National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for benzene volume percent

  1. spaceheat_percent2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Heating Tables (Percent of U.S. Households; 24 pages, 133 kb) Contents Pages HC3-1b. Space Heating by Climate Zone, Percent of U.S. Households, 2001 2 HC3-2b. Space Heating by Year of Construction, Percent of U.S. Households, 2001 2 HC3-3b. Space Heating by Household Income, Percent of U.S. Households, 2001 2 HC3-4b. Space Heating by Type of Housing Unit, Percent of U.S. Households, 2001 2 HC3-5b. Space Heating by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Percent of U.S. Households, 2001 2

  2. Fuel Dependence of Benzene Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, H; Eddings, E; Sarofim, A; Westbrook, C

    2008-07-14

    The relative importance of formation pathways for benzene, an important precursor to soot formation, was determined from the simulation of 22 premixed flames for a wide range of equivalence ratios (1.0 to 3.06), fuels (C{sub 1}-C{sub 12}), and pressures (20 to 760 torr). The maximum benzene concentrations in 15 out of these flames were well reproduced within 30% of the experimental data. Fuel structural properties were found to be critical for benzene production. Cyclohexanes and C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} fuels were found to be among the most productive in benzene formation; and long-chain normal paraffins produce the least amount of benzene. Other properties, such as equivalence ratio and combustion temperatures, were also found to be important in determining the amount of benzene produced in flames. Reaction pathways for benzene formation were examined critically in four premixed flames of structurally different fuels of acetylene, n-decane, butadiene, and cyclohexane. Reactions involving precursors, such as C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species, were examined. Combination reactions of C{sub 3} species were identified to be the major benzene formation routes with the exception of the cyclohexane flame, in which benzene is formed exclusively from cascading fuel dehydrogenation via cyclohexene and cyclohexadiene intermediates. Acetylene addition makes a minor contribution to benzene formation, except in the butadiene flame where C{sub 4}H{sub 5} radicals are produced directly from the fuel, and in the n-decane flame where C{sub 4}H{sub 5} radicals are produced from large alkyl radical decomposition and H atom abstraction from the resulting large olefins.

  3. Collision lifetimes of polyatomic molecules at low temperatures: Benzene–benzene vs benzene–rare gas atom collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Jie; Krems, Roman V.; Li, Zhiying

    2014-10-28

    We use classical trajectory calculations to study the effects of the interaction strength and the geometry of rigid polyatomic molecules on the formation of long-lived collision complexes at low collision energies. We first compare the results of the calculations for collisions of benzene molecules with rare gas atoms He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. The comparison illustrates that the mean lifetimes of the collision complexes increase monotonically with the strength of the atom–molecule interaction. We then compare the results of the atom–benzene calculations with those for benzene–benzene collisions. The comparison illustrates that the mean lifetimes of the benzene–benzene collision complexes are significantly reduced due to non-ergodic effects prohibiting the molecules from sampling the entire configuration space. We find that the thermally averaged lifetimes of the benzene–benzene collisions are much shorter than those for Xe with benzene and similar to those for Ne with benzene.

  4. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1995-12-19

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50 C to 300 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered. 2 figs.

  5. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50.degree. C. to 300.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered.

  6. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  7. Norwich Public Utilities- Zero Percent Financing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In partnership with several local banks, Norwich Public Utilities (NPU) is offering a zero percent loan to commercial and industrial customers for eligible energy efficiency improvement projects....

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W Withheld. a Pipeline and Distribution Use volumes include Line Loss, defined as known volumes of natural gas that were the result of leaks, damage, accidents, migration, andor ...

  9. Low level benzene exposure in Sweden: effect on blood elements and body burden of benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berlin, M.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements for benzene exposure were performed for different work places. In addition, breath benzene concentrations were measured in different occupations in order to establish toxico-kinetics of benzene in man; chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of exposed workers were also examined. Smoking appears to result in a large increase in benzene concentration in exhaled breath. The smoke from one cigarette contains 60-80 micrograms of benzene. It was found that exposure levels of 10 ppm are rather uncommon among workers handling gasoline or gasoline equipment. It was concluded that the gasoline load of road tankers cannot be responsible for chromosome changes of the driver, as milk truck drivers showed the same changes. These results did not prove that benzene was the cause of the observed changes. Smoking is the confounding factor, with a potency of at least the same order of magnitude as benzene. In addition, our present knowledge about mechanisms of benzene is not sufficiently developed to permit quantitative conclusions as to the human health risks.

  10. Polyfunctional catalyst for processiing benzene fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Byakov; B.D. Zubitskii; B.G. Tryasunov; I.Ya. Petrov

    2009-05-15

    A by-product of the coke industry is a raw benzene fraction benzene- 1 which may serve as for catalytic processes. The paper reports a study on the influence of the composition and temperatures on the activity and selectivity of NiO-V{sub 2}O{sub 6}-MoO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts and the corresponding binary and tertiary subsystems are studied by a pulse method in model reactions; the hydrodealkylating of toluene and the hydrodesulfurizing of thioprhene. The optimal catalyst composition is established. The new catalyst is compared with industrial catalysts.

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Alaska - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S2. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alaska, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 269 277 185 R 159 170 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 127,417 112,268

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Connecticut - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S7. Summary statistics for natural gas - Connecticut, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 District of Columbia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S9. Summary statistics for natural gas - District of Columbia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Indiana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S16. Summary statistics for natural gas - Indiana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 620 914 819 R 921 895 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 6,802 9,075

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Maryland - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S22. Summary statistics for natural gas - Maryland, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7 8 9 7 7 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 43 34 44 32 20 From Oil

  16. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Massachusetts - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S23. Summary statistics for natural gas - Massachusetts, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Minnesota - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S25. Summary statistics for natural gas - Minnesota, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  18. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Nebraska - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S29. Summary statistics for natural gas - Nebraska, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 276 322 270 R 357 310 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 2,092 1,854

  19. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 New Hampshire - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S31. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Hampshire, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  20. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 North Carolina - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S35. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Carolina, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  1. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    50 North Dakota - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S36. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Dakota, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 188 239 211 200 200 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  2. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 South Carolina - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S42. Summary statistics for natural gas - South Carolina, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  3. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Washington - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S49. Summary statistics for natural gas - Washington, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    80 Wisconsin - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S51. Summary statistics for natural gas - Wisconsin, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    R Revised data. a Pipeline and Distribution Use volumes include Line Loss, defined as known volumes of natural gas that were the result of leaks, damage, accidents, migration, and...

  6. District of Columbia Natural Gas Percent Sold to The Commercial...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by Local Distribution Companies (Percent) District of Columbia Natural Gas Percent Sold to The Commercial Sectors by Local Distribution Companies (Percent) Decade Year-0 ...

  7. Pilot-Scale Benzene Retention and Release Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marek, J.C.

    2003-11-10

    During the initial months of In-Tank Precipitation radioactive operation in 1995 the process experienced high rates of tetraphenylborate decomposition with assumed corresponding high rates of benzene generation. In March 1996 after a two month quiescent period, a water addition to Tank 48H resulted in an unexpected benzene release to the tank vapor phase. This was the first time a low energy input resulted in a significant release rate. This led to questions about how benzene, generated in-situ by TPB decomposition, was retained in the surrounding potassium tetraphenylborate slurry. It was postulated the retention mechanism may have changed during the quiescent period prior to March so the benzene present became readily releasable to the vapor phase with low energy input to the slurry or that enough benzene accumulated that some of it was in a different, more releasable form. Readily releasable is a qualitative term defined as a rapid release of benzene at a rate approaching evaporation of a free benzene layer. It is intended to distinguish between benzene in a form with high liquid phase resistance to mass transfer diffusion controlled from benzene in a form with minimal liquid phase resistance to mass transfer free benzene layer evaporation. If a readily releasable form of benzene was present, the vapor space profile during release tests was anticipated to have an initial benzene vapor space concentration peak followed by a lower vapor concentration, longer duration release.

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Alabama - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S1. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alabama, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,026 7,063 6,327 R 6,165 6,118 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Arkansas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S4. Summary statistics for natural gas - Arkansas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,397 8,388 8,538 R 9,843 10,150 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 California - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S5. Summary statistics for natural gas - California, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 1,580 1,308 1,423 R 1,335 1,118 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Colorado - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S6. Summary statistics for natural gas - Colorado, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 28,813 30,101 32,000 R 32,468 38,346 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Florida - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S10. Summary statistics for natural gas - Florida, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 17,182 16,459 19,742

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Georgia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S11. Summary statistics for natural gas - Georgia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Illinois - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S15. Summary statistics for natural gas - Illinois, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 50 40 40 R 34 36 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells E 1,697 2,114

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Iowa - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S17. Summary statistics for natural gas - Iowa, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0

  16. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Kansas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S18. Summary statistics for natural gas - Kansas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 22,145 25,758 24,697 R 23,792 24,354 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Kentucky - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S19. Summary statistics for natural gas - Kentucky, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 17,670 14,632 17,936 R 19,494 19,256 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  18. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Louisiana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S20. Summary statistics for natural gas - Louisiana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 19,137 21,235 19,792 R 19,528 19,251 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  19. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Maine - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S21. Summary statistics for natural gas - Maine, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0

  20. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Michigan - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S24. Summary statistics for natural gas - Michigan, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 10,100 11,100 10,900 R 10,550 10,500 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  1. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Mississippi - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S26. Summary statistics for natural gas - Mississippi, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 1,979 5,732 1,669 R 1,967 1,645 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  2. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Missouri - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S27. Summary statistics for natural gas - Missouri, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 53 100 R 26 28 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 R 8 8 From

  3. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Montana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S28. Summary statistics for natural gas - Montana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,059 6,477 6,240 5,754 5,754 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Nevada - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S30. Summary statistics for natural gas - Nevada, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 R 4 4 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 3 From Oil Wells

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 New Jersey - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S32. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Jersey, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 New Mexico - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S33. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Mexico, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,748 32,302 28,206 R 27,073 27,957 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 New York - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S34. Summary statistics for natural gas - New York, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,736 6,157 7,176 R 6,902 7,119 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Ohio - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S37. Summary statistics for natural gas - Ohio, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 34,931 46,717 35,104 R 32,664 32,967 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Oklahoma - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S38. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oklahoma, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,000 41,238 40,000 39,776 40,070 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Oregon - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S39. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oregon, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 26 24 27 R 26 28 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 1,407 1,344 770 770

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Pennsylvania - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S40. Summary statistics for natural gas - Pennsylvania, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,500 54,347 55,136 R 53,762 70,400 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Rhode Island - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S41. Summary statistics for natural gas - Rhode Island, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Tennessee - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S44. Summary statistics for natural gas - Tennessee, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 230 210 212 R 1,089 1,024 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 5,144

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Texas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S45. Summary statistics for natural gas - Texas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 95,014 100,966 96,617 97,618 98,279 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Utah - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S46. Summary statistics for natural gas - Utah, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,075 6,469 6,900 R 7,030 7,275 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 328,135

  16. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Vermont - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S47. Summary statistics for natural gas - Vermont, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Virginia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S48. Summary statistics for natural gas - Virginia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,470 7,903 7,843 R 7,956 7,961 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  18. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 West Virginia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S50. Summary statistics for natural gas - West Virginia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 52,498 56,813 50,700 R 54,920 60,000 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals

  19. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    as known volumes of natural gas that were the result of leaks, damage, accidents, migration, andor blow down. Notes: Totals may not add due to independent rounding. Prices are...

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Carolina...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Represented by the Price (Percent) Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Carolina Represented by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep...

  1. The benzene metabolite trans,trans-muconaldehyde blocks gap junction intercellular communication by cross-linking connexin43

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivedal, Edgar Leithe, Edward

    2008-11-01

    Benzene is used at large volumes in many different human activities. Hematotoxicity and cancer-causation as a result of benzene exposure was recognized many years ago, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Aberrant regulation of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) has been linked to both cancer induction and interference with normal hematopoietic development. We have previously suggested that inhibition of GJIC may play a role in benzene toxicity since benzene metabolites were found to block GJIC, the ring-opened trans,trans-muconaldehyde (MUC) being the most potent metabolite. In the present work we have studied the molecular mechanisms underlying the MUC-induced inhibition of gap junctional communication. We show that MUC induces cross-linking of the gap junction protein connexin43 and that this is likely to be responsible for the induced inhibition of GJIC, as well as the loss of connexin43 observed in Western blots. We also show that glutaraldehyde possesses similar effects as MUC, and we compare the effects to that of formaldehyde. The fact that glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde have been associated with induction of leukemia as well as disturbance of hematopoiesis, strengthens the possible link between the effect of MUC on gap junctions, and the toxic effects of benzene.

