Sefat, A S ; Tobin, J G Publication Date: 2014-04-13 OSTI Identifier: 1132013 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-653272 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation:

  4. Scattering from Star Polymers including Excluded Volume Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Hong, Kunlun; Smith, Greg; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffness of its constituent branch.

  5. Scattering Amplitudes: The Most Perfect Microscopic Structures in the Universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /CERN /SLAC

    2011-11-04

    This article gives an overview of many of the recent developments in understanding the structure of relativistic scattering amplitudes in gauge theories ranging from QCD to N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, as well as (super)gravity. I also provide a pedagogical introduction to some of the basic tools used to organize and illuminate the color and kinematic structure of amplitudes. This article is an invited review introducing a special issue of Journal of Physics A devoted to 'Scattering Amplitudes in Gauge Theories'.

  6. Neutrino Coherent Scattering Rates at Direct Dark Matter Detectors (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Neutrino Coherent Scattering Rates at Direct Dark Matter Detectors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutrino Coherent Scattering Rates at Direct Dark Matter Detectors Authors: Strigari, Louis E. ; /KIPAC, Menlo Park ; , Publication Date: 2013-10-24 OSTI Identifier: 1097427 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15817 arXiv:0903.3630 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: New J.Phys.11:105011,2009 Research

  7. Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a harmonic potential (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Journal Article: Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a harmonic potential Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a harmonic potential Authors: Luu, T ; Savage, M ; Schwenk, A ; Vary, J P Publication Date: 2010-06-02 OSTI Identifier: 1116861 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-435031 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Physical Review C, vol. 82, N/A, September 30, 2010, pp. 034003 Research Org:

  8. Resonance electronic Raman scattering in rare earth crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, G.M.

    1988-11-10

    The intensities of Raman scattering transitions between electronic energy levels of trivalent rare earth ions doped into transparent crystals were measured and compared to theory. A particle emphasis was placed on the examination of the effect of intermediate state resonances on the Raman scattering intensities. Two specific systems were studied: Ce/sup 3 +/(4f/sup 1/) in single crystals of LuPO/sub 4/ and Er/sup 3 +/(4f/sup 11/) in single crystals of ErPO/sub 4/. 134 refs., 92 figs., 33 tabs.

  9. Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.

    1999-09-27

    A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented.

  10. Neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung from nucleon-nucleon scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yi; Liou, M. K.; Schreiber, W. M.; Gibson, B. F.

    2015-07-22

    Background: Neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung processes from nucleon-nucleon scattering ???? (nnvv, ppvv, and npvv) have recently attracted attention in studies of neutrino emission in neutron stars, because of the implications for the neutron star cooling. The calculated ???? emissivities within the neutron star environment are relatively insensitive to the two-nucleon dynamical model used in the calculations, but differ significantly from those obtained using an OPE model. Purpose: To investigate the free ???? cross sections using a realistic nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude, comparing the relative sizes of the cross sections for the three processes nnvv, ppvv, and npvv.

  11. Recent progress in electron scattering from atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Sullivan, J. P.; Palihawadana, P.; Jones, D. B.; Chiari, L.; Pettifer, Z.; Silva, G. B. da; Lopes, M. C. A.; Duque, H. V.; Masin, Z.; Gorfinkiel, J. D.; Garcia, G.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.; Limo-Vieira, P.

    2014-03-05

    We present and discuss recent results, both experimental and theoretical (where possible), for electron impact excitation of the 3s[3/2 ]{sub 1} and 3s?[1/2 ]{sub 1} electronic states in neon, elastic electron scattering from the structurally similar molecules benzene, pyrazine, and 1,4-dioxane and excitation of the electronic states of the important bio-molecule analogue ?-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. While comparison between theoretical and experimental results suggests that benchmarked cross sections for electron scattering from atoms is feasible in the near-term, significant further theoretical development for electron-molecule collisions, particularly in respect to discrete excitation processes, is still required.

  12. Compton scattering from positronium and validity of the impulse approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaliman, Z.; Pisk, K.; Pratt, R. H.

    2011-05-15

    The cross sections for Compton scattering from positronium are calculated in the range from 1 to 100 keV incident photon energy. The calculations are based on the A{sup 2} term of the photon-electron or photon-positron interaction. Unlike in hydrogen, the scattering occurs from two centers and the interference effect plays an important role for energies below 8 keV. Because of the interference, the criterion for validity of the impulse approximation for positronium is more restrictive compared to that for hydrogen.

  13. Nature of Coulomb Shifts of Nuclear Scattering Resonances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takibayev, N.Zh.

    2005-07-01

    Relations determining the shift of energies and widths of scattering resonances are obtained within the method of evolution in the coupling constant. These relations generalize the well-known relations for the shift of levels in a discrete spectrum. The problem of determining the Coulomb shifts of low-energy resonances manifesting themselves in the cross section for the scattering of some light nuclei is solved. Examples that are of importance for nuclear astrophysics and examples of problems that are associated with the production of chemical elements are considered. The character of Coulomb shifts is studied within simple nuclear models. Respective numerical estimates are given, which agree satisfactorily with experimental data.

  14. Ultraviolet Thomson scattering measurements of the electron feature with an

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    energetic 263 nm probe (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Ultraviolet Thomson scattering measurements of the electron feature with an energetic 263 nm probe Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultraviolet Thomson scattering measurements of the electron feature with an energetic 263 nm probe Authors: Ross, J S ; Divol, L ; Sorce, C ; Froula, D H ; Glenzer, S H Publication Date: 2011-06-23 OSTI Identifier: 1091881 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-489959 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48

  15. Scattering from Star Polymers including Excluded Volume Effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Hong, Kunlun; Smith, Greg; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffnessmore » of its constituent branch.« less

  16. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

  17. Investigation of Three-Body Force Effects in Neutron-Deuteron Scattering at 95 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mermod, P.; Blomgren, J.; Bergenwall, B.; Hildebrand, A.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Oesterlund, M.; Pomp, S.; Nilsson, L.; Olsson, N.; Tippawan, U.; Jonsson, O.; Prokofiev, A.; Renberg, P.-U.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Maeda, Y.; Sakai, H.; Tamii, A.

    2005-05-24

    We have measured the neutron-deuteron (nd) elastic-scattering differential cross section at 95 MeV incident neutron energy, using both the Medley and the SCANDAL setups at TSL in Uppsala. The full angular distribution was covered by detecting recoil deuterons from thin CD2 targets, and the result was normalized to the neutron-proton (np) cross section. Recent theories predict that three-nucleon (3N) force effects, if present, would affect the cross section in the minimum region by about 30%. The results are compared with theoretical calculations and are well described if 3N forces are included.

  18. EFFECTS OF NON-ISOTROPIC SCATTERING, MAGNETIC HELICITY, AND ADIABATIC FOCUSING ON DIFFUSIVE TRANSPORT OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    2012-06-10

    Transport of solar energetic particles in interplanetary space is analyzed. A new systematic derivation of the diffusion approximation is given, which incorporates the effects of non-isotropic scattering, magnetic helicity, and adiabatic focusing in a non-uniform large-scale magnetic field. The derivation is based on a system of stochastic differential equations, equivalent to the Fokker-Planck equation, and the new method is a generalization of the Smoluchowski approximation in the theory of the Brownian motion. Simple, physically transparent expressions for the transport coefficients are derived. Different results of earlier treatments of the problem are related to the assumptions regarding the evolving particle distribution.

  19. Elastic Scattering Of {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 80}Se At Near And Above Barrier Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fimiani, L.; Marti, G. V.; Capurro, O. A.; Barbara, E. de; Testoni, J. E.; Zalazar, L.; Arazi, A.; Cardona, M. A.; Carnelli, P.; Figueira, J. M.; Hojman, D.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.

    2010-08-04

    In this work we propose to study the elastic scattering of the weakly bound projectiles {sup 6,7}Li on an intermediate mass target {sup 80}Se. From the experimental results presented here, precise angular distributions at energies below, around and above the nominal Coulomb barriers of the systems were obtained. The final goal of our work is to determine the characteristic parameters of the optical potential and use them to address the question of whether the usual threshold anomaly or the breakup threshold anomaly are present or not in these systems.

  20. Neutron Scattering Investigation of Phonon Scattering Rates in Ag1-xSb1+xTe2+x (x = 0, 0.1, and 0.2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernathy, Douglas L [ORNL; Budai, John D [ORNL; Delaire, Olivier A [ORNL; Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Hong, Tao [ORNL; Karapetrova, Evguenia A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ma, Jie [ORNL; May, Andrew F [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The phonon dispersions and scattering rates of the thermoelectric material AgSbTe$_{2}$ were measured as a function of temperature with inelastic neutron scattering. The results show that phonon scattering rates are large and weakly dependent on temperature. The lattice thermal conductivity was calculated from the measured phonon lifetimes and group velocities, providing good agreement with bulk transport measurements. The measured phonon scattering rates and their temperature dependence are compared with models of phonon scattering by anharmonicity and point defect. We find that these processes cannot account for the large total phonon scattering rates observed, and their lack of temperature dependence. Neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements on single crystals revealed an extensive nanostructure from cation ordering, which is likely responsible for the strong phonon scattering.

  1. Distributed Optimization System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurtado, John E.; Dohrmann, Clark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2004-11-30

    A search system and method for controlling multiple agents to optimize an objective using distributed sensing and cooperative control. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace. The objective can be: chemical sources, temperature sources, radiation sources, light sources, evaders, trespassers, explosive sources, time dependent sources, time independent sources, function surfaces, maximization points, minimization points, and optimal control of a system such as a communication system, an economy, a crane, and a multi-processor computer.

  2. Distribution Category: Water R

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Distribution Category: Water R e a c t o r Safety- R e s e a r c h - - A n a l y s i s Development (NRG-4) A N L - 7 7 - 4 7 ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 9700 South C a s s Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439 ONE-DIMENSIONAL D R I F T - F L U X MODEL AND CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR RELATIVE MOTION BETWEEN PHASES IN VARIOUS TWO-PHASE FLOW REGIMES by M. Ishii Reactor Analysis and Safety Division October 1977 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government

  3. Spark Distributed Analytic Framework

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Apache Spark Spark Distributed Analytic Framework Description and Overview Apache Spark(tm) is a fast and general engine for large-scale data processing. How to Use Spark Because of its high memory and I/O bandwidth requirements, we recommend you run your spark jobs on Cori. Follow the steps below to use spark, note that the order of the commands matters. DO NOT load the spark module until you are inside a batch job. Interactive mode Submit an interactive batch job with at least 2 nodes in the

  4. Nonlinear stimulated Brillouin scattering based photonic signal processors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minasian, Robert A.

