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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance  

SciTech Connect

We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

2

Simulating the daylight performance of complex fenestration systems using bidirectional scattering distribution functions with  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

414E 414E Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance G. Ward, R. Mistrick, E.S. Lee, A. McNeil, J. Jonsson Environmental Energy Technologies Division Building Technologies Department January 2011 Published in Leukos, Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America 7(4). DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,

3

Obtaining the Bidirectional Transfer Distribution Function of Isotropically  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Obtaining the Bidirectional Transfer Distribution Function of Isotropically Obtaining the Bidirectional Transfer Distribution Function of Isotropically Scattering Materials Using an Integrating Sphere Title Obtaining the Bidirectional Transfer Distribution Function of Isotropically Scattering Materials Using an Integrating Sphere Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-61826 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Jonsson, Jacob C., and Henrik Branden Journal Optics Communications Volume 277 Pagination 228-236 Call Number LBNL-61826 Abstract This paper demonstrates a method to determine the bidirectional transfer distribution function (BTDF) using an integrating sphere. Information about the sample's angle dependent scattering is obtained by making transmittance measurements with the sample at different distances from the integrating sphere. Knowledge about the illuminated area of the sample and the geometry of the sphere port in combination with the measured data combines to an system of equations that includes the angle dependent transmittance. The resulting system of equations is an ill-posed problem which rarely gives a physical solution. A solvable system is obtained by using Tikhonov regularization on the ill-posed problem. The solution to this system can then be used to obtain the BTDF. Four bulk-scattering samples were characterised using both two goniophotometers and the described method to verify the validity of the new method. The agreement shown is great for the more diffuse samples. The solution to the low-scattering samples contains unphysical oscillations, but still gives the correct shape of the solution. The origin of the oscillations and why they are more prominent in low-scattering samples are discussed.

4

A validation of a ray-tracing tool used to generate bi-directional...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A validation of a ray-tracing tool used to generate bi-directional scattering distribution functions for complex fenestration systems Title A validation of a ray-tracing tool used...

5

Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

software, windows, daylighting systems, shading systems,daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (

Ward, Gregory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

A Practical Framework for Sharing and Rendering Real-World Bidirectional  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Practical Framework for Sharing and Rendering Real-World Bidirectional A Practical Framework for Sharing and Rendering Real-World Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions Title A Practical Framework for Sharing and Rendering Real-World Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5954E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Ward, Gregory J., Murat Kurt, and Nicolas Bonneel Date Published 10/2012 Keywords building technology and urban systems department, windows and envelope materials group Abstract The utilization of real-world materials has been hindered by a lack of standards for sharing and interpreting measured data. This paper presents an XML representation and an Open Source C library to support bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) in data-driven lighting simulation and rendering applications.The library provides for the efficient representation, query, and Monte Carlo sampling of arbitrary BSDFs in amodel-free framework. Currently, we support two BSDF data representations: one using a fixed subdivision of thehemisphere, and one with adaptive density. The fixed type has advantages for certain matrix operations, while theadaptive type can more accurately represent highly peaked data. We discuss advanced methods for data-driven BSDF rendering for both types, including the proxy of detailed geometry to enhance appearance and accuracy. We also present an advanced interpolation method to reduce measured data into these standard representations. We end with our plan for future extensions and sharing of BSDF data.

7

Measuring photometric and spectral radiometric bi-directional transmission and reflection in a video-goniospectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effective use of complex fenestration systems (CFS) in buildings requires a detailed knowledge of their optical spectral and directional properties. Bidirectional scattering functions (BSDFs), either in transmission ...

Stokes, Eleanor (Eleanor Catherine)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

GPU-based Calculation for Scattering Characteristics of Complex Targets from Background Radiance in Infrared Spectrum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scattering characteristic of complex targets from sky and ground background radiance plays an important role in engineering fields. Firstly, a 5-parameter BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distributional Function) model is introduced. Then MODTRAN is used ... Keywords: scattering characteristic, background radiance, BRDF, GPU, CUDA, optimization

Xing Guo, Zhensen Wu, Longxiang Linghu, Yufeng Yang, Yunhua Cao, Jiaji Wu

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Calculation of the Solar Load onto Occupants in a Room using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions and a View Factor Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and a given solar radiation..52 Table 3direct and diffuse solar radiation for a design day, useddirect and diffuse solar radiation for a design day, used

Jedek, Christoph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Bidirectional slapper detonator  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure is directed to a bidirectional slapper detonator. One embodiment utilizes a single bridge circuit to detonate a pair of opposing initiating pellets. A line generator embodiment uses a plurality of bridges in electrical series to generate opposing cylindrical wavefronts.

McCormick, Robert N. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyd, Melissa D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Improvements of Droplet Size Distribution Measurements with the Fast-FSSP (Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The basics of single particle measurements are discussed and illustrated with measurements of the droplet size distribution with an optical spectrometer, the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP), and its improved version, the Fast-FSSP. ...

Jean-Louis Brenguier; Thierry Bourrianne; Afraniode Araujo Coelho; Jacques Isbert; Robert Peytavi; Dominique Trevarin; Perry Weschler

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Refractive Index and Size Distribution of Aerosols as Estimated from Light Scattering Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Angular distributions of the intensity of light scattered by airborne particles were measured for both parallel and perpendicularly polarized components. A precision polar nephelometer was constructed for use of this study. The data were analyzed ...

Masayuki Tanaka; Tamio Takamura; Teruyuki Nakajima

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Noise figure and photon probability distribution in Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The noise figure and photon probability distribution are calculated for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) where an anti-Stokes signal is converted to Stokes. We find that the minimum noise figure is ~ 3dB.

Dimitropoulos, D; Jalali, B; Solli, D R

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Sensitivity of cross sections for elastic nucleus-nucleus scattering to halo nucleus density distributions  

SciTech Connect

In order to clear up the sensitivity of the nucleus-nucleus scattering to the nuclear matter distributions in exotic halo nuclei, we have calculated differential cross sections for elastic scattering of the {sup 6}He and {sup 11}Li nuclei on several nuclear targets at the energy of 0.8 GeV/nucleon with different assumed nuclear density distributions in {sup 6}He and {sup 11}Li.

Alkhazov, G. D.; Sarantsev, V. V., E-mail: saran@pnpi.spb.ru [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute NRC KI (Russian Federation)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Directional Stand-off Detection of Fast Neutrons and Gammas Using Angular Scattering Distributions  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the response of a DoubleScatter Neutron Spectrometer (DSNS) for sources at long distances (gr than 200 meters). We find that an alternative method for analyzing double scatter data avoids some uncertainties introduced by amplitude measurements in plastic scintillators.Time of flight is used to discriminate between gamma and neutron events, and the kinematic distributions of scattering angles are assumed to apply. Non-relativistic neutrons are most likely to scatter at 45, while gammas with energies greater than 2 MeV are most likely to be forward scattered. The distribution of scattering angles of fission neutrons arriving from a distant point source generates a 45 cone, which can be back-projected to give the source direction. At the same time, the distribution of Compton-scattered gammas has a maximum in the forward direction, and can be made narrower by selecting events that deposit minimal energy in the first scattering event. We have further determined that the shape of spontaneous fission neutron spectra at ranges gr than 110 m is still significantly different from thecosmic ray background.

Vanier P. e.; Dioszegi, I.; Salwen, C.; Forman, L.

2009-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

16

Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of current computer-generated imagery represents scenes with clear atmospheres, neglecting light scattering effects, and most computer-vision systems have not enjoyed success when deployed in uncontrolled outdoor environments. Nevertheless, scattering ...

Diego Gutierrez; Wojciech Jarosz; Craig Donner; Srinivasa G. Narasimhan

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most computer-generated imagery represents scenes with clear atmospheres, neglecting light scattering effects. But scattering is a fundamental aspect of light transport in a wide range of applications, whether one is simulating it or interpreting it, ...

Diego Gutierrez; Henrik Wann Jensen; Wojciech Jarosz; Craig Donner

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Bidirectional buck boost converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A bidirectional buck boost converter and method of operating the same allows regulation of power flow between first and second voltage sources in which the voltage level at each source is subject to change and power flow is independent of relative voltage levels. In one embodiment, the converter is designed for hard switching while another embodiment implements soft switching of the switching devices. In both embodiments, first and second switching devices are serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a first voltage source with third and fourth switching devices serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a second voltage source. A free-wheeling diode is coupled, respectively, in parallel opposition with respective ones of the switching devices. An inductor is coupled between a junction of the first and second switching devices and a junction of the third and fourth switching devices. Gating pulses supplied by a gating circuit selectively enable operation of the switching devices for transferring power between the voltage sources. In the second embodiment, each switching device is shunted by a capacitor and the switching devices are operated when voltage across the device is substantially zero. 20 figs.

Esser, A.A.M.

1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Round complexity of leader election and gossiping in bidirectional radio networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the setting of ad hoc radio networks when the underlying network is bidirectional, the number of nodes in the network n is known and nodes can be assigned labels which are polynomially large in n. For this setting we present a protocol for ... Keywords: Bidirectional radio networks, Distributed computing, Gossiping, Leader election, Polynomially large labels

Shailesh Vaya

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Double-plateau in the energy distribution of electrons scattered by ions-pairs in a strong laser field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Double-plateau in the energy distribution of electrons scattered by ions-pairs in a strong laser) The energy distribution of electrons scattered from single ions and from pairs of ions in a strong laser solution of the energy distribution for instantaneous Coulomb collisions in three dimensions

Kull, Hans-Jörg

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

A POSSIBLE DIVOT IN THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE KUIPER BELT'S SCATTERING OBJECTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Via joint analysis of a calibrated telescopic survey, which found scattering Kuiper Belt objects, and models of their expected orbital distribution, we explore the scattering-object (SO) size distribution. Although for D > 100 km the number of objects quickly rise as diameters decrease, we find a relative lack of smaller objects, ruling out a single power law at greater than 99% confidence. After studying traditional ''knees'' in the size distribution, we explore other formulations and find that, surprisingly, our analysis is consistent with a very sudden decrease (a divot) in the number distribution as diameters decrease below 100 km, which then rises again as a power law. Motivated by other dynamically hot populations and the Centaurs, we argue for a divot size distribution where the number of smaller objects rises again as expected via collisional equilibrium. Extrapolation yields enough kilometer-scale SOs to supply the nearby Jupiter-family comets. Our interpretation is that this divot feature is a preserved relic of the size distribution made by planetesimal formation, now ''frozen in'' to portions of the Kuiper Belt sharing a ''hot'' orbital inclination distribution, explaining several puzzles in Kuiper Belt science. Additionally, we show that to match today's SO inclination distribution, the supply source that was scattered outward must have already been vertically heated to the of order 10 Degree-Sign .

Shankman, C.; Gladman, B. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agriculture Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kaib, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queens University (Canada); Kavelaars, J. J. [National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Petit, J. M. [Institut UTINAM, CNRS-Universite de Franche-Comte, Besancon (France)

2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

22

Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scattering Print Scattering Print When a crystalline sample is illuminated with x-rays, the x-rays are scattered (diffracted) into very specific directions with various intensities. Detectors are used to measure this "diffraction pattern," which is then processed by computers to deduce the arrangement of atoms within the crystal. Hard x-rays have wavelengths comparable to the distance between atoms. Essentially everything we know about the atomic structure of materials is based on results from x-ray and neutron diffraction. From advanced ceramics to catalysts, from semiconductor technology to the frontiers of medicine, and from new magnetic materials and devices to framework compounds used to sequester radioactive waste, crystallography using hard x-ray diffraction techniques at synchrotron radiation facilities plays a crucial role in our ability to understand and control the world in which we live.

23

Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scattering Print Scattering Print When a crystalline sample is illuminated with x-rays, the x-rays are scattered (diffracted) into very specific directions with various intensities. Detectors are used to measure this "diffraction pattern," which is then processed by computers to deduce the arrangement of atoms within the crystal. Hard x-rays have wavelengths comparable to the distance between atoms. Essentially everything we know about the atomic structure of materials is based on results from x-ray and neutron diffraction. From advanced ceramics to catalysts, from semiconductor technology to the frontiers of medicine, and from new magnetic materials and devices to framework compounds used to sequester radioactive waste, crystallography using hard x-ray diffraction techniques at synchrotron radiation facilities plays a crucial role in our ability to understand and control the world in which we live.

24

Bidirectional Reflectance Round-Robin in Support of the Earth Observing System Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of diffuse reflectors are required to support calibration in the Earth Observing System (EOS) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. To ...

E. A. Early; P. Y. Barnes; B. C. Johnson; J. J. Butler; C. J. Bruegge; S. F. Biggar; P. R. Spyak; M. M. Pavlov

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

HALO-TO-HALO SIMILARITY AND SCATTER IN THE VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION OF DARK MATTER  

SciTech Connect

We examine the velocity distribution function (VDF) in dark matter halos from Milky Way to cluster mass scales. We identify an empirical model for the VDF with a wider peak and a steeper tail than a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, and discuss physical explanations. We quantify sources of scatter in the VDF of cosmological halos and their implication for direct detection of dark matter. Given modern simulations and observations, we find that the most significant uncertainty in the VDF of the Milky Way arises from the unknown radial position of the solar system relative to the dark matter halo scale radius.

Mao, Yao-Yuan; Strigari, Louis E.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Hahn, Oliver [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USAAND (United States) [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USAAND (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Wu, Hao-Yi [Currently at Physics Department, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. (United States)] [Currently at Physics Department, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. (United States)

2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

26

Bi-Directional Fast Charging Study Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and software infrastructure needed to demonstrate the possibility of utilizing battery power in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles with a bi-directional...

27

Away-side azimuthal distribution in a Markovian parton scattering model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An event generator is constructed on the basis of a model of multiple scattering of partons so that the trajectory of a parton traversing a dense and expanding medium can be tracked. The parameters in the code are adjusted to fit the \\Delta\\phi azimuthal distribution on the far side when the trigger momentum is in the non-perturbative region, p_T(trigger)trigger momentum with \\pt(trigger) >8 GeV/c, the model reproduces the single-peak structure observed by STAR without invoking any new dynamical mechanism.

Charles B. Chiu; Rudolph C. Hwa

2006-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

28

Away-side distribution in a parton multiple scattering model and background-suppressed measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model of parton multiple scattering in a dense and expanding medium is described. The simulated results reproduce the general features of the data. In particular, in the intermediate trigger momentum region there is a dip-bump structure, while at higher trigger momentum the double bumps merge into a central peak. Also, a new measure is proposed to quantify the azimuthal distribution with the virtue that it suppresses the statistical fluctuations event-by-event, while enhancing the even-structure of the signal.

Charles B. Chiu; Rudolph C. Hwa

2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

29

Bidirectional Pipelining for Scalable IP Lookup and Packet Classification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Both IP lookup and packet classification in IP routers can be implemented by some form of tree traversal. SRAM-based Pipelining can improve the throughput dramatically. However, previous pipelining schemes result in unbalanced memory allocation over the pipeline stages. This has been identified as a major challenge for scalable pipelined solutions. This paper proposes a flexible bidirectional linear pipeline architecture based on widely-used dual-port SRAMs. A search tree is partitioned, and then mapped onto pipeline stages by a bidirectional fine-grained mapping scheme. We introduce the notion of inversion factor and several heuristics to invert subtrees for memory balancing. Due to its linear structure, the architecture maintains packet input order, and supports non-blocking route updates. Our experiments show that, the architecture can achieve a perfectly balanced memory distribution over the pipeline stages, for both trie-based IP lookup and tree-based multi-dimensional packet classification. For IP looku...

Jiang, Weirong; Prasanna, Viktor K

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Spatial Convergence of Bidirectional Reflectance Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analyses of bidirectional reflectance data are presented with implications regarding the spatial scales appropriate for inferring irradiances from radiances reflected by various surfaceatmosphere scenes. Multiple-angle radiance data collected in ...

John M. Davis; Stephen K. Cox

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Connectivity and Bidirectional Energy Transfer in DC Microgrid Featuring Different Voltage Characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the connectivity issues related to linking two DC buses featuring different voltage characteristics, in terms of voltage level and ripple, in a DC micro grid are identified, analyzed and discussed. A controlled DC-DC converter was used ... Keywords: Bidirectional energy transfer, buck-boost converter, DC distribution systems, DC microgrids, voltage ripple

Mustafa Farhadi, Ahmed Mohamed, Osama Mohammed

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

A new structure for bidirectional power flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, methods of energy recovery for electric motors in braking mode are presented. Also for motors with low and medium regenerative power, a low cost and simple structure is proposed. In this method, for converting the high voltage of DC bus ... Keywords: bidirectional power flow, energy saving, regenerative brake

Seyed Borhan Azimi; Hassan Ghafoori Fard

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Spatial Orientation And Distribution Of Reservoir Fractures From Scattered Seismic Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Expanded details and additional results are presented using a new method (Willis et al, 2003) for determining the reflection and scattering characteristics of seismic energy from subsurface fractured formations. The method ...

Vetri, Laura

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Systems and methods for bi-directional energy delivery with galvanic isolation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems and methods are provided for bi-directional energy delivery. A charging system comprises a first bi-directional conversion module, a second bi-directional conversion module, and an isolation module coupled between the first bi-directional conversion module and the second bi-directional conversion module. The isolation module provides galvanic isolation between the first bi-directional conversion module and the second bi-directional conversion module.

Kajouke, Lateef A.

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

35

Bidirectional Search in a String with Wavelet Trees Thomas Schnattinger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bidirectional Search in a String with Wavelet Trees #12;Wavelet Tree of T = BWT(S) = nle_pl$nnlleee_eaae T[1 Bidirectional Search in a String with Wavelet Trees #12;Wavelet Tree of T = BWT(S) = nle_pl$nnlleee_eaae T[1 Bidirectional Search in a String with Wavelet Trees #12;Wavelet Tree of T = BWT(S) = nle_pl$nnlleee_eaae T[1

Lonardi, Stefano

36

Bidirectional search in a string with wavelet trees and bidirectional matching statistics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Searching for genes encoding microRNAs (miRNAs) is an important task in genome analysis. Because the secondary structure of miRNA (but not the sequence) is highly conserved, the genes encoding it can be determined by finding regions in a genomic DNA ... Keywords: Bidirectional search, Matching statistics, String matching

Thomas Schnattinger; Enno Ohlebusch; Simon Gog

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

A diffusion limit for a test particle in a random distribution of scatterers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a point particle moving in a random distribution of obstacles described by a potential barrier. We show that, in a weak-coupling regime, under a diffusion limit suggested by the potential itself, the probability distribution of the particle converges to the solution of the heat equation. The diffusion coefficient is given by the Green-Kubo formula associated to the generator of the diffusion process dictated by the linear Landau equation.

Giada Basile; Alessia Nota; Mario Pulvirenti

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

38

Generalized parton distributions and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on proton at CLAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two measurements of target and beam spin asymmetries for the reaction ep?ep? were performed with CLAS at Jefferson Laboratory. Polarized 5.7 GeV electrons were impinging on a longitudinally polarized ammonia and liquid hydrogen target respectively. These measurements are sensitive to Generalized Parton Distributions. Sizable sin phi azimuthal angular dependences were observed in both experiments, indicating the dominance of leading twist terms and the possibility of extracting combinations of Generalized Parton Distributions on the nucleon.

R. De Masi

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Imaging with Scattered Neutrons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a novel experimental technique for neutron imaging with scattered neutrons. These scattered neutrons are of interest for condensed matter physics, because they permit to reveal the local distribution of incoherent and coherent scattering within a sample. In contrast to standard attenuation based imaging, scattered neutron imaging distinguishes between the scattering cross section and the total attenuation cross section including absorption. First successful low-noise millimeter-resolution images by scattered neutron radiography and tomography are presented.

H. Ballhausen; H. Abele; R. Gaehler; M. Trapp; A. Van Overberghe

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

The Simultaneous Measurement of Rainfall Intensity, Drop-Size Distribution, and the Scattering of Visible Light  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field measurements were made of the attenuation of a low-power. He-Ne laser beam over a 272-m path. Concurrently, high-resolution (10 s) measurements of rainfall intensity were obtained at several points along the path and drop-size distributions ...

C. D. Stow; S. G. Bradley; K. Paulson; L. Couper

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Preliminary results on the empirical applicability of the Tsallis distribution in elastic hadron scattering  

SciTech Connect

We show that the proton-proton elastic differential cross section data at dip position and beyond can be quite well described by a parametrization based on the Tsallis distribution, with only five free fit parameters. Extrapolation of the results obtained at 7 TeV to large momentum transfer, suggests that hadrons may not behave as a black-disk at the asymptotic energy region.

Fagundes, D. A.; Menon, M. J.; Silva, P. V. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

42

An application of distributed approximating functional-wavelets to reactive scattering  

SciTech Connect

A newly developed distributed approximating functional (DAF)-wavelet, the Dirichlet{endash}Gabor DAF-wavelet (DGDW), is applied in a calculation of the state-to-state reaction probabilities for the three-dimensional (3-D) (J=0)H+H{sub 2} reaction, using the time-independent wave-packet reactant-product decoupling (TIWRPD) method. The DGDWs are reconstructed from a rigorous mathematical sampling theorem, and are shown to be DAF-wavelet generalizations of both the sine discrete variable representation (sinc-DVR) and the Fourier distributed approximating functionals (DAFs). An important feature of the generalized sinc-DVR representation is that the grid points are distributed at equally spaced intervals and the kinetic energy matrix has a banded, Toeplitz structure. Test calculations show that, in accordance with mathematical sampling theory, the DAF-windowed sinc-DVR converges much more rapidly and to higher accuracy with bandwidth, 2W+1. The results of the H+H{sub 2} calculation are in very close agreement with the results of previous TIWRPD calculations, demonstrating that the DGDW representation is an accurate and efficient representation for use in FFT wave-packet propagation methods, and that, more generally, the theory of wavelets and related techniques have great potential for the study of molecular dynamics. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Wei, G.W.; Althorpe, S.C.; Kouri, D.J. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas77204-5641 (United States); Hoffman, D.K. [Department of Chemistry and Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa50011 (United States)

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Light-scattering properties of a woven shade-screen material used for daylighting and solar heat-gain control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shade-screens are widely used in commercial buildings as a way to limit the amount of direct sunlight that can disturb people in the building. The shade screens also reduce the solar heat-gain through glazing the system. Modern energy and daylighting analysis software such as EnergyPlus and Radiance require complete scattering properties of the scattering materials in the system. In this paper a shade screen used in the LBNL daylighting testbed is characterized using a photogoniometer and a normal angle of incidence integrating sphere. The data is used to create a complete bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) that can be used in simulation programs. The resulting BSDF is compared to a model BADFs, both directly and by calculating the solar heat-gain coefficient for a dual pane system using Window 6.

Jonsson, Jacob; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Lee, Eleanor S.; Rubin, Mike

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Technical Section: Linear approximation of Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various empirical and theoretical models of the surface reflectance have been introduced so far. Most of these models are based on functions with non-linear parameters and therefore faces some computational difficulties involved in non-linear optimization ... Keywords: BRDF representation, Linear models, Principal components, Reflection models, Rendering

Aydin Ozturk; Murat Kurt; Ahmet Bilgili; Cengiz Gungor

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Single coil bistable, bidirectional micromechanical actuator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Micromechanical actuators capable of bidirectional and bistable operation can be formed on substrates using lithographic processing techniques. Bistable operation of the microactuator is obtained using a single coil and a magnetic core with a gap. A plunger having two magnetic heads is supported for back and forth linear movement with respect to the gap in the magnetic core, and is spring biased to a neutral position in which the two heads are on each side of the gap in the core. The single electrical coil is coupled to the core and is provided with electrical current to attract one of the heads toward the core by reluctance action to drive the plunger to a limit of travel in one direction. The current is then cut off and the plunger returns by spring action toward the gap, whereafter the current is reapplied to the coil to attract the other head of the plunger by reluctance action to drive the plunger to its other limit of travel. This process can be repeated at a time when switching of the actuator is required.

Tabat, Ned (Madison, WI); Guckel, Henry (Madison, WI)

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

A New Parameterization of Single Scattering Solar Radiative Properties for Tropical Anvils Using Observed Ice Crystal Size and Shape Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parameterizations of single scattering properties currently used in cloud resolving and general circulation models are somewhat limited in that they typically assume the presence of single particle habits, do not adequately account for the ...

Greg M. McFarquhar; Ping Yang; Andreas Macke; Anthony J. Baran

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Method of normalizing the measured scattered light from a surface defect located arbitrarily in a Gaussian intensity distribution incident on the surface  

SciTech Connect

The intensity distribution of the beam from a laser operated in the TEM/sub infinity/ mode is Gaussian in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the beam. In some applications it is desirable to have a uniform intensity over a certain region in space. For example, when a Gaussian beam is incident on a smooth surface containing small isolated defects the light scattered by a defect will depend on the position of the defect relative to the center of the beam. In the past, several techniques have been devised to convert a Gaussian intensity profile into a uniform intensity over a specified region in space. In the present work a different approach is taken. A method of normalization is described which makes direct use of the Gaussian intensity distribution of the TEM/sub infinity/ mode. By this method, the amount of light scattered by a defect can be normalized to the value which would be observed if the defect were located at the center of the beam, for a defect small in size compared with the l/e/sup 2/ diameter of the Gaussian profile. The normalization requires that three measurements be made of the scattering by the defect for an arbitrary location of the defect relative to the center of the beam. Experimental data was obtained which verifies the theory.

Klingsporn, P.E.

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

A bidirectional grammar-based medical speech translator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a bidirectional version of the grammar-based MedSLT medical speech system. The system supports simple medical examination dialogues about throat pain between an English-speaking physician and a Spanish-speaking patient. The physician's side ...

Pierrette Bouillon; Glenn Flores; Marianne Starlander; Nikos Chatzichrisafis; Marianne Santaholma; Nikos Tsourakis; Manny Rayner; Beth Ann Hockey

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

A Bidirectional High-Power-Quality Grid Interface With a Novel Bidirectional Noninverted Buck Boost Converter for PHEVs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will play a vital role in future sustainable transportation systems due to their potential in terms of energy security, decreased environmental impact, improved fuel economy, and better performance. Moreover, new regulations have been established to improve the collective gas mileage, cut greenhouse gas emissions, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. This paper primarily focuses on two major thrust areas of PHEVs. First, it introduces a grid-friendly bidirectional alternating current/direct current ac/dc dc/ac rectifier/inverter for facilitating vehicle-to-grid (V2G) integration of PHEVs. Second, it presents an integrated bidirectional noninverted buck boost converter that interfaces the energy storage device of the PHEV to the dc link in both grid-connected and driving modes. The proposed bidirectional converter has minimal grid-level disruptions in terms of power factor and total harmonic distortion, with less switching noise. The integrated bidirectional dc/dc converter assists the grid interface converter to track the charge/discharge power of the PHEV battery. In addition, while driving, the dc/dc converter provides a regulated dc link voltage to the motor drive and captures the braking energy during regenerative braking.

Onar, Omer C [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Study of Generalized Parton Distributions and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on the nucleon with the CLAS and CLAS12 detectors at the Jefferson Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The exclusive leptoproduction of a real photon is considered to be the "cleanest" way to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD). This process is called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) lN {yields} lN{gamma} , and is sensitive to all the four GPDs. Measuring the DVCS cross section is one of the main goals of this thesis. In this thesis, we present the work performed to extract on a wide phase-space the DVCS cross-section from the JLab data at a beam energy of 6 GeV.

Baptiste Guegan

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

The Role of Ice Particle Shapes and Size Distributions in the Single Scattering Properties of Cirrus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The roles of ice particle size distributions (SDs) and particle shapes in cirrus cloud solar radiative transfer are investigated by analyzing SDs obtained from optical array probe measurements (particle sizes larger than 2040 ?m) during ...

Andreas Macke; Peter N. Francis; Greg M. McFarquhar; Stefan Kinne

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance Title Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex...

53

Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

Abas Goodarzi

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

Research on Multistep Electricity Price Model with Bidirectional Regulation for Large Consumers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multistep electricity price model with bidirectional regulation is proposed for large adjustable consumers in the area with abundant hydropower. In order to guide large consumers to regulate electricity consumption manners for resource utilization, ... Keywords: multistep electricity price, bidirectional regulation, large consumers, high and low water period, Monte Carlo simulation, price elasticity of demand

Xia Lei; Dong-xian Yu; Xiao-li Bai

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Control of Parallel-Connected Bidirectional AC-DC Converters in Stationary Frame for Microgrid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Control of Parallel-Connected Bidirectional AC-DC Converters in Stationary Frame for Microgrid-- With the penetration of renewable energy in modern power system, microgrid has become a popular application worldwide. In this paper, parallel-connected bidirectional converters for AC and DC hybrid microgrid application

Teodorescu, Remus

56

Low power interconnect design for fpgas with bidirectional wiring using nanocrystal floating gate devices (abstract only)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New architectures for the switch box and connection block are proposed for use in an energy efficient field programmable gate array (FPGA) with bidirectional wiring. Power-hungry SRAMs are replaced by non-volatile nanocrystal floating gate (NCFG) devices ... Keywords: bidirectional wiring, connection block, floating gate, fpga, high speed, low power, nanocrystal, switch box

Daniel Schinke; Wallace Shep Pitts; Neil Di Spigna; Paul Franzon

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Measurement of bidirectional optical properties of complex shading devices  

SciTech Connect

A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorptances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. This paper describes the method of measuring the spatially averaged bidirectional optical properties using an automated, large-sample gonioradiometer/photometer, termed a ``Scanning Radiometer.`` Property measurements are presented for one of the most optically complex systems in common use, a venetian blind. These measurements will form the basis for optical system calculations used to test the method of determining performance.

Klems, J.H.; Warner, J.L.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

The role of microtubule movement in bidirectional organelle transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the role of microtubule movement in bidirectional organelle transport in Drosophila S2 cells and show that EGFP-tagged peroxisomes in cells serve as sensitive probes of motor induced, noisy cytoskeletal motions. Multiple peroxisomes move in unison over large time windows and show correlations with microtubule tip positions, indicating rapid microtubule fluctuations in the longitudinal direction. We report the first high-resolution measurement of longitudinal microtubule fluctuations performed by tracing such pairs of co-moving peroxisomes. The resulting picture shows that motor-dependent longitudinal microtubule oscillations contribute significantly to cargo movement along microtubules. Thus, contrary to the conventional view, organelle transport cannot be described solely in terms of cargo movement along stationary microtubule tracks, but instead includes a strong contribution from the movement of the tracks.

Igor M. Kuli?; Andr E. X. Brown; Hwajin Kim; Comert Kural; Benjamin Blehm; Paul R. Selvin; Philip C. Nelson; Vladimir I. Gelfand

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

59

Diffuse Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diffuse Scattering Diffuse Scattering * Anticipatory (trick) question: If you have an x-ray or neutron detector looking at a small sample volume, which will scatter more x- rays or neutrons into the detector 1 atom 100 atoms or 1000 atoms? X-ray or neutron beam Answer: Depends! Diffuse Scattering Gene E. Ice Materials Science and Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering ORNL/SNS June 2011 Presentation concentrates year graduate-level course into 1 hour * Skip mathematical complexities * Expose to range of applications * Develop intuition for length scales * Talk like x-ray/neutron scattering guru - Reciprocal space - Debye Temperature - Laue monotonic - Krivoglaz defects of 1st/2nd kinds! Great for cocktail parties or impressing attractive strangers-

60

Neutron Scattering Software  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Software Software A new portal for neutron scattering has just been established at neutronsources.org. The information contained here in the Neutron Scattering Web has been transferred to the new site. We will leave the current content here for archival purposes but no new content will be added. We encourage everyone interested in neutron scattering to take full advantage of this exciting new resource for our community. Neutronsources.org Data Formats NeXus: Neutron and X-ray Data Format Crystallographic Binary Format (CBF/imgCIF) Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) Data Analysis and Visualization Data Analysis for Neutron Scattering Experiments (DANSE): distributed data analysis project Large Array Manipulation Program (LAMP): IDL-based data analysis and visualization

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Distribution:  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

JAN26 19% JAN26 19% Distribution: OR00 Attn: h.H.M.Roth DFMusser ITMM MMMann INS JCRyan FIw(2) Hsixele SRGustavson, Document rocm Formal file i+a@mmm bav@ ~@esiaw*cp Suppl. file 'Br & Div rf's s/health (lic.only) UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL NUCLEAB MATERIAL LICENSE pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, P&t 70, "Special Nuclear Material Reg)llatiqm," a license is hereby issued a$hortztng the licensee to rekeive and possess the special nuclear material designated below; to use such special nuclear mat&ial for the purpose(s) and at the place(s) designated below; and to transfer such material to per&s authorized to receive it in accordance with the regula,tions in said Part.

62

Building Thai WordNet with a Bi-directional Translation Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research presents a method of building Thai WordNet using an automatic bi-directional translation system with two EnglishThai dictionaries, LEXiTRON and Thiengburanathum Dictionary. The former was compiled using a corpus-based approach, whilst the ...

Dhanon Leenoi; Thepchai Supnithi; Wirote Aroonmanakun

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Measuring Molecular Motor Forces In Vivo: Implications for Tug-of-War Models of Bidirectional Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measuring Molecular Motor Forces In Vivo: Implications for Tug-of-War Models of Bidirectional, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas ABSTRACT Molecular motor proteins use the energy released from the force motors generate amounts to directly probing their function. We report on optical trapping

Texas at Austin. University of

64

Acquisition and Analysis of Bispectral Bidirectional Reflectance and Reradiation Distribution Functions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Lensch2 1MPI Informatik 2Ulm University 3University College London i o Fluor. yellow Fluorescent red Green spray paint Pink spray paint Dull day-glo red White paper Figure 1: Fluorescent materials absorb]. Fluorescence is represented by the off-diagonal entries. Abstract In fluorescent materials, light from

Kautz, Jan

65

Scattering of Light by Raindrops with Single-Mode Oscillations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Light scattering by oscillating raindrops is studied theoretically in the ray optics approximation. The effects of oscillation mode, amplitude, time dependence, drop size, and size distribution on the light scattering are studied. The ...

Timo Nousiainen

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Examination of a PHEV Bi-Directional Charger System for V2G Reactive Power Compensation  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) potentially have the capability to fulfill the energy storage needs of the electric grid by supplying ancillary services such as reactive power compensation. However, in order to allow bidirectional power transfer, the PHEV battery charger should be designed to manage such capability. While many different battery chargers have been available since the inception of the first electric vehicles (EVs), an on-board, conductive charger with bidirectional power transferring capability have recently drawn attention due to their inherent advantages in charging accessibility, ease of use and efficiency. In this study, a reactive power compensation case study using the inverter dc-link capacitor is given when a PHEV battery is under charging operation. Finally, the impact of providing these services on the batteries is also explained.