  2. Biofiltration control of VOC emissions: Butane and benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory studies were conducted on the biological elimination of n-butane and benzene from air streams using activated sludge-treated compost biofilters. Four types of experimental biofilter systems were developed: a bench scale packed tower system used primarily for kinetic studies; a small scale column system used to study the effects of different filter media on n-butane removal; a three stage system used to study benzene elimination; and a static batch biofilter system used to study the effects of temperature, compost water content, compost pH, and initial benzene concentrations on benzene elimination. Removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained for n-butane. Removal followed first order kinetics at inlet concentrations less than 25 ppM n-butane and zero order kinetics above 100 ppM n-butane. Removal of benzene followed fractional order kinetics for inlet concentrations from 15 to 200 ppM benzene. Thus, the removal of benzene is both mass transfer and bioreaction limited for the concentration range studied. The removal efficiency of benzene was found to be highly dependent on compost water content, compost pH, and temperature. Compost showed a low capacity for benzene removal, which suggested that degradation of these hydrocarbons required different species of microorganisms.

  3. Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Benzene near their Glass Transition Temperatures Investigated using Inert Gas Permeation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mobility of Supercooled liquid...

  4. Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal ...

  5. Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal...

  6. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  7. Adsorption characteristics of benzene on biosolid adsorbent and commercial activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hung-Lung Chiang; Kuo-Hsiung Lin; Chih-Yu Chen; Ching-Guan Choa; Ching-Shyung Hwu; Nina Lai

    2006-05-15

    This study selected biosolids from a petrochemical wastewater treatment plant as the raw material. The sludge was immersed in 0.5-5 M of zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) solutions and pyrolyzed at different temperatures and times. Results indicated that the 1-M ZnCl{sub 2}-immersed biosolids pyrolyzed at 500{sup o}C for 30 min could be reused and were optimal biosolid adsorbents for benzene adsorption. Pore volume distribution analysis indicated that the mesopore contributed more than the macropore and micropore in the biosolid adsorbent. The benzene adsorption capacity of the biosolid adsorbent was 65 and 55% of the G206 (granular-activated carbon) and BPL (coal-based activated carbon; Calgon, Carbon Corp.) activated carbons, respectively. Data from the adsorption and desorption cycles indicated that the benzene adsorption capacity of the biosolid adsorbent was insignificantly reduced compared with the first-run capacity of the adsorbent; therefore, the biosolid adsorbent could be reused as a commercial adsorbent, although its production cost is high. 18 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Texas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Texas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  9. Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  10. New York Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New York Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  11. Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1999; Exceeds Goal | Department of Energy Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal November 3, 2005 - 12:35pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy (DOE) announced today that the federal government has exceeded its goal of obtaining 2.5 percent of its electricity needs from renewable energy sources by September 30, 2005. The largest energy

  12. Soot precursor measurements in benzene and hexane diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Furuhata, T.; Amagai, K.; Arai, M.

    2008-08-15

    To clarify the mechanism of soot formation in diffusion flames of liquid fuels, measurements of soot and its precursors were carried out. Sooting diffusion flames formed by a small pool combustion equipment system were used for this purpose. Benzene and hexane were used as typical aromatic and paraffin fuels. A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method was used to obtain spatial distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are considered as soot particles. Spatial distributions of soot in test flames were measured by a laser-induced incandescence (LII) method. Soot diameter was estimated from the temporal change of LII intensity. A region of transition from PAHs to soot was defined from the results of LIF and LII. Flame temperatures, PAH species, and soot diameters in this transition region were investigated for both benzene and hexane flames. The results show that though the flame structures of benzene and hexane were different, the temperature in the PAHs-soot transition region of the benzene flame was similar to that of the hexane flame. Furthermore, the relationship between the PAH concentrations measured by gas chromatography in both flames and the PAH distributions obtained from LIF are discussed. It was found that PAHs with smaller molecular mass, such as benzene and toluene, remained in both the PAHs-soot transition and sooting regions, and it is thought that molecules heavier than pyrene are the leading candidates for soot precursor formation. (author)

  13. Products of the Benzene + O(3P) Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Selby, Talitha M.; Meloni, Giovanni; Trevitt, Adam J.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Krylov, Anna I.; Sirjean, Baptiste; Dames, Enoch; Wang, Hai

    2009-12-21

    The gas-phase reaction of benzene with O(3P) is of considerable interest for modeling of aromatic oxidation, and also because there exist fundamental questions concerning the prominence of intersystem crossing in the reaction. While its overall rate constant has been studied extensively, there are still significant uncertainties in the product distribution. The reaction proceeds mainly through the addition of the O atom to benzene, forming an initial triplet diradical adduct, which can either dissociate to form the phenoxy radical and H atom, or undergo intersystem crossing onto a singlet surface, followed by a multiplicity of internal isomerizations, leading to several possible reaction products. In this work, we examined the product branching ratios of the reaction between benzene and O(3P) over the temperature range of 300 to 1000 K and pressure range of 1 to 10 Torr. The reactions were initiated by pulsed-laser photolysis of NO2 in the presence of benzene and helium buffer in a slow-flow reactor, and reaction products were identified by using the multiplexed chemical kinetics photoionization mass spectrometer operating at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Phenol and phenoxy radical were detected and quantified. Cyclopentadiene and cyclopentadienyl radical were directly identified for the first time. Finally, ab initio calculations and master equation/RRKM modeling were used to reproduce the experimental branching ratios, yielding pressure-dependent rate expressions for the reaction channels, including phenoxy + H, phenol, cyclopentadiene + CO, which are proposed for kinetic modeling of benzene oxidation.

  14. Effect of ozonation on the composition of crude coal-tar benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F.

    2007-05-15

    The effect of ozonation on the composition of crude benzene produced by the coal-tar chemical industry was studied.

  15. New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev

    2009-07-15

    The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

  16. Table 2. Percent of Households with Vehicles, Selected Survey...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Percent of Households with Vehicles, Selected Survey Years " ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",85.5450237,89.00343643,88.75545852,89.42917548,87.25590956,92.08...

  17. Arizona - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Arizona - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S3. Summary statistics for natural gas - Arizona, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 5 5 5 5 5 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 183 168 117 72 106 From

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of the effects of salts on the aggregation properties of benzene in water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P. E.

    2003-07-16

    The specific aims of the project were: to provide an atomic level description of the interactions between benzene, water and ions in solutions. To determine the degree of association between two benzene molecules in aqueous and salt solutions. To investigate the structure and dynamics of the interface between benzene and water or salt solution.

  19. Exposure Evaluation for Benzene, Lead and Noise in Vehicle and Equipment Repair Shops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, Lynn C.

    2013-04-10

    An exposure assessment was performed at the equipment and vehicle maintenance repair shops operating at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site, in Richland, Washington. The maintenance shops repair and maintain vehicles and equipment used in support of the Hanford cleanup mission. There are three general mechanic shops and one auto body repair shop. The mechanics work on heavy equipment used in construction, cranes, commercial motor vehicles, passenger-type vehicles in addition to air compressors, generators, and farm equipment. Services include part fabrication, installation of equipment, repair and maintenance work in the engine compartment, and tire and brake services. Work performed at the auto body shop includes painting and surface preparation which involves applying body filler and sanding. 8-hour time-weighted-average samples were collected for benzene and noise exposure and task-based samples were collected for lead dust work activities involving painted metal surfaces. Benzene samples were obtained using 3M™ 3520 sampling badges and were analyzed for additional volatile organic compounds. These compounds were selected based on material safety data sheet information for the aerosol products used by the mechanics for each day of sampling. The compounds included acetone, ethyl ether, toluene, xylene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone, and trichloroethylene. Laboratory data for benzene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone and trichloroethylene were all below the reporting detection limit. Airborne concentrations for acetone, ethyl ether, toluene and xylene were all less than 10% of their occupational exposure limit. The task-based samples obtained for lead dusts were submitted for a metal scan analysis to identify other metals that might be present. Laboratory results for lead dusts were all below the reporting detection limit and airborne concentration for the other metals observed in the samples were less than 10% of the occupational exposure limit. Noise dosimetry sampling was performed on a random basis and was representative of the different work activities within the four shops. Twenty three percent of the noise samples exceeded the occupational exposure limit of 85 decibels for an 8-hour time-weightedaverage. Work activities where noise levels were higher included use of impact wrenches and grinding wheels.

  20. "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review, 2014" "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated" "Gross Domestic Product" "Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2)",0.9204312786,45.77777778 "Petroleum" "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a)",37.71300779,17.33333333 "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil

  1. U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Deliveries (Percent) U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's 100 100 100 100 100 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas

  2. BOSS Measures the Universe to One-Percent Accuracy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BOSS Measures the Universe to One-Percent Accuracy BOSS Measures the Universe to One-Percent Accuracy The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey makes the most precise calibration yet of the universe's "standard ruler" January 8, 2014 Contact: Paul Preuss, Paul_Preuss@lbl.gov , +1 415-272-3253 BOSS-BAOv1.jpg Baryon acoustic oscillations (gray spheres), which descend from waves of increased density in the very early universe, are where galaxies have a tendency to cluster or align -- an

  3. Los Alamos reduces water use by 26 percent in 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos reduces water use Los Alamos reduces water use by 26 percent in 2014 The Lab decreased its water usage by 26 percent, with about one-third of the reduction attributable to using reclaimed water to cool a supercomputing center. March 16, 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and

  4. Benzene distribution in product streams from in-tank processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.

    1987-01-15

    Benzene is the major product of radiolytic decomposition of tetraphenylborate salts during in-tank salt decontamination. Its production rate has been measured at the Savannah River Laboratory (SR) and at the University of Florida under various conditions of importance to the in-tank process. Recent work has been concerned with the extent of decomposition for long storage periods, and the composition of the product streams from the process. The major results from this work are: the stored potassium tetraphenylborate precipitate will decompose at a rate of 7.3 {plus minus} 1.1% per year; the major products of the decomposition are benzene, phenol, biphenyl, and phenylboric acid; decomposition is directly proportional to the total dose and is unaffected by dose rate; the decomposition produces acidic compounds which will cause a decrease in the pH of the storage tank. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in District of Columbia

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Represented by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 -- -- 0 0 0 0 0 2010's

  6. Tip-contact related low-bias negative differential resistance and rectifying effects in benzene–porphyrin–benzene molecular junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Jue-Fei; Zhou, Liping E-mail: leigao@suda.edu.cn; Liu, Man; Yan, Qiang; Han, Qin; Gao, Lei E-mail: leigao@suda.edu.cn

    2014-11-07

    The electronic transport properties of benzene–porphyrin–benzene (BPB) molecules coupled to gold (Au) electrodes were investigated. By successively removing the front-end Au atoms, several BPB junctions with different molecule-electrode contact symmetries were constructed. The calculated current–voltage (I–V) curves depended strongly on the contact configurations between the BPB molecules and the Au electrodes. In particular, a significant low-voltage negative differential resistance effect appeared at ?0.3 V in the junctions with pyramidal electrodes on both sides. Along with the breaking of this tip-contact symmetry, the low-bias negative differential resistance effect gradually disappeared. This tip-contact may be ideal for use in the design of future molecular devices because of its similarity with experimental processes.