    2014-10-06

    Recent new methods in photonic signal processing based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, that enable the realization of photonic mixers with high conversion efficiency, ultra-wide continuously tunable high-resolution microwave photonic filters and programmable switchable microwave photonic tunable filters, are presented. These processors provide new capabilities for the realisation of high-performance and high-resolution signal processing.

  5. Studying the proton 'radius' puzzle with ?p elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, R.

    2013-11-07

    The disagreement between the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen and from electronic measurements is called the proton radius puzzle. The resolution of the puzzle remains unclear and appears to require new experimental results. An experiment to measure muon-proton elastic scattering is presented here.

  6. On the dispersion theory of {pi}{pi} scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leutwyler, H.

    2007-02-27

    Recent developments in low energy pion physics are reviewed, emphasizing the strength of dispersion theory in this context. As an illustration of the method, I discuss some consequences of the forward dispersion relation obeyed by the isoscalar component of the scattering amplitude.

  7. AXISYMMETRIC SCATTERING OF p MODES BY THIN MAGNETIC TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hindman, Bradley W.; Jain, Rekha

    2012-02-10

    We examine the scattering of acoustic p-mode waves from a thin magnetic fibril embedded in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere. The scattering is mediated through the excitation of slow sausage waves on the magnetic tube, and only the scattering of the monopole component of the wave field is considered. Since such tube waves are not confined by the acoustic cavity and may freely propagate along the field lines removing energy from the acoustic wave field, the excitation of fibril oscillations is a source of acoustic wave absorption as well as scattering. We compute the mode mixing that is achieved and the absorption coefficients and phase shifts. We find that for thin tubes the mode mixing is weak and the absorption coefficient is small and is a smooth function of frequency over the physically relevant band of observed frequencies. The prominent absorption resonances seen in previous studies of unstratified tubes are absent. Despite the relatively small absorption, the phase shift induced can be surprisingly large, reaching values as high as 15 Degree-Sign for f modes. Further, the phase shift can be positive or negative depending on the incident mode order and the frequency.

  8. New JLab/Hall A Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Defurne, Maxime

    2015-08-01

    New data points for unpolarized Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering cross sections have been extracted from the E00-110 experiment at Q2=1.9 GeV2 effectively doubling the statistics available in the valence region. A careful study of systematic uncertainties has been performed.

  9. Elastic Neutron Scattering at 96 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hildebrand, A.; Blomgren, J.; Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Mermod, P.; Nilsson, L.; Pomp, S.; Esterlund, M.; Dangtip, S.; Tippawan, U.; Phansuke, P.; Jonsson, O.; Renberg, P.-U.; Prokofiev, A.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Elmgren, K.; Olsson, N.; Blideanu, V.

    2005-05-24

    A facility for detection of scattered neutrons in the energy interval 50-130 MeV, SCANDAL (SCAttered Nucleon Detection AssembLy), has recently been installed at the 20 - 180-MeV neutron beam line of The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala. Elastic neutron scattering from 12C, 16O, 56Fe, 89Y, and 208Pb has been studied at 96 MeV in the 10-70 deg. interval. The results from 12C and 208Pb have recently been published,6 while the data from 16O, 56Fe, and 89Y are under analysis. The achieved energy resolution, 3.7 MeV, is about an order of magnitude better than for any previous experiment above 65 MeV incident energy. The present experiment represents the highest neutron energy where the ground state has been resolved from the first excited state in neutron scattering. A novel method for normalization of the absolute scale of the cross section has been used. The estimated normalization uncertainty, 3%, is unprecedented for a neutron-induced differential cross section measurement on a nuclear target. The results are compared with modern optical model predictions, based on phenomenology or microscopic theory. Applications for these measurements are nuclear-waste incineration, single-event upsets in electronics, and fast-neutron therapy.

  10. Operational properties of fluctuation X-ray scattering data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malmerberg, Erik; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Zwart, Petrus H.

    2015-03-20

    X-ray scattering images collected on timescales shorter than rotation diffusion times using a (partially) coherent beam result in a significant increase in information content in the scattered data. These measurements, named fluctuation X-ray scattering (FXS), are typically performed on an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) and can provide fundamental insights into the structure of biological molecules, engineered nanoparticles or energy-related mesoscopic materials beyond what can be obtained with standard X-ray scattering techniques. In order to understand, use and validate experimental FXS data, the availability of basic data characteristics and operational properties is essential, but has been absent up to this point.more » In this communication, an intuitive view of the nature of FXS data and their properties is provided, the effect of FXS data on the derived structural models is highlighted, and generalizations of the Guinier and Porod laws that can ultimately be used to plan experiments and assess the quality of experimental data are presented.« less

  11. Channel coupling and exchange of an alpha-particle cluster in deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakuta, S. B.; Burtebaev, N.; Artemov, S. V.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2012-07-15

    Existing experimental data on elastic and inelastic deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li nuclei in the energy range from 8 to 50 MeV were analyzed within the approach of coupled reaction channels. The coupling of elastic scattering and inelastic scattering accompanied by the transition to the 3{sup +} state at E{sub x} 2.186 MeV and the mechanism involving the exchange of an alpha-particle cluster were taken into account in respective calculations. The phenomenological potentials obtained from the present analysis describe well experimental angular distributions at all energies and in full angular ranges. The depths of the real and imaginary parts of the potentials in question depend smoothly on energy at fixed values of the remaining parameters. The energy dependence of relevant volume integrals agrees well with similar data for the p + {sup 6}Li, {alpha} + {sup 6}Li, and {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C systems and with the predictions of a microscopic theory.

  12. Final Report: A Transport Phenomena Based Approach to Probe Evolution of Weld Macro and Microstructures and A Smart Bi-directional Model of Fusion Welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Tarasankar DebRoy

    2009-12-11

    In recent years, applications of numerical heat transfer and fluid flow models of fusion welding have resulted in improved understanding of both the welding processes and welded materials. They have been used to accurately calculate thermal cycles and fusion zone geometry in many cases. Here we report the following three major advancements from this project. First, we show how microstructures, grain size distribution and topology of welds of several important engineering alloys can be computed starting from better understanding of the fusion welding process through numerical heat transfer and fluid flow calculations. Second, we provide a conclusive proof that the reliability of numerical heat transfer and fluid flow calculations can be significantly improved by optimizing several uncertain model parameters. Third, we demonstrate how the numerical heat transfer and fluid flow models can be combined with a suitable global optimization program such as a genetic algorithm for the tailoring of weld attributes such as attaining a specified weld geometry or a weld thermal cycle. The results of the project have been published in many papers and a listing of these are included together with a list of the graduate thesis that resulted from this project. The work supported by the DOE award has resulted in several important national and international awards. A listing of these awards and the status of the graduate students are also presented in this report.

  13. Quantum Theory of (H,H{Sub 2}) Scattering: Approximate Treatments of Reactive Scattering

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Tang, K. T.; Karplus, M.

    1970-10-01

    A quantum mechanical study is made of reactive scattering in the (H, H{sub 2}) system. The problem is formulated in terms of a form of the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) suitable for collisions in which all particles have finite mass. For certain incident energies, differential and total cross sections, as well as other attributes of the reactive collisions, (e.g. reaction configuration), are determined. Two limiting models in the DWBA formulation are compared; in one, the molecule is unperturbed by the incoming atom and in the other, the molecule adiabatically follows the incoming atom. For thermal incident energies and semi-empirical interaction potential employed, the adiabatic model seems to be more appropriate. Since the DWBA method is too complicated for a general study of the (H, H{sub 2}) reaction, a much simpler approximation method, the “linear model” is developed. This model is very different in concept from treatments in which the three atoms are constrained to move on a line throughout the collision. The present model includes the full three-dimensional aspect of the collision and it is only the evaluation of the transition matrix element itself that is simplified. It is found that the linear model, when appropriately normalized, gives results in good agreement with that of the DWBA method. By application of this model, the energy dependence, rotational state of dependence and other properties of the total and differential reactions cross sections are determined. These results of the quantum mechanical treatment are compared with the classical calculation for the same potential surface. The most important result is that, in agreement with the classical treatment, the differential cross sections are strongly backward peaked at low energies and shifts in the forward direction as the energy increases. Finally, the implications of the present calculations for a theory of chemical kinetics are discussed.

  14. Theory of weak scattering of stochastic electromagnetic fields from deterministic and random media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong Zhisong; Korotkova, Olga

    2010-09-15

    The theory of scattering of scalar stochastic fields from deterministic and random media is generalized to the electromagnetic domain under the first-order Born approximation. The analysis allows for determining the changes in spectrum, coherence, and polarization of electromagnetic fields produced on their propagation from the source to the scattering volume, interaction with the scatterer, and propagation from the scatterer to the far field. An example of scattering of a field produced by a {delta}-correlated partially polarized source and scattered from a {delta}-correlated medium is provided.

  15. Complete Monte Carlo Simulation of Neutron Scattering Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drosg, M.

    2011-12-13

    In the far past, it was not possible to accurately correct for the finite geometry and the finite sample size of a neutron scattering set-up. The limited calculation power of the ancient computers as well as the lack of powerful Monte Carlo codes and the limitation in the data base available then prevented a complete simulation of the actual experiment. Using e.g. the Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNPX [1], neutron scattering experiments can be simulated almost completely with a high degree of precision using a modern PC, which has a computing power that is ten thousand times that of a super computer of the early 1970s. Thus, (better) corrections can also be obtained easily for previous published data provided that these experiments are sufficiently well documented. Better knowledge of reference data (e.g. atomic mass, relativistic correction, and monitor cross sections) further contributes to data improvement. Elastic neutron scattering experiments from liquid samples of the helium isotopes performed around 1970 at LANL happen to be very well documented. Considering that the cryogenic targets are expensive and complicated, it is certainly worthwhile to improve these data by correcting them using this comparatively straightforward method. As two thirds of all differential scattering cross section data of {sup 3}He(n,n){sup 3}He are connected to the LANL data, it became necessary to correct the dependent data measured in Karlsruhe, Germany, as well. A thorough simulation of both the LANL experiments and the Karlsruhe experiment is presented, starting from the neutron production, followed by the interaction in the air, the interaction with the cryostat structure, and finally the scattering medium itself. In addition, scattering from the hydrogen reference sample was simulated. For the LANL data, the multiple scattering corrections are smaller by a factor of five at least, making this work relevant. Even more important are the corrections to the Karlsruhe data due to the inclusion of the missing outgoing self-attenuation that amounts to up to 15%.