Kisacikoglu, Mithat C [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Memory, Bias and Correlations in Bidirectional Transport of Molecular Motor-driven Cargoes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular motors are specialized proteins which perform active, directed transport of cellular cargoes on cytoskeletal filaments. In many cases, cargo motion powered by motor proteins is found to be bidirectional, and may be viewed as a biased random walk with fast unidirectional runs interspersed with slow `tug-of-war' states. The statistical properties of this walk are not known in detail, and here, we study memory and bias, as well as directional correlations between successive runs in bidirectional transport. We show, based on a study of the direction reversal probabilities of the cargo using a purely stochastic (tug-of-war) model, that bidirectional motion of cellular cargoes is, in general, a correlated random walk. In particular, while the motion of a cargo driven by two oppositely pulling motors is a Markovian random walk, memory of direction appears when multiple motors haul the cargo in one or both directions. In the latter case, the Markovian nature of the underlying single motor processes is hidden by internal transitions between degenerate run and pause states of the cargo. Interestingly, memory is found to be a non-monotonic function of the number of motors. Stochastic numerical simulations of the tug-of-war model support our mathematical results and extend them to biologically relevant situations.

Deepak Bhat; Manoj Gopalakrishnan

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

68

pi. pi. scattering by pole extrapolation methods. [2. 67 GeV/c, angular distribution, Chew-Low and Durr-Pilkum methods, OPE model, isospin  

SciTech Connect

A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of ..pi../sup +/p interactions at an incident momentum of the ..pi../sup +/ of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature ..pi../sup +/p ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/p..pi../sup 0/ and ..pi../sup +/p ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup +/n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV/sup 2/ were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub ..pi..//sup 2/) in order to investigate the ..pi.. ..pi.. interaction with isospins of both T = 1 and T = 2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965 which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total ..pi.. ..pi.. cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) were dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total ..pi.. ..pi.. cross section.

Lott, F.W. III

1977-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

69

Scattering apodizer for laser beams  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.

Summers, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Hagen, Wilhelm F. (Livermore, CA); Boyd, Robert D. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Scattering apodizer for laser beams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.

Summers, M.A.; Hagen, W.F.; Boyd, R.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Structural characterization of Green River oil-shale at high-pressure using pair distribution function analysis and small angle x-ray scattering.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances (6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond 6 {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component.

Locke, D. R.; Chupas, P. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Pugmire, R. J.; Winans, R. E.; Univ. of Utah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Scattering Length Density Calculator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... For energy dependent cross sections please go to ... The neutron scattering length density is defined ... To calculate scattering length densities enter a ...

73

Deeply Virtual Neutrino Scattering  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the extension of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process into the weak interaction sector.

Ales Psaker

2007-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

74

Total Scattering Developments for Total Scattering ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Density Functional Theory Molecular Dynamics ... of nuclear scattering from different nuclei in a sample) Large when energy nuclei in a sample). ...

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

75

Light Scattering Characteristics and Size Distribution of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ian Thomas at CESARE. REFERENCES ... [19] Mulholland, GW, Hartman, AW, Hembree, GG, Marx, E., and Lettieri, T. R., "Development of a one ...

2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

76

Time resolved side scatter diagnostics at NOVA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Side scattering of the radiation during the interaction of a laser beam with the long scale length plasma in hohlraum is a difficult problem of relevance to the viability of ICF. It is important to measure the absolute amount of the laser side scatter as well as the angular distribution of that scatter. The OSA diagnostics has been implemented on NOVA to measure these quantities. We have implemented a fiber-optically coupled streak camera to measure the temporally and angularly resolved side scatter radiation at 351 nm at 9 different angles. Filtered PIN diodes were positioned at 31 various angles in the E-field planed and B-field plane of the incident probe beam to sample and measure the scattered radiation at the 351 nm wavelength of the probe. The diode data was used to calibrate the Brillouin power received by the 9 strategically located fiber optic channels. This presentation will describe the OSA and associated diagnostics.

Kyrala, G.A.; Evans, S.C.; Jimerson, J.R.; Fernandez, J.C.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Scattering Functions of Yolk-Shell Particles  

SciTech Connect

The single-particle small-angle scattering properties of the yolk-shell particle, a new type of core-shell particle with a mobile core within the hosting shell, are systematically investigated. The Debye spatial autocorrelation function, pair distance distribution function and intraparticle structure factor (form factor) are calculated and compared to the corresponding scattering functions of reference systems of hard sphere and concentric core-shell particles with identical sizes. Based on our theoretical calculations, we find that the broken centrosymmetry, originating from the mobility of the trapped yolk, results in an imaginary scattering amplitude. As a result, it contributes an additional destructive interference term which smears certain features present in the scattering functions of the reference systems. Based on our theoretical models, we present the prospect of jointly using small angle neutron and x-ray scattering techniques to quantitatively determine the structural characteristics of yolk-shell particles.

Li, Xin [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Kao-Hsiang [National Taiwan University] [National Taiwan University; Wu, Bin [ORNL] [ORNL; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Operating space of a bidirectional PWM ac-to-dc converter applied in active line-conditioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents the operating space of a bidirectional PWM ac-to-dc converter which can act also as a line conditioner. This analysis of the operating space will prove the secondary line conditioning functionality of the PWM dc converters. Starting ...

R. Paku; R. Marschalko

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Transversity Parton Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transversity distribution is one of the three fundamental parton distributions that completely describe polarized spin 1/2 nucleon. Its chiral odd nature prevented for many years its experimental exploration, however presently we have obtained great deal of information about this distribution. This includes experimental data from Semi Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering, knowledge of scale dependence and phenomenological extractions. I will discuss main features of this distribution and indicate the future improvements of our knowledge.

Alexei Prokudin

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Propulsion system for a motor vehicle using a bidirectional energy converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A motor vehicle propulsion system includes an electrical energy source and a traction motor coupled to receive electrical energy from the electrical energy source. The system also has a first bus provided electrical energy by the electrical energy source and a second bus of relatively lower voltage than the first bus. In addition, the system includes an electrically-driven source of reaction gas for the electrical energy source, the source of reaction gas coupled to receive electrical energy from the first bus. Also, the system has an electrical storage device coupled to the second bus for storing electrical energy at the lower voltage. The system also includes a bidirectional energy converter coupled to convert electrical energy from the first bus to the second bus and from the second bus to the first bus.

Tamor, Michael Alan (Toledo, OH); Gale, Allan Roy (Livonia, MI)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Distributed data possession checking for securing multiple replicas in geographically-dispersed clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributing multiple replicas in geographically-dispersed clouds is a popular approach to reduce latency to users. It is important to ensure that each replica should have availability and data integrity features; that is, the same as the original data ... Keywords: Cloud computing, Complete bidirectional directed graph, Data security, Multiple replicas data possession checking, Optimal spanning tree

Jing He; Yanchun Zhang; Guangyan Huang; Yong Shi; Jie Cao

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Electromagnetic wave scattering by discrete random media with remote sensing applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The scattering of electromagnetic waves in medium with randomly distributed discrete scatterers is studied. Analytical and numerical solutions to several problems with implications for the active and passive remote sensing ...

Ao, Chi On, 1970-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

An Approximation to Multiple Scattering in the Earth's Atmosphere: Almucantar Radiance Formulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The retrieval of aerosol size distributions from solar aureole measurements, in the past, have been made tractable by assuming the single-scattering approximation, since the inclusion of multiple scattering by solving the complete radiative ...

M. A. Box; A. Deepak

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Multiwavelength Scanning Radiometer for Airborne Measurements of Scattered Radiation within Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multi-wavelength scanning radiometer has been developed for measuring the angular distribution of scattered radiation deep within a cloud layer. The purpose of the instrument is to provide measurements from which the single scattering albedo of ...

Michael D. King; Maxwell G. Strange; Peter Leone; Lamdin R. Blaine

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Neutron Scattering Facilities 1982  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NEUTRON SOURCES NEUTRON SOURCES Types of Sources U.S. Sources Available for Users Plans for the Future The Neutron Scattering Society of America (NSSA) SNS/ANL School on Neutron and x-Ray Scattering, June 2011 Jim Rhyne Lujan Neutron Scattering Center Los Alamos National Lab. What do we need to do neutron scattering? * Neutron Source - produces neutrons * Diffractometer or Spectrometer - Allows neutrons to interact with sample - Sorts out discrete wavelengths by monochromator (reactor) or by time of flight (pulse source) - Detectors pick up neutrons scattered from sample * Analysis methods to determine material properties * Brain power to interpret results Sources of neutrons for scattering * Nuclear Reactor - Neutrons produced from fission of 235 U - Fission spectrum neutrons

86

Neutron Scattering Web  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at neutronsources.org. The information contained here in the Neutron Scattering Web has been transferred to the new site. We will leave the current content here for...

87

Neutron Scattering Template  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Acknowledgements The graphics used on the Neutron Scattering Web Pages were designed by Tami Sharley (Information and Publishing Services Division) and Jack Carpenter (Intense...

88

Environment scattering in GADRAS.  

SciTech Connect

Radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the angular tallies for scattered gamma-rays as a function of distance, height, and environment. Green's Functions were then used to encapsulate the results a reusable transformation function. The calculations represent the transport of photons throughout scattering surfaces that surround sources and detectors, such as the ground and walls. Utilization of these calculations in GADRAS (Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software) enables accurate computation of environmental scattering for a variety of environments and source configurations. This capability, which agrees well with numerous experimental benchmark measurements, is now deployed with GADRAS Version 18.2 as the basis for the computation of scattered radiation.

Thoreson, Gregory G.; Mitchell, Dean James; Theisen, Lisa Anne; Harding, Lee T.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Precomputed atmospheric scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new and accurate method to render the atmosphere in real time from any viewpoint from ground level to outer space, while taking Rayleigh and Mie multiple scattering into account. Our method reproduces many effects of the scattering of light, ...

Eric Bruneton; Fabrice Neyret

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Physics @ Oxford SCATTERING NEUTRONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Neutron Scattering Society of America (NSSA) Purpose and New Initiatives www.neutronscattering.org SNS/ANL School on Neutron and X-Ray Scattering June 2011 Visit us now on Facebook #12;2 What is the NSSA? NSSA is an organization of scientists and engineers with a common interest in using neutron

Herz, Laura M.

91

DPQ Event Tour of the CBEMA Scatter Plot  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of EPRI's Distribution Power Quality (DPQ) Project, this power quality (PQ) case study presents a tour of the Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (CBEMA) scatter plot.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

92

Scattering in an environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cross section of elastic electron-proton scattering taking place in an electron gas is calculated within the Closed Time Path method. It is found to be the sum of two terms, one being the expression in the vacuum except that it involves dressing due to the electron gas. The other term is due to the scattering particles-electron gas entanglement. This term dominates the usual one when the exchange energy is in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. Furthermore it makes the trajectories of the colliding particles more consistent and the collision more irreversible, rendering the scattering more classical in this regime.

Janos Polonyi; Karima Zazoua

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

93

Nonrelativistic Description of Nucleon-Nucleus Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within the three-dimensional semiclassical approximation, an analytic expression is obtained for the amplitude of proton-nucleus scattering at intermediate energies of incident protons. The method for deriving this amplitude is based on the use of the high-energy approximation with distorted waves. In view of the short-range character of proton-nucleon interaction, the process of proton-nucleus scattering is represented as a series of single scattering events occurring on each individual nucleon. With the aid of the proposed mathematical formalism, a recursion relation is derived that makes it possible to express the nuclear form factor obtained within the distorted-wave method in terms of the sum of an infinite Born series. Parameters that characterize the distributions of protons and neutrons in the spherical nuclei {sup 40}Ca, {sup 48}Ca, {sup 90}Zr, and {sup 208}Pb and which include the width of the surface layer of nucleons and the root-mean-square radii of the proton-, neutron-, and nucleon-density distributions are determined from an analysis of the measured cross sections for the elastic scattering of 1-GeV protons, a modified Fermi function being employed for the nucleon-density distribution.

Mirabutalybov, M.M. [Azerbaijan State Petroleum Academy, pr. Azadlyg 20, Baku, 370010 (Azerbaijan)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Thomson scattering in short pulse laser experiments  

SciTech Connect

Thomson scattering is well used as a diagnostic in many areas of high energy density physics. In this paper, we quantitatively demonstrate the practicality of using Thomson scattering as a diagnostic of short-pulse laser-plasma experiments in the regime, where the plasmas probed are at solid density and have temperatures of many hundreds of eV using a backlighter produced with an optical laser. This method allows a diagnosis both spatially and temporally of the density and temperature distributions in high energy density laser-plasma interactions which is independent from, and would act as a useful complement to, the existing spectroscopic methods.

Hill, E. G.; Rose, S. J. [Plasma Physics Group, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Stimulated Compton scattering from preformed underdense plasmas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electron-density fluctuation spectra induced by stimulated Compton scattering (SCS) are directly observed for the first time. A CO{sub 2} laser is focused into plasmas with densities {ital n}{sub {ital e}} spanning (0.4--6){times}10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}. The fluctuations corresponding to backscatter are probed using Thomson scattering. At low {ital n}{sub {ital e}}, the scattered spectrum peaks at a frequency shift {Delta}{omega}={ital kv}{sub {ital e}} and appears to be in a linear convectively saturated regime. At the highest {ital n}{sub {ital e}}, a nonlinear saturation of the SCS instability is observed possibly due to a self-induced perturbation of the electron distribution function.

Leemans, W.P.; Clayton, C.E.; Marsh, K.A.; Joshi, C. (Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California (USA))

1991-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

96

SCATMECH: Polarized Light Scattering C++ Class Library ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... cout tab // Scattering angle (theta) tab // Scattering angle (phi) tab // Principal angle of ...

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

97

New methods for measuring spectral bi-directional transmission and reflection using digital cameras  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advanced fenestration systems are increasingly being used to distribute solar radiation purposefully in buildings. Distribution of visible light and near infrared radiation can be optimized to enhance daylighting and reduce ...

Gayeski, Nicholas (Nicholas Thomas)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Light-Light Scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For a long time, it is believed that the light by light scattering is described properly by the Lagrangian density obtained by Heisenberg and Euler. Here, we present a new calculation which is based on the modern field theory technique. It is found that the light-light scattering is completely different from the old expression. The reason is basically due to the unphysical condition (gauge condition) which was employed by the QED calcualtion of Karplus and Neumann. The correct cross section of light-light scattering at low energy of $(\\frac{\\omega}{m} \\ll 1)$ can be written as $ \\displaystyle{\\frac{d\\sigma}{d\\Omega}=\\frac{1}{(6\\pi)^2}\\frac{\\alpha^4} {(2\\omega)^2}(3+2\\cos^2\\theta +\\cos^4\\theta)}$.

Kanda, Naohiro

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Light-Light Scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For a long time, it is believed that the light by light scattering is described properly by the Lagrangian density obtained by Heisenberg and Euler. Here, we present a new calculation which is based on the modern field theory technique. It is found that the light-light scattering is completely different from the old expression. The reason is basically due to the unphysical condition (gauge condition) which was employed by the QED calcualtion of Karplus and Neumann. The correct cross section of light-light scattering at low energy of $(\\frac{\\omega}{m} \\ll 1)$ can be written as $ \\displaystyle{\\frac{d\\sigma}{d\\Omega}=\\frac{1}{(6\\pi)^2}\\frac{\\alpha^4} {(2\\omega)^2}(3+2\\cos^2\\theta +\\cos^4\\theta)}$.

Naohiro Kanda

2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

100

MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING  

SciTech Connect

Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern science, ranging from large-scale structures and dynamics of polymers and biological systems, to electronic properties of today's technological materials. Neutron scattering developed into a vast field, encompassing many different experimental techniques aimed at exploring different aspects of matter's atomic structure and dynamics. Modern magnetic neutron scattering includes several specialized techniques designed for specific studies and/or particular classes of materials. Among these are magnetic reflectometry aimed at investigating surfaces, interfaces, and multilayers, small-angle scattering for the large-scale structures, such as a vortex lattice in a superconductor, and neutron spin-echo spectroscopy for glasses and polymers. Each of these techniques and many others offer exciting opportunities for examining magnetism and warrant extensive reviews, but the aim of this chapter is not to survey how different neutron-scattering methods are used to examine magnetic properties of different materials. Here, we concentrate on reviewing the basics of the magnetic neutron scattering, and on the recent developments in applying one of the oldest methods, the triple axis spectroscopy, that still is among the most extensively used ones. The developments discussed here are new and have not been coherently reviewed. Chapter 2 of this book reviews magnetic small-angle scattering, and modern techniques of neutron magnetic reflectometry are discussed in Chapter 3.

ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Neutron Scattering Conference Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conference Archive Conference Archive A new portal for neutron scattering has just been established at neutronsources.org. The information contained here in the Neutron Scattering Web has been transferred to the new site. We will leave the current content here for archival purposes but no new content will be added. We encourage everyone interested in neutron scattering to take full advantage of this exciting new resource for our community. Neutronsources.org 2000 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | 2012 2000 June 12-14, 2000 Workshop on "New Opportunities for Better User Group Software (NOBUGS III)" Location Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire, UK Contact Mark Enderby, Daresbury Laboratory Email M.J.Enderby@dl.ac.uk URL http://nobugs.dl.ac.uk/

102

ANALYTIC EXPRESSIONS FOR THE LIGHT-SCATTERING CROSS SECTION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ANALYTIC ANALYTIC EXPRESSIONS FOR THE LIGHT-SCATTERING CROSS SECTION AND ÅNGSTRÖM EXPONENT OF AN AEROSOL Ernie R. Lewis Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11933 elewis@bnl.gov BACKGROUND For an aerosol consisting of spherical particles with size distribution of number concentration dN(r)/dr and real index of refraction m (thus no absorption), the light-scattering coefficient σ sp

103

String Scattering Amplitudes in High Energy Limits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A very review of string scattering amplitudes in two important high energy limits: hard scattering and Regge scattering. Recent results of the symmetries in string theory by studying high energy string scattering anplitudes are showed.

Yang, Yi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Lightweight PV Inverters: Dual Bi-Directional IGBTs Modules Enables Breakthrough PV Inverter Using Current Modulation Topology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar ADEPT Project: PV inverters convert DC power generated by modules into usable AC power. IPCs initial 30kW 94lb. PV inverter reduces the weight of comparable 30kW PV inverters by 90%reducing the cost of materials, manufacturing, shipping, and installation. With ARPA-E support, new bi-directional silicon power switches will be developed, commercialized, and utilized in IPCs next-generation PV inverter. With these components, IPC will produce 100kW inverters that weight less than 100lb., reducing the weight of conventional 3,000lb. 100kW inverters by more than 95%. The new power switches will cut IPCs $/W manufacturing cost in half, as well as further reduce indirect shipping and installation costs.

None

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

105

PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the final architecture of planetary systems that evolve under the combined effects of planet-planet and planetesimal scattering. Using N-body simulations we investigate the dynamics of marginally unstable systems of gas and ice giants both in isolation and when the planets form interior to a planetesimal belt. The unstable isolated systems evolve under planet-planet scattering to yield an eccentricity distribution that matches that observed for extrasolar planets. When planetesimals are included the outcome depends upon the total mass of the planets. For M {sub tot} {approx}> 1 M{sub J} the final eccentricity distribution remains broad, whereas for M {sub tot} {approx}< 1 M{sub J} a combination of divergent orbital evolution and recircularization of scattered planets results in a preponderance of nearly circular final orbits. We also study the fate of marginally stable multiple planet systems in the presence of planetesimal disks, and find that for high planet masses the majority of such systems evolve into resonance. A significant fraction leads to resonant chains that are planetary analogs of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. We predict that a transition from eccentric to near-circular orbits will be observed once extrasolar planet surveys detect sub-Jovian mass planets at orbital radii of a {approx_equal} 5-10 AU.

Raymond, Sean N. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Armitage, Philip J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gorelick, Noel [Google, Inc., 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)], E-mail: sean.raymond@colorado.edu

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

106

Fast Lidar and Radar Multiple-Scattering Models. Part I: Small-Angle Scattering Using the Photon VarianceCovariance Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast, approximate method is described for the calculation of the intensity of multiply scattered lidar returns from clouds. At each range gate it characterizes the outgoing photon distribution by its spatial variance, the variance of photon ...

Robin J. Hogan

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING LEADS TO TIGHTLY PACKED PLANETARY SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The known extrasolar multiple-planet systems share a surprising dynamical attribute: they cluster just beyond the Hill stability boundary. Here we show that the planet-planet scattering model, which naturally explains the observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution, can reproduce the observed distribution of dynamical configurations. We calculated how each of our scattered systems would appear over an appropriate range of viewing geometries; as Hill stability is weakly dependent on the masses, the mass-inclination degeneracy does not significantly affect our results. We consider a wide range of initial planetary mass distributions and find that some are poor fits to the observed systems. In fact, many of our scattering experiments overproduce systems very close to the stability boundary. The distribution of dynamical configurations of two-planet systems may provide better discrimination between scattering models than the distribution of eccentricity. Our results imply that, at least in their inner regions which are weakly affected by gas or planetesimal disks, planetary systems should be 'packed', with no large gaps between planets.

Raymond, Sean N. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Barnes, Rory [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Veras, Dimitri [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States); Armitage, Philip J. [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gorelick, Noel [Google, Inc., 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Greenberg, Richard [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)], E-mail: sean.raymond@colorado.edu

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Physics Out Loud - Electron Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(Electromagnetic Force) Physics Out Loud Main Index Next Video (Electrons) Electrons Electron Scattering Jefferson Lab's Hall A Leader, Cynthia Keppel, explains how nuclear...

109

Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Compton scattering has been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. One future challenge is the application of this technique to characterize compressed matter on the National Ignition Facility where hydrogen and beryllium will approach extremely dense states of matter of up to 1000 g/cc. In this regime, the density, compressibility, and capsule fuel adiabat may be directly measured from the Compton scattered spectrum of a high-energy x-ray line source. Specifically, the scattered spectra directly reflect the electron velocity distribution. In non-degenerate plasmas, the width provides an accurate measure of the electron temperatures, while in partially Fermi degenerate systems that occur in laser-compressed matter it provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. Both of these regimes have been accessed in experiments at the Omega laser by employing isochorically heated solid-density beryllium and moderately compressed beryllium foil targets. In the latter experiment, compressions by a factor of 3 at pressures of 40 Mbar have been measured in excellent agreement with radiation hydrodynamic modeling.

Glenzer, S H; Neumayer, P; Doeppner, T; Landen, L; Lee, R W; Wallace, R; Weber, S; Lee, H J; Kritcher, A L; Falcone, R; Regan, S P; Sawada, H; Meyerhofer, D D; Gregori, G; Fortmann, C; Schwarz, V; Redmer, R

2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

110

Light scattering for aerogel characterization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for aerogel characterization for aerogel characterization Title Light scattering for aerogel characterization Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1998 Authors Hunt, Arlon J. Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 225 Pagination 303-306 Keywords aerogel, light scattering, microstructure Abstract Light scattering is a useful tool to evaluate aerogel clarity, study its structure, pore size, mechanical strain, and examine the modes of sol-gel evolution that determine its microstructure. Ultraviolet-visible transmission spectroscopy can be used to study the wavelength dependent scattering to readily compare aerogels of differing origins, thickness, and to evaluate effects of residual contaminants. Infrared reflectance measurements can be used to determine the effective real and imaginary indices of refraction of porous aerogel materials for material property and radiant heat transfer studies. Measurements of scattering at a fixed angle can be used for quality control, to evaluate sources of scattering, and study inhomogeneities. Measurement of the Mueller matrix (describing the 16-element angle-dependent transformation of intensity and polarization of incident to scattered light) provides information about the anisotropy, large pore fraction, induced stresses, microstructure and inhomogeneities in the aerogel. The time evolution of scattering before and after gel formation gives information.

111

Inverse scattering problem with isobars  

SciTech Connect

The inverse scattering problem is solved for a covariant, isobar-dominated scattering amplitude (including inelasticity). Application is made to the ..pi..N P/sub 33/ channel, with the ..pi..N ..delta.. vertex function and isobar bare mass as results.

Londergan, J.T.; Moniz, E.J.

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Abstract Guidelines for Internationalized Resource Identifiers with Bi-directional Characters (Bidi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

draft-ietf-iri-bidi-guidelines-03 This specification gives guidelines for selection, use, and presentation of International Resource Identifiers (IRIs) which include characters with inherent rightto-left (rtl) writing direction. Status of this Memo This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at

L. Masinter; A. Allawi (??? ? ????

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Development of a modular, bi-directional power inverter for photovoltaic applications. Annual technical progress report, August 1995--August 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this research and development contract is to develop and prototype for manufacturing a modular, bi-directional power inverter for photovoltaic applications. This modular inverter will be used as building block for larger inverters by connecting in parallel (for higher power) or in series (for higher AC voltage) or both. The modular inverter will be capable of being interconnected for single, split and three phase configurations for both 60 hertz (domestic) and 50 hertz (international) applications. The design will also construction of units with different DC input voltages and AC output voltages to further satisfy various application and market requirements. By standardizing on a single {open_quotes}building block{close_quotes} inverter module, the need to build multiple models and sizes for different application can be avoided. The higher volume of a single design will allow improved manufacturing and will result in higher reliability by reducing low volume will allow improved manufacturing will result in higher reliability by reducing low volume modifications. The result will be lower cost and improved performance of photovoltaic systems.

Freitas, C. [Trace Engineering Company, Inc., Arlington, WA (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

LIGHT SCATTERING STUDIES OF SILICA AEROGELS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

van de Hulst, H.C. , Light Scattering by Small Particles,A New Polarization-Modulated Light Scattering Instrument,"and interpretation of light scattering effects in aerogels.

Hunt, A.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Compton Scattering in the ALS Booster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compton Scattering in the ALS Booster D. Robin, C. Kim, and410 COMPTON SCATTERING IN THE ALS BOOSTER* D. Robin, C. Kim,COMPTON SCATTERING IN THE ALS BOOSTER* D. Robin, C. Kim, and

Robin, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Muon - proton inelastic scattering  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This experiment will examine muon-proton inelastic scattering for virtual-photon energies of 10 to 110 GeV and for |q{sup 2}| values of 0.2 to 20.0 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The virtual-photon total cross sections {sigma}{sub t} + {epsilon}{sigma}{sub s}, or the equivalent expression in W{sub 1} and W{sub 2}, will be measured over this range of virtual-photon energies and q{sup 2} values. Some separation of {sigma}{sub T} and {sigma}{sub S}, or equivalently W{sub 1} and W{sub 2}, will be made. The multiplicity, momentum spectra and angular spectra of the charged hadrons produced in this reaction will be measured. Some channels such as {mu} + P {yields} {mu} + P + P{sup 0} will be isolated and completely analyzed. The experiment uses a hydrogen target, wire spark chambers and an analyzing magnet of conventional design.

Dieterle, B.; Lakin, W.; Martin, F.; Perl, M.; Petraske, E.; Tenebaum, J.; Toner, W.; Zipf, T.; /SLAC

1970-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Microwave scattering from laser spark in air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, microwave Mie scattering from a laser-induced plasma in atmospheric air is computed. It shows that the scattered microwave transitions from coherent Rayleigh scattering to Mie scattering based on the relative transparency of the laser-induced plasma at the microwave frequency. The microwave penetration in the plasma alters from total transparency to partial shielding due to the sharp increase of the electron number density within the avalanche ionization phase. The transition from Rayleigh scattering to Mie scattering is verified by both the temporal evolution of the scattered microwave and the homogeneity of polar scattering plots.

Sawyer, Jordan; Zhang Zhili [Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Shneider, Mikhail N. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

The CJ12 parton distributions  

SciTech Connect

Three new sets of next-to-leading order parton distribution functions (PDFs) are presented, determined by global fits to a wide variety of data for hard scattering processes. The analysis includes target mass and higher twist corrections needed for the description of deep-inelastic scattering data at large x and low Q^2, and nuclear corrections for deuterium targets. The PDF sets correspond to three different models for the nuclear effects, and provide a more realistic uncertainty range for the d quark PDF compared with previous fits. Applications to weak boson production at colliders are also discussed.

Accardi, Alberto [JLAB; Owens, Jeff F. [Florida State U.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Mefenamic acid bi-directionally modulates the transient outward K{sup +} current in rat cerebellar granule cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on ion channels has been widely studied in several cell models, but less is known about their modulatory mechanisms. In this report, the effect of mefenamic acid on voltage-activated transient outward K{sup +} current (I{sub A}) in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells was investigated. At a concentration of 5 {mu}M to 100 {mu}M, mefenamic acid reversibly inhibited I{sub A} in a dose-dependent manner. However, mefenamic acid at a concentration of 1 {mu}M significantly increased the amplitude of I{sub A} to 113 {+-} 1.5% of the control. At more than 10 {mu}M, mefenamic acid inhibited the amplitude of I{sub A} without any effect on activation or inactivation. In addition, a higher concentration of mefenamic acid induced a significant acceleration of recovery from inactivation with an increase of the peak amplitude elicited by the second test pulse. Intracellular application of mefenamic acid could significantly increase the amplitude of I{sub A}, but had no effect on the inhibition induced by extracellular mefenamic acid, implying that mefenamic acid may exert its effect from both inside and outside the ion channel. Furthermore, the activation of current induced by intracellular application of mefenamic acid was mimicked by other cyclooxygenase inhibitors and arachidonic acid. Our data demonstrate that mefenamic acid is able to bi-directionally modulate I{sub A} channels in neurons at different concentrations and by different methods of application, and two different mechanisms may be involved.

Zhang Man; Shi Wenjie; Fei Xiaowei; Liu Yarong; Zeng Ximin [Institute of Brain Science, School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Mei Yanai [Institute of Brain Science, School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: yamei@fudan.edu.cn

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

A Bidirectional, Triple-Voltage DC-DC Converter for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Vehicle Power Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrical power systems in future hybrid and fuel cell vehicles may employ three voltage (14V, 42V and high voltage (HV)) nets. These will be necessary to accommodate existing 14V loads as well as efficiently handle new heavy loads at the 42V net and an electrical traction drive on the HV bus. A low-cost bi-directional dc-dc converter was proposed in (10) for connecting the three voltage nets. The converter consists of two half-bridges and a high-frequency transformer; thus minimizing the number of switching devices and their associated gate driver components. One salient feature is that the half-bridge on the 42V bus is also utilized to provide the 14V bus by operating its duty ratio around an atypical value of 1/3. This eliminates the need for an additional 14V/42V converter. Moreover, it makes use of the parasitic capacitance of the switches and the transformer leakage inductance for soft-switching; no extra active switches or passive resonant components are required. The use of half-bridges makes the topology suitable for interleaved multi-phase configurations as a means to increase the power level because the capacitor legs can be shared. This paper presents simulation and experimental results on an interleaved two-phase arrangement rated at 4.5 kW. Also discussed are the benefits of operating with the atypical duty ratio on the transformer and a preferred multi-phase configuration to minimize capacitor ripple currents.

Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The scattering of muons in low Z materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents the measurement of the scattering of 172 MeV/c muons in assorted materials, including liquid hydrogen, motivated by the need to understand ionization cooling for muon acceleration. Data are compared with predictions from the Geant 4 simulation code and this simulation is used to deconvolute detector effects. The scattering distributions obtained are compared with the Moliere theory of multiple scattering and, in the case of liquid hydrogen, with ELMS. With the exception of ELMS, none of the models are found to provide a good description of the data. The results suggest that ionization cooling will work better than would be predicted by Geant 4.7.0p01.

D. Attwood; P. Bell; S. Bull; T. McMahon; J. Wilson; R. Fernow; P. Gruber; A. Jamdagni; K. Long; E. McKigney; P. Savage; M. Curtis-Rouse; T. R. Edgecock; M. Ellis; J. Lidbury; W. J. Murray; P. Norton; K. Peach; K. Ishida; Y. Matsuda; K. Nagamine; S. Nakamura; G. M. Marshall; S. Benveniste; D. Cline; Y. Fukui; K. Lee; Y. Pischalnikov; S. Holmes; A. Bogacz

2005-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

122

A solution of LIDAR problem in double scattering approximation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A problem of monoenergetic particles pulse reflection from half-infinite stratified medium is considered in conditions of elastic scattering with absorbtion account. The theory is based on multiple scattering series solution of Kolmogorov equation for one-particle distribution function. The analytical representation for first two terms are given in compact form for a point impulse source and cylindric symmetrical detector. Reading recent articles on the LIDAR sounding of environment (e.g. Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics (2010) 23: 389-395, Kaul, B. V.; Samokhvalov, I. V. http://www.springerlink.com/content/k3p2p3582674xt21/) one recovers standing interest to the related direct and inverse problems. A development of the result fo the case of n-fold scattering and polarization account as well as correspondent convergence series problem solution of the Kolmogorov equation will be published in nearest future.

Sergey Leble; Alexei Buzdin

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

123

Nonlinear Thomson scattering of an ultrashort laser pulse  

SciTech Connect

The nonlinear scattering of an ultrashort laser pulse by free electrons is considered. The pulse is described in the 'Mexican hat' wavelet basis. The equation of motion for a charged particle in the field of a plane electromagnetic wave has an exact solution allowing, together with the instant spectrum approximation, the calculation of the intensity of nonlinear Thomson scattering for a high-intensity laser pulse. The spectral distribution of scattered radiation for the entire pulse duration is found by integrating with respect to time. The maximum of the emission spectrum of a free electron calculated in 10{sup 19}-10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} fields lies in the UV spectral region between 3 and 12 eV. A part of the continuous spectrum achieves high photon energies. One percent of the scattered energy for the field intensity 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} is concentrated in the range h{omega} > 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} eV, for a field intensity of 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} in the range h{Omega} > 7.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} eV, and for an intensity of 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} in the range h{Omega} > 2.45 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} eV. These results allow us to estimate nonlinear scattering as a source of hard X-rays.

Golovinski, P. A., E-mail: golovinski@bk.ru; Mikhin, E. A. [Voronezh State Architectural-Building University (Russian Federation)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Simultaneous energy distribution and ion fraction measurements using a linear time-of-flight analyzer with a floatable drift tube  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simultaneous energy distribution and ion fraction measurements using a linear time A technique for simultaneous energy distribution and ion fraction measurements using a linear time Laboratory's Multicharged Ion Research Facility. Energy distributions of the scattered projectiles

125

NXS 2010 - Neutron Scattering School  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2-26, 2010 2-26, 2010 Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN NXS2010 Travel Airport Shuttles Departure Flights Schedule Participants Lectures Lecturers Lecture Notes/Videos Experiments Schedule, Desc, Groups Student Presentations ANL Facilities APS Facility ANL Map ANL Visitor's Guide ORNL Facilities HFIR Facility SNS Facility HFIR/SNS Map Access Requirements ANL ORNL Rad Worker Training Study Guide Wireless Networks ANL ORNL Safety & Security Rules ANL ORNL NSSA New Initiatives NSSA Weblink Contacts ANL ORNL 12th National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering 2009 Neutron Scattering School participants 2010 National School Participants Students share their thoughts about NXS 2010. Purpose: The main purpose of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major neutron and x-ray facilities. Lectures, presented by researchers from academia, industry, and national laboratories, will include basic tutorials on the principles of scattering theory and the characteristics of the sources, as well as seminars on the application of scattering methods to a variety of scientific subjects. Students will conduct four short experiments at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source and Oak Ridge's Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor facilities to provide hands-on experience for using neutron and synchrotron sources.