  7. Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.49 2.52 2.65 2.72 2.59 2.44 2.52 2000's 2.60 2.62 2.77 2.72 2.73 2.66 2.68 2.73 2.85 2.79 2010's 2.57 2.66 2.63 2.86 2.88 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  8. Mississippi Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Mississippi Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.58 0.55 0.55 0.52 2000's 0.54 0.59 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.51 0.49 0.47 0.49 0.49 2010's 0.57 0.52 0.47 0.51 0.56 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  9. Missouri Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Missouri Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.71 2.53 2.58 2.62 2.56 2.45 2.37 2000's 2.31 2.44 2.34 2.26 2.25 2.21 2.18 2.15 2.33 2.22 2010's 2.25 2.18 2.00 2.17 2.27 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  10. Montana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Montana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.41 0.39 0.41 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42 2000's 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.40 0.41 0.41 0.45 0.42 0.44 0.46 2010's 0.44 0.46 0.46 0.42 0.42 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  11. Nebraska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Nebraska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.97 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.90 0.86 2000's 0.85 0.98 0.90 0.83 0.79 0.79 0.82 0.82 0.87 0.84 2010's 0.84 0.84 0.75 0.84 0.83 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  12. Nevada Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Nevada Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.42 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.51 0.66 0.61 2000's 0.60 0.68 0.65 0.65 0.75 0.75 0.87 0.81 0.79 0.81 2010's 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.85 0.69 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  13. New Hampshire Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Hampshire Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.13 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.14 2000's 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.16 0.15 0.16 0.15 0.16 0.14 0.15 2010's 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  14. New Jersey Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Jersey Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.95 4.47 4.01 4.25 4.35 4.35 4.43 2000's 4.40 4.51 4.29 4.80 4.77 4.79 4.51 4.83 4.51 4.73 2010's 4.58 4.53 4.61 4.62 4.87 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  15. New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.64 0.64 0.59 0.64 0.74 0.79 0.75 2000's 0.72 0.73 0.69 0.62 0.71 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.69 0.68 2010's 0.74 0.73 0.78 0.74 0.64 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  16. Ohio Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Ohio Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 7.14 7.08 7.38 7.15 7.11 6.56 6.73 2000's 6.88 6.47 6.57 6.75 6.59 6.69 6.23 6.34 6.27 6.12 2010's 5.93 6.07 6.05 6.07 6.30 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  17. Oklahoma Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Oklahoma Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.58 1.43 1.42 1.46 1.44 1.47 1.30 2000's 1.34 1.35 1.37 1.29 1.22 1.23 1.21 1.27 1.35 1.30 2010's 1.37 1.30 1.18 1.35 1.36 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  18. Oregon Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Oregon Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.60 0.60 0.58 0.63 0.65 0.76 0.82 2000's 0.78 0.80 0.79 0.73 0.79 0.82 0.94 0.91 0.92 0.94 2010's 0.85 0.99 1.04 0.94 0.81 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  19. Pennsylvania Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Pennsylvania Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 5.43 5.54 5.40 5.32 5.27 4.82 5.11 2000's 5.26 5.01 4.89 5.22 5.09 5.08 4.71 4.90 4.69 4.76 2010's 4.68 4.66 4.76 4.73 5.01 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  20. Colorado Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Colorado Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.14 2.05 2.15 2.12 2.32 2.45 2.37 2000's 2.33 2.59 2.64 2.45 2.48 2.57 2.73 2.77 2.74 2.70 2010's 2.74 2.76 2.79 2.76 2.60 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  1. Delaware Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Delaware Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.17 0.18 0.18 0.19 0.18 0.17 0.19 2000's 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.21 2010's 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.22 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  2. Florida Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Florida Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.26 0.31 0.29 2000's 0.30 0.33 0.31 0.31 0.33 0.33 0.36 0.32 0.32 0.32 2010's 0.39 0.35 0.35 0.31 0.33 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  3. Georgia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Georgia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.33 2.18 2.36 2.42 2.30 2.38 2.09 2000's 2.82 2.51 2.59 2.56 2.60 2.58 2.52 2.37 2.44 2.48 2010's 2.90 2.40 2.35 2.48 2.64 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  4. Hawaii Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Hawaii Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 2000's 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 2010's 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  5. Idaho Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Idaho Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.25 0.25 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.35 0.38 2000's 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.37 0.42 0.45 0.51 0.50 0.56 0.53 2010's 0.50 0.57 0.58 0.56 0.48 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  6. Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 9.99 9.77 10.33 10.28 9.98 9.07 9.42 2000's 9.35 8.95 9.40 9.32 9.11 9.07 9.12 9.17 9.52 9.21 2010's 8.71 8.87 8.70 9.24 9.42 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  7. Indiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Indiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.31 3.25 3.32 3.43 3.39 3.10 3.21 2000's 3.23 3.09 3.21 3.10 3.05 3.08 2.92 3.02 3.12 2.92 2010's 2.89 2.80 2.78 2.95 3.08 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  8. Iowa Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Iowa Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.68 1.61 1.70 1.68 1.64 1.52 1.51 2000's 1.48 1.49 1.46 1.46 1.40 1.39 1.42 1.43 1.54 1.47 2010's 1.43 1.42 1.35 1.48 1.51 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  9. Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.71 1.53 1.56 1.63 1.39 1.55 1.44 2000's 1.41 1.47 1.45 1.39 1.34 1.35 1.31 1.34 1.44 1.49 2010's 1.40 1.39 1.22 1.39 1.40 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  10. Kentucky Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Kentucky Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.35 1.29 1.36 1.34 1.33 1.23 1.25 2000's 1.29 1.19 1.21 1.22 1.16 1.16 1.08 1.09 1.12 1.08 2010's 1.14 1.08 1.04 1.11 1.13 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  11. Louisiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Louisiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.14 1.09 1.09 1.08 1.06 1.05 0.95 2000's 1.00 1.03 1.01 0.93 0.88 0.85 0.77 0.79 0.76 0.76 2010's 0.95 0.84 0.77 0.79 0.87 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  12. Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 2000's 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 2010's 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.05 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  13. Maryland Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Maryland Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.55 1.58 1.58 1.63 1.56 1.51 1.58 2000's 1.68 1.48 1.64 1.79 1.77 1.78 1.63 1.77 1.66 1.73 2010's 1.75 1.65 1.70 1.70 1.78 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  14. Massachusetts Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Massachusetts Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.45 2.47 2.18 2.18 2.25 2.26 2.24 2000's 2.28 2.24 2.24 2.48 2.32 2.46 2.38 2.44 2.71 2.78 2010's 2.63 2.74 2.78 2.39 2.49 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  15. Michigan Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Michigan Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 7.46 7.52 7.84 7.62 7.62 7.07 7.42 2000's 7.36 7.20 7.52 7.59 7.44 7.43 7.23 6.95 6.99 6.84 2010's 6.36 6.75 6.67 6.82 6.97 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  16. Alaska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Alaska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.28 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.30 0.35 0.37 2000's 0.32 0.35 0.33 0.33 0.37 0.37 0.47 0.42 0.44 0.42 2010's 0.39 0.43 0.52 0.39 0.35 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  17. Arizona Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Arizona Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.57 0.61 0.55 0.53 0.62 0.80 0.70 2000's 0.70 0.76 0.72 0.71 0.78 0.74 0.83 0.81 0.79 0.73 2010's 0.79 0.82 0.84 0.81 0.64 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  18. Arkansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Arkansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.92 0.86 0.85 0.88 0.85 0.85 0.77 2000's 0.85 0.78 0.80 0.75 0.71 0.70 0.72 0.69 0.73 0.70 2010's 0.76 0.72 0.63 0.71 0.75 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  19. California Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) California Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 10.11 10.75 9.85 9.03 9.61 12.17 12.03 2000's 10.34 10.75 10.45 9.80 10.52 10.02 11.26 10.43 10.00 10.06 2010's 10.35 10.87 11.52 9.84 7.81 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release

  20. Rhode Island Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Rhode Island Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.40 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.35 2000's 0.37 0.38 0.36 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.39 0.37 0.36 0.37 2010's 0.35 0.36 0.38 0.37 0.39 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  1. South Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) South Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.49 0.48 0.52 0.56 0.52 0.56 0.54 2000's 0.58 0.58 0.56 0.57 0.60 0.59 0.57 0.53 0.55 0.57 2010's 0.68 0.57 0.55 0.58 0.63 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  2. South Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) South Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.25 2000's 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.28 0.28 2010's 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.28 0.28 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  3. Tennessee Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Tennessee Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.19 1.18 1.24 1.34 1.29 1.31 1.28 2000's 1.37 1.43 1.42 1.37 1.34 1.37 1.40 1.29 1.41 1.38 2010's 1.55 1.43 1.30 1.45 1.54 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  4. Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.17 0.13 0.23 0.23 0.29 0.60 0.53 2000's 0.81 1.29 1.98 1.68 2.14 1.79 2.34 2.57 2.46 3.30 2010's 3.81 4.53 4.40 4.08 4.23 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  5. Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.04 1.03 1.02 1.08 0.97 1.03 0.90 2000's 0.95 1.03 0.95 0.92 0.90 0.87 0.87 0.75 0.77 0.75 2010's 0.88 0.78 0.66 0.72 0.77 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  6. Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.44 0.20 0.15 0.08 0.71 0.57 0.57 2000's 0.57 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.67 0.47 0.36 0.32 0.29 2010's 0.37 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.63 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  7. Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Commercial Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Commercial Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.90 0.88 0.87 0.92 1.01 0.86 0.91 2000's 0.80 0.87 0.80 0.80 0.85 0.84 0.86 0.78 0.80 0.78 2010's 0.87 0.80 0.74 0.77 0.79 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  8. Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Industrial Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Industrial Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.28 2.23 2.38 2.27 2.36 2.39 2.53 2000's 2.46 2.11 2.13 2.22 2.25 2.29 2.30 2.26 2.13 2.13 2010's 2.12 2.19 2.38 2.42 2.46 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  9. Utah Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Utah Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.05 1.01 1.01 1.04 1.17 1.26 1.17 2000's 1.11 1.15 1.21 1.08 1.24 1.20 1.37 1.28 1.35 1.36 2010's 1.38 1.49 1.44 1.44 1.23 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  10. Vermont Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Vermont Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 2000's 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.07 2010's 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.08 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  11. Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.32 1.34 1.42 1.45 1.48 1.40 1.46 2000's 1.60 1.47 1.54 1.68 1.70 1.77 1.64 1.71 1.63 1.77 2010's 1.84 1.68 1.70 1.75 1.82 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  12. Washington Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Washington Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.08 1.10 1.09 1.20 1.24 1.37 1.52 2000's 1.44 1.77 1.50 1.40 1.46 1.53 1.73 1.70 1.73 1.76 2010's 1.58 1.81 1.93 1.70 1.55 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  13. Wisconsin Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Wisconsin Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.63 2.64 2.80 2.82 2.73 2.57 2.70 2000's 2.70 2.63 2.81 2.80 2.78 2.72 2.76 2.78 2.87 2.79 2010's 2.58 2.75 2.71 2.92 2.96 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  14. Wyoming Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Wyoming Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.26 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.28 0.26 2000's 0.24 0.23 0.27 0.24 0.25 0.24 0.27 0.26 0.27 0.26 2010's 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.26 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  15. Modeling theta-theta Interactions with the Effective Fragment Potential Method: The Benzene Dimer and Substituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toni Smithl; Lyudmila V. Slipchenko; Mark S. Gordon

    2008-02-27

    This study compares the results of the general effective fragment potential (EFP2) method to the results of a previous combined coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) study [Sinnokrot and Sherrill, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2004, 126, 7690] on substituent effects in {pi}-{pi} interactions. EFP2 is found to accurately model the binding energies of the benzene-benzene, benzene-phenol, benzene-toluene, benzene-fluorobenzene, and benzene-benzonitrile dimers, as compared with high-level methods [Sinnokrot and Sherrill, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2004, 126, 7690], but at a fraction of the computational cost of CCSD(T). In addition, an EFP-based Monte Carlo/simulated annealing study was undertaken to examine the potential energy surface of the substituted dimers.

  16. Occupational Exposure to Benzene from Painting with Epoxy and Other High Performance Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JAHN, STEVEN

    2005-04-20

    Following the discovery of trace benzene in paint products, an assessment was needed to determine potential for benzene exposures to exceed the established ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV) during painting operations. Sample data was collected by area industrial hygienists for benzene during routine maintenance and construction activities at Savannah River Site. A set of available data from the IH database, Sentry, was analyzed to provide guidance to the industrial hygiene staff and draw conclusions on the exposure potential during typical painting operations.