  16. PULSE AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION RECORDER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowper, G.

    1958-08-12

    A device is described for automatica1ly recording pulse annplitude distribution received from a counter. The novelty of the device consists of the over-all arrangement of conventional circuit elements to provide an easy to read permanent record of the pulse amplitude distribution during a certain time period. In the device a pulse analyzer separates the pulses according to annplitude into several channels. A scaler in each channel counts the pulses and operates a pen marker positioned over a drivable recorder sheet. Since the scalers in each channel have the sanne capacity, the control circuitry permits counting of the incoming pulses until one scaler reaches capacity, whereupon the input is removed and an internal oscillator supplies the necessary pulses to fill up the other scalers. Movement of the chart sheet is initiated wben the first scaler reaches capacity to thereby give a series of marks at spacings proportional to the time required to fill the remaining scalers, and accessory equipment marks calibration points on the recorder sheet to facilitate direct reading of the number of external pulses supplied to each scaler.

  17. From QCD-based hard-scattering to nonextensive statistical mechanical descriptions of transverse momentum spectra in high-energy $pp$ and $$p\\bar p$$ collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Wilk, Grzegorz; Cirto, Leonardo J. L.; Tsallis, Constantino

    2015-01-01

    Transverse spectra of both jets and hadrons obtained in high-energymore » $pp$ and $$p\\bar p $$ collisions at central rapidity exhibit power-law behavior of $1/p_T^n$ at high $p_T$. The power index $n$ is 4-5 for jet production and is slightly greater for hadron production. Furthermore, the hadron spectra spanning over 14 orders of magnitude down to the lowest $p_T$ region in $pp$ collisions at LHC can be adequately described by a single nonextensive statistical mechanical distribution that is widely used in other branches of science. This suggests indirectly the dominance of the hard-scattering process over essentially the whole $p_T$ region at central rapidity in $pp$ collisions at LHC. We show here direct evidences of such a dominance of the hard-scattering process by investigating the power index of UA1 jet spectra over an extended $p_T$ region and the two-particle correlation data of the STAR and PHENIX Collaborations in high-energy $pp$ and $$p \\bar p$$ collisions at central rapidity. We then study how the showering of the hard-scattering product partons alters the power index of the hadron spectra and leads to a hadron distribution that can be cast into a single-particle non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution. Because of such a connection, the non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution can be considered as a lowest-order approximation of the hard-scattering of partons followed by the subsequent process of parton showering that turns the jets into hadrons, in high energy $pp$ and $$p\\bar p$$ collisions.« less

  18. From QCD-based hard-scattering to nonextensive statistical mechanical descriptions of transverse momentum spectra in high-energy $pp$ and $p\\bar p$ collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Wilk, Grzegorz; Cirto, Leonardo J. L.; Tsallis, Constantino

    2015-01-01

    Transverse spectra of both jets and hadrons obtained in high-energy $pp$ and $p\\bar p $ collisions at central rapidity exhibit power-law behavior of $1/p_T^n$ at high $p_T$. The power index $n$ is 4-5 for jet production and is slightly greater for hadron production. Furthermore, the hadron spectra spanning over 14 orders of magnitude down to the lowest $p_T$ region in $pp$ collisions at LHC can be adequately described by a single nonextensive statistical mechanical distribution that is widely used in other branches of science. This suggests indirectly the dominance of the hard-scattering process over essentially the whole $p_T$ region at central rapidity in $pp$ collisions at LHC. We show here direct evidences of such a dominance of the hard-scattering process by investigating the power index of UA1 jet spectra over an extended $p_T$ region and the two-particle correlation data of the STAR and PHENIX Collaborations in high-energy $pp$ and $p \\bar p$ collisions at central rapidity. We then study how the showering of the hard-scattering product partons alters the power index of the hadron spectra and leads to a hadron distribution that can be cast into a single-particle non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution. Because of such a connection, the non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution can be considered as a lowest-order approximation of the hard-scattering of partons followed by the subsequent process of parton showering that turns the jets into hadrons, in high energy $pp$ and $p\\bar p$ collisions.

  19. Exact evaluation of the rates of electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layden, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    2013-08-15

    Electrostatic decay of Langmuir waves into Langmuir and ion sound waves (L?L?+S) and scattering of Langmuir waves off thermal ions (L+i?L?+i?, also called nonlinear Landau damping) are important nonlinear weak-turbulence processes. The rates for these processes depend on the quadratic longitudinal response function ?{sup (2)} (or, equivalently, the quadratic longitudinal susceptibility ?{sup (2)}), which describes the second-order response of a plasma to electrostatic wave fields. Previous calculations of these rates for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma have relied upon an approximate form for ?{sup (2)} that is valid where two of the wave fields are fast (i.e., v{sub ?}=?/k?V{sub e} where ? is the angular frequency, k is the wavenumber, and V{sub e} is the electron thermal speed) and one is slow (v{sub ?}?V{sub e}). Recently, an exact expression was derived for ?{sup (2)} that is valid for any phase speeds of the three waves in an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma. Here, this exact ?{sup (2)} is applied to the calculation of the three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions, and the resulting exact rates are compared with the approximate rates. The calculations are performed using previously derived three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay given in terms of a general ?{sup (2)}, and newly derived three-dimensional rates for scattering off thermal ions; the scattering rate is derived assuming a Maxwellian ion distribution, and both rates are derived assuming arc distributions for the wave spectra. For most space plasma conditions, the approximate rate is found to be accurate to better than 20%; however, for sufficiently low Langmuir phase speeds (v{sub ?}/V{sub e}?3) appropriate to some spatial domains of the foreshock regions of planetary bow shocks and type II solar radio bursts, the use of the exact rate may be necessary for accurate calculations. The relative rates of electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions are calculated for a range of parameters using the exact expressions for the rates; electrostatic decay is found to have the larger growth rate over the whole range of parameters, consistent with previous approximate calculations.

  20. Distributed charging of electrical assets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Phan, Dung; Sharma, Mayank; Wu, Chai Wah; Xiong, Jinjun

    2016-02-16

    The present disclosure relates generally to the field of distributed charging of electrical assets. In various examples, distributed charging of electrical assets may be implemented in the form of systems, methods and/or algorithms.

  1. Distributed road assessment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  2. DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER INCORPORATING FEEDBACK

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, P.R. Jr.

    1958-10-21

    An improved distributed amplifier system employing feedback for stabilization is presented. In accordance with the disclosed invention, a signal to be amplified is applled to one end of a suitable terminated grid transmission line. At intervals along the transmission line, the signal is fed to stable, resistance-capacitance coupled amplifiers incorporating feedback loops therein. The output current from each amplifier is passed through an additional tube to minimize the electrostatic capacitance between the tube elements of the last stage of the amplifier, and fed to appropriate points on an output transmission line, similar to the grid line, but terminated at the opposite (input) end. The output taken from the unterminated end of the plate transmission line is proportional to the input voltage impressed upon the grid line.

  3. Integrated Distribution Planning Concept Paper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distribution Planning Concept Paper www.irecusa.org A Proactive Approach for Accommodating High Penetrations of Distributed Generation Resources May 2013 Integrated Distribution Planning Concept Paper A Proactive Approach for Accommodating High Penetrations of Distributed Generation Resources Tim Lindl and Kevin Fox Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Inc. Abraham Ellis and Robert Broderick Sandia National Laboratories May 2013 IREC enables greater use of clean energy in a sustainable way by

  4. Interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources Delivered to: Transmission and Grid Basics for Tribal Economic and Energy Development Dave Narang Principal Engineer, NREL March 30, 2016 2 Discussion Topics * Distribution System Interconnections - Part 1 o Background o Distribution Systems Overview o Electric Utility Operations o Emerging Topics in Grid Integration o DOE Grid Modernization Initiative * Distribution System Interconnections - Part 2 o Permitting o Interconnection * Wrap up o

  5. Linear Dichroism in Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering to Molecular...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Linear Dichroism in Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering to Molecular Spin-Orbit States Linear Dichroism in Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering to Molecular Spin-Orbit States Print...

  6. SSRL School 2007 on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in MES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 15-17, 2007 SSRL School on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences Group photo taken at the SSRL School on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in...

  7. In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 25 February 2015 00:00 Plastic solar cells...

  8. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Wednesday, 30 May 2012 00:00 In principle, tri-block copolymers...

  9. X-ray and neutron scattering from nano-mgantic clusters | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray and neutron scattering from nano-mgantic clusters The student will participate in hands on X-ray scattering experiments on bio-inspired inorganic materials (i.e., magnetic...

  10. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Tiziana C; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-11-03

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  11. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-07-14

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  12. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2014-07-22

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  13. Photovoltaic structures having a light scattering interface layer and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiangxin; Compaan, Alvin D.; Paudel, Naba Raj

    2015-10-13

    Photovoltaic (PV) cell structures having an integral light scattering interface layer configured to diffuse or scatter light prior to entering a semiconductor material and methods of making the same are described.

  14. Study of a scattering shield in a high heat load monochromator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Study of a scattering shield in a high heat load monochromator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Study of a scattering shield in a high heat load monochromator Authors: ...

  15. Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering From RNA, Proteins, And Protein...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering From RNA, Proteins, And Protein Complexes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering From RNA, Proteins, And Protein ...

  16. Combining THz laser excitation with resonant soft X-ray scattering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    resonant soft X-ray scattering at the Linac Coherent Light Source Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Combining THz laser excitation with resonant soft X-ray scattering ...

  17. Neutron scattering of CeNi at the SNS-ORNL: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirmelstein, A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center VNIITF, Snezhinsk, Russia; Podlesnyak, Andrey A [ORNL; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL; Saporov, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sefat, A.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tobin, J. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2014-01-01

    This is a preliminary report of a neutron scattering experiment used to investigate 4f electron behavior in Ce.