126

Unitary constraints on Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering  

SciTech Connect

At moderately low momentum transfer ($-t$ up to 1 GeV$^2$) the coupling to the vector meson production channels gives the dominant contribution to real Compton and deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS). Starting from a Regge Pole approach that successfully describes vector meson production, the singular part of the corresponding box diagrams (where the intermediate vector meson-baryon pair propagates on-shell) is evaluated without any further assumptions (unitarity). Such a treatment explains not only the unexpectedly large DVCS unpolarized cross section that has been recently measured at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab), but also all the beam spin and charge asymmetries that has been measured at JLab and Hermes, without explicit need of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD). The issue of the relationship between the two approaches is addressed.

J.M. Laget

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

NXS 2013 - Neutron Scattering School  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5th National School on Neutron and X-Ray Scattering 5th National School on Neutron and X-Ray Scattering August 10-24, 2013 Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN NXS2013 Schedule Participants Image Gallery Travel Info Thank you Lectures Lecture Notes/Videos Experiments ANL Facilities ANL Map (jpg) ANL Map (pdf) ANL Visitor's Guide ORNL Facilities HFIR Facility SNS Facility HFIR/SNS Map Wireless Networks ORNL Safety & Security Rules ORNL NSSA Weblink Contacts ANL ORNL 2013 NXS School Participants 2013 NXS Participants. NXS interveiws 2013 Click the image to download the video. Video Interviews: Participants answer questions about their experiences at NXS 2011. Your feedback about lectures and experiments is important for evaluating this year's Neutron and X-ray Scattering School and for making improvements for future participants. We sincerely hope that each of you will complete the survey by the end of the school.

128

Calibration of the Forward-scattering Spectrometer Probe: Modeling Scattering from a Multimode Laser Beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scattering calculations using a more detailed model of the multimode laser beam in the forward-scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP) were carried out by using a recently developed extension to Mie scattering theory. From this model, new ...

Edward A. Hovenac; James A. Lock

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Scattering arrays for matrix computations  

SciTech Connect

Several new mesh connected multiprocessor architectures are adapted to execute highly parallel algorithms for matrix algebra and signal processing, such as triangular- and eigen-decomposition, inversion and low-rank updating of general matrices, as well as Toeplitz and Hankel related matrices. These algorithms are based on scattering theory concepts and information preserving transformations hence they exhibit local communication, and simple control and memory management, ideal for VLSI implementation. The architectures are based on two-dimensional scattering arrays that can be folded into linear arrays either through time-sharing or due to simple computation wavefronts, or due to special structures of the matrices involved, such as Toeplitz. 21 references.

Delosme, J.M.; Morf, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Calibration of Knollenberg FSSP Light-Scattering Counters for Measurement of Cloud Droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurement of cloud drop size distributions with the Knollenberg model FSSP-100 light-scattering counter can lead to artificial bumps or knees in the distributions at 0.6 ?m and sometimes 24 ?m radius if the manufacturer-supplied calibration ...

R. G. Pinnick; D. M. Garvey; L. D. Duncan

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Equitable distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of distributing available resources occurs in a great variety of networks, each with peculiarities of its own. Coal from mines has to be distributed to central dumps and to small yards. Ice cream must be distributed only to refrigerated stores ...

John A. Gosden

1963-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Alpha inelastic scattering and cluster structures in {sup 24}Mg  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The alpha inelastic scattering from {sup 24}Mg was measured to obtain the isoscalar natural-parity excitation strengths and to search for the {alpha}-condensed states. The multipole decomposition analysis for the measured cross sections was performed. The strength distributions for the {Delta}L = 0-3 were successfully obtained and the possible candidates for the {alpha}-condensed states around the {sup 16}O core were found.

Kawabata, T.; Ishiguro, Y.; Nozawa, Y.; Tomida, N.; Yokota, N. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University (Japan); Adachi, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Hatanaka, K.; Tamii, A.; Yasuda, Y.; Zenihiro, J. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University (Japan); Itoh, M.; Takahashi, T.; Yoshida, H. P. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University (Japan); Maeda, Y.; Miyasako, H.; Saito, T. [Faculty of Engineering, University of Miyazaki (Japan); Matsubara, H.; Sasamoto, Y.; Tokieda, H. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo (Japan)

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

133

Few body impulse and fixed scatterer approximations for high energy scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The elastic scattering differential cross section is calculated for proton scattering from $^6$He at 717 MeV, using single scattering terms of the multiple scattering expansion of the total transition amplitude (MST). We analyse the effects of different scattering frameworks, specifically the Factorized Impulse Approximation (FIA) and the Fixed Scatterer (adiabatic) Approximation (FSA) and the uncertainties associated with the use different structure models.

R. Crespo; A. M. Moro; I. J. Thompson

2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

134

Distribution of particles which produces a desired radiation pattern  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A method is given for calculation of a distribution of small particles, embedded in a medium, so that the resulting medium would have a desired radiation pattern for the plane wave scattering by this medium.

A. G. Ramm

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Monte Carlo Modeling of Diffuse Scattering from Single Crystals: The Program ZMC  

SciTech Connect

Diffuse scattering probes the local ordering in a crystal, whereas Bragg peaks are descriptive of the average long-range ordering. The population of local configurations can be explored by modeling the three-dimensional distribution of diffuse scattering. Local configurations are not constrained by the average crystallographic symmetry, so one way of modeling diffuse scattering is by modeling a disordered (short-range-ordered) structure and then calculating its diffuse scattering. The structure must contain enough unit cells to give a statistically valid model of the populations of local configurations, and so requirements for a program to model this ordering are very different from programs that model average crystal structures (used to fit the Bragg diffraction). ZMC is a program that has been developed to model diffuse scattering, particularly from molecular crystals. The strategies used to tackle the problem and the way in which they are implemented will be discussed.

Goossens, D.J.; Heerdegen, A.P.; Chan, E.J.; Welberry, T.R. (ANU)

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

136

Automated computation of scattering amplitudes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review some of the recent advances in the computation of one-loop scattering amplitudes which led to the construction of efficient and automated computational tools for NLO predictions. Particular attention is devoted to unitarity-based methods and integrand-level reduction techniques. Extensions of one-loop integrand-level techniques to higher orders are also briefly illustrated.

Giovanni Ossola

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

137

Pauli Principle and Pion Scattering  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

It is pointed out that if the Pauli principle is taken into account in the discussion of pion scattering by complex nuclei (as it ought, of course, to be) some rather implausible consequences of some earlier treatments of this problem can be avoided. (auth)

Bethe, H. A.

1972-10-00T23:59:59.000Z

138

Distribution Screening for Distributed Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the deployment of renewable distributed generation increases, the need for traditional energy providers to interact with these resources increases. Detailed modeling and simulation of the distribution and distributed resources is a critical element to better analyze, understand and predict these interactions. EPRI has developed a tool for such analysis called OpenDSS. In addition, as part of the renewable integration program an applet was created for screening distributed generation (DG). This report ...

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

139

The effect of the shape function on small-angle scattering analysis by the maximum entropy method  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of small-angle scattering data to obtain a particle size distribution is dependent upon the shape function used to model the scattering. Using a maximum entropy analysis of small-angle scattering data, the effect of shape function selection on obtained size distribution is demonstrated using three different shape functions to describe the same scattering data from each of two steels. The alloys have been revealed by electron microscopy to contain a distribution of randomly oriented and mainly non-interacting, irregular, ellipsoidal precipitates. Comparison is made between the different forms of the shape function. Effect of an incident wavelength distribution is also shown. The importance of testing appropriate shape functions and validating these against other microstructural studies is discussed.

Jemian, P.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Allen, A.J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Department of Physics]|[National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Single-Scattering Albedo and Radiative Forcing of Various Aerosol Species with a Global Three-Dimensional Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global distributions of the aerosol optical thickness, ngstrm exponent, and single-scattering albedo are simulated using an aerosol transport model coupled with an atmospheric general circulation model. All the main tropospheric aerosols are ...

Toshihiko Takemura; Teruyuki Nakajima; Oleg Dubovik; Brent N. Holben; Stefan Kinne

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Characterization of Light Scattering in Transparent Polycrystalline Laser Ceramics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering, Wiley, New York (Fleury, The Spectrum of Light Scattered by Fluids, AcademicAbsorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles,

Sharma, Saurabh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Coherent scattering from a free gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate decoherence in atom interferometry due to scattering from a background gas and show that the supposition that residual coherence is due to near-forward scattering is incorrect. In fact, the coherent part is ...

Sanders, Scott N.

143

Neutron Scattering Home Page (Low-Graphics)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Page A new portal for neutron scattering has just been established at neutronsources.org. The information contained here in the Neutron Scattering Web has been transferred to...

144

Scattering of ion-acoustic solitons  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments is described that is designed to ascertain the properties of the scattering of planar ion-acoustic solitons from objects of various shapes. The scattered solitons are compared with those radiated from the same objects.

Raychaudhuri, S.; Chang, H.; Tsikis, E.K.; Lonngren, K.E.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Pion inelastic scattering from sup 20 Ne  

SciTech Connect

Angular distributions for {sup 20}Ne({pi}{sup {plus minus}}, {pi}{sup {plus minus}}{prime}) were measured on the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS) at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Data were taken with both {pi}{sup {plus}} and {pi}{sup {minus}} over an angular range of 12{degree} to 90{degree} for T{sub {pi}}=180 MeV and with {pi}{sup +} from 15{degree} to 90{degree} for T{sub {pi}}=120 MeV. The data were analyzed using both the distorted-wave impulse approximation (DWIA) and the coupled-channels impulse approximation (CCIA) with collective transition densities. In addition, microscopic transition densities were used in the DWIA analysis for states in the lowest rotational bands. The transitions to the 6.73-MeV 0{sup +} and several 1{sup {minus}} states, including the states at 5.79 MeV and 8.71 MeV, were studied using several models for the transition density. Strong evidence for the importance of two-step routes in pion inelastic scattering was seen in several angular distributions, including the 5.79-MeV 1{sup {minus}}, the first three 4{sup +} states, and the 8.78-MeV 6{sup +}. 100 refs., 81 figs., 33 tabs.

Burlein, M. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

SCATMECH: Polarized Light Scattering C++ Class Library  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Frames Version. SCATMECH: Polarized Light Scattering C++ Class Library. SCATMECH is an object-oriented C++ class ...

147

Distribution Workshop  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

On September 24-26, 2012, the GTT presented a workshop on grid integration on the distribution system at the Sheraton Crystal City near Washington, DC.

148

Light and Color in Nature -Scattering Effects -  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in reactor, nuclear bomb · Limit: Diffusion Theory ­ Very many scattering events ­ Effective anisotropy · Strongly wavelength-dependent (1/4) WS03/04: Light and Color in Nature ­ Scattering Scattering Theory equation · Astrophysics ­ Radiation density inside stars · Nuclear physics ­ Neutron density & velocity

Assarsson, Ulf

149

Characterization of photosynthetic supramolecular assemblies using small angle neutron scattering  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We are using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to resolve structural features of supramolecular assemblies of photosynthetic proteins in liquid and frozen solutions. SANS resolves the size, shape, and structural homogeneity of macromolecular assemblies in samples identical to those used for spectroscopic assays of photosynthetic function. Likely molecular structures of the supramolecular assemblies can be identified by comparing experimental scattering data with scattering profiles calculated for model supramolecular assemblies built from crystal structures of the individual proteins. SANS studies of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center, RC, presented here, show that the detergent solubilized RC exists in a variety of monomeric and aggregation states. The distribution between monomer and aggregate was found to depend strongly upon detergent, temperature and nature of additives, such as ethylene glycol used for low temperature spectroscopy and polyethylene glycol used for crystallization. Likely aggregate structures are being identified by fitting the experimental scattering profiles with those calculated for model aggregates built-up using the RC crystal structure. This work establishes the foundation for using SANS to identify intermediates in the RC crystallization pathways, and for determining likely structures of complexes formed between the RC and its physiological reaction partners, cytochrome c, and the LHI antenna complex.

Tiede, D.M.; Marone, P.; Wagner, A.M.; Thiyagarajan, P.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

LANSCE | Lujan Neutron Scattering Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Department of Energy, National Office of Science Department of Energy, National Office of Science science.energy.gov Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration nnsa.energy.gov Lujan Neutron Scattering Center Logo Lujan Center Mission The Lujan Center delivers science by exploiting the unique characteristics of intense beams of pulsed neutrons for academia, national security, and industry. Lujan Center Vision The Lujan Center will operate a world class user program in the service of the nation. Lujan Center scientists will be recognized for their leadership and innovation in neutron scattering. Lujan Center at LANSCE The Lujan Center is one of five user facilities supported by the LANSCE accelerator which is stewarded. Funding to operate 10 instruments in a national user program is provided by the Department of Energy's Office of

151

Scatter correction in cone-beam CT via a half beam blocker technique allowing simultaneous acquisition of scatter and image information  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: X-ray scatter incurred to detectors degrades the quality of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and represents a problem in volumetric image guided and adaptive radiation therapy. Several methods using a beam blocker for the estimation and subtraction of scatter have been proposed. However, due to missing information resulting from the obstruction of the blocker, such methods require dual scanning or dynamically moving blocker to obtain a complete volumetric image. Here, we propose a half beam blocker-based approach, in conjunction with a total variation (TV) regularized Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm, to correct scatter-induced artifacts by simultaneously acquiring image and scatter information from a single-rotation CBCT scan. Methods: A half beam blocker, comprising lead strips, is used to simultaneously acquire image data on one side of the projection data and scatter data on the other half side. One-dimensional cubic B-Spline interpolation/extrapolation is applied to derive patient specific scatter information by using the scatter distributions on strips. The estimated scatter is subtracted from the projection image acquired at the opposite view. With scatter-corrected projections where this subtraction is completed, the FDK algorithm based on a cosine weighting function is performed to reconstruct CBCT volume. To suppress the noise in the reconstructed CBCT images produced by geometric errors between two opposed projections and interpolated scatter information, total variation regularization is applied by a minimization using a steepest gradient descent optimization method. The experimental studies using Catphan504 and anthropomorphic phantoms were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. Results: The scatter-induced shading artifacts were markedly suppressed in CBCT using the proposed scheme. Compared with CBCT without a blocker, the nonuniformity value was reduced from 39.3% to 3.1%. The root mean square error relative to values inside the regions of interest selected from a benchmark scatter free image was reduced from 50 to 11.3. The TV regularization also led to a better contrast-to-noise ratio. Conclusions: An asymmetric half beam blocker-based FDK acquisition and reconstruction technique has been established. The proposed scheme enables simultaneous detection of patient specific scatter and complete volumetric CBCT reconstruction without additional requirements such as prior images, dual scans, or moving strips.

Lee, Ho; Xing Lei; Lee, Rena; Fahimian, Benjamin P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Performance Assessment of Bi-Directional Knotless Tissue-Closure Devices in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters, 2009 - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to assess the performance of bi-directional knotless tissue-closure devices for use in tagging juvenile salmon. This study is part of an ongoing effort at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to reduce unwanted effects of tags and tagging procedures on the survival and behavior of juvenile salmonids, by assessing and refining suturing techniques, suture materials, and tag burdens. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the knotless (barbed) suture, using three different suture patterns (treatments: 6-point, Wide N, Wide N Knot), to the current method of suturing (MonocrylTM monofilament, discontinuous sutures with a 2222 knot) used in monitoring and research programs with a novel antiseptic barrier on the wound (Second Skin).

Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Bryson, Amanda J.

2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

153

Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computer graphics and computer vision techniques deal with acquiring, interpreting and presenting the rich visual world around us. These are exciting multi-disciplinary fields of research with a wide spectrum of applications that can impact our daily ...

Diego Gutierrez; Srinivasa G. Narasimhan; Henrik Wann Jensen; Wojciech Jarosz

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Unclassified Distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

63 1 Unclassified Distribution UNIVERSITY :OF CALIFORNU Radiation Lab oratory Contract No, W-7405-eng-48 THE DETECTION OF U T I F I C I B L L Y PRODUCED WOTOMESONS WITH COUNTERS *...

155

Observed Surface Reflectance Distributions in the Southern Great Plains During ALIVE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface Reflectance Distributions Surface Reflectance Distributions in the Southern Great Plains During ALIVE Kirk Knobelspiesse 1 , Brian Cairns 1 , Andrew Lacis 2 , Mikhail Alexandrov 2 , Barbara Carlson 2 and Beat Schmid 3 1 Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University 2 NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies 3 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory * Surface albedo can be measured from the ground with broadband instruments. * Albedo can be measured from space if the atmospheric effect is removed and many view geometries are available. The measured Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is angularly integrated to compute the albedo. * Studies of the former (Yang, 2006) and the latter (Liang et al. 2005; Wang et al. 2006) do not always agree.

156

Special Distribution  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Special Distribution Special Distribution Issued: December 1977 ',, Radiological Survey and Decontamination of the Former Main Technical Area (TA-1) at Los Alamos, New Mexico Compiled by A. John Ahlquist Alan K. Stoker Linda K. Trocki c laboratory of, the University of California LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO 87545 An Alfirmdve Action/Equal Opportunity Employer ..-_- .-- .--.-. c T -,--... _ _._-r..l __,.. - .-,_.. ..- _._ -- .--. " . . _ . - . c- - . . . _ -. . _ . - . - . _ - - n - _ _~ ~_. __ _ ~~_ --..&e+ L.';; CONTENTS ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._____ 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._... _._ 2 I. BACKGROUND .............................................. 15

157

Hard Scattering Studies at Jlab  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present current activities and future prospects for studies of hard scattering processes using the CLAS detector and the CEBAF polarized electron beam. Kinematic dependences of single and double spin asymmetries have been measured in a wide kinematic range at CLAS with a polarized NH{sub 3} and unpolarized liquid hydrogen targets. It has been shown that the data are consistent with factorization and observed target and beam asymmetries are in good agreement with measurements performed at higher energies, suggesting that the high energy-description of the semi-inclusive DIS process can be extended to the moderate energies of JLab measurements.

Harutyun Avagyan; Peter Bosted; Volker Burkert; Latifa Elouadrhiri

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

1 Lossy Electric Transmission Line Soft Fault Diagnosis: an Inverse Scattering Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AbstractIn this paper, the diagnosis of soft faults in lossy electric transmission lines is studied through the inverse scattering approach. The considered soft faults are modeled as continuous spatial variations of distributed characteristic parameters of transmission lines. The diagnosis of such faults from reflection and transmission coefficients measured at the ends of a line can be formulated as an inverse problem. The relationship between this inverse problem and the inverse scattering theory has been studied by Jaulent in 1982 through transformations from the telegraphers equations of transmission lines to Zakharov-Shabat equations. The present paper clarifies and completes the computation of the theoretic scattering data required by the inverse scattering transform from the practically measured engineering scattering data. The inverse scattering method is then applied to numerically simulated lossy transmission lines to confirm the feasibility of the studied approach to soft fault diagnosis. Index Termsinverse scattering, lossy transmission line, soft fault diagnosis, telegraphers equations, Zakharov-Shabat equations. I.

Huaibin Tang; Qinghua Zhang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

X-ray scattering intensities of water at extreme pressure and temperature  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have calculated the coherent x-ray scattering intensity of several phases of water at 1500 and 2000 K under high pressure, using ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT). Our calculations span the molecular liquid, ice VII, and superionic solid phases, including the recently predicted symmetrically hydrogen bonded region of the superionic phase. We show that wide angle x-ray scattering intensity could be used to determine phase boundaries between these high pressure phases, and we compare the results for ice VII and superionic water. We compute simulated spectra and provide new atomic scattering form factors for water at extreme conditions, which take into account frequently neglected changes in ionic charge and electron delocalization. We show that our modifed atomic form factors allow for a nearly exact comaprison to the total x-ray scattering intensities calculated from DFT. Finally, we analyze the effect our new form factors have on determination of the oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function.

Goldman, N; Fried, L E

2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

160

Wide Area and Distributed Hydrogen Sensors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent advances in optical sensors show promise for the development of new wide area monitoring and distributed optical network hydrogen detection systems. Optical hydrogen sensing technologies reviewed here are: 1) open path Raman scattering systems, 2) back scattering from chemically treated solid polymer matrix optical fiber sensor cladding; and 3) shlieren and shearing interferometry imaging. Ultrasonic sensors for hydrogen release detection are also reviewed. The development status of these technologies and their demonstrated results in sensor path length, low hydrogen concentration detection ability, and response times are described and compared to the corresponding status of hydrogen spot sensor network technologies.

Zalosh, Robert G.; Barilo, Nick F.

2009-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Molecular evidence of Pleistocene bidirectional faunal exchange between Europe and the Near East: the case of the bicoloured  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as the Caucasus, southern Urals and western Asia (Cooper et al., 1995; Bilton et al., 1998; Nesbo et al., 1999 leucodon, Soricidae) populations ranging from France to Georgia. The aims of the study were to identify to north-western Turkey and a Near East clade distributed from Georgia to Romania; the two clades separated

Lehmann, Laurent

162

Brillouin Scattering and Relaxation in Liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spectrum of light inelastically scattered from density fluctuations is considered both for nonrelaxing and relaxing fluids. When the thermal conductivity of the liquid is small

C. J. Montrose; V. A. Solovyev; T. A. Litovitz

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

NIST Modeled integrated scattering tool (MIST)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... been developed to provide users with a general application to model an integrated scattering system. The program performs an integration of the ...

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

164

ORNL Neutron Scattering User Meeting (ONSUM 2011)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and learning about the capabilities of neutron scattering instruments at SNS and HFIR Meeting fellow user scientists and engineers to discuss ongoing research and R&D needs...

165

Neutron Scatter Camera for Radiaton Detection - Energy ...  

Patent 7,741,613: Neutron scatter camera An instrument that will directly image the fast fission neutrons from a special nuclear material source has ...

166

Structure, Defects, and Scattering in Graphene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structure, Defects, and Scattering in Graphene. ... (b) STM image of a complex moir pattern observed in multilayer graphene grown on SiC. ...

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

167

Improved Anti-Scatter Grids and Collimators  

Office of Technology Transfer Improved Anti-Scatter Grids and Collimators New Fabrication Method Enhances X-Ray, Nuclear Imaging to Save Lives, Reduce ...

168

International Neutron Scattering Instrumentation School (INSIS...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

INSIS 2012 International Neutron Scattering Instrumentation School (INSIS) 15 - 27 July, 2012 INSIS 2012 INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati * Rome, Italy About the School How...

169

Predictive model of nucleon-nucleus scattering cross sections  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nucleon total reaction and neutron total cross sections as well as differential (including spin) observables from 25 to 300 MeV for stable nuclei from 6Li to 238U have been predicted that are in good agreement with measured data. Those predictions have been made using non-local, energy dependent, and complex optical potentials in coordinate space formed by full folding of effective nucleon-nucleon interactions with realistic nuclear ground state densities. By inverse kinematics the same model prescription describes exotic (radioactive) nuclei scattering from hydrogen as a target and the results reveal the extended (neutron) distributions such nuclei can have.

Amos, K. (Ken); Deb, P. (Pradip); Karataglidis, S. (Steven); Madland, D. G.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Neutrino Beams for Scattering Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Options for Neutrino Scattering Measurements Options for Neutrino Scattering Measurements Draft Skeleton Table Beam Characteristics K2K CERN AD FNAL Debuncher FNAL Booster NuMI LE NuMI ME NuMI HE Peak E(nu) (GeV) X X ~2.5 1 3.5 7.5 13 Maximum E(nu) (GeV) (->1% peak rate) X X 8.9 3 50 50+ 50+ Nu(mu) CC Rate (per ton-year) X 1.4 0 5,000 210,000 1,100,000 2,000,000 Nubar(mu) CC Rate (per ton-year) X 3.4 ~18 (Time Separated) ~360 (Prompt) 1,000 21,000 32,000 20,000 Nu(e) CC Rate (per ton-year) X 0 0 1 2,300 9,500 12,000 Nubar(e) CC Rate (per ton-year) X 0.4 ~18 (Time Separated) 0.5 630 660 600 Flux uncertainty X X 10% 10% 20% 20% 20% QE events / 100 ton-years X 169 nubar(mu) 47 nu(mu) 17 nubar(e) 525 nubar(e) 500,000 nu(mu) 100,000 nu(mu) X X X Floor space (m**2) X X New Hall New Hall 20 x 2.5 20 x 2.5 20 x 2.5 Run Type X X Parasitic Parasitic Parasitic Parasitic Parasitic

171

Measurements of transverse momentum in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering at CLAS  

SciTech Connect

With mounting experimental evidence that only a small fraction of the proton's spin comes from the spins of its quarks and gluons, the quest for orbital angular momentum has begun. The parton distributions relevant to this depend on transverse quark momenta. Recent CLAS semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering measurements probe these new transverse-momentum-dependent parton distributions using longitudinally polarized beams and targets and detecting {pi}{sup +},{pi}{sup -} and {pi}{sup 0} in the final state.

K.A. Griffioen

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Nuclear Effects in Deep Inelastic Scattering of Charged-Current Neutrino off Nuclear  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear effect in the neutrino-nucleus charged-Current inelastic scattering process is studied by analyzing the CCFR and NuTeV data. Structure functions $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $xF_3(x,Q^2)$ as well as differential cross sections are calculated by using CTEQ parton distribution functions and EKRS and HKN nuclear parton distribution functions, and compared with the CCFR and NuTeV data. It is found that the corrections of nuclear effect to the differential cross section for the charged-current anti-neutrino scattering on nucleus are negligible, the EMC effect exists in the neutrino structure function $F_2(x,Q^2)$ in the large $x$ region, the shadowing and anti-shadowing effect occurs in the distribution functions of valence quarks in the small and medium $x$ region,respectively. It is also found that shadowing effects on $F_2(x,Q^2)$ in the small $x$ region in the neutrino-nucleus and the charged-lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering processes are different. It is clear that the neutrino-nucleus deep inelastic scattering data should further be employed in restricting nuclear parton distributions.

Duan ChunGui; Li GuangLie; Shen PengNian

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

173

Double?Quantum Light Scattering by Molecules  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Double?quantum light scattering by a system of molecules is discussed in this paper. Expressions have been obtained for the scattered light intensity considering both the coherent and incoherent contributions. In that coherent contributions are also considered in this treatment

R. Bersohn; Yoh?Han Pao; H. L. Frisch

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Longwave Scattering Effects of Mineral Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scattering in the longwave domain has been neglected in the first generation of radiative codes and is still neglected in most current GCMs. Scattering in the longwave domain does not play any significant role for clear-sky conditions but recent ...

Jean-Louis Dufresne; Catherine Gautier; Paul Ricchiazzi; Yves Fouquart

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY uc-11 I A W E N C E LIVERMORE IABORATORY University of Cahfmia/Livermore, California/94550 UCRL-52658 CALCULATION OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AND MINERALS: THE EQ3/6 - - SOFTWARE PACKAGE T. J. Wolery MS. date: February 1, 1979 . . - . . - . Tho rcpon rn prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United Stater Government. Seither Lhc Urutcd Stater nor the Umted Stater Department of Energy, nor any of their employees. nor any of their E O ~ ~ ~ B C I O I S . rubcontracton. o r their employees. makes any warranr)., exprcs or !mplwd. or assumes any legal liability or respanability io: the ~ c c u o c y . complctencn or uvfulneu of any miormarlon. apparatcr. product or p r o m s dtwlorcd. or r c p r e v n u that its UP would not infringe privately owned r

176

A Rgularized Boltzmann Scattering Operator for Highly Forward Peaked Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extremely short collision mean free paths and near-singular elastic and inelastic differential cross sections (DCS) make analog Monte Carlo and deterministic computational approaches impractical for charged particle transport. The widely used alternative, the condensed history method, while efficient, also suffers from several limitations arising from the use of precomputed infinite medium distributions for sampling particle directions and energies.

Anil K. Prinja

2005-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

177

Universality of Unintegrated Gluon Distributions at small x  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We systematically study dijet production in various processes in the small-x limit and establish an effective kt-factorization for hard processes in a system with dilute probes scattering on a dense target. In the large-Nc limit, the unintegrated gluon distributions involved in different processes are shown to be related to two widely proposed ones: the Weizsacker-Williams gluon distribution and the dipole gluon distribution.

Dominguez, Fabio; Marquet, Cyrille; Xiao, Bowen; Yuan, Feng

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

178

Self-Organizing Maps and Parton Distribution Functions  

SciTech Connect

We present a new method to extract parton distribution functions from high energy experimental data based on a specific type of neural networks, the Self-Organizing Maps. We illustrate the features of our new procedure that are particularly useful for an anaysis directed at extracting generalized parton distributions from data. We show quantitative results of our initial analysis of the parton distribution functions from inclusive deep inelastic scattering.

K. Holcomb, Simonetta Liuti, D. Z. Perry

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Elastic and charge-exchange scattering of pions from /sup 3/He and /sup 3/H  

SciTech Connect

We have examined (1) the elastic scattering of pions from the isodoublet /sup 3/He and /sup 3/H and (2) the single charge-exchange reaction /sup 3/H(..pi../sup +/,..pi../sup 0/)/sup 3/He using a formalism which incorporates the ..pi..-N multiple scattering to all orders. Emphasis is placed on numerical results which illustrate those features of the differential cross sections that are expected to be of interest to the experimentalist. Realistic nuclear densities corresponding to the form factors of elastic electron scattering were used. Charge-exchange cross sections are presented in terms of angular distributions for both the ..pi../sup 0/ and the recoil nucleus. In elastic scattering, Coulomb-nuclear interference effects are significant at incident pion kinetic energies of less than 100 MeV; form factor effects are apparent at large momentum transfer. Comparison of data and theory for ..pi../sup +/ - /sup 3/He with that for ..pi../sup -/ - /sup 3/He (or the conjugate ..pi../sup +/ - /sup 3/H) will provide a test of the convergence of the fixed scatterer, multiple-scattering formalism utilized in this report. 21 figures.

Gibson, B.F.; Hess, A.T.

1976-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Percent Distribution  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Percent Distribution of Natural Gas Supply and Disposition by State, 1996 Table State Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) Marketed Production Total Consumption Alabama................................................................... 3.02 2.69 1.48 Alaska ...................................................................... 5.58 2.43 2.04 Arizona..................................................................... NA 0 0.55 Arkansas.................................................................. 0.88 1.12 1.23 California.................................................................. 1.25 1.45 8.23 Colorado .................................................................. 4.63 2.90 1.40 Connecticut.............................................................. 0 0 0.58 D.C...........................................................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Distributed Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Untapped Value of Backup Generation Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized solutions. These backup generators exist today in large numbers and provide utilities with another option to reduce peak load, relieve transmission congestion, and improve power reliability. Backup generation is widely deployed across the United States. Carnegie Mellon's Electricity

182

Inelastic shadowing effects in multiple scattering  

SciTech Connect

The projectile--nucleon scattering amplitudes used as input into multiple scattering theories of projectile--nucleus scattering naturally include the effects of coupling to inelastic (i.e., production) channels. We employ a multichannel separable potential to describe the projectile--nucleon interaction and show that within the fixed nucleon framework we can obtain the nuclear elastic scattering amplitude. This includes terms outside the conventional formalisms, corresponding to intermediate propagation in the inelastic channels both above and below inelastic threshold. We refer to this as inelastic shadowing. In a two-channel approximation, we show that knowledge of the projectile--nucleon elastic scattering phase shifts plus specification of the inelastic threshold energy are sufficient to determine the off-shell coupled- channel transition matrix, implying that the nuclear amplitude can be calculated within this model without any detailed information about the inelastic channels. We study this solution quantitatively for some model problems and for pion scattering, with the general result that inelastic shadowing can be significant whenever the elementary interaction has important channel coupling. For pion scattering in the energy regime characterized by strongly absorptive resonance, we find, for example, that the effect of inelastic shadowing is much more important than that due to two-nucleon correlations. (AIP)

Londergan, J.T.; Moniz, E.J.

1975-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

183

Compact, Interactive Electric Vehicle Charger: Gallium-Nitride Switch Technology for Bi-directional Battery-to-Grid Charger Applications  

SciTech Connect

ADEPT Project: HRL Laboratories is using gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors to create battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs) that are more compact and efficient than traditional EV chargers. Reducing the size and weight of the battery charger is important because it would help improve the overall performance of the EV. GaN semiconductors process electricity faster than the silicon semiconductors used in most conventional EV battery chargers. These high-speed semiconductors can be paired with lighter-weight electrical circuit components, which helps decrease the overall weight of the EV battery charger. HRL Laboratories is combining the performance advantages of GaN semiconductors with an innovative, interactive battery-to-grid energy distribution design. This design would support 2-way power flow, enabling EV battery chargers to not only draw energy from the power grid, but also store and feed energy back into it.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beamlines Divisions Argonne Home > Advanced Photon Source > Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering The Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering group...

185

Workshop on Neutron Scattering Applications in Structural Biology...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshop on Neutron Scattering Applications in Structural Biology Workshop on Neutron Scattering Applications in Structural Biology For the fourth consecutive year, NScD and JINS...

186

Rayleigh Scattering in Rare Gas Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Rayleigh scattering length has been calculated for rare-gas liquids in the ultraviolet for the frequencies at which they luminesce. The calculations are based on the measured dielectric constants in the gas phase, except in the case of xenon for which measurements are available in the liquid. The scattering length mayplace constraints on the design of some large-scale detectors, using uv luminescence, being proposed to observe solar neutrinos and dark matter. Rayleigh scattering in mixtures of rare-gas mixtures is also discussed.

G. M. Seidel; R. E. Lanou; W. Yao

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Attosecond neutron Compton scattering from protons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of "anomalous" scattering of neutrons and electrons from protons in the electron-volt energy-transfer range is considered, and related experimental results are mentioned. A recent independent confirmation of this effect with a new data analysis procedure is presented. Due to the very short characteristic scattering time, there is no well defined separation of time scales of electronic and protonic motions. An outline of a proposed theoretical interpretation is presented, which is based on the fact that scattering protons represent \\textit{open} quantum systems, thus being subject to decoherence.

C. Aris Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

A phenomenological determination of the pion-nucleon scattering lengths from pionic hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model independent expression for the electromagnetic corrections to a phenomenological hadronic pion-nucleon scattering length, extracted from pionic hydrogen, is obtained. In a non-relativistic approach and using an extended charge distribution, these corrections are derived up to terms of order (alpha)**2 log(alpha) in the limit of a short-range hadronic interaction. We infer a charged pion-proton scattering length of 0.0870(5) in units of inverse pion mass, which gives for the charged pion-proton-neutron coupling, through the GMO relation, a value of 14.04(17).