  17. Degradative capacities and bioaugmentation potential of an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium strain DN11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuki Kasai; Yumiko Kodama; Yoh Takahata; Toshihiro Hoaki; Kazuya Watanabe

    2007-09-15

    Azoarcus sp. strain DN11 is a denitrifying bacterium capable of benzene degradation under anaerobic conditions. The present study evaluated strain DN11 for its application to bioaugmentation of benzene-contaminated underground aquifers. Strain DN11 could grow on benzene, toluene, m-xylene, and benzoate as the sole carbon and energy sources under nitrate-reducing conditions, although o- and p-xylenes were transformed in the presence of toluene. Phenol was not utilized under anaerobic conditions. Kinetic analysis of anaerobic benzene degradation estimated its apparent affinity and inhibition constants to be 0.82 and 11 {mu}M, respectively. Benzene-contaminated groundwater taken from a former coal-distillation plant site in Aichi, Japan was anaerobically incubated in laboratory bottles and supplemented with either inorganic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and nitrate) alone, or the nutrients plus strain DN11, showing that benzene was significantly degraded only when DN11 was introduced. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, and quantitative PCR revealed that DN11 decreased after benzene was degraded. Following the decrease in DN11 16S rRNA gene fragments corresponding to bacteria related to Owenweeksia hongkongensis and Pelotomaculum isophthalicum, appeared as strong bands, suggesting possible metabolic interactions in anaerobic benzene degradation. Results suggest that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations. 50 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in California Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 9.0 10.4 12.9 2000's 8.7 9.1 7.7 4.9 5.2 5.5 5.7 5.3 5.1 4.7 2010's 4.6 4.5 4.2 4.0 3.7 3.8

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Connecticut Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 66.4 55.8 55.8 2000's 47.3 54.0 48.9 45.3 44.0 46.4 48.5 50.0 47.3 37.5 2010's 31.1 31.0 32.3 33.4 39.4 47.2

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 10.1 9.2 8.5 2000's 10.8 8.3 13.4 13.4 21.6 27.9 28.4 25.9 21.4 18.3 2010's 16.7 13.7 14.7 14.2 11.9 11.6

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 33.8 26.2 36.9 2000's 27.3 26.3 20.0 45.4 38.2 36.5 34.4 29.9 20.6 21.1 2010's 19.4 20.6 17.7 18.3 22.3 26.3

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Minnesota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 40.4 39.7 39.8 2000's 40.4 41.9 41.2 45.1 41.0 41.1 34.4 34.2 27.7 28.4 2010's 22.4 19.3 17.8 19.5 17.9

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 39.6 37.6 26.3 2000's 26.9 28.8 25.9 33.7 34.4 25.2 20.0 15.0 12.2 10.1 2010's 9.6 9.7 9.6 10.6 9.9 9.0

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 48.8 30.7 24.3 2000's 18.1 13.0 12.3 12.0 10.7 10.6 14.6 15.3 17.7 20.6 2010's 12.8 10.7 9.0 7.5 9.2

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 14.3 13.1 11.8 2000's 11.8 9.9 7.3 6.6 6.4 7.0 5.5 5.4 5.7 4.5 2010's 3.8 2.0 1.3 1.3 1.2 NA

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.9 86.7 86.1 2000's 86.5 82.1 87.7 78.5 77.8 77.4 71.4 47.3 47.3 47.6 2010's 46.3 45.4 45.1 45.6 43.6

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 38.3 33.1 34.7 2000's 38.5 36.2 36.0 39.9 40.5 42.4 38.9 38.2 39.9 38.2 2010's 35.7 29.7 29.4 29.7 30.0 29

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 23.5 20.1 24.0 2000's 34.5 38.2 27.4 20.1 17.3 15.8 20.2 17.4 12.9 8.7 2010's 8.3 7.5 7.3 6.7 6.5

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 12.2 6.3 10.8 2000's 13.8 16.6 12.7 14.0 13.4 17.0 17.0 16.2 19.0 17.4 2010's 14.7 15.6 16.3 18.0 15.6

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 27.1 22.0 20.2 2000's 22.1 19.5 21.4 20.2 18.8 18.1 18.3 18.5 18.3 18.1 2010's 17.4 17.8 17.6 18.8 19.6 NA

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in California Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.6 77.8 74.5 76.9 48.8 52.1 54.9 50.4 48.7 57.1 2000's 57.1 62.6 68.6 70.3 71.2 68.7 64.7 60.7 56.7 54.9 2010's 54.1 54.3 50.0 49.9 48.4 50.0

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in District of Columbia

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Represented by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 97.3 99.0 98.0 90.9 76.8 70.5 54.9 52.3 45.9 2000's 35.6 22.4 23.5 30.5 23.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 16.9 17.9 19.1 19.9 21.4

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 99.1 87.5 98.1 97.9 98.1 98.3 95.9 94.6 93.8 2000's 96.3 96.5 99.0 98.8 98.6 98.6 98.4 98.0 98.4 92.0 2010's 85.9 83.6 78.0 77.7 78.9 79.1

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 99.9 99.8 99.8 97.5 76.2 84.9 74.7 62.6 57.9 59.8 2000's 63.0 62.1 57.4 68.7 71.3 70.5 70.6 65.3 57.9 56.9 2010's 52.1 50.0 48.6 39.4 42.3 NA

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Minnesota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.9 95.2 96.2 97.0 96.0 93.7 96.2 98.8 97.6 97.2 2000's 97.4 98.3 90.7 92.8 94.2 93.6 93.7 94.9 95.7 93.7 2010's 93.1 89.8 91.1 90.1 90.2 84.3

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.6 95.9 96.4 96.6 96.6 97.0 97.4 94.8 94.8 96.0 2000's 95.6 95.7 96.7 95.9 95.7 95.7 94.9 88.8 90.4 91.0 2010's 90.6 89.8 89.0 89.1 87.5 NA

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.2 96.9 92.4 94.1 93.2 2000's 86.4 86.6 80.6 79.2 74.9 75.7 75.4 71.2 58.9 53.9 2010's 57.3 55.6 51.8 50.2 57.0 58

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 78.4 77.3 75.8 77.4 74.4 68.4 70.4 63.6 56.8 56.9 2000's 60.5 63.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 48.5 42.1 40.2 41.4 NA

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.8 98.2 98.6 99.2 98.5 96.4 99.0 98.8 97.9 97.1 2000's 98.7 97.5 98.5 96.6 96.4 96.2 95.0 94.9 94.9 93.5 2010's 92.7 91.1 90.6 91.7 92.8

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.5 95.7 96.4 95.8 94.1 93.8 94.3 92.2 87.3 88.8 2000's 92.5 93.6 90.9 90.5 92.2 92.2 92.0 91.9 91.7 90.2 2010's 90.8 89.9 88.8 90.0 90.7 88.6

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 93.6 92.2 87.3 93.9 95.4 91.8 85.9 84.1 86.8 89.3 2000's 92.7 94.0 89.8 88.0 88.5 88.8 88.9 89.2 89.0 88.7 2010's 87.8 88.4 87.4 86.8 86.0 85

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 58.1 54.9 56.9 54.3 55.2 51.6 56.3 54.5 49.5 51.8 2000's 56.6 63.9 57.4 60.2 57.1 58.2 56.0 58.6 53.5 53.6 2010's 51.0 49.2 48.9 52.9 56.7 53.3

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 90.7 91.0 91.3 94.4 93.5 92.0 91.6 82.1 74.0 79.0 2000's 78.1 77.2 75.9 79.1 79.7 79.0 76.0 75.5 76.8 76.8 2010's 76.2 76.4 74.4 77.7 77.0 NA

  4. Intermolecular C?H bond activation of benzene and pyridines by a vanadium(III) alkylidene including a stepwise conversion of benzene to a vanadium-benzyne complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andino, José G.; Kilgore, Uriah J.; Pink, Maren; Ozarowski, Andrew; Krzystek, J.; Telser, Joshua; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Mindiola, Daniel J.

    2012-01-20

    Breaking of the carbon-hydrogen bond of benzene and pyridine is observed with (PNP)V(CH{sub 2}tBu){sub 2} (1), and in the case of benzene, the formation of an intermediate benzyne complex (C) is proposed, and indirect proof of its intermediacy is provided by identification of (PNP)VO({eta}{sup 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}) in combination with DFT calculations.

  5. Geographical distribution of benzene in air in northwestern Italy and personal exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilli, G.; Scursatone, E.; Bono, R.

    1996-12-01

    Benzene is a solvent strictly related to some industrial activities and to automotive emissions. After the reduction in lead content of fuel gasoline, and the consequent decrease in octane number, an increase in benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline occurred. Therefore, an increase in the concentration of these chemicals in the air as primary pollutants and as precursors of photochemical smog could occur in the future. The objectives of this study were to describe the benzene air pollution at three sites in northwestern Italy throughout 1991 and 1994; to examine the relationship between benzene air pollution in indoor, outdoor, and personal air as measured by a group of nonsmoking university students; and to determine the influence of environmental tobacco smoke on the level of benzene exposure in indoor air environments. The results indicate a direct relationship between population density and levels of contamination; an indoor/outdoor ratio of benzene air pollution higher than 1 during day and night; a similar level of personal and indoor air contamination; and a direct relationship between levels of personal exposure to benzene and intensity of exposure to tobacco smoke. Human exposure to airborne benzene has been found to depend principally on indoor air contamination not only in the home but also in many other confined environments. 29 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in California Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.6 95.1 93.0 88.3 94.8 92.8 89.4 87.8 91.0 88.5 90.1 92.2 1990 95.8 81.1 94.4 90.4 90.2 85.6 78.0 82.6 79.1 82.3 85.6 88.3 1991 90.5 88.4 90.2 71.0 82.2 71.0 68.0 85.8 68.0 64.7 69.8 80.3 1992 86.6 65.6 75.7 79.0 63.5 74.5 60.9 64.6 79.7 79.0 76.7 81.4 1993 79.9 82.3 77.6 80.7 76.8 71.4 76.4 70.3 70.6 73.8 75.7 78.8 1994 51.3 47.2 50.6 40.5 47.4 32.2 36.4 46.5 46.0 52.2 57.8 68.2 1995 61.3 58.6 64.7 56.8 50.3

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Connecticut Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 98.4 90.0 81.6 76.5 74.5 80.4 74.8 85.5 90.8 99.5 1990 100.0 100.0 98.7 95.9 92.3 89.9 87.5 86.9 87.2 91.3 98.3 99.1 1991 99.4 99.4 97.5 92.5 85.9 79.2 76.2 77.1 77.9 85.9 93.0 96.6 1992 97.7 97.2 95.6 94.4 93.6 87.2 95.8 98.8 98.7 97.8 98.2 98.4 1993 97.2 97.7 97.2 98.1 99.4 99.3 88.3 98.4 99.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 89.2 90.7 88.4 88.8 74.2 67.8 62.4 61.1 57.4 68.8 77.9 83.4 1995 86.7 88.1 85.7 81.6

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in District of Columbia

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Represented by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 92.4 86.7 89.4 90.6 91.1 95.7 99.5 1992 99.6 100.0 100.0 97.4 97.6 100.0 91.4 99.5 99.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 96.8 88.4 90.1 92.6 95.9 97.1 1994 99.8 99.8 100.0 98.8 95.7 94.4 76.6

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.5 98.6 98.4 98.5 98.4 97.4 97.6 1992 82.3 87.7 88.7 90.6 90.5 90.1 90.6 90.2 91.1 90.6 81.4 86.4 1993 97.4 97.9 98.1 98.6 98.9 98.9 98.8 98.8 98.8 98.2 97.1 97.5 1994 97.7 98.1 98.1 98.0 98.0 97.9 98.4 97.6 98.1 97.9 97.9 97.5 1995 97.8 98.2

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 99.8 99.8 99.7 99.7 1991 99.8 99.8 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.8 99.7 99.6 99.6 99.8 99.9 99.9 1992 99.9 99.9 99.8 99.8 99.7 99.8 99.7 99.6 99.6 99.6 99.7 99.8 1993 98.9 98.7 98.5 97.7 96.5 97.7 96.8 89.2 97.5 96.7 96.9 97.8 1994 75.2 78.4 72.5 69.8 69.8 61.2 67.0 86.0 79.7 90.6 81.2 87.1 1995 87.9 89.4 92.0

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Minnesota Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 97.3 97.4 97.0 95.8 95.0 92.4 89.4 89.9 92.7 91.9 94.9 97.0 1990 97.7 96.4 95.9 94.9 94.9 91.4 86.2 89.9 90.1 92.8 97.9 98.7 1991 96.8 96.3 97.6 95.9 89.2 80.9 79.3 81.5 90.5 97.8 97.0 99.0 1992 99.6 95.3 96.0 95.5 92.2 88.3 93.1 89.8 93.0 99.4 96.5 97.6 1993 98.7 96.9 96.3 99.2 99.2 93.4 88.2 87.1 96.2 95.3 96.5 99.1 1994 97.2 97.6 97.3 96.8 98.5 91.4 97.0 91.8 89.8 91.9 95.6 95.2 1995 93.3 93.6 95.0 96.2 95.5

