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Sample records for bht gradients thermal

  1. SW New Mexico BHT geothermal gradient calculations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shari Kelley

    2015-07-24

    This file contains a compilation of BHT data from oil wells in southwestern New Mexico. Surface temperature is calculated using the collar elevation. An estimate of geothermal gradient is calculated using the estimated surface temperature and the uncorrected BHT data.

  2. Thermal Gradient Holes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Holes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Thermal Gradient Holes Details Activities (67) Areas (48) Regions (4) NEPA(33) Exploration...

  3. Category:Thermal Gradient Holes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in category "Thermal Gradient Holes" This category contains only the following page. T Thermal Gradient Holes Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCategory:T...

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chocolate Mountains Area (Alm, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes "Shallow temperature gradient drilling began at the CMAGR in January of 2010. 13 temperature...

  5. Thermal Gradient Holes At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP)...

  6. Thermal Gradient Holes At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP)...

  7. Thermal Gradient Holes At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Edmunds...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Edmunds & W., 1977) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Edmunds & W., 1977)...

  8. Thermal Gradient Holes At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Matlick...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Thermal gradient wells were drilled for initial exploration and assessment of the North Brawley Geothermal Area. Notes Union Oil Company...

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Conservation, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley...

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP)...

  11. Numerical Simulation of Ni Grain Growth in a Thermal Gradient

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    665C Numerical Simulation of Ni Grain Growth in a Thermal Gradient Sandia National Laboratories John A. Mitchell and Veena Tikare Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque New ...

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes At Pilgrim Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pilgrim Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Pilgrim Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP)...

  13. Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Basis Thermal gradient holes were drilled in an effort to determine the feasibility of commercial geothermal energy generation at Blue Mountain Notes Ten temperature...

  14. Thermal Gradient Holes At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  15. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) Exploration Activity...

  16. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Area (Warpinski, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Exploration Activity...

  17. Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration...

  18. Thermal Gradient Holes At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Held & Henderson, 2012)...

  19. Thermal Gradient Holes At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming And Mackie...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming And Mackie, 2007) Exploration Activity...

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  1. Thermal Gradient Holes At Mcgee Mountain Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mcgee Mountain Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Mcgee Mountain Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  2. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    consisting of several holes including: The CH8-10 thermal-gradient holes drilled by the U.S. Geological Survey prior to 1978 to relatively shallow depths ranging from about 55 to...

  3. Evaluation of thermal gradients in longitudinal spin Seebeck effect measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sola, A. Kuepferling, M.; Basso, V.; Pasquale, M.; Kikkawa, T.; Uchida, K.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-05-07

    In the framework of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE), we developed an experimental setup for the characterization of LSSE devices. This class of device consists in a layered structure formed by a substrate, a ferrimagnetic insulator (YIG) where the spin current is thermally generated, and a paramagnetic metal (Pt) for the detection of the spin current via the inverse spin-Hall effect. In this kind of experiments, the evaluation of a thermal gradient through the thin YIG layer is a crucial point. In this work, we perform an indirect determination of the thermal gradient through the measurement of the heat flux. We developed an experimental setup using Peltier cells that allow us to measure the heat flux through a given sample. In order to test the technique, a standard LSSE device produced at Tohoku University was measured. We find a spin Seebeck S{sub SSE} coefficient of 2.8×10{sup −7} V K{sup −1}.

  4. Growth of large aluminum nitride single crystals with thermal-gradient control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bondokov, Robert T; Rao, Shailaja P; Gibb, Shawn Robert; Schowalter, Leo J

    2015-05-12

    In various embodiments, non-zero thermal gradients are formed within a growth chamber both substantially parallel and substantially perpendicular to the growth direction during formation of semiconductor crystals, where the ratio of the two thermal gradients (parallel to perpendicular) is less than 10, by, e.g., arrangement of thermal shields outside of the growth chamber.

  5. Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area...

  6. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pot Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  7. Thermal Gradient Holes At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  8. Thermal Gradient Holes At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alum Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Alum Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP)...

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  11. Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea East Rift Area (Quane, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea East Rift Area (Quane, Et Al., 2000) Exploration Activity...

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes At Twenty-Nine Palms Area (Sabin, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sabin, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Twenty-Nine Palms Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010)...

  13. Testing thermal gradient driving force for grain boundary migration using molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Yongfeng; Tonks, Michael R.

    2015-02-01

    Strong thermal gradients in low-thermal-conductivity ceramics may drive extended defects, such as grain boundaries and voids, to migrate in preferential directions. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study thermal gradient driven grain boundary migration and to verify a previously proposed thermal gradient driving force equation, using uranium dioxide as a model system. It is found that a thermal gradient drives grain boundaries to migrate up the gradient and the migration velocity increases under a constant gradient owing to the increase in mobility with temperature. Different grain boundaries migrate at very different rates due to their different intrinsic mobilities. The extracted mobilities from the thermal gradient driven simulations are compared with those calculated from two other well-established methods and good agreement between the three different methods is found, demonstrating that the theoretical equation of the thermal gradient driving force is valid, although a correction of one input parameter should be made. The discrepancy in the grain boundary mobilities between modeling and experiments is also discussed.

  14. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hawthorne Area (Lazaro, Et Al., 2010...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Notes The Navy recently completed a temperature gradient hole (TGH) drilling campaign. Results suggest multiple resources may exist on HAD lands. To further define the...

  15. Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Update to Warpinski, et al., 2002 References N. R. Warpinski, A. R. Sattler, R. Fortuna, D....

  16. Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski, Et Al.,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Update to Warpinski, et al., 2002 References N. R. Warpinski, A. R. Sattler, R. Fortuna, D....

  17. Thermal Gradient Holes At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    crust. The boreholes which exhibited the lowest average gradient were several kilometers from the hot springs and up-dip. None of them penetrated the Dakota Sandstone ....

  18. Thermal Gradient Holes At Tungsten Mountain Area (Kratt, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes twenty-three gold exploration holes were drilled by Newcrest Resources, Inc. during 2005 and 2006 along...

  19. Thermal Gradient Holes At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (U...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    small diameter temperature gradient wells have been drilled ranging in depth from 152-607 m. These wells were drilled across the Neal Hot Springs area in order to gather more...

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Coso Geothermal Area (1976) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to depths up to 133 m in 22 boreholes with measurements being made at least four times in each borehole. Geothermal gradients ranged from 240Ckm to 450 0Ckm. References...

  1. Thermal Gradient Holes At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Ingebritsen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (1993) Heat Flow From Four New Research Drill Holes In The Western Cascades, Oregon, Usa Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleThermalGr...

  2. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Geothermal Area (Erkan, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    while 5 wells reached depths of 600 - 1020 feet. References Kamil Erkan, Gwen Holdman, David Blackwell, Walter Benoit (2007) Thermal Characteristics of the Chena Hot Springs...

  3. Magneto-Seebeck effect in spin-valve with in-plane thermal gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, S. Bose, A. Palkar, V. R. Tulapurkar, A. A.; Lam, D. D. Suzuki, Y.; Sharma, H. Tomy, C. V.

    2014-12-15

    We present measurements of magneto-Seebeck effect on a spin valve with in-plane thermal gradient. We measured open circuit voltage and short circuit current by applying a temperature gradient across a spin valve stack, where one of the ferromagnetic layers is pinned. We found a clear hysteresis in these two quantities as a function of magnetic field. From these measurements, the magneto-Seebeck effect was found to be same as magneto-resistance effect.

  4. Millisecond ordering of block-copolymer films via photo-thermal gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-03-12

    For the promise of self-assembly to be realized, processing techniques must be developed that simultaneously enable control of the nanoscale morphology, rapid assembly, and, ideally, the ability to pattern the nanostructure. Here, we demonstrate how photo-thermal gradients can be used to control the ordering of block-copolymer thin films. Highly localized laser heating leads to intense thermal gradients, which induce a thermophoretic force on morphological defects. This increases the ordering kinetics by at least 3 orders-of-magnitude, compared to conventional oven annealing. By simultaneously exploiting the thermal gradients to induce shear fields, we demonstrate uniaxial alignment of a block-copolymer film in less than a second. Finally, we provide examples of how control of the incident light-field can be used to generate prescribed configurations of block-copolymer nanoscale patterns.

  5. Millisecond ordering of block-copolymer films via photo-thermal gradients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-03-12

    For the promise of self-assembly to be realized, processing techniques must be developed that simultaneously enable control of the nanoscale morphology, rapid assembly, and, ideally, the ability to pattern the nanostructure. Here, we demonstrate how photo-thermal gradients can be used to control the ordering of block-copolymer thin films. Highly localized laser heating leads to intense thermal gradients, which induce a thermophoretic force on morphological defects. This increases the ordering kinetics by at least 3 orders-of-magnitude, compared to conventional oven annealing. By simultaneously exploiting the thermal gradients to induce shear fields, we demonstrate uniaxial alignment of a block-copolymer film in lessmore » than a second. Finally, we provide examples of how control of the incident light-field can be used to generate prescribed configurations of block-copolymer nanoscale patterns.« less

  6. Thermal lens elimination by gradient-reduced zone coupling of optical beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, Ralph H. (San Ramon, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal gradient-reduced-zone laser includes a laser medium and an optically transparent plate with an index of refraction that is less than the index of refraction of the laser medium. The pump face of the laser medium is bonded to a surface of the optically transparent member. Pump light is directed through the transparent plate to optically pump the solid state laser medium. Heat conduction is mainly through the surface of the laser medium where the heat is introduced by the pump light. Heat flows in a direction opposite to that of the pump light because the side of the laser medium that is opposite to that of the pump face is not in thermal contact with a conductor and thus there is no heat flux (and hence, no temperature gradient), thus producing a thermal gradient-reduced zone. A laser cavity is formed around the laser medium such that laser light oscillating within the laser cavity reflects by total-internal-reflection from the interface between the pump face and the optically transparent plate and enters and exits through a thermal gradient-reduced zone.

  7. Thermal gradient-induced forces on geodesic reference masses for LISA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbone, L.; Ciani, G.; Dolesi, R.; Hueller, M.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Weber, W. J.; Cavalleri, A.

    2007-11-15

    The low frequency sensitivity of space-borne gravitational wave observatories will depend critically on the geodesic purity of the trajectories of orbiting test masses. Fluctuations in the temperature difference across the enclosure surrounding the free-falling test mass can produce noisy forces through several processes, including the radiometric effect, radiation pressure, and outgassing. We present here a detailed experimental investigation of thermal gradient-induced forces for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational wave mission and the LISA Pathfinder, employing high resolution torsion pendulum measurements of the torque on a LISA-like test mass suspended inside a prototype of the LISA gravitational reference sensor that will surround the test mass in orbit. The measurement campaign, accompanied by numerical simulations of the radiometric and radiation pressure effects, allows a more accurate and representative characterization of thermal-gradient forces in the specific geometry and environment relevant to LISA free-fall. The pressure dependence of the measured torques allows clear identification of the radiometric effect, in quantitative agreement with the model developed. In the limit of zero gas pressure, the measurements are most likely dominated by outgassing, but at a low level that does not threaten the current LISA noise estimate, which assumes a maximum net force per degree of temperature difference of 100(pN/K) for the overall thermal gradient-induced effects.