T. E. O. Ericson; B. Loiseau; S. Wycech

2004-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

189

Electron, Photon, and Positron Scattering Dynamics of Complex Molecular Targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron scattering cross sections have been computed for pyridine and pyrimidine using the static-exchange approximation with model potential to account for dynamic electron correlation. To obtain well-converged orbitals, we have expanded all partial waves to a maximum angular momentum of l = 60 for both targets. We have obtained total cross sections for electron scattering energies to 20 eV. Both targets display similar features, namely a dipole-induced increase in the integrated cross section at scattering energies below 5 eV, and peaks corresponding to resonances in b1, a2, and b1 symmetries. These resonances were investigated through a Siegert eigenstate analysis and Breit-Wigner fit of the SECP eigenphase sums. They were also compared to the virtual orbitals obtained from a minimum basis set Hartree-Fock calculation on both targets. We consider electron scattering resonances from cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, [Pt(NH3)2Cl2], the ligand molecular species Cl2 (1Sigma+g ), and the isolated transition metal center Pt in a nondegenerate atomic state (1S) at the SECP level of theory. As a rigorous comparison to the single-state, single-configuration SECP level results of these smaller, yet electron dense targets, we have also considered scattering from ground state Cl2 and Pt in the 1S and 3D states in the multichannel configuration-interaction (MCCI) approximation originally developed for photoionization for scattering up to 10 eV. Photoionization cross sections and angular distributions in the recoil frame (RFPAD) and molecular frame (MFPAD) have been computed for inner-shell C 1s and Cl 2p ionization from the chloroalkanes chloromethane and chloroethane, with ionization leading to a variety of ionic fragment states. We have also computed valence level ionization from the nitro molecule nitromethane CH3NO2 leading to the dissociation of the CN bond. All of these calculations were performed in the frozen-core Hartree-Fock approximation. Even at this level of theory, we obtain computed results that compare well to the photoelectronphotoion coincidence measurements. The fullerene C20 is the smallest fullerene predicted to exist, with most relevant structural calculations suggesting the reduction of the icosahedral symmetry into one in which the target species possesses at maximum only a dihedral axis. We have computed positron scattering cross sections for the molecule in two low-symmetry structural isomers Ci and C2, within the HF approximation. Density functional expressions were used to incorporate important positron-electron interactions within the calculation. We have found similar cross sections and resonance features for both isomers, including a positron scattering resonance whose density is found within the framework of the fullerene cluster.

Carey, Ralph

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Percent Distribution  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Percent Distribution of Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers by State, 1996 Table State Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Utilities Alabama..................................... 1.08 0.92 2.27 0.08 0.23 Alaska ........................................ 0.31 0.87 0.85 - 1.16 Arizona....................................... 0.53 0.92 0.30 3.91 0.70 Arkansas.................................... 0.88 0.98 1.59 0.11 1.24 California.................................... 9.03 7.44 7.82 43.11 11.64 Colorado .................................... 2.12 2.18 0.94 0.58 0.20 Connecticut................................ 0.84 1.26 0.37 1.08 0.38 D.C............................................. 0.33 0.52 - 0.21 - Delaware.................................... 0.19 0.21 0.16 0.04 0.86 Florida........................................

191

Distribution Category:  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

- - Distribution Category: Remedial Action and Decommissioning Program (UC-70A) DOE/EV-0005/48 ANL-OHS/HP-84-104 ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439 FORMERLY UTILIZED MXD/AEC SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE HARSHAW CHEMICAL COMPANY CLEVELAND. OHIO Prepared by R. A. Wynveen Associate Division Director, OHS W. H. Smith Senior Health Physicist C. M. Sholeen Health Physicist A. L. Justus Health Physicist K. F. Flynn Health Physicist Radiological Survey Group Health Physics Section Occupational Health and Safety Division April 1984 Work Performed under Budget Activity DOE KN-03-60-40 and ANL 73706 iii PREFACE AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This is one in a series of reports resulting from a program initiated

192

Parton distributions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-section for the virtual photon-proton interaction can be written in the factorized form ?(ep ? eX) = ? i CDISi (x, ?s(Q2))? fi(x,Q2) where Q2 is the photon virtuality, x = Q22m? , the mo- mentum fraction of parton (?=energy transfer in the lab frame), and the fi(x,Q2... distribution comes from inclusive jet measure- ments by D0 and CDF at Tevatron. They mea- 0 50 100 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Dc 2 k Valence quarks Figure 6. ??2 against the isospin violating parameter ?. sure d?/dET d? for central rapidity CDF...

Thorne, Robert S

193

Study of nuclear matter density distributions using hadronic probes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We briefly review our formula for a proton-nucleus total reaction cross section, {sigma}{sub R}, constructed in the black-sphere approximation of nuclei, in which a nucleus is viewed as a 'black' sphere of radius 'a'. Some years ago, using the Glauber model, one of the authors (A.K.) and his collaborators performed numerical simulations to examine the possibility to probe the nuclear matter density distributions of neutron-rich unstable nuclei from proton elastic scatterings 'model-independently'. The present study is another attempt to seek a 'model-independent' framework for systematically analyzing scattering data for studying the matter density distributions of atomic nuclei.

Kohama, Akihisa [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Iida, Kei [Department of Natural Science, Faculty of Science, Kochi University, Kochi (Japan); Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro [Department of Library and Information Science, Faculty of Letters, Aichi Shukutoku University, Aichi (Japan)

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

194

Intercomparison of Instruments used for Measurement of Cloud Drop Concentration and Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of drop concentration and size distribution with the Clague droplet gun and the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe in 21 cumulus clouds on five days show no evidence of systematic differences between the two instruments. Though ...

S. C. Mossop

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Spectral Distribution of Solar Radiation on Clear Days: A Comparison Between Measurements and Model Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spectral distribution of the direct solar and scattered sky radiation are computed and presented as functions of solar height and as integrated daily values for selected days of the year. The monochromatic fluxes are integrated over the ...

V. Hansen

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Sensitivity of 5-cm Wavelength Polarimetric Radar Variables to Raindrop Axial Ratio and Drop Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity of polarimetric variables at a 5-cm wavelength to raindrop size and axial ratio is examined using T-matrix modeling of the scattering process for gamma raindrop size distributions fitted to tropical rainfall collected at Darwin, ...

T. D. Keenan; L. D. Carey; D. S. Zrni?; P. T. May

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Single Scattering Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations of scattering and polarization properties for randomly oriented polyhedral ice crystals are presented based on the geometric optics and the far-field diffraction approximation. Particle shapes range from various hexagonal symmetric ...

Andreas Macke; Johannes Mueller; Ehrhard Raschke

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Maximizing absorption and scattering by dipole particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is a review and tutorial paper which discusses the fundamental limitations on the maximal power which can be received, absorbed, and scattered by an electrically small electrically polarizable particle and infinite periodical arrays of such particles.

Tretyakov, Sergei

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Doorway state approach to optical potential scattering  

SciTech Connect

We extend and apply the doorway state approach in the context of optical potential scattering. This entails construction of doorway basis states for resolving the transition operator. We focus on analytic solutions to comparatively simple problems in optical potential scattering. Both low and high energy limits are considered, and absorptive interactions are treated; both on- and off-shell partial wave amplitudes are constructed. Further, the full scattering amplitude in the high energy limit is calculated directly in the doorway expansion. With our analytic results it is possible to identify the physical parameters controlling convergence of the doorway expansion. The same parameters apply over the entire range of cases studied. These parameters are related simply to the target geometry and to the interaction strength. For interactions appropriate to hadron--nucleus scattering, convergence of both on- and off-shell amplitudes is very rapid.

Lenz, F.; Moniz, E.J.; Yazaki, K.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Topographic Scattering of Equatorial Kelvin Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We develop a linear, reduced-gravity model with two active layers above a deep, resting layer to examine the scattering of equatorial Kelvin waves from meridional submarine ridges. Model ridges, idealized as infinitely long in the meridional ...

M. J. McPhaden; A. E. Gill

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Stimulated Raman scattering in large plasmas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stimulated Raman scattering is of concern to laser fusion since it can create a hot electron environment which can increase the difficulty of achieving high final fuel densities. In earlier experiments with one micron laser light, the energy measured in Raman-scattered light has been insignificant. But these experiments were done with, at most, about 100 joules of laser energy. The Raman instability has a high threshold which also requires a large plasma to be irradiated with a large diameter spot. Only with a long interaction length can the Raman-scattered light wave convectively grow to a large amplitude, and only in recent long pulse, high energy experiments (4000 joules in 2 ns) at the Shiva laser facility have we observed as much as several percent of the laser light to be Raman-scattered. We find that the Raman instability has a much lower intensity threshold for longer laser pulselength and larger laser spot size on a solid target.

Phillion, D.W.; Banner, D.L.

1980-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

202

Analysis of light transport in scattering media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new method to analyze light transport in homogeneous scattering media. The incident light undergoes multiple bounces in translucent objects, and produces a complex light field. Our method analyzes the light ...

Mukaigawa, Yasuhiro

203

Scattered radiation emission imaging: principles and applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Imaging processes built on the Compton scattering effect have been under continuing investigation since it was first suggested in the 50s. However, despite many innovative contributions, there are still formidable theoretical and technical challenges ...

M. K. Nguyen; T. T. Truong; M. Morvidone; H. Zaidi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Scattering and mesons; P-matrix theory.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??We present the P-matrix, an alternative method to parameterize the S-matrix, which is particularly useful for low energy meson-meson scattering. We discuss its basic properties (more)

Ramazano?lu, Feth Mbn

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

OSIRIS: A Decade of Scattered Light  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 20 February 2001, a converted Russian ICBM delivered Odin, a small Swedish satellite, into low Earth orbit. One of the sensors onboard is a small Canadian spectrometer called OSIRIS. By measuring scattered sunlight from Earth's horizon, or limb, OSIRIS ...

C. A. McLinden; A. E. Bourassa; S. Brohede; M. Cooper; D. A. Degenstein; W. J. F. Evans; R. L. Gattinger; C. S. Haley; E. J. Llewellyn; N. D. Lloyd; P. Loewen; R. V. Martin; J. C. McConnell; I. C. McDade; D. Murtagh; L. Rieger; C. von Savigny; P. E. Sheese; C. E. Sioris; B. Solheim; K. Strong

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Light Scattering by Single Natural Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the South Pole Ice Crystal Experiment, angular scattering intensities (ASIs) of single ice crystals formed in natural conditions were measured for the first time with the polar nephelometer instrument. The microphysical properties of the ...

Valery Shcherbakov; Jean-Franois Gayet; Brad Baker; Paul Lawson

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

INTRA - BEAM SCATTERING MEASUREMENTS IN RHIC.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

RHIC in gold operation shows significant intra-beam scattering due to the high charge state of the stored ions. Intra-beam scattering leads to longitudinal and transverse emittance growth. The longitudinal emittance growth causes debunching in operation; the transverse emittance growth contributes to the reduction of the beam and luminosity lifetimes. The longitudinal and transverse beam growth was measured. Beam growth measurement are compared with computations.

FISCHER,W.; CONNOLLY,R.; TEPIKIAN,S.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.; ZENO,K.

2002-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

208

Photon-photon scattering: a tutorial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Long-established results for the low-energy photon-photon scattering, gamma gamma --> gamma gamma, have recently been questioned. We analyze that claim and demonstrate that it is inconsistent with experience. We demonstrate that the mistake originates from an erroneous manipulation of divergent integrals and discuss the connection with another recent claim about the Higgs decay into two photons. We show a simple way of correctly computing the low-energy gamma gamma scattering.

Liang, Yi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Scattering by coupled resonating elements in air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scattering by (a) a single composite scatterer consisting of a concentric arrangement of an outer N-slit rigid cylinder and an inner cylinder which is either rigid or in the form of a thin elastic shell and (b) by a finite periodic array of these scatterers in air has been investigated analytically and through laboratory experiments. The composite scatterer forms a system of coupled resonators and gives rise to multiple low frequency resonances. The corresponding analytical model employs polar angle dependent boundary conditions on the surface of the N-slit cylinder. The solution inside the slits assumes plane waves. It is shown also that in the low-frequency range the N-slit rigid cylinder can be replaced by an equivalent fluid layer. Further approximations suggest a simple square root dependence of the resonant frequencies on the number of slits and this is confirmed by data. The observed resonant phenomena are associated with Helmholtz-like behaviour of the resonator for which the radius and width of the openings are much smaller than the wavelength. The problem of scattering by a finite periodic array of such coupled resonators in air is solved using multiple scattering techniques. The resulting model predicts band-gap effects resulting from the resonances of the individual composite scatterers below the first Bragg frequency . Predictions and data confirm that use of coupled resonators results in substantial insertion loss peaks related to the resonances within the concentric configuration. In addition, for both scattering problems experimental data, predictions of the analytical approach and predictions of the equivalent fluid layer approximations are compared in the low-frequency interval.

Anton Krynkin; Olga Umnova; Alvin Y. B. Chong; Shahram Taherzadeh; Keith Attenborough

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

210

Inclusive quasielastic electron-nucleus scattering  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a review on the field of inclusive quasielastic electron-nucleus scattering. It discusses the approach used to measure the data and includes a compilation of data available in numerical form. The theoretical approaches used to interpret the data are presented. A number of results obtained from the comparison between experiment and calculation are then reviewed. The analogies to, and differences from, other fields of physics exploiting quasielastic scattering from composite systems are pointed out.

Benhar, Omar; Day, Donal; Sick, Ingo [INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma (Italy) and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita 'La Sapienza', I-00185 Roma (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903 (United States); Departement fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

Giant resonance study by 6li scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear incompressibility Knm is an important parameter in the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS). The locations of the isocalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) and giant dipole resonance (ISGDR) of nuclei are directly related to Knm and thus can give the most effective constraint on the value of the Knm. In order to determine Knm accurately, a systematic study of the ISGMR and ISGDR over a wide range of nuclei is necessary. Alpha inelastic scattering at small angles has been successfully used to study the ISGMR of heavy and medium nuclei where the monopole resonance is concentrated in a broad peak. For light nuclei (Aradioactive nuclei with inverse reactions using 6Li as a target. Data for elastic scattering of 240 MeV 6Li ions and inelastic scattering to low-lying states and giant resonances was taken for 24Mg, 28Si and 116Sn. A data analysis procedure was developed for double folding calculations. The optical potential parameters for 6Li + 24Mg, 6Li + 28Si and 6Li + 116Sn scattering systems were obtained by fitting elastic scattering data. Multipole analyses were carried out for inelastic scattering to high lying isoscalar giant resonances with multipolarities L=0 - 3. The results for the ISGMR and ISGQR are in agreement with those obtained with 240 MeV ? scattering, however the agreement for the ISGDR and HEOR is not so good, indicating the uncertainty in extracting these strengths. This work has shown that 240 MeV 6Li scattering is a viable way to study the ISGMR and ISGQR and can be particularly useful in rare isotope studies where 6Li can be used as the target.

Chen, Xinfeng

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Anomalous and resonance small angle scattering  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes in the small angle scattered intensity can be induced by making measurements with radiation close to an absorption edge of an appropriate atomic species contained in the sample. These changes can be related quantitatively to the real and imaginary anomalous dispersion terms for the scattering factor (x-rays) or scattering length (neutrons). The physics inherent in these anomalous dispersion terms is first discussed before considering how they enter the relevant scattering theory. Two major areas of anomalous scattering research have emerged; macromolecules in solution and unmixing of metallic alloys. Research in each area is reviewed, illustrating both the feasibility and potential of these techniques. All the experimental results reported to date have been obtained with x-rays. However, it is pointed out that the formalism is the same or the analogue experiment with neutrons, and a number of suitable isotopes exist which exhibit resonance in an accessible range of energy. Potential applications of resonance small-angle neutron scatterings are discussed. 8 figs.

Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Anomalous and resonance small angle scattering: Revision  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes in the small angle scattered intensity can be induced by making measurements with radiation close to an absorption edge of an appropriate atomic species contained in the sample. These changes can be related quantitatively to the real and imaginary anomalous dispersion terms for the scattering factor (x-rays) or scattering length (neutrons). The physics inherent in these anomalous dispersion terms is first discussed before considering how they enter the relevant scattering theory. Two major areas of anomalous scattering research have emerged; macromolecules in solution and unmixing of metallic alloys. Research in each area is reviewed, illustrating both the feasibility and potential of these techniques. All the experimental results reported to date have been obtained with x-rays. However, it is pointed out that the formalism is the same for the analogue experiment with neutrons, and a number of suitable isotopes exist which exhibit resonance in an accessible range of energy. Potential applications of resonance small angle neutron scatterings are discussed. 54 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

Hessler, Jan P.

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Theoretical Model and Interpretation of Dense Plasma X-Ray Thomson Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present analytical expressions for the dynamic structure factor, or form factor S(k,{omega}), which is the quantity describing the inelastic x-ray cross section from a dense plasma or a simple liquid. The results, based on the random phase approximation (RPA) for the treatment on the charged particle coupling, can be applied to describe scattering from either weakly coupled classical plasmas or degenerate electron liquids. The form factor correctly reproduces the Compton energy downshift and the usual Fermi-Dirac electron velocity distribution for S(k,{omega}) in the case of a cold degenerate plasma. the usual concept of scattering parameter is also reinterpreted for the degenerate case in order to include the effect of the Thomas-Fermi screening. The results shown in this work can be applied to interpreting x-ray scattering in warm dense plasmas occurring in inertial confinement fusion experiments or inside the interior of planets.

Gregori, G; Landen, O; Hicks, D; Pasley, J; Collins, G; Celliers, P; Bastea, M; Glenzer, S

2002-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

216

BIOISIS: Biological Macromolecules by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

BIOISIS is an open access database dedicated to the study of biological macromolecules by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). BIOISIS aims to become the complete source for the deposition, distribution and maintenance of small angle X-ray scattering data and technologies. The database is designed around the concept of an experiment and relates a specific experiment to a set of genes, organisms, computational models and experimental data. As of May 2012, BIOSIS contains 7,118 genes covering four different organisms. Forty-two modeled structures are available. Clicking on a structures reveals scattering curves, experimental conditions, and experimental values. The data are collected at Beamline 12.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS).[Copied with editing from http://www.bioisis.net/about

Tainer, John (Scripps Research Institute); Hura, Greg (LBNL); Rambo, Robert P. (LBNL)

217

Deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li at an energy of 25 MeV  

SciTech Connect

At an energy of 25 MeV and in the angular range 7{sup o}-175{sup o} in the laboratory frame, angular distributions were measured for elastic deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li nuclei and for the respective inelastic-scattering processes accompanied by the transitions to the ground state (1+) of the {sup 6}Li nucleus and to its excited state at E{sub x} = 2.186 MeV (J{sup {pi}} = 3{sup +}). The resulting data were analyzed on the basis of the optical model of the nucleus and the coupled-reaction-channel method with allowance for the mechanism of alpha-particle-cluster exchange. It is shown that only upon including, in the analysis, channel coupling and the exchange mechanism can the experimental cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering be reproduced over the entire range of angles.

Burtebayev, N. [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan); Artemov, S. V. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Uzbekistan); Duisebayev, B. A.; Kerimkulov, Zh. K. [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan); Kuranov, S. B. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Uzbekistan); Sakuta, S. B., E-mail: sakuta@dni.polyn.kiae.s [Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Quasiparticles in Raman scattering of an electromagnetic wave by an atomic condensate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Raman scattering of an intense electromagnetic wave by a free atomic Bose condensate is considered. In a system of atoms and photons, a subsystem is separated whose dynamics can be naturally described in terms of quasiparticles: quasi-atoms and quasi-photons. The dispersion laws of quasiparticles are interrupted by the instability interval. The introduction of quasiparticles within this interval is impossible, while dispersion laws that are continued formally acquire imaginary components. The dynamic scattering model is generalized by including dissipative annihilation processes of scattered photons and uncondensed atoms. A stationary solution of the corresponding quantum control equation is found, allowing the calculation of momentum distributions of real particles and quasiparticles. The outlook for the experimental detection of quasiparticles is discussed.

Il'ichev, L. V., E-mail: leonid@iae.nsk.su [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Cross sections for electron scattering by propane in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a joint theoretical-experimental study on electron scattering by propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Calculated elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer as well as total (elastic + inelastic) and total absorption cross sections are reported for impact energies ranging from 2 to 500 eV. Also, experimental absolute elastic cross sections are reported in the 40- to 500-eV energy range. A complex optical potential is used to represent the electron-molecule interaction dynamics. A theoretical method based on the single-center-expansion close-coupling framework and corrected by the Pade approximant is used to solve the scattering equations. The experimental angular distributions of the scattered electrons are converted to absolute cross sections using the relative flow technique. The comparison of our calculated with our measured results, as well as with other experimental and theoretical data available in the literature, is encouraging.

Souza, G. L. C. de; Lee, M.-T.; Sanches, I. P.; Rawat, P.; Iga, I.; Santos, A. S. dos; Machado, L. E.; Sugohara, R. T.; Brescansin, L. M.; Homem, M. G. P.; Lucchese, R. R. [Departamento de Quimica, UFSCar, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, UFSCar, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica 'Gleb Wataghin', UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, UFSC, 88010-970 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 7784-3255 (United States)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

220

Quantum graphs where back-scattering is prohibited  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a new class of scattering matrices for quantum graphs in which back-scattering is prohibited. We discuss some properties of quantum graphs with these scattering matrices and explain the advantages and interest in their study. We also provide two methods to build the vertex scattering matrices needed for their construction.

J. M. Harrison; U. Smilansky; B. Winn

2007-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Generalized parton distributions in proton-proton collisions at LHC  

SciTech Connect

Generalized parton distributions (GPDs) describe the distributions of quarks and gluons in the proton with respect to both longitudinal momentum and transverse position. The transverse spatial distributions of partons can be extracted from measurements of the t-dependence of hard exclusive processes in e-p scattering, such as J/psi photoproduction at HERA (gluons). This information is an important ingredient in the theory of high-energy p-p collisions with hard QCD processes (dijets, Higgs boson production). We summarize recent results obtained from applying these ideas to (a) inclusive p-p scattering (hard processes as a trigger on central collisions, approach to the unitarity limit), (b) diffractive p-p scattering (rapidity gap survival, Higgs boson search at LHC). We also comment on the possibilities of using high-energy p-p scattering with hard processes as a means to ''measure'' the GPDs, complementing the information obtained from e-p scattering.

Christian Weiss

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

222

Explicit spatial scattering for load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel discrete-event simulations  

SciTech Connect

We re-examine the problem of load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel, discrete-event simulations executed on high-performance computing clusters, focusing on simulations where computational and messaging load tend to be spatially clustered. Such domains are frequently characterized by the presence of geographic 'hot-spots' - regions that generate significantly more simulation events than others. Examples of such domains include simulation of urban regions, transportation networks and networks where interaction between entities is often constrained by physical proximity. Noting that in conservatively synchronized parallel simulations, the speed of execution of the simulation is determined by the slowest (i.e most heavily loaded) simulation process, we study different partitioning strategies in achieving equitable processor-load distribution in domains with spatially clustered load. In particular, we study the effectiveness of partitioning via spatial scattering to achieve optimal load balance. In this partitioning technique, nearby entities are explicitly assigned to different processors, thereby scattering the load across the cluster. This is motivated by two observations, namely, (i) since load is spatially clustered, spatial scattering should, intuitively, spread the load across the compute cluster, and (ii) in parallel simulations, equitable distribution of CPU load is a greater determinant of execution speed than message passing overhead. Through large-scale simulation experiments - both of abstracted and real simulation models - we observe that scatter partitioning, even with its greatly increased messaging overhead, significantly outperforms more conventional spatial partitioning techniques that seek to reduce messaging overhead. Further, even if hot-spots change over the course of the simulation, if the underlying feature of spatial clustering is retained, load continues to be balanced with spatial scattering leading us to the observation that spatial scattering can often obviate the need for dynamic load balancing.

Thulasidasan, Sunil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Philip [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Explicit spatial scattering for load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel discrete-event simulations  

SciTech Connect

We re-examine the problem of load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel, discrete-event simulations executed on high-performance computing clusters, focusing on simulations where computational and messaging load tend to be spatially clustered. Such domains are frequently characterized by the presence of geographic 'hot-spots' - regions that generate significantly more simulation events than others. Examples of such domains include simulation of urban regions, transportation networks and networks where interaction between entities is often constrained by physical proximity. Noting that in conservatively synchronized parallel simulations, the speed of execution of the simulation is determined by the slowest (i.e most heavily loaded) simulation process, we study different partitioning strategies in achieving equitable processor-load distribution in domains with spatially clustered load. In particular, we study the effectiveness of partitioning via spatial scattering to achieve optimal load balance. In this partitioning technique, nearby entities are explicitly assigned to different processors, thereby scattering the load across the cluster. This is motivated by two observations, namely, (i) since load is spatially clustered, spatial scattering should, intuitively, spread the load across the compute cluster, and (ii) in parallel simulations, equitable distribution of CPU load is a greater determinant of execution speed than message passing overhead. Through large-scale simulation experiments - both of abstracted and real simulation models - we observe that scatter partitioning, even with its greatly increased messaging overhead, significantly outperforms more conventional spatial partitioning techniques that seek to reduce messaging overhead. Further, even if hot-spots change over the course of the simulation, if the underlying feature of spatial clustering is retained, load continues to be balanced with spatial scattering leading us to the observation that spatial scattering can often obviate the need for dynamic load balancing.

Thulasidasan, Sunil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Philip [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

EIA - Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal...

225

SECULAR BEHAVIOR OF EXOPLANETS: SELF-CONSISTENCY AND COMPARISONS WITH THE PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING HYPOTHESIS  

SciTech Connect

If mutual gravitational scattering among exoplanets occurs, then it may produce unique orbital properties. For example, two-planet systems that lie near the boundary between circulation and libration of their periapses could result if planet-planet scattering ejected a former third planet quickly, leaving one planet on an eccentric orbit and the other on a circular orbit. We first improve upon previous work that examined the apsidal behavior of known multiplanet systems by doubling the sample size and including observational uncertainties. This analysis recovers previous results that demonstrated that many systems lay on the apsidal boundary between libration and circulation. We then performed over 12,000 three-dimensional N-body simulations of hypothetical three-body systems that are unstable, but stabilize to two-body systems after an ejection. Using these synthetic two-planet systems, we test the planet-planet scattering hypothesis by comparing their apsidal behavior, over a range of viewing angles, to that of the observed systems and find that they are statistically consistent regardless of the multiplicity of the observed systems. Finally, we combine our results with previous studies to show that, from the sampled cases, the most likely planetary mass function prior to planet-planet scattering follows a power law with index -1.1. We find that this pre-scattering mass function predicts a mutual inclination frequency distribution that follows an exponential function with an index between -0.06 and -0.1.

Timpe, Miles; Barnes, Rory [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Raymond, Sean N. [Virtual Planetary Laboratory, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Greenberg, Richard [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gorelick, Noel, E-mail: apskier@astro.washington.edu [Google, Inc., 1600 Amphitheater Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

Deeply virtual Compton scattering with CLAS and CLAS12  

SciTech Connect

Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs) offer an insight into the three-dimensional structure of the nucleon and its internal dynamics, relating the transverse position of quarks to their longitudinal momentum. Two effective means of accessing GPDs are Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Meson Production (DVMP), in which a high energy electron scatters from a single quark in the nucleon and, respectively, a real photon or meson is produced as a result. Jefferson Laboratory (JLab), USA, is ideally suited for measuring these processes and a very active experimental programme has been underway in the recent years, making use of the lab's continuous electron beam up to 6 GeV in energy and its large angle spectrometer CLAS. In the future, a vast, new, as-yet unprobed kinematic region will become experimentally accessible when the current upgrade of the JLab accelerator to operate at a maximum energy of 12 GeV is completed in a few years. It is being complemented by the construction of a new suite of detectors, CLAS12, a number of them optimised specifically for exclusive reconstruction of DVCS and DVMP in the new kinematic region. We present a selection of recent results of DVCS and DVMP measurements using CLAS and introduce the exciting experimental programme planned for the future with CLAS12.

Sokhan, Daria [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay, France

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Measurements of Compton Scattering on the Proton at 2 - 6 GeV  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Similar to elastic electron scattering, Compton Scattering on the proton at high momentum transfers(and high p?) can be an effective method to study its short-distance structure. An experiment has been carried out to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering (RCS) on the proton for 2.3-5.7 GeV electron beam energies and a wide distribution of large scattering angles. The 25 kinematic settings sampled a domain of s = 5?11(GeV/c)2,?t = ?7(GeV/c)2 and ?u = 0.5?6.5(GeV/c)2. In addition, a measurement of longitudinal and transverse polarization transfer asymmetries was made at a 3.48 GeV beam energy and a scattering angle of ?cm = 120o. These measurements were performed to test the existing theoretical mechanisms for this process as well as to determine RCS form factors. At the heart of the scientific motivation is the desire to understand the manner in which a nucleon interacts with external excitations at the above listed energies, by comparing and contrasting the two existing models Leading Twist Mechanism and Soft Overlap Handbag Mechanism and identify the dominant mechanism. Furthermore, the Handbag Mechanism allows one to calculate reaction observables in the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD), which have the function of bridging the wide gap between the exclusive(form factors) and inclusive(parton distribution functions) description of the proton. The experiment was conducted in Hall A of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility(Jefferson Lab). It used a polarized and unpolarized electron beam, a 6% copper radiator with the thickness of 6.1% radiation lengths (to produce a bremsstrahlung photon beam), the Hall A liquid hydrogen target, a high resolution spectrometer with a focal plane polarimeter, and a photon hodoscope calorimeter. Results of the differential cross sections are presented, and discussed in the general context of the scientific motivation.

Areg Danagoulian

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Observations of stimulated Raman scattering using simultaneous Thomson scattering, fast electron spectroscopy, and infrared diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in a CO/sub 2/ laser(lambda/sub 0/ -- 10.6 ..mu..m) produced plasma has been studied experimentally. The enhanced electron plasma wave (epw) fluctuations observed with ruby laser Thomson scattering have been compared with the scattered infrared (IR) spectra and the high-energy (near 100 keV) electrons. No scattered IR light in the range 1.5lambda/sub 0/ scattered wave vector spectra.

McIntosh, G.; Meyer, J.; Yazhou, Z.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Scattering Workshop May 16-17, 2006  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshop on Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Workshop on Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences: Theory and Application. group shot on the steps of bldg 41 (Click image for a hi-res version) Date: May 16 (Lectures) May 17 (Hands-on practical session) Location: SSRL Overview: Modern synchrotron-based X-ray scattering (SR-XRS) techniques offer the ability to probe nano- and atomic-scale structures and order/disorder relationships that critically govern the properties of advanced technological and environmental materials. The high collimation, intensity, and tunability of SR allow the investigation of a wide range of materials, including thin films and interfaces, nanoparticles, amorphous materials, solutions, hydrated and disordered bacteriogenic minerals, and

230

Effect of coupling on intrabeam scattering  

SciTech Connect

The effect of coupling between horizontal and vertical betatron oscillations on the growth of a beam due to a intrabeam scattering has been studied. It was suggested that the presence of coupling may reduce the effects of intrabeam scattering. A procedure is outlined for revising intrabeam scattering theory to include coupling. There is one case where a plausible solution is not difficult to find, and this is the case of complete coupling. In this case, although coupling reduces the initial horizontal growth rate by a factor of 2, the final size of the beam after many hours is reduced by about 15%. An invariant is found that relates the energy spread and the transverse beam size that is valid at high energies and for the case of complete coupling.

Parzen, G.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

BUILDING A NETWORK FOR NEUTRON SCATTERING EDUCATION  

SciTech Connect

In a concerted effort supported by the National Science Foundation, the Department of Commerce, and the Department of Energy, the United States is rebuilding its leadership in neutron scattering capability through a significant investment in U.S. neutron scattering user facilities and related instrumentation. These unique facilities provide opportunities in neutron scattering to a broad community of researchers from academic institutions, federal laboratories, and industry. However, neutron scattering is often considered to be a tool for 'experts only' and in order for the U.S. research community to take full advantage of these new and powerful tools, a comprehensive education and outreach program must be developed. The workshop described below is the first step in developing a national program that takes full advantage of modern education methods and leverages the existing educational capacity at universities and national facilities. During March 27-28, 2008, a workshop entitled 'Building a Network for Neutron Scattering Education' was held in Washington, D.C. The goal of the workshop was to define and design a roadmap for a comprehensive neutron scattering education program in the United States. Successful implementation of the roadmap will maximize the national intellectual capital in neutron sciences and will increase the sophistication of research questions addressed by neutron scattering at the nation's forefront facilities. (See Appendix A for the list of attendees, Appendix B for the workshop agenda, Appendix C for a list of references. Appendix D contains the results of a survey given at the workshop; Appendix E contains summaries of the contributed talks.) The workshop brought together U.S. academicians, representatives from neutron sources, scientists who have developed nontraditional educational programs, educational specialists, and managers from government agencies to create a national structure for providing ongoing neutron scattering education. A concerted effort was made to involve representatives from historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and minority educational institutions (MEIs). The roadmap contained herein provides the path to a national infrastructure for education of students, faculty, and professional researchers who wish to make use of national neutron scattering facilities but do not have (or do not believe they have) the educational background to do so. Education of other stakeholders, including the public, students in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12), and policy makers is also included. The opening sessions of the workshop provided the current status of neutron scattering education in North America, Europe, and Australia. National neutron sources have individually developed outreach and advertising programs aimed at increasing awareness among researchers of the potential applications of neutron scattering. However, because their principal mission is to carry out scientific research, their outreach efforts are necessarily self-limiting. The opening session was designed to build awareness that the individual programs need to be coupled with, and integrated into, a broader education program that addresses the complete range of experience, from the student to the experienced researcher, and the wide range of scientific disciplines covered by neutron scattering. Such a program must also take full advantage of existing educational programs and expertise at universities and expand them using modern distance learning capabilities, recognizing that the landscape of education is changing.

Pynn, Roger [ORNL; Baker, Shenda Mary [ORNL; Louca, Despo A [ORNL; McGreevy, Robert L [ORNL; Ekkebus, Allen E [ORNL; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL; Anderson, Ian S [ORNL

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Probing spin flip scattering in ballistic nanosystems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because spin-flip scattering length is longer than the electron mean-free-path in a metal, past studies of spin-flip scattering are limited to the diffusive regime. Spin accumulation in the nanometer sized spacer layer of a magnetic double barrier tunnel junction allows the study of spin flip scattering near ballistic limit. We extract the spin-flip conductance $G_s$ of the spacer layer from magnetoresistance measurements. A linear temperature dependence of $G_s$ is found. The bias voltage dependence shows a quantum well resonance which explains the sharp reduction of the magnetoresistance. At 4.2K $G_s$ yields the mean-free-path (70nm) and the spin-flip length ($1.0$-$2.6\\mu$m).

Zeng, Z. M. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science; Feng, J. F. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science; Wang, Y. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science; Han, Prof. X. F. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science; Zhan, W. S. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science; Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL; Zhang, Z. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration  

SciTech Connect

How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and seismic migration in which wide band time series are shifted but not to form images per se. Section 3 presents a mostly graphically-based motivation and summary of delay, scale, and sum beamforming. The model for incident field propagation in free space is derived in Section 4 under specific assumptions. General object scattering is derived in Section 5 and simplified under the Born approximation in Section 6. The model of this section serves as the basis in the derivation of time-domain migration. The Foldy-Lax, full point scatterer scattering, method is derived in Section 7. With the previous forward models in hand, delay, scale, and sum beamforming is derived in Section 8. Finally, proof-of-principle experiments are present in Section 9.

Lehman, S K

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

234

Massive superstring scatterings in the Regge regime  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We calculate four classes of high-energy massive string scattering amplitudes of fermionic string theory at arbitrary mass levels in the Regge regime (RR). We show that all four leading order amplitudes in the RR can be expressed in terms of the Kummer function of the second kind. Based on the summation algorithm of a set of extended signed Stirling number identities, we show that all four ratios calculated previously by the method of decoupling of zero-norm states among scattering amplitudes in the Gross regime can be extracted from this Kummer function in the RR. Finally, we conjecture and give evidence that the existence of these four Gross regime ratios in the RR persists to subleading orders in the Regge expansion of all high-energy fermionic string scattering amplitudes.