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 97.6 96.0 95.7 95.6 94.5 94.3 93.7 93.5 93.9 94.4 95.2 95.8 1991 96.6 97.0 96.3 95.9 94.5 94.9 94.3 94.6 95.1 94.9 95.5 96.4 1992 96.9 97.3 96.4 96.6 95.2 95.4 95.5 94.8 95.6 95.6 95.9 97.4 1993 97.3 97.3 97.2 97.1 96.1 96.0 96.0 95.7 95.5 95.4 96.1 96.5 1994 97.2 97.6 97.1 96.9 96.1 96.9 97.1 95.1 94.9 94.3 96.2 96.6 1995 96.4 97.4 98.2

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 89.4 88.9 88.7 87.4 81.7 76.8 79.6 77.2 76.4 80.3 82.9 85.3 1990 85.9 83.6 80.9 80.0 74.0 70.2 68.5 68.3 67.2 69.6 74.9 79.2 1991 82.2 79.4 78.8 77.7 72.1 72.9 70.6 71.6 72.2 72.9 76.4 76.7 1992 77.1 79.6 76.6 75.1 71.8 73.1 68.1 67.2 69.4 74.0 74.1 79.4 1993 80.5 79.7 79.5 78.2 72.1 72.9 72.9 69.7 70.3 76.5 75.9 77.0 1994 79.0 80.2 77.5 73.9 71.6 70.8 67.1 71.4 67.9 62.7 68.7 72.1 1995 75.1 74.4 74.9 71.4 68.7

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.5 98.5 98.6 98.3 98.1 98.2 98.1 97.7 97.7 97.8 98.0 97.3 1990 98.6 98.4 98.3 98.1 92.2 97.6 97.6 97.5 97.9 97.3 98.0 98.6 1991 98.7 98.9 98.7 96.9 97.4 97.5 97.3 97.7 97.7 97.4 98.9 98.9 1992 99.1 99.1 98.9 98.6 98.5 95.8 95.5 95.8 97.0 99.7 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.1 94.6 100.0 95.3 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.7 97.8 98.3 97.0 95.7 95.2 95.6 96.2 99.9 1995 97.8 97.5

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.1 98.9 98.9 97.5 96.8 95.9 96.7 95.8 96.9 97.1 97.4 99.1 1990 98.9 98.5 98.7 97.9 95.4 95.4 95.1 95.9 95.1 95.5 96.5 97.5 1991 97.9 94.6 93.6 96.0 94.8 94.3 93.8 93.8 94.0 95.3 97.1 97.8 1992 96.6 97.1 96.8 97.2 93.7 95.8 97.3 90.4 91.6 97.3 97.5 97.4 1993 96.6 96.9 96.6 96.5 97.7 91.3 91.6 91.1 91.4 92.3 94.7 98.9 1994 96.7 98.5 97.9 93.0 90.0 89.4 87.2 87.1 89.3 88.4 91.7 94.4 1995 95.5 95.8 93.4 90.8 89.6

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 95.5 94.8 96.9 93.2 93.0 89.7 87.0 92.6 87.3 93.0 93.6 96.5 1990 96.2 95.9 93.2 92.1 90.9 88.9 88.3 88.4 90.1 91.7 95.7 96.5 1991 97.8 94.9 94.3 93.2 91.2 90.5 88.3 87.2 85.6 85.2 88.7 92.1 1992 92.1 89.0 88.7 85.5 83.5 80.7 78.5 80.3 81.6 83.4 86.8 92.3 1993 93.8 93.2 93.9 93.6 90.8 89.8 90.5 90.4 90.6 94.8 97.4 98.0 1994 97.6 97.6 97.6 97.4 92.1 92.1 92.4 91.7 94.4 93.8 94.1 94.7 1995 94.3 94.0 94.2 92.6 91.8

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.1 94.2 94.5 94.0 92.6 87.7 86.1 84.2 84.2 84.3 91.1 95.0 1990 91.6 91.5 91.9 91.9 90.3 86.5 83.1 82.4 82.6 87.5 90.1 93.3 1991 93.8 92.3 92.9 91.2 88.8 83.8 80.7 84.7 83.6 86.7 91.5 92.1 1992 92.7 92.1 91.6 90.0 85.8 82.3 83.3 84.1 85.2 90.7 93.4 95.1 1993 95.2 96.0 95.3 93.5 92.1 90.8 89.2 88.5 90.0 92.6 95.2 96.0 1994 97.1 97.6 97.4 96.6 91.8 89.9 83.5 87.1 87.8 90.8 94.4 84.4 1995 93.5 94.0 93.2 92.4 90.0

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Connecticut Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 66.1 48.5 50.9 50.2 58.7 44.3 34.1 58.5 55.7 73.8 58.9 51.8 2002 45.0 47.4 53.0 41.3 52.5 50.1 38.1 49.3 53.9 52.2 49.1 54.2 2003 45.5 42.0 48.4 45.5 43.4 42.2 40.0 38.9 41.2 44.0 55.4 54.2 2004 41.0 40.9 39.5 45.6 43.7 45.0 47.5 44.3 43.7 47.4 46.5 46.2 2005 51.3 45.1 46.1 48.5 45.8 42.9 43.2 42.6 48.1 48.4 49.1 44.9 2006 49.2 48.5 45.1 47.1 50.0 49.0 51.8 49.9 50.5 52.2 42.5 47.8 2007 50.6 50.0 47.4 49.5 51.1

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in District of Columbia

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Represented by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2004 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2005 0 0 0 0 -- -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Minnesota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 29.4 54.7 49.7 43.1 36.9 40.4 40.4 46.1 38.1 52.1 30.3 41.2 2002 41.9 35.7 38.7 37.1 48.7 29.2 29.8 34.2 39.3 57.4 44.8 49.4 2003 47.8 46.5 42.8 40.0 43.5 43.5 38.9 42.4 51.4 46.0 48.1 46.9 2004 44.8 41.0 38.4 44.5 44.7 31.4 32.8 40.2 32.6 48.1 42.6 47.4 2005 35.7 40.4 47.3 38.7 35.0 27.3 44.0 43.9 44.4 48.2 38.9 46.3 2006 42.3 38.3 35.7 39.6 31.1 33.6 29.7 42.1 25.5 23.8 34.1 34.5 2007 40.0 41.3 37.8 37.0 25.8

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 28.2 32.5 24.3 32.8 25.6 33.3 27.5 30.2 28.5 21.2 31.3 31.1 2002 27.5 29.8 27.4 27.0 23.9 26.2 24.1 25.8 24.2 23.9 26.3 25.2 2003 32.3 39.3 37.3 34.5 31.8 37.2 34.6 32.3 32.7 28.6 27.0 35.7 2004 39.9 36.9 33.0 32.8 29.8 33.8 32.8 33.7 36.7 31.0 33.7 38.8 2005 26.7 24.2 23.6 24.4 23.7 22.1 23.2 22.8 42.3 24.8 28.8 23.7 2006 24.7 28.1 24.8 23.5 19.5 19.2 18.1 17.2 16.6 17.5 15.6 18.0 2007 18.4 19.6 17.4 15.6 13.4

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 48.0 40.7 40.0 33.7 32.1 29.6 33.1 33.6 35.5 29.3 37.7 38.4 2002 36.3 39.0 44.3 34.8 36.6 33.0 32.5 31.8 33.8 35.5 33.9 38.2 2003 36.7 41.2 40.2 37.2 35.5 33.9 38.7 40.5 42.6 44.0 42.1 46.8 2004 44.2 43.4 42.1 40.5 41.0 36.5 36.4 34.6 37.0 38.3 41.5 47.1 2005 39.9 40.5 44.7 47.3 42.5 39.5 39.5 43.3 42.8 41.5 39.7 46.7 2006 40.9 44.6 40.1 37.3 37.4 39.1 35.5 35.5 34.9 38.2 41.6 39.2 2007 38.8 44.2 40.4 35.4 37.8

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 40.1 37.3 39.3 33.9 31.2 31.0 27.1 35.1 34.9 46.1 46.5 46.1 2002 25.9 28.6 29.4 32.8 30.0 24.4 27.5 20.7 24.7 25.4 31.6 26.9 2003 26.3 26.9 25.5 19.5 18.5 15.1 13.6 15.3 17.5 18.9 18.7 22.2 2004 20.9 21.0 21.4 19.1 15.8 16.0 13.2 17.1 15.0 16.2 14.5 15.6 2005 15.1 14.4 15.2 12.9 11.7 11.7 11.0 15.0 15.5 18.8 20.6 25.3 2006 22.9 22.8 22.6 19.7 19.5 17.8 17.2 16.8 17.1 19.2 21.8 22.3 2007 23.5 22.4 23.2 18.7 16.9

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 25.3 26.6 26.1 18.3 12.5 11.2 12.3 12.4 10.9 15.9 19.9 23.0 2002 25.3 23.6 25.8 21.2 18.5 14.3 11.1 13.3 14.7 20.9 24.7 28.9 2003 27.0 27.3 25.9 18.8 15.3 11.7 10.7 11.7 12.2 17.7 21.3 26.2 2004 26.4 24.1 23.9 19.3 13.5 14.1 12.9 10.4 12.4 17.6 19.6 18.6 2005 21.7 20.9 20.8 15.9 13.4 11.2 12.3 13.2 13.9 16.4 21.9 25.1 2006 21.6 21.7 23.0 13.3 14.1 13.5 11.1 12.3 13.3 18.2 22.8 24.2 2007 22.3 23.7 24.1 17.8 13.6

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 68.6 69.0 65.3 63.9 55.0 45.3 39.8 39.5 40.5 49.5 58.6 71.5 1990 72.4 67.8 64.6 60.4 53.8 41.6 34.0 37.7 34.7 38.3 56.1 61.2 1991 64.6 65.8 65.4 54.5 42.1 34.1 31.0 33.9 36.5 45.2 55.6 58.0 1992 65.0 65.9 59.9 63.0 54.5 39.3 35.8 33.6 33.4 48.1 56.8 58.9 1993 60.7 61.3 61.7 60.2 47.5 33.6 30.3 30.6 33.0 46.8 54.9 60.1 1994 67.4 65.2 61.9 58.3 47.8 39.6 29.5 34.3 34.2 41.3 47.5 55.7 1995 55.5 59.5 56.1 50.6 42.2

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in California Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 14.3 12.9 13.0 10.4 9.0 7.7 6.6 6.7 6.4 8.0 8.2 8.0 2002 8.0 9.4 8.8 7.4 9.5 7.0 6.6 6.9 6.7 7.7 7.2 8.1 2003 3.3 7.1 4.9 5.8 5.1 4.6 4.0 4.8 4.3 4.1 5.3 6.2 2004 5.2 8.3 5.8 5.2 5.3 3.8 4.6 4.4 4.3 5.0 5.3 5.9 2005 5.6 6.6 4.8 5.3 5.2 5.1 4.5 4.8 5.2 5.8 5.9 6.7 2006 6.2 7.2 5.7 5.9 6.0 5.4 4.6 4.7 4.9 5.3 6.1 6.2 2007 6.0 7.2 6.5 5.3 5.6 4.9 4.5 4.3 4.3 5.1 4.8 5.3 2008 5.7 6.6 5.9 5.6 5.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.7 4.7

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 8.2 7.6 6.3 8.0 7.2 5.9 9.1 9.6 9.0 8.6 10.0 9.1 2002 13.4 13.3 13.0 13.6 14.3 13.5 12.2 13.1 12.9 12.7 13.4 14.8 2003 12.0 13.2 12.0 13.5 13.7 13.7 11.8 12.8 13.4 14.1 16.3 14.3 2004 14.5 15.7 16.4 22.9 22.7 23.7 23.3 22.9 22.8 23.3 25.2 26.0 2005 26.3 25.9 27.3 27.8 28.6 28.2 27.2 28.9 29.0 28.8 28.8 29.0 2006 29.4 28.6 29.2 26.8 28.8 28.3 28.0 29.5 26.3 25.7 28.6 31.5 2007 29.7 31.7 27.3 28.8 29.9 33.6 23.9 23.8

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 36.9 37.4 48.4 27.7 23.2 18.9 14.1 10.3 18.5 18.6 29.5 21.8 2002 27.5 26.6 23.0 21.7 16.9 14.0 16.5 11.1 9.4 14.8 21.7 28.6 2003 40.7 44.0 44.6 41.6 37.9 36.3 38.9 42.3 35.8 78.7 23.9 36.9 2004 47.9 47.2 45.8 39.9 36.5 34.4 31.3 27.0 23.1 29.2 23.2 40.5 2005 40.9 43.4 42.6 37.2 32.0 29.0 26.8 22.1 22.3 26.9 33.6 40.9 2006 42.4 41.0 40.2 36.9 31.5 28.6 25.2 26.5 26.5 23.7 32.2 31.2 2007 34.8 36.0 37.0 30.2 29.7