  18. XRS 2016 - 8th SSRL School on Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 21-23 2016 BL2-1 Registration closed Agenda 2016 Agenda Maps & Directions Visiting SLAC This school will provide a practical users' guide to planning and conducting scattering measurements at SSRL beam lines, and will cover important techniques including small angle scattering, thin-film scattering, powder diffraction, structure refinement and surface x-ray scattering. The school will address topics that are not commonly included in text books or class lectures, and typically obtained

  19. XRS 2016 - 8th SSRL School on Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This school will provide a practical users' guide to planning and conducting scattering measurements at SSRL beam lines, and will cover important techniques including small angle scattering, thin-film scattering, powder diffraction, structure refinement and surface x-ray scattering. The school will address topics that are not commonly included in text books or class lectures, and typically obtained only through on-the-experiment training. There will be: hands-on sessions at SSRL beam lines a

  20. Accurate Development of Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawari, Ayman; Dunn, Michael

    2014-06-10

    The objective of this project is to develop a holistic (fundamental and accurate) approach for generating thermal neutron scattering cross section libraries for a collection of important enutron moderators and reflectors. The primary components of this approach are the physcial accuracy and completeness of the generated data libraries. Consequently, for the first time, thermal neutron scattering cross section data libraries will be generated that are based on accurate theoretical models, that are carefully benchmarked against experimental and computational data, and that contain complete covariance information that can be used in propagating the data uncertainties through the various components of the nuclear design and execution process. To achieve this objective, computational and experimental investigations will be performed on a carefully selected subset of materials that play a key role in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  1. Infrared singularities of scattering amplitudes in perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becher, Thomas; Neubert, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    An exact formula is derived for the infrared singularities of dimensionally regularized scattering amplitudes in massless QCD with an arbitrary number of legs, valid at any number of loops. It is based on the conjecture that the anomalous-dimension matrix of n-jet operators in soft-collinear effective theory contains only a single non-trivial color structure, whose coefficient is the cusp anomalous dimension of Wilson loops with light-like segments. Its color-diagonal part is characterized by two anomalous dimensions, which are extracted to three-loop order from known perturbative results for the quark and gluon form factors. This allows us to predict the three-loop coefficients of all 1/epsilon^k poles for an arbitrary n-parton scattering amplitudes, generalizing existing two-loop results.

  2. Air-core grid for scattered x-ray rejection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.; Lane, S.M.

    1995-10-03

    The invention is directed to a grid used in x-ray imaging applications to block scattered radiation while allowing the desired imaging radiation to pass through, and to process for making the grid. The grid is composed of glass containing lead oxide, and eliminates the spacer material used in prior known grids, and is therefore, an air-core grid. The glass is arranged in a pattern so that a large fraction of the area is open allowing the imaging radiation to pass through. A small pore size is used and the grid has a thickness chosen to provide high scatter rejection. For example, the grid may be produced with a 200 {micro}m pore size, 80% open area, and 4 mm thickness. 2 figs.

  3. Air-core grid for scattered x-ray rejection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.; Lane, Stephen M.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is directed to a grid used in x-ray imaging applications to block scattered radiation while allowing the desired imaging radiation to pass through, and to process for making the grid. The grid is composed of glass containing lead oxide, and eliminates the spacer material used in prior known grids, and is therefore, an air-core grid. The glass is arranged in a pattern so that a large fraction of the area is open allowing the imaging radiation to pass through. A small pore size is used and the grid has a thickness chosen to provide high scatter rejection. For example, the grid may be produced with a 200 .mu.m pore size, 80% open area, and 4 mm thickness.

  4. Neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung from nucleon-nucleon scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Yi; Liou, M. K.; Schreiber, W. M.; Gibson, B. F.

    2015-07-22

    Background: Neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung processes from nucleon-nucleon scattering ΝΝνν¯ (nnvv¯, ppvv¯, and npvv¯) have recently attracted attention in studies of neutrino emission in neutron stars, because of the implications for the neutron star cooling. The calculated ΝΝνν¯ emissivities within the neutron star environment are relatively insensitive to the two-nucleon dynamical model used in the calculations, but differ significantly from those obtained using an OPE model. Purpose: To investigate the free ΝΝνν¯ cross sections using a realistic nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude, comparing the relative sizes of the cross sections for the three processes nnvv¯, ppvv¯, and npvv¯.

  5. Thomson scattering diagnostic for the measurement of ion species fraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, J S; Park, H S; Amendt, A; Divol, L; Kugland, N L; Rozmus, W; Glenzer, S H

    2012-05-01

    Simultaneous Thomson scattering measurements of collective electron-plasma and ion-acoustic fluctuations have been utilized to determine ion species fraction from laser produced CH plasmas. The CH{sub 2} foil is heated with 10 laser beams, 500 J per beam, at the Omega Laser facility. Thomson scattering measurements are made 4 mm from the foil surface using a 30 J 2{omega} probe laser with a 1 ns pulse length. Using a series of target shots the plasma evolution is measured from 2.5 ns to 9 ns after the rise of the heater beams. Measuring the electron density and temperature from the electron-plasma fluctuations constrains the fit of the two-ion species theoretical form factor for the ion feature such that the ion temperature, plasma flow velocity and ion species fraction are determined. The ion species fraction is determined to an accuracy of {+-}0.06 in species fraction.

  6. Quantum Markovian master equation for scattering from surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Haifeng; Shao, Jiushu; Azuri, Asaf; Pollak, Eli Alicki, Robert

    2014-01-07

    We propose a semi-phenomenological Markovian Master equation for describing the quantum dynamics of atom-surface scattering. It embodies the Lindblad-like structure and can describe both damping and pumping of energy between the system and the bath. It preserves positivity and correctly accounts for the vanishing of the interaction of the particle with the surface when the particle is distant from the surface. As a numerical test, we apply it to a model of an Ar atom scattered from a LiF surface, allowing for interaction only in the vertical direction. At low temperatures, we find that the quantum mechanical average energy loss is smaller than the classical energy loss. The numerical results obtained from the space dependent friction master equation are compared with numerical simulations for a discretized bath, using the multi-configurational time dependent Hartree methodology. The agreement between the two simulations is quantitative.

  7. Inelastic X-ray Scattering from Shocked Liquid Deuterium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Regan, S. P.; Falk, K.; Gregori, G.; Radha, P. B.; Hu, S. X.; Boehly, T. R.; Crowley, B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O.; Gericke, D. O.; et al

    2012-12-28

    The Fermi-degenerate plasma conditions created in liquid deuterium by a laser-ablation—driven shock wave were probed with noncollective, spectrally resolved, inelastic x-ray Thomson scattering employing Cl Lyα line emission at 2.96 keV. Thus, these first x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of the microscopic properties of shocked deuterium show an inferred spatially averaged electron temperature of 8±5 eV, an electron density of 2.2(±0.5)×1023 cm-3, and an ionization of 0.8 (-0.25, +0.15). Our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using equation-of-state models suited for the extreme parameters occurring in inertial confinement fusion research and planetary interiors are consistent with the experimental results.

  8. High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1995-01-01

    An x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury.

  9. High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1995-05-23

    Disclosed are an x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury. 4 Figs.

  10. Scattering of an ultrasoft pion and the X(3872)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braaten, Eric; Hammer, H.-W.; Mehen, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    The identification of the X(3872) as a loosely-bound charm-meson molecule allows it to be described by an effective field theory, called XEFT, for the D{sup *}D, DD{sup *}, and DD{pi} sector of QCD at energies small compared to the pion mass. We point out that this effective field theory can be extended to the sector that includes an additional pion and used to calculate cross sections for the scattering of a pion and the X(3872). If the collision energy is much smaller than the pion mass, the cross sections are completely calculable at leading order in terms of the masses and widths of the charm mesons, pion masses, and the binding energy of the X(3872). We carry out an explicit calculation of the cross section for the breakup of the X(3872) into D{sup *+}D{sup *0} by the scattering of a very low energy {pi}{sup +}.

  11. Distributed Merge Trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther

    2013-01-08

    Improved simulations and sensors are producing datasets whose increasing complexity exhausts our ability to visualize and comprehend them directly. To cope with this problem, we can detect and extract significant features in the data and use them as the basis for subsequent analysis. Topological methods are valuable in this context because they provide robust and general feature definitions. As the growth of serial computational power has stalled, data analysis is becoming increasingly dependent on massively parallel machines. To satisfy the computational demand created by complex datasets, algorithms need to effectively utilize these computer architectures. The main strength of topological methods, their emphasis on global information, turns into an obstacle during parallelization. We present two approaches to alleviate this problem. We develop a distributed representation of the merge tree that avoids computing the global tree on a single processor and lets us parallelize subsequent queries. To account for the increasing number of cores per processor, we develop a new data structure that lets us take advantage of multiple shared-memory cores to parallelize the work on a single node. Finally, we present experiments that illustrate the strengths of our approach as well as help identify future challenges.

  12. 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering | School Abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials at the Mesoscale The 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering will focus on science of Materials at the Mesoscale: the influence of surfaces, interfaces, and micro-structure in properties of materials and functionalities. The goal of the 11th School is to convey characterization of the hierarchical structure of materials from the nano- to the meso-scale, and the tailored control of their properties that have impact on the society (e.g. fracking, engineering materials, geological

  13. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dosimeter and probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1995-01-01

    A dosimeter and probe for measuring exposure to chemical and biological compounds is disclosed. The dosimeter or probe includes a collector which may be analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The collector comprises a surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active material having a coating applied thereto to improve the adsorption properties of the collector. The collector may also be used in automated sequential devises, in probe array devices.

  14. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dosimeter and probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1995-03-21

    A dosimeter and probe for measuring exposure to chemical and biological compounds is disclosed. The dosimeter or probe includes a collector which may be analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The collector comprises a surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active material having a coating applied thereto to improve the adsorption properties of the collector. The collector may also be used in automated sequential devices, in probe array devices. 10 figures.

  15. Time-of-flight direct recoil ion scattering spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; Lamich, G.J.

    1994-09-13

    A time-of-flight direct recoil and ion scattering spectrometer beam line is disclosed. The beam line includes an ion source which injects ions into pulse deflection regions and separated by a drift space. A final optics stage includes an ion lens and deflection plate assembly. The ion pulse length and pulse interval are determined by computerized adjustment of the timing between the voltage pulses applied to the pulsed deflection regions. 23 figs.

  16. Time-of-flight direct recoil ion scattering spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.; Lamich, George J.

    1994-01-01

    A time of flight direct recoil and ion scattering spectrometer beam line (10). The beam line (10) includes an ion source (12) which injects ions into pulse deflection regions (14) and (16) separated by a drift space (18). A final optics stage includes an ion lens and deflection plate assembly (22). The ion pulse length and pulse interval are determined by computerized adjustment of the timing between the voltage pulses applied to the pulsed deflection regions (14) and (16).

