National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for bidirectional scattering distribution

  1. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

    2011-01-21

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  2. Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.K.

    1988-06-17

    The interaction of light and matter define what we see. This interaction can be characterized by a function which relates incoming light to the distribution of outgoing or reflected light. The Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function (BRDF) is just such a function. Computer graphics scientists attempting to model this function have made simplifying assumptions about the reflecting surfaces. These simpler models have produced adequate results but only handle very uniform or isotropic surface characteristics. Reality on the other hand is filled with a variety of surface textures which result in a variety of BRDFs. This thesis broadens the class of BRDFs which can be used in computer graphics to render objects more realistically. It presents two enhancements to previous work done by the author. First, it describes a method for the approximation of surface absorption of light through the use of a computed geometric attentuation factor. This factor is computed by calculating the parts of the surface which are visible in the incident and reflecting directions. Specifically, it describes the algorithms and theory behind the visibility calculations and how it affects the reflection properties of the surface. Second, it describes a method for computing Fresnel's Law for conducting and dielectric surface materials and how Fresnel's Law affects surface reflectivity. This work also presents a method for rendering objects using the computed BRDFs. 38 refs., 29 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. WPEC subgroup 35 ""scattering angular distribution in the fast...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    WPEC subgroup 35 ""scattering angular distribution in the fast energy range"" status report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: WPEC subgroup 35 ""scattering angular...

  4. Bimodal Energy Distributions in the Scattering of Ar+ Ions from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bimodal Energy Distributions in the Scattering of Ar+ Ions from Modified Surfaces at Hyperthermal Energies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bimodal Energy Distributions ...

  5. Distributions of off-diagonal scattering matrix elements: Exact results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nock, A. Kumar, S. Sommers, H.-J. Guhr, T.

    2014-03-15

    Scattering is a ubiquitous phenomenon which is observed in a variety of physical systems which span a wide range of length scales. The scattering matrix is the key quantity which provides a complete description of the scattering process. The universal features of scattering in chaotic systems is most generally modeled by the Heidelberg approach which introduces stochasticity to the scattering matrix at the level of the Hamiltonian describing the scattering center. The statistics of the scattering matrix is obtained by averaging over the ensemble of random Hamiltonians of appropriate symmetry. We derive exact results for the distributions of the real and imaginary parts of the off-diagonal scattering matrix elements applicable to orthogonally-invariant and unitarily-invariant Hamiltonians, thereby solving a long standing problem. -- Highlights: •Scattering problem in complex or chaotic systems. •Heidelberg approach to model the chaotic nature of the scattering center. •A novel route to the nonlinear sigma model based on the characteristic function. •Exact results for the distributions of off-diagonal scattering-matrix elements. •Universal aspects of the scattering-matrix fluctuations.

  6. Effects of graded distribution of scattering centers on ballistic transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitran, T. L.; Nemnes, G. A.; Ion, L.; Dragoman, Daniela

    2014-09-28

    The transmission coefficient of a two dimensional scattering region connected to ideal leads was calculated for the case of electrons interacting with an inhomogeneous distribution of repulsive or attractive scattering centers. The scattering centers with Gaussian profiles were positioned at regular intervals perpendicular to the transport direction, but were spaced according to a power law along this direction. The transmission function was obtained using a scattering formalism based on the R-matrix method. The simulations revealed that although, overall, the transmission coefficient decreases and becomes almost monotonously dependent on energy as the inhomogeneity of both attractive and repulsive scattering centers increases, the redistribution of transmission between open channels depends on the type of scattering centers.

  7. Bidirectional amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, J.T.

    1984-02-02

    A bilateral circuit is operable for transmitting signals in two directions without generation of ringing due to feedback caused by the insertion of the circuit. The circuit may include gain for each of the signals to provide a bidirectional amplifier. The signals are passed through two separate paths, with a unidirectional amplifier in each path. A controlled sampling device is provided in each path for sampling the two signals. Any feedback loop between the two signals is disrupted by providing a phase displacement between the control signals for the two sampling devices.

  8. Bidirectional amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, James T.

    1986-01-01

    A bilateral circuit is operable for transmitting signals in two directions without generation of ringing due to feedback caused by the insertion of the circuit. The circuit may include gain for each of the signals to provide a bidirectional amplifier. The signals are passed through two separate paths, with a unidirectional amplifier in each path. A controlled sampling device is provided in each path for sampling the two signals. Any feedback loop between the two signals is disrupted by providing a phase displacement between the control signals for the two sampling devices.

  9. Barrier distribution of quasi-elastic backward scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitsuoka, S.; Ikezoe, H.; Nishio, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Jeong, S. C.; Ishiyama, H.; Hirayama, Y.; Imai, N.; Miyatake, H.

    2009-05-04

    In order to study the nucleus-nucleus interaction in Pb-based cold fusion, we have measured excitation functions for quasi-elastic scattering of {sup 48}Ti, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 86}Kr projectiles on {sup 208}Pb target at backward angles. The barrier distributions were derived from the first derivative of measured quasi-elastic scattering cross sections relative to the Rutherford scattering cross section. The centroids of the barrier distributions show a deviation from several predicted barrier heights toward the low energy side. The shape of the barrier distributions is well reproduced by the results of a coupled-channel calculation taking account of the coupling effects of two phonon excitations of the quadrupole vibration for the projectiles and of the octupole vibration for the {sup 208}Pb target.

  10. Generalized parton distributions from deep virtual compton scattering at CLAS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guidal, M.

    2010-04-24

    Here, we have analyzed the beam spin asymmetry and the longitudinally polarized target spin asymmetry of the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process, recently measured by the Jefferson Lab CLAS collaboration. Our aim is to extract information about the Generalized Parton Distributions of the proton. By fitting these data, in a largely model-independent procedure, we are able to extract numerical values for the two Compton Form Factorsmore » $$H_{Im}$$ and $$\\tilde{H}_{Im}$$ with uncertainties, in average, of the order of 30%.« less

  11. Polarization of photons scattered by electrons in any spectral distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Jiang, Yunguo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the quantum electrodynamics, we present a generic formalism of the polarization for beamed monochromatic photons scattered by electrons in any spectral distribution. The formulae reduce to the components of the Fano matrix when electrons are at rest. We mainly investigate the polarization in three scenarios, i.e., electrons at rest, isotropic electrons with a power-law spectrum, and thermal electrons. If the incident beam is polarized, the polarization is reduced significantly by isotropic electrons at large viewing angles; the degree of polarization caused by thermal electrons is about half of that caused by power-law electrons. If the incident bean is unpolarized, soft ?-rays can lead to about 15% polarization at viewing angles around ?/4. For isotropic electrons, one remarkable feature is that the polarization as a function of the incident photon energy always peaks roughly at 1 MeV; this is valid for both the thermal and power-law cases. This feature can be used to distinguish the model of the inverse Compton scattering from that of the synchrotron radiation.

  12. Bidirectional reflectivity of mirrors in solar power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khrustalyov, B.A.; Ragimov, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a technique for measuring the bidirectional reflectivity of mirrors is presented. An experimental setup is described which allows one to measure the reflecting characteristics at small angles of scattering. These reflectivities are approximated by an exponential relation.

  13. Effect of particle nonsphericity on bidirectional reflectance of cirrus clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishchenko, M.I.; Rossow, W.B.; Macke, A.; Lacis, A.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the use of the fractal ice particle method to study the differences in bidirectional reflectance caused by the differences in the single scattering phase functions of spherical water droplets and nonspherical ice crystals.

  14. Spatial frequency spectrum of the x-ray scatter distribution in CBCT projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bootsma, G. J.; Verhaegen, F.; Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 ; Jaffray, D. A.; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9; Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: X-ray scatter is a source of significant image quality loss in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The use of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations separating primary and scattered photons has allowed the structure and nature of the scatter distribution in CBCT to become better elucidated. This work seeks to quantify the structure and determine a suitable basis function for the scatter distribution by examining its spectral components using Fourier analysis.Methods: The scatter distribution projection data were simulated using a CBCT MC model based on the EGSnrc code. CBCT projection data, with separated primary and scatter signal, were generated for a 30.6 cm diameter water cylinder [single angle projection with varying axis-to-detector distance (ADD) and bowtie filters] and two anthropomorphic phantoms (head and pelvis, 360 projections sampled every 1°, with and without a compensator). The Fourier transform of the resulting scatter distributions was computed and analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. A novel metric called the scatter frequency width (SFW) is introduced to determine the scatter distribution's frequency content. The frequency content results are used to determine a set basis functions, consisting of low-frequency sine and cosine functions, to fit and denoise the scatter distribution generated from MC simulations using a reduced number of photons and projections. The signal recovery is implemented using Fourier filtering (low-pass Butterworth filter) and interpolation. Estimates of the scatter distribution are used to correct and reconstruct simulated projections.Results: The spatial and angular frequencies are contained within a maximum frequency of 0.1 cm{sup ?1} and 7/(2?) rad{sup ?1} for the imaging scenarios examined, with these values varying depending on the object and imaging setup (e.g., ADD and compensator). These data indicate spatial and angular sampling every 5 cm and ?/7 rad (?25°) can be used to properly capture the scatter

  15. Bidirectional reflection functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.; Max, N.; Springmeyer, R.

    1987-04-29

    The Torrance-Sparrow model for calculating bidirectional reflection functions contains a geometrical attenuation factor to account for shadowing and occlusions in a hypothetical distribution of grooves on a rough surface. Using an efficient table-based method for determining the shadows and occlusions, we calculate the geometric attenuation factor for surfaces defined by a specific table of bump heights. Diffuse and glossy specular reflection of the environment can be handled in a unified manner by using an integral of the bidirectional reflection function times the environmental illumination, over the hemisphere of solid angle above a surface. We present a method of estimating the integral, by expanding the bidirectional reflection coefficient in spherical harmonics, and show how the coefficients in this expansion can be determined efficiently by reorganizing our geometric attenuation calculation.

  16. Bidirectional slapper detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCormick, Robert N.; Boyd, Melissa D.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a bidirectional slapper detonator. One embodiment utilizes a single bridge circuit to detonate a pair of opposing initiating pellets. A line generator embodiment uses a plurality of bridges in electrical series to generate opposing cylindrical wavefronts.

  17. Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Print When a crystalline sample is illuminated with x-rays, the x-rays are scattered (diffracted) into very specific directions with various intensities. Detectors are used to measure this "diffraction pattern," which is then processed by computers to deduce the arrangement of atoms within the crystal. Hard x-rays have wavelengths comparable to the distance between atoms. Essentially everything we know about the atomic structure of materials is based on results from x-ray

  18. Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Print When a crystalline sample is illuminated with x-rays, the x-rays are scattered (diffracted) into very specific directions with various intensities. Detectors are used to measure this "diffraction pattern," which is then processed by computers to deduce the arrangement of atoms within the crystal. Hard x-rays have wavelengths comparable to the distance between atoms. Essentially everything we know about the atomic structure of materials is based on results from x-ray

  19. Second order classical perturbation theory for atom surface scattering: Analysis of asymmetry in the angular distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yun Pollak, Eli; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2014-01-14

    A second order classical perturbation theory is developed and applied to elastic atom corrugated surface scattering. The resulting theory accounts for experimentally observed asymmetry in the final angular distributions. These include qualitative features, such as reduction of the asymmetry in the intensity of the rainbow peaks with increased incidence energy as well as the asymmetry in the location of the rainbow peaks with respect to the specular scattering angle. The theory is especially applicable to “soft” corrugated potentials. Expressions for the angular distribution are derived for the exponential repulsive and Morse potential models. The theory is implemented numerically to a simplified model of the scattering of an Ar atom from a LiF(100) surface.

  20. High-energy Electron Scattering and the Charge Distributions of Selected Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Hahn, B.; Ravenhall, D. G.; Hofstadter, R.

    1955-10-01

    Experimental results are presented of electron scattering by Ca, V, Co, In, Sb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Bi, Th, and U, at 183 Mev and (for some of the elements) at 153 Mev. For those nuclei for which asphericity and inelastic scattering are absent or unimportant, i.e., Ca, V, Co, In, Sb, Au, and Bi, a partial wave analysis of the Dirac equation has been performed in which the nuclei are represented by static, spherically symmetric charge distributions. Smoothed uniform charge distributions have been assumed; these are characterized by a constant charge density in the central region of the nucleus, with a smoothed-our surface. Essentially two parameters can be determined, related to the radium and to the surface thickness. An examination of the Au experiments show that the functional forms of the surface are not important, and that the charge density in the central regions is probably fairly flat, although it cannot be determined very accurately.

  1. Time evolution analysis of the electron distribution in Thomson/Compton back-scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Curatolo, C.; Maroli, C.; Serafini, L.; Rossi, A. R.

    2013-07-28

    We present the time evolution of the energy distribution of a relativistic electron beam after the Compton back-scattering with a counter-propagating laser field, performed in the framework of the Quantum Electrodynamics, by means of the code CAIN. As the correct angular distribution of the spontaneous emission is accounted, the main effect is the formation of few stripes, followed by the diffusion of the more energetic particles toward lower values in the longitudinal phase space. The Chapman-Kolmogorov master equation gives results in striking agreement with the numerical ones. An experiment on the Thomson source at SPARC-LAB is proposed.

  2. Bidirectional buck boost converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esser, A.A.M.

    1998-03-31

    A bidirectional buck boost converter and method of operating the same allows regulation of power flow between first and second voltage sources in which the voltage level at each source is subject to change and power flow is independent of relative voltage levels. In one embodiment, the converter is designed for hard switching while another embodiment implements soft switching of the switching devices. In both embodiments, first and second switching devices are serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a first voltage source with third and fourth switching devices serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a second voltage source. A free-wheeling diode is coupled, respectively, in parallel opposition with respective ones of the switching devices. An inductor is coupled between a junction of the first and second switching devices and a junction of the third and fourth switching devices. Gating pulses supplied by a gating circuit selectively enable operation of the switching devices for transferring power between the voltage sources. In the second embodiment, each switching device is shunted by a capacitor and the switching devices are operated when voltage across the device is substantially zero. 20 figs.

  3. Bidirectional buck boost converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esser, Albert Andreas Maria

    1998-03-31

    A bidirectional buck boost converter and method of operating the same allows regulation of power flow between first and second voltage sources in which the voltage level at each source is subject to change and power flow is independent of relative voltage levels. In one embodiment, the converter is designed for hard switching while another embodiment implements soft switching of the switching devices. In both embodiments, first and second switching devices are serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a first voltage source with third and fourth switching devices serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a second voltage source. A free-wheeling diode is coupled, respectively, in parallel opposition with respective ones of the switching devices. An inductor is coupled between a junction of the first and second switching devices and a junction of the third and fourth switching devices. Gating pulses supplied by a gating circuit selectively enable operation of the switching devices for transferring power between the voltage sources. In the second embodiment, each switching device is shunted by a capacitor and the switching devices are operated when voltage across the device is substantially zero.

  4. Total Scattering and Pair Distribution Function Analysis in Modelling Disorder in PZN

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Whitfield, Ross E.; Goossens, Darren J; Welberry, T. R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of total scattering (TS) from a powder to determine the local ordering in ferroelectric PZN (PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3) has been explored by comparison with a model established using single-crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS). While X-ray PDF analysis is discussed, the focus is on neutron diffraction results because of the greater extent of the data and the sensitivity of the neutron to oxygen atoms, the behaviour of which is important in PZN. The PDF was shown to be sensitive to many effects not apparent in the average crystal structure, including variations in the B-site—O separationmore » distances and the fact that (110) Pb2+ displacements are most likely. A qualitative comparison between SCDS and the PDF shows that some features apparent in SCDS were not apparent in the PDF. These tended to pertain to short-range correlations in the structure, rather than to interatomic separations. For example, in SCDS the short-range alternation of the B-site cations was quite apparent in diffuse scattering at (Âœ Âœ Âœ), whereas it was not apparent in the PDF.« less

  5. Total Scattering and Pair Distribution Function Analysis in Modelling Disorder in PZN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, Ross E.; Goossens, Darren J; Welberry, T. R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of total scattering (TS) from a powder to determine the local ordering in ferroelectric PZN (PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3) has been explored by comparison with a model established using single-crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS). While X-ray PDF analysis is discussed, the focus is on neutron diffraction results because of the greater extent of the data and the sensitivity of the neutron to oxygen atoms, the behaviour of which is important in PZN. The PDF was shown to be sensitive to many effects not apparent in the average crystal structure, including variations in the B-site—O separation distances and the fact that (110) Pb2+ displacements are most likely. A qualitative comparison between SCDS and the PDF shows that some features apparent in SCDS were not apparent in the PDF. These tended to pertain to short-range correlations in the structure, rather than to interatomic separations. For example, in SCDS the short-range alternation of the B-site cations was quite apparent in diffuse scattering at (Âœ Âœ Âœ), whereas it was not apparent in the PDF.

  6. Frequency locking and monitoring based on Bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    van Marrewijk, N.; Mirzaei, B.; Hayton, D.; Gao, J. R.; Kao, T. Y.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.

    2015-10-07

    In this study, we have performed frequency locking of a dual, forward reverse emitting third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 3.5 THz. By using both directions of THz emission in combination with two gas cells and two power detectors, we can for the first time perform frequency stabilization, while monitor the frequency locking quality independently. We also characterize how the use of a less sensitive pyroelectric detector can influence the quality of frequency locking, illustrating experimentally that the sensitivity of the detectors is crucial. Using both directions of terahertz (THz) radiation has a particular advantage for the applicationmore » of a QCL as a local oscillator, where radiation from one side can be used for frequency/phase stabilization, leaving the other side to be fully utilized as a local oscillator to pump a mixer.« less

  7. Frequency locking and monitoring based on Bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Marrewijk, N.; Mirzaei, B.; Hayton, D.; Gao, J. R.; Kao, T. Y.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.

    2015-10-07

    In this study, we have performed frequency locking of a dual, forward reverse emitting third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 3.5 THz. By using both directions of THz emission in combination with two gas cells and two power detectors, we can for the first time perform frequency stabilization, while monitor the frequency locking quality independently. We also characterize how the use of a less sensitive pyroelectric detector can influence the quality of frequency locking, illustrating experimentally that the sensitivity of the detectors is crucial. Using both directions of terahertz (THz) radiation has a particular advantage for the application of a QCL as a local oscillator, where radiation from one side can be used for frequency/phase stabilization, leaving the other side to be fully utilized as a local oscillator to pump a mixer.

  8. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering data and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.

  9. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering datamore » and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.« less

  10. AVTA: Bidirectional Fast Charging Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report is an analysis of bi-directional fast charging, as informed by the AVTA's testing on plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  11. Unpolarised TMD Distribution and Fragmentation Functions from recent HERMES and COMPASS Semi-inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering Multiplicities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prokudin, Alexey; Anselmino, Mauro; Boglione, Mariaelena; Melis, Stefano; Gonzalez, J. O.

    2014-10-01

    The unpolarised transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions (TMDs) are extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experimental measurements of semi- inclusive deep inelastic scattering multiplicities for charged hadron production. A simple factorised functional form of the TMDs is adopted, with a Gaussian dependence on the intrinsic transverse momentum, which turns out to be quite adequate in shape.