He Song; Lee, Jen-Chi; Takahashi, Keijiro; Yang Yi [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Beijing (China); Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao-Tung University and Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao-Tung University and Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Effective string theory and QCD scattering amplitudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

QCD string is formed at distances larger than the confinement scale and can be described by the Polchinski-Strominger effective string theory with a nonpolynomial action, which has nevertheless a well-defined semiclassical expansion around a long-string ground state. We utilize modern ideas about the Wilson-loop/scattering-amplitude duality to calculate scattering amplitudes and show that the expansion parameter in the effective string theory is small in the Regge kinematical regime. For the amplitudes we obtain the Regge behavior with a linear trajectory of the intercept (d-2)/24 in d dimensions, which is computed semiclassically as a momentum-space Luescher term, and discuss an application to meson scattering amplitudes in QCD.

Makeenko, Yuri [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

HIGH BRILLIANCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BRILLIANCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR BRILLIANCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR LIFE SCIENCES (LIX) Group Leader: Lin Yang Proposal Team: O. Bilsel 1 , B. Hsiao 2 , H. Huang 3 , T. Irving 4 , A. Menzel 5 , L. Pollack 6 , C. Riekel 7 , J. Rubert 8 , H. Tsuruta 9 , L. Yang 10 1 University of Massachusetts, 2 Stony Brook University, 3 Rice University, 4 IIT, 5SLS, 6 Cornell University, 7 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 8 NEU, 9 Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, 10 Brookhaven National Laboratory TECHNIQUES AND CAPABILITIES APPLICATIONS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION * Energy range 2-20keV using undulator source. Simultaneous SAXS/WAXS to cover 0.003-3Å -1 at 12keV with 1 micron spot size * Time-resolved solution scattering with resolution of (1) microseconds to milliseconds using continuous-flow mixing (5µm x 10µm spot size) and (2) milliseconds using stopped-

237

Argonne CNM Highlight: Light Scattering by Nanoparticles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Light Scattering by Nanoparticles: Understanding Confinement of Light for Nanophotonics Applications through Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy Light Scattering by Nanoparticles: Understanding Confinement of Light for Nanophotonics Applications through Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy Schematic of the apertureless near-field optical microscope Schematic of the apertureless near-field optical microscope. The optical scattering from the AFM probe tip provides the subdiffraction-limited optical field information. One of the motivations of nanoscience is to achieve sufficient control over photon propagation in nanostructures so as to effectively replace the electron with the photon in all-optical integrated circuits. The much greater speed and bandwidth of light pulses versus electrons promise new capabilities and size reduction of photon based “electronics.” Arrays of metal nanoparticles are currently considered a leading candidate for photon

238

Aerosol Size Distributions from Genetic Inversion of Polar Nephelometer Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that genetic inversions can be used to recover lognormal aerosol size distributions from multiangle optical scattering cross-section data measured by a polar nephelometer at a wavelength of 0.532 ?m. The inversions can also be used to ...

B. R. Lienert; J. N. Porter; S. K. Sharma

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Defects and Polytypism in SiC: The Role of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stacking faults (SFs) and the 3C-6H polytypic transition in thick (001)-oriented 3C-SiC crystals are studied by means of diffuse X-ray scattering. The presence of SFs lying in the {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes gives rise to streaked reciprocal lattice points with the streaks being parallel to the directions. In the case of low SF densities the defects are uncorrelated and the simulation of the diffuse intensity distribution allows to derive the SF density. In partially transformed crystals, the SFs are spatially correlated which gives rise to an intense and asymmetric diffuse scattering distribution. Its simulation allows to determine both the transformation mechanism and the transformation level.

Boulle, A.; Dompoint, D. [Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de surface (SPCTS-CNRS UMR 6638), ENSCI 47 avenue Albert Thomas 87065 Limoges Cedex (France); Galben-Sandulache, I.; Chaussende, D. [Laboratoires des Materiaux et du Genie Physique (LMGP-CNRS UMR 5628), Grenoble INP, Minatec 3 parvis Louis Neel, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 01 (France)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Proton scattering on an electron gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown in the case of proton scattering on an electron gas target that the Closed Time Path formalism can handle final state interactions of the target in equilibrium in a simple and natural manner. The leading order cross section is proportional to the photon density of states. The scattering needs a partial resummation of the perturbation series when the electron gas forms long living quasi-particles with high density of state during the collision. A strong cancellation between real and virtual electron-hole pairs is found in this case.

Mansouri, F; Zazoua, K; Zekri, N

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Proton scattering on an electron gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown in the case of proton scattering on an electron gas target that the Closed Time Path formalism can handle final state interactions of the target in equilibrium in a simple and natural manner. The leading order cross section is proportional to the photon density of states. The scattering needs a partial resummation of the perturbation series when the electron gas forms long living quasi-particles with high density of state during the collision. A strong cancellation between real and virtual electron-hole pairs is found in this case.

F. Mansouri; J. Polonyi; K. Zazoua; N. Zekri

2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

242

Geometric phases in a scattering process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study of geometric phase in quantum mechanics has so far be confined to discrete (or continuous) spectra and trace preserving evolutions. Consider only the transmission channel, a scattering process with internal degrees of freedom is neither a discrete spectrum problem nor a trace preserving process. We explore the geometric phase in a scattering process taking only the transmission process into account. We find that the geometric phase can be calculated by the some method as in an unitary evolution. The interference visibility depends on the transmission amplitude. The dependence of the geometric phase on the barrier strength and the spin-spin coupling constant is also presented and discussed.

H. D. Liu; X. X. Yi

2011-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

243

[Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces]. [Progress report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This program uses ab-initio and multiple scattering to study surface dynamical processes; high-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy is used in particular. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50--300 eV). The analyses have been extended to surfaces of ordered alloys. Phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross section calculations. Work on low-energy electron and positron holography is mentioned.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Scattering States in AdS/CFT  

SciTech Connect

We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Boston U.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

245

Mesoscale Convective Systems Defined by Their 85-GHz Ice Scattering Signature: Size and Intensity Comparison over Tropical Oceans and Continents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study used the 85-GHz ice scattering signature to describe the size, intensity, and geographic distribution of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) between 35N and 35S for January, April, July, and October 1993. An MCS was defined as an ...

Karen I. Mohr; Edward J. Zipser

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Recent Measurements of the cos( n? h ( Azimuthal Modulations of the Unpolarized Deep Inelastic Scattering Cross?section at HERMES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cross section for hadron production in deep?inelastic lepton scattering contains azimuthal modulations which can be related to transverse momentum dependent (TMD) distribution and fragmentation functions. The former provide a picture of how the quarks are moving within nucleons. Specifically

Rebecca Lamb; Francesca Giordano; on behalf of the HERMES Collaboration

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

A Multi-Level Grid Interactive Bi-directional AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid Battery/Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage System with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.

Onar, Omer C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Massively parallel X-ray scattering simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although present X-ray scattering techniques can provide tremendous information on the nano-structural properties of materials that are valuable in the design and fabrication of energy-relevant nano-devices, a primary challenge remains in the analyses ...

Abhinav Sarje; Xiaoye S. Li; Slim Chourou; Elaine R. Chan; Alexander Hexemer

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Elastic proton-proton scattering at RHIC  

SciTech Connect

Here we describe elastic proton+proton (p+p) scattering measurements at RHIC in p+p collisions with a special optics run of {beta}* {approx} 21 m at STAR, at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV during the last week of the RHIC 2009 run. We present preliminary results of single and double spin asymmetries.

Yip, K.

2011-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

250

Kaon-nuclear scattering at medium energies  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of kaon-nucleus scattering is given. The discussion includes an account of recent theoretical interpretations of existing elastic and inelastic data, as well as possible directions for future study. The current experimental facility at Brookhaven is described, and an outline of future progress in this area is presented.

Eisenstein, R.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman- scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

Nave, S.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman-scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

Nave, Stanley E. (Evans, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS. II. PREDICTIONS FOR OUTER EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

We develop an idealized dynamical model to predict the typical properties of outer extrasolar planetary systems, at radii comparable to the Jupiter-to-Neptune region of the solar system. The model is based upon the hypothesis that dynamical evolution in outer planetary systems is controlled by a combination of planet-planet scattering and planetary interactions with an exterior disk of small bodies ('planetesimals'). Our results are based on 5000 long duration N-body simulations that follow the evolution of three planets from a few to 10 AU, together with a planetesimal disk containing 50 M{sub +} from 10 to 20 AU. For large planet masses (M {approx}> M{sub Sat}), the model recovers the observed eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets. For lower-mass planets, the range of outcomes in models with disks is far greater than that which is seen in isolated planet-planet scattering. Common outcomes include strong scattering among massive planets, sudden jumps in eccentricity due to resonance crossings driven by divergent migration, and re-circularization of scattered low-mass planets in the outer disk. We present the distributions of the eccentricity and inclination that result, and discuss how they vary with planet mass and initial system architecture. In agreement with other studies, we find that the currently observed eccentricity distribution (derived primarily from planets at a {approx}< 3 AU) is consistent with isolated planet-planet scattering. We explain the observed mass dependence-which is in the opposite sense from that predicted by the simplest scattering models-as a consequence of strong correlations between planet masses in the same system. At somewhat larger radii, initial planetary mass correlations and disk effects can yield similar modest changes to the eccentricity distribution. Nonetheless, strong damping of eccentricity for low-mass planets at large radii appears to be a secure signature of the dynamical influence of disks. Radial velocity measurements capable of detecting planets with K {approx} 5 m s{sup -1} and periods in excess of 10 years will provide constraints on this regime. Finally, we present an analysis of the predicted separation of planets in two-planet systems, and of the population of planets in mean-motion resonances (MMRs). We show that, if there are systems with {approx} Jupiter-mass planets that avoid close encounters, the planetesimal disk acts as a damping mechanism and populates MMRs at a very high rate (50%-80%). In many cases, resonant chains (in particular the 4:2:1 Laplace resonance) are set up among all three planets. We expect such resonant chains to be common among massive planets in outer planetary systems.

Raymond, Sean N. [Universite de Bordeaux, Observatoire Aquitain des Sciences de l'Univers, 2 rue de l'Observatoire, BP 89, F-33271 Floirac Cedex (France); Armitage, Philip J. [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gorelick, Noel, E-mail: pja@jilau1.colorado.ed [Google, Inc., 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

254

Inelastic neutron scattering in valence fluctuation compounds  

SciTech Connect

The valence fluctuation compounds are rare earth intermetallics where hybridization of the nearly-localized 4f electrons with the conduction electrons leads to incorporation of the 4f's into the itinerant states. This hybridization slows down the conduction electrons and hence gives them a heavy effective mass, justifying application of the term 'heavy Fermion' (HF) to these materials. During the project period, we grew large single crystals of several such compounds and measured their properties using both standard thermodynamic probes and state-of-the-art inelastic neutron scattering. We obtained three main results. For the intermediate valence compounds CePd{sub 3} and YbAl{sub 3}, we showed that the scattering of neutrons by the fluctuations of the 4f magnetic moment does not have the momentum dependence expected for the itinerant heavy mass state; rather, the scattering is more typical of a localized spin fluctuation. We believe that incoherent scattering localizes the excitation. For the heavy Fermion compound Ce(Ni{sub 0.935}Pd{sub 0.065}){sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, which sits at a T = 0 critical point for transformation into an antiferromagnetic (AF) phase, we showed that the scattering from the AF fluctuations does not exhibit any of the divergences that are expected at a phase transition. We speculate that alloy disorder profoundly suppresses the growth of the fluctuating AF regions, leading to short range clusters rather than regions of infinite size. Finally, we explored the applicability of key concepts used to describe the behavior of rare earth heavy Fermions to uranium based HF compounds where the 5f electrons are itinerant as opposed to localized. We found that scaling laws relating the spin fluctuation energy measured in neutron scattering to the low temperature specific heat and susceptibility are valid for the uranium compounds, once corrections are made for AF fluctuations; however, the degeneracy of the high temperature moment is smaller than expected for rare-earth-like Hund's rule behavior, essentially because the orbital moment is suppressed for itinerant 5f electrons. We also found that the standard local-moment-based theory of the temperature dependence of the specific heat, susceptibility and neutron scattering fails badly for URu{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} and UCo{sub 2}Zn{sub 20}, even though the theory is phenomenally successful for the closely related rare earth compound YbFe{sub 2}Zn{sub 20}. Both these results highlight the distinction between the itineracy of the 5f's and the localization of the 4f's. It is our hope that these results are sufficiently significant as to stimulate deeper investigation of these compounds.

Jon M Lawrence

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

Cold-moderator scattering kernel methods  

SciTech Connect

An accurate representation of the scattering of neutrons by the materials used to build cold sources at neutron scattering facilities is important for the initial design and optimization of a cold source, and for the analysis of experimental results obtained using the cold source. In practice, this requires a good representation of the physics of scattering from the material, a method to convert this into observable quantities (such as scattering cross sections), and a method to use the results in a neutron transport code (such as the MCNP Monte Carlo code). At Los Alamos, the authors have been developing these capabilities over the last ten years. The final set of cold-moderator evaluations, together with evaluations for conventional moderator materials, was released in 1994. These materials have been processed into MCNP data files using the NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System. Over the course of this work, they were able to develop a new module for NJOY called LEAPR based on the LEAP + ADDELT code from the UK as modified by D.J. Picton for cold-moderator calculations. Much of the physics for methane came from Picton`s work. The liquid hydrogen work was originally based on a code using the Young-Koppel approach that went through a number of hands in Europe (including Rolf Neef and Guy Robert). It was generalized and extended for LEAPR, and depends strongly on work by Keinert and Sax of the University of Stuttgart. Thus, their collection of cold-moderator scattering kernels is truly an international effort, and they are glad to be able to return the enhanced evaluations and processing techniques to the international community. In this paper, they give sections on the major cold moderator materials (namely, solid methane, liquid methane, and liquid hydrogen) using each section to introduce the relevant physics for that material and to show typical results.

MacFarlane, R.E.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF INTERACTION BETWEEN SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES AND SUNSPOTS FROM MEASURED SCATTERED WAVEFUNCTIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solar acoustic waves around a sunspot are modified because of the interaction with the sunspot. The interaction can be viewed as that the sunspot, excited by the incident wave, generates the scattered wave, and the scattered wave is added to the incident wave to form the total wave around the sunspot. We define an interaction parameter, which could be complex, describing the interaction between the acoustic waves and the sunspot. The scattered wavefunction on the surface can be expressed as a two-dimensional integral of the product of the Green's function, the wavefunction, and the two-dimensional interaction parameter over the sunspot area for the Born approximation of different orders. We assume a simple model for the two-dimensional interaction parameter distribution: its absolute value is axisymmetric with a Gaussian distribution and its phase is a constant. The measured scattered wavefunctions of various modes for NOAAs 11084 and 11092 are fitted to the theoretical scattered wavefunctions to determine the three model parameters, magnitude, Gaussian radius, and phase, for the Born approximation of different orders. The three model parameters converge to some values at high-order Born approximations. The result of the first-order Born approximation is significantly different from the convergent value in some cases. The rate of convergence depends on the sunspot size and wavelength. It converges more rapidly for the smaller sunspot and longer wavelength. The magnitude increases with mode frequency and degree for each radial order. The Gaussian radius is insensitive to frequency and degree. The spatial range of the interaction parameter is greater than that of the continuum intensity deficit, but smaller than that of the acoustic power deficit of the sunspot. The phase versus phase speed falls into a small range. This suggests that the phase could be a function phase speed. NOAAs 11084 and 11092 have a similar magnitude and phase, although the ratio of their sizes is 0.75.

Yang, Ming-Hsu; Chou, Dean-Yi; Liang, Zhi-Chao [Physics Department, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Zhao Hui, E-mail: chou@phys.nthu.edu.tw [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 200012 (China)

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

257

Initial characterization of mudstone nanoporosity with small angle neutron scattering using caprocks from carbon sequestration sites.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geological carbon sequestration relies on the principle that CO{sub 2} injected deep into the subsurface is unable to leak to the atmosphere. Structural trapping by a relatively impermeable caprock (often mudstone such as a shale) is the main trapping mechanism that is currently relied on for the first hundreds of years. Many of the pores of the caprock are of micrometer to nanometer scale. However, the distribution, geometry and volume of porosity at these scales are poorly characterized. Differences in pore shape and size can cause variation in capillary properties and fluid transport resulting in fluid pathways with different capillary entry pressures in the same sample. Prediction of pore network properties for distinct geologic environments would result in significant advancement in our ability to model subsurface fluid flow. Specifically, prediction of fluid flow through caprocks of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration reservoirs is a critical step in evaluating the risk of leakage to overlying aquifers. The micro- and nanoporosity was analyzed in four mudstones using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). These mudstones are caprocks of formations that are currently under study or being used for carbon sequestration projects and include the Marine Tuscaloosa Group, the Lower Tuscaloosa Group, the upper and lower shale members of the Kirtland Formation, and the Pennsylvanian Gothic shale. Total organic carbon varies from shale and Kirtland Formation, respectively. Neutrons effectively scatter from interfaces between materials with differing scattering length density (i.e. minerals and pores). The intensity of scattered neutrons, I(Q), where Q is the scattering vector, gives information about the volume of pores and their arrangement in the sample. The slope of the scattering data when plotted as log I(Q) vs. log Q provides information about the fractality or geometry of the pore network. Results from this study, combined with high-resolution TEM imaging, provide insight into the differences in volume and geometry of porosity between these various mudstones.

McCray, John (Colorado School of Mines); Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis (Colorado School of Mines); Mouzakis, Katherine (Colorado School of Mines); Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Rother, Gernot (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Sea-Salt Size Distributions from Breaking Waves: Implications for Marine Aerosol Production and Optical Extinction Measurements during SEAS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors' participation in the Shoreline Environment Aerosol Study (SEAS) involved measurements focused on the coastal aerosol size distribution and related optical measurements, including aerosol light scattering, visibility, and remote ...

A. Clarke; V. Kapustin; S. Howell; K. Moore; B. Lienert; S. Masonis; T. Anderson; D. Covert

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

SunShot Initiative: Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scattering Solar Thermal Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload CSP SunShot Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative CSP Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Deployment

260

Benchmark studies of the Bending Corrected Rotating Linear Model (BCRLM) reactive scattering code: Implications for accurate quantum calculations  

SciTech Connect

The Bending Corrected Rotating Linear Model (BCRLM), developed by Hayes and Walker, is a simple approximation to the true multidimensional scattering problem for reaction of the type: A + BC {yields} AB + C. While the BCRLM method is simpler than methods designed to obtain accurate three dimensional quantum scattering results, this turns out to be a major advantage in terms of our benchmarking studies. The computer code used to obtain BCRLM scattering results is written for the most part in standard FORTRAN and has been reported to several scalar, vector, and parallel architecture computers including the IBM 3090-600J, the Cray XMP and YMP, the Ardent Titan, IBM RISC System/6000, Convex C-1 and the MIPS 2000. Benchmark results will be reported for each of these machines with an emphasis on comparing the scalar, vector, and parallel performance for the standard code with minimum modifications. Detailed analysis of the mapping of the BCRLM approach onto both shared and distributed memory parallel architecture machines indicates the importance of introducing several key changes in the basic strategy and algorithums used to calculate scattering results. This analysis of the BCRLM approach provides some insights into optimal strategies for mapping three dimensional quantum scattering methods, such as the Parker-Pack method, onto shared or distributed memory parallel computers.

Hayes, E.F.; Darakjian, Z. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Dept. of Chemistry); Walker, R.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Applications of Light Scattering: From Micro-Rheology in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Applications of Light Scattering: From Micro-Rheology in Networks to Conformation of Dendrimers to Protein Aggregation. ...

262

NIST SCATMECH: Polarized light scattering C++ class library  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SCATMECH: Polarized light scattering C++ class library. Description/ Summary: SCATMECH is an object-oriented C++ class ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

263

Protoplanetary Migration and Creation of Scattered Planetismal Disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relationship between protoplanet migration and the formation of the Kuiper Belt (planetesimal disk scattering) is examined.

Bruce D. Lindsay; Truell W. Hyde

2004-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

264

Application of neutron scattering to biological and hydrogen ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Application of neutron scattering to biological and hydrogen storage materials. Yun Liu, NCNR, NIST. This talk covers two ...

265

Parton distribution function for quarks in an s-channel approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use an s-channel picture of hard hadronic collisions to investigate the parton distribution function for quarks at small momentum fraction x, which corresponds to very high energy scattering. We study the renormalized quark distribution at one loop in this approach. In the high-energy picture, the quark distribution function is expressed in terms of a Wilson-line correlator that represents the cross section for a color dipole to scatter from the proton. We model this Wilson-line correlator in a saturation model. We relate this representation of the quark distribution function to the corresponding representation of the structure function F_T(x,Q^2) for deeply inelastic scattering.

F. Hautmann; D. E. Soper

2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

266

Pretzelosity distribution function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The 'pretzelosity' distribution is discussed. Theoretical properties, model results, and perspectives to access experimental information on this leading twist, transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function are reviewed. Its relation to helicity and transversity distributions is highlighted.

H. Avakian; A. V. Efremov; P. Schweitzer; F. Yuan

2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

267

Topology of forward scattering of neutrons from imperfect multilayers  

SciTech Connect

Neutrons sent at grazing incidence on imperfect multilayers of polymers are scattered both out of and within the plane of reflection. In the latter geometry the scattered intensity is highly structured in two series of ridges, whose loci can be labeled in terms of the neutron momenta. Intersecting ridges show evidence of mode coupling. Similar topology is expected for x-ray scattering.

Felcher, G.P.; Goyette, R.J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)); Anastasiadis, S.; Russell, T.P. (IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California 95120 (United States)); Foster, M.; Bates, F. (Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States))

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Annual Coal Distribution Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: December 19, 2013 | Next Release Date: November 2014 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution...

269

ABM11 parton distributions and benchmarks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a determination of the nucleon parton distribution functions (PDFs) and of the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_s$ at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD based on the world data for deep-inelastic scattering and the fixed-target data for the Drell-Yan process. The analysis is performed in the fixed-flavor number scheme for $n_f=3,4,5$ and uses the $\\bar{MS}$ scheme for $\\alpha_s$ and the heavy quark masses. The fit results are compared with other PDFs and used to compute the benchmark cross sections at hadron colliders to the NNLO accuracy.

S. Alekhin; J. Bluemlein; S. -O. Moch

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

270

Effects of weakly coupled channels on quasielastic barrier distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heavy-ion collisions often produce fusion barrier distributions with structures displaying a fingerprint of couplings to highly collective excitations. Similar distributions can be obtained from large-angle quasielastic scattering, although in this case, the role of the many weak direct-reaction channels is unclear. For {sup 20}Ne+{sup 90}Zr, we have observed the barrier structures expected for the highly deformed neon projectile; however, for {sup 20}Ne+{sup 92}Zr, we find significant extra absorption into a large number of noncollective inelastic channels. This leads to smearing of the barrier distribution and a consequent reduction in the ''resolving power'' of the quasielastic method.

Piasecki, E.; Kisielinski, M. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk (Poland); Swiderski, L.; Keeley, N.; Rusek, K.; Strojek, I. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk (Poland); Gawlikowicz, W.; JastrzePbski, J.; Kordyasz, A.; Trzcinska, A. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Kliczewski, S. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Kowalczyk, M. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Khlebnikov, S. [Khloplin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Koshchiy, E. [Kharkiv University, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Kozulin, E.; Loktev, T.; Smirnov, S. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Krogulski, T. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Bialystok (Poland); Mutterer, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Piasecki, K. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland)] (and others)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Molecular evidence of Pleistocene bidirectional faunal exchange between1 Europe and the Near East: the case of the bicolored shrew (Crocidura2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in bicolored shrew (Crocidura leucodon, Soricidae) populations3 ranging from France to Georgia. The aims distributed from6 France eastwards to northwestern Turkey and a Near East clade distributed from Georgia to7 by populations originating from11 eastern areas such as the Caucasus, southern Urals, and western Asia (Cooper et

Lehmann, Laurent

272

Noise-enhanced trapping in chaotic scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that noise enhances the trapping of trajectories in scattering systems. In fully chaotic systems, the decay rate can decrease with increasing noise due to a generic mismatch between the noiseless escape rate and the value predicted by the Liouville measure of the exit set. In Hamiltonian systems with mixed phase space we show that noise leads to a slower algebraic decay due to trajectories performing a random walk inside Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser islands. We argue that these noise-enhanced trapping mechanisms exist in most scattering systems and are likely to be dominant for small noise intensities, which is confirmed through a detailed investigation in the Henon map. Our results can be tested in fluid experiments, affect the fractal Weyl's law of quantum systems, and modify the estimations of chemical reaction rates based on phase-space transition state theory.

Altmann, Eduardo G; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.244102

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Multiple Scattering Measurements in the MICE Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under construction at RAL, will test a prototype cooling channel for a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. The cooling channel aims to achieve, using liquid hydrogen absorbers, a 10% reduction in transverse emittance. The change in 4D emittance will be determined with an accuracy of 1% by measuring muons individually. Step IV of MICE will make the first precise emittance-reduction measurements of the experiment. Simulation studies using G4MICE, based on GEANT4, find a significant difference in multiple scattering in low Z materials, compared with the standard expression quoted by the Particle Data Group. Direct measurement of multiple scattering using the scintillating-fibre trackers is found to be possible, but requires the measurement resolution to be unfolded from the data.

Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.; /Oxford U.; Neuffer, D.; /Fermilab

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Hard scattering phenomena from RHIC to LHC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider era the high-p{sub T} particle emerging from hard scattering became an important tool of exploration of excited nuclear medium formed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Discovery of anomalous suppression of high-p{sub T} particle yield [1] together with an observation of disappearance of back-to-back hadron correlation in central Au+Au collisions in 2002 [2] were the key results interpreted as a manifestation of the deconfined QCD medium in heavy ion collisions. Analysis of the high-p{sub T} particle and jet production is already a standard experimental technique providing a test bench for pQCD description of the point-like constituent scattering in p+p collisions and sensitive probes of the excited nuclear medium in A+A collisions.

Rak, Jan [Jyvaeskylae University, FI-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

275

A Search for non-Newtonian force in a precision measurement of the scattering of slow neutrons in Xenon gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental search for non-newtonian, gravity-like force in a precision measurement of the scattering of slow neutrons in Xenon gas is proposed. A preliminary experiment with small statistics of 25 hours irradiation time was performed and the observed scattering distribution is consistent with the expectation with no additional forces. A 95% CL limit on the coupling strength for a hypothetical force of 1 nm interaction range was evaluated to be 2*10^-15. The expected sensitivity for a planned high statistics runs is discussed.

Yoshio Kamiya; Misato Tani; Sachio Komamiya; Guinyun Kim; Kyungsuk Kim

2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

276

A fourth-order symplectic finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for light scattering and a 3D Monte Carlo code for radiative transfer in scattering systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is applied to light scattering computations, the far fields can be obtained by either a volume integration method, or a surface integration method. In the first study, we investigate the errors associated with the two near-to-far field transform methods. For a scatterer with a small refractive index, the surface approach is more accurate than its volume counterpart for computing the phase functions and extinction efficiencies; however, the volume integral approach is more accurate for computing other scattering matrix elements. If a large refractive index is involved, the results computed from the volume integration method become less accurate, whereas the surface method still retains the same order of accuracy as in the situation of a small refractive index. In my second study, a fourth order symplectic FDTD method is applied to the problem of light scattering by small particles. The total-field/ scattered-field (TF/SF) technique is generalized for providing the incident wave source conditions in the symplectic FDTD (SFDTD) scheme. Numerical examples demonstrate that the fourthorder symplectic FDTD scheme substantially improves the precision of the near field calculation. The major shortcoming of the fourth-order SFDTD scheme is that it requires more computer CPU time than the conventional second-order FDTD scheme if the same grid size is used. My third study is on multiple scattering theory. We develop a 3D Monte Carlo code for the solving vector radiative transfer equation, which is the equation governing the radiation field in a multiple scattering medium. The impulse-response relation for a plane-parallel scattering medium is studied using our 3D Monte Carlo code. For a collimated light beam source, the angular radiance distribution has a dark region as the detector moves away from the incident point. The dark region is gradually filled as multiple scattering increases. We have also studied the effects of the finite size of clouds. Extending the finite size of clouds to infinite layers leads to underestimating the reflected radiance in the multiple scattering region, especially for scattering angles around 90 degrees. The results have important applications in the field of remote sensing.

Zhai, Pengwang

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

High energy scattering in gravity and supergravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate features of perturbative gravity and supergravity by studying scattering in the ultraplanckian limit, and sharpen arguments that the dynamics is governed by long-distance physics. A simple example capturing aspects of the eikonal resummation suggests why short distance phenomena and in particular divergences or nonrenormalizability do not necessarily play a central role in this regime. A more profound problem is apparently unitarity. These considerations can be illustrated by showing that known gravity and supergravity amplitudes have the same long-distance behavior, despite the extra light states of supergravity, and this serves as an important check on long-range dynamics in a context where perturbative amplitudes are finite. We also argue that these considerations have other important implications: they obstruct probing the conjectured phenomenon of asymptotic safety through a physical scattering process, and ultraplanckian scattering exhibiting Regge behavior. These arguments sharpen the need to find a nonperturbative completion of gravity with mechanisms which restore unitarity in the strong gravity regime.

Steven B. Giddings; Maximilian Schmidt-Sommerfeld; Jeppe R. Andersen

2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

278

Smart Distribution Applications for Distributed Energy Resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

P180.014 Smart Distribution Applications for Distributed Energy Resources (070625)The factors listed below all support the proliferation of Distributed Generating (DG) units in electric utility systems. The growing rate of DG deployment suggests that alternative energy-based solutions play an increasingly important role in the smart grid and modern utility.Deregulation of the electric utility industry in some countriesEnvironmental ...

2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

279

Scattering anisotropy and giant magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers  

SciTech Connect

We present full ab initio calculations of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in Co/Cu (001) multilayers including self-consistent impurity scattering potentials. Starting from density functional theory the electronic structure of the multilayer and the scattering at impurities are described by means of a new Green function method. It will be demonstrated that impurity scattering in magnetic multilayers is strongly anisotropic in comparison to impurity scattering in bulk systems. Concerning transport the anisotropy of scattering leads to a formation of highly conducting channels which give rise to short circuits and cause strong variation of GMR as a function of the impurity position in the multilayer. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Binder, J.; Zahn, P.; Mertig, I.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Coherent scattering by a spherical medium of resonant atoms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the problem of coherent resonant scattering of electromagnetic waves by a spherical medium of two-level atoms. The frequency dependence of the scattering amplitudes and cross sections reveals a complex structure of narrow peaks and dips. We relate these scattering resonances to the cooperative emission resonances characteristic of a sphere. We find the scattering to show considerable interference between the electric and magnetic multipole contributions, particularly in the lower multipole orders. This interference tends to enhance anisotropies in the differential scattering cross section even for small spheres. For such spheres, the peak values of the resonant contributions of the low-order multipoles to the total scattering cross section can increase with multipole order, in contrast to the usual decrease seen in nonresonant scattering.

Prasad, Sudhakar; Glauber, Roy J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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281

A new Fermi smearing approach for scattering of multi-GeV electrons by nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cross section for electron scattering by nuclei at high momentum transfers is calculated within the Fermi smearing approximation (FSA), where binding effects on the struck nucleon are introduced via the relativistic Hartree approximation (RHA). The model naturally preserves current conservation, since the response tensor for an off-shell nucleon conserves the same form that for a free one but with an effective mass. Different parameterizations for the inelastic nucleon structure function, are analyzed. The smearing at the Fermi surface is introduced through a momentum distribution obtained from a perturbative nuclear matter calculation. Recent CEBAF data on inclusive scattering of 4.05 GeV electrons on $^{56}$Fe are well reproduced for all measured geometries for the first time, as is evident from the comparison with previous calculations.

A. Mariano; P. Podesta Lerma

2003-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

282

Universality of electron distributions in high-energy air showers - description of Cherenkov light production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The shower simulation code CORSIKA has been used to investigate the electron energy and angular distributions in high-energy showers. Based on the universality of both distributions, we develop an analytical description of Cherenkov light emission in extensive air showers, which provides the total number and angular distribution of photons. The parameterisation can be used e.g. to calculate the contribution of direct and scattered Cherenkov light to shower profiles measured with the air fluorescence technique.

F. Nerling; J. Blmer; R. Engel; M. Risse

2005-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

283

Temporal aspects of one-dimensional completed scattering: An alternative view  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A {\\it completed} scattering of a particle on a static one-dimensional (1D) potential barrier is a combined quantum process to consist from two elementary sub-processes (transmission and reflection) evolved coherently at all stages of scattering and macroscopically distinct at the final stage. The existing model of the process is clearly inadequate to its nature: all one-particle "observables" and "tunneling times", introduced as quantities to be common for the sub-processes, cannot be experimentally measured and, consequently, have no physical meaning; on the contrary, quantities introduced for either sub-process have no basis, for the time evolution of either sub-process is unknown in this model. We show that the wave function to describe a completed scattering can be uniquely presented as the sum of two solutions to the Schr\\"odinger equation, which describe separately the sub-processes at all stages of scattering. For symmetric potential barriers such solutions are found explicitly. For either sub-process we define the time spent, on the average, by a particle in the barrier region. We define it as the Larmor time. As it turned out, this time is just Buttiker's dwell time averaged over the corresponding localized state. Thus, firstly, we justify the known definition of the local dwell time introduced by Hauge and co-workers as well by Leavens and Aers, for now this time can be measured; secondly, we confirm that namely Buttiker's dwell time gives the energy-distribution for the tunneling time; thirdly, we state that all the definitions are valid only if they are based on the wave functions for transmission and reflection found in our paper. Besides, we define the exact and asymptotic group times to be auxiliary in timing the scattering process.

N L Chuprikov

2005-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

284

QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG  

SciTech Connect

We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of 'Beyond the Standard Model' physics.

Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Batra, P.; /Columbia U.; Bugel, Leonard G.; /Columbia U.; Camilleri, Leslie Loris; /Columbia U.; Conrad, Janet Marie; /MIT; de Gouvea, A.; /Northwestern U.; Fisher, Peter H.; /MIT; Formaggio, Joseph Angelo; /MIT; Jenkins, J.; /Northwestern U.; Karagiorgi, Georgia S.; /MIT; Kobilarcik, T.R.; /Fermilab /Texas U.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

CORONAL ELECTRON DISTRIBUTION IN SOLAR FLARES: DRIFT-KINETIC MODEL  

SciTech Connect

Using a model of particle acceleration and transport in solar flares, we investigate the height distribution of coronal electrons by focusing on the energy-dependent pitch-angle scattering. When pitch-angle scattering is not included, the peak heights of loop-top electrons are constant, regardless of their energy, owing to the continuous acceleration and compression of the electrons via shrinkage of magnetic loops. On the other hand, under pitch-angle scattering, the electron heights are energy-dependent: intermediate-energy electrons are at a higher altitude, whereas lower and higher energy electrons are at lower altitudes. This implies that the intermediate-energy electrons are inhibited from following the shrinking field lines to lower altitudes because pitch-angle scattering causes efficient precipitation of these electrons into the footpoint and their subsequent loss from the loop. This result is qualitatively consistent with the position of the above-the-loop-top hard X-ray (HXR) source that is located above coronal HXR loops emitted by lower energy electrons and microwaves emitted by higher energy electrons. Quantitative agreement with observations might be achieved by considering primary acceleration before the onset of loop shrinkage and additional pitch-angle scattering via wave-particle interactions.