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 17.0 16.4 11.3 10.2 7.7 5.1 7.3 7.5 8.2 8.8 7.3 8.4 2002 8.8 8.3 7.0 5.9 5.7 5.5 4.8 5.0 7.2 7.5 8.1 11.4 2003 8.5 8.5 8.8 7.3 5.7 5.4 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.5 5.9 6.5 2004 7.7 8.1 7.3 6.8 5.3 4.8 4.8 5.1 5.2 4.7 6.5 8.3 2005 8.8 8.4 8.2 7.0 6.1 5.5 5.9 7.1 5.2 5.2 6.7 8.2 2006 8.2 7.3 7.1 5.3 4.8 4.2 4.1 4.1 6.2 4.2 4.6 5.4 2007 6.7 8.5 8.3 5.9 5.6 3.7 3.3 3.2 4.1 3.1 4.5 6.6 2008 7.7 7.3 7.3 6.9 5.7 4.8 4.4 4.3 3.8 3.9

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 91.8 86.4 82.7 82.0 77.6 80.8 80.2 80.2 80.3 79.8 82.4 84.4 2002 89.9 87.6 85.4 88.3 90.4 87.4 90.5 84.4 90.3 90.3 84.3 82.9 2003 79.4 79.6 75.8 79.3 81.8 81.7 78.9 77.3 78.4 77.0 76.5 75.9 2004 76.9 75.6 77.0 79.2 79.0 78.2 78.5 79.0 78.6 78.3 77.2 76.4 2005 78.2 78.8 78.0 77.4 78.1 78.2 78.8 78.7 73.2 76.4 67.9 81.3 2006 80.1 78.6 74.0 80.2 71.2 75.3 75.9 77.2 70.6 74.8 48.6 44.6 2007 48.9 48.4 47.5 46.1 47.5

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 11.2 6.1 6.1 8.6 8.2 7.3 7.7 8.9 5.9 60.8 7.0 62.1 2002 12.1 12.6 11.7 15.0 12.6 12.1 14.7 13.0 16.1 10.7 13.1 10.4 2003 14.3 12.6 20.3 13.9 14.0 14.7 13.6 13.5 14.6 12.9 14.1 10.9 2004 10.7 10.5 11.4 11.5 19.8 15.0 15.7 15.3 14.3 14.8 14.7 12.8 2005 11.4 12.8 12.5 13.7 17.4 21.1 23.5 20.4 22.1 23.0 20.7 18.5 2006 16.3 14.8 17.3 18.6 16.9 20.3 15.7 16.4 19.0 16.7 16.4 16.7 2007 15.2 13.4 15.9 16.3 17.8 18.5 18.5

  13. Numerical analysis of the effect of acetylene and benzene addition to low-pressure benzene-rich flat flames on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunioshi, Nilson; Komori, Seisaku; Fukutani, Seishiro

    2006-10-15

    A modification of the CHEMKIN II package has been proposed for modeling addition of an arbitrary species at an arbitrary temperature to an arbitrary distance from the burner along a flat flame. The modified program was applied to the problem of addition of acetylene or benzene to different positions of a 40-Torr, {phi}=2.4 benzene/O{sub 2}/40%-N{sub 2} premixed flame to reach final equivalence ratios of {phi}=2.5 and 2.681. The results obtained showed that acetylene addition to early positions of the flame led to significant increase in pyrene production rates, but pyrene concentrations were lower in the flames with acetylene addition in both the {phi}=2.5 and 2.681 cases. Addition of benzene to the flame did not alter pyrene production rates in either the {phi}=2.5 or 2.681 cases; however, for {phi}=2.5, pyrene concentrations increased with benzene addition, while for {phi}=2.681, pyrene contents decreased in comparison to the correspondent flames with no addition. Acetylene addition led to a significant increase in pyrene production rates, but the pyrene levels dropped due to increase in the flow velocity. Pyrene production rates were not sensitive to benzene addition, but pyrene contents increased with benzene addition when the flow velocity decreased. These results show that PAH concentration changes accompanying species addition to flames should be interpreted carefully, because an increase or decrease in the content of a PAH species does not necessarily reflect an effect on its formation rate or mechanism. (author)

  14. COSMIC-RAY-MEDIATED FORMATION OF BENZENE ON THE SURFACE OF SATURN'S MOON TITAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou Li; Zheng Weijun; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Landera, Alexander; Mebel, Alexander M.; Liang, Mao-Chang; Yung, Yuk L.

    2010-08-01

    The aromatic benzene molecule (C{sub 6}H{sub 6})-a central building block of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules-is of crucial importance for the understanding of the organic chemistry of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. Here, we show via laboratory experiments and electronic structure calculations that the benzene molecule can be formed on Titan's surface in situ via non-equilibrium chemistry by cosmic-ray processing of low-temperature acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) ices. The actual yield of benzene depends strongly on the surface coverage. We suggest that the cosmic-ray-mediated chemistry on Titan's surface could be the dominant source of benzene, i.e., a factor of at least two orders of magnitude higher compared to previously modeled precipitation rates, in those regions of the surface which have a high surface coverage of acetylene.

  15. Electron localization in a mixed-valence diniobium benzene complex

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gianetti, Thomas L.; Nocton, Grégory; Minasian, Stefan G.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Shuh, David K.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Bergman, Robert G.; Arnold, John

    2014-11-11

    Reaction of the neutral diniobium benzene complex {[Nb(BDI)NtBu]2(μ-C6H6)} (BDI = N,N'-diisopropylbenzene-β-diketiminate) with Ag[B(C6F5)4] results in a single electron oxidation to produce a cationic diniobium arene complex, {[Nb(BDI)NtBu]2(μ-C6H6)}{B(C6F5)4}. Investigation of the solid state and solution phase structure using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, magnetic susceptibility, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy indicates that the oxidation results in an asymmetric molecule with two chemically inequivalent Nb atoms. Further characterization using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, UV-visible, Nb L3,2-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and EPR spectroscopies supports assignment of a diniobium complex, in which one Nb atom carries a single unpaired electron that ismore » not largely delocalized on the second Nb atom. During the oxidative transformation, one electron is removed from the δ-bonding HOMO, which causes a destabilization of the molecule and formation of an asymmetric product. Subsequent reactivity studies indicate that the oxidized product allows access to metal-based chemistry with substrates that did not exhibit reactivity with the starting neutral complex.« less

  16. Electron localization in a mixed-valence diniobium benzene complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianetti, Thomas L.; Nocton, Grégory; Minasian, Stefan G.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Shuh, David K.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Bergman, Robert G.; Arnold, John

    2014-11-11

    Reaction of the neutral diniobium benzene complex {[Nb(BDI)NtBu]2(?-C6H6)} (BDI = N,N'-diisopropylbenzene-?-diketiminate) with Ag[B(C6F5)4] results in a single electron oxidation to produce a cationic diniobium arene complex, {[Nb(BDI)NtBu]2(?-C6H6)}{B(C6F5)4}. Investigation of the solid state and solution phase structure using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, magnetic susceptibility, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy indicates that the oxidation results in an asymmetric molecule with two chemically inequivalent Nb atoms. Further characterization using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, UV-visible, Nb L3,2-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and EPR spectroscopies supports assignment of a diniobium complex, in which one Nb atom carries a single unpaired electron that is not largely delocalized on the second Nb atom. During the oxidative transformation, one electron is removed from the ?-bonding HOMO, which causes a destabilization of the molecule and formation of an asymmetric product. Subsequent reactivity studies indicate that the oxidized product allows access to metal-based chemistry with substrates that did not exhibit reactivity with the starting neutral complex.

  17. EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of Funds for Administrative Expenses EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of Funds for Administrative...

  18. Recovery Act Exceeds Major Cleanup Milestone, DOE Complex Now 74 Percent

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Remediated | Department of Energy Recovery Act Exceeds Major Cleanup Milestone, DOE Complex Now 74 Percent Remediated Recovery Act Exceeds Major Cleanup Milestone, DOE Complex Now 74 Percent Remediated The Office of Environmental Management's (EM) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Program recently achieved 74 percent footprint reduction, exceeding the originally established goal of 40 percent. EM has reduced its pre-Recovery Act footprint of 931 square miles, established in 2009, by 688

  19. Diffusion of benzene confined in the oriented nanochannels of chrysotile asbestos fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamontov, E.; Kumzerov, Yu.A.; Vakhrushev, S.B.

    2005-11-01

    We used quasielastic neutron scattering to study the dynamics of benzene that completely fills the nanochannels of chrysotile asbestos fibers with a characteristic diameter of about 5 nm. The macroscopical alignment of the nanochannels in fibers provided an interesting opportunity to study anisotropy of the dynamics of confined benzene by means of collecting the data with the scattering vector either parallel or perpendicular to the fibers axes. The translational diffusive motion of benzene molecules was found to be isotropic. While bulk benzene freezes at 278.5 K, we observed the translational dynamics of the supercooled confined benzene on the time scale of hundreds of picoseconds even below 200 K, until at about 160 K its dynamics becomes too slow for the {mu}eV resolution of the neutron backscattering spectrometer. The residence time between jumps for the benzene molecules measured in the temperature range of 260 K to 320 K demonstrated low activation energy of 2.8 kJ/mol.

  20. Volume I

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE/NV/l 0630-I 1 Volume I November 1990 . . . . . . ..A~- ["'asf NEVADA TEST SITE ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT - 1989 Volume I Editors: Donald T. Wruble and Elizabeth M. McDowell Work Performed Under Contract No. DE-AC08-89NV10630 prepared by: Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. Post Office Box 98521 Las Vegas, Nevada 89193-8521 and United States Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory Post Office Box 93478 Las Vegas, Nevada 89193-3478

  1. Test of electron beam technology on Savannah River Laboratory low-activity aqueous waste for destruction of benzene, benzene derivatives, and bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougal, R.A.

    1993-08-01

    High energy radiation was studied as a means for destroying hazardous organic chemical wastes. Tests were conducted at bench scale with a {sup 60}Co source, and at full scale (387 l/min) with a 1.5 MV electron beam source. Bench scale tests for both benzene and phenol included 32 permutations of water quality factors. For some water qualities, as much as 99.99% of benzene or 90% of phenol were removed by 775 krads of {sup 60}Co irradiation. Full scale testing for destruction of benzene in a simulated waste-water mix showed loss of 97% of benzene following an 800 krad dose and 88% following a 500 krad dose. At these loss rates, approximately 5 Mrad of electron beam irradiation is required to reduce concentrations from 100 g/l to drinking water quality (5 {mu}g/l). Since many waste streams are also inhabited by bacterial populations which may affect filtering operations, the effect of irradiation on those populations was also studied. {sup 60}Co and electron beam irradiation were both lethal to the bacteria studied at irradiation levels far lower than were necessary to remove organic contaminants.