  12. On-the-fly generation of differential resonance scattering probability distribution functions for Monte Carlo codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunny, E. E.; Martin, W. R. [University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Current Monte Carlo codes use one of three models to model neutron scattering in the epithermal energy range: (1) the asymptotic scattering model, (2) the free gas scattering model, or (3) the S({alpha},{beta}) model, depending on the neutron energy and the specific Monte Carlo code. The free gas scattering model assumes the scattering cross section is constant over the neutron energy range, which is usually a good approximation for light nuclei, but not for heavy nuclei where the scattering cross section may have several resonances in the epithermal region. Several researchers in the field have shown that using the free gas scattering model in the vicinity of the resonances in the lower epithermal range can under-predict resonance absorption due to the up-scattering phenomenon. Existing methods all involve performing the collision analysis in the center-of-mass frame, followed by a conversion back to the laboratory frame. In this paper, we will present a new sampling methodology that (1) accounts for the energy-dependent scattering cross sections in the collision analysis and (2) acts in the laboratory frame, avoiding the conversion to the center-of-mass frame. The energy dependence of the scattering cross section was modeled with even-ordered polynomials to approximate the scattering cross section in Blackshaw's equations for the moments of the differential scattering PDFs. These moments were used to sample the outgoing neutron speed and angle in the laboratory frame on-the-fly during the random walk of the neutron. Results for criticality studies on fuel pin and fuel assembly calculations using these methods showed very close comparison to results using the reference Doppler-broadened rejection correction (DBRC) scheme. (authors)

  13. Nonlinear Raman forward scattering driven by a short laser pulse in a collisional transversely magnetized plasma with nonextensive distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, Hui-Bin; Song, Hai-Ying; Liu, Shi-Bing

    2015-09-15

    Nonlinear Raman forward scattering of an intense short laser pulse with a duration shorter than the plasma period propagating through a homogenous collisional nonextensive distributed plasma in the presence of a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to both the direction of propagation and electric vector of the radiation field is investigated theoretically when ponderomotive, relativistic, and collisional nonlinearities are taken into account. The governing equations for nonlinear wave in the context of nonextensive statistics are given, the nonextensive coupled equations describing the nonlinear Raman forward scattering instability are solved by the Fourier transformation method, and the growth rate of the nonlinear Raman forward scattering instability is obtained. The results in the case q → 1 are consistent with those in the framework of the Maxwellian distribution. It is found that the instability growth rate first decreases on increasing electron thermal velocity, minimizes at a critical thermal velocity, and then increases steeply; the critical temperature dependents on the nonextensive parameter, and the greater nonextensive parameter, correspond to the greater critical temperature; when the thermal velocity of electron is less than the critical speed, the instability growth rate is found to be enhanced as the nonextensive parameter increases; but when the thermal velocity is greater than the critical speed, the instability growth rate decreases on increasing the nonextensive parameter.

  14. A Multiscale Bidirectional Coupling Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kabilan, Senthil; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Hlastala, Michael P.; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2011-12-01

    The lung is geometrically articulated across multiple scales from the trachea to the alveoli. A major computational challenge is to tightly link ODEs that describe lower scales to 3D finite element or finite volume models of airway mechanics using iterative communication between scales. In this study, we developed a novel multiscale computational framework for bidirectionally coupling 3D CFD models and systems of lower order ODEs. To validate the coupling framework, a four and eight generation Weibel lung model was constructed. For the coupled CFD-ODE simulations, the lung models were truncated at different generations and a RL circuit represented the truncated portion. The flow characteristics from the coupled models were compared to untruncated full 3D CFD models at peak inhalation and peak exhalation. Results showed that at no time or simulation was the difference in mass flux and/or pressure at a given location between uncoupled and coupled models was greater than 2.43%. The flow characteristics at prime locations for the coupled models showed good agreement to uncoupled models. Remarkably, due to reuse of the Krylov subspace, the cost of the ODE coupling is not much greater than uncoupled full 3D-CFD computations with simple prescribed pressure values at the outlets.

  15. Systems and methods for bi-directional energy delivery with galvanic isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kajouke, Lateef A.

    2013-06-18

    Systems and methods are provided for bi-directional energy delivery. A charging system comprises a first bi-directional conversion module, a second bi-directional conversion module, and an isolation module coupled between the first bi-directional conversion module and the second bi-directional conversion module. The isolation module provides galvanic isolation between the first bi-directional conversion module and the second bi-directional conversion module.

  16. Bi-directional planar slide mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, Lothar F.

    2003-11-04

    A bi-directional slide mechanism. A pair of master and slave disks engages opposite sides of the platform. Rotational drivers are connected to master disks so the disks rotate eccentrically about their respective axes of rotation. Opposing slave disks are connected to master disks on opposite sides of the platform by a circuitous mechanical linkage, or are electronically synchronized together using stepper motors, to effect coordinated motion. The synchronized eccentric motion of the pairs of master/slave disks compels smooth linear motion of the platform forwards and backwards without backlash. The apparatus can be incorporated in a MEMS device.

  17. Peculiarities of the angular distribution of laser radiation intensity scattered by laser-spark plasma in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malyutin, A A; Podvyaznikov, V A; Chevokin, V K

    2010-02-28

    The spatiotemporal study of the diagram of laser radiation scattering by the laser-spark plasma produced by 3-ns and 50-ns pulses is performed. It is shown that radiation appearing outside the laser beam cone is scattered during the first one - two nanoseconds after the air breakdown, when the spark plasma is located in the vicinity of the laser beam waist and has a shape close to spherical.

  18. Study of Generalized Parton Distributions and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on the nucleon with the CLAS and CLAS12 detectors at the Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baptiste Guegan

    2012-11-01

    The exclusive leptoproduction of a real photon is considered to be the "cleanest" way to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD). This process is called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) lN {yields} lN{gamma} , and is sensitive to all the four GPDs. Measuring the DVCS cross section is one of the main goals of this thesis. In this thesis, we present the work performed to extract on a wide phase-space the DVCS cross-section from the JLab data at a beam energy of 6 GeV.

  19. Single coil bistable, bidirectional micromechanical actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tabat, Ned; Guckel, Henry

    1998-09-15

    Micromechanical actuators capable of bidirectional and bistable operation can be formed on substrates using lithographic processing techniques. Bistable operation of the microactuator is obtained using a single coil and a magnetic core with a gap. A plunger having two magnetic heads is supported for back and forth linear movement with respect to the gap in the magnetic core, and is spring biased to a neutral position in which the two heads are on each side of the gap in the core. The single electrical coil is coupled to the core and is provided with electrical current to attract one of the heads toward the core by reluctance action to drive the plunger to a limit of travel in one direction. The current is then cut off and the plunger returns by spring action toward the gap, whereafter the current is reapplied to the coil to attract the other head of the plunger by reluctance action to drive the plunger to its other limit of travel. This process can be repeated at a time when switching of the actuator is required.

  20. Constraints on large-x parton distributions from new weak boson production and deep-inelastic scattering data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Accardi, A.; Brady, L. T.; Melnitchouk, W.; Owens, J. F.; Sato, N.

    2016-06-20

    Here, we present a new set of leading twist parton distribution functions, referred to as "CJ15", which take advantage of developments in the theoretical treatment of nuclear corrections as well as new data. The analysis includes for the first time data on the free neutron structure function from Jefferson Lab, and new high-precision charged lepton and W-boson asymmetry data from Fermilab, which significantly reduce the uncertainty on the d/u ratio at large values of x.

  1. Light-scattering properties of a Venetian blind slat used for daylighting applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsson, Annica M.; Jonsson, Jacob C.

    2010-12-15

    The low cost, simplicity, and aesthetic appearance of external and internal shading devices, make them commonly used for daylighting and glare-control applications. Shading devices, such as Venetian blinds, screens, and roller shades, generally exhibit light scattering and/or light redirecting properties. This requires the bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) of the material to be known in order to accurately predict the daylight distribution and energy flow through the fenestration system. Acquiring the complete BSDF is not a straightforward task, and to complete the process it is often required that a model is used to complement the measured data. In this project, a Venetian blind slat with a white top surface and a brushed aluminum bottom surface was optically characterized. A goniophotometer and an integrating sphere spectrophotometer were used to determine the angle resolved and hemispherical reflectance of the sample, respectively. The acquired data were fitted to a scattering model providing one Lambertian and one angle dependent description of the surface properties. These were used in combination with raytracing to obtain the complete BSDFs of the Venetian blind system. (author)

  2. Barrier Distribution of Quasi-elastic Backward Scattering of {sup 48}Ti, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 86}Kr on {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitsuoka, S.; Ikezoe, H.; Nishio, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Jeong, S. C.

    2009-03-04

    In order to study the nucleus-nucleus interaction in Pb-based cold fusion, we have measured excitation functions for quasi-elastic scattering of {sup 48}Ti, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 86}Kr projectiles on {sup 208}Pb target at backward angles. The barrier distributions were derived from the first derivative of measured quasi-elastic scattering cross sections relative to the Rutherford scattering cross section. The centroids of the barrier distributions show a deviation from several predicted barrier heights toward the low energy side. The shape of the barrier distributions is well reproduced by the results of a coupled-channel calculation taking account of the coupling effects of two phonon excitations of the quadrupole vibration for the projectiles and of the octupole vibration for the {sup 208}Pb target.

  3. Extracting magnetic cluster size and its distributions in advanced perpendicular recording media with shrinking grain size using small angle x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, Virat; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Takano, Ken; Terris, Bruce D.; Hellwig, Olav; Wang, Tianhan; Wu, Benny; Graves, Catherine; DĂŒrr, Hermann A.; Scherz, Andreas; Stöhr, Jo

    2015-05-18

    We analyze the magnetic cluster size (MCS) and magnetic cluster size distribution (MCSD) in a variety of perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media designs using resonant small angle x-ray scattering at the Co L{sub 3} absorption edge. The different PMR media flavors considered here vary in grain size between 7.5 and 9.5 nm as well as in lateral inter-granular exchange strength, which is controlled via the segregant amount. While for high inter-granular exchange, the MCS increases rapidly for grain sizes below 8.5 nm, we show that for increased amount of segregant with less exchange the MCS remains relatively small, even for grain sizes of 7.5 and 8 nm. However, the MCSD still increases sharply when shrinking grains from 8 to 7.5 nm. We show evidence that recording performance such as signal-to-noise-ratio on the spin stand correlates well with the product of magnetic cluster size and magnetic cluster size distribution.

  4. Dual parametrization of the proton generalized parton distribution functions H and E, and description of the deeply virtual Compton scattering cross sections and asymmetries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzey, V.; Teckentrup, T. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2006-09-01

    We develop the minimal model of a new leading order parametrization of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) introduced by Polyakov and Shuvaev. The model for GPDs H and E is formulated in terms of the forward quark distributions, the Gegenbauer moments of the D-term, and the forward limit of the GPD E. The model is designed primarily for small and medium-size values of x{sub B}, x{sub B}{<=}0.2. We examine two different models of the t dependence of the GPDs: the factorized exponential model and the nonfactorized Regge-motivated model. Using our model, we successfully described the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) cross section measured by H1 and ZEUS, the moments of the beam-spin A{sub LU}{sup sin{phi}}, the beam-charge A{sub C}{sup cos{phi}}, and the transversely polarized target A{sub UT}{sup sin{phi}}{sup cos{phi}} DVCS asymmetries measured by HERMES and A{sub LU}{sup sin{phi}} measured by CLAS. The data on A{sub C}{sup cos{phi}} prefer the Regge-motivated model of the t dependence of the GPDs. The data on A{sub UT}{sup sin{phi}}{sup cos{phi}} indicate that the u and d quarks carry only a small fraction of the proton total angular momentum.

  5. A Bidirectional High-Power-Quality Grid Interface With a Novel Bidirectional Noninverted Buck Boost Converter for PHEVs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onar, Omer C

    2012-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will play a vital role in future sustainable transportation systems due to their potential in terms of energy security, decreased environmental impact, improved fuel economy, and better performance. Moreover, new regulations have been established to improve the collective gas mileage, cut greenhouse gas emissions, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. This paper primarily focuses on two major thrust areas of PHEVs. First, it introduces a grid-friendly bidirectional alternating current/direct current ac/dc dc/ac rectifier/inverter for facilitating vehicle-to-grid (V2G) integration of PHEVs. Second, it presents an integrated bidirectional noninverted buck boost converter that interfaces the energy storage device of the PHEV to the dc link in both grid-connected and driving modes. The proposed bidirectional converter has minimal grid-level disruptions in terms of power factor and total harmonic distortion, with less switching noise. The integrated bidirectional dc/dc converter assists the grid interface converter to track the charge/discharge power of the PHEV battery. In addition, while driving, the dc/dc converter provides a regulated dc link voltage to the motor drive and captures the braking energy during regenerative braking.

  6. Bichromatic emission and multimode dynamics in bidirectional ring lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Serrano, Antonio; Javaloyes, Julien; Balle, Salvador

    2010-04-15

    The multimode dynamics of a two-level ring laser is explored numerically using a bidirectional traveling wave model retaining the spatial effects due to the presence of counter-propagating electric fields in the population inversion. Dynamical regimes where the emission in each direction occurs at different wavelengths are studied. Mode-locked unidirectional emission for large gain bandwidth and relatively small detuning is reported.

  7. Distribution:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    JAN26 19% Distribution: OR00 Attn: h.H.M.Roth DFMusser ITMM MMMann INS JCRyan FIw(2) Hsixele SRGustavson, Document rocm Formal file i+a@mmm bav@ ~@esiaw*cp Suppl. file 'Br & Div rf's s/health (lic.only) UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL NUCLEAB MATERIAL LICENSE pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, P&t 70, "Special Nuclear Material Reg)llatiqm," a license is hereby issued a$hortztng the licensee to rekeive

  8. Chevron beam dump for ITER edge Thomson scattering system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Bassan, M.; Itami, K.; Vayakis, G.

    2013-10-15

    This paper contains the design of the beam dump for the ITER edge Thomson scattering system and mainly concerns its lifetime under the harsh thermal and electromagnetic loads as well as tight space allocation. The lifetime was estimated from the multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold. In order to extend its lifetime, the structure of the beam dump was optimized. A number of bent sheets aligned parallel in the beam dump form a shape called a chevron which enables it to avoid the concentration of the incident laser pulse energy. The chevron beam dump is expected to withstand thermal loads due to nuclear heating, radiation from the plasma, and numerous incident laser pulses throughout the entire ITER project with a reasonable margin for the peak factor of the beam profile. Structural analysis was also carried out in case of electromagnetic loads during a disruption. Moreover, detailed issues for more accurate assessments of the beam dump's lifetime are clarified. Variation of the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) due to erosion by or contamination of neutral particles derived from the plasma is one of the most critical issues that needs to be resolved. In this paper, the BRDF was assumed, and the total amount of stray light and the absorbed laser energy profile on the beam dump were evaluated.

  9. Theory of Multiple Coulomb Scattering from Extended Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Cooper, L. N.; Rainwater, J.

    1954-08-01

    Two independent methods are described for calculating the multiple scattering distribution for projected angle scattering resulting when very high energy charged particles traverse a thick scatterer. The results are compared with the theories of Moliere and Olbert.

  10. Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-31

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

  11. Measurement of bidirectional optical properties of complex shading devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.; Warner, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorptances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. This paper describes the method of measuring the spatially averaged bidirectional optical properties using an automated, large-sample gonioradiometer/photometer, termed a ``Scanning Radiometer.`` Property measurements are presented for one of the most optically complex systems in common use, a venetian blind. These measurements will form the basis for optical system calculations used to test the method of determining performance.

  12. Active Flow Control on Bidirectional Rotors for Tidal MHK Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiu, Henry; van Dam, Cornelis P.

    2013-08-22

    A marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) tidal turbine extracts energy from tidal currents, providing clean, sustainable electricity generation. In general, all MHK conversion technologies are confronted with significant operational hurdles, resulting in both increased capital and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs. To counter these high costs while maintaining reliability, MHK turbine designs can be simplified. Prior study found that a tidal turbine could be cost-effectively simplified by removing blade pitch and rotor/nacelle yaw. Its rotor would run in one direction during ebb and then reverse direction when the current switched to flood. We dubbed such a turbine a bidirectional rotor tidal turbine (BRTT). The bidirectional hydrofoils of a BRTT are less efficient than conventional hydrofoils and capture less energy, but the elimination of the pitch and yaw systems were estimated to reduce levelized cost of energy by 7.8%-9.6%. In this study, we investigated two mechanisms for recapturing some of the performance shortfall of the BRTT. First, we developed a novel set of hydrofoils, designated the yy series, for BRTT application. Second, we investigated the use of active flow control via microtabs. Microtabs are small deployable/retractable tabs, typically located near the leading or trailing edge of an air/hydrofoil with height on the order of the boundary layer thickness (1% - 2% of chord). They deploy approximately perpendicularly to the foil surface and, like gurney flaps and plain flaps, globally affect the aerodynamics of the airfoil. By strategically placing microtabs and selectively deploying them based on the direction of the inflow, performance of a BRTT rotor can be improved while retaining bidirectional operation. The yy foils were computationally designed and analyzed. They exhibited better performance than the baseline bidirectional foil, the ellipse. For example, the yyb07cn-180 had 14.7% higher (l/d)max than an ellipse of equal thickness. The yyb07cn

  13. Scattering Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Dynamics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  14. Scattering of radiation in collisionless dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.

    2013-04-15

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves in collisionless dusty plasmas is studied in the framework of a multi-component kinetic model. The investigation focuses on the spectral distribution of the scattered radiation. Pronounced dust signatures are identified in the coherent spectrum due to scattering from the shielding cloud around the dust grains, dust acoustic waves, and dust-ion acoustic waves. The magnitude and shape of the scattered signal near these spectral regions are determined with the aid of analytical expressions and its dependence on the dust parameters is investigated. The use of radiation scattering as a potential diagnostic tool for dust detection is discussed.

  15. Imaging of the spatial distribution of atoms in an optical-breakdown plasma with one-dimensional coherent hyper-Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akimov, Denis A; Zheltikov, Aleksei M; Koroteev, Nikolai I; Naumov, A N; Fedotov, Andrei B; Miles, R B; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A

    1998-12-31

    A technique based on coherent four-wave mixing with a hyper-Raman resonance in wide beams was developed for line-by-line reconstruction of the spatial distribution of excited atoms in a laser-produced plasma. This method was used to study the spatial distribution of excited lead atoms in an optical-breakdown plasma formed on a metal target. A comparison was made of the technique of constructing plasma images line-by-line with a four-photon technique of point-by-point measurements. Estimates were obtained of the spatial resolution of the proposed technique. Potential applications of this approach in plasma diagnostics were analysed. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  16. Molecular-beam scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N/sub 2/ from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl ..-->.. NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  17. Structural characterization of Green River oil-shale at high-pressure using pair distribution function analysis and small angle x-ray scattering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locke, D. R.; Chupas, P. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Pugmire, R. J.; Winans, R. E.; Univ. of Utah

    2008-01-01

    The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances (6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond 6 {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component.

  18. Scattering apodizer for laser beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, M.A.; Hagen, W.F.; Boyd, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.

  19. Scattering apodizer for laser beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, Mark A.; Hagen, Wilhelm F.; Boyd, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.