  17. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drabińska, Aneta Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krajewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-07

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer.

  18. Scattering of radio frequency waves by blobs in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ram, Abhay K.; Hizanidis, Kyriakos; Kominis, Yannis

    2013-05-15

    The density fluctuations and blobs present in the edge region of magnetic fusion devices can scatter radio frequency (RF) waves through refraction, reflection, diffraction, and coupling to other plasma waves. This, in turn, affects the spectrum of the RF waves and the electromagnetic power that reaches the core of the plasma. The usual geometric optics analysis of RF scattering by density blobs accounts for only refractive effects. It is valid when the amplitude of the fluctuations is small, of the order of 10%, compared to the background density. In experiments, density fluctuations with much larger amplitudes are routinely observed, so that a more general treatment of the scattering process is needed. In this paper, a full-wave model for the scattering of RF waves by a blob is developed. The full-wave approach extends the range of validity well beyond that of geometric optics; however, it is theoretically and computationally much more challenging. The theoretical procedure, although similar to that followed for the Mie solution of Maxwell's equations, is generalized to plasmas in a magnetic field. Besides diffraction and reflection, the model includes coupling to a different plasma wave than the one imposed by the external antenna structure. In the model, it is assumed that the RF waves interact with a spherical blob. The plasma inside and around the blob is cold, homogeneous, and imbedded in a uniform magnetic field. After formulating the complete analytical theory, the effect of the blob on short wavelength electron cyclotron waves and longer wavelength lower hybrid waves is studied numerically.

  19. At Los Alamos's Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, crystallographer Olivier Gourdon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crystallographer keen on showing off the revealing properties of neutrons February 27, 2014 At Los Alamos's Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, crystallographer Olivier Gourdon shows visiting researchers some of the latest tricks that can be performed using this 100-year old multidisciplinary science, which has a spectacular record of demystifying materials as varied as DNA and Martian rocks."Crystallography has the image of an old science. I'm trying to refresh that," said Gourdon, an

  20. Interpolations of nuclide-specific scattering kernels generated with Serpent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scopatz, A.; Schneider, E.

    2012-07-01

    The neutron group-to-group scattering cross section is an essential input parameter for any multi-energy group physics model. However, if the analyst prefers to use Monte Carlo transport to generate group constants this data is difficult to obtain for a single species of a material. Here, the Monte Carlo code Serpent was modified to return the group transfer probabilities on a per-nuclide basis. This ability is demonstrated in conjunction with an essential physics reactor model where cross section perturbations are used to dynamically generate reactor state dependent group constants via interpolation from pre-computed libraries. The modified version of Serpent was therefore verified with three interpolation cases designed to test the resilience of the interpolation scheme to changes in intra-group fluxes. For most species, interpolation resulted in errors of less than 5% of transport-computed values. For important scatterers, such as {sup 1}H, errors less than 2% were observed. For nuclides with high errors ( > 10%), the scattering channel typically only had a small probability of occurring. (authors)

  1. White dwarfs as the maximal soft x-ray scatterers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.; International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, we explore the effect of density on the structure formation and the electromagnetic wave (EMw) elastic scattering on quantum plasmas, using the generalized quantum hydrodynamic model valid for a wide range of the plasma density and relativistic degeneracy. It is found that the electron quantum diffraction effect caused by the Bohm potential has a fundamental effect on the ion correlations in a degenerate electron fluid and crystallization in quantum plasmas in the solid-density regime and beyond. The ion correlations and structure formation are shown to be fundamentally affected by the plasma density and the relativistic degeneracy parameters. Moreover, distinct behavior is shown to exist between the non-relativistic and relativistic matter density regimes, regarding the normalized EMw elastic scattering cross-sections. It is theoretically discovered that the maximal Thomson scattering coincides with the average density of a typical white dwarf corresponding to the soft X-ray wavelength regime. Current research can be very useful in plasma optical diagnostic methods for a wide range of electron number-density from warm dense matter and inertial confinement fusion to the astrophysical compact objects.

  2. Resonances in coupled ?K, ?K scattering from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, David J.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.; Thomas, Christopher E.

    2015-03-10

    Coupled-channel ?K and ?K scattering amplitudes are determined by studying the finite-volume energy spectra obtained from dynamical lattice QCD calculations. Using a large basis of interpolating operators, including both those resembling a qq-bar construction and those resembling a pair of mesons with relative momentum, a reliable excited-state spectrum can be obtained. Working at m? = 391 MeV, we find a gradual increase in the JP = 0+ ?K phase-shift which may be identified with a broad scalar resonance that couples strongly to ?K and weakly to ?K. The low-energy behavior of this amplitude suggests a virtual bound-state that may be related to the ? resonance. A bound state with JP = 1- is found very close to the ?K threshold energy, whose coupling to the ?K channel is compatible with that of the experimental K*(892). Evidence is found for a narrow resonance in JP = 2+. Isospin3/2 ?K scattering is also studied and non-resonant phase-shifts spanning the whole elastic scattering region are obtained.

  3. Factorization structure of gauge theory amplitudes and application to hard scattering processes at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu Juiyu; Fuhrer, Andreas; Kelley, Randall; Manohar, Aneesh V.

    2009-11-01

    Previous work on electroweak radiative corrections to high-energy scattering using soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) has been extended to include external transverse and longitudinal gauge bosons and Higgs bosons. This allows one to compute radiative corrections to all parton-level hard scattering amplitudes in the standard model to next-to-leading-log order, including QCD and electroweak radiative corrections, mass effects, and Higgs exchange corrections, if the high-scale matching, which is suppressed by two orders in the log counting, and contains no large logs, is known. The factorization structure of the effective theory places strong constraints on the form of gauge theory amplitudes at high energy for massless and massive gauge theories, which are discussed in detail in the paper. The radiative corrections can be written as the sum of process-independent one-particle collinear functions, and a universal soft function. We give plots for the radiative corrections to qq{yields}W{sub T}W{sub T}, Z{sub T}Z{sub T}, W{sub L}W{sub L}, and Z{sub L}H, and gg{yields}W{sub T}W{sub T} to illustrate our results. The purely electroweak corrections are large, ranging from 12% at 500 GeV to 37% at 2 TeV for transverse W pair production, and increasing rapidly with energy. The estimated theoretical uncertainty to the partonic (hard) cross section in most cases is below 1%, smaller than uncertainties in the parton distribution functions. We discuss the relation between SCET and other factorization methods, and derive the Magnea-Sterman equations for the Sudakov form factor using SCET, for massless and massive gauge theories, and for light and heavy external particles.

  4. Size and spacial distribution of micropores in SBA-15 using CM-SANS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, Rachel A; Walsh, Brenna R; Fry, Jason A; Ghampson, Tyrone; Centikol, Ozgul; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Kaiser, Helmut; Pynn, Roger; Frederick, Brian G

    2011-01-01

    Diffraction intensity analysis of small-angle neutron scattering measurements of dry SBA-15 have been combined with nonlocal density functional theory (NLDFT) analysis of nitrogen desorption isotherms to characterize the micropore, secondary mesopore, and primary mesopore structure. The radial dependence of the scattering length density, which is sensitive to isolated surface hydroxyls, can only be modeled if the NLDFT pore size distribution is distributed relatively uniformly throughout the silica framework, not localized in a 'corona' around the primary mesopores. Contrast matching-small angle neutron scattering (CM-SANS) measurements, using water, decane, tributylamine, cyclohexane, and isooctane as direct probes of the size of micropores indicate that the smallest pores in SBA-15 have diameter between 5.7 and 6.2 {angstrom}. Correlation of the minimum pore size with the onset of the micropore size distribution provides direct evidence that the shape of the smallest micropores is cylinderlike, which is consistent with their being due to unraveling of the polymer template.

  5. Investigation of defect clusters in ion-irradiated Ni and NiCo using diffuse X-ray scattering and electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Olsen, Raina J.; Jin, Ke; Lu, Chenyang; Beland, Laurent K.; Wang, Lumin M.; Bei, Hongbin; Specht, Eliot D.; Larson, Bennett C.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of defect clusters in Ni and Nimore » $$_{50}$$Co$$_{50}$$ (NiCo) irradiated at room temperature with 2–16 MeV Ni ions is studied using asymptotic diffuse X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Analysis of the scattering data provides separate size distributions for vacancy and interstitial type defect clusters, showing that both types of defect clusters have a smaller size and higher density in NiCo than in Ni. Diffuse scattering results show good quantitative agreement with TEM results for cluster sizes greater than 4 nm diameter, but find that the majority of vacancy clusters are under 2 nm in NiCo, which, if not detected, would lead to the conclusion that defect density was actually lower in the alloy. Interstitial dislocation loops and stacking fault tetrahedra are identified by TEM. Lastly comparison of diffuse scattering lineshapes to those calculated for dislocation loops and SFTs indicates that most of the vacancy clusters are SFTs.« less

  6. Investigation of defect clusters in ion-irradiated Ni and NiCo using diffuse X-ray scattering and electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Raina J.; Jin, Ke; Lu, Chenyang; Beland, Laurent K.; Wang, Lumin M.; Bei, Hongbin; Specht, Eliot D.; Larson, Bennett C.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of defect clusters in Ni and Ni$_{50}$Co$_{50}$ (NiCo) irradiated at room temperature with 2–16 MeV Ni ions is studied using asymptotic diffuse X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Analysis of the scattering data provides separate size distributions for vacancy and interstitial type defect clusters, showing that both types of defect clusters have a smaller size and higher density in NiCo than in Ni. Diffuse scattering results show good quantitative agreement with TEM results for cluster sizes greater than 4 nm diameter, but find that the majority of vacancy clusters are under 2 nm in NiCo, which, if not detected, would lead to the conclusion that defect density was actually lower in the alloy. Interstitial dislocation loops and stacking fault tetrahedra are identified by TEM. Lastly comparison of diffuse scattering lineshapes to those calculated for dislocation loops and SFTs indicates that most of the vacancy clusters are SFTs.