  8. Thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory with generalized-gradient approximations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, Jeng-Da

    2014-05-14

    We extend the recently proposed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT) [J.-D. Chai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154104 (2012)] to generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation density functionals. Relative to our previous TAO-LDA (i.e., the local density approximation to TAO-DFT), the resulting TAO-GGAs are significantly superior for a wide range of applications, such as thermochemistry, kinetics, and reaction energies. For noncovalent interactions, TAO-GGAs with empirical dispersion corrections are shown to yield excellent performance. Due to their computational efficiency for systems with strong static correlation effects, TAO-LDA and TAO-GGAs are applied to study the electronic properties (e.g., the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, vertical electron affinities, fundamental gaps, and symmetrized von Neumann entropy) of acenes with different number of linearly fused benzene rings (up to 100), which is very challenging for conventional electronic structure methods. The ground states of acenes are shown to be singlets for all the chain lengths studied here. With the increase of acene length, the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, and fundamental gaps decrease monotonically, while the vertical electron affinities and symmetrized von Neumann entropy (i.e., a measure of polyradical character) increase monotonically.

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Twenty-Nine Palms Area (Page, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gradient holes for the GPO. Samples taken from each hole were similar in nature; mixtures of sand and conglomerates with the occasional granite sections were...

  10. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  11. Geothermal Resource/Reservoir Investigations Based on Heat Flow and Thermal Gradient Data for the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. D. Blackwell; K. W. Wisian; M. C. Richards; J. L. Steele

    2000-04-01

    Several activities related to geothermal resources in the western United States are described in this report. A database of geothermal site-specific thermal gradient and heat flow results from individual exploration wells in the western US has been assembled. Extensive temperature gradient and heat flow exploration data from the active exploration of the 1970's and 1980's were collected, compiled, and synthesized, emphasizing previously unavailable company data. Examples of the use and applications of the database are described. The database and results are available on the world wide web. In this report numerical models are used to establish basic qualitative relationships between structure, heat input, and permeability distribution, and the resulting geothermal system. A series of steady state, two-dimensional numerical models evaluate the effect of permeability and structural variations on an idealized, generic Basin and Range geothermal system and the results are described.

  12. Method and apparatus for producing a carbon based foam article having a desired thermal-conductivity gradient

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. [Knoxville, TN; Cameron, Christopher Stan [Sanford, NC

    2010-03-02

    A carbon based foam article is made by heating the surface of a carbon foam block to a temperature above its graphitizing temperature, which is the temperature sufficient to graphitize the carbon foam. In one embodiment, the surface is heated with infrared pulses until heat is transferred from the surface into the core of the foam article such that the graphitizing temperature penetrates into the core to a desired depth below the surface. The graphitizing temperature is maintained for a time sufficient to substantially entirely graphitize the portion of the foam article from the surface to the desired depth below the surface. Thus, the foam article is an integral monolithic material that has a desired conductivity gradient with a relatively high thermal conductivity in the portion of the core that was graphitized and a relatively low thermal conductivity in the remaining portion of the foam article.

  13. Temperature, thermal efficiency, and gradient performance from two seawater-SZ solar ponds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collado, F.; Lowrey, P. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents 10 months of experience with two seawater-SZ (Storage Zone) solar ponds operated as a source of warm seawater which could have been used in an adjacent mariculture facility. Observations and extensive temperature, gradient and efficiency data are presented. This work demonstrated operation of and heat extraction from seawater-SZ solar ponds over a much longer interval than in previous work. It confirmed that seawater-SZ solar ponds can consistently give useful temperature elevations. A few phenomena not characteristic of conventional solar ponds were identified and are discussed.

  14. Rapid processing of carbon-carbon composites by forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaidyaraman, S.; Lackey, W.J.; Agrawal, P.K.; Freeman, G.B.; Langman, M.D.

    1995-10-01

    Carbon fiber-carbon matrix composites were fabricated using the forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process. Preforms were prepared by stacking 40 layers of plain weave carbon cloth in a graphite holder. The preforms were infiltrated using propylene, propane, and methane. The present work showed that the FCVI process is well suited for fabricating carbon-carbon composites; without optimization of the process, the authors have achieved uniform and thorough densification. Composites with porosities as low as 7% were fabricated in 8--12 h. The highest deposition rate obtained in the present study was {approximately}3 {micro}m/h which is more than an order of magnitude faster than the typical value of 0.1--0.25 {micro}m/h for the isothermal process. It was also found that the use of propylene and propane as reagents resulted in faster infiltration compared to methane.

  15. Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massacret, N.; Jeannot, J. P.

    2013-01-25

    In the framework of the French R and D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 Degree-Sign C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlab Copyright-Sign in order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

  16. Gradient Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gradient Resources Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Gradient Resources Name: Gradient Resources Address: 9670 Gateway Drive, Suite 200 Place: Reno, Nevada Zip: 89521 Region:...

  17. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet groundvegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the...

  18. Joining of Tungsten Armor Using Functional Gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Scott O'Dell

    2006-12-31

    The joining of low thermal expansion armor materials such as tungsten to high thermal expansion heat sink materials has been a major problem in plasma facing component (PFC) development. Conventional planar bonding techniques have been unable to withstand the high thermal induced stresses resulting from fabrication and high heat flux testing. During this investigation, innovative functional gradient joints produced using vacuum plasma spray forming techniques have been developed for joining tungsten armor to copper alloy heat sinks. A model was developed to select the optimum gradient architecture. Based on the modeling effort, a 2mm copper rich gradient was selected. Vacuum plasma pray parameters and procedures were then developed to produce the functional gradient joint. Using these techniques, dual cooling channel, medium scale mockups (32mm wide x 400mm length) were produced with vacuum plasma spray formed tungsten armor. The thickness of the tungsten armor was up to 5mm thick. No evidence of debonding at the interface between the heat sink and the vacuum plasma sprayed material was observed.

  19. Short wavelength ion temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, J.; Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Brunner, S.; Lapillonne, X.; Villard, L. [CRPP, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode in the high wavenumber regime (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}>1), referred to as short wavelength ion temperature gradient mode (SWITG) is studied using the nonlinear gyrokinetic electromagnetic code GENE. It is shown that, although the SWITG mode may be linearly more unstable than the standard long wavelength (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}<1) ITG mode, nonlinearly its contribution to the total thermal ion heat transport is found to be low. We interpret this as resulting from an increased zonal flow shearing effect on the SWITG mode suppression.

  20. HIGH GRADIENT INDUCTION ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caporaso, G J; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y; Blackfield, D; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Nunnally, W; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-06-21

    A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches and is stimulated by the desire for compact flash x-ray radiography sources. Research describing an extreme variant of this technology aimed at proton therapy for cancer will be described. Progress in applying this technology to several applications will be reviewed.

  1. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  2. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  3. Energy in density gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vranjes, J.; Kono, M.

    2015-01-15

    Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work, the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindrical configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and, in particular, in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit volume (per second) in quiet regions in the corona. Consequently, within the life-time of a magnetic structure such energy losses can easily be compensated by the stochastic drift wave heating.

  4. Non Linear Conjugate Gradient

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-11-17

    Software that simulates and inverts electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a time harmonic source field excitation arising from the following antenna geometery: loops and grounded bipoles, as well as point electric and magnetic dioples. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria.more » The software is an upgrade from the code NLCGCS_MP ver 1.0. The upgrade includes the following components: Incorporation of new 1 D field sourcing routines to more accurately simulate the 3D electromagnetic field for arbitrary geologic& media, treatment for generalized finite length transmitting antenna geometry (antennas with vertical and horizontal component directions). In addition, the software has been upgraded to treat transverse anisotropy in electrical conductivity.« less

  5. EA-2010: Alternating Gradient Synchrotron Complex Improvements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gradient Synchrotron Complex Improvements at Brookhaven National Laboratory; Upton, New York EA-2010: Alternating Gradient Synchrotron Complex Improvements at Brookhaven ...

  6. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  7. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nation, J.A.; Greenwald, S.

    1989-05-30

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications is disclosed. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle. 10 figs.

  8. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nation, John A.; Greenwald, Shlomo

    1989-01-01

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle.

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fort-Sulphurdale geothermal area. The geophysical exploration consisted of resistivity, ground magnetic, and microgravity surveys that were made to site the well in an optimum...

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski, Et Al.,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fort-Sulphurdale geothermal area. The geophysical exploration consisted of resistivity, ground magnetic, and microgravity surveys that were made to site the well in an optimum...

  11. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Arnold...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    be drilled by AMEX, but no results were presented in this paper. References Arnold, Anderson, Donaldson, Foster, Gutjahr, Hatton, Hill, Martinez (1978) New Mexico's Energy...

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes At Coso Geothermal Area (1974) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date 1974 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Use heat flow studies for the first time at Coso to indicate the presence or absence of abnormal heat...

  13. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hawthorne Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    will be installed at select sites in California and Nevada. Interim data from this campaign are already available for the Chocolate Mountains and Hawthorne. Results of these...

  14. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chocolate Mountains Area (Sabin, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    will be installed at select sites in California and Nevada. Interim data from this campaign are already available for the Chocolate Mountains and Hawthorne. Results of these...

  15. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Cunniff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Basis Report on a phase 2 project for DOE Notes A summary of the geophysical and geotechnical data used to pick drill sites, the actual drilling, and then the results from the...

  16. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis The study integrates detailed results from pump tests, fluid level monitoring, temperature logging, and fluid samplinganalysis of the...

  17. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    studies, and seem to prove useful in most cases (Flexser, 1991; Goff et al., 1991; Smith and Suemnicht, 1991). Results from these studies are also summarized in Sorey et al....

  18. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Regime of Long Valley Caldera. Journal of Geophysical Research. 81(5):763-768. J.L. Smith,R.W. Rex. 1977. Drilling results from eastern Long Valley Caldera. () : American...

  19. Thermal Gradient Holes At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References S. H. Ward, W. T. Parry, W. P. Nash, W. R. Sill, K. L. Cook, R. B. Smith, D. S. Chapman, F. H. Brown, J. A. Whelan, J. R. Bowman (1978) A Summary of the...

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Obsidian Cliff Area (Hulen, Et Al....

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown References Jeff Hulen, Denis Norton, Dennis Kaspereit, Larry Murray, Todd van de Putte, Melinda Wright (2003) Geology And A Working Conceptual Model Of...

  1. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    water samples taken from these wells did not provide useful geothermal data due to contamination of the well water with drilling muds References Donald M. Thomas (1 January 1986)...

  2. Thermal Gradient Holes At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  3. Thermal Gradient Holes At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  5. Thermal Gradient Holes At Nw Basin & Range Region (Pritchett...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  6. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Geothermal Area (Holdmann, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    eight wells ranging in depth from 200 to 300 ft. References Gwen Holdmann, Dick Benoit, David Blackwell (2006) Integrated Geoscience Investigation and Geothermal Exploration at...