  20. Variable mode bi-directional and uni-directional computer communication system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornett, Frank N.; Jenkins, Philip N.; Bowman, Terrance L.; Placek, Joseph M.; Thorson, Gregory M.

    2004-12-14

    A variable communication systems comprising a plurality of transceivers and a control circuit connected to the transceivers to configure the transceivers to operate in a bi-directional mode and a uni-directional mode at different times using different transfer methods to transfer data.

  1. Fenestration systems as luminaries of varying candlepower distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.

    1990-10-01

    Simulation of the performance of electric lighting systems has been successfully handled using computers, since electric lighting systems have a constant luminous output with respect to intensity and spatial distribution, usually referred to as candlepower distribution, which can be measured and used conveniently. This paper describes an approach of treating fenestration systems as luminaries of varying candlepower distribution, so that the determination of their luminous performance becomes consistent with that of electric lighting systems. The transmitted distribution through fenestration systems due to radiation from the sun, sky and ground is determined from their bidirectional transmittance and the luminance distribution of the sources of radiation. The approach is demonstrated using the experimentally determined bidirectional transmittance of a diffusive sample under the uniform, overcast and clear sky luminance distributions. 6 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Determination and application of bidirectional solar-optical properties of fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.; Klems, J.; Selkowitz, S.

    1988-03-01

    Accurate determination of the luminous and thermal performance of fenestration systems that incorporate optically complex components requires detailed knowledge of their radiant behavior. We describe a large scanning radiometer used to measure the bidirectional transmittance and reflectance of fenestration systems and components. We present examples of measured data obtained for simple non-specular samples. We describe a method of obtaining the overall properties of fenestration systems by calculation from scanning radiometer measurements of fenestration components. Finally, we describe the application of bidirectional solar-optical properties of fenestration systems to determine their luminous and thermal performance with respect to building energy consumption and occupants' comfort. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of the method, which appears to be promising.

  3. Temporal Scattering And Response

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-12-15

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided tomore » easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.« less

  4. Environment scattering in GADRAS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoreson, Gregory G.; Mitchell, Dean James; Theisen, Lisa Anne; Harding, Lee T.

    2013-09-01

    Radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the angular tallies for scattered gamma-rays as a function of distance, height, and environment. Green's Functions were then used to encapsulate the results a reusable transformation function. The calculations represent the transport of photons throughout scattering surfaces that surround sources and detectors, such as the ground and walls. Utilization of these calculations in GADRAS (Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software) enables accurate computation of environmental scattering for a variety of environments and source configurations. This capability, which agrees well with numerous experimental benchmark measurements, is now deployed with GADRAS Version 18.2 as the basis for the computation of scattered radiation.

  5. Scattering Techniques and Geometries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    grains - Thin films - Texture (crystallite orientation) - Real time experiments (electrochemistry, stress-strain) Get to know your beamlines incident scattered Detector Q...

  6. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German

    1999-01-01

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit.

  7. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1999-03-23

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit is disclosed. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit. 3 figs.

  8. Spectroscopic observation of simultaneous bi-directional reconnection outflows in a laboratory plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M. R.; Cothran, C. D.; Gray, T.; Myers, C. E.; Belova, E. V.

    2012-08-15

    We report a precise, direct spectroscopic measurement of simultaneous bi-directional outflows from a reconnection event in a laboratory plasma. Outflow speeds are as Alfvenic and Abel analysis shows that the outflows are generated in the plasma core. A Sweet-Parker like analysis of outflow speed coupled with external measurements of reconnection electric field and assumption of Spitzer resistivity predict an aspect ratio of the reconnection layer and reconnection rate that are close to that measured in the experiment and in simulations. However, this analysis underestimates the absolute scale of the layer, indicating other than 2D resistive physics is at play.

  9. Compton scattering overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartemann, F V

    2008-12-01

    An overview of linear and nonlinear Compton scattering is presented, along with a comparison with Thomson scattering. Two distinct processes play important roles in the nonlinear regime: multi-photon interactions, leading to the generation of harmonics, and radiation pressure, yielding a downshift of the radiated spectral features. These mechanisms, their influence on the source brightness, and different modeling strategies are also briefly discussed.

  10. Scattering Society of America

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Majewski named Fellow of the Neutron Scattering Society of America May 9, 2016 The Neutron Scattering Society of America (NSSA) has honored Jaroslaw (Jarek) Majewski of the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (MPA-CINT) with the title of Fellow. The Society recognized Majewski for "contributions to our understanding of weakly organized two-dimensional systems, including surfactant molecules found in biological systems. Majewski's achievements Majewski received a doctorate in Materials

  11. Lujan Neutron Scattering Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    responds to radiological incident August 27, 2012 The Laboratory is investigating the inadvertent spread of Technetium 99 by employees and contractors at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center August 27, 2012-The Laboratory is investigating the inadvertent spread of Technetium 99 by employees and contractors at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), a multidisciplinary accelerator facility used for both civilian and national security research. The

  12. Scattering from polymer networks under elongational strain.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grest, Gary Stephen; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf

    2005-06-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations are used to sample the single-chain form factor of labelled sub-chains in model polymer networks under elongational strain. We observe very similar results for randomly cross-linked and for randomly end-linked networks with the same average strand length and see no indication of lozenge-like scattering patterns reported for some experimental systems. Our data analysis shows that a recent variant of the tube model quantitatively describes scattering in the Guinier regime as well as the macroscopic elastic properties. The observed failure of the theory outside the Guinier regime is shown to be due to non-Gaussian pair-distance distributions.

  13. Propulsion system for a motor vehicle using a bidirectional energy converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tamor, Michael Alan; Gale, Allan Roy

    1999-01-01

    A motor vehicle propulsion system includes an electrical energy source and a traction motor coupled to receive electrical energy from the electrical energy source. The system also has a first bus provided electrical energy by the electrical energy source and a second bus of relatively lower voltage than the first bus. In addition, the system includes an electrically-driven source of reaction gas for the electrical energy source, the source of reaction gas coupled to receive electrical energy from the first bus. Also, the system has an electrical storage device coupled to the second bus for storing electrical energy at the lower voltage. The system also includes a bidirectional energy converter coupled to convert electrical energy from the first bus to the second bus and from the second bus to the first bus.

  14. Study of the nanobubble phase of aqueous NaCl solutions by dynamic light scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunkin, N F; Shkirin, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Burkhanov, I S; Chaikov, L L [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomkova, A K [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-30

    Aqueous NaCl solutions with different concentrations have been investigated by dynamic scattering of laser radiation. It is experimentally shown that these solutions contain scattering particles with a wide size distribution in a range of ?10 – 100 nm. The experimental results indirectly confirm the existence of quasi-stable gas nanobubbles in the bulk of aqueous ionic solutions. (light scattering)

  15. Inclusive Inelastic Electron Scattering from Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fomin, Nadia

    2007-10-26

    Inclusive electron scattering from nuclei at large x and Q{sup 2} is the result of a reaction mechanism that includes both quasi-elastic scattering from nucleons and deep inelastic scattering from the quark consitituents of the nucleons. Data in this regime can be used to study a wide variety of topics, including the extraction of nuclear momentum distributions, the infiuence of final state interactions and the approach to y-scaling, the strength of nucleon-nucleon correlations, and the approach to x-scaling, to name a few. Selected results from the recent experiment E02-019 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility will be shown and their relevance discussed.

  16. Scattering Of Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R

    2009-12-15

    The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches.We present a new ab initio many-body approach which derives from the combination of the ab initio no-core shell model with the resonating-group method [4]. By complementing a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, this approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. We will discuss applications to neutron and proton scattering on sand light p-shell nuclei using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and outline the progress toward the treatment of more complex reactions.

  17. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern science

  18. Inelastic Scattering Form Factors

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-01-01

    ATHENA-IV computes form factors for inelastic scattering calculations, using single-particle wave functions that are eigenstates of motion in either a Woods-Saxon potential well or a harmonic oscillator well. Two-body forces of Gauss, Coulomb, Yukawa, and a sum of cut-off Yukawa radial dependences are available.

  19. Anisotropic Elastic Resonance Scattering model for the Neutron Transport equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed Ouisloumen; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Shadi Z. Ghrayeb

    2014-11-24

    The resonance scattering transfer cross-section has been reformulated to account for anisotropic scattering in the center-of-mass of the neutron-nucleus system. The main innovation over previous implementations is the relaxation of the ubiquitous assumption of isotropic scattering in the center-of-mass and the actual effective use of scattering angle distributions from evaluated nuclear data files in the computation of the angular moments of the resonant scattering kernels. The formulas for the high order anisotropic moments in the laboratory system are also derived. A multi-group numerical formulation is derived and implemented into a module incorporated within the NJOY nuclear data processing code. An ultra-fine energy mesh cross section library was generated using these new theoretical models and then was used for fuel assembly calculations with the PARAGON lattice physics code. The results obtained indicate a strong effect of this new model on reactivity, multi-group fluxes and isotopic inventory during depletion.

  20. What Does a Scattering Pattern Tell US?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Space sample light image Image Space lens Angular Space Q 4p sin(q) l Fourier Transform Scattering Pattern Fourier Transform Phase Problem Scattering Pattern...

  1. Bidirectional CLOCK/BMAL1-dependent circadian gene regulation by retinoic acid in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirai, Hidenori; Oishi, Katsutaka; Ishida, Norio . E-mail: n.ishida@aist.go.jp

    2006-12-15

    A central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the mammalian hypothalamus entrains peripheral clocks through both neural and humoral factors. Although candidates for entrainment factors have been described, their details remain obscure. Here, we screened ligands for nuclear receptors that affect CLOCK/BMAL1-dependent transactivation of the mouse Period1 (mPer1) gene in NIH3T3 cells. We found that retinoic acids (RAs) significantly up-regulate mPer1 expression in an E-box-dependent manner. We also found that RAs up-regulate the expression of other E-box-dependent circadian genes such as mPer2, arginine vasopressin (mAVP), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (mPPAR{alpha}). Surprisingly, the effect of RAs on CLOCK/BMAL1 (E-box)-dependent mRNA expression was bidirectional and depended on the presence of exogenous retinoic acid receptor {alpha} (RAR{alpha}). These results suggest that RAs regulate the CLOCK/BMAL1-dependent transcription of circadian genes in a complex manner.

  2. SU-E-I-07: An Improved Technique for Scatter Correction in PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, S; Wang, Y; Lue, K; Lin, H; Chuang, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In positron emission tomography (PET), the single scatter simulation (SSS) algorithm is widely used for scatter estimation in clinical scans. However, bias usually occurs at the essential steps of scaling the computed SSS distribution to real scatter amounts by employing the scatter-only projection tail. The bias can be amplified when the scatter-only projection tail is too small, resulting in incorrect scatter correction. To this end, we propose a novel scatter calibration technique to accurately estimate the amount of scatter using pre-determined scatter fraction (SF) function instead of the employment of scatter-only tail information. Methods: As the SF depends on the radioactivity distribution and the attenuating material of the patient, an accurate theoretical relation cannot be devised. Instead, we constructed an empirical transformation function between SFs and average attenuation coefficients based on a serious of phantom studies with different sizes and materials. From the average attenuation coefficient, the predicted SFs were calculated using empirical transformation function. Hence, real scatter amount can be obtained by scaling the SSS distribution with the predicted SFs. The simulation was conducted using the SimSET. The Siemens Biograph™ 6 PET scanner was modeled in this study. The Software for Tomographic Image Reconstruction (STIR) was employed to estimate the scatter and reconstruct images. The EEC phantom was adopted to evaluate the performance of our proposed technique. Results: The scatter-corrected image of our method demonstrated improved image contrast over that of SSS. For our technique and SSS of the reconstructed images, the normalized standard deviation were 0.053 and 0.182, respectively; the root mean squared errors were 11.852 and 13.767, respectively. Conclusion: We have proposed an alternative method to calibrate SSS (C-SSS) to the absolute scatter amounts using SF. This method can avoid the bias caused by the insufficient

  3. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  4. A New Polyethylene Scattering Law Determined Using Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavelle, Christopher M [ORNL; Liu, C [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Stone, Matthew B [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutron transport codes such as MCNP rely on accurate data for nuclear physics cross-sections to produce accurate results. At low energy, this takes the form of scattering laws based on the dynamic structure factor, S (Q, E). High density polyethylene (HDPE) is frequently employed as a neutron moderator at both high and low temperatures, however the only cross-sections available are for T =300 K, and the evaluation has not been updated in quite some time. In this paper we describe inelastic neutron scattering measurements on HDPE at 5 and 300 K which are used to improve the scattering law for HDPE. We describe the experimental methods, review some of the past HDPE scattering laws, and compare computations using these models to the measured S (Q, E). The total cross-section is compared to available data, and the treatment of the carbon secondary scatterer as a free gas is assessed. We also discuss the use of the measurement itself as a scattering law via the 1 phonon approximation. We show that a scattering law computed using a more detailed model for the Generalized Density of States (GDOS) compares more favorably to this experiment, suggesting that inelastic neutron scattering can play an important role in both the development and validation of new scattering laws for Monte Carlo work.

  5. Sigmund and WInterbon Multiple Scattering

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1985-03-01

    SWIMS calculates the angular dispersion of ion beams that undergo small-angle, incoherent multiple scattering by gaseous or solid media.

  6. Deep Inelastic Electron Scattering: Experimental

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Friedman, J. I.

    1971-10-01

    This report reviews and brings up to date the experimental information on high energy inelastic electron scattering from proton and neutron.

  7. Measuring bi-directional current through a field-effect transistor by virtue of drain-to-source voltage measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Steven Richard

    2006-12-26

    A method and apparatus for measuring current, and particularly bi-directional current, in a field-effect transistor (FET) using drain-to-source voltage measurements. The drain-to-source voltage of the FET is measured and amplified. This signal is then compensated for variations in the temperature of the FET, which affects the impedance of the FET when it is switched on. The output is a signal representative of the direction of the flow of current through the field-effect transistor and the level of the current through the field-effect transistor. Preferably, the measurement only occurs when the FET is switched on.

  8. Observation of Nonlinear Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotseroglou, T.

    2003-12-19

    This experiment tests Quantum Electrodynamics in the strong field regime. Nonlinear Compton scattering has been observed during the interaction of a 46.6 GeV electron beam with a 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} laser beam. The strength of the field achieved was measured by the parameter {eta} = e{var_epsilon}{sub rms}/{omega}mc = 0.6. Data were collected with infrared and green laser photons and circularly polarized laser light. The timing stabilization achieved between the picosecond laser and electron pulses has {sigma}{sub rms} = 2 ps. A strong signal of electrons that absorbed up to 4 infrared photons (or up to 3 green photons) at the same point in space and time, while emitting a single gamma ray, was observed. The energy spectra of the scattered electrons and the nonlinear dependence of the electron yield on the field strength agreed with the simulation over 3 orders of magnitude. The detector could not resolve the nonlinear Compton scattering from the multiple single Compton scattering which produced rates of scattered electrons of the same order of magnitude. Nevertheless, a simulation has studied this difference and concluded that the scattered electron rates observed could not be accounted for only by multiple ordinary Compton scattering; nonlinear Compton scattering processes are dominant for n {ge} 3.

  9. WPEC subgroup 35 ""scattering angular distribution in the fast...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation - Nuclear Energy Agency ; May 12, 2011 ; Paris, France Research Org: Los Alamos ...

  10. SciTech Connect: "neutron scattering"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    neutron scattering" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "neutron scattering" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic...

  11. Proton-Nucleus Scattering Approximations and Implications for LHC Crystal Collimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, Robert; ,

    2010-06-07

    In particle accelerators, scattered protons with energies close to the incident particles may travel considerable distances with the beam before impacting on accelerator components downstream. To analyze such problems, angular deflection and energy loss of scattered particles are the main quantities to be simulated since these lead to changes in the beam's phase space distribution and particle loss. Simple approximations for nuclear scattering processes causing limited energy loss to high-energy protons traversing matter are developed which are suitable for rapid estimates and reduced-description Monte Carlo simulations. The implications for proton loss in the Large Hadron Collider due to nuclear scattering on collimation crystals are discussed.

  12. Elastic Electron Scattering from Tritium and Helium-3

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Collard, H.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.; Johansson, A.; Yearian, M. R.; Day, R. B.; Wagner, R. T.

    1964-10-01

    The mirror nuclei of tritium and helium-3 have been studied by the method of elastic electron scattering. Absolute cross sections have been measured for incident electron energies in the range 110 - 690 MeV at scattering angles lying between 40 degrees and 135 degrees in this energy range. The data have been interpreted in a straightforward manner and form factors are given for the distributions of charge and magnetic moment in the two nuclei over a range of four-momentum transfer squared 1.0 - 8.0 F{sup -2}. Model-independent radii of the charge and magnetic moment distributions are given and an attempt is made to deduce form factors describing the spatial distribution of the protons in tritium and helium-3.

  13. Lightweight PV Inverters: Dual Bi-Directional IGBTs Modules Enables Breakthrough PV Inverter Using Current Modulation Topology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-30

    Solar ADEPT Project: PV inverters convert DC power generated by modules into usable AC power. IPC’s initial 30kW 94lb. PV inverter reduces the weight of comparable 30kW PV inverters by 90%—reducing the cost of materials, manufacturing, shipping, and installation. With ARPA-E support, new bi-directional silicon power switches will be developed, commercialized, and utilized in IPC’s next-generation PV inverter. With these components, IPC will produce 100kW inverters that weight less than 100lb., reducing the weight of conventional 3,000lb. 100kW inverters by more than 95%. The new power switches will cut IPC’s $/W manufacturing cost in half, as well as further reduce indirect shipping and installation costs.

  14. EIS Distribution

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This DOE guidance presents a series of recommendations related to the EIS distribution process, which includes creating and updating a distribution list, distributing an EIS, and filing an EIS with the EPA.

  15. The CJ12 parton distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Accardi, Alberto; Owens, Jeff F.

    2013-07-01

    Three new sets of next-to-leading order parton distribution functions (PDFs) are presented, determined by global fits to a wide variety of data for hard scattering processes. The analysis includes target mass and higher twist corrections needed for the description of deep-inelastic scattering data at large x and low Q^2, and nuclear corrections for deuterium targets. The PDF sets correspond to three different models for the nuclear effects, and provide a more realistic uncertainty range for the d quark PDF compared with previous fits. Applications to weak boson production at colliders are also discussed.

  16. Elastic scattering and total cross sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahn, R.N.

    1990-03-01

    This report discusses concepts of elastic scattering and cross sections of proton-proton interactions. (LSP)

  17. RF wave propagation and scattering in turbulent tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, W. Michoski, C.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.

    2015-12-10

    Drift wave turbulence driven by the steep electron and ion temperature gradients in H-mode divertor tokamaks produce scattering of the RF waves used for heating and current drive. The X-ray emission spectra produced by the fast electrons require the turbulence broaden RF wave spectrum. Both the 5 GHz Lower Hybrid waves and the 170 GHz electron cyclotron [EC] RF waves experience scattering and diffraction by the electron density fluctuations. With strong LHCD there are bifurcations in the coupled turbulent transport dynamics giving improved steady-state confinement states. The stochastic scattering of the RF rays makes the prediction of the distribution of the rays and the associated particle heating a statistical problem. Thus, we introduce a Fokker-Planck equation for the probably density of the RF rays. The general frame work of the coupled system of coupled high frequency current driving rays with the low-frequency turbulent transport determines the profiles of the plasma density and temperatures.