  2. Near Zero Emissions at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-31

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a 10 year DOE sponsored heavy-duty truck engine program, hereafter referred to as the NZ-50 program. This program was split into two major phases. The first phase was called â??Near-Zero Emission at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency,â?ť and was completed in 2007. The second phase was initiated in 2006, and this phase was named â??Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems to Enable High-Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engines.â?ť This phase was completed in September, 2010. The key objectives of the NZ-50 program for this first phase were to: â?˘ Quantify thermal efficiency degradation associated with reduction of engine-out NOx emissions to the 2007 regulated level of ~1.1 g/hp-hr. â?˘ Implement an integrated analytical/experimental development plan for improving subsystem and component capabilities in support of emerging engine technologies for emissions and thermal efficiency goals of the program. â?˘ Test prototype subsystem hardware featuring technology enhancements and demonstrate effective application on a multi-cylinder, production feasible heavy-duty engine test-bed. â?˘ Optimize subsystem components and engine controls (calibration) to demonstrate thermal efficiency that is in compliance with the DOE 2005 Joule milestone, meaning greater than 45% thermal efficiency at 2007 emission levels. â?˘ Develop technology roadmap for meeting emission regulations of 2010 and beyond while mitigating the associated degradation in engine fuel consumption. Ultimately, develop technical prime-path for meeting the overall goal of the NZ-50 program, i.e., 50% thermal efficiency at 2010 regulated emissions. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the NZ-50 program. The most noteworthy achievements in this program are summarized as follows: â?˘ Demonstrated technologies through advanced integrated experiments and analysis to achieve the technical objectives of the NZ-50 program with 50.2% equivalent thermal efficiency under EPA 2010 emissions regulations. â?˘ Experimentally demonstrate brake efficiency of 48.5% at EPA 2010 emission level at single steady-state point. â?˘ Analytically demonstrated additional brake efficiency benefits using advanced aftertreatment configuration concept and air system enhancement including, but not limited to, turbo-compound, variable valve actuator system, and new cylinder head redesign, thus helping to achieve the final program goals. â?˘ Experimentally demonstrated EPA 2010 emissions over FTP cycles using advanced integrated engine and aftertreatment system. These aggressive thermal efficiency and emissions results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. It used integrated analytical and experimental tools for subsystem component optimization encompassing advanced fuel injection system, increased EGR cooling capacity, combustion process optimization, and advanced aftertreatment technologies. Model based controls employing multiple input and output techniques enabled efficient integration of the various subsystems and ensured optimal performance of each system within the total engine package. . The key objective of the NZ-50 program for the second phase was to explore advancements in engine combustion systems using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) techniques to minimize cylinder-out emissions, targeting a 10% efficiency improvement. The most noteworthy achievements in this phase of the program are summarized as follows: â?˘ Experimentally and analytically evaluated numerous air system improvements related to the turbocharger and variable valve actuation. Some of the items tested proved to be very successful and modifications to the turbine discovered in this program have since been incorporated into production hardware. â?˘ The combustion system development continued with evaluation of various designs of the 2-step piston bowl. Significant improvements in engine emissions have been obtained, but fuel economy improvements have been tougher to realize. â?˘ Development of a neural network control system progressed to the point that the system was fully functional and showing significant fuel economy gains in transient engine testing. â?˘ Development of the QuantLogic injector with the capability of both a hollow cone spray during early injection and conventional diesel injection at later injection timings was undertaken and proved to be problematic. This injector was designed to be a key component in a PCCI combustion system, but this innovative fuel injector required significantly more development effort than this programâ??s resources or timing would allow.

  3. In utero exposure to benzene increases embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels in CD-1 mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Joanne; Winn, Louise M.

    2008-05-01

    Benzene is a known human leukemogen, but its role as an in utero leukemogen remains controversial. Epidemiological studies have correlated parental exposure to benzene with an increased incidence of childhood leukemias. We hypothesize that in utero exposure to benzene may cause leukemogenesis by affecting the embryonic c-Myb/Pim-1 signaling pathway and that this is mediated by oxidative stress. To investigate this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with either 800 mg/kg of benzene or corn oil (i.p.) on days 10 and 11 of gestation and in some cases pretreated with 25 kU/kg of PEG-catalase. Phosphorylated and total embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels were assessed using Western blotting and maternal and embryonic oxidative stress were assessed by measuring reduced to oxidized glutathione ratios. Our results show increased oxidative stress at 4 and 24 h after exposure, increased phosphorylated Pim-1 protein levels 4 h after benzene exposure, and increased Pim-1 levels at 24 and 48 h after benzene exposure. Embryonic c-Myb levels were elevated at 24 h after exposure. PEG-catalase pretreatment prevented benzene-mediated increases in embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels, and benzene-induced oxidative stress. These results support a role for ROS in c-Myb and Pim-1 alterations after in utero benzene exposure.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF BENZENE AS A TRACE REACTANT IN TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trainer, Melissa G.; Sebree, Joshua A.; Heidi Yoon, Y.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2013-03-20

    Benzene has been detected in Titan's atmosphere by Cassini instruments, with concentrations ranging from sub-ppb in the stratosphere to ppm in the ionosphere. Sustained levels of benzene in the haze formation region could signify that it is an important reactant in the formation of Titan's organic aerosol. To date, there have not been laboratory investigations to assess the influence of benzene on aerosol properties. We report a laboratory study on the chemical composition of organic aerosol formed from C{sub 6}H{sub 6}/CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} via far ultraviolet irradiation (120-200 nm). The compositional results are compared to those from aerosol generated by a more ''traditional Titan'' mixture of CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2}. Our results show that even a trace amount of C{sub 6}H{sub 6} (10 ppm) has significant impact on the chemical composition and production rates of organic aerosol. There are several pathways by which photolyzed benzene may react to form larger molecules, both with and without the presence of CH{sub 4}, but many of these reaction mechanisms are only beginning to be explored for the conditions at Titan. Continued work investigating the influence of benzene in aerosol growth will advance understanding of this previously unstudied reaction system.

  5. Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowire photocatalysis: Benzene oxidation and methyl red decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lian, Suoyuan; School of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 ; Tsang, Chi Him A.; Centre of Super Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong ; Kang, Zhenhui; Liu, Yang; Wong, Ningbew; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Centre of Super Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: H-SiNWs can catalyze hydroxylation of benzene and degradation of methyl red under visible light irradiation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires were active photocatalyst in the hydroxylation of benzene under light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires were also effective in the decomposition of methyl red dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Si/SiO{sub x} core-shell structure is the main reason of the obtained high selectivity during the hydroxylation. -- Abstract: Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) were used as heterogeneous photocatalysts for the hydroxylation of benzene and for the decomposition of methyl red under visible light irradiation. The above reactions were monitored by GC-MS and UV-Vis spectrophotometry, respectively, which shows 100% selectivity for the transformation of benzene to phenol. A complete decomposition of a 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M methyl red solution was achieved within 30 min. The high selectivity for the hydroxylation of benzene and the photodecomposition demonstrate the catalytic activity of ultrafine H-SiNWs during nanocatalysis.

  6. Total cross sections for positron scattering from benzene, cyclohexane, and aniline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zecca, Antonio; Moser, Norberto; Perazzolli, Chiara; Salemi, Alessandro; Brunger, Michael J.

    2007-08-15

    We use a linear transmission technique to measure total cross sections for positron scattering from benzene, cyclohexane, and aniline. In the case of cyclohexane, the energy range of the present study is 0.1-20 eV, while for benzene and aniline it is 0.2-20 eV. With respect to benzene and cyclohexane, comparison is made to the only other existing results we know of [Makochekanwa and co-workers, Phys. Rev. A 68, 032707 (2003); 72, 042705 (2005)]. Agreement with those data is only marginal, being particularly poor at the overlap lower energies. Unlike Kimura et al. [J. Phys. B 37, 1461 (2004)], we find the low-energy dependence of the positron-benzene total cross sections to be qualitatively similar to those found in the electron channel [Gulley et al., J. Phys. B 31, 2735 (1998)]. We believe that the present positron-aniline total cross sections represent the first time such data have been measured. These cross sections are almost identical to those we found for benzene, suggesting that substitution of hydrogen by the amine group on the aromatic ring is largely irrelevant to the scattering process in the energy regimes considered.

  7. EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of Funds for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Administrative Expenses | Department of Energy 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of Funds for Administrative Expenses EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of Funds for Administrative Expenses U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program (EECBG), ten percent limitation, administrative expenses, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. PDF icon

  8. Fact #720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection Fact 720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection Gasoline direct fuel injection (GDI) ...

  9. Theoretical study of reactions of HO{sub 2} in low-temperature oxidation of benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.; Kennedy, Eric M.; Mackie, John C.

    2010-07-15

    We have generated a set of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for the reactions involving HO{sub 2} in the very early stages of benzene oxidation at low temperatures using density functional theory (DFT). In particular, we report the rate constants for the reactions of HO{sub 2} with benzene and phenyl. The calculated reaction rate constant for the abstraction of H-C{sub 6}H{sub 5} by HO{sub 2} is found to be in good agreement with the limited experimental values. HO{sub 2} addition to benzene is found to be more important than direct abstraction. We show that the reactions of HO{sub 2} with the phenyl radical generate the propagating radical OH in a highly exoergic reaction. The results presented herein should be useful in modeling the oxidation of aromatic compounds at low temperatures. (author)

  10. Revisiting benzene cluster cations for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide and select volatile organic compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, M. J.; Zoerb, M. C.; Campbell, N. R.; Zimmermann, K. J.; Blomquist, B. W.; Huebert, B. J.; Bertram, T. H.

    2015-10-01

    Benzene cluster cations were revisited as a sensitive and selective reagent ion for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and a select group of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Laboratory characterization was performed using both a new set of compounds (i.e. DMS, ?-caryophyllene) as well as previously studied VOCs (i.e., isoprene, ?-pinene). Using a field deployable chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-ToFMS), benzene cluster cations demonstrated high sensitivity (> 1 ncps ppt?1) to DMS, isoprene, and ?-pinene standards. Parallel measurements conducted using a chemical-ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer, with a weaker electric field, demonstrated that ion-molecule reactions likely proceed through amore »combination of ligand-switching and direct charge transfer mechanisms. Laboratory tests suggest that benzene cluster cations may be suitable for the selective ionization of sesquiterpenes, where minimal fragmentation (R2=0.80) over a wide range of sampling conditions.« less

  11. Solubilities of Toluene, Benzene and TCE in High-Biomass Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, John W.; Vodraska, Christopher D; Flanary, Sandie A.; Davison, Brian H

    2008-01-01

    We report measurements of solubility limits for benzene, toluene, and TCE in systems that contain varying levels of biomass up to 0.13 g/mL. The solubility limit increased from 20 to 48 mM when biomass (in the form of yeast) was added to aqueous batch systems containing benzene. The toluene solubility limit increased from 4.9 to greater than 20 mM. For TCE, the solubility increased from 8 mM to more than 1000 mM. Solubility for TCE was most heavily impacted by biomass levels, changing by two orders of magnitude.

  12. In utero and in vitro effects of benzene and its metabolites on erythroid differentiation and the role of reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badham, Helen J.; Winn, Louise M.

    2010-05-01

    Benzene is a ubiquitous occupational and environmental toxicant. Exposures to benzene both prenatally and during adulthood are associated with the development of disorders such as aplastic anemia and leukemia. Mechanisms of benzene toxicity are unknown; however, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by benzene metabolites may play a role. Little is known regarding the effects of benzene metabolites on erythropoiesis. Therefore, to determine the effects of in utero exposure to benzene on the growth and differentiation of fetal erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E), pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to benzene and CFU-E numbers were assessed in fetal liver (hematopoietic) tissue. In addition, to determine the effect of benzene metabolite-induced ROS generation on erythropoiesis, HD3 chicken erythroblast cells were exposed to benzene, phenol, or hydroquinone followed by stimulation of erythrocyte differentiation. Our results show that in utero exposure to benzene caused significant alterations in female offspring CFU-E numbers. In addition, exposure to hydroquinone, but not benzene or phenol, significantly reduced the percentage of differentiated HD3 cells, which was associated with an increase in ROS. Pretreatment of HD3 cells with polyethylene glycol-conjugated superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD) prevented hydroquinone-induced inhibition of erythropoiesis, supporting the hypothesis that ROS generation is involved in the development of benzene erythrotoxicity. In conclusion, this study provided evidence that ROS generated as a result of benzene metabolism may significantly alter erythroid differentiation, potentially leading to the development of Blood Disorders.

  13. Biofiltration control of VOC and air toxic emissions: n-Butane and benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    n-Butane and benzene vapors are routinely observed in urban atmospheres. Their presence in urban airsheds is of concern because of their ozone production potential as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and/or potential toxicity. Also, these saturated hydrocarbons are representative of airborne aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Separate laboratory studies have been conducted on the biological elimination of n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) from airstreams using treated compost biofilters. The removal efficiencies were found to exceed 90% for a conditioned biofilter medium and pollutant low concentrations (< 25 ppm) and zeroth order kinetics at higher concentrations (> 100 ppm), whereas benzene vapor elimination followed zeroth order kinetics at concentrations up to 200 ppm. The maximum n-butane and benzene elimination capacities observed for the compost biofilters and conditions employed were 25 and 70 g pollutant m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Formation of the diphenyl molecule in the crossed beam reaction of phenyl radicals with benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Fangtong; Gu Xibin; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2008-02-28

    The chemical dynamics to form the D5-diphenyl molecule, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}C{sub 6}D{sub 5}, via the neutral-neutral reaction of phenyl radicals (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}) with D6-benzene (C{sub 6}D{sub 6}), was investigated in a crossed molecular beams experiment at a collision energy of 185 kJ mol{sup -1}. The laboratory angular distribution and time-of-flight spectra of the C{sub 6}H{sub 5}C{sub 6}D{sub 5} product were recorded at mass to charge m/z of 159. Forward-convolution fitting of our data reveals that the reaction dynamics are governed by an initial addition of the phenyl radical to the {pi} electron density of the D6-benzene molecule yielding a short-lived C{sub 6}H{sub 5}C{sub 6}D{sub 6} collision complex. The latter undergoes atomic deuterium elimination via a tight exit transition state located about 30 kJ mol{sup -1} above the separated reactants; the overall reaction to form D5-diphenyl from phenyl and D6-benzene was found to be weakly exoergic. The explicit identification of the D5-biphenyl molecules suggests that in high temperature combustion flames, a diphenyl molecule can be formed via a single collision event between a phenyl radical and a benzene molecule.