  7. Thermal Gradient Holes At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    waters with a minimum of 82 degrees C at depth References Lara Owens, Richard Baars, David Norman, Harold Tobin (2005) New Methods In Exploration At The Socorro Peak Kgra- A...

  8. Numerical Simulation of Ni Grain Growth in a Thermal Gradient...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Proposed for presentation at the SIAM Conference on Computational Science and ...

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lake City Hot Springs Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    consists of a previously identified geothermal site that has been explored with both geophysics and drilling (Hedel, 1981), but has not been characterized adequately to allow...

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes At Fort Bidwell Area (Lafleur, Et Al....

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    continue exploration when funding allows." References Joe LaFleur, Anna Carter, Karen Moore, Ben Barker, Paul Atkinson, Clay Jones, Joseph Moore, Bernold Pollard (2010) Update On...

  11. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Area (Erkan, Et. Al., 2008) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes MULTI-STAGE DRILLING Once a hole is drilled the natural-state pressure distribution with depth is essentially...

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes At Tungsten Mountain Area (Shevenell,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Collaboration with the gold mining industry has brought two new geothermal discoveries to the attention of the...

  13. Thermal Gradient Holes At Spencer Hot Springs Area (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Collaboration with the gold mining industry has brought two new geothermal discoveries to the attention of the...

  14. Thermal Gradient Holes At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Purtymun...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Valles caldera in order to locate an of high heat flow that would serve as a favorable test site for the HDR concept. Notes Data from these wells are report in Reiter et al....

  15. Thermal Gradient Holes At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Hot Creek Canyon where challenges such as topography, a wilderness study area, and wetlands issues will make further exploration time consuming and costly. References Dick...

  16. Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea Summit Area (Keller, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    L. Trowbridge Grose, John C. Murray, Catherine K. Skokan (1979) Results Of An Experimental Drill Hole At The Summit Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Additional References Retrieved...

  17. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Roy A. Cunniff, Roger L. Bowers (2005) Final technical report geothermal resource evaluation and definition (GRED) Program - Phase I, II and III for the Animas Valley, NM...

  18. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Cunniff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Roy A. Cunniff, Roger L. Bowers (2005) Final technical report geothermal resource evaluation and definition (GRED) Program - Phase I, II and III for the Animas Valley, NM...

  19. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Geothermal Area (EERE, 2010)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration program undertaken during Phase II of the DOE-funded Geothermal Resource Evaluation and Definitions Program Phase I (GRED III Phase II) Notes A deeper well, TG-12,...

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of at least 150C for the inferred geothermal reservoir. References Brian D. Fairbank, Kim V. Niggemann (2004) Deep Blue No.1-A Slimhole Geothermal Discovery At Blue Mountain,...

  1. Variable metric conjugate gradient methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1994-07-01

    1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and most conjugate gradient-like methods belong. The concept of a method having either a fixed or a variable metric is introduced. Methods that have a metric are referred to as either fixed or variable metric methods. Some relationships between projection methods and fixed (variable) metric methods are discussed. The main emphasis of the remainder of this paper is on variable metric methods. In Section 3 we show how the biconjugate gradient (BCG), and the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) methods fit into this framework as variable metric methods. By modifying the underlying Lanczos biorthogonalization process used in the implementation of BCG and QMR, we obtain other variable metric methods. These, we refer to as generalizations of BCG and QMR.

  2. Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallman, Jeffrey S

    2013-05-21

    In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.

  3. Sodium-sulfur thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, F.A.

    1990-12-11

    This paper discusses a sodium-sulfur thermal battery for generating electrical energy at temperatures above the melting point of sodium metal and sulfur. It comprises a sodium electrode comprising sodium metal; a sulfur electrode comprising sulfur; and a separator located between the sodium and sulfur electrodes. The separator having sufficient porosity to allow preliminary migration of fluid sodium metal and fluid sulfur and fluid sodium polysulfides therethrough during operation of the thermal battery to form a mixed polysulfides electrolyte gradient within the separator.

  4. Sound beam manipulation based on temperature gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Feng; Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou Gong, Xiufen

    2015-10-28

    Previous research with temperature gradients has shown the feasibility of controlling airborne sound propagation. Here, we present a temperature gradients based airborne sound manipulation schemes: a cylindrical acoustic omnidirectional absorber (AOA). The proposed AOA has high absorption performance which can almost completely absorb the incident wave. Geometric acoustics is used to obtain the refractive index distributions with different radii, which is then utilized to deduce the desired temperature gradients. Since resonant units are not applied in the scheme, its working bandwidth is expected to be broadband. The scheme is temperature-tuned and easy to realize, which is of potential interest to fields such as noise control or acoustic cloaking.

  5. Thermal Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Sciences NETL's Thermal Sciences competency provides the scientific, engineering, and technology development community with innovative and efficient approaches to measure, harness, and convert thermal energy. Research includes sensors, advanced energy concepts, and thermodynamic optimization, specifically: Sensors and Diagnostics Advanced sensor and diagnostic technology to develop and evaluate advanced methods for non-intrusive measurement and measurement in extreme environments.

  6. Separation of carbon nanotubes in density gradients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hersam, Mark C.; Stupp, Samuel I.; Arnold, Michael S.

    2012-02-07

    The separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), by chirality and/or diameter, using centrifugation of compositions of SWNTs in and surface active components in density gradient media.

  7. Separation of carbon nanotubes in density gradients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hersam, Mark C.; Stupp, Samuel I.; Arnold, Michael S.

    2010-02-16

    The separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), by chirality and/or diameter, using centrifugation of compositions of SWNTs in and surface active components in density gradient media.

  8. Coreless Concept for High Gradient Induction Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly; /SLAC

    2008-01-07

    An induction linac cell for a high gradient is discussed. The proposed solid state coreless approach for the induction linac topology (SLIM{reg_sign}) is based on nanosecond mode operation. This mode may have an acceleration gradient comparable with gradients of rf- accelerator structures. The discussed induction system has the high electric efficiency. The key elements are a solid state semiconductor switch and a high electric density dielectric with a thin section length. The energy in the induction system is storied in the magnetic field. The nanosecond current break-up produces the high voltage. The induced voltage is used for acceleration. This manner of an operation allows the use of low voltage elements in the booster part and achieves a high accelerating gradient. The proposed topology was tested in POP (proof of principle) experiments.

  9. An Enhanced Nonlinear Critical Gradient for Electron Turbulent Transport due to Reversed Magnetic Shear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J. L.; Hammet, G. W.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Yuh, H. Y.; Candy, J.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B.

    2011-05-11

    The first nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs) in the National Spherical Torus Experiment show that reversed magnetic shear can suppress thermal transport by increasing the nonlinear critical gradient for electron-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence to three times its linear critical value. An interesting feature of this turbulence is non- linearly driven off-midplane radial streamers. This work reinforces the experimental observation that magnetic shear is likely an effective way of triggering and sustaining e-ITBs in magnetic fusion devices.

  10. Applications of salinity gradient solar technologies in the Southwest -- An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, A.H.P.; Lu, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is an overview of recent applications of salinity gradient solar technologies (SGST) in the Southwest and especially in the State of Texas. SGST is a generic title for using a salinity gradient in a body of water to suppress convection and collect solar energy for a desired application, for example, salinity gradient solar ponds. Following initial work in the early 1980s at the El Paso Solar Pond project and funding of the Texas Solar Pond Consortium by the State of Texas and the Bureau of Reclamation, several applications involving the use of salinity gradient solar technologies have emerged. These applications include a biomass waste to energy project using heat from a solar pond at Bruce Foods Corporation; an industrial process heat application for sodium sulfate mining near Seagraves, Texas; overwintering thermal refuges for mariculture in Palacios, Texas; a potential salt management project on the Brazos River near Abilene, Texas; and use of solar ponds for brine disposal at a water desalting project in a small colonia east of El Paso. This paper discusses salinity gradient solar technology requirements and the abundance of resources available in Texas and the Southwest which makes this an attractive location for the commercial development of salinity gradient projects. Barriers to development as well as catalysts are discussed before a brief overview of the projects listed above is provided.

  11. Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of warm acceleratin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of warm accelerating structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of ...

  12. Gradient-Enhanced Universal Kriging for Uncertainty Propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gradient-Enhanced Universal Kriging for Uncertainty Propagation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Gradient-Enhanced Universal Kriging for Uncertainty Propagation Authors: ...

  13. Salinity gradient solar pond technology applied to potash solution mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martell, J.A.; Aimone-Martin, C.T.

    2000-06-12

    A solution mining facility at the Eddy Potash Mine, Eddy County, New Mexico has been proposed that will utilize salinity gradient solar pond (SGSP) technology to supply industrial process thermal energy. The process will include underground dissolution of potassium chloride (KCl) from pillars and other reserves remaining after completion of primary room and pillar mining using recirculating solutions heated in the SGSP. Production of KCl will involve cold crystallization followed by a cooling pond stage, with the spent brine being recirculated in a closed loop back to the SGSP for reheating. This research uses SGSP as a renewable, clean energy source to optimize the entire mining process, minimize environmental wastes, provide a safe, more economical extraction process and reduce the need for conventional processing by crushing, grinding and flotation. The applications of SGSP technology will not only save energy in the extraction and beneficiation processes, but also will produce excess energy available for power generation, desalination, and auxiliary structure heating.

  14. Shallow Drilling In The Salton Sea Region, The Thermal Anomaly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmark, R. L.; Kasameyer, P. W.; Younker, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    During two shallow thermal drilling programs, thermal measurements were obtained in 56 shallow (76.2 m) and one intermediate (457.3 m) depth holes located both onshore and offshore along the southern margin of the Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley, California. These data complete the surficial coverage of the thermal anomaly, revealing the shape and lateral extent of the hydrothermal system. The thermal data show the region of high thermal gradients to extend only a short distance offshore to the north of the Quaternary volcanic domes which are exposed along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. The thermal anomaly has an arcuate shape, about 4 km wide and 12 km long. Across the center of the anomaly, the transition zone between locations exhibiting high thermal gradients and those exhibiting regional thermal gradients is quite narrow. Thermal gradients rise from near regional (0.09 C/m) to extreme (0.83 C/m) in only 2.4 km. The heat flow in the central part of the anomaly is >600 mW/m{sup 2} and in some areas exceeds 1200 mW/m{sup 2}. The shape of the thermal anomaly is asymmetric with respect to the line of volcanoes previously thought to represent the center of the field, with its center line offset south of the volcanic buttes. There is no broad thermal anomaly associated with the magnetic high that extends offshore to the northeast from the volcanic domes. These observations of the thermal anomaly provide important constraints for models of the circulation of the hydrothermal system. Thermal budgets based on a simple model for this hydrothermal system indicate that the heat influx rate for local ''hot spots'' in the region may be large enough to account for the rate of heat flux from the entire Salton Trough.

  15. Laser window with annular grooves for thermal isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Horton, J.A.; Alger, T.W.