  7. 2010 American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS 2010)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billinge, Simon

    2011-06-17

    The ACNS provides a focal point for the national neutron user community to strengthen ties within this diverse group, while at the same time promoting neutron research among colleagues in related disciplines identified as would-be neutron users. The American Conference on Neutron Scattering thus serves a dual role as a national user meeting and a scientific meeting. As a venue for scientific exchange, the ACNS showcases recent results and provides forums for scientific discussion of neutron research in diverse fields such as hard and soft condensed matter, liquids, biology, magnetism, engineering materials, chemical spectroscopy, crystal structure, and elementary excitations, fundamental physics and development of neutron instrumentation through a combination of invited talks, contributed talks and poster sessions. As a super-user meeting, the ACNS fulfills the main objectives of users' meetings previously held periodically at individual national neutron facilities, with the advantage of a larger and more diverse audience. To this end, each of the major national neutron facilities (NIST, LANSCE, HFIR and SNS) have an opportunity to exchange information and update users, and potential users, of their facility. This is also an appropriate forum for users to raise issues that relate to the facilities. For many of the national facilities, this super-user meeting should obviate the need for separate user meetings that tax the time, energy and budgets of facility staff and the users alike, at least in years when the ACNS is held. We rely upon strong participation from the national facilities. The NSSA intends that the American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) will occur approximately every two years, but not in years that coincide with the International or European Conferences on Neutron Scattering. The ACNS is to be held in association with one of the national neutron centers in a rotating sequence, with the host facility providing local organization and planning assistance. Additional logistical support is being provided this year through a partnership with the conferencing office of the Materials Research Society (MRS). The ACNS, targeting the entire potential neutron North American user community, complements the annual NIST, ANL and LANSCE neutron and scattering schools which give hands-on experience primarily to graduate students who anticipate using neutron scattering in their thesis research. The summer schools are promoted at the ACNS and represent a natural path for students to take after being inspired by the activities of the ACNS.

  8. Superscaling in electron-nucleus scattering and its link to CC and NC QE neutrino-nucleus scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbaro, M. B.; Amaro, J. E.; Caballero, J. A.; González-Jiménez, R.; Donnelly, T. W.; Ivanov, M.; Udías, J. M.

    2015-05-15

    The superscaling approach (SuSA) to neutrino-nucleus scattering, based on the assumed universality of the scaling function for electromagnetic and weak interactions, is reviewed. The predictions of the SuSA model for bot CC and NC differential and total cross sections are presented and compared with the MiniBooNE data. The role of scaling violations, in particular the contribution of meson exchange currents in the two-particle two-hole sector, is explored.

  9. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braicovich, L. Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Le Tacon, M.; Moretti Sala, M.; Morawe, C.; Peffen, J.-Ch.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B.; Supruangnet, R.

    2014-11-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution soft-RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L{sub 3} edge on a high-T{sub c} superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the spectrometer equipped with this test facility was a factor 17.5. We propose also a more advanced version, suitable for a routine use on the next generation of RIXS spectrometers and with an overall efficiency up to 10%.

  10. Distributed Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Energy Distributed Energy Distributed energy consists of a range of smaller-scale and modular devices designed to provide electricity, and sometimes also thermal energy, in locations close to consumers. They include fossil and renewable energy technologies (e.g., photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines, microturbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells, combustion turbines, and steam turbines); energy storage devices (e.g., batteries and flywheels); and combined heat and power systems.

  11. Distribution of Clokey's Eggvetch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Anderson

    1998-12-01

    The Environment, Safety and Health Division of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office implements the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This program ensures compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, delineates and describes NTS ecosystems, and provides ecological information for predicting and evaluating potential impacts of proposed projects on those ecosystems. Over the last several decades, has taken an active role in providing information on the tatus of plant species proposed for protection under the Endangered Species Act(ESA). One such species is Clokey's eggvetch (Astragalus oophorus var. clokeyanus), which is a candidate species under the listing guidelines of the ESA. Surveys for this species were conducted on the NTS in 1996, 1997, and 1998. Field surveys focused on potential habitat for this species in the southern Belted range and expanded to other areas with similar habitat. Over 30 survey day s were completed; five survey days in 1996, 25 survey days in 1997, and three survey days in 1998. Clokey's eggvetch was located at several sites in the southern Belted Range. It was found through much of the northern section of Kawich Canyon, one site at the head of Gritty Gulch, and a rather extensive location in Lambs Canyon. It was also located further south at Captain Jack Springs in the Eleana Range, in much of Falcon Canyon and around Echo Peak on Pahute Mesa, and was also found in the Timber and Shoshone Mountains. Overall, the locations of Clokey's eggvetch on the NTS appears to form a distinct bridge between populations of the species located further north in the Belted and Kawich Ranges and the population located in the Spring Mountains. Clokey's eggvetch was commonly found along washes and small draws, and typically in sandy loam soils with a covering of light tuffaceous rock. It occurs primarily above 1830 meters (6000 feet) in association with single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla), Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata). Overall, the populations of Clokey's eggvetch on the NTS appear to be vigorous and do not appear threatened. It is estimated that there are approximately 2300 plants on the NTS. It should be considered as a species of concern because of its localized distribution, but it does not appear to warrant protection under the ESA.

  12. MODE CONVERSION BETWEEN DIFFERENT RADIAL ORDERS FOR SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES SCATTERED BY SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Hui; Chou, Dean-Yi

    2013-11-20

    We study the mode conversion between different radial orders for solar acoustic waves interacting with sunspots. Solar acoustic waves are modified in the presence of sunspots. The modification in the wave can be viewed as that the sunspot, excited by the incident wave, generates the scattered wave, and the scattered wave is added to the incident wave to form the total wave inside and around the sunspot. The wavefunction of the acoustic wave on the solar surface is computed from the cross-correlation function. The wavefunction of the scattered wave is obtained by subtracting the wavefunction of the incident wave from that of the total wave. We use the incident waves of radial order n = 0-5 to measure the scattered wavefunctions from n to another radial order n' for NOAAs 11084 and 11092. The strength of scattered waves decreases rapidly with |?n|, where ?n ? n' n. The scattered waves of ?n = 1 are visible for n ? 1, and significant for n ? 2. For the scattered wave of ?n = 2, only few cases are visible. None of the scattered waves of ?n = 3 are visible. The properties of scattered waves for ?n = 0 and ?n ? 0 are different. The scattered wave amplitude relative to the incident wave amplitude decreases with n for ?n = 0, while it increases with n for ?n ? 0. The scattered wave amplitudes of ?n = 0 are greater for the larger sunspot, while those of ?n ? 0 are insensitive to the sunspot size.

  13. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by NREL's Robert Evans at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  14. AGENDA: PETROLEUM PRODUCT TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The agenda for the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) public stakeholder meeting in New Orleans on petroleum product transmission, distribution, and storage.

  15. Distribution Drive | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Distribution Drive Place: Dallas, Texas Zip: 75205 Product: Biodiesel fuel distributor. Coordinates: 32.778155, -96.795404 Show Map Loading map......

  16. Singularities of Generalized Parton Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2012-05-14

    The basic ideas of the theory of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) are reviewed. Recent developments in the study of singularities of GPDs are discussed.

  17. Distributed Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    facility's anaerobic digesters. Photo from Kathryn Craddock, NREL 16710 Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve...

  18. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, A. C.

    2014-08-15

    This report describes the status of the U.S. distributed wind industry in 2013; its trends, performance, market drivers and future outlook.

  19. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes the status of the U.S. distributed wind market in 2013; its trends, performance, market drivers and future outlook.

  20. Ferroelectric nanoscale domains and the 905 K phase transition in SrSnO{sub 3}: A neutron total-scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, Andrew L.; Redfern, Simon A. T.; Dove, Martin T.; Keen, David A.; Tucker, Matthew G.

    2007-11-01

    The 905 K Pnma-Imma phase transition in SrSnO{sub 3} is studied here using a combination of variable-temperature neutron total scattering together with the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) refinement method. The real-space RMC configurations obtained are analyzed in terms of bond distance and bond-angle distributions, and a geometric algebra approach is used to quantify the associated octahedral-tilting distributions. What emerges from this analysis is that the transition is displacive in nature, in contrast to the results of a recent average-structure investigation in which an order-disorder model was proposed [E. H. Mountstevens et al., Phys. Rev. B 71, 220102(R) (2005)]. Three-dimensional diffuse scattering patterns calculated from the same RMC configurations reveal the existence of an additional disorder mechanism which persists across the Pnma-Imma transition. The ''reflection conditions'' of this diffuse scattering, together with displacement correlation calculations, point to the existence of ferroelectric nanoscale domains within the configurations, which are found to extend across planar regions of approximately 10-15 A ring in diameter.

  1. Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    current Coal Distribution Report Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 8, 2016 | Next Release Date: December 2016 | full report Archive Domestic coal distribution by ...

  2. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway Cost Distributions Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions Presentation on hydrogen pathway cost distributions presented January 25, 2006. PDF icon wkshpstorageuihlein.pdf...

  3. Articles about Distributed Wind | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Articles about Distributed Wind Articles about Distributed Wind Below are stories about distributed wind featured by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Program. October 1,...

  4. Distributed Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distributed Power Inc Place: Lime Rock, Connecticut Zip: 6039 Product: Focused on distributed generation power technology. References: Distributed Power Inc1 This article is a...

  5. Distributed Energy Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Distributed Energy Projects Distributed Energy Projects Distributed Energy Projects At the National Clean Energy Summit 8.0 in Nevada, President Obama announced that the Loan...

  6. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, David

    1997-01-01

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system.

  7. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, D.

    1997-03-18

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system. 6 figs.

  8. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE funded "Best Practices for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind" to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth).

  9. 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orell, A.; Foster, N.

    2015-08-01

    The cover of the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report.According to the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report, distributed wind reached a cumulative capacity of almost 1 GW (906 MW) in the United States in 2014, reflecting nearly 74,000 wind turbines deployed across all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. In total, 63.6 MW of new distributed wind capacity was added in 2014, representing nearly 1,700 units and $170 million in investment across 24 states. In 2014, America's distributed wind energy industry supported a growing domestic industrial base as exports from United States-based small wind turbine manufacturers accounted for nearly 80% of United States-based manufacturers' sales.

  10. Method for using polarization gating to measure a scattering sample

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baba, Justin S.

    2015-08-04

    Described herein are systems, devices, and methods facilitating optical characterization of scattering samples. A polarized optical beam can be directed to pass through a sample to be tested. The optical beam exiting the sample can then be analyzed to determine its degree of polarization, from which other properties of the sample can be determined. In some cases, an apparatus can include a source of an optical beam, an input polarizer, a sample, an output polarizer, and a photodetector. In some cases, a signal from a photodetector can be processed through attenuation, variable offset, and variable gain.

  11. Measurements of the {sup 6}He+p resonant scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Condori, R. Pampa; Lichtenthler, R.; Lpine-Szily, A.; Gasques, L. R.; Morais, M. C.; Scarduelli, V. B.; Leistenschneider, E.; Alcntara-Nez, J. A.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes Jr, D. R.; Pires, K. C. C.; Shorto, J. M. B.