  18. Stimulated Brillouin scattering in solid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitanvis, S.M.

    1988-08-01

    We estimate the differential scattering cross-section due to SBS in a glass bead which is much larger than the wavelength of a high energy laser beam which irradiates it. We consider three possible scenarios: neither the incident nor the Stokes wavelength is on a Mie resonance; only the Stokes wavelength is on resonance; and the incident wavelength and the Stokes wavelength are on a Mie resonance. For the first two cases, we find that the SBS scattering cross-section is extremely small compared to the geometric/Mie cross-section. It follows as a corollary that SBS in a glass bead will be insufficient to shatter it in these two cases. In the last case, it is quite possible that due to the buildup of high fields on-resonance within the spherical bead, the bead might be shattered. The chance of such an event occurring in a polydisperse distribution of spherical beads is generally not expected to be very high. 3 figs.

  19. Pauli Principle and Pion Scattering

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bethe, H. A.

    1972-10-01

    It is pointed out that if the Pauli principle is taken into account in the discussion of pion scattering by complex nuclei (as it ought, of course, to be) some rather implausible consequences of some earlier treatments of this problem can be avoided. (auth)

  20. Bragg optics computer codes for neutron scattering instrument design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popovici, M.; Yelon, W.B.; Berliner, R.R.; Stoica, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Computer codes for neutron crystal spectrometer design, optimization and experiment planning are described. Phase space distributions, linewidths and absolute intensities are calculated by matrix methods in an extension of the Cooper-Nathans resolution function formalism. For modeling the Bragg reflection on bent crystals the lamellar approximation is used. Optimization is done by satisfying conditions of focusing in scattering and in real space, and by numerically maximizing figures of merit. Examples for three-axis and two-axis spectrometers are given.

  1. Spatiotemporal nonpoint source pollution water quality management framework using bi-directional model-GIS linkage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faizullabhoy, M.S.; Yoon, J.

    1999-07-01

    A framework for water quality assessment and management purposes was developed. In this framework, a bilateral linkage was implemented between the distributed model, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Model (AGNPS) and the Geographic Information System (GIS) to investigate a spatiotemporal nonpoint source pollution problem from a 750-acre watershed in the NSGA (Naval Security Group Activity) Northwest base at the Virginia/North Carolina border. AGNPS is an event-based, distributed parameter model that simulates runoff and the transport of sediment and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from predominantly agricultural watersheds. In this study rather than manually implementing AGNPS simulation, extracted data are integrated in an automated fashion through a direct bilateral linkage framework between the AGNPS model engine and the GIS. This bilateral linkage framework resulted in a powerful, up-to-date tool that would be capable of monitoring and instantaneously visualizing the transport of any pollutant as well as effectively identifying critical areas of the nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. The framework also allowed the various what if scenarios to support the decision-making processes. Best Management Practices (BMP) for the watershed can be generated in a close loop iterative scheme, until predefined management objectives are achieved. Simulated results showed that the optimal BMP scenario achieved an average reduction of about 41% in soluble and sediment-attached nitrogen and about 62% reduction in soluble and sediment phosphorus from current NPS pollution levels.

  2. Single and multiple intrabeam scattering in hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Single and multiple intra-beam scattering are usually considered separately. Such separation works well for electron-positron colliders but usually yields only coarse description in the case of hadron colliders. Boltzmann type integro-differential equation is used to describe evolution of longitudinal distribution due to IBS. The finite size of the longitudinal potential well, its non-linearity and x-y coupling are taken into account. The model predictions for longitudinal and transverse distributions are compared to the experimental measurements.

  3. 10th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering LANSCE 10th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering Home Abstract Lecturers Hands-On Experiments Free Day About the School Sponsors FAQ's...

  4. Light scattering from laser induced pit ensembles on high power laser optics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feigenbaum, Eyal; Elhadj, Selim; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2015-01-01

    Far-field light scattering characteristics from randomly arranged shallow Gaussian-like shaped laser induced pits, found on optics exposed to high energy laser pulses, is studied. Closed-form expressions for the far-field intensity distribution and scattered power are derived for individual pits and validated using numerical calculations of both Fourier optics and FDTD solutions to Maxwell’s equations. It is found that the scattered power is proportional to the square of the pit width and approximately also to the square of the pit depth, with the proportionality factor scaling with pit depth. As a result, the power scattered from shallow pitted optics is expectedmore »to be substantially lower than assuming complete scattering from the total visible footprint of the pits.« less

  5. Light scattering from laser induced pit ensembles on high power laser optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feigenbaum, Eyal [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Elhadj, Selim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Matthews, Manyalibo J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Far-field light scattering characteristics from randomly arranged shallow Gaussian-like shaped laser induced pits, found on optics exposed to high energy laser pulses, is studied. Closed-form expressions for the far-field intensity distribution and scattered power are derived for individual pits and validated using numerical calculations of both Fourier optics and FDTD solutions to Maxwell’s equations. It is found that the scattered power is proportional to the square of the pit width and approximately also to the square of the pit depth, with the proportionality factor scaling with pit depth. As a result, the power scattered from shallow pitted optics is expected to be substantially lower than assuming complete scattering from the total visible footprint of the pits.

  6. A new bidirectional generalization of (2+1)-dimensional matrix k-constrained Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chvartatskyi, O. I. Sydorenko, Yu. M.

    2013-11-15

    We introduce a new bidirectional generalization of (2+1)-dimensional k-constrained Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy ((2+1)-BDk-cKPH). This new hierarchy generalizes (2+1)-dimensional k-cKP hierarchy, (t{sub A}, ?{sub B}) and (?{sub A}, ?{sub B}) matrix hierarchies. (2+1)-BDk-cKPH contains a new matrix (1+1)-k-constrained KP hierarchy. Some members of (2+1)-BDk-cKPH are also listed. In particular, it contains matrix generalizations of Davey-Stewartson (DS) systems, (2+1)-dimensional modified Korteweg-de Vries equation and the Nizhnik equation. (2+1)-BDk-cKPH also includes new matrix (2+1)-dimensional generalizations of the Yajima-Oikawa and Melnikov systems. Binary Darboux Transformation Dressing Method is also proposed for construction of exact solutions for equations from (2+1)-BDk-cKPH. As an example the exact form of multi-soliton solutions for vector generalization of the DS system is given.

  7. Using bi-directional communications in a market-based resource allocation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2015-09-08

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  8. Using bi-directional communications in a market-based resource allocation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P; Pratt, Robert G

    2015-05-05

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  9. Using bi-directional communications in a market-based resource allocation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chassin, David P; Pratt, Robert G

    2014-04-01

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  10. Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SCATTERING; ISOTOPES; LEAD; LEAD 206; LEAD 207; LEVELS; NEUTRONS; SCATTERING Inelastic neutron scattering on Pb isotopes can result in gamma rays near the signature endpoint...

  11. Arthur H. Compton and Compton Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arthur H. Compton and Compton Scattering Resources with Additional Information * Compton Honored * Compton Scattering Arthur H. Compton Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Arthur Holly 'Compton was a professor at Washington University, studying the scattering of X-rays, when he discovered the effect that is named after him in 1922. ... The Compton effect [Compton scattering] is defined as the decrease in energy (increase in wavelength) of an X-ray or gamma ray photon, when it

  12. Measurement of an inverse Compton scattering source local spectrum using k-edge filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golosio, Bruno; Oliva, Piernicola; Carpinelli, Massimo; Endrizzi, Marco; Delogu, Pasquale; Pogorelsky, Igor; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2012-04-16

    X-ray sources based on the inverse Compton scattering process are attracting a growing interest among scientists, due to their extremely fast pulse, quasi-monochromatic spectrum, and relatively high intensity. The energy spectrum of the x-ray beam produced by inverse Compton scattering sources in a fixed observation direction is a quasi-monochromatic approximately Gaussian distribution. The mean value of this distribution varies with the scattering polar angle between the electron beam direction and the x-ray beam observation direction. Previous works reported experimental measurements of the mean energy as a function of the polar angle. This work introduces a method for the measurement of the whole local energy spectrum (i.e., the spectrum in a fixed observation direction) of the x-ray beam yielded by inverse Compton scattering sources, based on a k-edge filtering technique.

  13. Posters Radiation Singularities, Multiple Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Posters Radiation Singularities, Multiple Scattering and Diffusion in Multifractal Clouds P. Silas, G. Brösamlen, and S. Lovejoy Department of Physics McGill University Montreal, Quebec, Canada C. Naud and D. Schertzer Université Pierre and Marie Curie Paris, France B. Watson Department of Physics St. Lawrence University Canton, New York Diffusion on One-Dimensional Multifractals (P. Silas, S. Lovejoy, D. Schertzer) Many geophysical and atmospheric fields exhibit multifractal characteristics

  14. Parity Violation in Electron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beise, Elizabeth

    2007-10-26

    About thirty years ago, electron scattering from nucleons was used [1] to identify, and then measure, the properties of the weak interaction, the only force of nature known to violate the symmetry parity. The basic technique has not fundamentally changed, which is to look for a small asymmetry in count rate from scattering a polarized electron beam from an unpolarized target. Since then, parity-violating (PV) electron scattering has developed substantially, a result of significant improvements in polarized electron beams, accelerator advancements, and developments in cryogenic targets that make it possible to carry out experiments with much higher statistical precision. In the last decade PV experiments have focused on using the complementary electron-quark flavor coupling of the weak interaction to identify and place limits on contributions of strange quark-antiquark pairs to the charge and magnetism of the proton. This observable provides a unique window into the structure of the proton since strange quark contributions can arise only from the sea of quarks and gluons that are responsible for the vast majority of the nucleon's mass. This paper will report on recent results aimed at this goal, along with a brief overview of future directions.

  15. Relativistic electron scattering by magnetosonic waves: Effects of discrete wave emission and high wave amplitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we study relativistic electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We compare results of test particle simulations and the quasi-linear theory for different spectra of waves to investigate how a fine structure of the wave emission can influence electron resonant scattering. We show that for a realistically wide distribution of wave normal angles Ξ (i.e., when the dispersion ΎΞ≄0.5{sup °}), relativistic electron scattering is similar for a wide wave spectrum and for a spectrum consisting in well-separated ion cyclotron harmonics. Comparisons of test particle simulations with quasi-linear theory show that for ΎΞ>0.5{sup °}, the quasi-linear approximation describes resonant scattering correctly for a large enough plasma frequency. For a very narrow Ξ distribution (when ΎΞ∌0.05{sup °}), however, the effect of a fine structure in the wave spectrum becomes important. In this case, quasi-linear theory clearly fails in describing accurately electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We also study the effect of high wave amplitudes on relativistic electron scattering. For typical conditions in the earth's radiation belts, the quasi-linear approximation cannot accurately describe electron scattering for waves with averaged amplitudes >300 pT. We discuss various applications of the obtained results for modeling electron dynamics in the radiation belts and in the Earth's magnetotail.

  16. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, ...

  17. Distribution Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 24-26, 2012, the GTT presented a workshop on grid integration on the distribution system at the Sheraton Crystal City near Washington, DC.

  18. Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Saving Electricity Saving Electricity Reducing energy use in your home saves you money, increases our energy security and reduces the pollution that is emitted from non-renewable sources of energy. <a href="/node/1265906">Learn more about reducing your electricity use</a>. Reducing energy use in your home saves you money, increases our energy security and reduces the pollution that is emitted from non-renewable sources of energy. Learn more about reducing your electricity

  19. Gamma-ray burst polarization via Compton scattering process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Jiang, Yunguo

    2014-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation and Compton scattering are widely accepted as the most likely emission mechanisms of some astrophysical phenomena, such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and active galactic nuclei. The measurement of the polarization of photons provides a useful tool to distinguish different emission mechanisms and structures of the emission region. Based on the differential cross section of a polarized photon scattered by an unpolarized electron of any initial momentum, we derive an analytical formula of polarization for beamed photons scattered by isotropic electrons with a power-law distribution. Numerical calculations are carried out in four special cases: electrons at rest, Thomson limit, head-on collision, and monochromatic electrons. It is found that the maximum polarization can be as high as 100% for low energy photons, if the electrons are at rest. Although polarization is highly suppressed due to the isotropic electrons, a maximum value of ?10%-20% can still be achieved. The Compton scattering process can be used to explain the polarization of GRB 041219A and GRB 100826A.

  20. Crystal defect studies using x-ray diffuse scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    Microscopic lattice defects such as point (single atom) defects, dislocation loops, and solute precipitates are characterized by local electronic density changes at the defect sites and by distortions of the lattice structure surrounding the defects. The effect of these interruptions of the crystal lattice on the scattering of x-rays is considered in this paper, and examples are presented of the use of the diffuse scattering to study the defects. X-ray studies of self-interstitials in electron irradiated aluminum and copper are discussed in terms of the identification of the interstitial configuration. Methods for detecting the onset of point defect aggregation into dislocation loops are considered and new techniques for the determination of separate size distributions for vacancy loops and interstitial loops are presented. Direct comparisons of dislocation loop measurements by x-rays with existing electron microscopy studies of dislocation loops indicate agreement for larger size loops, but x-ray measurements report higher concentrations in the smaller loop range. Methods for distinguishing between loops and three-dimensional precipitates are discussed and possibilities for detailed studies considered. A comparison of dislocation loop size distributions obtained from integral diffuse scattering measurements with those from TEM show a discrepancy in the smaller sizes similar to that described above.

  1. Call issued for Lujan Neutron Scattering Center proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (polarized and unpolarized) Inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy Small angle neutron scattering Neutron radiographytomography The Lujan instruments webpage...

  2. Inter-slice bidirectional registration-based segmentation of the prostate gland in MR and CT image sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalvati, Farzad Tizhoosh, Hamid R.; Salmanpour, Aryan; Rahnamayan, Shahryar; Rodrigues, George

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation and volume estimation of the prostate gland in magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images are necessary steps in diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of prostate cancer. This paper presents an algorithm for the prostate gland volume estimation based on the semiautomated segmentation of individual slices in T2-weighted MR and CT image sequences. Methods: The proposedInter-Slice Bidirectional Registration-based Segmentation (iBRS) algorithm relies on interslice image registration of volume data to segment the prostate gland without the use of an anatomical atlas. It requires the user to mark only three slices in a given volume dataset, i.e., the first, middle, and last slices. Next, the proposed algorithm uses a registration algorithm to autosegment the remaining slices. We conducted comprehensive experiments to measure the performance of the proposed algorithm using three registration methods (i.e., rigid, affine, and nonrigid techniques). Results: The results with the proposed technique were compared with manual marking using prostate MR and CT images from 117 patients. Manual marking was performed by an expert user for all 117 patients. The median accuracies for individual slices measured using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) were 92% and 91% for MR and CT images, respectively. The iBRS algorithm was also evaluated regarding user variability, which confirmed that the algorithm was robust to interuser variability when marking the prostate gland. Conclusions: The proposed algorithm exploits the interslice data redundancy of the images in a volume dataset of MR and CT images and eliminates the need for an atlas, minimizing the computational cost while producing highly accurate results which are robust to interuser variability.

  3. Various scattering properties of a new PT-symmetric non-Hermitian potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatak, Ananya; Mandal, Raka Dona Ray; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2013-09-15

    We complexify a 1-d potential V(x)=V{sub 0}cosh{sup 2}?(tanh[(x??d)/d]+tanh(?)){sup 2} which exhibits bound, reflecting and free states to study various properties of a non-Hermitian system. This potential turns out a PT-symmetric non-Hermitian potential when one of the parameters (?,d) becomes imaginary. For the case of ??i?, we have an entire real bound state spectrum. Explicit scattering states are constructed to show reciprocity at certain discrete values of energy even though the potential is not parity symmetric. Coexistence of deep energy minima of transmissivity with the multiple spectral singularities (MSS) is observed. We further show that this potential becomes invisible from the left (or right) at certain discrete energies. The penetrating states in the other case (d?id) are always reciprocal even though it is PT-invariant and no spectral singularity (SS) is present in this case. The presence of MSS and reflectionlessness is also discussed for the free states in the later case. -- Highlights: •Existence of multiple spectral singularities (MSS) in PT-symmetric non-Hermitian system is shown. •Reciprocity is restored at discrete positive energies even for parity non-invariant complex system. •Co-existence of MSS with deep energy minima of transitivity is obtained. •Possibilities of both unidirectional and bidirectional invisibility are explored for a non-Hermitian system. •Penetrating states are shown to be reciprocal for all energies for PT-symmetric system.

  4. Completeness for sparse potential scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Zhongwei

    2014-01-15

    The present paper is devoted to the scattering theory of a class of continuum Schrödinger operators with deterministic sparse potentials. We first establish the limiting absorption principle for both modified free resolvents and modified perturbed resolvents. This actually is a weak form of the classical limiting absorption principle. We then prove the existence and completeness of local wave operators, which, in particular, imply the existence of wave operators. Under additional assumptions on the sparse potential, we prove the completeness of wave operators. In the context of continuum Schrödinger operators with sparse potentials, this paper gives the first proof of the completeness of wave operators.

  5. Intra-beam Scattering Theory and RHIC Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, J.; Fedotov, A.; Fischer, W.; Malitsky, N.; Parzen, G.; Qiang, J.

    2005-06-08

    Intra-beam scattering is the leading mechanism limiting the luminosity in heavy-ion storage rings like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The multiple Coulomb scattering among the charged particles causes transverse emittance growth and longitudinal beam de-bunching and beam loss, compromising machine performance during collision. Theoretically, the original theories developed by Piwinski, Bjorken, and Mtingwa only describe the rms beam size growth of an unbounded Gaussian distribution. Equations based on the Fokker-Planck approach are developed to further describe the beam density profile evolution and beam loss. During the 2004 RHIC heavy-ion operation, dedicated IBS experiments were performed to bench-mark the rms beam size growth, beam loss, and profile evolution both for a Gaussian-like and a longitudinal hollow beam. This paper summarizes the IBS theory and discusses the experimental bench-marking results.

  6. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project Profile: Verizon Central Office Building ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project ...

  7. In situ resonant Raman scattering and reversible photoinduced structural change in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osada, Minoru; Kaell, Mikael; Baeckstroem, Joakim; Kakihana, Masato; Andersen, Niels Hessel; Boerjesson, Lars

    2005-06-01

    We report on bidirectional photoswitching associated with the CuO chains in oxygen-deficient YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} single crystals. By varying the wavelength of light polarized along the CuO chains, the material can be reversibly switched between two metastable states characterized by the existence or absence of a specific Raman scattering resonance. A comparison of the spectral efficiencies for this photoswitching with analogous data for the persistent photoconductivity and photoconductivity quenching effects suggests that the two phenomena have the same microscopic origin. We argue that the effects are due to photoinduced Cu-O charge-transfer excitations, which destabilize chains of different length depending on wavelength, and promote the growth of thermally inaccessible oxygen ordering configurations.

  8. Characterization of scatter in digital mammography from physical measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leon, Stephanie M. Wagner, Louis K.; Brateman, Libby F.