    1983-07-13

    A laser window or other optical element which is thermally loaded, heats up and causes optical distortions because of temperature gradients between the center and the edge. A number of annular grooves, one to three or more, are formed in the element between a central portion and edge portion, producing a web portion which concentrates the thermal gradient and thermally isolates the central portion from the edge portion, producing a uniform temperature profile across the central portion and therefore reduce the optical distortions. The grooves are narrow and closely spaced with respect to the thickness of the element, and successive grooves are formed from alternate sides of the element.

  16. High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

    1982-09-08

    A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

  17. High pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, Christian G.; Sakaji, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    A gradient mixer which effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum "band-broadening".

  18. 17 GHz High Gradient Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temkin, Richard J.; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2013-07-10

    This is a report on the MIT High Gradient Accelerator Research program which has included: Operation of the 17 GHz, 25 MeV MIT/Haimson Research Corp. electron accelerator at MIT, the highest frequency, stand-alone accelerator in the world; collaboration with members of the US High Gradient Collaboration, including the design and test of novel structures at SLAC at 11.4 GHz; the design, construction and testing of photonic bandgap structures, including metallic and dielectric structures; the investigation of the wakefields in novel structures; and the training of the next generation of graduate students and postdoctoral associates in accelerator physics.

  19. Turbulent electron transport in edge pedestal by electron temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, R.; Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 ; Jhang, Hogun; Diamond, P. H.; CMTFO and CASS, University of California, San Diego 92093-0424, California

    2013-11-15

    We present a model for turbulent electron thermal transport at the edge pedestal in high (H)-mode plasmas based on electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence. A quasi-linear analysis of electrostatic toroidal ETG modes shows that both turbulent electron thermal diffusivity and hyper-resistivity exhibits the Ohkawa scaling in which the radial correlation length of turbulence becomes the order of electron skin depth. Combination of the Ohkawa scales and the plasma current dependence results in a novel confinement scaling inside the pedestal region. It is also shown that ETG turbulence induces a thermoelectric pinch, which may accelerate the density pedestal formation.

  20. Multi-gradient drilling method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maurer, William C.; Medley, Jr., George H.; McDonald, William J.

    2003-01-01

    A multi-gradient system for drilling a well bore from a surface location into a seabed includes an injector for injecting buoyant substantially incompressible articles into a column of drilling fluid associated with the well bore. Preferably, the substantially incompressible articles comprises hollow substantially spherical bodies.

  1. Gradient zone-boundary control in salt-gradient solar ponds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1982-09-29

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  2. Shallow drilling in the Salton Sea region: The thermal anomaly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmark, R.L.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Younker, L.W.

    1988-11-10

    During two shallow thermal drilling programs, thermal measurements were obtained in 56 shallow (76.2 m) and one intermediate (457.3 m) depth holes located both onshore and offshore along the southern margin of the Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley, California. These data complete the surficial coverage of the thermal anomaly, revealing the shape and lateral extent of the hydrothermal system. The thermal data show the region of high thermal gradients to extend only a short distance offshore to the north of the Quaternary volcanic domes which are exposed along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. The central thermal anomaly has an arcuate shape, about 4 km wide and 12 km long. Across the center of the anomaly, the transition zone between locations exhibiting high thermal gradients and those exhibiting regional thermal gradients is quite narrow. Thermal gradients rise from near regional (0.09 /sup 0/C/m) to extreme (0.83 /sup 0/C/m) in only 2.4 km. The heat flow in the central part of the anomaly is greater than 600 mW/m/sup 2/ and in the two local anomalies exceeds 1200 mW/m/sup 2/. The shape of the thermal anomaly is asymmetric with respect to the line of volcanoes previously thought to represent the center of the field, with its center line offset south of the volcanic buttes. There is no broad thermal anomaly associated with the magnetic high that extends offshore to the northeast from the volcanic domes.

  3. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Norman L.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  4. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, N.L.

    1983-11-10

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  5. Solar wind thermal electron distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gosling, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Solar wind thermal electron distributions exhibit distinctive trends which suggest Coulomb collisions and geometric expansion in the interplanetary magnetic field play keys roles in electron transport. We introduce a simple numerical model incorporating these mechanisms, discuss the ramifications of model results, and assess the validity of the model in terms of ISEE-3 and Ulysses observations. Although the model duplicates the shape of the electron distributions, and explains certain other observational features, observed gradients in total electron temperature indicate the importance of additional heating mechanisms. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  6. High gradient accelerators for linear light sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barletta, W.A.

    1988-09-26

    Ultra-high gradient radio frequency linacs powered by relativistic klystrons appear to be able to provide compact sources of radiation at XUV and soft x-ray wavelengths with a duration of 1 picosecond or less. This paper provides a tutorial review of the physics applicable to scaling the present experience of the accelerator community to the regime applicable to compact linear light sources. 22 refs., 11 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-04-24

    Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field ({approx}2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 {micro}s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10{sup 5} RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS

  8. Thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.T.; Winchester, C.S.; Jolson, J.D.

    1989-06-20

    A thermal battery is described comprising at least one electrochemical cell comprising an anode of alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or alloys thereof, a fusible salt electrolyte, a fluorocarbon polymer or fluorochlorocarbon polymer depolarizer, and means for heating the cell to melt the electrolyte.

  9. Results of geothermal gradient core hole TCB-1, Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site, Guatemala, Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, A.I.; Chipera, S.; Counce, D.; Gardner, J.; Goff, S.; Goff, F.; Heiken, G.; Laughlin, A.W.; Musgrave, J.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr. ); Aycinena, S.; Martinelli, L. ); Castaneda, O.; Revolorio, M.; Roldan, A. . Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion); D

    1992-02-01

    Results of geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical field studies conducted in 1988 and 1989 at the Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site in Guatemala indicated that there is a substantial shallow heat source beneath the area of youngest volcanism. To obtain information on subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients, stratigraphy, hydrothermal alteration, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids, a geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to 808 m low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro volcano Complex, 300 km south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco, dated at 2,910 years. Gases from acid-sulfate springs near Laguna Ixpaco consistently yield maximum estimated subsurface temperatures of 250--300{degrees}C. The temperature versus depth curve from TCB-1 does not show isothermal conditions and the calculated thermal gradients from 500--800 m is 230{degrees}C/km. Bottom hole temperature is 238{degrees}C. Calculated heat flow values are nearly 9 heat flow units (HFU). The integration of results from the TCB-1 gradient core hole with results from field studies provides strong evidence that the Tecuamburro area holds great promise for containing a commercial geothermal resource.

  10. Modeling of Propagation of Interacting Cracks Under Hydraulic Pressure Gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hai; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Podgorney, Robert Karl

    2015-04-01

    A robust and reliable numerical model for fracture initiation and propagation, which includes the interactions among propagating fractures and the coupling between deformation, fracturing and fluid flow in fracture apertures and in the permeable rock matrix, would be an important tool for developing a better understanding of fracturing behaviors of crystalline brittle rocks driven by thermal and (or) hydraulic pressure gradients. In this paper, we present a physics-based hydraulic fracturing simulator based on coupling a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) for deformation and fracturing with conjugate lattice network flow model for fluid flow in both fractures and porous matrix. Fracturing is represented explicitly by removing broken bonds from the network to represent microcracks. Initiation of new microfractures and growth and coalescence of the microcracks leads to the formation of macroscopic fractures when external and/or internal loads are applied. The coupled DEM-network flow model reproduces realistic growth pattern of hydraulic fractures. In particular, simulation results of perforated horizontal wellbore clearly demonstrate that elastic interactions among multiple propagating fractures, fluid viscosity, strong coupling between fluid pressure fluctuations within fractures and fracturing, and lower length scale heterogeneities, collectively lead to complicated fracturing patterns.

  11. Exploration geothermal gradient drilling, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, S.J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Ruefenacht, H.D.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.; Ramos, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a review and summary of the core drilling operations component of the Honduras Geothermal Resource Development Project at the Platanares geothermal prospect in Honduras, Central America. Three intermediate depth (428 to 679 m) coreholes are the first continuously cored geothermal exploration boreholes in Honduras. These coring operations are part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) effort funded by the Agency for International Development (AID) and implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) in cooperation with the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (ENEE) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy, thermal gradient, and flow test data of the boreholes. The primary objectives of this coring effort were (1) to obtain quantitative information on the temperature distribution as a function of depth, (2) to recover fluids associated with the geothermal reservoir, (3) to recover 75% or better core from the subsurface rock units, and (4) to drill into the subsurface rock as deeply as possible in order to get information on potential reservoir rocks, fracture density, permeabilities, and alteration histories of the rock units beneath the site. The three exploration coreholes drilled to depths of 650, 428 and 679 m, respectively, encountered several hot water entries. Coring operations and associated testing began in mid-October 1986 and were completed at the end of June 1987.

  12. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion, or OTEC is a technology that extracts power from the ocean's natural thermal gradient. This technology is being pursued by researchers from many nations; in the United States, OTEC research is funded by the US Department of Energy's Ocean Energy Technology program. The program's goal is to develop the technology so that industry can make a competent assessment of its potential -- either as an alternative or as a supplement to conventional energy sources. Federally funded research in components and systems will help OTEC to the threshold of commercialization. This publication provides an overview of the OTEC technology. 47 refs., 25 figs.

  13. The effect of density gradient on the growth rate of relativistic Weibel instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahdavi, M.; Khodadadi Azadboni, F.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, the effect of density gradient on the Weibel instability growth rate is investigated. The density perturbations in the near corona fuel, where temperature anisotropy, η, is larger than the critical temperature anisotropy, η{sub c}, (η > η{sub c}), enhances the growth rate of Weibel instability due to the sidebands coupled with the electron oscillatory velocity. But for η < η{sub c}, the thermal spread of the energetic electrons reduces the growth rate. Also, the growth rate can be reduced if the relativistic parameter (Lorentz factor) is sufficiently large, γ > 2. The analysis shows that relativistic effects and density gradient tend to stabilize the Weibel instability. The growth rate can be reduced by 88% by reducing η by a factor of 100 and increasing relativistic parameter by a factor of 3.

  14. A high-gradient high-duty-factor Rf photo-cathode electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimmer, Robert A.; Hartman, Neal; Lidia, Steven M.; Wang, Shaoheng

    2002-05-22

    We describe the analysis and preliminary design of a high-gradient, high-duty factor RF photocathode gun. The gun is designed to operate at high repetition rate or CW, with high gradient on the cathode surface to minimize emittance growth due to space charge forces at high bunch charge. The gun may also be operated in a solenoidal magnetic field for emittance compensation. The design is intended for use in short-pulse, high-charge, and high-repetition rate applications such as linac based X-ray sources. We present and compare the results of gun simulations using different codes, as well as RF and thermal analysis of the structure.

  15. Constant field gradient planar coupled cavity structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.

    1999-07-27

    A cavity structure is disclosed having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam. 16 figs.

  16. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-04-29

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  17. High-gradient compact linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carder, B.M.

    1998-05-26

    A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter. 10 figs.