Minoshima, Takashi; Kusano, Kanya [Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25, Syowa-machi, Kanazawaku, Yokohama 236-0001 (Japan); Masuda, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi, E-mail: minoshim@jamstec.go.jp [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

286

Limitations for heterodyne detection of Brillouin scattered light  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One means by which elastic properties of a material may be determined is measuring sound wave velocities in the material, from which elastic moduli of interest can be computed. Velocity can be measured by conventional piezoelectric transduction techniques, by applying laser ultrasonics, or by using Brillouin-scattering methods. Brillouin-scattering techniques for determining the sound wave velocity are particularly attractive since they are completely noninvasive. Only a probe beam of light is required since the thermal energy in the material provides the elastic motion. Heterodyne methods for detection of Brillouin-scattered light are considered one possible means to increase the speed of the scattered light frequency detection. Results of experiments with simulated Brillouin scattering suggest that heterodyne detection of the Brillouin-scattered light is feasible. Experiments to detect Brillouin-scattered light, with water as the scattering medium, were designed and interpreted using the results of the simulated scattering experiments. Overall, results showed that it is difficult to narrow the linewidth for Brillouin scattering to an acceptable level. The results given indicate that heterodyne detection of the Brillouin components requires detection bandwidths that are quite small, perhaps 10 Hz or lower. These small bandwidths can be routinely achieved using lock-in amplifier techniques.

Allemeier, R.T.; Wagner, J.W.; Telschow, K.L.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Neutron Scattering Experiment Automation with Python  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory currently holds the Guinness World Record as the world most powerful pulsed spallation neutron source. Neutrons scattered off atomic nuclei in a sample yield important information about the position, motions, and magnetic properties of atoms in materials. A neutron scattering experiment usually involves sample environment control (temperature, pressure, etc.), mechanical alignment (slits, sample and detector position), magnetic field controllers, neutron velocity selection (choppers) and neutron detectors. The SNS Data Acquisition System (DAS) consists of real-time sub-system (detector read-out with custom electronics, chopper interface), data preprocessing (soft real-time) and a cluster of control and ancillary PCs. The real-time system runs FPGA firmware and programs running on PCs (C++, LabView) typically perform one task such as motor control and communicate via TCP/IP networks. PyDas is a set of Python modules that are used to integrate various components of the SNS DAS system. It enables customized automation of neutron scattering experiments in a rapid and flexible manner. It provides wxPython GUIs for routine experiments as well as IPython command line scripting. Matplotlib and numpy are used for data presentation and simple analysis. We will present an overview of SNS Data Acquisition System and PyDas architectures and implementation along with the examples of use. We will also discuss plans for future development as well as the challenges that have to be met while maintaining PyDas for 20+ different scientific instruments.

Zolnierczuk, Piotr A [ORNL; Riedel, Richard A [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

289

Quadratic electroweak corrections for polarized Moller scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper discusses the two-loop (NNLO) electroweak radiative corrections to the parity violating electron-electron scattering asymmetry induced by squaring one-loop diagrams. The calculations are relevant for the ultra-precise 11 GeV MOLLER experiment planned at Jefferson Laboratory and experiments at high-energy future electron colliders. The imaginary parts of the amplitudes are taken into consideration consistently in both the infrared-finite and divergent terms. The size of the obtained partial correction is significant, which indicates a need for a complete study of the two-loop electroweak radiative corrections in order to meet the precision goals of future experiments.

A. Aleksejevs, S. Barkanova, Y. Kolomensky, E. Kuraev, V. Zykunov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Systematics of meson-Skyrmion scattering  

SciTech Connect

The S-matrix characterizing the scattering of pions from nucleons is calculated in the context of skyrmion models of the nucleon. These are models in which the nucleon is considered a soliton in the field of pions. The spectrum of nucleon and delta resonances in the Skyrme model is calculated and found to be in overall good agreement with Nature. Model-independent sum rules between amplitudes in the same partial wave are derived and examined. An extension of the formalism to the case of three light flavors is presented. 31 refs., 26 figs., 6 tabs.

Mattis, M.P.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Deep inelastic scattering and diffraction at HERA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent results on deep inelastic scattering and diffraction at HERA obtained by the H1 and ZEUS experiments are presented. The proton structure function F 2 has been measured with the 1994 data in a new kinematic region of Q 2?2 GeV2 and x?4.510?5. The rise in F 2 with decreasing x persists. Results on the determination of the gluon momentum density of the proton are also presented. The diffractive structure function has been measured using large rapidity gap events. The results are interpreted in terms of the pomeron structure.

Johnny S. T. Ng; on behalf of the H1 and ZEUS collaborations

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Electromagnetic wave scattering by many small particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scattering of electromagnetic waves by many small particles of arbitrary shapes is reduced rigorously to solving linear algebraic system of equations bypassing the usual usage of integral equations. The matrix elements of this linear algebraic system have physical meaning. They are expressed in terms of the electric and magnetic polarizability tensors. Analytical formulas are given for calculation of these tensors with any desired accuracy for homogeneous bodies of arbitrary shapes. An idea to create a "smart" material by embedding many small particles in a given region is formulated.

A. G. Ramm

2006-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

293

Vector Boson Scattering at High Mass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the absence of a light Higgs boson, the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking will be best studied in processes of vector boson scattering at high mass. Various models predict resonances in this channel. Here, we investigate W W scalar and vector resonances, W Z vector resonances and a Z Z scalar resonance over a range of diboson centre-of-mass energies. Particular attention is paid to the application reconstruction of dijet pairs with low opening angle resulting from the decay of highly boosted vector bosons.

Sherwood, P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.  

SciTech Connect

At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Tellier, L. L. (Larry L.); Ho, Cheng,

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys

296

Raindrop Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reviews some of the published results relating to raindrop-size distributions and couples this with some of the authors' results in order to show that the mathematical description of the distribution can be divided into three ...

M. C. Hodson

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR) Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR) Author Parviz Tarikhi Published N/A, 2010 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR) Citation Parviz Tarikhi. Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR) [Internet]. 2010. Tunis, Tunisia. N/A. [cited 2013/09/17]. Available from: http://parviztarikhi.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/3psinsar-i-parviz_tarikhi.pdf Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Synthetic_Aperture_Radar_Persistent_Scatterer_Interferometry_(PSInSAR)&oldid=682949"

298

An advanced scattered moonlight model for Cerro Paranal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The largest natural source of light at night is the Moon, and it is the major contributor to the astronomical sky background. Being able to accurately predict the sky background, including scattered moonlight is important for scheduling astronomical observations. We have developed an improved scattered moonlight model, in which the components are computed with a better physical understanding as opposed to the simple empirical fit in the frequently used photometric model of Krisciunas & Schaefer (1991). Our spectroscopic model can better trace the spectral trends of scattered moonlight for any position of the Moon and target observation. This is the first scattered moonlight model that we know of which is this physical and versatile. We have incorporated an observed solar spectrum, accurate lunar albedo fit, and elaborate scattering and absorption calculations that include scattering off of molecules and aerosols. It was designed for Cerro Paranal, but can be modified for any location with known atmospheri...

Jones, Amy; Kausch, Wolfgang; Szyszka, Cezary; Kimeswenger, Stefan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Scattering theory approach to electrodynamic Casimir forces  

SciTech Connect

We give a comprehensive presentation of methods for calculating the Casimir force to arbitrary accuracy, for any number of objects, arbitrary shapes, susceptibility functions, and separations. The technique is applicable to objects immersed in media other than vacuum, nonzero temperatures, and spatial arrangements in which one object is enclosed in another. Our method combines each object's classical electromagnetic scattering amplitude with universal translation matrices, which convert between the bases used to calculate scattering for each object, but are otherwise independent of the details of the individual objects. The method is illustrated by rederiving the Lifshitz formula for infinite half-spaces, by demonstrating the Casimir-Polder to van der Waals crossover, and by computing the Casimir interaction energy of two infinite, parallel, perfect metal cylinders either inside or outside one another. Furthermore, it is used to obtain new results, namely, the Casimir energies of a sphere or a cylinder opposite a plate, all with finite permittivity and permeability, to leading order at large separation.

Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Kardar, Mehran [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Emig, Thorsten [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, CNRS UMR 8626, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Graham, Noah [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); Jaffe, Robert L. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

SUMMARY OF BEAM COOLING AND INTRABEAM SCATTERING.  

SciTech Connect

For heavy-particle beams in storage rings where there is no significant synchrotron radiation damping, beam cooling is an essential tool in obtaining high phase-space density high brightness beams. Advances in various types of cooling such as electron, stochastic, laser and muon cooling are covered in dedicated Conferences. In this series of Workshops (HB2002-06), discussions are aimed only at a few specific subjects which are crucial for future projects. The discussion topics in our session closely followed those discussed during the HB2004 workshop [1]. Specifically, we concentrated on the topics of electron cooling and intrabeam scattering, motivated by the design of the future high-energy coolers [2,3,4]. These cooling projects at high-energy require accurate numerical modeling and experimental verification. A variety of tasks were put together at HB2004 [1]. In our working group we discussed a progress in addressing these tasks. We had 10 presentations [5]-[14] (with additional presentations in the joint sessions) which followed by dedicated discussions. Our main topics of discussions: intrabeam scattering (IBS), electron cooling, and beam stability are summarized.

FEDOTOV, A.V.; MESHKOV, I.N.; WEI, J.

2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Cross sections for electron scattering from magnesium  

SciTech Connect

A B-spline R-matrix (close-coupling) method has been used to perform a systematic study of angle-differential cross sections for electron scattering from neutral magnesium. The calculations cover elastic scattering and excitation of the five excited states (3s3p) {sup 3,1}P{sup o}, (3s3d) {sup 1}D, (3s4s) {sup 1}S, and (3s4p) {sup 1}P{sup o}. A multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method with nonorthogonal orbitals was employed for an accurate representation of the target wave functions. The close-coupling expansion for the collision problem included 37 bound states of neutral magnesium. Angle-differential cross sections are presented for incident electron energies from 10 to 100 eV. These results, as well as the corresponding angle-integrated cross sections, are compared with various experimental data and predictions from other close-coupling and distorted-wave calculations. In spite of a few remaining discrepancies, the overall agreement between our results and the experimental data is very satisfactory.

Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Gedeon, Sergey; Gedeon, Viktor; Lazur, Vladimir; Nagy, Elizabeth [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 50311 (United States); Department of Theoretical Physics, Uzhgorod State University, Uzhgorod 88000 (Ukraine)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Nuclear Antishadowing in Neutrino Deep Inelastic Scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The shadowing and antishadowing of nuclear structure functions in the Gribov-Glauber picture is due respectively to the destructive and constructive interference of amplitudes arising from the multiple-scattering of quarks in the nucleus. The effective quark-nucleon scattering amplitude includes Pomeron and Odderon contributions from multi-gluon exchange as well as Reggeon quark-exchange contributions. We show that the coherence of these multiscattering nuclear processes leads to shadowing and antishadowing of the electromagnetic nuclear structure functions in agreement with measurements. This picture leads to substantially different antishadowing for charged and neutral current reactions, thus affecting the extraction of the weak-mixing angle $\\theta_W$. We find that part of the anomalous NuTeV result for $\\theta_W$ could be due to the nonuniversality of nuclear antishadowing for charged and neutral currents. Detailed measurements of the nuclear dependence of individual quark structure functions are thus needed to establish the distinctive phenomenology of shadowing and antishadowing and to make the NuTeV results definitive.

Stanley J. Brodsky; Ivan Schmidt; Jian-Jun Yang

2004-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

303

Effects of Raindrop-Size Distribution Variation within the Radar Scattering Volume on Radar Observables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dual linear polarization weather radars measure as primary observables the mean power P?H, and P?V, corresponding to returns at horizontal and vertical polarizations, respectively. Differential reflectivity ZDR is defined as the ratio between ...

G. Scarchilli; E. Gorgucci; T. A. Seliga; K. Aydin

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS  

SciTech Connect

Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

305

"Diffuse Scattering and the Fundamental Properties of materials"  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book highlights emerging research areas that exploit the ability of diffuse scattering to characterize local structures in materials. An emphasis is placed on the coming renaissance in diffuse scattering driven by new sources, better instrumentation, novel new materials, and advanced theories and methods. This book will provide an overview of some of the most exciting recent advances in diffuse scattering and provides guidance for students and researchers interested in new methods to characterize their samples.

Barabash, Rozaliya [ORNL; Ice, Gene E [ORNL; Turchi, Dr. Patrice E.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Rearrangement and annihilation in antihydrogen-atom scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I review some results for annihilation and rearrangement processes in low-energy antihydrogen-hydrogen and antihydrogen-helium scattering. For the strong nuclear force results using a {delta}-function potential are compared to a scattering length approach. It is found that the {delta}-function potential does not give correct annihilation cross sections in the case of antihydrogen-helium scattering. Problem associated with the use of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for rearrangement calculations are reviewed.

Jonsell, Svante [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

307

Quasielastic scattering with the Relativistic Green's Function approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A relativistic model for quasielastic (QE) lepton-nucleus scattering is presented. The effects of final-state interactions (FSI) between the ejected nucleon and the residual nucleus are described in the relativistic Green's function (RGF) model where FSI are consistently described with exclusive scattering using a complex optical potential. The results of the model are compared with experimental results of electron and neutrino scattering.

Andrea Meucci; Carlotta Giusti

2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

308

Facility location: distributed approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we initiate the study of the approximability of the facility location problem in a distributed setting. In particular, we explore a trade-off between the amount of communication and the resulting approximation ratio. We give a distributed ... Keywords: distributed approximation, facility location, linear programming, primal-dual algorithms

Thomas Moscibroda; Rogert Wattenhofer

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Polarized light scattering from metallic particles on silicon ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to predict and optimize the performance of their ... are commonly used in scattering calculations are the ... An electrostatic precipitator con- nected to the ...

2010-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

310

High Frequency Acoustic Wave Scattering From Turbulent Premixed Flames .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis describes an experimental investigation of high frequency acoustic wave scattering from turbulent premixed flames. The objective of this work was to characterize the (more)

Narra, Venkateswarlu

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proceedings of the 12th International Clay Conference, Bahia Blanca, Argentina, July 22-28, 2001. Gibbs, D. X-ray magnetic scattering. Synchrotron Radiation News...

312

Small and Intermediate-Angle Scattering Instruments for Materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is becoming clear that even at such low power sources, we can conduct ... Scattering Methods for Investigations on Magnetic Thin Film Nanostructures.

313

Reprinted from "Scattering and Surface Roughness," Z.-H. Gu ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Reprinted from "Scattering and Surface Roughness," Z.-H. Gu and AA Maradudin, Editors, Proc. SPIE 3141, 220-231 (1997) Page 2. Page 3 ...

2010-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

314

THE SCATTERING AND POLARIZATION OF SPIN ONE PARTICLE  

SciTech Connect

The optical models which may be used to describe the scattering and the possible forms of spin-orbit coupling are discussed. The scattering amplitudes are defined and described, including the effects of an isolated resonance, and used to give expressions for the differential cross section and polarization. The latter results are extended to include the change of polarization induced on scattering a polarized beam. Double scattering and the change in polarization produced by deflection in a magnetic field are described. A detailed discussion of possible tensor spinorbit couplings is given. (W.D.M.)

Satchler, G.R.

1960-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

315

Introduction to Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Neutron ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... where g(r) is the pair correlation function for the scattering objects and lng(r) is directly related to the potential energy function that describes the ...

2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

316

ORNL study uses neutron scattering, supercomputing to demystify...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ORNL study uses neutron scattering, supercomputing to demystify forces at play in biofuel production This graphical representation of lignocellulosic biomass based on...

317

USANS: the Ultra-Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Instrument at...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

USANS-Ultra-Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Instrument USANS is designed for the study of hierarchical structures in natural and artificial materials. It can be considered an...

318

New Directions in X-ray Scattering - SSRL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

associated with chemically and radioactively contaminated ground-water. Ability to probe weak scattering from single crystals as function of energy (resonance) and x-ray...

319

American Conference on Neutron Scattering 2010 - ORNL Neutron...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Update on Sample Environment Plenary Session: Thom Mason: Neutron Scattering and Energy ACNS website with Program Back to Top an error occurred while processing this directive...

320

The Extended Q-Range Small Angle Neutron Scattering ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The Extended Q-Range Small Angle Neutron Scattering Diffractometer (EQ-SANS) at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high intensity...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Phonon Studies with Inelastic Neutron Scattering and First ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Phonon Studies with Inelastic Neutron Scattering and .... by Asynchronous In-Situ Neutron Diffraction at the Spallation Neutron Source.

322

Educational Programs - National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and national laboratories, will include basic tutorials on the principles of scattering theory and the characteristics of the sources, as well as seminars on the application of...

323

Inelastic X-ray Scattering Reveals Microscopic Transport Properties...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inelastic X-ray Scattering Reveals Microscopic Transport Properties of Molten Aluminum Oxide The transport properties of high-temperature oxide melts are of considerable interest...

324

Industrial Applications at Small Angle Neutron Scattering and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... at Small Angle Neutron Scattering and Neutron Diffraction of HANARO Reactor .... Structure/Microstructure Analysis of Faulted and Modular Materials from...

325

Determining Size Distributions and Composition of Particles Suspended in Water: A New SEMEDS Protocol with Validation and Comparison to Other Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowledge of particle size distributions (PSDs) in seawater is important for understanding several facets of marine science, such as the behavior of light scattering in seawater, phytoplankton dynamics, and biogeochemical cycling. Here, a method ...

Heather Groundwater; Michael S. Twardowski; Heidi M. Dierssen; Antoine Sciandra; Scott A. Freeman

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Synthesis and characterization of nanophase zirconia : reverse micelle method and neutron scattering study.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Zirconia is an important transition-metal oxide for catalytic applications. It has been widely used in automotive exhaust treatment, methanol synthesis, isomerization, alkylation, etc. [1]. Nanophase materials have unique physiochemical properties such as quantum size effects, high surface area, uniform morphology, narrow size distribution, and improvement of sintering rates[2]. Microemulsion method provides the means for controlling the microenvironment under which specific chemical reactions may occur in favoring the formation of homogeneous, nanometer-size particles. In this paper, we report the synthesis of nanophase zirconia and the characterization of the microemulsions as well as the powders by small- and wide-angle neutron scattering techniques.

Li, X.

1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

327

Kinetic energy of hydrogen in. beta. -V sub 2 H studied by neutron Compton scattering  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen dissolves in nearly all metals in large quantities, occupying interstitial sites which are energetic minima of the hydrogen potential. Experimentally, this potential can be determined by neutron vibrational spectroscopy (NVS) and, recently, by neutron Compton scattering (NCS) i.e. either by a measurement of the excitation energies of the localized hydrogen vibrations or by a measurement of the hydrogen momentum distribution. In this brief communication we report on what we believe is the first NCS experiment on a metal hydride. For the system to be investigated we chose {beta}-V{sub 2}H, an ordered hydride phase with hydrogen on pseudotetragonal octahedral sites. 3 figs., 7 refs.

Hempelmann, R.; Richter, D. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Festkoerperforschung); Price, D.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Elastic scattering of {sup 9}Li on {sup 208}Pb at energies around the Coulomb barrier  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the dynamical effects of the halo structure of {sup 11}Li on the scattering on heavy targets at energies around the Coulomb barrier. This experiment was performed at ISAC-II at TRIUMF with a world record in production of the post-accelerated {sup 11}Li beam. As part of this study we report here on the first measurement of the elastic cross section of the core nucleus, i.e. {sup 9}Li on {sup 208}Pb, at energies around the Coulomb barrier. A preliminary optical model analysis has been performed in order to extract a global optical potential to describe the measured angular distributions.

Cubero, M. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); CICANUM, Universidad de Costa Rica, Apdo. 2060, San Jose (Costa Rica); Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Alvarez, M. A. G. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1065, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas A. Edison, E-41092, Sevilla (Spain); Lay, J. A.; Moro, A. M. [Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1065, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Alcorta, M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Tengblad, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Buchmann, L.; Shotter, A.; Walden, P. [TRIUMF, V6T2A3 Vancouver B.C. (Canada); Diget, D. G.; Fulton, B. [Department of Physics, University of York, YO10 5DD Heslington, York (United Kingdom); Fynbo, H. O. U. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University ofAarhus, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark); Galaviz, D. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Gomez-Camacho, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas A. Edison, E-41092, Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de FAMN, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1065, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Mukha, I. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidadde Valencia (Spain)

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

329

Polarized deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) structure functions for nucleons and nuclei  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We extract parton distribution functions (PDFs) and structure functions from recent experimental data of polarized lepton-deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) on nucleons at next-to-leading order (NLO) quantum chromodynamics. We apply the Jacobi polynomial method to the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution as this is numerically efficient. Having determined the polarized proton and neutron spin structure, we extend this analysis to describe {sup 3}He and {sup 3}H polarized structure functions, as well as various sum rules. We compare our results with other analyses from the literature.

Khorramian, Ali N.; Taheri Monfared, S. [Physics Department, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atashbar Tehrani, S. [School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arbabifar, F. [Physics Department, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Olness, F. I. [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275-0175 (United States)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Deeply virtual Compton scattering on longitudinally polarized protons and neutrons at CLAS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on a measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly-6-GeV polarized electron beam, two longitudinally polarized (via DNP) solid targets of protons (NH{sub 3}) and deuterons (ND{sub 3}) and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Here, preliminary results for target-spin asymmetries and double (beam-target) asymmetries for proton DVCS, as well as a very preliminary extraction of beam-spin asymmetry for neutron DVCS, are presented and linked to Generalized Parton Distributions.

Silvia Niccolai

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

PDF Nuclear Corrections for Charged Lepton and Neutrino Deep Inelastic Scattering Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform a \\chi^2-analysis of Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions (NPDFs) using neutral current charged-lepton Deeply Inelastic Scattering (DIS) and Drell-Yan data for several nuclear targets. The nuclear A dependence of the NPDFs is extracted in a next-to-leading order fit. We compare the nuclear corrections factors F2(Fe)/F2(D) for this charged-lepton data with other results from the literature. In particular, we compare and contrast fits based upon the charged-lepton DIS data with those using neutrino-nucleon DIS data.

I. Schienbein; J. Y. Yu; K. Kovarik; C. Keppel; J. G. Morfin; F. Olness; J. F. Owens

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

332

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Distribution Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: June 27, 2013 Next Release Date: September 2013 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf October-December pdf xls pdf 2010 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf xls

333

Role of Triple Phonon Excitations on Large Angle Quasi-elastic Scattering of {sup 54}Cr+{sup 208}Pb System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the large angle quasi-elastic scattering of {sup 54}Cr+{sup 208}Pb system in terms of the full-order coupled-channels formalism. We especially investigate the role of single, double and triple phonon excitations on quasi-elastic scattering cross section as well as quasi-elastic barrier distribution of this system for which the experimental data have been measured. It is shown that the triple phonon excitations both in {sup 54}Cr and {sup 208}Pb nuclei seem to be needed by the present coupled-channels calculations in order to reproduce the experimental data of quasi-elastic cross section and barrier distribution for the {sup 54}Cr+{sup 208}Pb system. We also show that the standard value of the surface diffuseness parameter for the nuclear potential a = 0.63 fm, is preferred by the experimental quasi-elastic scattering data for this system.

Zamrun, Muhammad F. [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Jurusan Fisika FMIPA, Universitas Haluoleo, Kendari, Sulawesi Tenggara 93232 (Indonesia); Kasim, Hasan Abu [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

334

Interactions between Ether Phospholipids and Cholesterol as Determined by Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Cholesterol and ether lipids are ubiquitous in mammalian cell membranes, and their interactions are crucial in ether lipid mediated cholesterol trafficking. We report on cholesterol s molecular interactions with ether lipids as determined using a combination of small-angle neutron and Xray scattering, and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A scattering density profile model for an ether lipid bilayer was developed using MD simulations, which was then used to simultaneously fit the different experimental scattering data. From analysis of the data the various bilayer structural parameters were obtained. Surface area constrained MD simulations were also performed to reproduce the experimental data. This iterative analysis approach resulted in good agreement between the experimental and simulated form factors. The molecular interactions taking place between cholesterol and ether lipids were then determined from the validated MD simulations. We found that in ether membranes cholesterol primarily hydrogen bonds with the lipid headgroup phosphate oxygen, while in their ester membrane counterparts cholesterol hydrogen bonds with the backbone ester carbonyls. This different mode of interaction between ether lipids and cholesterol induces cholesterol to reside closer to the bilayer surface, dehydrating the headgroup s phosphate moiety. Moreover, the three-dimensional lipid chain spatial density distribution around cholesterol indicates anisotropic chain packing, causing cholesterol to tilt. These insights lend a better understanding of ether lipid-mediated cholesterol trafficking and the roles that the different lipid species have in determining the structural and dynamical properties of membrane associated biomolecules.

Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Mostofian, Barmak [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Neutron scattering from elemental indium, the optical model, and the bound-state potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Neutron differential elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental indium are measured from 4.5 to 10 MeV at incident-energy intervals of {approx}500 keV. Seventy or more differential values are obtained at each incident energy, distributed between {approx}18{degree} and 160{degree}. These experimental results are combined with lower-energy values previously obtained at this laboratory, and with 11 and 14 MeV results in the literature, to form a comprehensive elastic-scattering database extending from {approx}1.5 to 14 MeV. These data are interpreted in terms of a conventional spherical optical model. The resulting potential is extrapolated to the bound-state regime. It is shown that in the middle of the 50--82 neutron shell, the potential derived from the scattering results adequately describes the binding energies of article states, but does not do well for hole states. The latter shortcoming is attributed to the holes states having occupational probabilities sufficiently different from unity, so that the exclusion principle become a factor, and to the rearrangement of the neutron core. 68 refs.

Chiba, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)); Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.; Smith, A.B. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T{sub e} 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated ({approx}2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides {approx}45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Shock Scattering in Multiphase Flow Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiphase flow models have been proposed for use in situations which have combined Rayleigh-Taylor (RTI) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RMI) instabilities. Such an approach works poorly for the case of a heavy to light shock incidence on a developed interface. The physical original of this difficulty is traced to an inadequate model of the interfacial pressure term as it appears in the momentum and turbulence kinetic energy equations. Constraints on the form of a better model from a variety of sources are considered. In this context it is observed that a new constraint on closures arises. This occurs because of the discontinuity within the shock responsible for the RMI. The proposed model (Shock Scattering) is shown to give useful results.

Klem, D

2003-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

338

Shock Scattering in a Multiphase Flow Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiphase flow models have been proposed for use in situations which have combined Rayleigh-Taylor (RTI) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RMI) instabilities. Such an approach work poorly for the case of a heavy to light shock incidence on a developed interface. The physical original of this difficulty is traced to an inadequate model of the interfacial pressure term as it appears in the momentum and turbulence kinetic energy equations. Constraints on the form of a better model from a variety of sources are considered. In this context it is observed that a new constraint on closures arises. This occurs because of the discontinuity within the shock responsible for the RMI. The proposed model (Shock Scattering) is shown to give useful results.

Klem, D

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

339

Green's Function Approach to Inclusive Electron Scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Green's function approach to the inclusive quasielastic ($e,e'$) scattering is presented. The components of the nuclear response are written in terms of the single-particle optical model Green's function. The explicit calculation of the Green's function can be avoided by its spectral representation, which is based on a biorthogonal expansion in terms of the eigenfunctions of the non-Hermitian optical potential and of its Hermitian conjugate. This allows one to treat final state interactions consistently in the inclusive ($e,e'$) and in the exclusive ($e,e'N$) reactions. Numerical results for the longitudinal and transverse response functions obtained in a nonrelativistic and in a relativistic framework are presented and discussed also in comparison with data.

F. Capuzzi; C. Giusti; A. Meucci; F. D. Pacati

2003-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

340

Quantum transfer operators and quantum scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

These notes describe a new method to investigate the spectral properties if quantum scattering Hamiltonians, developed in collaboration with J. Sj\\"ostrand and M.Zworski. This method consists in constructing a family of "quantized transfer operators" $\\{M(z,h)\\}$ associated with a classical Poincar\\'e section near some fixed classical energy E. These operators are finite dimensional, and have the structure of "open quantum maps". In the semiclassical limit, the family $\\{M(z,h)\\}$ encode the quantum dynamics near the energy E. In particular, the quantum resonances of the form $E+z$, for $z=O(h)$, are obtained as the roots of $\\det(1-M(z,h))=0$.

Stphane Nonnenmacher

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

A Technique to Utilize Smart Meter Load Information for Adapting Overcurrent Protection for Radial Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Smart radial distribution grids will include advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and significant distributed generators (DGs) connected close to loads. DGs in these radial distribution systems (RDS) introduce bidirectional power flows (BPFs) and contribute to fault current. These BPFs may cause unwanted tripping of existing overcurrent (OC) protection devices and result in permanent outages for a large number of customers. This thesis presents a protection approach that modified an existing overcurrent protection scheme to reduce the number of customers affected by faults in RDS with DGs. Further, a technique is presented that utilizes customers loading information from smart meters in AMI to improve the sensitivity of substation OC relays by adaptively changing the pickup settings. The modified protection approach involves predefining zones in RDS with DGs and installing directional OC relays and circuit breakers at the zonal boundaries. Zonal boundary relays determine faulted zones by sharing information on the direction of detected faults current using binary state signals over a communication medium. The technique to adapt the substation relay pickup settings uses the demand measurements from smart meters for two 12-hour intervals from the previous day to determine the maximum diversified demand at the relay?s location. The pickup settings of the substation relay for the two 12-hour intervals during the following day for the zone supplied by the substation are adaptively set based on the current that corresponds to the maximum diversified demand from the previous day. The techniques were validated through simulations in EMTP/PSCAD using an expanded IEEE 34 node radial test feeder that included DGs and a secondary distribution level. By decentralizing the control of the zonal boundary breakers, the single point of failure was eliminated in the modified protection approach. The cases studied showed that the modified protection approach allows for selective identification and isolation of the faulted zones. Also, the sensitivity of the substation OC relay was improved by at least 24% by using the pickup settings for the two 12-hour intervals from the smart meter demand measurements compared to the pickup settings computed using the conventional methodology based on the maximum loading of the zone.

Ituzaro, Fred Agyekum

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

On Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by a Wormhole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a wormhole. It is found that the scattered wave is partially depolarized and has a specific interference picture depending on parameters of the wormhole and the distance to the observer. It is proposed that such features can be important in the direct search of wormholes.

A. A. Kirillov; E. P. Savelova

2011-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

343

On Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by a Wormhole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a wormhole. It is found that the scattered wave is partially depolarized and has a specific interference picture depending on parameters of the wormhole and the distance to the observer. It is proposed that such features can be important in the direct search of wormholes.

Kirillov, A A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Measurements of Scattering Processes in Negative Ion- Atom Collisions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main research activity is to study various scattering processes which occur in H{sup -} collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets in the intermediate energy region. These processes include: elastic scattering, single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization.

Kvale, T. J.

2000-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

345

Molecular Line Absorption in a Scattering Atmosphere. Part I: Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper revisits the classical problem of particle scatteringgaseous absorption and considers the extent to which the growth of absorption lines of a known gas can be used to obtain information about the scattering particles. The focus of the ...

Graeme L. Stephens; Andrew Heidinger

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Recent advances in Multi-Channel Algebraic Scattering  

SciTech Connect

For coupled-channel descriptions of low-energy nucleon-induced interactions involving nuclei with particle-unstable exited states, it is necessary to include the widths of the target states. How those widths may affect the elastic scattering cross sections is examined within the framework of the Multi-Channel Algebraic Scattering (MCAS) method.

Karataglidis, S. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 (South Africa); Fraser, P. R. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04150, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Amos, K. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia); Canton, L.; Pisent, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 (Italy); Svenne, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Knijff, D. van der [Advanced Research Computing, Information Division, University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia)

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

347

Distributed Resource Integration Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report defines a framework for assessing current issues and considerations associated with the deployment and operation of distributed resources. The framework is a guide that can assist utility personnel, distributed resource owners, and other stakeholders in planning integration projects and in relating different integration projects to one another. The framework provides a structured organization of the various elements associated with distributed resource integration, including regulatory, busin...

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

348

Advanced Distribution Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced Distribution Automation (ADA) is a concept for a fully controllable and flexible distribution system that will facilitate the exchange of electrical energy AND information between participants and system components. Advances in the monitoring of system parameters like voltages, currents and breaker/switch positions as well as environmental variables like temperature and wind speed will be required in order to fully implement ADA. This report presents background information on distribution monito...

2005-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

349

XII SoNS School of Neutron Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

XII School of Neutron Scattering (SoNS) XII School of Neutron Scattering (SoNS) "Francesco Paolo Ricci" "Introduction to the theory and techniques of neutron scattering and applications to Cultural Heritage" 30 April - 9 May 2014 A Course within the International School of Solid State Physics ETTORE MAJORANA FOUNDATION AND CENTRE FOR SCIENTIFIC CULTURE, Erice (I) Application deadline: 1 st April 2014 Application is now open for the XII School of Neutron Scattering (SoNS) "Francesco Paolo Ricci": Introduction to the theory and techniques of neutron scattering and applications to Cultural Heritage. The school will be held at the ETTORE MAJORANA FOUNDATION AND CENTRE FOR SCIENTIFIC CULTURE, Erice (Sicily, I) as a specialized course within the International School of Solid State Physics (Director: Giorgio Benedek), between the 30

350

A discrete variable representation for electron-hydrogen atom scattering  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A discrete variable representation (DVR) suitable for treating the quantum scattering of a low energy electron from a hydrogen atom is presented. The benefits of DVR techniques (e.g. the removal of the requirement of calculating multidimensional potential energy matrix elements and the availability of iterative sparse matrix diagonalization/inversion algorithms) have for many years been applied successfully to studies of quantum molecular scattering. Unfortunately, the presence of a Coulomb singularity at the electrically unshielded center of a hydrogen atom requires high radial grid point densities in this region of the scattering coordinate, while the presence of finite kinetic energy in the asymptotic scattering electron also requires a sufficiently large radial grid point density at moderate distances from the nucleus. The constraints imposed by these two length scales have made application of current DVR methods to this scattering event difficult.

Gaucher, L.F.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Laser assisted Compton scattering of X-ray photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Compton scattering of X-ray photons, assisted by a short intense optical laser pulse is discussed. The differential scattering cross section reveals the interesting feature that the main Klein-Nishina line is accompanied by a series of side-lines forming a broad plateau where up to ${\\cal O} (10^3)$ laser photons participate simultaneously in a single scattering event. Due to the non-linear mixing of X-ray and laser photons a frequency dependent rotation of the polarization of the final state photons relative to the scattering plane emerges. A consistent description of the scattering process with short laser pulses requires to work with X-ray pulses. An experimental investigation can be accomplished, e.g., at LCLS or the European XFEL in the near future.