    2014-06-15

    .16, and the MRE ranged from about 3 to 13 mm. Without a grid, the SF ranged from a minimum of 0.25 to a maximum of 0.52, and the MRE ranged from about 20 to 45 mm. The SF with a grid demonstrated a mild dependence on target/filter combination and kV, whereas the SF without a grid was independent of these factors. The MRE demonstrated a complex relationship as a function of kV, with notable difference among target/filter combinations. The primary source of change in both the SF and MRE was phantom thickness. Conclusions: Because breast tissue varies spatially in physical density and elemental content, the effective thickness of breast tissue varies spatially across the imaging field, resulting in a spatially-variant scatter distribution in the imaging field. The data generated in this study can be used to characterize the scatter contribution on a point-by-point basis, for a variety of different techniques.

  9. Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, K. A.; Dynes, J. F.; Lucamarini, M.; Choi, I.; Sharpe, A. W.; Yuan, Z. L. Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.

    2014-02-03

    We demonstrate quantum key distribution (QKD) with bidirectional 10 Gb/s classical data channels in a single fiber using dense wavelength division multiplexing. Record secure key rates of 2.38 Mbps and fiber distances up to 70?km are achieved. Data channels are simultaneously monitored for error-free operation. The robustness of QKD is further demonstrated with a secure key rate of 445 kbps over 25?km, obtained in the presence of data lasers launching conventional 0 dBm power. We discuss the fundamental limit for the QKD performance in the multiplexing environment.

  10. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  11. Integrated, Automated Distributed Generation Technologies Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Kevin

    2014-09-30

    The purpose of the NETL Project was to develop a diverse combination of distributed renewable generation technologies and controls and demonstrate how the renewable generation could help manage substation peak demand at the ATK Promontory plant site. The Promontory plant site is located in the northwestern Utah desert approximately 25 miles west of Brigham City, Utah. The plant encompasses 20,000 acres and has over 500 buildings. The ATK Promontory plant primarily manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for both commercial and government launch systems. The original project objectives focused on distributed generation; a 100 kW (kilowatt) wind turbine, a 100 kW new technology waste heat generation unit, a 500 kW energy storage system, and an intelligent system-wide automation system to monitor and control the renewable energy devices then release the stored energy during the peak demand time. The original goal was to reduce peak demand from the electrical utility company, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), by 3.4%. For a period of time we also sought to integrate our energy storage requirements with a flywheel storage system (500 kW) proposed for the Promontory/RMP Substation. Ultimately the flywheel storage system could not meet our project timetable, so the storage requirement was switched to a battery storage system (300 kW.) A secondary objective was to design/install a bi-directional customer/utility gateway application for real-time visibility and communications between RMP, and ATK. This objective was not achieved because of technical issues with RMP, ATK Information Technology Department’s stringent requirements based on being a rocket motor manufacturing facility, and budget constraints. Of the original objectives, the following were achieved: ‱ Installation of a 100 kW wind turbine. ‱ Installation of a 300 kW battery storage system. ‱ Integrated control system installed to offset electrical demand by releasing stored energy from renewable sources

  12. Coupled-channel scattering on a torus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Peng; Dudek, Jozef Jon; Edwards, Robert G.; Szczepaniak, Adam Pawel

    2013-07-01

    Based on the Hamiltonian formalism approach, a generalized Luscher's formula for two particle scattering in both the elastic and coupled-channel cases in moving frames is derived from a relativistic Lippmann-Schwinger equation. Some strategies for extracting scattering amplitudes for a coupled-channel system from the discrete finite-volume spectrum are discussed and illustrated with a toy model of two-channel resonant scattering. This formalism will, in the near future, be used to extract information about hadron scattering from lattice QCD computations.

  13. Scattering Workshop May 16-17, 2006

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Annual SSRL Workshop on Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences: Theory and Application Tuesday, May 16 & Wednesday, May 17, 2006...

  14. Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NA, 2010 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR)...

  15. Neutron scattering and absorption properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Table in this report presents an evaluated set of values for the experimental quantities, which characterize the properties for scattering and absorption of neutrons. The neutron cross section is given for room temperature neutrons, 20.43{degree}C, corresponds to a thermal neutron energy of 0.0253 electron volts (eV) or a neutron velocity of 2200 meters/second. The neutron resonance integral is defined over the energy range from 0.5 eV to 0.1 {times} 10{sup 6} eV, or 0.1 MeV. A list of the major references used is given below. The literature cutoff data is October 1993. Uncertainties are given in parentheses. Parentheses with two or more numbers indicate values to the excited states(s) and to the ground state of the product nucleus.

  16. Bidirectional piston valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Harry C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention is a reversing valve having an inlet, an outlet, and an inlet-outlet port. The valve is designed to respond to the introduction of relatively high-pressure fluid at its inlet or, alternatively, of lower-pressure fluid at its inlet-outlet port. The valve includes an axially slidable assembly which is spring-biased to a position where it isolates the inlet and connects the inlet-outlet port to the outlet. The admission of high-pressure fluid to the inlet displaces the slidable assembly to a position where the outlet is isolated and the inlet is connected to the inlet-outlet port. The valve is designed to minimize pressure drops and leakage. It is of a reliable and comparatively simple design.

  17. The scattering problem for nonlocal potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolotarev, V A

    2014-11-30

    We solve the direct and inverse scattering problems for integro-differential operators which are one-dimensional perturbations of the self-adjoint second derivative operator on the half-axis. We also describe the scattering data for this class of operators. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  18. LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

    2014-11-11

    An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

  19. Double distributions and evolution equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.V. Radyushkin

    1998-05-01

    Applications of perturbative QCD to deeply virtual Compton scattering and hard exclusive meson electroproduction processes require a generalization of usual parton distributions for the case when long-distance information is accumulated in nonforward matrix elements < p{prime} {vert_bar}O(0,z){vert_bar}p > of quark and gluon light-cone operators. In their previous papers the authors used two types of nonperturbative functions parameterizing such matrix elements: double distributions F(x,y;t) and nonforward distribution functions F{sub {zeta}}(X;t). Here they discuss in more detail the double distributions (DD's) and evolution equations which they satisfy. They propose simple models for F(x,y;t=0) DD's with correct spectral and symmetry properties which also satisfy the reduction relations connecting them to the usual parton densities f(x). In this way, they obtain self-consistent models for the {zeta}-dependence of nonforward distributions. They show that, for small {zeta}, one can easily obtain nonforward distributions (in the X > {zeta} region) from the parton densities: F{sub {zeta}} (X;t=0) {approx} f(X{minus}{zeta}/2).

  20. Barrier Distributions for Cold-Fusion Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Mitsuoka, Shin-ichi; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Tsuruta, Kaoru; Watanabe, Yutaka; Jeong, Sunchan; Satou, Ken-ichiro

    2006-08-14

    Coulomb barrier distributions for the capture process in the cold fusion reactions for 48Ti, 54Cr, 56Fe, 64Ni, 70Zn projectiles incident on 208Pb target are obtained by the measurement of the quasi-elastic scattering cross sections at backward angles. The obtained barrier distributions are compared with the result of a coupled-channels calculation. It is found that the barrier distributions are well reproduced by the calculation taking account of the coupling of one phonon of the quadrupole vibration for these projectile nuclei and two phonons of the octupole vibration for 208Pb.

  1. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized

  2. Distribution Category:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    - Distribution Category: Remedial Action and Decommissioning Program (UC-70A) DOE/EV-0005/48 ANL-OHS/HP-84-104 ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439 FORMERLY UTILIZED MXD/AEC SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE HARSHAW CHEMICAL COMPANY CLEVELAND. OHIO Prepared by R. A. Wynveen Associate Division Director, OHS W. H. Smith Senior Health Physicist C. M. Sholeen Health Physicist A. L. Justus Health Physicist K. F. Flynn Health Physicist

  3. Constrained {gamma}Z correction to parity-violating electron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Nathan Luk; Blunden, Peter Gwithian; Melnitchouk, Wally; Thomas, Anthony W.; Young, Ross D.

    2013-11-01

    We update the calculation of {gamma}Z interference corrections to the weak charge of the proton. We show how constraints from parton distributions, together with new data on parity-violating electron scattering in the resonance region, significantly reduce the uncertainties on the corrections compared to previous estimates.

  4. Measurements of transverse momentum in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering at CLAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A. Griffioen

    2012-12-01

    With mounting experimental evidence that only a small fraction of the proton's spin comes from the spins of its quarks and gluons, the quest for orbital angular momentum has begun. The parton distributions relevant to this depend on transverse quark momenta. Recent CLAS semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering measurements probe these new transverse-momentum-dependent parton distributions using longitudinally polarized beams and targets and detecting {pi}{sup +},{pi}{sup -} and {pi}{sup 0} in the final state.

  5. Longitudinal target-spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Seder, E.; Biselli, A.; Pisano, S.; Niccolai, S.; Smith, G. D.; Joo, K.; Adhikari, K.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; et al

    2015-01-22

    A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6-GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for ep → e'p'y events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in Q2, xB, t and Ί, for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), at leading twist the t dependence of these asymmetries provides insight on the spatial distribution of the axialmore » charge of the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. In conclusion, these results bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even GPDs.« less

  6. Longitudinal target-spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seder, E.; Biselli, A.; Pisano, S.; Niccolai, S.; Smith, G. D.; Joo, K.; Adhikari, K.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, W.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; BĂŒltmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Carlin, C.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D’Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hirlinger Saylor, N.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; SabatiĂ©, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Senderovich, I.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tian, Y.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.

    2015-01-22

    A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6-GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for ep → e'p'y events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in Q2, xB, t and Ω, for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), at leading twist the t dependence of these asymmetries provides insight on the spatial distribution of the axial charge of the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. In conclusion, these results bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even GPDs.

  7. Biological cell classification by multiangle light scattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzman, G.C.; Crowell, J.M.; Mullaney, P.F.

    1975-06-03

    The specification is directed to an apparatus and method for detecting light scattering from a biological cell. Light, preferably from a coherent source of radiation, intercepts an individual biological cell in a stream of cells passing through the beam. Light scattered from the cell is detected at a selected number of angles between 0 and 90/sup 0/ to the longitudinal axis of the beam with a circular array of light responsive elements which produce signals representative of the intensity of light incident thereon. Signals from the elements are processed to determine the light-scattering pattern of the cell and therefrom its identity.

  8. Airborne aerosol in situ measurements during TCAP: A closure study of total scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kassianov, Evgueni; Sedlacek, Arthur; Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail; Barnard, James; Chand, Duli; Flynn, Connor; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John; et al

    2015-07-31

    We present a framework for calculating the total scattering of both non-absorbing and absorbing aerosol at ambient conditions from aircraft data. Our framework is developed emphasizing the explicit use of chemical composition data for estimating the complex refractive index (RI) of particles, and thus obtaining improved ambient size spectra derived from Optical Particle Counter (OPC) measurements. The feasibility of our framework for improved calculations of total scattering is demonstrated using three types of data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) aircraft during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Namely, these data types are: (1) size distributions measured by amore » suite of OPC’s; (2) chemical composition data measured by an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a Single Particle Soot Photometer; and (3) the dry total scattering coefficient measured by a integrating nephelometer and scattering enhancement factor measured with a humidification system. We demonstrate that good agreement (~10%) between the observed and calculated scattering can be obtained under ambient conditions (RH < 80%) by applying chemical composition data for the RI-based correction of the OPC-derived size spectra. We also demonstrate that ignoring the RI-based correction or using non-representative RI values can cause a substantial underestimation (~40%) or overestimation (~35%) of the calculated scattering, respectively.« less

  9. Predicting X-ray diffuse scattering from translation–libration–screw structural ensembles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Wall, Michael E.; Jackson, Colin J.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Fraser, James S.

    2015-07-28

    Identifying the intramolecular motions of proteins and nucleic acids is a major challenge in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Because Bragg diffraction describes the average positional distribution of crystalline atoms with imperfect precision, the resulting electron density can be compatible with multiple models of motion. Diffuse X-ray scattering can reduce this degeneracy by reporting on correlated atomic displacements. Although recent technological advances are increasing the potential to accurately measure diffuse scattering, computational modeling and validation tools are still needed to quantify the agreement between experimental data and different parameterizations of crystalline disorder. A new tool, phenix.diffuse, addresses this need by employing Guinier's equation to calculate diffuse scattering from Protein Data Bank (PDB)-formatted structural ensembles. As an example case, phenix.diffuse is applied to translation–libration–screw (TLS) refinement, which models rigid-body displacement for segments of the macromolecule. To enable the calculation of diffuse scattering from TLS-refined structures, phenix.tls_as_xyz builds multi-model PDB files that sample the underlying T, L and S tensors. In the glycerophosphodiesterase GpdQ, alternative TLS-group partitioning and different motional correlations between groups yield markedly dissimilar diffuse scattering maps with distinct implications for molecular mechanism and allostery. These methods demonstrate how, in principle, X-ray diffuse scattering could extend macromolecular structural refinement, validation and analysis.

  10. Airborne aerosol in situ measurements during TCAP: A closure study of total scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni; Sedlacek, Arthur; Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail; Barnard, James; Chand, Duli; Flynn, Connor; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John; Tomlinson, Jason; Fast, Jerome

    2015-07-31

    We present a framework for calculating the total scattering of both non-absorbing and absorbing aerosol at ambient conditions from aircraft data. Our framework is developed emphasizing the explicit use of chemical composition data for estimating the complex refractive index (RI) of particles, and thus obtaining improved ambient size spectra derived from Optical Particle Counter (OPC) measurements. The feasibility of our framework for improved calculations of total scattering is demonstrated using three types of data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) aircraft during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Namely, these data types are: (1) size distributions measured by a suite of OPC’s; (2) chemical composition data measured by an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a Single Particle Soot Photometer; and (3) the dry total scattering coefficient measured by a integrating nephelometer and scattering enhancement factor measured with a humidification system. We demonstrate that good agreement (~10%) between the observed and calculated scattering can be obtained under ambient conditions (RH < 80%) by applying chemical composition data for the RI-based correction of the OPC-derived size spectra. We also demonstrate that ignoring the RI-based correction or using non-representative RI values can cause a substantial underestimation (~40%) or overestimation (~35%) of the calculated scattering, respectively.

  11. Predicting X-ray diffuse scattering from translation–libration–screw structural ensembles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Wall, Michael E.; Jackson, Colin J.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Fraser, James S.

    2015-07-28

    Identifying the intramolecular motions of proteins and nucleic acids is a major challenge in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Because Bragg diffraction describes the average positional distribution of crystalline atoms with imperfect precision, the resulting electron density can be compatible with multiple models of motion. Diffuse X-ray scattering can reduce this degeneracy by reporting on correlated atomic displacements. Although recent technological advances are increasing the potential to accurately measure diffuse scattering, computational modeling and validation tools are still needed to quantify the agreement between experimental data and different parameterizations of crystalline disorder. A new tool, phenix.diffuse, addresses this need by employing Guinier'smore » equation to calculate diffuse scattering from Protein Data Bank (PDB)-formatted structural ensembles. As an example case, phenix.diffuse is applied to translation–libration–screw (TLS) refinement, which models rigid-body displacement for segments of the macromolecule. To enable the calculation of diffuse scattering from TLS-refined structures, phenix.tls_as_xyz builds multi-model PDB files that sample the underlying T, L and S tensors. In the glycerophosphodiesterase GpdQ, alternative TLS-group partitioning and different motional correlations between groups yield markedly dissimilar diffuse scattering maps with distinct implications for molecular mechanism and allostery. These methods demonstrate how, in principle, X-ray diffuse scattering could extend macromolecular structural refinement, validation and analysis.« less

  12. PSTD Simulations of Multiple Light Scattering in 3-D Macrocsopic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PSTD Simulations of Multiple Light Scattering in 3-D Macrocsopic Random Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PSTD Simulations of Multiple Light Scattering in 3-D ...

  13. Plane wave method for elastic wave scattering by a heterogeneous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plane wave method for elastic wave scattering by a heterogeneous fracture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plane wave method for elastic wave scattering by a ...

  14. 2012 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School | Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School LANSCE 2012 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School Home About the School Hands-On Experiments Quick Links Application - Closed Schedule Poster...

  15. 2012 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School | Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School LANSCE 2011 LANSCE Neutron Scattering School Home NSS 2011 About the School Lecturers Hands-On Experiments Quick Links Application Schedule...

  16. Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and Fracture in EGS Environments Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and Fracture in EGS ...

  17. Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser-produced plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large ...

  18. Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a harmonic potential (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a harmonic potential Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nucleon-nucleon scattering in a harmonic potential Authors: Luu, T ; ...

  19. Polarimetric Scattering Database for Non-spherical Ice Particles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polarimetric Scattering Database for Non-spherical Ice Particles at Microwave Wavelengths Title: Polarimetric Scattering Database for Non-spherical Ice Particles at Microwave ...

  20. Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study of Water Confined in Carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study of Water Confined in Carbon Nanopores Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study of Water Confined in...

  1. Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors Low-energy spin excitations have been...

  2. Scattering universality classes of side jump in the anomalous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scattering universality classes of side jump in the anomalous Hall effect Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scattering universality classes of side jump in the anomalous ...

  3. Green's function multiple-scattering theory with a truncated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Green's function multiple-scattering theory with a truncated basis set: An augmented-KKR formalism Prev Next Title: Green's function multiple-scattering theory with a ...

  4. Self-Organizing Maps and Parton Distribution Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Holcomb, Simonetta Liuti, D. Z. Perry

    2011-05-01

    We present a new method to extract parton distribution functions from high energy experimental data based on a specific type of neural networks, the Self-Organizing Maps. We illustrate the features of our new procedure that are particularly useful for an anaysis directed at extracting generalized parton distributions from data. We show quantitative results of our initial analysis of the parton distribution functions from inclusive deep inelastic scattering.

  5. Extractions of polarized and unpolarized parton distribution functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    An overview of our ongoing extractions of parton distribution functions of the nucleon is given. First JAM results on the determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions from world data on polarized deep-inelastic scattering are presented first, and followed by a short report on the status of the JR unpolarized parton distributions. Different aspects of PDF analysis are briefly discussed, including effects of the nuclear structure of targets, target-mass corrections and higher twist contributions to the structure functions.

  6. What Does a Scattering Pattern Tell US?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    amplitude e iwt Phase difference Phase difference S e i (ri Q) A(DK) fi A(Q) Fourier Transform ( ri ) DK Q 4p sin(q) l Lensless Imaging Sample Space Scattering Space...

  7. Thomson Scattering Lineshape Fitting for Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-02-04

    HFIT30 is used for interpreting lineshape (intensity versus frequency) data from Thomson and Rayleigh light scattering from a plasma, to obtain temperatures and number densities of the component species in the plasma.

  8. Association of scattering matrices in quantum networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almeida, F.A.G.; Macêdo, A.M.S.

    2013-06-15

    Algorithms based on operations that associate scattering matrices in series or in parallel (analogous to impedance association in a classical circuit) are developed here. We exemplify their application by calculating the total scattering matrix of several types of quantum networks, such as star graphs and a chain of chaotic quantum dots, obtaining results with good agreement with the literature. Through a computational-time analysis we compare the efficiency of two algorithms for the simulation of a chain of chaotic quantum dots based on series association operations of (i) two-by-two centers and (ii) three-by-three ones. Empirical results point out that the algorithm (ii) is more efficient than (i) for small number of open scattering channels. A direct counting of floating point operations justifies quantitatively the superiority of the algorithm (i) for large number of open scattering channels.