  18. High-gradient compact linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carder, Bruce M.

    1998-01-01

    A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter.

  19. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Kobylinski, T.P.

    1996-11-12

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials. 7 figs.

  20. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Dusek, Joseph T.; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thadeus P.

    1996-01-01

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials.

  1. Thermal history of Bakken shale in Williston basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gosnold, W.D. Jr.; Lefever, R.D.; Crashell, J.J. )

    1989-12-01

    Stratigraphic and thermal conductivity data were combined to analyze the thermostratigraphy of the Williston basin. The present thermostratigraphy is characterized by geothermal gradients of the order of 60 mK/m in the Cenozoic and Mesozoic units, and 30 mK/m in the Paleozoic units. The differences in geothermal gradients are due to differences in thermal conductivities between the shale-dominated Mesozoic and Cenozoic units and the carbonate-dominated Paleozoic units. Subsidence and compaction rates were calculated for the basin and were used to determine models for time vs. depth and time vs. thermal conductivity relationships for the basin. The time/depth and time/conductivity relationships include factors accounting for thermal conductivity changes due to compaction, cementation, and temperature. The thermal history of the Bakken shale, a primary oil source rock in the Williston basin, was determined using four different models, and values for Lopatin's time-temperature index (TTI) were calculated for each model. The first model uses a geothermal gradient calculated from bottom-hole temperature data, the second uses present-day thermostratigraphy, the third uses the thermostratigraphic relationship determined in this analysis, and the fourth modifies the third by including assumed variations in continental heat flow. The thermal histories and the calculated TTI values differ markedly among the models with TTI values differing by a factor of about two between some models.

  2. Thermoacoustic mixture separation with an axial temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, Drew W; Swift, Gregory A

    2008-01-01

    The theory of thermoacoustic mixture separation is extended to include the effect of a nonzero axial temperature gradient. The analysis yields a new term in the second-order mole flux that is proportional to the temperature gradient and to the square of the volumetric velocity and is independent of the phasing of the wave. Because of this new term, thermoacoustic separation stops at a critical temperature gradient and changes direction above that gradient. For a traveling wave, this gradient is somewhat higher than that predicted by a simple four-step model. An experiment tests the theory for temperature gradients from 0 to 416 K/m in 50-50 He-Ar mixtures.

  3. Ch. VII, Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Report: Ch. VII, Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes Author T. G. Zacharakis Editor T. G. Zacharakis Published Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation...

  4. Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Report: Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes Author T. G. Zacharakis Organization Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation with the U.S....

  5. Comparative systems biology across an evolutionary gradient within...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Comparative systems biology across an evolutionary gradient within the Shewanella genus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparative systems biology across an ...

  6. Sources of stress gradients in electrodeposited Ni MEMS. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Sources of stress gradients in electrodeposited Ni MEMS. The ability of future integrated metal-semiconductor micro-systems such as RF MEMS to perform highly complex ...

  7. Permafrost and organic layer interactions over a climate gradient...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in permafrost occurrence (PF) and organic layer thickness (OLT) in more than 3000 soil pedons across a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient. Cause and effect relationships...

  8. Illinois: High-Energy, Concentration-Gradient Cathode Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Energy, Concentration-Gradient Cathode Material for Plug-in Hybrids and All-Electric Vehicles Could Reduce Batteries' Cost and Size Illinois: High-Energy,...

  9. Method for determining thermal conductivity and thermal capacity per unit volume of earth in situ

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poppendiek, Heinz F.

    1982-01-01

    A method for determining the thermal conductivity of the earth in situ is based upon a cylindrical probe (10) having a thermopile (16) for measuring the temperature gradient between sets of thermocouple junctions (18 and 20) of the probe after it has been positioned in a borehole and has reached thermal equilibrium with its surroundings, and having means (14) for heating one set of thermocouple junctions (20) of the probe at a constant rate while the temperature gradient of the probe is recorded as a rise in temperature over several hours (more than about 3 hours). A fluid annulus thermally couples the probe to the surrounding earth. The recorded temperature curves are related to the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., and to the thermal capacity per unit volume, (.gamma.c.sub.p).sub..infin., by comparison with calculated curves using estimates of k.sub..infin. and (.gamma.c.sub.p).sub..infin. in an equation which relates these parameters to a rise in the earth's temperature for a known and constant heating rate.

  10. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  11. Coronal heating driven by a magnetic gradient pumping mechanism in solar plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Baolin

    2014-11-10

    The heating of the solar corona is a longstanding mystery in astrophysics. Considering that the solar magnetic field is spatially inhomogeneous with a considerable magnetic gradient from the solar surface to the corona, this work proposes a magnetic gradient pumping (MGP) mechanism to try to explain the formation of hot plasma upflows, such as hot type II spicules and hot plasma ejections. In the MGP mechanism, the magnetic gradient may drive the energetic particles to move upward from the underlying solar atmosphere and form hot upflows. These upflow energetic particles are deposited in the corona, causing it to become very hot. Rough estimations indicate that the solar corona can be heated to above 1 million degrees, and the upflow velocity is about 40 km s{sup –1} in the chromosphere and about 130 km s{sup –1} in the corona. The solar magnetic flux tubes act as pumpers to extract energetic particles from the underlying thermal photosphere, convey them, and deposit them in the corona. The deposit of these energetic particles causes the corona to become hot, and the escape of such particles from the photosphere leaves it a bit cold. This mechanism can present a natural explanation to the mystery of solar coronal heating.

  12. Bernstein instability driven by thermal ring distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Hadi, Fazal; Qamar, Anisa

    2014-07-15

    The classic Bernstein waves may be intimately related to banded emissions detected in laboratory plasmas, terrestrial, and other planetary magnetospheres. However, the customary discussion of the Bernstein wave is based upon isotropic thermal velocity distribution function. In order to understand how such waves can be excited, one needs an emission mechanism, i.e., an instability. In non-relativistic collision-less plasmas, the only known Bernstein wave instability is that associated with a cold perpendicular velocity ring distribution function. However, cold ring distribution is highly idealized. The present Brief Communication generalizes the cold ring distribution model to include thermal spread, so that the Bernstein-ring instability is described by a more realistic electron distribution function, with which the stabilization by thermal spread associated with the ring distribution is demonstrated. The present findings imply that the excitation of Bernstein waves requires a sufficiently high perpendicular velocity gradient associated with the electron distribution function.

  13. Efficient and robust gradient enhanced Kriging emulators.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalbey, Keith R.

    2013-08-01

    %E2%80%9CNaive%E2%80%9D or straight-forward Kriging implementations can often perform poorly in practice. The relevant features of the robustly accurate and efficient Kriging and Gradient Enhanced Kriging (GEK) implementations in the DAKOTA software package are detailed herein. The principal contribution is a novel, effective, and efficient approach to handle ill-conditioning of GEK's %E2%80%9Ccorrelation%E2%80%9D matrix, RN%CC%83, based on a pivoted Cholesky factorization of Kriging's (not GEK's) correlation matrix, R, which is a small sub-matrix within GEK's RN%CC%83 matrix. The approach discards sample points/equations that contribute the least %E2%80%9Cnew%E2%80%9D information to RN%CC%83. Since these points contain the least new information, they are the ones which when discarded are both the easiest to predict and provide maximum improvement of RN%CC%83's conditioning. Prior to this work, handling ill-conditioned correlation matrices was a major, perhaps the principal, unsolved challenge necessary for robust and efficient GEK emulators. Numerical results demonstrate that GEK predictions can be significantly more accurate when GEK is allowed to discard points by the presented method. Numerical results also indicate that GEK can be used to break the curse of dimensionality by exploiting inexpensive derivatives (such as those provided by automatic differentiation or adjoint techniques), smoothness in the response being modeled, and adaptive sampling. Development of a suitable adaptive sampling algorithm was beyond the scope of this work; instead adaptive sampling was approximated by omitting the cost of samples discarded by the presented pivoted Cholesky approach.

  14. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This ...

  15. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun’ichi

    2015-03-12

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  16. Turbine Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Thermal Management Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology advances ...

  17. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  18. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Thomas F.; Bandhauer, Todd; Garimella, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  19. Electronic Bloch oscillation in bilayer graphene gradient superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Hemeng; Li, Changan; Song, Yun; Ma, Tianxing; Wang, Li-Gang; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2014-08-18

    We investigate the electronic Bloch oscillation in bilayer graphene gradient superlattices using transfer matrix method. By introducing two kinds of gradient potentials of square barriers along electrons propagation direction, we find that Bloch oscillations up to terahertz can occur. Wannier-Stark ladders, as the counterpart of Bloch oscillation, are obtained as a series of equidistant transmission peaks, and the localization of the electronic wave function is also signature of Bloch oscillation. Furthermore, the period of Bloch oscillation decreases linearly with increasing gradient of barrier potentials.

  20. Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation Drive in Alcator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation Drive in Alcator C -Mod Tokamak Plasmas Authors: Rice, J. E. ; Hughes, J. W. ; Diamond, P. H. ; Kosuga, Y. ; Podpaly, Y. A. ; ...

  1. Field Investigations And Temperature-Gradient Drilling At Marine...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Investigations And Temperature-Gradient Drilling At Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center (Mcagcc), Twenty-Nine Palms, Ca Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  2. Developing new high energy gradient concentration cathode material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon esp10amine.pdf More Documents & Publications New High Energy Gradient Concentration ...

  3. Observation of 690 MV m^-1 Electron Accelerating Gradient with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observation of 690 MV m-1 Electron Accelerating Gradient with a Laser-Driven Dielectric Microstructure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation of 690 MV m-1...

  4. Illinois: High-Energy, Concentration-Gradient Cathode Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a high-energy, concentration-gradient cathode material for plug-in hybrid and all-electric vehicles. ... market growth, leading to reductions in carbon pollution and imported oil. ...

  5. Reduction of particle deposition on substrates using temperature gradient control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rader, Daniel J.; Dykhuizen, Ronald C.; Geller, Anthony S.

    2000-01-01

    A method of reducing particle deposition during the fabrication of microelectronic circuitry is presented. Reduction of particle deposition is accomplished by controlling the relative temperatures of various parts of the deposition system so that a large temperature gradient near the surface on which fabrication is taking place exists. This temperature gradient acts to repel particles from that surface, thereby producing cleaner surfaces, and thus obtaining higher yields from a given microelectronic fabrication process.

  6. THERMAL OSCILLATIONS IN LIQUID HELIUM TARGETS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WANG,L.; JIA,L.X.

    2001-07-16

    A liquid helium target for the high-energy physics was built and installed in the proton beam line at the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2001. The target flask has a liquid volume of 8.25 liters and is made of thin Mylar film. A G-M/J-T cryocooler of five-watts at 4.2K was used to produce liquid helium and refrigerate the target. A thermosyphon circuit for the target was connected to the J-T circuit by a liquid/gas separator. Because of the large heat load to the target and its long transfer lines, thermal oscillations were observed during the system tests. To eliminate the oscillation, a series of tests and analyses were carried out. This paper describes the phenomena and provides the understanding of the thermal oscillations in the target system.