D. Seipt; B. Kampfer

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

352

The Scattered Disk as the source of the Jupiter Family comets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The short period Jupiter family comets (JFCs) are thought to originate in the Kuiper Belt; specifically, a dynamical subclass of the Kuiper Belt known as the `scattered disk' is argued to be the dominant source of JFCs. However, the best estimates from observational surveys indicate that this source may fall short by more than two orders of magnitude the estimates obtained from theoretical models of the dynamical evolution of Kuiper belt objects into JFCs. We re-examine the scattered disk as a source of the JFCs and make a rigorous estimate of the discrepancy. We find that the uncertainties in the dynamical models combined with a change in the size distribution function of the scattered disk at faint magnitudes (small sizes) beyond the current observational limit offer a possible but problematic resolution to the discrepancy. We discuss several other possibilities: that the present population of JFCs is a large fluctuation above their long term average, that larger scattered disk objects tidally break-up into multiple fragments during close planetary encounters as their orbits evolve from the trans-Neptune zone to near Jupiter, or that there are alternative source populations that contribute significantly to the JFCs. Well-characterized observational investigations of the Centaurs, objects that are transitioning between the trans-Neptune Kuiper belt region and the inner solar system, can test the predictions of the non-steady state and the tidal break-up hypotheses. The classical and resonant classes of the Kuiper belt are worth re-consideration as significant additional or alternate sources of the JFCs.

Kathryn Volk; Renu Malhotra

2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

353

Distribution reliability analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents an example for optimization of distribution maintenance scheduling of a recloser. It applies a risk reduction technique associated with maintenance of the (more)

Bhusal, Prabodh

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

* Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 December 20, 2007 MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION FROM: MICHAEL W. OWEN

355

Essays on wealth distribution.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The U.S. wealth distribution has three prominent features: a fat tail, skewness to the right, and a high Gini coefficient. Among these three features (more)

Zhu, Shenghao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Email Distribution Lists  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Email Distribution Lists The NSLS maintains several email lists to disseminate information to BNL staff and users as well as DOE officials and other interested people. The...

357

The Beta Maxwell Distribution.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this work we considered a general class of distributions gener- ated from the logit of the beta random variable. We looked at various works (more)

Amusan, Grace Ebunoluwa

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Photon Generalized Parton Distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a calculation of the generalized parton distributions of the photon using overlaps of photon light-front wave functions.

Asmita Mukherjee; Sreeraj Nair

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

359

Photon Generalized Parton Distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a calculation of the generalized parton distributions of the photon using overlaps of photon light-front wave functions.

Mukherjee, Asmita

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Cooling water distribution system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

EIS Distribution | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EIS Distribution EIS Distribution This DOE guidance presents a series of recommendations related to the EIS distribution process, which includes creating and updating a...

362

The Lx-Yx Relation: Using Galaxy Cluster X-Ray Luminosity as a Robust, Low Scatter Mass Proxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a sample of 115 galaxy clusters at 0.1scatter in the relation is dominated by cluster cores, and a tight LY relation (11% intrinsic scatter in Lx) is recovered if sufficiently large core regions (0.15R500) are excluded. The intrinsic scatter is well described by a lognormal distribution and the relations are consistent for relaxed and disturbed/merging clusters. We investigate the LY relation in low-quality data (e.g. for clusters detected in X-ray survey data) by estimating Lx from soft band count rates, and find that the scatter increases somewhat to 21%. We confirm the tight correlation between Yx and mass and the self-similar evolution of that scaling relation out to z=0.6 for a subset of clusters in our sample with mass estimates from the literature. This is used to estimate masses for the entire sample and hence measure the LM relation. We find that the scatter in the LM relation is much lower than previous estimates, due to the full removal of cluster cores and more robust mass estimates. For high-redshift clusters the scatter in the LM relation remains low if cluster cores are not excluded. These results suggest that cluster masses can be reliably estimated from simple luminosity measurements in low quality data where direct mass estimates, or measurements of Yx are not possible. This has important applications in the estimation of cosmological parameters from X-ray cluster surveys.

B. J. Maughan

2007-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

363

Elastic scattering measurements for {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}Al system at RIBRAS facility  

SciTech Connect

Elastic scattering angular distribution measurements of {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}Al system were performed at the laboratory energy of 15.6 MeV. The {sup 7}Be secondary beam was produced by the proton transfer reaction {sup 3}He({sup 6}Li,{sup 7}Be) and impinged on {sup 27}Al and {sup 197}Au targets, using the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, RIBRAS. The elastic angular distribution was obtained within the angular range of 15{sup 0} - 80{sup 0} at the center of mass frame. Optical model calculations have been performed using the Woods- Saxon form factors and the Sao Paulo potential to fit the experimental data. The total reaction cross section was derived.

Morcelle, V. [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and Depto de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05389-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lichtenthaeler, R.; Morais, M. C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Gasques, L.; Pires, K. C. C.; Condori, R. P. [Depto de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C. P. 66318, 05389-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Mendes, D. R. Jr. [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Barioni, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Bahia (Brazil); Shorto, J. M. B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares- IPEN, 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Zamora, J. C. [Departament of Physics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

364

A general framework and review of scatter correction methods in cone beam CT. Part 2: Scatter estimation approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main components of scatter correction procedures are scatterestimation and a scattercompensation algorithm. This paper completes a previous paper where a general framework for scatter compensation was presented under the prerequisite that a scatterestimation method is already available. In the current paper

Ernst-Peter Rhrnschopf and; Klaus Klingenbeck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Normalization of the scattered light from an isolated defect illuminated by a Gaussian beam  

SciTech Connect

The intensity distribution of the beam from a laser operated in the zero order configuration for the transverse electromagnetic field (TEM/sub 00/ mode) is Gaussian in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the beam. In some applications it is desirable to have a uniform intensity over a certain region in space. For example, when a Gaussian beam is incident on a smooth surface containing small isolated defects, the light scattered by a defect will depend on the position of the defect relative to the center of the beam. In the past, several techniques have been devised to convert a Gaussian intensity profile into a uniform intensity over a specified region in space. In the present work a different approach is taken. A method of normalization is described which makes direct use of the Gaussian intensity distribution of the TEM/sub 00/ mode. By this method the amount of light scattered by a defect can be normalized to the value which would be observed if the defect were located at the center of the beam, for a defect small in size compared with the 1/e/sup 2/ diameter of the Gaussian profile. The normalization requires that three measurements be made of the scattering by the defect for an arbitrary location of the defect relative to the center of the Gaussian beam, and that the 1/e/sup 2/ radius of the Gaussian beam and the interval between adjacent illuminated spots on the surface are known. Experimental data verifying the theory were obtained from isolated defects on a superfinished spherical surface.

Klingsporn, P.E.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Multiple scattering of light in superdiffusive media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Light transport in superdiffusive media of finite size is studied theoretically. The Green's function of the problem is found by discretizing the fractional diffusion equation and employing the eigenfunction expansion method. Truncated step length distributions and complex boundary conditions are considered. As an example we calculate the weak localization effect in the superdiffusion approximation.

Bertolotti, Jacopo; Wiersma, Diederik S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Non-Gaussian Radio-Wave Scattering in the Interstellar Medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It was recently suggested by Boldyrev & Gwinn that the characteristics of radio scintillations from distant pulsars are best understood if the interstellar electron-density fluctuations that cause the time broadening of the radio pulses obey non-Gaussian statistics. In this picture the density fluctuations are inferred to be strong on very small scales ($\\sim 10^8-10^{10} {cm}$). We argue that such density structures could correspond to the ionized boundaries of molecular regions (clouds) and demonstrate that the power-law distribution of scattering angles that is required to match the observations arises naturally from the expected intersections of our line of sight with randomly distributed, thin, approximately spherical ionized shells of this type. We show that the observed change in the time-broadening behavior for pulsar dispersion measures $\\lesssim 30 {\\rm pc} {\\rm cm}^{-3}$ is consistent with the expected effect of the general ISM turbulence, which should dominate the scattering for nearby pulsars. We also point out that if the clouds are ionized by nearby stars, then their boundaries may become turbulent on account of an ionization front instability. This turbulence could be an alternative cause of the inferred density structures. An additional effect that might contribute to the strength of the small-scale fluctuations in this case is the expected flattening of the turbulent density spectrum when the eddy sizes approach the proton gyroscale.

Stanislav Boldyrev; Arieh Konigl

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

368

Test of two new parameterizations of the Generalized Parton Distribution $H$  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2011 Radyushkin outlined the practical implementation of the One-Component Double Distribution formalism in realistic Generalized Parton Distribution models. We compare the One-Component Double Distribution framework to the standard one and compute Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering observables for both. In particular the new implementation is more flexible, offering a greater range of variation of the real and imaginary parts of the associated Compton Form Factor while still allowing to recover results similar to the classical approach. Moreover the polynomiality property is satisfied up to the highest order. Although the comparison to experimental data may be improved, the One-Component Double Distribution modeling is thus an attractive alternative.

C. Mezrag; H. Moutarde; F. Sabati

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

369

Coherent Scattering of Microwaves by Particles: Evidence from Clouds and Smoke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many radar measurements of the atmosphere can be explained in terms of two scattering mechanisms: incoherent scattering from particles, and coherent scattering from variations in the refractive index of the air, commonly called clear-air or Bragg ...

J. S. Erkelens; V. K. C. Venema; H. W. J. Russchenberg; L. P. Ligthart

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Digenetic Changes in Macro- to Nano-Scale Porosity in the St. Peter Sandstone:L An (Ultra) Small Angle Neutron Scattering and Backscattered Electron Imagining Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small- and Ultra-Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS and USANS) provide powerful tools for quantitative analysis of porous rocks, yielding bulk statistical information over a wide range of length scales. This study utilized (U)SANS to characterize shallowly buried quartz arenites from the St. Peter Sandstone. Backscattered electron imaging was also used to extend the data to larger scales. These samples contain significant volumes of large-scale porosity, modified by quartz overgrowths, and neutron scattering results show significant sub-micron porosity. While previous scattering data from sandstones suggest scattering is dominated by surface fractal behavior over many orders of magnitude, careful analysis of our data shows both fractal and pseudo-fractal behavior. The scattering curves are composed of subtle steps, modeled as polydispersed assemblages of pores with log-normal distributions. However, in some samples an additional surface-fractal overprint is present, while in others there is no such structure, and scattering can be explained by summation of non-fractal structures. Combined with our work on other rock-types, these data suggest that microporosity is more prevalent, and may play a much more important role than previously thought in fluid/rock interactions.

Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL; Jackson, Andrew [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD; Littrell, Ken [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Fitting an Exponential Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exponential distributions of the type N = N0 exp(??t) occur with a high frequency in a wide range of scientific disciplines. This paper argues against a widely spread method for calculating the ? parameter in this distribution. When the ln ...

Roberto Fraile; Eduardo Garca-Ortega

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Modeling the Loss Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we focus on modeling and predicting the loss distribution for credit risky assets such as bonds and loans. We model the probability of default and the recovery rate given default based on shared covariates. We develop a new class of default ... Keywords: Basel II, default prediction, loss distribution, recovery rates

Sudheer Chava; Catalina Stefanescu; Stuart Turnbull

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Distribution Arc Flash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arc flash from faults on 480-V circuits is a safety issue that can impact utility work. This report covers results from tests of arc flash and fabric performance from faults in 480-V network protectors and padmounted transformers. It supplements EPRI report 1018694, Distribution Arc Flash: Industry Practices and EPRI report 1018693, Distribution Arc Flash: Analysis Methods and Arc Characteristics.

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

Relativistic three-body calculation of $pi$d scattering  

SciTech Connect

We present a unitary, Lorentz-invariant three-body calculation of pion- deuteron elastic scattering, based upon the idea of quasiparticle-dominated two- body interactions. We make detailed comparisons of these results with those of a conventional fixed-scatterer approach and find that the fixed-nucleon calculation does not adequately reproduce the three-body results; this finding demonstrates the importance of properly treating the three-body kinematics (i.e., of including nucleon recoil and isobar propagation). The multiple scattering expansion converges much more rapidly in the three-body approach than in the fixed- scatterer calculation. Intermediate nucleon-nucleon interactions play an important role, giving contributions to the scattering amplitude of the same order as those given by pion multiple scattering; these effects are especially significant for back-angle scattering. Finally, we compare our results with the available experimental data for the $pi$d total and integrated elastic cross sections and obtain good agreement. Nucleon spin is neglected in all calculations. (AIP)

Woloshyn, R.M.; Moniz, E.J.; Aaron, R.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Umklapp Scattering and Heat Conductivity of Superlattices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mean free path of phonons in superlattices is estimated. It is shown to be strongly dependent on the superlattice period due to the Umklapp scattering in subbands. It first falls with increasing the superlattice period until it becomes comparable with the latter after what it rises back to the bulk value. Similar behavior is expected of heat conductivity, which is proportional to the mean free path. Superlattices offer an opportunity to control physical properties in unprecedented ways. Their thermal conductivity is of interest both for a fundamental understanding of these systems as well as in applications. Recently there has been a resurgence of interest in finding materials with improved thermoelectric transport properties for cooling and power generation. The quality of a material for such applications is given by the thermoelectric figure of merit, which is inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity ?. In materials of interest, such as semiconductors, the lattice contribution to ? dominates. Experimental and theoretical work suggests that the thermal conductivity of superlattices is quite low, both for transport along the planes [1, 2, 10], or perpendicular to the planes [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11]. The lattice heat conductivity ? is given approximately by an equation [12]:

M. V. Simkin; G. D. Mahan

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Deeply Virtual Exclusive Processes and Generalized Parton Distributions  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the comprehensive program in Deeply Virtual Exclusive Scattering at Jefferson Laboratory is to create transverse spatial images of quarks and gluons as a function of their longitudinal momentum fraction in the proton, the neutron, and in nuclei. These functions are the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) of the target nucleus. Cross section measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) reaction ep {yields} ep{gamma} in Hall A support the QCD factorization of the scattering amplitude for Q^2 {>=} 2 GeV^2. Quasi-free neutron-DVCS measurements on the Deuteron indicate sensitivity to the quark angular momentum sum rule. Fully exclusive H(e, e'p{gamma} ) measurements have been made in a wide kinematic range in CLAS with polarized beam, and with both unpolarized and longitudinally polarized targets. Existing models are qualitatively consistent with the JLab data, but there is a clear need for less constrained models. Deeply virtual vector meson production is studied in CLAS. The 12 GeV upgrade will be essential for for these channels. The {rho} and {omega} channels reactions offer the prospect of flavor sensitivity to the quark GPDs, while the {phi}-production channel is dominated by the gluon distribution.

,

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Measurement of one-particle correlations and momentum distributions for trapped 1D gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

van Hove's theory of scattering of probe particles by a macroscopic target is generalized so as to relate the differential cross section for atomic ejection via stimulated Raman transitions to one-particle momentum-time correlations and momentum distributions of 1D trapped gases. This method is well suited to probing the longitudinal momentum distributions of 1D gases in situ, and examples are given for bosonic and fermionic atoms.

M. D. Girardeau; E. M. Wright

2000-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

378

Slowing-in distribution of fast particles released in Maxwellian plasma  

SciTech Connect

The time-independent slowing-in distribution is evaluated for a fast beam of test particles released in an infinite Maxwellian plasma background for various situations including quantum-mechanical and classical scattering regimes. The analysis involves considerations of small angle deflection and large angle scattering events. The results are determined for plasma electrons with thermal velocities larger or smaller than the test particle and plasma ions with thermal velocities lower than the test particle. When plasma electrons and ions are slow the slowing-in distribution behaves as E/sub j//sup $sup 1$/$sub 2$/, where E/sub j/ is the test particle energy. When plasma electrons are faster than the test particles, the high-energy tail acquires a 1/E/sub j/ shape. The origin of the test particle remains arbitrary and hence the results apply for particles produced by fusion events within the plasma proper and for particles externally injected. The total energy distribution is obtained and normalized, and ranges of validity are determined. The calculations are of the Boltzmann type, which is consistent with binary scattering models. The slowing-in distributions are also obtained from the Fokker--Planck equation, and as expected, the results agree with those obtained from the Boltzmann equation for large angle scattering only. (auth)

Husseiny, A.A.; Sabri, Z.A.; Harris, D.R.

1975-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Time response of the high-field electron distribution function in GaAs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical calculations have been made of the high-field electron distribution function for GaAs, its small-signal frequency response and its behavior in large sinusoidal electric fields-The response speed is limited by the low scattering rate within ...

H. D. Rees

1969-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

SSRL School 2007 on Hard X-ray Scattering: Techniques in MES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In-situ scattering, S. Webb Amorphous materials, T. Hufnagel Tuesday Afternoon, SurfaceThin Film Techniques Epitaxial thin film scattering, A. Vailionis Polycrystalline thin...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Dynamics of entanglement between two atomic samples with spontaneous scattering  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effects of spontaneous scattering on the evolution of entanglement of two atomic samples, probed by phase-shift measurements on optical beams interacting with both samples. We develop a formalism of conditional quantum evolutions and present a wave function analysis implemented in numerical simulations of the state vector dynamics. This method allows us to track the evolution of entanglement and to compare it with the predictions obtained when spontaneous scattering is neglected. We provide numerical evidence that the interferometric scheme to entangle atomic samples is only marginally affected by the presence of spontaneous scattering and should thus be robust even in more realistic situations.

Di Lisi, Antonio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica 'E. R. Caianiello', Universita di Salerno, INFM-UdR di Salerno, INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via. S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Meson production in high-energy electron-nucleus scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental studies of meson production through two-photon fusion in inelastic electron-nucleus scattering is now under way. A high-energy photon radiated by the incident electron is fused with a soft photon radiated by the nucleus. The process takes place in the small-angle-Coulomb region of nuclear scattering. We expound the theory for this production process as well as its interference with coherent-radiative-meson production. In particular, we investigate the distortion of the electron wave function due to multiple-Coulomb scattering.

Gran Fldt

2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

383

Exploiting Universality in Atoms with Large Scattering Lengths  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research project was atoms with scattering lengths that are large compared to the range of their interactions and which therefore exhibit universal behavior at sufficiently low energies. Recent dramatic advances in cooling atoms and in manipulating their scattering lengths have made this phenomenon of practical importance for controlling ultracold atoms and molecules. This research project was aimed at developing a systematically improvable method for calculating few-body observables for atoms with large scattering lengths starting from the universal results as a first approximation. Significant progress towards this goal was made during the five years of the project.

Braaten, Eric

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

384

The Wigner Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In contrast to classical physics, the language of quantum mechanics involves operators and wave functions (or, more generally, density operators). However, in 1932, Wigner formulated quantum mechanics in terms of a distribution function $W(q,p)$, the marginals of which yield the correct quantum probabilities for $q$ and $p$ separately \\cite{wigner}. Its usefulness stems from the fact that it provides a re-expression of quantum mechanics in terms of classical concepts so that quantum mechanical expectation values are now expressed as averages over phase-space distribution functions. In other words, statistical information is transferred from the density operator to a quasi-classical (distribution) function.

R. F. O'Connell

2010-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

385

Nonlinear whistler wave scattering in space plasmas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the evolution of nonlinear scattering of whistler mode waves by kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) in time and two spatial dimensions is studied analytically. The authors suggest this nonlinear process as a mechanism of kinetic Alfven wave generation in space plasmas. This mechanism can explain the dependence of Alfven wave generation on whistler waves observed in magnetospheric and ionospheric plasmas. The observational data show a dependence for the generation of long periodic pulsations Pc5 on whistler wave excitation in the auroral and subauroral zone of the magnetosphere. This dependence was first observed by Ondoh T.I. For 79 cases of VLF wave excitation registered by Ondoh at College Observatory (L=64.6 N), 52 of them were followed by Pc5 geomagnetic pulsation generation. Similar results were obtained at the Loparskaia Observatory (L=64 N) for auroral and subauroral zone of the magnetosphere. Thus, in 95% of the cases when VLF wave excitation occurred the generation of long periodic geomagnetic pulsations Pc5 were observed. The observations also show that geomagnetic pulsations Pc5 are excited simultaneously or insignificantly later than VLF waves. In fact these two phenomena are associated genetically: the excitation of VLF waves leads to the generation of geomagnetic pulsations Pc5. The observations show intensive generation of geomagnetic pulsations during thunderstorms. Using an electromagnetic noise monitoring system covering the ULF range (0.01-10 Hz) A.S. Fraser-Smith observed intensive ULF electromagnetic wave during a large thunderstorm near the San-Francisco Bay area on September 23, 1990. According to this data the most significant amplification in ULF wave activity was observed for waves with a frequency of 0.01 Hz and it is entirely possible that stronger enhancements would have been measured at lower frequencies.

Yukhimuk, V.; Roussel-Dupre, R.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4Q 2009 4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by transportation mode. The data sources beginning with the 2008 Coal Distribution Report

387

Electricity Distribution System Workshop  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Grid Tech Team Grid Tech Team Discussion Summary Electricity Distribution System Workshop 2 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................. 4 Process ...................................................................................................................................................... 4 Common Themes ...................................................................................................................................... 5 Discussion Topic Tables ............................................................................................................................. 8

388

Ductless Hydronic Distribution  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DUCTLESS HYDRONIC DUCTLESS HYDRONIC DISTRIBUTION Alliance for Residential Building Innovation David Springer, Davis Energy Group Context  Target: Builders of high performance new homes & deep retrofits  Why is this technology key to meeting performance goals of future homes?  Distribution Efficiency * Distribution efficiency for well insulated, tight ducts in attics ≈ 85% * Duct energy losses drives placement of ducts inside conditioned space, which adds cost and interferes with structure and architecture * Ductless hydronic systems can approach 100% distribution efficiency; piping needs little space  Delivery Energy * Fans: 0.58 W/cfm or 9 (heating) to 27 (cooling) W/kBtuh * Pumps: 8 W/gpm, or 0.8 W/kBtuh Context  Sizing * Conventional systems tend to be too large for low load homes

389

Financing Distributed Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market.

Walker, A.

2001-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

390

Multimodal Raindrop Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The raindrop size distributions (DSDs) observed over a short span usually have an erratic shape, with several relative maxima. This multimodal structure is studied from disdrometer data acquired in tropical and midlatitude areas. It is shown that ...

Henri Sauvageot; Manlandon Koffi

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

A distributed Hash table  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DHash is a new system that harnesses the storage and network resources of computers distributed across the Internet by providing a wide-area storage service, DHash. DHash frees applications from re-implementing mechanisms ...

Dabek, Frank (Frank Edward), 1977-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Ad Hoc Distributed Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An ad hoc distributed simulation is a collection of autonomous on-line simulations brought together to model an operational system. They offer the potential of increased accuracy, responsiveness, and robustness compared to centralized approaches. They ...

Richard Fujimoto; Michael Hunter; Jason Sirichoke; Mahesh Palekar; Hoe Kim; Wonho Suh

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

CONSULTANT REPORT DISTRIBUTED GENERATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, renewables, interconnection, integration, electricity, distribution, transmission, costs. Please use Coldwell Project Manager Ivin Rhyne Office Manager Electricity Analysis Office Sylvia Bender Deputy Director Electricity Supply Analysis Division Robert P. Oglesby Executive Director DISCLAIMER

394

Parallel and Distributed Haskells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parallel and distributed languages specify computations on multiple processors and have a computation language to describe the algorithm, i.e. what to compute, and a coordination language to describe how to organise the computations across ...

P. W. Trinder; H.-W. Loidl; R. F. Pointon

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Financing Distributed Generation  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market.

Walker, A.

2001-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

396

Distributed service composition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we explore the use of action systems for distributed service composition. Distributed systems can be composed out of a basic computation and a set of services. Even though this way of designing a system out of components helps in managing the derivation task, formal description techniques are needed due to the complexity of distributed systems. We propose a method where services, or features as they are often called, are speci ed in isolation by the service provider. The services when available are used by clients in a distributed manner. Reasoning about the services and their interactions with each other and with the basic computation of the clients is carried out within the re nement calculus. To exemplify the proposed methodology we study feature composition and feature interaction in telecommunications software.

Joost N. Kok; Kaisa Sere

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | IXS: Inelastic X-ray Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IXS: Inelastic X-ray Scattering IXS: Inelastic X-ray Scattering Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope Many hot topics related to the high frequency dynamics of condensed matter require both a narrower and steeper resolution function and access to a broader dynamic range than what are currently available. This represents a sort of "no man's land" that falls right in the dynamic gap lying between the high frequency spectroscopies, such as inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), and the low frequency ones. New IXS spectrometers with improved energy and momentum resolutions would be required to fill this gap. To achieve this goal, a new x-ray optics concept for both the monochromatization and energy analysis of x-rays will be implemented at the NSLS-II Inelastic X-ray Scattering beamline. This solution exploits the

398

Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic Techniques Wednesday, September 5, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Gang Chen Seminar: Structures at atomic scales are traditionally determined through X-ray crystallography that amplifies scattering intensities by introducing spatial periodicity. For amorphous materials and many macromolecules, such as viruses, proteins and biofilms, it is hard to determine structures due to their incapability to crystallize or change of configuration during crystallization. In this talk, I will present the application of X-ray reflectivity and a newly developed fluctuation X-ray scattering technique to study the structures of lipid membranes and randomly oriented nanoparticles. Three different types of domain registrations occurring with

399

Introduction to Neutron and X-Ray Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scattering Studies of Thin Scattering Studies of Thin Polymer Films Introduction to Neutron and X-Ray Scattering Sunil K. Sinha UCSD/LANL Acknowledgements: Prof. R.Pynn( Indiana U.) Prof. M.Tolan (U. Dortmund) Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen 1845-1923 1895: Discovery of X-Rays 1901 W. C. Röntgen in Physics for the discovery of x-rays. 1914 M. von Laue in Physics for x-ray diffraction from crystals. 1915 W. H. Bragg and W. L. Bragg in Physics for crystal structure determination. 1917 C. G. Barkla in Physics for characteristic radiation of elements. 1924 K. M. G. Siegbahn in Physics for x-ray spectroscopy. 1927 A. H. Compton in Physics for scattering of x-rays by electrons. 1936 P. Debye in Chemistry for diffraction of x-rays and electrons in gases.

400

Neutron Scattering | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Neutron Scattering Neutron Scattering Materials Sciences and Engineering (MSE) Division MSE Home About Research Areas Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) DOE Energy Innovation Hubs BES Funding Opportunities The Computational Materials and Chemical Sciences Network (CMCSN) Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Scientific Highlights Reports and Activities Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home Research Areas Neutron Scattering Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page This activity supports basic research on the fundamental interactions of neutrons with matter to achieve an understanding of the atomic, electronic, and magnetic structures and excitations of materials and their relationship to materials properties. Major emphasis is on the application of neutron scattering, spectroscopy, and imaging for materials research, primarily at

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

CORELLI: the Elastic Diffuse Scattering Spectrometer at SNS | ORNL Neutron  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Elastic Diffuse Scattering Spectrometer The Elastic Diffuse Scattering Spectrometer CORELLI The CORELLI instrument. CORELLI is a statistical chopper spectrometer with energy discrimination. It's designed and optimized to probe complex disorder in crystalline materials through diffuse scattering of single-crystal samples. The momentum transfer ranges from 0.5 to 12 Å-1, and the energy of incident neutrons ranges from 10 to 200 meV. This instrument combines the high efficiency of white-beam Laue diffraction with energy discrimination by modulating the beam with a statistical chopper. A cross-correlation method is used to reconstruct the elastic signal from the modulated data. Accurate modeling of the short-range order associated with the diffuse scattering requires measurements over large volumes of three-dimensional reciprocal space, with sufficient momentum

402

Shelf Wave Scattering due to Longshore Jump in Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The scattering of barotropic shelf waves by an abrupt jump in longshore topography is examined for unbounded and bounded exponential shelves by matching modal representations for longshore transport and sea level. Estimates of the ratio of ...

John F. Middleton; Daniel G. Wright

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Internal Wave Reflection and Scatter from Sloping Rough Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Internal gravity waves propagating in a uniformly stratified ocean are scattered on reflection from a rough inclined boundary. The boundary is inclined at angle ? to the horizontal and the roughness is represented by superimposed sinusoidal ...

S. A. Thorpe

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

D.F. Inelastic x-ray scattering investigations of lattice dynamics in SmFeAsO1-xFy superconductors. Proceedings of The 9th International Conference on Spectroscopies in Novel...

405

Laboratory Measurements of Light Scattering by Single Levitated Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have measured the differential light-scattering cross sections and phase functions of single vapor-grown hexagonal ice particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. The ice particles, grown at temperatures ?5 > T > ?10C, were ...

Neil J. Bacon; Brian D. Swanson

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Scattering Phase Function of Bullet Rosette Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice crystals in cirrus frequently exhibit the shape of a bullet rosette composed of multiple bullets that radiate from a junction center. The scattering phase function of these ice crystals, pertinent to the radiation budget of cirrus, may differ ...

Jean Iaquinta; Harumi Isaka; Pascal Personne

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Elastic Hadron Scattering on Li Isotopes at Intermediate Energies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The elastic scattering of hadrons (protons, charged pions, and positively charged kaons) on {sup 6,7,8}Li nuclei is analyzed on the basis of Glauber-Sitenko diffraction theory. A few nuclear-wave-function versions found within two- and three-particle potential cluster models are used in the calculations. It is shown that the application of these wave functions in diffraction theory makes it possible to describe adequately the experimental differential cross sections and analyzing powers in hadron scattering at intermediate energies. In this study, particular attention is given to a comparison of the scattering of different particles on the same target nucleus, as well as to a comparison of scattering of particles of the same sort on different target nuclei.

Zhusupov, M.A.; Imambekov, O. [Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Kazakh State University, ul. Timiryazeva 46, Almaty, 480121 (Kazakhstan); Ibraeva, E.T. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, 480082 (Kazakhstan)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Practical rendering of multiple scattering effects in participating media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volumetric light transport effects are significant for many materials like skin, smoke, clouds, snow or water. In particular, one must consider the multiple scattering of light within the volume. While it is possible to simulate such media using volumetric ...

Simon Premoe; Michael Ashikhmin; Jerry Tessendorf; Ravi Ramamoorthi; Shree Nayar

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Computational/Analytical Diagnostic Tools for Electromagnetic Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents three techniques and the graphics implementations which can be used as diagnostic aides in the design and understanding of scattering structures: Imaging, near fileds, and surface current displays. The imaging analysis is a new bistatic ...

Hom Kam W.; Jr Noel A. Talcott; Shaeffer John F.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

A Hierarchical Volumetric Shadow Algorithm for Single Scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Volumetric effects such as beams of light through participating media are an important component in the appearance of the natural world. Many such effects can be faithfully modeled by a single scattering medium. In the ...

Baran, Ilya

411

Development of Lithium Lanthanide Borate Scintillator for Neutron Scattering Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have completed the design and testing of neutron scattering instrument detectors for powder diffractometers and single crystal diffractometers. These detectors meet the performance requirements for these types of instruments at the Department of Energy Spallation Neutron Source facility.

Czirr, J.B.; McKnight, T.; Merrill, D.

2004-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

412

Kaonic hydrogen atom and kaon-proton scattering length  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kaonic hydrogen is studied with various realistic potentials in an accurate numerical approach based on Sturmian functions. The kaon-proton scattering length extracted from the 1s energy shift of the kaonic hydrogen by applying the Deser-Trueman formula is severely inconsistent with the one derived by directly solving the scattering Schoedinger equation. We pay special attention to the recent measurement of the energy shift and decay width of the 1s kaonic hydrogen state by the DEAR Collaboration. After taking into account the large discrepancy between the extracted and directly-evaluated scattering lengths, we found theoretical predictions of most chiral SU(3) based models for the kaonic hydrogen decay width are consistent with the DEAR data. We warn the SIDDHARTA collaboration that it may not be reasonable to extract kaon-nucleon scattering lengths, by using the Coulomb-interaction corrected Deser-Truemab formula, from the planned measurement of kaonic hydrogen.

Y. Yan

2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

413

Effect of multiple scattering on Cerenkov radiation from energetic electrons  

SciTech Connect

Cerenkov radiation can be used as a diagnostic tool to study energetic electrons generated in ultra-intense laser matter interactions. However, electrons suffer scattering with nuclei as they move in a medium. In this article, we theoretically study the effect of multiple scattering on Cerenkov radiation, and obtain analytical formulas under some circumstances. The results show that when the speed of an energetic electron is not close to the light speed in the medium, Cerenkov radiation is just slightly decreased due to multiple scattering. In the case that the electron speed is very close to the light speed in the medium, the effect of multiple scattering becomes significant, and the radiation is dominated by bremsstrahlung.

Zheng Jian [CAS Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

A Note on the Scattering of Boson Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A physically operational and mathematically simple definition is given for the convergence of states for a boson field. The relevant formulation of the scattering matrix is discussed. As an example

David Shale

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

On the forward scattering of microwave breast imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave imaging for breast cancer detection has been of significant interest for the last two decades. Recent studies focus on solving the imaging problem using an inverse scattering approach. Efforts have mainly been focused on the development of ...

Hoi-Shun Lui; Andreas Fhager; Mikael Persson

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Scattering of radiation by finite volumes of relativistic plasma streams  

SciTech Connect

The spectrum is found for the radiation scattered by single particles in a finite volume of a relativistic plasma or plasma stream which is singled out by the optical system.

Zhuravlev, V.A.; Petrov, G.D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Microstructural Mapping Using High-Energy X-Ray Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Advanced characterization methods at the APS permit unique in- situ ... The combination of an undulator source, brilliance preserving optics and focusing .... Ultra-Small-Angle X-Ray ScatteringX-Ray Photon Correlation...

418

Perfect transmission scattering as a PT-symmetric spectral problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We establish that a perfect-transmission scattering problem can be described by a class of parity and time reversal symmetric operators and hereby we provide a scenario for understanding and implementing the corresponding quasi-Hermitian quantum mechanical framework from the physical viewpoint. One of the most interesting features of the analysis is that the complex eigenvalues of the underlying non-Hermitian problem, associated with a reflectionless scattering system, lead to the loss of perfect-transmission energies as the parameters characterizing the scattering potential are varied. On the other hand, the scattering data can serve to describe the spectrum of a large class of Schroedinger operators with complex Robin boundary conditions.

H. Hernandez-Coronado; D. Krejcirik; P. Siegl

2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

419

Learning from the scatter in type ia supernovae  

SciTech Connect

Type Ia Supernovae are standard candles so their mean apparent magnitude has been exploited to learn about the redshift-distance relationship. Besides intrinsic scatter in this standard candle, additional scatter is caused by gravitational magnification by large scale structure. Here they probe the dependence of this dispersion on cosmological parameters and show that information about the amplitude of clustering, {sigma}{sub s}, is contained in the scatter. In principle, it will be possible to constrain {sigma}{sub s} to within 5% with observations of 2000 Type Ia Supernovae. They identify three sources of systematic error--evolution of intrinsic scatter, baryon contributions to lensing, and non-Gaussianity of lensing--which will make this measurement difficult.

Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Vallinotto, Alberto; /Fermilab /Chicago U.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Mapping Bragg Scatter with a Polarimetric WSR-88D  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a polarimetric Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radar to distinguish Bragg scatterers from insects and birds in an optically clear atmosphere has the potential to provide information on convective boundary layer depth. ...