  9. A-BC Exact Coupled Channel Scattering

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-02

    VIVAS2 computes the scattering S-matrix and transition probabilities for the collision of an S-state atom, A, with a sigma-state diatomic molecule, BC.

  10. Relativistic Thomson Scatter from Factor Calculation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this program is calculate the fully relativistic Thomson scatter from factor in unmagnetized plasmas. Such calculations are compared to experimental diagnoses of plasmas at such facilities as the Jupiter laser facility here a LLNL.

  11. What Does a Scattering Pattern Tell US?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    light image Image Space lens Can we create the image without a lens? Angular Space Math Q 4p sin(q) l Lensless Imaging Sample Space Scattering Space sample light image lens...

  12. Pores in Marcellus Shale: A Neutron Scattering and FIB-SEM Study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, Xin; Cole, David R.; Rother, Gernot; Mildner, David F. R.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2015-01-26

    The production of natural gas has become more and more important in the United States because of the development of hydraulic fracturing techniques, which significantly increase the permeability and fracture network of black shales. The pore structure of shale is a controlling factor for hydrocarbon storage and gas migration. In this work, we investigated the porosity of the Union Springs (Shamokin) Member of the Marcellus Formation from a core drilled in Centre County, PA, USA, using ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering (USANS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), and nitrogen gas adsorption. The scattering of neutrons bymore » Marcellus shale depends on the sample orientation: for thin sections cut in the plane of bedding, the scattering pattern is isotropic, while for thin sections cut perpendicular to the bedding, the scattering pattern is anisotropic. The FIB-SEM observations allow attribution of the anisotropic scattering patterns to elongated pores predominantly associated with clay. The apparent porosities calculated from scattering data from the bedding plane sections are lower than those calculated from sections cut perpendicular to the bedding. A preliminary method for estimating the total porosity from the measurements made on the two orientations is presented. This method is in good agreement with nitrogen adsorption for both porosity and specific surface area measurements. Neutron scattering combined with FIB-SEM reveals that the dominant nanosized pores in organic-poor, clay-rich shale samples are water-accessible sheetlike pores within clay aggregates. In contrast, bubble-like organophilic pores in kerogen dominate organic-rich samples. Lastly, developing a better understanding of the distribution of the water-accessible pores will promote more accurate models of water–mineral interactions during hydrofracturing.« less

  13. Pores in Marcellus Shale: A Neutron Scattering and FIB-SEM Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Xin; Cole, David R.; Rother, Gernot; Mildner, David F. R.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2015-01-26

    The production of natural gas has become more and more important in the United States because of the development of hydraulic fracturing techniques, which significantly increase the permeability and fracture network of black shales. The pore structure of shale is a controlling factor for hydrocarbon storage and gas migration. In this work, we investigated the porosity of the Union Springs (Shamokin) Member of the Marcellus Formation from a core drilled in Centre County, PA, USA, using ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering (USANS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), and nitrogen gas adsorption. The scattering of neutrons by Marcellus shale depends on the sample orientation: for thin sections cut in the plane of bedding, the scattering pattern is isotropic, while for thin sections cut perpendicular to the bedding, the scattering pattern is anisotropic. The FIB-SEM observations allow attribution of the anisotropic scattering patterns to elongated pores predominantly associated with clay. The apparent porosities calculated from scattering data from the bedding plane sections are lower than those calculated from sections cut perpendicular to the bedding. A preliminary method for estimating the total porosity from the measurements made on the two orientations is presented. This method is in good agreement with nitrogen adsorption for both porosity and specific surface area measurements. Neutron scattering combined with FIB-SEM reveals that the dominant nanosized pores in organic-poor, clay-rich shale samples are water-accessible sheetlike pores within clay aggregates. In contrast, bubble-like organophilic pores in kerogen dominate organic-rich samples. Lastly, developing a better understanding of the distribution of the water-accessible pores will promote more accurate models of water–mineral interactions during hydrofracturing.

  14. Measurement of the elastic scattering /sup 12/C+/sup 28/Si at energies 56 MeV--69 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHEN Wen-qing; YIN Shu-zhi; GUO Zhong-yan; ZHU Yong-tai; CHEN Ju-shen; WU En-chiu; GUO Chi-di; FENG En-pu; XIE Yaun-xiang

    1985-07-01

    The angular distributions of the elastic scattering reaction /sup 12/C+/sup 28/Si have been measured at the energies 69.5 MeV, 66 MeV, 59 MeV, 56 MeV using a large area position sensitive ionization chamber. The experimental data are fitted in the framework of the optical model. The probable reasons of the oscillations and enhancement of the elastic scattering angular distributions are discussed.

  15. American Conference on Neutron Scattering 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillen, J. Ardie

    2014-12-31

    Scientists from the around the world converged in Knoxville, TN to have share ideas, present technical information and contribute to the advancement of neutron scattering. Featuring over 400 oral/poster presentations, ACNS 2014 offered a strong program of plenary, invited and contributed talks and poster sessions covering topics in soft condensed matter, hard condensed matter, biology, chemistry, energy and engineering applications in neutron physics – confirming the great diversity of science that is enabled by neutron scattering.

  16. Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron and X-ray Scattering Neutron and X-ray Scattering When used together, neutrons and high-energy x-rays provide a supremely powerful scientific tool for mining details about the structure of materials. Combining neutrons and high-energy x-rays to explore the frontiers of materials in extreme environments. Illuminating previously inaccessible time and spatial scales. Enabling in situ research to design, discover, and control materials. Get Expertise Donald Brown Email Pushing the limits of

  17. Resonances in pi-K scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, David J.

    2014-06-23

    We have obtained clear signals of resonances in coupled-channel pi K - eta K scattering. Using distillation and a large basis of operators we are able to extract a precise spectrum of energy levels using the variational method. These energies are analysed using inelastic extensions of the Luescher method to obtain scattering amplitudes that clearly describe S, P and D wave resonances, corresponding to the physical K_0^*(1430), the K^*(892) and the K_2^*(1430).

  18. Scattering Workshop May 16-17, 2006

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workshop on Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences: Theory and Application. group shot on the steps of bldg 41 (Click image for a hi-res version) Date: May 16 (Lectures) May 17 (Hands-on practical session) Location: SSRL Overview: Modern synchrotron-based X-ray scattering (SR-XRS) techniques offer the ability to probe nano- and atomic-scale structures and order/disorder relationships that critically govern the properties of advanced technological and

  19. Nonlinear Brightness Optimization in Compton Scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hartemann, Fred V.; Wu, Sheldon S. Q.

    2013-07-26

    In Compton scattering light sources, a laser pulse is scattered by a relativistic electron beam to generate tunable x and gamma rays. Because of the inhomogeneous nature of the incident radiation, the relativistic Lorentz boost of the electrons is modulated by the ponderomotive force during the interaction, leading to intrinsic spectral broadening and brightness limitations. We discuss these effects, along with an optimization strategy to properly balance the laser bandwidth, diffraction, and nonlinear ponderomotive force.

  20. Light-scattering studies of silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-02-01

    Due to its combination of transparency and low thermal conductivity, aerogel holds considerable promise for use as insulating window materials for residential and commercial applications. This paper reports on the preliminary investigation of the optical and scattering properties of silica aerogels. It briefly describes the properties of aerogels important for window glazing applications. The optical properties are then described, followed by a discussion of the scattering measurements and their interpretation.

  1. 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering LANSCE » 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering Home Abstract Lecturers Lecturer Abstracts Hands-On Experiments Free Day About the School Sponsors FAQ's Quick Links Application - Closed Reference Form - closed Schedule- tentative Poster Contacts School: neutronschool@lanl.gov School Co-Directors: A. Llobet allobet@lanl.gov H. Nakotte hnakotte@nmsu.edu Local Organizing Committee: Edwin Fohtung (Co-Chair) efohtung@nmsu.edu Ph:575.646.5631 Graham King

  2. Performance Assessment of Bi-Directional Knotless Tissue-Closure Devices in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters, 2009 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Bryson, Amanda J.

    2012-11-09

    The purpose of this report is to assess the performance of bi-directional knotless tissue-closure devices for use in tagging juvenile salmon. This study is part of an ongoing effort at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to reduce unwanted effects of tags and tagging procedures on the survival and behavior of juvenile salmonids, by assessing and refining suturing techniques, suture materials, and tag burdens. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the knotless (barbed) suture, using three different suture patterns (treatments: 6-point, Wide “N”, Wide “N” Knot), to the current method of suturing (MonocrylTM monofilament, discontinuous sutures with a 2×2×2×2 knot) used in monitoring and research programs with a novel antiseptic barrier on the wound (“Second Skin”).

  3. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., q.sub.max /q.sub.min.congruent.100.

  4. Probing the Quantum State of a 1D Bose Gas Using Off-Resonant Light Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sykes, A. G.; Ballagh, R. J.

    2011-12-30

    We present a theoretical treatment of coherent light scattering from an interacting 1D Bose gas at finite temperatures. We show how this can provide a nondestructive measurement of the atomic system states. The equilibrium states are determined by the temperature and interaction strength, and are characterized by the spatial density-density correlation function. We show how this correlation function is encoded in the angular distribution of the fluctuations of the scattered light intensity, thus providing a sensitive, quantitative probe of the density-density correlation function and therefore the quantum state of the gas.

  5. Access to generalized parton distributions at COMPASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-04-10

    A brief experimentalist's introduction to Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) is given. Recent COMPASS results are shown on transverse target-spin asymmetries in hard exclusive ρ{sup 0} production and their interpretation in terms of a phenomenological model as indication for chiral-odd, transverse GPDs is discussed. For deeply virtual Compton scattering, it is briefly outlined how to access GPDs and projections are shown for future COMPASS measurements.

  6. BIOISIS: Biological Macromolecules by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tainer, John [Scripps Research Institute; Hura, Greg [LBNL; Rambo, Robert P. [LBNL

    BIOISIS is an open access database dedicated to the study of biological macromolecules by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). BIOISIS aims to become the complete source for the deposition, distribution and maintenance of small angle X-ray scattering data and technologies. The database is designed around the concept of an ôexperimentö and relates a specific experiment to a set of genes, organisms, computational models and experimental data. As of May 2012, BIOSIS contains 7,118 genes covering four different organisms. Forty-two modeled structures are available. Clicking on a structures reveals scattering curves, experimental conditions, and experimental values. The data are collected at Beamline 12.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS).[Copied with editing from http://www.bioisis.net/about

  7. Deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li at an energy of 25 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtebayev, N.; Artemov, S. V.; Duisebayev, B. A.; Kerimkulov, Zh. K.; Kuranov, S. B.; Sakuta, S. B.

    2010-05-15

    At an energy of 25 MeV and in the angular range 7{sup o}-175{sup o} in the laboratory frame, angular distributions were measured for elastic deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li nuclei and for the respective inelastic-scattering processes accompanied by the transitions to the ground state (1+) of the {sup 6}Li nucleus and to its excited state at E{sub x} = 2.186 MeV (J{sup {pi}} = 3{sup +}). The resulting data were analyzed on the basis of the optical model of the nucleus and the coupled-reaction-channel method with allowance for the mechanism of alpha-particle-cluster exchange. It is shown that only upon including, in the analysis, channel coupling and the exchange mechanism can the experimental cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering be reproduced over the entire range of angles.

  8. Efficient Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Plasmonic Scattering Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothberg, Lewis

    2012-11-30

    Our project addressed the DOE MYPP 2020 goal to improve light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to 75% (Core task 6.3). As noted in the 2010 MYPP, “the greatest opportunity for improvement is in the extraction of light from [OLED] panels”. There are many approaches to avoiding waveguiding limitations intrinsic to the planar OLED structure including use of textured substrates, microcavity designs and incorporating scattering layers into the device structure. We have chosen to pursue scattering layers since it addresses the largest source of loss which is waveguiding in the OLED itself. Scattering layers also have the potential to be relatively robust to color, polarization and angular distributions. We note that this can be combined with textured or microlens decorated substrates to achieve additional enhancement.

  9. Cross sections for electron scattering by propane in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, G. L. C. de; Lee, M.-T.; Sanches, I. P.; Rawat, P.; Iga, I.; Santos, A. S. dos; Machado, L. E.; Sugohara, R. T.; Brescansin, L. M.; Homem, M. G. P.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2010-07-15

    We present a joint theoretical-experimental study on electron scattering by propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Calculated elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer as well as total (elastic + inelastic) and total absorption cross sections are reported for impact energies ranging from 2 to 500 eV. Also, experimental absolute elastic cross sections are reported in the 40- to 500-eV energy range. A complex optical potential is used to represent the electron-molecule interaction dynamics. A theoretical method based on the single-center-expansion close-coupling framework and corrected by the Pade approximant is used to solve the scattering equations. The experimental angular distributions of the scattered electrons are converted to absolute cross sections using the relative flow technique. The comparison of our calculated with our measured results, as well as with other experimental and theoretical data available in the literature, is encouraging.

  10. BIOISIS: Biological Macromolecules by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tainer, John [Scripps Research Institute; Hura, Greg [LBNL; Rambo, Robert P. [LBNL

    BIOISIS is an open access database dedicated to the study of biological macromolecules by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). BIOISIS aims to become the complete source for the deposition, distribution and maintenance of small angle X-ray scattering data and technologies. The database is designed around the concept of an Îexperimentö and relates a specific experiment to a set of genes, organisms, computational models and experimental data. As of May 2012, BIOSIS contains 7,118 genes covering four different organisms. Forty-two modeled structures are available. Clicking on a structures reveals scattering curves, experimental conditions, and experimental values. The data are collected at Beamline 12.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS).[Copied with editing from http://www.bioisis.net/about

  11. Multiple scattering of electrons in solids and molecules: A cluster-model approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia de Abajo, F. J.; Van Hove, M. A.; Fadley, C. S.

    2001-02-15

    A method for the simulation of electron scattering and diffraction in solids and molecules within the cluster approach is presented with explicit applications to photoelectron diffraction, electron scattering in molecules, and low-energy electron diffraction. No approximations are made beyond the muffin-tin model, and, in particular, an exact representation of the free-electron Green function is used. All multiple-scattering paths are accounted for up to an order of scattering that ensures convergence. The method relies upon a convenient separation of the free-electron Green function in rotation matrices and translations along the z axis, which greatly reduces the computation time and storage demand. The evaluation of the multiple-scattering expansion is implemented using the fully convergent recursion method, which permits one to perform an iterative refinement of the final-state wave function, as expressed in the basis set of spherical harmonics attached to each atom of the cluster. Examples are offered in which the direct multiple-scattering expansion and the more elaborated simultaneous relaxation method fail to converge, whereas the recursion method leads to convergence. The computation time needed by the resulting computer program of electron diffraction in atomic clusters to determine the self-consistently scattered wave function is proportional to N{sup 2}(l{sub max}+1){sup 3}, where N is the number of atoms in the cluster and l{sub max} is the maximum angular momentum for which the scattering phase shifts take non-negligible values. Within this method it is possible to establish that in practical cases N>1000 might be needed for a convergence of the cluster size, although the angular averaging inherent in many experiments may reduce this. The recursion method was also modified to reduce the effort in computing angular distributions of photoelectrons and low-energy diffracted electrons, which now require negligible time for each angle of emission once the

  12. Explicit spatial scattering for load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel discrete-event simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thulasidasan, Sunil; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Romero, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the problem of load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel, discrete-event simulations executed on high-performance computing clusters, focusing on simulations where computational and messaging load tend to be spatially clustered. Such domains are frequently characterized by the presence of geographic 'hot-spots' - regions that generate significantly more simulation events than others. Examples of such domains include simulation of urban regions, transportation networks and networks where interaction between entities is often constrained by physical proximity. Noting that in conservatively synchronized parallel simulations, the speed of execution of the simulation is determined by the slowest (i.e most heavily loaded) simulation process, we study different partitioning strategies in achieving equitable processor-load distribution in domains with spatially clustered load. In particular, we study the effectiveness of partitioning via spatial scattering to achieve optimal load balance. In this partitioning technique, nearby entities are explicitly assigned to different processors, thereby scattering the load across the cluster. This is motivated by two observations, namely, (i) since load is spatially clustered, spatial scattering should, intuitively, spread the load across the compute cluster, and (ii) in parallel simulations, equitable distribution of CPU load is a greater determinant of execution speed than message passing overhead. Through large-scale simulation experiments - both of abstracted and real simulation models - we observe that scatter partitioning, even with its greatly increased messaging overhead, significantly outperforms more conventional spatial partitioning techniques that seek to reduce messaging overhead. Further, even if hot-spots change over the course of the simulation, if the underlying feature of spatial clustering is retained, load continues to be balanced with spatial scattering leading us to the observation that

  13. Self-scattering for Dark Matter with an excited state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schutz, Katelin; Slatyer, Tracy R. E-mail: tslatyer@mit.edu

    2015-01-01

    Self-interacting dark matter scenarios have recently attracted much attention, as a possible means to alleviate the tension between N-body simulations and observations of the dark matter distribution on galactic and sub-galactic scales. The presence of internal structure for the dark matter—for example, a nearly-degenerate state in the spectrum that could decay, or be collisionally excited or de-excited—has also been proposed as a possible means to address these discrepancies. Such internal structure can be a source of interesting signatures in direct and indirect dark matter searches, for example providing a novel explanation for the 3.5 keV line recently observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters. We analyze a simple model of dark matter self-scattering including a nearly-degenerate excited state, and develop an accurate analytic approximation for the elastic and inelastic s-wave cross sections, which is valid outside the perturbative regime provided the particle velocity is sufficiently low (this condition is also required for the s-wave to dominate over higher partial waves). We anticipate our results will be useful in incorporating inelastic self-scattering into N-body simulations, in order to study the quantitative impact of nearly-degenerate states in the dark matter spectrum on galactic structure and dynamics, and in computing the indirect signatures of multi-state dark matter.

  14. Inelastic pion scattering by /sup 13/C at low energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, J.H.

    1987-03-01

    Angular distributions for inelastically scattered pions were obtained for several states in /sup 13/C at an incident energy of 65 MeV. The data include results from both ..pi../sup +/ and ..pi../sup -/ measurements. In addition, ..pi../sup -/ measurements were made at T/sub ..pi../ = 50 MeV at one angle to give a two point fixed-q excitation function. The data are compared to theory and the data of others. As might be expected, medium corrections are shown to be considerably more important at low energies than at resonance. This is true for inelastic transitions of multipolarity 0,2 and 3. Parameters derived from an analysis of elastic pion scattering and SCX data also provide an adequate description of the inelastic transitions. The charge asymmetry in the cross sections for the 9/2/sup +/ state that was seen at resonance persists at these energies. This result is consistent with an impulse approximation treatment of the spin-flip amplitude. This is true even though the incoming energy of the pions is far below the range where the validity of an impulse treatment is expected. 65 refs., 45 figs.