  7. Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation Drive in AlcatorC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation Drive in AlcatorC-Mod Tokamak Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation...

  8. Heat flow and geothermal gradients of Irian Jaya-Papua New Guinea: Implications for regional hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettis, P.K. ); Pigott, J.D. )

    1990-06-01

    Compilation of published and unpublished bottom hole temperatures (corrected for circulation times) obtained from open files and reports of the Indonesian Petroleum Association, Papua Geologic Survey, and the Southeast Asia Petroleum Society, together with published oceanographic heat flow analyses from the surrounding seas, allow an analysis of the regional heat flow and geothermal gradients of New Guinea. In two dimensions the thermal trends may be described as a pervasive west-northwest striking Cordilleran core of cool (<1 HFU-<2{degree}C/ 100 m) strata surrounded by warm to hotter regions (>2 HFU->4{degree}C/100 m) on the northwest, northeast, east, and southwest. As a first approximation, the heat flow may be viewed as directly proportional to the crustal thickness (as demonstrated from north-south transects across the Central Cordillera), inversely proportional to the age of the ocean crust (offshore), and perturbed by crustal heterogeneities proximal to plate boundaries (e.g., the Northern New Guinea Fault System). As a result, the heat flow distribution affords a record of post-Cretaceous tectonic activities of New Guinea. Using the spatial distribution of geothermal gradients and specific source rock ages, kinetic calculations of hydrocarbon maturities confirmed by recent drilling results suggest thermal variations through space and time that cannot be modeled simply as a function of present day static temperatures. Therefore, in terms of utilizing the present thermal information, hydrocarbon basin exploration strategies must also take into account the tectonically perturbed heat flow history of the region.

  9. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  10. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.

  11. New results of development on high efficiency high gradient superconducting rf cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, Rongli; Li, Z.; Hao, K.; Liu, K.-X.; Zhao, H.-Y.; Adolphsen, C.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the latest results of development on high efficiency high gradient superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Several 1-cell cavities made of large-grain niobium (Nb) were built, processed and tested. Two of these cavities are of the Low Surface Field (LSF) shape. Series of tests were carried out following controlled thermal cycling. Experiments toward zero-field cooling were carried out. The best experimentally achieved results are Eacc = 41 MV/m at Q0 = 6.5×1010 at 1.4 K by a 1-cell 1.3 GHz large-grain Nb TTF shape cavity and Eacc = 49 MV/m at Q0 = 1.5×1010 at 1.8 K by a 1-cell 1.5 GHz large-grain Nb CEBAF upgrade low-loss shape cavity.

  12. Latest Results of ILC High-Gradient R&D 9-cell Cavities at JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rongli Geng

    2008-02-11

    It has been over a year since JLAB started processing and testing ILC 9-cell cavities in the frame work of ILC high-gradient cavity R&D, aiming at the goal of a 35 MV/m gradient at a Q #4; of 1E10 with a yield of 90%. The necessary cavity processing steps include field flatness tuning, electropolishing (EP), hydrogen out-gassing under vacuum, high-pressure water rinsing, clean room assembly, and low temperature bake. These are followed by RF test at 2 Kelvin. Ultrasonic cleaning with Micro-90, an effective post-EP rinsing recipe discovered at JLAB, is routinely used. Seven industry manufactured 9-cell TESLAshape cavities are processed and tested repeatedly. So far, 33 EP cycles are accumulated, corresponding to more than 65 hours of active EP time. An emphasis put on RF testing is to discern cavity quench characteristics, including its nature and its location. Often times, the cavity performance is limited by thermal-magnetic quench instead of field emission. The quench field in some cavities is lower than 20 MV/m and remains unchanged despite repeated EP, implying material and/or fabrication defects. The quench field in some other cavities is high but changes unpredictably after repeated EP, suggesting processing induced defects. Based on our experience and results, several areas are identified where improvement is needed to improve cavity performance as well as yield.

  13. Differential heating: A versatile method for thermal conductivity measurements in high-energy-density matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping, Y.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Sio, H.; Correa, A.; Shepherd, R.; Landen, O.; London, R. A.; Sterne, P. A.; Whitley, H. D.; Fratanduono, D.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, G. W.

    2015-09-04

    We propose a method for thermal conductivity measurements of high energy density matter based on differential heating. A temperature gradient is created either by surface heating of one material or at an interface between two materials by different energy deposition. The subsequent heat conduction across the temperature gradient is observed by various time-resolved probing techniques. Conceptual designs of such measurements using laser heating, proton heating, and x-ray heating are presented. As a result, the sensitivity of the measurements to thermal conductivity is confirmed by simulations.

  14. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  15. thermal energy power conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear ... Climate & Earth Systems Climate Measurement & Modeling ... Tribal Energy Program Intellectual Property Current EC ...

  16. Enhanced magnetic reconnection in the presence of pressure gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Told, D.; Jenko, F.

    2015-06-15

    Magnetic reconnection in the presence of background pressure gradients is studied, with special attention to parallel (compressional) magnetic fluctuations. A process is reported that reconnects fields through coupling of drift-wave-type instabilities with current sheets. Its time scale is set not by the reconnecting field but by inhomogeneities of the background density or temperature. The observed features can be attributed to a pressure-gradient-driven linear instability which interacts with the reconnecting system but is fundamentally different from microtearing. In particular, this mode relies on parallel magnetic fluctuations and the associated drift. For turbulent reconnection, similar or even stronger enhancements are reported. In the solar corona, this yields a critical pressure gradient scale length of about 200 km below which this new process becomes dominant over the tearing instability.

  17. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  18. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  19. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4 Average thermal performance rating of solar thermal collectors by type shipped in 2009 ... Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey." ...

  20. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.

  1. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, W.D.

    1999-06-15

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

  2. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-12-01

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneous materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X-ray CT (all previous thermal-imaging software can only produce 2D results). Because thermal effusivity is an intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity, etc.,more » quantitative imaging of effusivity allowed direct visualization of material's internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one-sided, non contact and sensitive to material's thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the measured

  3. Digital Manufacturing of Gradient Meshed SOFC Sealing Composites with Self-Healing Capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathy Lu; Christopher Story; W.T. Reynolds

    2007-12-21

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) hold great promise for clean power generation. However, high temperature stability and long term durability of the SOFC components have presented serious problems in SOFC technological advancement and commercialization. The seals of the fuel cells are the most challenging area to address. A high temperature gas seal is highly needed which is durable against cracking and gas leakage during thermal cycling and extended operation. This project investigates a novel composite seal by integrating 3D printed shape memory alloy (SMA) wires into a glass matrix. The SMA we use is TiNiHf and the glass matrix we use is SrO-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} (SLABS). Dilatometry shows to be an extremely useful tool in providing the CTEs. It pinpoints regions of different CTEs under simulated SOFC thermal cycles for the same glass. For the studied SLABS glass system, the region with the greatest CTE mismatch between the glass seal and the adjacent components is 40-500 C, the typical heating and cooling regions for SOFCs. Even for low temperature SOFC development, this region is still present and needs to be addressed. We have demonstrated that the proposed SLABS glass has great potential in mitigating the thermal expansion mismatch issues that are limiting the operation life of SOFCs. TiNiHf alloy has been successfully synthesized with the desired particle size for the 3DP process. The TiNiHf SMA shape memory effect very desirably overlaps with the problematic low CTE region of the glass. This supports the design intent that the gradient structure transition, phase transformation toughening, and self-healing of the SMA can be utilized to mitigate/eliminate the seal problem. For the 3DP process, a new binder has been identified to match with the specific chemistry of the SMA particles. This enables us to directly print SMA particles. Neutron diffraction shows to be an extremely useful tool in providing information

  4. Imprinting high-gradient topographical structures onto optical surfaces using magnetorheological finishing: Manufacturing corrective optical elements for high-power laser applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Menapace, Joseph A.; Ehrmann, Paul E.; Bayramian, Andrew J.; Bullington, Amber; Di Nicola, Jean -Michel G.; Haefner, Constantin; Jarboe, Jeffrey; Marshall, Christopher; Schaffers, Kathleen I.; Smith, Cal

    2016-03-15

    Corrective optical elements form an important part of high-precision optical systems. We have developed a method to manufacture high-gradient corrective optical elements for high-power laser systems using deterministic magnetorheological finishing (MRF) imprinting technology. Several process factors need to be considered for polishing ultraprecise topographical structures onto optical surfaces using MRF. They include proper selection of MRF removal function and wheel sizes, detailed MRF tool and interferometry alignment, and optimized MRF polishing schedules. Dependable interferometry also is a key factor in high-gradient component manufacture. A wavefront attenuating cell, which enables reliable measurement of gradients beyond what is attainable using conventional interferometry,more » is discussed. The results of MRF imprinting a 23 μm deep structure containing gradients over 1.6 μm / mm onto a fused-silica window are presented as an example of the technique’s capabilities. As a result, this high-gradient element serves as a thermal correction plate in the high-repetition-rate advanced petawatt laser system currently being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.« less

  5. New High Energy Gradient Concentration Cathode Material | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 6_amine_2011_p.pdf (1.42 MB) More Documents & Publications FY 2011 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D Design of Safer High-Energy Density Materials for Lithium-Ion Cells Developing new high energy gradient concentration cathode material

  6. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-11-05

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneoirs materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X—ray CT (all previous thepnal—imaging software can only produce 20 results) . Because thermal effusivity is an Intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity,more » etc., quantitative imaging of eftusivity allowed direct visualization of material’s internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one—sided, non contact and sensitive to material’s thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the

  7. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  8. Solid state thermal rectifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    None

    2016-07-05

    Thermal rectifiers using linear nanostructures as core thermal conductors have been fabricated. A high mass density material is added preferentially to one end of the nanostructures to produce an axially non-uniform mass distribution. The resulting nanoscale system conducts heat asymmetrically with greatest heat flow in the direction of decreasing mass density. Thermal rectification has been demonstrated for linear nanostructures that are electrical insulators, such as boron nitride nanotubes, and for nanostructures that are conductive, such as carbon nanotubes.

  9. Sandia Thermal Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-11-23

    Thermal analysis in 1-D planar, cylindrical and spherical geometries using control volume finite element spatial discretization with 1st and 2nd order implicit time integrators.

  10. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  11. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2015-06-09

    This presentation provides an update of NREL's battery thermal characterization efforts for the 2015 U.S. Department of Energy Annual Merit Reviews.

  12. Ambient temperature thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, A. N.; Bliss, D. E.; McManis III

    1985-11-26

    An ambient temperature thermal battery having two relatively high temperature melting electrolytes which form a low melting temperature electrolyte upon activation.

  13. Nonequilibrium thermal entanglement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quiroga, Luis; Rodriguez, Ferney J.; Ramirez, Maria E.; Paris, Roberto

    2007-03-15

    Results on heat current, entropy production rate, and entanglement are reported for a quantum system coupled to two different temperature heat reservoirs. By applying a temperature gradient, different quantum states can be found with exactly the same amount of entanglement but different purity degrees and heat currents. Furthermore, a nonequilibrium enhancement-suppression transition behavior of the entanglement is identified.