    2014-11-11

    Measurements of the p({sup 6}He,p) elastic scattering excitation function have been performed in the RIBRAS system using a {sup 6}He secondary beam and a CH{sub 2} polyethylene thick target. The motivation is to observe states of the compound nucleus {sup 7}Li in the excitation energy range of E{sub exc}{sup 7Li}?=?10.8-11.8MeV, where the isobaric analog state of {sup 7}He ground state lies. Excitation functions have been obtained at three laboratory angles ?{sub lab} = 0, 20, and 25 which correspond to ?{sub c.m} = 180, 140, and 130.

  12. Electron muon scattering in the exotic Z(0)' pole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, H.; Ravinez, O.; Romero, D.; Reyes, J.

    2009-04-30

    The search for new physics in the future Internacional Linear Collider ILC, implies the existence of new particles, among them, the Z(0)' particle. In this regard, we calculate the e{sup +}+e{sup -}{yields}{mu}{sup +}+{mu}{sup -} scattering cross section near the Z(0)' pole, whitin the contex of the SU(3){sub L}xU(1){sub Y} weak model, which contains exotic leptons, quarks, and bosons (E,J,U,V) with the finality of obtain constraints in the parameters of the model.

  13. Resonant Inelastic Scattering Spectra of Free Molecules with Vibrational Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hennies, Franz; Pietzsch, Annette; Berglund, Martin; Foehlisch, Alexander; Schmitt, Thorsten; Strocov, Vladimir; Karlsson, Hans O.; Andersson, Joakim; Rubensson, Jan-Erik

    2010-05-14

    Inelastic x-ray scattering spectra excited at the 1s{sup -1{pi}}* resonance of gas phase O{sub 2} have been recorded with an overall energy resolution that allows for well-resolved vibrational progressions. The nuclear wave packet dynamics in the intermediate state is reflected in vibrational excitations of the electronic ground state, and by fine-tuning the excitation energy the dissociation dynamics in the predissociative B{sup '} {sup 3{Pi}}{sub g} final state is controlled.

  14. IN SITU SURFACE X-RAY SCATTERING STUDIES OF ELECTROSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WANG,J.X.; ADZIC,R.R.; OCKO,B.M.

    1998-07-01

    A short review of the application of surface x-ray scattering techniques to the electrode/electrolyte interfaces is presented. Recent results on metal, halide, and metal-halide adlayers with three specific systems: Bi on Au(100) and Au(110); Br on Au(100) and Ag(100); and the coadsorption of Tl with Br or I on Au(111), are given as an illustration. Factors affecting ordering of pure metal and halide adlayers and the metal-halide surface compounds are discussed in some detail.

  15. Analytical evaluation of atomic form factors: Application to Rayleigh scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safari, L.; Santos, J. P.; Amaro, P.; Jnkl, K.; Fratini, F.

    2015-05-15

    Atomic form factors are widely used for the characterization of targets and specimens, from crystallography to biology. By using recent mathematical results, here we derive an analytical expression for the atomic form factor within the independent particle model constructed from nonrelativistic screened hydrogenic wave functions. The range of validity of this analytical expression is checked by comparing the analytically obtained form factors with the ones obtained within the Hartee-Fock method. As an example, we apply our analytical expression for the atomic form factor to evaluate the differential cross section for Rayleigh scattering off neutral atoms.

  16. Event-Based Processing of Neutron Scattering Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Peter F.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Reuter, Michael A.; Taylor, Russell J.; Zikovsky, Janik L.

    2015-09-16

    Many of the world's time-of-flight spallation neutrons sources are migrating to the recording of individual neutron events. This provides for new opportunities in data processing, the least of which is to filter the events based on correlating them with logs of sample environment and other ancillary equipment. This paper will describe techniques for processing neutron scattering data acquired in event mode that preserve event information all the way to a final spectrum, including any necessary corrections or normalizations. This results in smaller final errors, while significantly reducing processing time and memory requirements in typical experiments. Results with traditional histogramming techniques will be shown for comparison.

  17. Probing Quark-Gluon Interactions with Transverse Polarized Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slifer, K.; Rondon, O. A.; Crabb, D.; Day, D.; Frlez, E.; Lindgren, R.; McKee, P.; Norum, B.; Pocanic, D.; Prok, Y.; Sawatzky, B.; Smith, C.; Tajima, S.; Wang, K.; Zeier, M.; Zhu, H.; Aghalaryan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Ahmidouch, A.

    2010-09-03

    We have extracted QCD matrix elements from our data on doubly polarized inelastic scattering of electrons on nuclei. We find the higher twist matrix element d{sub 2}-tilde, which arises strictly from quark-gluon interactions, to be unambiguously nonzero. The data also reveal an isospin dependence of higher twist effects if we assume that the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule is valid. The fundamental Bjorken sum rule obtained from the a{sub 0} matrix element is satisfied at our low momentum transfer.

  18. Distribution System Voltage Regulation by Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control method to regulate voltages in 3 phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems. A constrained optimization problem to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output is solved by harmony search algorithm. IEEE 13 Bus Distribution Test System was modified to test three different cases: a) only voltage regulator controlled system b) only DER controlled system and c) both voltage regulator and DER controlled system. The simulation results show that systems with both voltage regulators and DER control provide better voltage profile.

  19. The impact of absorption coefficient on polarimetric determination of Berry phase based depth resolved characterization of biomedical scattering samples: a polarized Monte Carlo investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baba, Justin S; Koju, Vijay; John, Dwayne O

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of the state of polarization of photons due to scatter generates associated geometric phase that is being investigated as a means for decreasing the degree of uncertainty in back-projecting the paths traversed by photons detected in backscattered geometry. In our previous work, we established that polarimetrically detected Berry phase correlates with the mean photon penetration depth of the backscattered photons collected for image formation. In this work, we report on the impact of state-of-linear-polarization (SOLP) filtering on both the magnitude and population distributions of image forming detected photons as a function of the absorption coefficient of the scattering sample. The results, based on Berry phase tracking implemented Polarized Monte Carlo Code, indicate that sample absorption plays a significant role in the mean depth attained by the image forming backscattered detected photons.

  20. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2010-12-15

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  1. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  2. Bi-directional dc-dc Converter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  3. Bi-directional dc-dc Converter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  4. Bi-Directional Fast Charging Study Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray

    2012-02-01

    This report details the hardware and software infrastructure needed to demonstrate the possibility of utilizing battery power in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) with a bi directional fast charger to support/offset peak building loads. This document fulfills deliverable requirements for Tasks 1.2.1.2, 1.2.1.3, and 1.2.1.4 of Statement of Work (SOW) No.5799 for Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, now ECOtality North America (NA) support for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  5. OH MASER SOURCES IN W49N: PROBING MAGNETIC FIELD AND DIFFERENTIAL ANISOTROPIC SCATTERING WITH ZEEMAN PAIRS USING THE VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshpande, Avinash A.; Goss, W. M.; Mendoza-Torres, J. E. E-mail: mgoss@aoc.nrao.edu

    2013-09-20

    Our analysis of a Very Long Baseline Array 12 hr synthesis observation of the OH masers in the well-known star-forming region W49N has yielded valuable data that enable us to probe distributions of magnetic fields in both the maser columns and the intervening interstellar medium (ISM). The data, consisting of detailed high angular resolution images (with beam width ?20 mas) of several dozen OH maser sources, or spots, at 1612, 1665, and 1667 MHz, reveal anisotropic scatter broadening with typical sizes of a few tens of milliarcseconds and axial ratios between 1.5 and 3. Such anisotropies have been reported previously by Desai et al. and have been interpreted as being induced by the local magnetic field parallel to the Galactic plane. However, we find (1) apparent angular sizes of, on average, a factor of about 2.5 less than those reported by Desai et al., indicating significantly less scattering than inferred previously, and (2) a significant deviation in the average orientation of the scatter-broadened images (by ?10) from that implied by the magnetic field in the Galactic plane. More intriguingly, for a few Zeeman pairs in our set, significant differences (up to 6?) are apparent in the scatter-broadened images for the two hands of circular polarization, even when the apparent velocity separation is less than 0.1 km s{sup 1}. This may possibly be the first example of a Faraday rotation contribution to the diffractive effects in the ISM. Using the Zeeman pairs, we also study the distribution of the magnetic field in the W49N complex, finding no significant trend in the spatial structure function. In this paper, we present the details of our observations and analysis leading to these findings, discuss implications of our results for the intervening anisotropic magneto-ionic medium, and suggest possible implications for the structure of magnetic fields within this star-forming region.

  6. Light scattering investigation of phase separation in a micelle system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcoxon, J.P.; Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.

    1993-12-31

    We report a real-time, two-dimensional light scattering study of the evolution of structure in a two component nonionic micelle system during phase separation via spinodal decomposition. Our principal finding is that domain growth proceeds much slower than the cube root of time prediction for simple binary fluids. In fact, the growth kinetics can be empirically described as a stretched exponential approach to a pinned domain size. Although the kinetics are not yet understood, this anomalous behavior may be due to the ability of the spherical micelles to reorganize into more complex structures. The domain structure also shows some anomalies. Although at short times the expected structure factor for a critical quench is observed, at long times the structure factor crosses over to the off-critical form. However, in all cases the average scattered intensity is proportional to the cube of the domain size. These findings are discussed in comparison to standard theories of and experimental work on binary fluids.