  15. A Process for Modelling Diffuse Scattering from Disordered Molecular Crystals, Illustrated by Application to Monoclinic 9-Chloro-10-methylanthracene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Goossens, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse scattering from a crystal contains valuable information about the two-body correlations (related to the nanoscale order) in the material. Despite years of development, the detailed analysis of single crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS) has yet to become part of the everyday toolbox of the structural scientist. Recent decades have seen the pair distribution function approach to diffuse scattering (in fact, total scattering) from powders become a relatively routine tool. However, analysing the detailed, complex, and often highly anisotropic three-dimensional distribution of SCDS remains valuable yet rare because there is no routine method for undertaking the analysis. At present, analysis requiresmore » significant investment of time to develop specialist expertise, which means that the analysis of diffuse scattering, which has much to offer, is not incorporated thorough studies of many compounds even though it has the potential to be a very useful adjunct to existing techniques. This article endeavours to outline in some detail how the diffuse scattering from a molecular crystal can be modelled relatively quickly and largely using existing software tools. It is hoped this will provide a template for other studies. To enable this, the entire simulation is included as deposited material.« less

  16. Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehman, S K

    2011-07-06

    How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and

  17. Quark-hadron duality in neutrino scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Melnitchouk; O. Lalakulich; E. A. Paschos

    2006-07-24

    We present a phenomenological model of the quark-hadron transition in neutrino-nucleon scattering. Using recently extracted weak nucleon transition form factors, we investigate the extent to which local and global quark-hadron duality is applicable in the neutrino F{sub 1}, F{sub 2} and F{sub 3} structure functions, and contrast this with duality in electron scattering. Our findings suggest that duality works relatively well for neutrino-nucleon scattering for the F{sub 2} and F{sub 3} structure functions, but not as well for F{sub 1}. We also calculate the quasi-elastic, resonance and deep inelastic contributions to the Adler sum rule, and find it to be satisfied to within 10% for 0.5 < Q{sup 2} < 2 GeV{sup 2}.

  18. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal ...

  19. Photon counting spectroscopy as done with a Thomson scattering diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Ruppert, D.E.

    1993-11-01

    The measurement and reduction of photon counting spectral data is demonstrated within the context of a Thomson scattering diagnostic. This diagnostic contains a microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tube (PMT) as the photon sensing device. The MCP PMT is not an ideal photon sensor, the loss of photoelectrons at the MCP input and the broad charge pulse distribution at the output add to the uncertainty in recorded data. Computer simulations are used to demonstrate an approach to quantification of this added uncertainty and to develop an understanding of its source; the methodology may be applicable to the development of an understanding of photon detectors other than an MCP PMT. Emphasis is placed on the Poisson statistical character of the data, because the assumption that a Gaussian probability distribution is a reasonable statistical description of photon counting data is often questionable. When the count rate is low, the product the possible number of photon counts and the probability of measurement of a single photon is usually not sufficiently large to justify Gaussian statistics. Rather, because probabilities of measurement are so low, the Poisson probability distribution best quantifies the inherent statistical fluctuations in such counting measurements. The method of maximum likelihood is applied to derive the Poisson statistics equivalent of {sub X}{sup 2}. A Poisson statistics based data fitting code is implemented using the Newton-Raphson method of multi-dimensional root finding; we also demonstrate an algorithm to estimate the uncertainties in derived quantities.

  20. Deep inelastic lepton nucleus scattering and hadronization at HERMES energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruenewald, D.

    2005-06-14

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton nucleus scattering is studied. The possible hadron interactions inside the nucleus are taken into account by an absorption model which is based on flavor dependent hadron formation lengths, calculated in the framework of the LUND string fragmentation model. Additionally, the rescaling of parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions in the nuclear medium is considered, due to the hypothesis, that a quark in a bound nucleon has access to a larger region in space than in a free nucleon. The model predictions are compared with recent HERMES results for the multiplicity ratios normalized to deuterium on various hadron species and different nuclei. Beside the proton, a good agreement with the experimental data is found.

  1. Recent improvements in Thomson scattering data analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillack, M.S.; Lazarus, E.A.

    1980-04-01

    A new profile analysis package for use with the Thomson scattering data on ISX-B has recently been implemented. The primary feature of this package is a weighted least squares fitting of temperature and density data to generate a representative curve, as opposed to the previous hand-fitting technique. The changes will automate the manner in which data are transmitted and manipulated, without affecting the calculational techniques previously used. The computer programs have also been used to estimate the sensitivity of various plasma quantities to the accuracy of the Thomson scattering data.

  2. Scattering theory with localized non-Hermiticities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Znojil, Miloslav [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-15

    In the context of the recent interest in solvable models of scattering mediated by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians (cf. H. F. Jones, Phys. Rev. D 76, 125003 (2007)) we show that the well-known variability of the ad hoc choice of the metric {theta} which defines the physical Hilbert space of states can help us to clarify several apparent paradoxes. We argue that with a suitable {theta}, a fully plausible physical picture of the scattering can be recovered. Quantitatively, our new recipe is illustrated on an exactly solvable toy model.

  3. Geometric phases in a scattering process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H. D.; Yi, X. X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-08-15

    The study of geometric phase in quantum mechanics has so far been confined to discrete (or continuous) spectra and trace-preserving evolutions. By considering only the transmission channel, a scattering process with internal degrees of freedom is neither a discrete spectrum problem nor a trace-preserving process. We explore the geometric phase in the scattering process by taking only the transmission process into account. We find that the geometric phase can be calculated by the same method as in unitary evolution. The interference visibility depends on the transmission amplitude. The dependence of the geometric phase on the barrier strength and the spin-spin coupling constant is also presented and discussed.

  4. Diffractive Scattering and Gauge/String Duality

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Tan, Chung-I [Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States

    2009-09-01

    High-energy diffractive scattering will be discussed based on Gauge/String duality. As shown by Brower, Polchinski, Strassler and Tan, the ubiquitous Pomeron emerges naturally in gauge theories with string-theoretical descriptions. Its existence is intimately tied to gluons, and also to the energy-momentum tensor. With a confining dual background metric, the Pomeron can be interpreted as a 'massive graviton'. In a single unified step, both its infrared and ultraviolet properties are dealt with, reflecting confinement and conformal symmetry respectively. An effective field theory for high-energy scattering can be constructed. Applications based on this approach will also be described.

  5. The scattering of f- and p-modes from ensembles of thin magnetic flux tubes: an analytical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Chris S.; Cally, Paul S.

    2014-08-20

    Motivated by the observational results of Braun, we extend the model of Hanson and Cally to address the effect of multiple scattering of f and p modes by an ensemble of thin vertical magnetic flux tubes in the surface layers of the Sun. As in the observational Hankel analysis, we measure the scatter and phase shift from an incident cylindrical wave in a coordinate system roughly centered in the core of the ensemble. It is demonstrated that although thin flux tubes are unable to interact with high-order fluting modes individually, they can indirectly absorb energy from these waves through the scatters of kink and sausage components. It is also shown how the distribution of absorption and phase shift across the azimuthal order m depends strongly on the tube position as well as on the individual tube characteristics. This is the first analytical study into an ensembles multiple-scattering regime that is embedded within a stratified atmosphere.

  6. Neutron scattering of residual hydrogen in 1,4-dioxane d8 liquid: Understanding measurements with molecular dynamics simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Hongjun; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Kidder, Michelle K.; de Almeida, Valmor F.

    2016-06-08

    That incoherent scattering from protiated molecular liquids adds a constant background to the measured scattering intensity is well-known, but less appreciated is the fact that coherent scattering is also induced by the presence of hydrogen in a deuterated liquid. In fact, the scattering intensity can be very sensitive, in the small-q region, with respect to the amounts and distribution of residual H in the system. We used 1,4-dioxane liquid to demonstrate that the partial structure factors of the HD and DD atom pairs contribute significantly to intermolecular scattering and that uncertainty in the extent of deuteration account for discrepancies betweenmore » simulations and measurements. Both contributions to uncertainty have similar magnitudes: scattering interference of the hydrogen–deuterium pair, and complementary interference from the deuterium–deuterium pair by virtue of chemical inhomogeneity. This situation arises in practice since deuteration of liquids is often 99% or less. A combined experimental and extensive computational study of static thermal neutron scattering of 1,4-dioxane demonstrates the foregoing. We show, through simulations, that the reason for the differences is the content of protiated dioxane (vendors quote 1%). We estimate that up to 5% (at 298 K and at 343 K) protiated molar fraction may be involved in generating the scattering differences. Finally, we find that the particular distribution of hydrogen in the protiated molecules affects the results significantly; here, we considered molecules to be either fully protiated or fully deuterated. This scenario best reconciles the computational and experimental results, and leads us to speculate that the deuteration synthesis process tends to leave a molecule either fully deuterated or fully protiated. As a result, we have used 1,4-dioxane as a model liquid, the effects described in this study extend to similar liquids, and similar systematic experimental/computational studies can be

  7. Effects of the scatter in sunspot group tilt angles on the large-scale magnetic field at the solar surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, J.; Cameron, R. H.; SchĂŒssler, M.

    2014-08-10

    The tilt angles of sunspot groups represent the poloidal field source in Babcock-Leighton-type models of the solar dynamo and are crucial for the build-up and reversals of the polar fields in surface flux transport (SFT) simulations. The evolution of the polar field is a consequence of Hale's polarity rules, together with the tilt angle distribution which has a systematic component (Joy's law) and a random component (tilt-angle scatter). We determine the scatter using the observed tilt angle data and study the effects of this scatter on the evolution of the solar surface field using SFT simulations with flux input based upon the recorded sunspot groups. The tilt angle scatter is described in our simulations by a random component according to the observed distributions for different ranges of sunspot group size (total umbral area). By performing simulations with a number of different realizations of the scatter we study the effect of the tilt angle scatter on the global magnetic field, especially on the evolution of the axial dipole moment. The average axial dipole moment at the end of cycle 17 (a medium-amplitude cycle) from our simulations was 2.73 G. The tilt angle scatter leads to an uncertainty of 0.78 G (standard deviation). We also considered cycle 14 (a weak cycle) and cycle 19 (a strong cycle) and show that the standard deviation of the axial dipole moment is similar for all three cycles. The uncertainty mainly results from the big sunspot groups which emerge near the equator. In the framework of Babcock-Leighton dynamo models, the tilt angle scatter therefore constitutes a significant random factor in the cycle-to-cycle amplitude variability, which strongly limits the predictability of solar activity.

  8. Neutron Scattering of Residual Hydrogen in 1,4-Dioxane-D8 Liquid. Understanding Measurements with Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Almeida, Valmor F.; Liu, Hongjun; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Kidder, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    That incoherent scattering from protiated molecular liquids adds a constant background to the measured scattering intensity is well known, but less appreciated is the fact that coherent scattering is also induced by the presence of hydrogen in a deuterated liquid. In fact, the scattering intensity can be very sensitive, in the small-q region, with respect to the amounts and distribution of residual H in the system. We used 1,4-dioxane liquid to demonstrate that the partial structure factors of the HD and DD atom pairs contribute significantly to inter-molecular scattering and that uncertainty in the extent of deuteration account for discrepancies between simulations and measurements. Both contributions to uncertainty have similar magnitudes: scattering interference of the hydrogen-deuterium pair, and complementary interference from the deuterium-deuterium pair by virtue of chemical inhomogeneity. This situation arises in practice since deuteration of liquids is often 99% or less. A combined experimental and extensive computational study of static thermal neutron scattering of 1,4-dioxane demonstrates the foregoing. We show, through simulations, that the reason for the differences is the content of protiated dioxane (vendors quote 1%). We estimate that up to 5% (at 298K and at 343K) protiated mole fraction may be involved in generating the scattering differences. Finally, we find that the particular distribution of hydrogen in the protiated molecules affects the results significantly; here we considered molecules to be either fully protiated or fully deuterated. This scenario best reconciles the computational and experimental results, and leads us to speculate that the deuteration synthesis process tends to leave a molecule either fully deuterated or fully protiated. Although we have used 1,4-dioxane as a model liquid, the effects described in this study extend to similar liquids and similar systematic experimental/computational studies can be performed to either

  9. Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, Stanley E.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Prather, William S.

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman-scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

  10. Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, S.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman- scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

  11. Diffusion and scattering in multifractal clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Waston, B.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes investigations of radiative properties of multifractal clouds using two different approaches. In the first, diffusion is considered by examining the scaling properties of one dimensional random walks on media with multifractal diffusivities. The second approach considers the scattering statistics associated with radiative transport.

  12. Robust Optical Richness Estimation with Reduced Scatter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rykoff, E.S.; Koester, B.P.; Rozo, E.; Annis, J.; Evrard, A.E.; Hansen, S.M.; Hao, J.; Johnston, D.E.; McKay, T.A.; Wechsler, R.H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-07

    Reducing the scatter between cluster mass and optical richness is a key goal for cluster cosmology from photometric catalogs. We consider various modifications to the red-sequence matched filter richness estimator of Rozo et al. (2009b), and evaluate their impact on the scatter in X-ray luminosity at fixed richness. Most significantly, we find that deeper luminosity cuts can reduce the recovered scatter, finding that {sigma}{sub ln L{sub X}|{lambda}} = 0.63 {+-} 0.02 for clusters with M{sub 500c} {approx}> 1.6 x 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The corresponding scatter in mass at fixed richness is {sigma}{sub ln M|{lambda}} {approx} 0.2-0.3 depending on the richness, comparable to that for total X-ray luminosity. We find that including blue galaxies in the richness estimate increases the scatter, as does weighting galaxies by their optical luminosity. We further demonstrate that our richness estimator is very robust. Specifically, the filter employed when estimating richness can be calibrated directly from the data, without requiring a-priori calibrations of the red-sequence. We also demonstrate that the recovered richness is robust to up to 50% uncertainties in the galaxy background, as well as to the choice of photometric filter employed, so long as the filters span the 4000 {angstrom} break of red-sequence galaxies. Consequently, our richness estimator can be used to compare richness estimates of different clusters, even if they do not share the same photometric data. Appendix A includes 'easy-bake' instructions for implementing our optimal richness estimator, and we are releasing an implementation of the code that works with SDSS data, as well as an augmented maxBCG catalog with the {lambda} richness measured for each cluster.

  13. Application of electrically invisible antennas to the Modulated Scatterer Technique

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crocker, Dylan A.; Donnell, Kristen M.

    2015-09-16

    The modulated scatterer technique (MST) has shown promise for applications in microwave imaging, electric field mapping, and materials characterization. Traditionally, MST scatterers are dipoles centrally loaded with an element capable of modulation (e.g., a p-i-n diode). By modulating the load element, signals scattered from the MST scatterer are also modulated. However, due to the small size of such scatterers, it can be difficult to reliably detect the modulated signal. Increasing the modulation depth (MD; a parameter related to how well the scatterer modulates the scattered signal) may improve the detectability of the scattered signal. In an effort to improve themore » MD, the concept of electrically invisible antennas is applied to the design of MST scatterers. Our paper presents simulations and measurements of MST scatterers that have been designed to be electrically invisible during the reverse bias state of the modulated element (a p-i-n diode in this case), while producing detectable scattering during the forward bias state (i.e., operate in an electrically visible state). Furthermore, the results using the new design show significant improvement to the MD of the scattered signal as compared with a traditional MST scatterer (i.e., dipole centrally loaded with a p-i-n diode).« less

  14. Application of electrically invisible antennas to the modulated scatterer technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, Dylan A.; Donnell, Kristen M.

    2015-09-16

    The modulated scatterer technique (MST) has shown promise for applications in microwave imaging, electric field mapping, and materials characterization. Traditionally, MST scatterers are dipoles centrally loaded with an element capable of modulation (e.g., a p-i-n diode). By modulating the load element, signals scattered from the MST scatterer are also modulated. However, due to the small size of such scatterers, it can be difficult to reliably detect the modulated signal. Increasing the modulation depth (MD; a parameter related to how well the scatterer modulates the scattered signal) may improve the detectability of the scattered signal. In an effort to improve the MD, the concept of electrically invisible antennas is applied to the design of MST scatterers. This paper presents simulations and measurements of MST scatterers that have been designed to be electrically invisible during the reverse bias state of the modulated element (a p-i-n diode in this case), while producing detectable scattering during the forward bias state (i.e., operate in an electrically visible state). Furthermore, the results using the new design show significant improvement to the MD of the scattered signal as compared with a traditional MST scatterer (i.e., dipole centrally loaded with a p-i-n diode).

  15. Application of electrically invisible antennas to the Modulated Scatterer Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, Dylan A.; Donnell, Kristen M.

    2015-09-16

    The modulated scatterer technique (MST) has shown promise for applications in microwave imaging, electric field mapping, and materials characterization. Traditionally, MST scatterers are dipoles centrally loaded with an element capable of modulation (e.g., a p-i-n diode). By modulating the load element, signals scattered from the MST scatterer are also modulated. However, due to the small size of such scatterers, it can be difficult to reliably detect the modulated signal. Increasing the modulation depth (MD; a parameter related to how well the scatterer modulates the scattered signal) may improve the detectability of the scattered signal. In an effort to improve the MD, the concept of electrically invisible antennas is applied to the design of MST scatterers. Our paper presents simulations and measurements of MST scatterers that have been designed to be electrically invisible during the reverse bias state of the modulated element (a p-i-n diode in this case), while producing detectable scattering during the forward bias state (i.e., operate in an electrically visible state). Furthermore, the results using the new design show significant improvement to the MD of the scattered signal as compared with a traditional MST scatterer (i.e., dipole centrally loaded with a p-i-n diode).

  16. Application of electrically invisible antennas to the modulated scatterer technique

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crocker, Dylan A.; Donnell, Kristen M.

    2015-09-16

    The modulated scatterer technique (MST) has shown promise for applications in microwave imaging, electric field mapping, and materials characterization. Traditionally, MST scatterers are dipoles centrally loaded with an element capable of modulation (e.g., a p-i-n diode). By modulating the load element, signals scattered from the MST scatterer are also modulated. However, due to the small size of such scatterers, it can be difficult to reliably detect the modulated signal. Increasing the modulation depth (MD; a parameter related to how well the scatterer modulates the scattered signal) may improve the detectability of the scattered signal. In an effort to improve themore » MD, the concept of electrically invisible antennas is applied to the design of MST scatterers. This paper presents simulations and measurements of MST scatterers that have been designed to be electrically invisible during the reverse bias state of the modulated element (a p-i-n diode in this case), while producing detectable scattering during the forward bias state (i.e., operate in an electrically visible state). Furthermore, the results using the new design show significant improvement to the MD of the scattered signal as compared with a traditional MST scatterer (i.e., dipole centrally loaded with a p-i-n diode).« less

  17. Semiclassical multi-phonon theory for atom-surface scattering: Application to the Cu(111) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daon, Shauli; Pollak, Eli

    2015-05-07

    The semiclassical perturbation theory of Hubbard and Miller [J. Chem. Phys. 80, 5827 (1984)] is further developed to include the full multi-phonon transitions in atom-surface scattering. A practically applicable expression is developed for the angular scattering distribution by utilising a discretized bath of oscillators, instead of the continuum limit. At sufficiently low surface temperature good agreement is found between the present multi-phonon theory and the previous one-, and two-phonon theory derived in the continuum limit in our previous study [Daon, Pollak, and Miret-Artés, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 201103 (2012)]. The theory is applied to the measured angular distributions of Ne, Ar, and Kr scattered from a Cu(111) surface. We find that the present multi-phonon theory substantially improves the agreement between experiment and theory, especially at the higher surface temperatures. This provides evidence for the importance of multi-phonon transitions in determining the angular distribution as the surface temperature is increased.