Valery M. Melnikov; Richard J. Doviak; Dusan S. Zrni?; David. J. Stensrud

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Underground Distribution Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rising costs of new infrastructure, increasing demand, and a declining number of available workers will drive utilities to operate as efficiently as possible. The practice of overbuilding infrastructure to improve or maintain reliability will be viewed as cost-inefficient. Utilities will be forced to operate distribution systems more dynamically and efficiently. Distribution sensors will help provide the needed information to utilities to achieve the goal of dynamic efficiency. The Underground Distributi...

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

422

Equilibrium Distributions and Superconductivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this article two models for charges distributions are discussed. On the basis of our consideration we put different points of view for stationary state. We prove that only finite energy model for charges' distribution and well-known variation principle explain some well-known experimental results. A new model for superconductivity was suggested, too. In frame of that model some characteristic experimental results for superconductors is possible to explain.

Ashot Vagharshakyan

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

423

Overhead Distribution Vegetation Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is not uncommon for overhead distribution conductors to make contact with trees. While these incidental contacts can be either intermittent or relatively persistent, they are typically not detectable by overcurrent protection systems and do not result in interruptions on distribution circuits. This report focuses on the levels of fault currents and voltage gradients found along the fault pathway provided by trees from point of contact to earth. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the volt...

2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

424

Light tracking through ice and water -- Scattering and absorption in heterogeneous media with Photonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the field of neutrino astronomy, large volumes of optically transparent matter like glacial ice, lake water, or deep ocean water are used as detector media. Elementary particle interactions are studied using in situ detectors recording time distributions and fluxes of the faint photon fields of Cherenkov radiation generated by ultra-relativistic charged particles, typically muons or electrons. The Photonics software package was developed to determine photon flux and time distributions throughout a volume containing a light source through Monte Carlo simulation. Photons are propagated and time distributions are recorded throughout a cellular grid constituting the simulation volume, and Mie scattering and absorption are realised using wavelength and position dependent parameterisations. The photon tracking results are stored in binary tables for transparent access through ANSI-C and C++ interfaces. For higher-level physics applications, like simulation or reconstruction of particle events, it is then possible to quickly acquire the light yield and time distributions for a pre-specified set of light source and detector properties and geometries without real-time photon propagation. In this paper the Photonics light propagation routines and methodology are presented and applied to the IceCube and Antares neutrino telescopes. The way in which inhomogeneities of the Antarctic glacial ice distort the signatures of elementary particle interactions, and how Photonics can be used to account for these effects, is described.

J. Lundberg; P. Miocinovic; K. Woschnagg; T. Burgess; J. Adams; S. Hundertmark; P. Desiati; P. Niessen

2007-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

425

Unparticle Effects on Unitarity Constraints from Higgs Boson Scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the effects of two-body Higgs boson scattering by exchanging unpsrticles. The unparticle contribution can change the standard model prediction for two-body Higgs boson scattering partial wave amplitude significantly leading to modification of the unitarity constraint on the standard model Higgs boson mass. For unparticle dimension $d_\\U$ between 1 and 2, the unitarity constraint on Higgs boson mass can be larger than that in the SM. Information on unparticle interaction can also be obtained.

Xiao-Gang He; Chung-Cheng Wen

2008-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

426

Jet production in muon scattering at Fermilab E665  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of multi-jet production rates from Muon-Nucleon and Muon-Nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates are defined by the JADE clustering algorithm. Rates in Muon-Nucleon deep-inelastic scattering are compared to Monte Carlo model predictions. Preliminary results from jet production on heavy targets, in the shadowing region, show a higher suppression of two-forward jets as compared to one-forward jet production.

Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Emergence of Molecular Chirality by Vibrational Raman Scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, we apply the monitoring master equation describing decoherence of internal states to an optically active molecule prepared in a coherent superposition of nondegenerate internal states interacting with thermal photons at low temperatures. We use vibrational Raman scattering theory up to the first chiral-sensitive contribution, i.e., the mixed electric-magnetic interaction, to obtain scattering amplitudes in terms of molecular polarizability tensors. The resulting density matrix is used to obtain elastic decoherence rates.

Farhad Taher Ghahramani; Afshin Shafiee

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

428

Proton-Proton Scattering at 105 Mev and 75 Mev  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

The scattering of protons by protons provides an important method for studying the nature of nuclear forces. Recent proton-proton scattering experiments at energies as high as thirty Mev{sup 1} have failed to show any appreciable contribution to the cross section from higher angular momentum states, but it is necessary to bring in tensor forces to explain the magnitude of the observed cross section.

Birge, R. W.; Kruse, U. E.; Ramsey, N. F.

1951-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

429

Direct three-dimensional coherently scattered x-ray microtomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: It has been shown that coherently scattered x rays can be used to discriminate and identify specific components in a mixture of low atomic weight materials. The authors demonstrated a new method of doing coherently scattered x-ray tomography with a thin sheet of x ray. Methods: A collimated x-ray fan-beam, a parallel polycapillary collimator, and a phantom consisting of several biocompatible materials of low attenuation-based contrast were used to investigate the feasibility of the method. Because of the particular experimental setup, only the phantom translation perpendicular to the x-ray beam is needed and, thus, there is no need of Radon-type tomographic reconstruction, except for the correction of the attenuation to the primary and scattered x rays, which was performed by using a conventional attenuation-based tomographic image data set. The coherent scatter image contrast changes with momentum transfer among component materials in the specimen were investigated with multiple x-ray sources with narrow bandwidth spectra generated with anode and filter combinations of Cu/Ni (8 keV), Mo/Zr (18 keV), and Ag/Pd (22 keV) and at multiple scatter angles by orienting the detector and polycapillary collimator at different angles to the illuminating x ray. Results: The contrast among different materials changes with the x-ray source energy and the angle at which the image was measured. The coherent scatter profiles obtained from the coherent scatter images are consistent with the published results. Conclusions: This method can be used to directly generate the three-dimensional coherent scatter images of small animal, biopsies, or other small objects with low atomic weight biological or similar synthetic materials with low attenuation contrast. With equipment optimized, submillimeter spatial resolution may be achieved.

Cui Congwu; Jorgensen, Steven M.; Eaker, Diane R.; Ritman, Erik L. [Department of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Alfred Building 2-409, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Stimulated Raman Side Scattering in Laser Wakefield Acceleration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stimulated Raman side scattering of an ultrashort high power laser pulse is studied in experiments on laser wakefield acceleration. Experiments and simulations reveal that stimulated Raman side scattering occurs at the beginning of the interaction, that it contributes to the evolution of the pulse prior to wakefield formation, and also that it affects the quality of electron beams generated. The relativistic shift of the plasma frequency is measured.

Matsuoka, T.; McGuffey, C.; Cummings, P. G.; Horovitz, Y.; Dollar, F.; Chvykov, V.; Kalintchenko, G.; Rousseau, P.; Yanovsky, V.; Bulanov, S. S.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Maksimchuk, A.; Krushelnick, K. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science and FOCUS Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

431

Transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions in lattice QCD  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental structural property of the nucleon is the distribution of quark momenta, both parallel as well as perpendicular to its propagation. Experimentally, this information is accessible via selected processes such as semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and the Drell-Yan process (DY), which can be parametrized in terms of transversemomentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs). On the other hand, these distribution functions can be extracted from nucleon matrix elements of a certain class of bilocal quark operators in which the quarks are connected by a staple-shaped Wilson line serving to incorporate initial state (DY) or final state (SIDIS) interactions. A scheme for evaluating such matrix elements within lattice QCD is developed. This requires casting the calculation in a particular Lorentz frame, which is facilitated by a parametrization of the matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes. Exploratory results are presented for the time-reversal odd Sivers and Boer-Mulders transverse momentum shifts.

Engelhardt, Michael G. [New Mexico State University; Musch, Bernhard U. [Tech. University Munich; Haegler, Philipp G. [Tech. University Munich; Negele, John W. [MIT; Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Final Report: A Transport Phenomena Based Approach to Probe Evolution of Weld Macro and Microstructures and A Smart Bi-directional Model of Fusion Welding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, applications of numerical heat transfer and fluid flow models of fusion welding have resulted in improved understanding of both the welding processes and welded materials. They have been used to accurately calculate thermal cycles and fusion zone geometry in many cases. Here we report the following three major advancements from this project. First, we show how microstructures, grain size distribution and topology of welds of several important engineering alloys can be computed starting from better understanding of the fusion welding process through numerical heat transfer and fluid flow calculations. Second, we provide a conclusive proof that the reliability of numerical heat transfer and fluid flow calculations can be significantly improved by optimizing several uncertain model parameters. Third, we demonstrate how the numerical heat transfer and fluid flow models can be combined with a suitable global optimization program such as a genetic algorithm for the tailoring of weld attributes such as attaining a specified weld geometry or a weld thermal cycle. The results of the project have been published in many papers and a listing of these are included together with a list of the graduate thesis that resulted from this project. The work supported by the DOE award has resulted in several important national and international awards. A listing of these awards and the status of the graduate students are also presented in this report.

Dr. Tarasankar DebRoy

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

433

THE MISSING CAVITIES IN THE SEEDS POLARIZED SCATTERED LIGHT IMAGES OF TRANSITIONAL PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: A GENERIC DISK MODEL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transitional circumstellar disks around young stellar objects have a distinctive infrared deficit around 10 {mu}m in their spectral energy distributions, recently measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), suggesting dust depletion in the inner regions. These disks have been confirmed to have giant central cavities by imaging of the submillimeter continuum emission using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). However, the polarized near-infrared scattered light images for most objects in a systematic IRS/SMA cross sample, obtained by HiCIAO on the Subaru telescope, show no evidence for the cavity, in clear contrast with SMA and Spitzer observations. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that many of these scattered light images are consistent with a smooth spatial distribution for {mu}m-sized grains, with little discontinuity in the surface density of the {mu}m-sized grains at the cavity edge. Here we present a generic disk model that can simultaneously account for the general features in IRS, SMA, and Subaru observations. Particularly, the scattered light images for this model are computed, which agree with the general trend seen in Subaru data. Decoupling between the spatial distributions of the {mu}m-sized dust and mm-sized dust inside the cavity is suggested by the model, which, if confirmed, necessitates a mechanism, such as dust filtration, for differentiating the small and big dust in the cavity clearing process. Our model also suggests an inwardly increasing gas-to-dust ratio in the inner disk, and different spatial distributions for the small dust inside and outside the cavity, echoing the predictions in grain coagulation and growth models.

Dong, R.; Rafikov, R.; Zhu, Z.; Brandt, T.; Janson, M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Hartmann, L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Whitney, B. [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Muto, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Hashimoto, J.; Kuzuhara, M. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Grady, C. [ExoPlanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Follette, K. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tanii, R.; Itoh, Y. [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Thalmann, C. [Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wisniewski, J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Mayama, S. [Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Abe, L. [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, 06300 Nice (France); Brandner, W. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Carson, J., E-mail: rdong@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); and others

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

434

The Effect of Gas Absorption on the Scattered Radiation in the Solar Almucantar: Results of Numerical Simulation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Absorption on the Gas Absorption on the Scattered Radiation in the Solar Almucantar: Results of Numerical Simulation T. Yu. Chesnokova, K. M. Firsov, I. M. Nasrtdinov, S. M. Sakerin, V. V. Veretennikov, and T. B. Zhuravleva Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction The methods for reconstruction of the aerosol optical characteristics (e.g., aerosol size distribution, and single-scattering albedo) from diffuse and direct radiation measured in the solar almucantar has been widely used during the last decade. The photometers with filters in the "atmospheric transparency windows" in the wavelength range 0.4 to 1 m were applied for measurements. Usually it was assumed that one could neglect the molecular absorption of the measured diffuse radiation. Further development

435

Hydrogen lines in the infrared region and spectral background for the thomson scattering diagnostics of the iter divertor plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Calculations are made of the plasma spectral background, which is important for the Thomson scattering diagnostics in the ITER divertor. Theoretical grounds have been elaborated for computing the hydrogen spectral line shapes in the infrared spectral region for a divertor plasma in ITER. The shape of the P-7 Paschen line (transition n = 7 {yields} n = 3) located near the laser scattering signal has been calculated for various lines of sight in the ITER divertor. Contributions from different mechanisms of broadening the P-7 line have been examined. The spectral intensities of bremsstrahlung and photorecombination continuum have been calculated. All calculations use data on the spatial distribution of temperatures and densities of all species of plasma particles computed with the SOLPS4.3 code for basic operation regimes of the ITER divertor.

Lisitsa, V. S. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Tokamak Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Mukhin, E. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Kadomtsev, M. B.; Kukushkin, A. B. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Tokamak Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Kukushkin, A. S. [ITER Organization, Cadarache (France); Kurskiev, G. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Levashova, M. G. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Tokamak Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Tolstyakov, S. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

Role of channel coupling and deuteron-exchange mechanisms in anomalous alpha-particle scattering on {sup 6}Li  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A unified description of existing experimental data on alpha-particle scattering by {sup 6}Li over the broad energy range from 18 to 166 MeV was obtained with allowance for channel-coupling effects and mechanisms involving the exchange of a deuteron cluster. Angular distributions were analyzed on the basis of the optical model and the coupled reaction channels method. It was shown that the inclusion of channel coupling and the contributions from one- and two-step exchangemechanismsmakes it possible to describe special features of the behavior of differential cross sections for both elastic and inelastic scattering in a full energy range. Optimum values found for the parameters of optical potentials agree with the parameters of the global potential proposed previously for nuclei in the mass region A > 12.

Sakuta, S. B., E-mail: sakuta@dni.polyn.kiae.s [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Artemov, S.V. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Uzbekistan); Burtebaev, N.; Kerimkulov, Zh. [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan); Novatsky, B. G.; Stepanov, D.N. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Yarmukhamedov, R. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Uzbekistan)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Parton Distributions in Hadrons  

SciTech Connect

We use the statistical model of Zhang et al. to calculate parton distributions in hadrons. The model does reasonably well in predicting the distributions of partons in the proton, including the (d-bar - u-bar) excess in the proton sea. We extend the model to calculate quark and gluon distributions in the pion, kaon, and the pentaquark. The hadrons are described in terms of quark and gluon Fock states. Detailed balance between each pair of states is assumed, from which the coefficients of the Fock state expansion are determined. The parton distribution functions are found in the hadron rest frame from a Monte Carlo calculation. The results are evolved to appropriate QCD scales for comparison with experiment. Despite its simplicity, the model is in good agreement with the experimentally measured distributions of partons in the pion and kaon. This project has included significant participation by undergraduates at Seattle University, made possible by support from the Research in Undergraduate Institutions Program of the National Science Foundation.

Alberg, Mary [Department of Physics, Seattle University, Seattle, WA 98122 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Henley, Ernest M. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

438

Display of clouds taking into account multiple anisotropic scattering and sky light  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: clouds, multiple scattering, optical length, participating media, photo-realism, radiative transfer, sky light

Tomoyuki Nishita; Yoshinori Dobashi; Eihachiro Nakamae

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

440

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Rob Newsom; John Goldsmith

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441

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

442

ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

443

ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

An Investigation of the Utilization of Smart Meter Data to Adapt Overcurrent Protection for Radial Distribution Systems with a High Penetration of Distributed Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The future of electric power distribution systems (DSs) is one that incorporates extensive amounts of advanced metering, distribution automation, and distributed generation technologies. Most DSs were designed to be radial systems and the major philosophies of their protection, namely, selectivity and sensitivity, were easily achieved. Settings for overcurrent protective devices (OCPDs) were static and based on the maximum load downstream of its location, with little concern of major configuration changes. However, the integration of distribution generators (DGs) in radial distributions systems (RDSs) causes bidirectional power flows and varying short circuit currents to be sensed by protective devices, thereby affecting these established protection principles. Several researchers have investigated methods to preserve the selectivity of overcurrent protection coordination in RDSs with DGs, but at the expense of protective device sensitivity due to an inherent change in system configuration. This thesis presents an investigation to adapt the pickup settings of the substation relay, based on configuration changes in a DS with DGs, using smart meter data from the prior year. An existing protection scheme causes the faulted areas of DSs with DGs to revert to a radial configuration, thereby allowing conventional OCPDs to isolate faults. Based on the location of the fault, the created radial segments are known and vary in length. The proposed methodology involves using demand information available via smart metering, to determine the seasonal maximum diversified demands in each of the radial segments that are formed. These seasonal maximum diversified demands are used to yield several pickup settings for the substation overcurrent relay of the DS. The existing protection approach enables the selectivity of radial overcurrent protection coordination to be maintained; the sensitivity of the substation relay is improved by adapting its pickup settings based on seasonal demand and system configuration changes. The results of the studies are reported through simulation in EMTP /PSCAD using a multi-feeder test system that includes DGs and smart meters located at the secondary distribution load level. The results show that using seasonal settings for the substation relay based on configuration changes in a DS with DGs can improve the sensitivity of the substation relay.

Douglin, Richard Henry

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Distribution System Planning with Distributed Generation: Optimal versus Heuristic Approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Distribution system design and planning is facing a major change in paradigm because of deregulation of the power industry and with rapid penetration of distributed (more)

Bin Humayd, Abdullah

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Exploring local atomic arrangements in amorphous and metastable phase change materials with x-ray and neutron total scattering  

SciTech Connect

Very little experimental work has conclusively explored the structural transformation between the amorphous and metastable crystalline phases of phase change chalcogenides. A recent flurry of theoretical work has supported likely mechanisms for the phase transition process in Ge-Sb-Te (GST) compositions and invigorated efforts at probing local atomic arrangements experimentally. The pair distribution function (PDF) formalism of total scattering data provides directly both local structure correlations at low real-space dimensions, and intermediate range order at higher length scales, a distinct advantage for following the relevant phase transition in phase change materials (PCM). A challenge facing the field is the difficulty in distinguishing separate peak contributions to pair correlation functions in amorphous and highly disordered samples. For example, various types of local order have been reported for Ge{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} phases, including both random mixtures and discrete structural units, and both 4-fold and 6-fold coordination around Ge. We describe our efforts in advancing capabilities for extracting and refining differential or partial pair distribution function data sets by combining neutron and x-ray total scattering, with extensions to isotopic substitution and anomalous x-ray scattering. Our results combining neutron and x-ray scattering for the Ge{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} series, for example, clearly distinguish Ge-Te and Te-Te contributions in nearest neighbor correlations. Presenting an additional challenge, phase change materials with fast switching speeds (those arguably of greatest technological interest) have stable bulk crystalline phases and do not readily form glasses until reduced to small dimensions. Thin film samples are inherently difficult to probe with conventional crystallographic methods. We demonstrate successful synchrotron x-ray total scattering experiments for PCM thin films with thicknesses between 100 nm and 1 um and describe how chemical short-range order and local bonding environments vary in amorphous, metastable and crystalline GeSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4} films. Total scattering methods for powders and thin films allow for a direct comparison of PCM properties (crystallization temperature, optical contrast between phases, phase change speed, etc.) with observed local structure and motivate further exploration into the atomic configurations enabling this fascinating class of materials.

Page, Katharine [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daemen, Luc [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Proffen, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Self-Calibration of Cluster Dark Energy Studies: Observable-Mass Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The exponential sensitivity of cluster number counts to the properties of the dark energy implies a comparable sensitivity to not only the mean but also the actual_distribution_ of an observable mass proxy given the true cluster mass. For example a 25% scatter in mass can provide a ~50% change in the number counts at z~2 for the upcoming SPT survey. Uncertainty in the scatter of this amount would degrade dark energy constraints to uninteresting levels. Given the shape of the actual mass function, the properties of the distribution may be internally monitored by the shape of the_observable_ mass function. An arbitrary evolution of the scatter of a mass-independent Gaussian distribution may be self-calibrated to allow a measurement of the dark energy equation of state of Delta w ~0.1. External constraints on the mass_variance_ of the distribution that are more accurate than Delta var distribution that will protect against misinterpretation of the dark energy constraints.

Marcos Lima; Wayne Hu

2005-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

449

Multiplicity and angular distribution of particles emitted in relativistic nuclear-nuclear interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the experimental results on the behavior of the average multiplicities and angular distributions of slow particles emitted in hadron-nuclear and nuclear-nuclear interactions at relativistic energies as a function of the centrality of collisions. It is observed that by increasing the mass of the projectiles the angular distributions of slow particles change and the structure which was demonstrated in the case of pi-mesons, protons and light nuclear projectiles, almost disappears. During the interaction of the heavier projectile with nuclear target, the number of secondary interactions as well as number of nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering and re-scattering events increases. We suggest to restore this information using the heavy ion generators taking into account the multiplicity distributions. Because our investigations show that the formation of the percolation cluster sufficiently influences the behaviour of the average multiplicity of the slow particles emitted in these interactions.

M. K. Suleymanov; E. U. Khan; A. Kravchakova; Mahnaz Q. Haseeb; S. M. Saleem; Y. H. Huseynaliyev; S. Vokal; A. S. Vodopianov; O. B. Abdinov

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 December 2008 2007 Changes in Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources The changes in the coal distribution data sources made in 2006 are carried over to the 2007 tables. As in 2006, EIA used data from the EIA-3 survey to distribute synfuel to the electric generation sector on a state level, aggregated with all of the other coal (such as bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal) sent to electric generating plants. EIA supplemented the EIA-3 data with previously collected information to determine the mode of transportation from the synfuel plant to the electric generating consumer, which was not reported on the EIA-3A survey form. Although not contained in the EIA-6A master file, this information has been documented in an ancillary spreadsheet in the EIA

451

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Origin State, Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

452

Computing Frontier: Distributed Computing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computing Computing Frontier: Distributed Computing and Facility Infrastructures Conveners: Kenneth Bloom 1 , Richard Gerber 2 1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln 2 National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1.1 Introduction The field of particle physics has become increasingly reliant on large-scale computing resources to address the challenges of analyzing large datasets, completing specialized computations and simulations, and allowing for wide-spread participation of large groups of researchers. For a variety of reasons, these resources have become more distributed over a large geographic area, and some resources are highly specialized computing machines. In this report for the Snowmass Computing Frontier Study, we consider several questions about distributed computing

453

Distributed Wind Market Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Distributed Wind Market Distributed Wind Market Applications T. Forsyth and I. Baring-Gould Technical Report NREL/TP-500-39851 November 2007 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by Midwest Research Institute * Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Technical Report NREL/TP-500-39851 November 2007 Distributed Wind Market Applications T. Forsyth and I. Baring-Gould Prepared under Task No. WER6.7502 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

454

Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pathway Cost Distributions Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric hybrids are benchmarks * R&D guidance provided in two forms * Evolved gasoline ICE defines a threshold hydrogen cost used to screen or eliminate options which can't show ability to meet target * Gasoline-electric hybrid defines a lower hydrogen cost used to prioritize projects for resource allocation

455

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Destination State, Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

456

Distributed data transmitter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A distributed data transmitter (DTXR) which is an adaptive data communication microwave transmitter having a distributable architecture of modular components, and which incorporates both digital and microwave technology to provide substantial improvements in physical and operational flexibility. The DTXR has application in, for example, remote data acquisition involving the transmission of telemetry data across a wireless link, wherein the DTXR is integrated into and utilizes available space within a system (e.g., a flight vehicle). In a preferred embodiment, the DTXR broadly comprises a plurality of input interfaces; a data modulator; a power amplifier; and a power converter, all of which are modularly separate and distinct so as to be substantially independently physically distributable and positionable throughout the system wherever sufficient space is available.

Brown, Kenneth Dewayne (Grain Valley, MO); Dunson, David (Kansas City, MO)

2006-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

457

Distributed data transmitter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A distributed data transmitter (DTXR) which is an adaptive data communication microwave transmitter having a distributable architecture of modular components, and which incorporates both digital and microwave technology to provide substantial improvements in physical and operational flexibility. The DTXR has application in, for example, remote data acquisition involving the transmission of telemetry data across a wireless link, wherein the DTXR is integrated into and utilizes available space within a system (e.g., a flight vehicle). In a preferred embodiment, the DTXR broadly comprises a plurality of input interfaces; a data modulator; a power amplifier; and a power converter, all of which are modularly separate and distinct so as to be substantially independently physically distributable and positionable throughout the system wherever sufficient space is available.

Brown, Kenneth Dewayne (Grain Valley, MO); Dunson, David (Kansas City, MO)

2008-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

458

Distribution of Mutual Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the analysis of time series from nonlinear sources, mutual information (MI) is used as a nonlinear statistical criterion for the selection of an appropriate time delay in time delay reconstruction of the state space. MI is a statistic over the sets of sequences associated with the dynamical source, and we examine here the distribution of MI, thus going beyond the familiar analysis of its average alone. We give for the first time the distribution of MI for a standard, classical communications channel with Gaussian, additive white noise. For time series analysis of a dynamical system, we show how to determine the distribution of MI and discuss the implications for the use of average mutual information (AMI) in selecting time delays in phase space reconstruction.

Henry D. I. Abarbanel; Naoki Masuda; M. I. Rabinovich; Evren Tumer

2000-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

459

Distributed Wind Market Applications  

SciTech Connect

Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve pressure on the power grid while providing jobs and contributing to energy security for homes, farms, schools, factories, private and public facilities, distribution utilities, and remote locations. America pioneered small wind technology in the 1920s, and it is the only renewable energy industry segment that the United States still dominates in technology, manufacturing, and world market share. The series of analyses covered by this report were conducted to assess some of the most likely ways that advanced wind turbines could be utilized apart from large, central station power systems. Each chapter represents a final report on specific market segments written by leading experts in this field. As such, this document does not speak with one voice but rather a compendium of different perspectives, which are documented from a variety of people in the U.S. distributed wind field.

Forsyth, T.; Baring-Gould, I.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

distribution | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

distribution distribution Dataset Summary Description This dataset represents a historical repository of all the numerical data from the smartgrid.gov website condensed into spreadsheets to enable analysis of the data. Below are a couple of things worth noting: Source Smartgrid.gov Date Released March 04th, 2013 (11 months ago) Date Updated March 04th, 2013 (11 months ago) Keywords AMI costs distribution smart grid transmission Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 4Q12 (xlsx, 112.1 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 3Q12 (xlsx, 107.9 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 2Q12 (xlsx, 111.9 KiB)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bidirectional scattering distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Distribution System Research Priorities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mark McGranaghan Mark McGranaghan EPRI ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WORKSHOP Crystal City, VA September 24, 2012 Distribution System Research Priorities 2 © 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. The Power System Roadmaps start with a Vision Future Power System will require new technologies, infrastructure, and control systems 3 © 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. R&D Roadmaps - Coordination is Critical Roadmaps are living documents 4 © 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Developing the next generation grid * Industry needs new technologies, communication protocols, and information management methods - More variable generation sources and controllable loads - Aging infrastructure

462

Temporal Scattering And Response software: Users' manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual gives complete information on how to use the TSAR electromagnetic analysis software. Included are descriptions of input files, the details of how these files affect the problem, and output data specifications. What is not included is the theory of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm or details of the TSAR implementation of it. This manual assumes that readers are sufficiently familiar with FDTD that they only need the how to'' knowledge presented here. For further information on the theory of operation of TSAR, see the papers reference in the bibliography. This is a reference, rather than a tutorial manual. To help new users become familiar with the TSAR software, a set of example problems is included with the TSAR distribution.

McLeod, R.R.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

MULTIPLE-PLANET SCATTERING AND THE ORIGIN OF HOT JUPITERS  

SciTech Connect

Doppler and transit observations of exoplanets show a pile-up of Jupiter-size planets in orbits with a 3 day period. A fraction of these hot Jupiters have retrograde orbits with respect to the parent star's rotation, as evidenced by the measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. To explain these observations we performed a series of numerical integrations of planet scattering followed by the tidal circularization and migration of planets that evolved into highly eccentric orbits. We considered planetary systems having three and four planets initially placed in successive mean-motion resonances, although the angles were taken randomly to ensure orbital instability in short timescales. The simulations included the tidal and relativistic effects, and precession due to stellar oblateness. Our results show the formation of two distinct populations of hot Jupiters. The inner population (Population I) is characterized by semimajor axis a < 0.03 AU and mainly formed in the systems where no planetary ejections occurred. Our follow-up integrations showed that this population was transient, with most planets falling inside the Roche radius of the star in <1 Gyr. The outer population of hot Jupiters (Population II) formed in systems where at least one planet was ejected into interstellar space. This population survives the effects of tides over >1 Gyr and fits nicely the observed 3 day pile-up. A comparison between our three-planet and four-planet runs shows that the formation of hot Jupiters is more likely in systems with more initial planets. Due to the large-scale chaoticity that dominates the evolution, high eccentricities and/or high inclinations are generated mainly by close encounters between the planets and not by secular perturbations (Kozai or otherwise). The relative proportion of retrograde planets seems of be dependent on the stellar age. Both the distribution of almost aligned systems and the simulated 3 day pile-up also fit observations better in our four-planet simulations. This may suggest that the planetary systems with observed hot Jupiters were originally rich in the number of planets, some of which were ejected. In a broad perspective, our work therefore hints on an unexpected link between the hot Jupiters and recently discovered free floating planets.

Beauge, C. [Observatorio Astronomico, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Laprida 854, X5000BGR Cordoba (Argentina); Nesvorny, D. [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Brief Studying of Oil Crust Thickness Measurement by Gamma Ray Compton Scattering Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relation between the scattering cross section and the scattering angle under different energy condition of the incident rays is analyzed. From Compton scattering total cross section, a formula of quasi-parallel incident gamma ray Compton scattering response function versus to thickness of oil crust target is derived and analyzed. Numerical fitting result shows that there exists cubic relation between response function of gamma ray and thickness of oil crust. Key words: Gamma ray, Compton scattering, oil crust

Mamatrishat, Mamat; Jie, Ding; Shiheng, Wang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Two-Cluster Distribution Functions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cluster Distribution Functions New New: Green's function Monte Carlo results We have computed momentum distributions and configuration space overlaps in a number of systems,...

466

First JAM results on the determination of polarized parton distributions  

SciTech Connect

The Jefferson Lab Angular Momentum (JAM) Collaboration is a new initiative to study the angular momentum dependent structure of the nucleon. First results on the determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions at intermediate and large x from world data on polarized deep-inelastic scattering are presented. Different aspects of global QCD analysis are discussed, including the effects of nuclear structure of deuterium and 3He targets, target mass corrections and higher twist contributions to the g1 and g2 structure functions.

Accardi, Alberto [Hampton U., JLAB; Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro [JLAB; Melnitchouk, Wally [JLAB

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Transverse Momentum-Dependent Parton Distributions From Lattice QCD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Starting from a definition of transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and the Drell-Yan process, given in terms of matrix elements of a quark bilocal operator containing a staple-shaped Wilson connection, a scheme to determine such observables in lattice QCD is developed and explored. Parametrizing the aforementioned matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes permits a simple transformation of the problem to a Lorentz frame suited for the lattice calculation. Results for the Sivers and Boer-Mulders transverse momentum shifts are presented, focusing in particular on their dependence on the staple extent and the Collins-Soper evolution parameter.

Michael Engelhardt, Bernhard Musch, Philipp Haegler, Andreas Schaefer

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

New thermal neutron scattering files for ENDF/B-VI release 2  

SciTech Connect

At thermal neutron energies, the binding of the scattering nucleus in a solid, liquid, or gas affects the cross section and the distribution of secondary neutrons. These effects are described in the thermal sub-library of Version VI of the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B-VI) using the File 7 format. In the original release of the ENDF/B-VI library, the data in File 7 were obtained by converting the thermal scattering evaluations of ENDF/B-III to the ENDF-6 format. These original evaluations were prepared at General Atomics (GA) in the late sixties, and they suffer from accuracy limitations imposed by the computers of the day. This report describes new evaluations for six of the thermal moderator materials and six new cold moderator materials. The calculations were made with the LEAPR module of NJOY, which uses methods based on the British code LEAP, together with the original GA physics models, to obtain new ENDF files that are accurate over a wider range of energy and momentum transfer than the existing files. The new materials are H in H{sub 2}O, Be metal, Be in BeO, C in graphite, H in ZrH, Zr in ZrH, liquid ortho-hydrogen, liquid para-hydrogen, liquid ortho-deuterium, liquid para-deuterium liquid methane, and solid methane.

MacFarlane, R.E.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Ranking distributed probabilistic data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ranking queries are essential tools to process large amounts of probabilistic data that encode exponentially many possible deterministic instances. In many applications where uncertainty and fuzzy information arise, data are collected from multiple sources ... Keywords: distributed query processing, probabilistic data, ranking queries, top-k, uncertain databases

Feifei Li; Ke Yi; Jeffrey Jestes

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Distribution Arc Flash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arc flash from faults on distribution circuits is a safety issue that can impact work practices, protection requirements for line and substation workers, and relay and other overcurrent protection settings and practices. This report describes analysis methods and test results for EPRI-sponsored research on arc flash conducted in 2008.

2009-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

471

Enabling distributed petascale science.  

SciTech Connect

Petascale science is an end-to-end endeavour, involving not only the creation of massive datasets at supercomputers or experimental facilities, but the subsequent analysis of that data by a user community that may be distributed across many laboratories and universities. The new SciDAC Center for Enabling Distributed Petascale Science (CEDPS) is developing tools to support this end-to-end process. These tools include data placement services for the reliable, high-performance, secure, and policy-driven placement of data within a distributed science environment; tools and techniques for the construction, operation, and provisioning of scalable science services; and tools for the detection and diagnosis of failures in end-to-end data placement and distributed application hosting configurations. In each area, we build on a strong base of existing technology and have made useful progress in the first year of the project. For example, we have recently achieved order-of-magnitude improvements in transfer times (for lots of small files) and implemented asynchronous data staging capabilities; demonstrated dynamic deployment of complex application stacks for the STAR experiment; and designed and deployed end-to-end troubleshooting services. We look forward to working with SciDAC application and technology projects to realize the promise of petascale science.

Baranovski, A.; Bharathi, S.; Bresnahan, J.; chervenak, A.; Foster, I.; Fraser, D.; Freeman, T.; Gunter, D.; Jackson, K.; Keahey, K.; Kesselman, C.; Konerding, D. E.; Leroy, N.; Link, M.; Livny, M.; Miller, N.; Miller, R.; Oleynik, G.; Pearlman, L.; Schopf, J. M.; Schuler, R.; Tierney, B.; Mathematics and Computer Science; FNL; Univ. of Southern California; Univ. of Chicago; LBNL; Univ. of Wisconsin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Online distributed sensor selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A key problem in sensor networks is to decide which sensors to query when, in order to obtain the most useful information (e.g., for performing accurate prediction), subject to constraints (e.g., on power and bandwidth). In many applications the utility ... Keywords: approximation algorithms, distributed multiarmed bandit algorithms, sensor networks, submodular optimization

Daniel Golovin; Matthew Faulkner; Andreas Krause

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

A model for the directional distribution of the diffuse sky radiance with an application to a CPC collector  

SciTech Connect

The development of a new, semi-empirical model for the directional distribution of the diffuse radiance is reported. The proposed regression-type model, with the form of its base functions obtained from physical principles, is based on a combination of the purely physical reasoning approach and the purely empirical approach. Direct multiple-scattering calculations are circumvented through the use of the method of successi