  7. Tailoring dielectric resonator geometries for directional scattering and Huygens metasurfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Campione, Salvatore; Basilio, Lorena I.; Warne, Larry K.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2015-01-28

    In this paper we describe a methodology for tailoring the design of metamaterial dielectric resonators, which represent a promising path toward low-loss metamaterials at optical frequencies. We first describe a procedure to decompose the far field scattered by subwavelength resonators in terms of multipolar field components, providing explicit expressions for the multipolar far fields. We apply this formulation to confirm that an isolated high-permittivity dielectric cube resonator possesses frequency separated electric and magnetic dipole resonances, as well as a magnetic quadrupole resonance in close proximity to the electric dipole resonance. We then introduce multiple dielectric gaps to the resonator geometrymorein a manner suggested by perturbation theory, and demonstrate the ability to overlap the electric and magnetic dipole resonances, thereby enabling directional scattering by satisfying the first Kerker condition. We further demonstrate the ability to push the quadrupole resonance away from the degenerate dipole resonances to achieve local behavior. These properties are confirmed through the multipolar expansion and show that the use of geometries suggested by perturbation theory is a viable route to achieve purely dipole resonances for metamaterial applications such as wave-front manipulation with Huygens metasurfaces. Our results are fully scalable across any frequency bands where high-permittivity dielectric materials are available, including microwave, THz, and infrared frequencies.less

  8. Azimuthal angle dependence of di-jet production in unpolarized hadron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Zhun; Schmidt, Ivan [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile) and Center of Subatomic Physics, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2009-08-04

    We study the azimuthal asymmetry of back-to-back di-jet production in unpolarized hadron scattering, arising from the product of two Boer-Mulders functions, which describe the transverse spin distribution of quarks inside an unpolarized hadron. We find that there is a cos {delta}{phi} angular dependence of the di-jet, with {delta}{phi} the difference of the azimuthal angle of tow jets respectively. In the case of J{sub q}+J{sub q} production, we find that there is a color factor enhancement in the gluonic cross-section due to the multiple initial-/final-state interactions, compared with the result from the standard generalized parton model. We estimate the cos {delta}{phi} asymmetry of the total di-jet production at RHIC, showing that the color factor enhancement in the azimuthal asymmetric cross section of J{sub q}+J{sub q} production will reverse the sign of the asymmetry.

  9. Comparison of Raman Scattering Measurements and Modeling in NIF Ignition Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strozzi, D J; Hinkel, D E; Williams, E A; Town, R J; Michel, P A; Divol, L; Berger, R L; Moody, J D

    2011-11-04

    Recent NIF indirect-drive experiments have shown significant Raman scattering from the inner beams. NIF data has motivated improvements to rad-hydro modeling, leading to the 'high flux model' [M. D. Rosen et al., HEDP 7, 180 (2011)]. Cross-beam energy transfer [P. A. Michel et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056305 (2010] in the laser entrance hole is an important tool for achieving round implosions, and is uniformly distributed across the laser spot in rad-hydro simulations (but not necessarily in experiments). We find the Raman linear gain spectra computed with these plasma conditions agree well in time-dependent peak wavelength with the measured data, especially when overlapping laser-beam intensities are used. More detailed, spatially non-uniform modeling of the cross-beam transfer has been performed. The resulting gains better follow the time history of the measured backscatter. We shall present the impact of spatially non-uniform energy transfer on SRS gain. This metric is valid when amplification is in a linear regime, and so we shall also present an assessment of whether electron trapping in Langmuir waves can play a role in these shots.

  10. Cross section measurements for quasi-elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering with the MINOS near detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorman, Mark Edward; /University Coll. London

    2008-04-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Chicago, Illinois. MINOS measures neutrino interactions in two large iron-scintillator tracking/sampling calorimeters; the Near Detector on-site at FNAL and the Far Detector located in the Soudan mine in northern Minnesota. The Near Detector has recorded a large number of neutrino interactions and this high statistics dataset can be used to make precision measurements of neutrino interaction cross sections. The cross section for charged-current quasi-elastic scattering has been measured by a number of previous experiments and these measurements disagree by up to 30%. A method to select a quasi-elastic enriched sample of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Near Detector is presented and a procedure to fit the kinematic distributions of this sample and extract the quasi-elastic cross section is introduced. The accuracy and robustness of the fitting procedure is studied using mock data and finally results from fits to the MINOS Near Detector data are presented.

  11. The Synergy Between Total Scattering and Advanced Simulation Techniques: Quantifying Geopolymer Gel Evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Claire; Bloomer, Breaunnah E.; Provis, John L.; Henson, Neil J.; Page, Katharine L.

    2012-05-16

    With the ever increasing demands for technologically advanced structural materials, together with emerging environmental consciousness due to climate change, geopolymer cement is fast becoming a viable alternative to traditional cements due to proven mechanical engineering characteristics and the reduction in CO2 emitted (approximately 80% less CO2 emitted compared to ordinary Portland cement). Nevertheless, much remains unknown regarding the kinetics of the molecular changes responsible for nanostructural evolution during the geopolymerization process. Here, in-situ total scattering measurements in the form of X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) analysis are used to quantify the extent of reaction of metakaolin/slag alkali-activated geopolymer binders, including the effects of various activators (alkali hydroxide/silicate) on the kinetics of the geopolymerization reaction. Restricting quantification of the kinetics to the initial ten hours of reaction does not enable elucidation of the true extent of the reaction, but using X-ray PDF data obtained after 128 days of reaction enables more accurate determination of the initial extent of reaction. The synergies between the in-situ X-ray PDF data and simulations conducted by multiscale density functional theory-based coarse-grained Monte Carlo analysis are outlined, particularly with regard to the potential for the X-ray data to provide a time scale for kinetic analysis of the extent of reaction obtained from the multiscale simulation methodology.

  12. Improved Collective Thomson Scattering measurements of fast ions at ASDEX upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, S. K.; Stejner, M.; Salewski, M.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Schubert, M.; Stober, J.; Tardini, G.; Wagner, D.; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-08-21

    Understanding the behaviour of the confined fast ions is important in both current and future fusion experiments. These ions play a key role in heating the plasma and will be crucial for achieving conditions for burning plasma in next-step fusion devices. Microwave-based Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) is well suited for reactor conditions and offers such an opportunity by providing measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. We currently operate a CTS system at ASDEX Upgrade using a gyrotron which generates probing radiation at 105 GHz. A new setup using two independent receiver systems has enabled improved subtraction of the background signal, and hence the first accurate characterization of fast-ion properties. Here we review this new dual-receiver CTS setup and present results on fast-ion measurements based on the improved background characterization. These results have been obtained both with and without NBI heating, and with the measurement volume located close to the centre of the plasma. The measurements agree quantitatively with predictions of numerical simulations. Hence, CTS studies of fast-ion dynamics at ASDEX Upgrade are now feasible. The new background subtraction technique could be important for the design of CTS systems in other fusion experiments.

  13. A high-efficiency spin-resolved photoemission spectrometer combining time-of-flight spectroscopy with exchange-scattering polarimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jozwiak, Chris M.; Graff, Jeff; Lebedev, Gennadi; Andresen, Nord; Schmid, Andreas; Fedorov, Alexei; El Gabaly, Farid; Wan, Weishi; Lanzara, Alessandra; Hussain, Zahid

    2010-04-13

    We describe a spin-resolved electron spectrometer capable of uniquely efficient and high energy resolution measurements. Spin analysis is obtained through polarimetry based on low-energy exchange scattering from a ferromagnetic thin-film target. This approach can achieve a similar analyzing power (Sherman function) as state-of-the-art Mott scattering polarimeters, but with as much as 100 times improved efficiency due to increased reflectivity. Performance is further enhanced by integrating the polarimeter into a time-of-flight (TOF) based energy analysis scheme with a precise and flexible electrostatic lens system. The parallel acquisition of a range of electron kinetic energies afforded by the TOF approach results in an order of magnitude (or more) increase in efficiency compared to hemispherical analyzers. The lens system additionally features a 90 degrees bandpass filter, which by removing unwanted parts of the photoelectron distribution allows the TOF technique to be performed at low electron drift energy and high energy resolution within a wide range of experimental parameters. The spectrometer is ideally suited for high-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES), and initial results are shown. The TOF approach makes the spectrometer especially ideal for time-resolved spin-ARPES experiments.

  14. A scaler-based data acquisition system for measuring parity-violating asymmetry in deep inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subedi, Ramesh R.; Wang, Diancheng; Pan, Kai; Deng, Xiaoyan; Michaels, Robert W.; Shahinyan, Albert; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.; Zheng, Xiaochao

    2013-10-01

    An experiment that measured the parity violating asymmetries in deep inelastic scattering was completed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in experimental Hall A. From these asymmetries, a combination of the quark weak axial charge could be extracted with a factor of five improvement in precision over world data. To achieve this, asymmetries at the 10^-4 level needed to be measured at event rates up to 500 kHz and the high pion background typical to deep inelastic scattering experiments needed to be rejected efficiently. A specialized data acquisition (DAQ) system with intrinsic particle identification (PID) was successfully developed and used: The pion contamination in the electron samples was controlled at the order of 2 10^-4 or below with an electron efficiency of higher than 91% throughout the production period of the experiment, the systematic uncertainty in the measured asymmetry due to DAQ deadtime was below 0.2%, and the statistical quality of the asymmetry measurement agreed with the Gaussian distribution to over five orders of magnitudes. The DAQ system is presented here with an emphasis on its design scheme, the achieved PID performance, deadtime effect and the capability of measuring small asymmetries.

  15. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, Alice C.; Rhoads-Weaver, H. E.; Flowers, Larry T.; Gagne, Matthew N.; Pro, Boyd H.; Foster, Nikolas AF

    2014-08-20

    The purpose of this report is to quantify and summarize the 2013 U.S. distributed wind market to help plan and guide future investments and decisions by industry stakeholders, utilities, state and federal agencies, and other interested parties.

  16. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming R. Evans, S. Czernik, R. French, M. Ratcliff National ... GAS 7 BIOMASS BIO-OIL CHAR For reactor or export Gas recycle For fluidization or export ...

  17. Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu

    2016-04-05

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.

  18. A brief History of Neutron Scattering at the Oak Ridge High Flux Isotope

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactor (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A brief History of Neutron Scattering at the Oak Ridge High Flux Isotope Reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A brief History of Neutron Scattering at the Oak Ridge High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron scattering at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory dates back to 1945 when Ernest Wollan installed a modified x-ray diffractometer on a beam port of the original graphite reactor. Subsequently, Wollan and Clifford Shull pioneered neutron

  19. Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    double-beta decay experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Inelastic neutron scattering on Pb isotopes can result in {gamma} rays near the signature endpoint energy in a number of

  20. Inter-atomic force constants of BaF{sub 2} by diffuse neutron scattering measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakuma, Takashi Makhsun,; Sakai, Ryutaro; Xianglian; Takahashi, Haruyuki; Basar, Khairul; Igawa, Naoki; Danilkin, Sergey A.

    2015-04-16

    Diffuse neutron scattering measurement on BaF{sub 2} crystals was performed at 10?K and 295?K. Oscillatory form in the diffuse scattering intensity of BaF{sub 2} was observed at 295?K. The correlation effects among thermal displacements of F-F atoms were obtained from the analysis of oscillatory diffuse scattering intensity. The force constants among neighboring atoms in BaF{sub 2} were determined and compared to those in ionic crystals and semiconductors.