  18. Compact, Interactive Electric Vehicle Charger: Gallium-Nitride Switch Technology for Bi-directional Battery-to-Grid Charger Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    ADEPT Project: HRL Laboratories is using gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors to create battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs) that are more compact and efficient than traditional EV chargers. Reducing the size and weight of the battery charger is important because it would help improve the overall performance of the EV. GaN semiconductors process electricity faster than the silicon semiconductors used in most conventional EV battery chargers. These high-speed semiconductors can be paired with lighter-weight electrical circuit components, which helps decrease the overall weight of the EV battery charger. HRL Laboratories is combining the performance advantages of GaN semiconductors with an innovative, interactive battery-to-grid energy distribution design. This design would support 2-way power flow, enabling EV battery chargers to not only draw energy from the power grid, but also store and feed energy back into it.

  19. Hadron mass corrections in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guerrero Teran, Juan Vicente; Ethier, James J.; Accardi, Alberto; Casper, Steven W.; Melnitchouk, Wally

    2015-09-24

    We found that the spin-dependent cross sections for semi-inclusive lepton-nucleon scattering are derived in the framework of collinear factorization, including the effects of masses of the target and produced hadron at finite Q2. At leading order the cross sections factorize into products of parton distribution and fragmentation functions evaluated in terms of new, mass-dependent scaling variables. Furthermore, the size of the hadron mass corrections is estimated at kinematics relevant for current and future experiments, and the implications for the extraction of parton distributions from semi-inclusive measurements are discussed.

  20. Measurement of the Neutron Radius of 208Pb Through Parity-Violation in Electron Scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abrahamyan, Sergey; Albataineh, Hisham; Aniol, Konrad; Armstrong, David; Armstrong, Whitney; Averett, Todd; Babineau, Benjamin; Barbieri, A.; Bellini, Vincenzo; Beminiwattha, Rakitha; et al

    2012-03-15

    We report the first measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry APV in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 208Pb. APV is sensitive to the radius of the neutron distribution (Rn). The result APV = 0.656 ± 0.060 (stat) ± 0.013 (syst) corresponds to a difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions Rn-Rp = 0.33-0.18+0.16 fm and provides the first electroweak observation of the neutron skin which is expected in a heavy, neutron-rich nucleus.

  1. S-wave scattering of strangeness -3 baryons (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    S-wave scattering of strangeness -3 baryons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: S-wave scattering of strangeness -3 baryons You are accessing a document from the ...

  2. Apparatus and method for spectroscopic analysis of scattering media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strobl, Karlheinz; Bigio, Irving J.; Loree, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and method for spectroscopic analysis of scattering media. Subtle differences in materials have been found to be detectable from plots of intensity as a function of wavelength of collected emitted and scattered light versus wavelength of excitation light.

  3. S-wave scattering of strangeness -3 baryons (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: S-wave scattering of strangeness -3 baryons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: S-wave scattering of strangeness -3 baryons Authors: Buchoff, M ; Luu, T ; ...

  4. Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs You are accessing a document from...

  5. Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XSD-IXN XSD-IXN Home Staff Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering The Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering group operates beamlines at APS Sectors 3, 9 and 30....

  6. Small-angle neutron scattering measurement of deuterium trapping at dislocations and grain boundaries in palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuser, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering measurements have been performed on deformed single and polycrystalline palladium with and without deuterium dissolved in the solution phase at room temperature. The purpose of these experiments was to directly measure the spatial distribution of trapped deuterium at dislocations in the deformed metal. The net scattering cross section for the same smaple with and without deuterium shows a behavior expected from deuterium correlation with dislocations froming rod-like scattering structures. The measured cross sections indicate the trapped deuterium is within 2 to 3 Burgers vectors of the dislocation core. On average 1 to 3 deuterons per {angstrom} are trapped at the dislocations in the deformed samples. The measurements also indicate the straight, rod-like correlation geometry extends on average 50 to 100 {angstrom} along the dislocations. Dislocation densities on the order of 5 {times} 10{sup 11} cm/cm{sup 3} were found for all samples investigated. Net scattering from a well annealed polycrystalline palladium sample exhibiting a behavior expected from spherical shells has been observed. This net scattering is attributed to deuterium trapping at grain boundaries in the polycrystalline sample. net scattering in excess of that expected from deuterium correlated at dislocations was also observed in a deformed polycrystalline measurement. This too is attributed to deuterium trapping at grain boundaries. The dislocation substructure of the deformed palladium samples was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This analysis illustrated the cellular arrangement that evolved in palladium during cold working. The presence of MnO particles also was confirmed by TEM analysis.

  7. SXST 2014 - 7th SSRL School on Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    important techniques including small angle scattering, thin-film scattering, powder diffraction, structure refinement and surface x-ray scattering. The school will address topics...

  8. Periodically distributed objects with quasicrystalline diffraction pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolny, Janusz Strzalka, Radoslaw; Kuczera, Pawel

    2015-03-30

    It is possible to construct fully periodically distributed objects with a diffraction pattern identical to the one obtained for quasicrystals. These objects are probability distributions of distances obtained in the statistical approach to aperiodic structures distributed periodically. The diffraction patterns have been derived by using a two-mode Fourier transform—a very powerful method not used in classical crystallography. It is shown that if scaling is present in the structure, this two-mode Fourier transform can be reduced to a regular Fourier transform with appropriately rescaled scattering vectors and added phases. Detailed case studies for model sets 1D Fibonacci chain and 2D Penrose tiling are discussed. Finally, it is shown that crystalline, quasicrystalline, and approximant structures can be treated in the same way.

  9. Jefferson Lab experiment works to clarify Real Compton Scattering |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab experiment works to clarify Real Compton Scattering Real Compton Scattering experiment spokespeople The Real Compton Scattering experiment spokespeople take a short break for a photo. From left is Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, JLab staff scientist; Charles Hyde-Wright, physics professor at Old Dominion University; and Alan Nathan, physics professor at the University of Illinois and chair of the JLab Users Group. Jefferson Lab experiment works to clarify Real Compton Scattering January

  10. 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering | About the School

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    students calculate results About the LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering The annual Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) School on Neutron Scattering is 9- to 10-day school focusing on specific science topics to which neutron scattering makes a critical impact. The focus-driven agenda makes it distinct from other neutron schools in the nation. The LANSCE Neutron Scattering School began in 2004 and it has had a continuous and successful run to this day. General School Format The first day

  11. Kinetic Effects in Multiple Intra-Beam Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zenkevich, P.; Bolshakov, A.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.

    2005-06-08

    The analysis of the evolution in phase space induced by multiple intra-beam scattering (IBS) requires the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) or of similar kinetic equations. The FPE is formulated in coordinate-momentum space (6 variables). Using the 'semi-Gaussian model' this equation is reduced to the longitudinal FPE that depends on longitudinal momentum and coordinate; drift and diffusion coefficients in this equation are presented as integrals on distribution function with kernels expressed in analytical form. The number of variables in the FPE can be reduced to three by reformulation in the space of invariants. The invariant-vector has the following components: a longitudinal energy (for the longitudinal degree of freedom) and the Courant-Snyder invariants (for the transverse motion). The coefficients of the FPE in invariant space are in the form of integrals over the distribution function and the invariants with the kernel in the form of many-dimensional integrals over the longitudinal variable and over the oscillation phases. The three-dimensional FPE can be solved numerically by application of macro-particle codes using the different methods: 1) Langevin method; 2) binary collision map. The last method is used in the code 'MOCAC' (MOnte CArlo Code) for IBS simulation. Examples of code validation and application are discussed.

  12. Deeply virtual Compton Scattering cross section measured with CLAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guegan, Baptistse

    2014-09-01

    The Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) provide a new description of nucleon structure in terms of its elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Including and extending the information provided by the form factors and the parton distribution functions, they describe the correlation between the transverse position and the longitudinal momentum fraction of the partons in the nucleon. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), the electroproduction of a real photon on a single quark in the nucleon eN --> e'N'g, is the exclusive process most directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. A dedicated experiment to study DVCS with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has been carried out using a 5.9-GeV polarized electron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target, allowing us to collect DVCS events in the widest kinematic range ever explored in the valence region : 1.0 < Q2 < 4.6 GeV2, 0.1 < xB < 0.58 and 0.09 < -t < 2.0 GeV2. In this paper, we show preliminary results of unpolarized cross sections and of polarized cross section differences for the DVCS channel.

  13. Multiple Scattering Measurements in the MICE Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.; Neuffer, D.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under construction at RAL, will test a prototype cooling channel for a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. The cooling channel aims to achieve, using liquid hydrogen absorbers, a 10% reduction in transverse emittance. The change in 4D emittance will be determined with an accuracy of 1% by measuring muons individually. Step IV of MICE will make the first precise emittance-reduction measurements of the experiment. Simulation studies using G4MICE, based on GEANT4, find a significant difference in multiple scattering in low Z materials, compared with the standard expression quoted by the Particle Data Group. Direct measurement of multiple scattering using the scintillating-fibre trackers is found to be possible, but requires the measurement resolution to be unfolded from the data.

  14. Thomson scattering for core plasma on DEMO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhin, E. E.; Kurskiev, G. S.; Tolstyakov, S. Yu.; Bukreev, I. M.; Chernakov, P. V.; Kochergin, M. M.; Koval, A. N.; Litvinov, A. E.; Masyukevich, S. V.; Razdobarin, A. G.; Semenov, V. V.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Sdvizhenskii, P. A.; Andrew, P.

    2014-08-21

    This paper describes the challenges of Thomson scattering implementation for core plasma on DEMO and evaluates the capability to measure extremely high electron temperature range 0.5-40keV. A number of solutions to be developed for ITER diagnostics are suggested in consideration of their realization for DEMO. New approaches suggested for DEMO may also be of interest to ITER and currently operating magnetic confinement devices.

  15. Contraband detection via neutron elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomberg, H.J.; Charatis, G.; Brundage, J.

    1993-04-01

    Reliable detection of explosives and narcotics depends on generating signatures of compounds which characterize them. Major explosives and also alkaloid narcotics contain unique concentrations of Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N), and Oxygen (O). The kinematic energy shifts of neutrons scattered through angles larger than 140{degrees} allows separate determinations of C, N, and O; ratios of N/C and O/C together give clear signatures of the presence of plastic explosives or narcotics. The ability to detect these signatures under conditions similar to those that would obtain for airport screening has been demonstrated for neutrons for energies less {le} 3 MeV. Strong N resonances and a deep window for scattering from O enhance the confidence of element quantification. Detection of contraband in large cargo containers presents a much more difficult problem. Use of higher energy neutrons is now being tested for shielding penetration, so narcotic signatures could be identified behind the shielding of cargo containers. Scattered neutron spectra, or {open_quotes}signatures{close_quotes} of different organic compounds will be presented.

  16. Electron kinetic effects on interferometry, polarimetry and Thomson scattering measurements in burning plasmas (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Hartog, D. J. Den; Duff, J.; Parke, E.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.

    2014-11-15

    At anticipated high electron temperatures in ITER, the effects of electron thermal motion on Thomson scattering (TS), toroidal interferometer/polarimeter (TIP), and poloidal polarimeter (PoPola) diagnostics will be significant and must be accurately treated. The precision of the previous lowest order linear in τ = T{sub e}/m{sub e}c{sup 2} model may be insufficient; we present a more precise model with τ{sup 2}-order corrections to satisfy the high accuracy required for ITER TIP and PoPola diagnostics. The linear model is extended from Maxwellian to a more general class of anisotropic electron distributions that allows us to take into account distortions caused by equilibrium current, ECRH, and RF current drive effects. The classical problem of the degree of polarization of incoherent Thomson scattered radiation is solved analytically exactly without any approximations for the full range of incident polarizations, scattering angles, and electron thermal motion from non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic. The results are discussed in the context of the possible use of the polarization properties of Thomson scattered light as a method of T{sub e} measurement relevant to ITER operational scenarios.

  17. Alternating current response of carbon nanotubes with randomly distributed impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirai, Daisuke; Watanabe, Satoshi [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takahiro [Department of Electrical Engineering and Department of Liberal Arts (Physics), Tokyo University of Science, 6-3-1 Niijuku, Katsushika, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan)

    2014-10-27

    The increasing need for nanodevices has necessitated a better understanding of the electronic transport behavior of nanomaterials. We therefore theoretically examine the AC transport properties of metallic carbon nanotubes with randomly distributed impurities. We find that the long-range impurity scattering increases the emittance, but does not affect the DC conductance. The estimated dwell time of electrons increases with the potential amplitudes. That is, multiple scattering by the impurities increases the kinetic inductance in proportion to the dwell time, which eventually increases the emittance. We believe that our findings can contribute significantly to nanodevice development.

  18. Molecular anisotropy effects in carbon K-edge scattering: depolarized diffuse scattering and optical anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, Kevin H.

    2014-07-14

    Some polymer properties, such as conductivity, are very sensitive to short- and intermediate-range orientational and positional ordering of anisotropic molecular functional groups, and yet means to characterize orientational order in disordered systems are very limited. We demonstrate that resonant scattering at the carbon K-edge is uniquely sensitive to short-range orientation correlations in polymers through depolarized scattering at high momentum transfers, using atactic polystyrene as a well-characterized test system. Depolarized scattering is found to coexist with unpolarized fluorescence, and to exhibit pronounced anisotropy. We also quantify the spatially averaged optical anisotropy from low-angle reflectivity measurements, finding anisotropy consistent with prior visible, x-ray absorption, and theoretical studies. The average anisotropy is much smaller than that in the depolarized scattering and the two have different character. Both measurements exhibit clear spectral signatures from the phenyl rings and the polyethylene-like backbone. Discussion focuses on analysis considerations and prospects for using this depolarized scattering for studies of disorder in soft condensed matter.

  19. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Systems Integration team funds distribution grid integration research and development (R&D) activities to address the technical issues that surround distribution grid planning,...

  20. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report ...

  1. About Industrial Distributed Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office's (AMO's) Industrial Distributed Energy activities build on the success of predecessor DOE programs on distributed energy and combined heat and power (CHP) while...

  2. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables...

  3. SU-E-J-175: Proton Dose Calculation On Scatter-Corrected CBCT Image: Feasibility Study for Adaptive Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Y; Winey, B; Sharp, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate feasibility of proton dose calculation on scattercorrected CBCT images for the purpose of adaptive proton therapy. Methods: Two CBCT image sets were acquired from a prostate cancer patient and a thorax phantom using an on-board imaging system of an Elekta infinity linear accelerator. 2-D scatter maps were estimated using a previously introduced CT-based technique, and were subtracted from each raw projection image. A CBCT image set was then reconstructed with an open source reconstruction toolkit (RTK). Conversion from the CBCT number to HU was performed by soft tissue-based shifting with reference to the plan CT. Passively scattered proton plans were simulated on the plan CT and corrected/uncorrected CBCT images using the XiO treatment planning system. For quantitative evaluation, water equivalent path length (WEPL) was compared in those treatment plans. Results: The scatter correction method significantly improved image quality and HU accuracy in the prostate case where large scatter artifacts were obvious. However, the correction technique showed limited effects on the thorax case that was associated with fewer scatter artifacts. Mean absolute WEPL errors from the plans with the uncorrected and corrected images were 1.3 mm and 5.1 mm in the thorax case and 13.5 mm and 3.1 mm in the prostate case. The prostate plan dose distribution of the corrected image demonstrated better agreement with the reference one than that of the uncorrected image. Conclusion: A priori CT-based CBCT scatter correction can reduce the proton dose calculation error when large scatter artifacts are involved. If scatter artifacts are low, an uncorrected CBCT image is also promising for proton dose calculation when it is calibrated with the soft-tissue based shifting.

  4. Azimuthal asymmetries in unpolarized Drell-Yan processes and the Boer-Mulders distributions of antiquarks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Barone,S. Melis,A. Prokudin

    2010-12-01

    Using a previous extraction of the quark Boer-Mulders distributions from semiinclusive deep inelastic scattering data, we fit the unpolarized Drell-Yan data on the $\\cos 2 \\phi$ asymmetry, determining the antiquark Boer-Mulders distributions. A good agreement with the data is found in the region of low $q_T$, where the transverse-momentum factorization approach applies.

  5. Non-coherent continuum scattering as a line polarization mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Pino AlemĂĄn, T.; Manso Sainz, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J. E-mail: rsainz@iac.es

    2014-03-20

    Line scattering polarization can be strongly affected by Rayleigh scattering at neutral hydrogen and Thomson scattering at free electrons. Often a depolarization of the continuum results, but the Doppler redistribution produced by the continuum scatterers, which are light (hence, fast), induces more complex interactions between the polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. Here we formulate and solve the radiative transfer problem of scattering line polarization with non-coherent continuum scattering consistently. The problem is formulated within the spherical tensor representation of atomic and light polarization. The numerical method of solution is a generalization of the Accelerated Lambda Iteration that is applied to both the atomic system and the radiation field. We show that the redistribution of the spectral line radiation due to the non-coherence of the continuum scattering may modify the shape of the emergent fractional linear polarization patterns significantly, even yielding polarization signals above the continuum level in intrinsically unpolarizable lines.

  6. Stimulated Raman scattering of laser dye mixtures dissolved in multiple scattering media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, V P; Komyshan, A O; Tikhonov, E A; Olkhovyk, L A

    2014-10-31

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of a mixture of rhodamine 6G and pyrromethene 605 laser dyes in vesicular films is studied. It is shown that a peculiar interaction of dyes occurs under conditions of multiple scattering of light from vesicles. This interaction manifests itself as SRS excitation of one of the dyes by random lasing of the other dye, provided that the random lasing spectrum overlaps the Stokes lines of the first dye. In addition, there is energy transfer between molecules of these dyes if their luminescence and absorption spectra overlap. The results obtained confirm that the mechanism of SRS from laser dyes in multiple scattering media is similar to that in coherent-active Raman spectroscopy. These results extend the possibility of determining the vibrational spectrum of dye molecules from their secondary radiation in these media. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  7. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  8. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  9. A NEW ANALYSIS OF INTRABEAM SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, B

    2004-09-15

    Beginning with the Fokker-Planck equation we present a new analysis of intrabeam scattering (IBS) in electron storage rings. Our approach is distinguished by having no ill-defined Coulomb logarithm, a fundamental drawback of previous approaches. We treat the case of linear x{sub {beta}}Y{sub {beta}} coupling in detail, deriving explicit expressions for the second moment invariants and their time evolution in the presence of IBS. We compare our results with those of Bjorken-Mtingwa, as well as with measurements performed at KEK's ATF damping ring. More details of our derivations will be published elsewhere.

  10. Inelastic Scattering Of Electrons By Protons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Cone, A. A.; Chen, K. W.; Dunning, J. R. Jr.; Hartwig, G.; Ramsey, N. F.; Walker, J. K.; Wilson, R.

    1966-12-01

    The inelastic scattering of electrons by protons has been measured at incident electron energies up to 5 BeV/c and momentum transfers q{sup 2}=4(BeV/c){sup 2}. Excitation of known nucleon resonances at M=1238, 1512, 1688 and possibly 1920 MeV have been observed. The calculations for the resonance at M=1238 MeV have been compared with calculations by Adler based on the dispersion theory of Chew, Goldberger, Low and Nambu. The agreement is good. Qualitative models are discussed for the other resonances.