  14. Thermal-mechanical stability of single crystal oxide refractive concentrators for high-temperature solar thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, D.; Jacobson, S.; Miller, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermo-mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments during the space mission sun/shade transition is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions, and thus provide vital information for the component design. In this paper, a controlled heat flux thermal shock test approach is established for the single crystal oxide materials using a 3.0 kW continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser, with a wavelength 10.6 micron. Thermal fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated and critical temperature gradients are determined under various temperature and heating conditions. The test results show that single crystal sapphire is able to sustain the highest temperature gradient and heating-cooling rate, and thus exhibit the best thermal shock resistance, as compared to the yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttrium aluminum garnet and magnesium oxide.

  15. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  16. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Malecha, Richard F. (Naperville, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Chicago, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  17. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Skulina, K.M.

    1995-01-17

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments in the soft x-ray region. 13 figures.

  18. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, Richard M.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Skulina, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments m the soft x-ray region.

  19. Density gradient effects on transverse shear driven lower hybrid waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DuBois, Ami M.; Thomas, Edward; Amatucci, William E.; Ganguli, Gurudas

    2014-06-15

    Shear driven instabilities are commonly observed in the near-Earth space, particularly in boundary layer plasmas. When the shear scale length (L{sub E}) is much less than the ion gyro-radius (?{sub i}) but greater than the electron gyro-radius (?{sub e}), the electrons are magnetized in the shear layer, but the ions are effectively un-magnetized. The resulting shear driven instability, the electron-ion hybrid (EIH) instability, is investigated in a new interpenetrating plasma configuration in the Auburn Linear EXperiment for Instability Studies. In order to understand the dynamics of magnetospheric boundary layers, the EIH instability is studied in the presence of a density gradient located at the boundary layer between two plasmas. This paper reports on a recent experiment in which electrostatic lower hybrid waves are identified as the EIH instability, and the effect of a density gradient on the instability properties are investigated.

  20. Gradient Plasticity Model and its Implementation into MARMOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, Erin I.; Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Sun, Xin

    2013-08-01

    The influence of strain gradient on deformation behavior of nuclear structural materials, such as boby centered cubic (bcc) iron alloys has been investigated. We have developed and implemented a dislocation based strain gradient crystal plasticity material model. A mesoscale crystal plasticity model for inelastic deformation of metallic material, bcc steel, has been developed and implemented numerically. Continuum Dislocation Dynamics (CDD) with a novel constitutive law based on dislocation density evolution mechanisms was developed to investigate the deformation behaviors of single crystals, as well as polycrystalline materials by coupling CDD and crystal plasticity (CP). The dislocation density evolution law in this model is mechanism-based, with parameters measured from experiments or simulated with lower-length scale models, not an empirical law with parameters back-fitted from the flow curves.

  1. Gradient instabilities of electromagnetic waves in Hall thruster plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomilin, Dmitry

    2013-04-15

    This paper presents a linear analysis of gradient plasma instabilities in Hall thrusters. The study obtains and analyzes the dispersion equation of high-frequency electromagnetic waves based on the two-fluid model of a cold plasma. The regions of parameters corresponding to unstable high frequency modes are determined and the dependence of the increments and intrinsic frequencies on plasma parameters is obtained. The obtained results agree with those of previously published studies.

  2. Radiography to measure the longitudinal density gradients of Pd compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, D.D.

    1992-05-14

    This study used radiography to detect and quantify density gradients in green compacts of Palladium powder. Ultrasonic velocity measurements had been tried previously, but they were affected by material properties, in addition to the density, so that an alternative was sought. The alternative technique used radiographic exposures of a series of standard compacts whose density is known and correlated with the radiographic film density. These correlations are used to predict the density in subsequent compacts.

  3. Atmospheric gradients and the stability of expanding jets. [Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardee, P.E.; Koupelis, T.; Norman, M.L.; Clarke, D.A. Illinois, University, Urbana )

    1991-05-01

    Numerical simulations of adiabatically expanding slab jets in initial static pressure balance with an external atmosphere have been performed and compared to predictions made by a linear analysis of the stability of expanding jets. It is found that jets are stabilized by jet expansion as predicted by the linear analysis. It is also found that an expanding jet can be destabilized by a positive temperature gradient or temperature jump in the surrounding medium which lowers the Mach number defined by the external sound speed. A temperature gradient or jump is more destabilizing than would be predicted by a linear stability analysis. The enhanced instability compared to an isothermal atmosphere with identical pressure gradient is a result of the reduced external Mach number and a result of a higher jet density relative to the density in the external medium and higher ram speed. Other differences between predictions made by the linear theory and the simulations can be understood qualitatively as a result of a change in wave speed as the wave amplitude increases. 12 refs.

  4. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  5. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Elder, Michael G.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  6. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  7. The thermal conductivity of rock under hydrothermal conditions: measurements and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Colin F.; Sass, John H.

    1996-01-24

    The thermal conductivities of most major rock-forming minerals vary with both temperature and confining pressure, leading to substantial changes in the thermal properties of some rocks at the high temperatures characteristic of geothermal systems. In areas with large geothermal gradients, the successful use of near-surface heat flow measurements to predict temperatures at depth depends upon accurate corrections for varying thermal conductivity. Previous measurements of the thermal conductivity of dry rock samples as a function of temperature were inadequate for porous rocks and susceptible to thermal cracking effects in nonporous rocks. We have developed an instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks at temperatures from 20 to 350 °C and confining pressures up to 100 MPa. A transient line-source of heat is applied through a needle probe centered within the rock sample, which in turn is enclosed within a heated pressure vessel with independent controls on pore and confining pressure. Application of this technique to samples of Franciscan graywacke from The Geysers reveals a significant change in thermal conductivity with temperature. At reservoir-equivalent temperatures of 250 °C, the conductivity of the graywacke decreases by approximately 25% relative to the room temperature value. Where heat flow is constant with depth within the caprock overlying the reservoir, this reduction in conductivity with temperature leads to a corresponding increase in the geothermal gradient. Consequently, reservoir temperature are encountered at depths significantly shallower than those predicted by assuming a constant temperature gradient with depth. We have derived general equations for estimating the thermal conductivity of most metamorphic and igneous rocks and some sedimentary rocks at elevated temperature from knowledge of the room temperature thermal conductivity. Application of these equations to geothermal exploration should improve estimates

  8. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  9. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  10. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  11. Effective thermal conductivity in thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranowski, LL; Snyder, GJ; Toberer, ES

    2013-05-28

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from a temperature gradient. Optimizing these devices for maximum power production can be difficult due to the many heat transport mechanisms occurring simultaneously within the TEG. In this paper, we develop a model for heat transport in thermoelectric materials in which an "effective thermal conductivity" (kappa(eff)) encompasses both the one dimensional steady-state Fourier conduction and the heat generation/consumption due to secondary thermoelectric effects. This model is especially powerful in that the value of kappa(eff) does not depend upon the operating conditions of the TEG but rather on the transport properties of the TE materials themselves. We analyze a variety of thermoelectric materials and generator designs using this concept and demonstrate that kappa(eff) predicts the heat fluxes within these devices to 5% of the exact value. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  12. Environmental impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a promising technology for production of energy and usable by-products from solar-generated temperature gradients in the world's oceans. Although considered benign compared to alternative forms of energy generation, deployment of OTEC plants will result in interactions with marine, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments and in socioeconomic interactions with surrounding areas. The Ocean Energy Technology Program of the Department of Energy has funded research to improve the understanding of these interactions. No insurmountable environmental obstacle to OTEC deployment has been uncovered. This document contains a summary of that research for entrepreneurs, utility engineers, and others interested in pursuing OTEC's potential. In addition, it provides a guide to permits, regulations, and licenses applicable to construction of an OTEC plant.

  13. Microfluidic device having an immobilized pH gradient and page...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    pH gradient and page gels for protein separation and analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfluidic device having an immobilized pH gradient and page gels ...

  14. R655-1-8 Temperature Gradient Wells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    R655-1-8 Temperature Gradient Wells Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: R655-1-8 Temperature Gradient...

  15. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  16. Up-gradient particle flux in a drift wave-zonal flow system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, L.; Tynan, G. R.; Thakur, S. C.; Diamond, P. H.; Brandt, C.

    2015-05-15

    We report a net inward, up-gradient turbulent particle flux in a cylindrical plasma when collisional drift waves generate a sufficiently strong sheared azimuthal flow that drives positive (negative) density fluctuations up (down) the background density gradient, resulting in a steepening of the mean density gradient. The results show the existence of a saturation mechanism for drift-turbulence driven sheared flows that can cause up-gradient particle transport and density profile steepening.

  17. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  18. SLIM, Short-pulse Technology for High Gradient Induction Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntz, Floyd; Kardo-Sysoev, A.; Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC

    2008-12-16

    A novel short-pulse concept (SLIM) suited to a new generation of a high gradient induction particle accelerators is described herein. It applies advanced solid state semiconductor technology and modern microfabrication techniques to a coreless induction method of charged particle acceleration first proven on a macro scale in the 1960's. Because this approach avoids use of magnetic materials there is the prospect of such an accelerator working efficiently with accelerating pulses in the nanosecond range and, potentially, at megahertz pulse rates. The principal accelerator section is envisioned as a stack of coreless induction cells, the only active element within each being a single, extremely fast (subnanosecond) solid state opening switch: a Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD). Each coreless induction cell incorporates an electromagnetic pulse compressor in which inductive energy developed within a transmission-line feed structure over a period of tens of nanoseconds is diverted to the acceleration of the passing charge packet for a few nanoseconds by the abrupt opening of the DSRD switch. The duration of this accelerating output pulse--typically two-to-four nanoseconds--is precisely determined by a microfabricated pulse forming line connected to the cell. Because the accelerating pulse is only nanoseconds in duration, longitudinal accelerating gradients approaching 100 MeV per meter are believed to be achievable without inciting breakdown. Further benefits of this approach are that, (1) only a low voltage power supply is required to produce the high accelerating gradient, and, (2) since the DSRD switch is normally closed, voltage stress is limited to a few nanoseconds per period, hence the susceptibility to hostile environment conditions such as ionizing radiation, mismatch (e.g. in medical applications the peak beam current may be low), strong electromagnetic noise levels, etc is expected to be minimal. Finally, we observe the SLIM concept is not limited to linac

  19. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2 Solar thermal collector shipments by type, quantity, revenue, and average price, 2008 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  20. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1 Distribution of domestic solar thermal collector shipments (thousand square feet) 2008 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  1. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by type, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  2. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Shipments of solar thermal collectors ranked by origin and destination, 2009 Origin Top ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  3. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by source, 2000 - 2009 Imports Domestically ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  4. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by disposition, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  5. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7 Percent of solar thermal collector shipments by the 10 largest companies, 2000 - 2009 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  6. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5 Shipments of complete solar thermal collector systems, 2008 and 2009 Shipment ... Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

  7. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 Import shipments of solar thermal collectors by country, 2008 and 2009 (square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  8. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7 Import shipments of solar thermal collectors by type, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  9. Thermal insulations using vacuum panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Burke, Melissa S.

    1991-07-16

    Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

  10. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility HomeNational Solar Thermal Test Facility Permalink Pratt Whitney Rocketdyne Testing Concentrating Solar Power, EC, Energy, Facilities, ...

  11. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers National Solar Thermal Test Facility HomeTag:National Solar Thermal Test Facility Permalink Air Force Research Laboratory Testing ...

  12. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility HomeNational Solar Thermal Test Facility Permalink High-Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production Center for ...

  13. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmack, Jon; Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David; Tonks, Michael; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Harp, Jason; Fielding, Randy; Knight, Collin; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  14. Gradient index liquid crystal devices and method of fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, J.C.; Jacobs, S.

    1991-10-29

    Laser beam apodizers using cholesteric liquid crystals provides soft edge profile by use of two separate cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures with different selective reflection bands which in an overlap region have a gradient index where reflectivity changes as a function of position. The apodizers can be configured as a one-dimensional beam apod INTRODUCTION The U.S. government has rights in the invention under Contract No. DE-FC03-85DP40200 between the University of Rochester and the Department of Energy.

  15. Gradient index liquid crystal devices and method of fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Jae-Cheul; Jacobs, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Laser beam apodizers using cholesteric liquid crystals provides soft edge profile by use of two separate cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures with different selective reflection bands which in an overlap region have a gradient index where reflectivity changes as a function of position. The apodizers can be configured as a one-dimensional beam apod INTRODUCTION The U.S. government has rights in the invention under Contract No. DE-FC03-85DP40200 between the University of Rochester and the Department of Energy.

  16. On the hydrodynamics of salt-gradient solar ponds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zangrando, F. )

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss those hydrodynamical issues that affect the performance of the solar pond as an energy collector and storage system, e.g., mass and energy balance; formation, stability, and maintenance of the gradient layer; energy extraction from the bottom mixed layer; stability of stratified fluids to shearing flows; interface dynamics; and wall effects. Many of these topics are not fully understood and the discussion focuses on the present state of knowledge, some of the engineering correlations available at this time, and the research that is still required to resolve the relevant issues.

  17. Fabrication of high gradient insulators by stack compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, John Richardson; Sanders, Dave; Hawkins, Steven Anthony; Norona, Marcelo

    2014-04-29

    Individual layers of a high gradient insulator (HGI) are first pre-cut to their final dimensions. The pre-cut layers are then stacked to form an assembly that is subsequently pressed into an HGI unit with the desired dimension. The individual layers are stacked, and alignment is maintained, using a sacrificial alignment tube that is removed after the stack is hot pressed. The HGI's are used as high voltage vacuum insulators in energy storage and transmission structures or devices, e.g. in particle accelerators and pulsed power systems.

  18. High and ulta-high gradient quadrupole magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunk, W.O.; Walz, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    Small bore conventional dc quadrupoles with apertures from 1 to 2.578cm were designed and prototypes built and measured. New fabrication techniques including the use of wire electric discharge milling (EDM) to economically generate the pole tip contours and aperture tolerances are described. Magnetic measurement data from a prototype of a 1cm aperture quadrupole with possible use in future e/sup +//e/sup -/ super colliders are presented. At a current of 400A, the lens achieved a gradient of 2.475 T/cm, and had an efficiency of 76.6%.

  19. Growth of Sb-Bi gradient single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozhemyakin, G. N. Lutskiy, D. V.; Rom, M. A.; Mateychenko, P. V.

    2008-12-15

    The growth conditions and structural quality of Sb-Bi gradient single crystals with Bi content from 2 to 18 at %, grown by the Czochralski method with solid phase feed, are investigated. Bi distribution in the crystals along their pulling direction are studied by electron probe microanalysis and the change in the interplanar spacing is analyzed by double-crystal X-ray diffraction. It is established that the pulling rate and feed mass affect the Bi distribution in Sb-Bi single crystals.

  20. Electron geodesic acoustic modes in electron temperature gradient mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Johan; Nordman, Hans [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Singh, Raghvendra; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, the first demonstration of an electron branch of the geodesic acoustic mode (el-GAM) driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes is presented. The work is based on a fluid description of the ETG mode retaining non-adiabatic ions and the dispersion relation for el-GAMs driven nonlinearly by ETG modes is derived. A new saturation mechanism for ETG turbulence through the interaction with el-GAMs is found, resulting in a significantly enhanced ETG turbulence saturation level compared to the mixing length estimate.

  1. Underhood Thermal Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Underhood Thermal Performance This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - Computational Fluid Dynamics Project Leader Background As vehicle technology advances, automakers need a better understanding of underhood heat loads, especially as they relate to emissions and fuel efficiency. Manufacturers of heavy-duty vehicles and off-road machines have similar concerns. Ineffective underhood thermal management can lead to higher emissions, reduced

  2. Turbine Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Thermal Management Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology advances to current land-based turbines are directly linked to our country's economic and energy security. Technical advancement for any type of gas turbine generally implies better performance, greater efficiency, and extended component life. From the standpoint of cycle efficiency and durability, this suggests that a continual

  3. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H.

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  4. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused bymore » a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.« less

  5. Experiment and analysis of practical-scale solar pond stabilized with salt gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanayama, Kimio; Inaba, Hideo; Baba, Hiromu; Fukuda, Takeyuki )

    1991-01-01

    A large-scale solar pond with salty water was constructed in the suburbs of Kitami in 1985. Its performance has been measured and analyzed by the authors after that. The solar pond body is circular of 44 m diameter, and the pond water is of 3 min total depth. After, 15 months, the depth of the salt gradient zone (S.G.Z.) was thinned by 10 cm in the top and by 20 cm in the bottom due to convection of the top and bottom zones. The temperature in the convective storage zone (C.S.Z.) reached 70C, its maximum, at the beginning of September in 1985, however, it was not as high in 1986 due to contamination of the pond water. The temperature of the storage zone was reduced from November to April due to ice covering on the pond surface. The collected heat yielded largely and the collection efficiency reached more than 30% in summer, but decreased to negative values in winter. The thermal performance of the solar pond was predicted by a simulation calculation, and the calculated result compared well with the measurements.

  6. Effect of the field gradient of an intense electromagnetic beam on electrons and atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askaryan, G.A.

    1991-01-02

    It is demonstrated that the transverse inhomogeneity of a strong electromagnetic ray can exert a strong effect on electrons and atoms of a medium. Thus, if the wave frequency exceeds the proper frequency the electron oscillations (in a plasma or in atoms), the electrons or atoms will be forced-out of the ray field. At sub-resonance frequencies the particles will be pulled in, the force being especially large at resonance. As a result of this effect a rarefication or compression may occur in the ray or in the focus of the radiation; moreover the pressure gradient near the hole connecting the evacuated vessel with the atmosphere may be maintained and a channel conducting charged particles may be created in the medium. It is mentioned that a strong thermal, ionizing and separating effect of ray on the medium can be used for setting up wave guide conditions of propagation and for eliminating divergency of the ray (self-focusing). It is noted that hollow rays may ensure directed flow and ejection of the plasma along the ray axis for plasma transport and creation of plasma current conductors. The possibilities of acceleration and heating of plasma electrons by a modulated ray are indicated.

  7. Stiffness, thermal expansion, and thermal bending formulation of stiffened, fiber-reinforced composite panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collier, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for formulating stiffness terms and thermal coefficients of stiffened, fiber-reinforced composite panels. The method is robust enough to handle panels with general cross sectional shapes, including those which are unsymmetric and/or unbalanced. Nonlinear, temperature and load dependent constitutive material data of each laminate are used to 'build-up' the stiffened panel membrane, bending, and membrane-bending coupling stiffness terms and thermal coefficients. New thermal coefficients are introduced to quantify panel response from through-the-thickness temperature gradients. A technique of implementing this capability with a single plane of shell finite elements using the MSC/NASTRAN analysis program (FEA) is revealed that provides accurate solutions of entire airframes or engines with coarsely meshed models. An example of a composite, hat-stiffened panel is included to demonstrate errors that occur when an unsymmetric panel is symmetrically formulated as traditionally done. The erroneous results and the correct ones produced from this method are compared to analysis from discretely meshed three-dimensional FEA. 14 refs.

  8. A linear helicon plasma device with controllable magnetic field gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barada, Kshitish K.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Saxena, Y. C. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-06-15

    Current free double layers (CFDLs) are localized potential structures having spatial dimensions - Debye lengths and potential drops of more than local electron temperature across them. CFDLs do not need a current for them to be sustained and hence they differ from the current driven double layers. Helicon antenna produced plasmas in an expanded chamber along with an expanding magnetic field have shown the existence of CFDL near the expansion region. A helicon plasma device has been designed, fabricated, and installed in the Institute for Plasma Research, India to study the role of maximum magnetic field gradient as well as its location with respect to the geometrical expansion region of the chamber in CFDL formation. The special feature of this machine consisting of two chambers of different radii is its capability of producing different magnetic field gradients near the physical boundary between the two chambers either by changing current in one particular coil in the direction opposite to that in other coils and/or by varying the position of this particular coil. Although, the machine is primarily designed for CFDL experiments, it is also capable of carrying out many basic plasma physics experiments such as wave propagation, wave coupling, and plasma instabilities in a varying magnetic field topology. In this paper, we will present the details of the machine construction, its specialties, and some preliminary results about the production and characterization of helicon plasma in this machine.

  9. Geothermal regime and thermal history of the Llanos Basin, Columbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachu, S.; Underschultz, J.R.; Ramon, J.C.; Villegas, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Llanos basin is a siliciclastic foreland sub-Andean sedimentary basin located in Columbia between the Cordillera Oriental and the Guyana Precambrian shield. Data on bottom-hole temperature, lithology, porosity, and vitrinite reflectance from all 318 wells drilled in the central and southern parts of the basin were used to analyze its geothermal regime and thermal history. Average geothermal gradients in the Llanos basin decrease generally with depth and westward toward the fold and thrust belt. The geothermal regime is controlled by a moderate, generally westward-decreasing basement heat flow, by depositional and compaction factors, and, in places, by advection by formation waters. Compaction leads to increased thermal conductivity with depth, whereas westward downdip flow in deep sandstone formations may exert a cooling effect in the central-western part of the basin. Vitrinite reflectance variation with depth shows a major discontinuity at the pre-Cretaceous unconformity. Areally, vitrinite reflectance increases southwestward in Paleozoic strata and northwestward in post-Paleozoic strata. These patterns indicate that the thermal history of the basin probably includes three thermal events that led to peaks in oil generation: a Paleozoic event in the southwest, a failed Cretaceous rifting event in the west, and an early Tertiary back-arc event in the west. Rapid cooling since the last thermal event is possibly caused by subhorizontal subduction of cold oceanic lithospheric plate.

  10. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.