  15. Comparative Investigation of Benzene Steam Reforming over Spinel Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Rousseau, Roger J.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Albrecht, Karl O.; Kovarik, Libor; Flake, Matthew D.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2013-06-01

    In a combined experimental and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) study, benzene steam reforming (BSR) over MgAl2O4 supported Rh and Ir catalysts was investigated. Experimentally, it has been found that both highly dispersed Rh and Ir clusters (1-2 nm) on the MgAl2O4 spinel support are stable during the BSR in the temperature range of 700-850?C. Compared to the Ir/MgAl2O4 catalyst, the Rh/MgAl2O4 catalyst is more active with higher benzene turnover frequency and conversion. At typical steam conditions with the steam-to-carbon ratio > 12, the benzene conversion is only a weak function of the H2O concentration in the feed. This suggests that the initial benzene decomposition step rather than the benzene adsorption is most likely the rate-determined step in BSR over supported Rh and Ir catalysts. In order to understand the differences between the two catalysts, we followed with a comparative DFT study of initial benzene decomposition pathways over two representative model systems for each supported metal (Rh and Ir) catalysts. A periodic terrace (111) surface and an amorphous 50-atom metal cluster with a diameter of 1.0 nm were used to represent the two supported model catalysts under low and high dispersion conditions. Our DFT results show that the decreasing catalyst particle size enhances the benzene decomposition on supported Rh catalysts by lowering both C-C and C-H bond scission. The activation barriers of the C-C and the C-H bond scission decrease from 1.60 and 1.61 eV on the Rh(111) surface to 1.34 and 1.26 eV on the Rh50 cluster. For supported Ir catalysts, the decreasing particle size only affects the C-C scission. The activation barrier of the C-C scission of benzene decreases from 1.60 eV on the Ir(111) surface to 1.35 eV on the Ir50 cluster while the barriers of the C-H scission are practically the same. The experimentally measured higher BSR activity on the supported highly dispersed Rh catalyst can be rationalized by the thermodynamic limitation for the very first C-C bond scission of benzene on the small Ir50 catalyst. The C-C bond scission of benzene on the small Ir50 catalyst is highly endothermic although the barrier is competitive with the barriers of both the C-C and the C-H bond-breakings on the small Rh50 catalyst. The calculations also imply that, for the supported Rh catalysts the C-C and C-H bond scissions are competitive, independently of the Rh cluster sizes. After the initial dissociation step via either the C-C or the C-H bond scission, the C-H bond breaking seems to be more favorable rather than the C-C bond breaking on the larger Rh terrace surface. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Biomass Program’s. Computing time was granted by a user project at the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  16. Products of the Benzene + O(3P) Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Selby, Talitha M.; Meloni, Giovanni; Trevitt, Adam J.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Krylov, Anna I.; Sirjean, Baptiste; Dames, Enoch; Wang, Hai

    2010-03-11

    The gas-phase reaction of benzene with O(3P) is of considerable interest for modeling of aromatic oxidation, and also because there exist fundamental questions concerning the prominence of intersystem crossing in the reaction. While its overall rate constant has been studied extensively, there are still significant uncertainties in the product distribution. The reaction proceeds mainly through the addition of the O atom to benzene, forming an initial triplet diradical adduct, which can either dissociate to form the phenoxy radical and H atom or undergo intersystem crossing onto a singlet surface, followed by a multiplicity of internal isomerizations, leading to several possible reaction products. In this work, we examined the product branching ratios of the reaction between benzene and O(3P) over the temperature range 300-1000 K and pressure range 1-10 Torr. The reactions were initiated by pulsed-laser photolysis of NO2 in the presence of benzene and helium buffer in a slow-flow reactor, and reaction products were identified by using the multiplexed chemical kinetics photoionization mass spectrometer operating at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Phenol and phenoxy radical were detected and quantified. Cyclopentadiene and cyclopentadienyl radical were directly identified for the first time. Finally, ab initio calculations and master equation/RRKM modeling were used to reproduce the experimental branching ratios, yielding pressure-dependent rate expressions for the reaction channels, including phenoxy + H, phenol, cyclopentadiene + CO, which are proposed for kinetic modeling of benzene oxidation.

  17. Fact #727: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Vehicles | Department of Energy 7: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or More Vehicles Fact #727: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or More Vehicles Household vehicle ownership has changed over the last six decades. In 1960, over twenty percent of households did not own a vehicle, but by 2010, that number fell to less than 10%. The number of households with three or more vehicles grew from 2% in 1960 to nearly 20% in 2010. Before 1990,

  18. U.S. Utility-Scale Solar 60 Percent Towards Cost-Competition Goal |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Utility-Scale Solar 60 Percent Towards Cost-Competition Goal U.S. Utility-Scale Solar 60 Percent Towards Cost-Competition Goal February 12, 2014 - 11:05am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Energy Department announced today that the U.S. solar industry is more than 60 percent of the way to achieving cost-competitive utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity - only three years into the Department's decade-long SunShot Initiative. To help

  19. Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total Electricity Production in Texas, April 2011 Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 ...

  20. If I generate 20 percent of my national electricity from wind...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    If I generate 20 percent of my national electricity from wind and solar - what does it do to my GDP and Trade Balance ? Home I think that the economics of fossil fuesl are well...

  1. Evaluation Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving 90 Percent of Annual Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document, from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR Residential Program, is part of the Case Study Series, highlighting how "Evaluation Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving 90 Percent of Annual Costs."

  2. EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EECBG PROGRAM NOTICE 11-002 EFFECTIVE DATE: July 28, 2011 SUBJECT: CLARIFICATION OF TEN PERCENT LIMATION ON USE OF FUNDS FOR ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES PURPOSE To provide guidance to...

  3. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Increases Reliability | Department of Energy New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases Reliability New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases Reliability This case study outlines how General Motors (GM) developed a highly efficient pumping system for their Pontiac Operations Complex in Pontiac, Michigan. In short, GM was able to replace five original 60- to 100-hp pumps with three 15-hp pumps whose speed

  4. NREL Study Shows 20 Percent Wind is Possible by 2024 - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Study Shows 20 Percent Wind is Possible by 2024 Analysis Shows Transmission Upgrades, Offshore Wind, and Operational Changes Needed to Incorporate 20 to 30 Percent Wind January 20, 2010 Today, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS). This unprecedented two-and-a-half year technical study of future high-penetration wind scenarios was designed to analyze the economic, operational,

  5. NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy September 28, 2012 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)'s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently completed a performance evaluation report that showed significant fuel economy benefits of hybrid electric delivery vans compared to similar conventional vans. "During the on-road portion of our study, the hybrid vans demonstrated a 13 to 20 percent higher fuel economy than the

  6. Moab Mill Tailings Pile 25 Percent Disposed: DOE Moab Project Reaches

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Significant Milestone | Department of Energy Pile 25 Percent Disposed: DOE Moab Project Reaches Significant Milestone Moab Mill Tailings Pile 25 Percent Disposed: DOE Moab Project Reaches Significant Milestone June 3, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Donald Metzler Moab Federal Project Director (970) 257-2115 Wendee Ryan S&K Aerospace Public Affairs Manager (970) 257-2145 Grand Junction, CO - One quarter of the uranium mill tailings pile located in Moab, Utah, has been relocated to

  7. On the role of delocalization in benzene: Theoretical and experimental investigation of the effects of strained ring fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faust, R.

    1993-04-01

    When an important compound`s discovery dates back as far as 1825, one would imagine that every facet of its chemical and physical properties has been illuminated in the meantime. Benzene, however, has not ceased to challenge the chemist`s notion of structure and bonding since its first isolation by Michael Faraday. This report is divided into the following six chapters: 1. Aromaticity -- Criteria, manifestations, structural limitations; 2. The role of delocalization in benzene; 3. The thermochemical properties of benzocyclobutadienologs; 4. Ab initio study of benzenes fused to four-membered rings; 5. Non-planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and 6. Experimental details and input decks. 210 Refs.

  8. Modeling Studies on the Transport of Benzene and H2S in CO2-Water Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Spycher, N.; Xu, T.; Apps, J.; Kharaka, Y.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2010-11-05

    In this study, reactive transport simulations were used to assess the mobilization and transport of organics with supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCC), and the co-injection and transport of H{sub 2}S with SCC. These processes were evaluated at conditions of typical storage reservoirs, and for cases of hypothetical leakage from a reservoir to an overlying shallower fresh water aquifer. Modeling capabilities were developed to allow the simulation of multiphase flow and transport of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, as well as specific organic compounds (benzene), coupled with multicomponent geochemical reaction and transport. This included the development of a new simulator, TMVOC-REACT, starting from existing modules of the TOUGH2 family of codes. This work also included an extensive literature review, calculation, and testing of phase-partitioning properties for mixtures of the phases considered. The reactive transport simulations presented in this report are primarily intended to illustrate the capabilities of the new simulator. They are also intended to help evaluate and understand various processes at play, in a more qualitative than quantitative manner, and only for hypothetical scenarios. Therefore, model results are not intended as realistic assessments of groundwater quality changes for specific locations, and they certainly do not provide an exhaustive evaluation of all possible site conditions, especially given the large variability and uncertainty in hydrogeologic and geochemical parameter input into simulations. The first step in evaluating the potential mobilization and transport of organics was the identification of compounds likely to be present in deep storage formations, and likely to negatively impact freshwater aquifers if mobilized by SCC. On the basis of a literature review related to the occurrence of these organic compounds, their solubility in water and SCC, and their toxicity (as reflected by their maximum contaminant levels MCL), benzene was selected as a key compound for inclusion into numerical simulations. Note that considering additional organic compounds and/or mixtures of such compounds in the simulations was beyond the scope of this study, because of the effort required to research, calculate, and validate the phase-partitioning data necessary for simulations. The injection of CO{sub 2} into a deep saline aquifer was simulated, followed by modeling the leaching of benzene by SCC and transport of benzene to an overlying aquifer along a hypothetical leakage pathway. One- and two-dimensional models were set up for this purpose. The target storage formation was assumed to initially contain about 10{sup -4} ppm benzene. Model results indicate that: (1) SCC efficiently extracts benzene from the storage formation. (2) Assuming equilibrium, the content of benzene in SCC is roportional to the concentration of benzene in the aqueous and solid phases. (3) Benzene may co-migrate with CO{sub 2} into overlying aquifers if a leakage pathway is present. Because the aqueous solubility of benzene in contact with CO{sub 2} is lower than the aqueous solubility of CO{sub 2}, benzene is actually enriched in the CO{sub 2} phase as the plume advances. (4) For the case studied here, the resulting aqueous benzene concentration in the overlying aquifer is on the same order of magnitude as the initial concentration in the storage formation. This generic modeling study illustrates, in a semi-quantitative manner, the possible mobilization of benzene by SCC. The extent to which the mobilization of this organic compound evolves temporally and spatially depends on a large number of controlling parameters and is largely site specific. Therefore, for more 'truly' predictive work, further sensitivity studies should be conducted, and further modeling should be integrated with site-specific laboratory and/or field experimental data. The co-injection of H{sub 2}S with CO{sub 2} into a deep saline aquifer was also simulated. In addition, the model considered leakage of the supercritical CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}S mixture along a preferential p

  9. Carbon Nanothreads from Compressed Benzene | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SC) Carbon Nanothreads from Compressed Benzene Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 04.01.15 Carbon Nanothreads from Compressed

  10. Film Collection Volume One

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume One Film Collection Volume Two 75th Anniversary Hydropower in the Northwest Woody Guthrie Videos Strategic Direction Branding & Logos Power of the River History Book...

  11. Volume One Disc Two

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume One Film Collection Volume Two 75th Anniversary Hydropower in the Northwest Woody Guthrie Videos Strategic Direction Branding & Logos Power of the River History Book...

  12. MFT homogeneity study at TNX: Final report on the low weight percent solids concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, W.J.

    1993-09-21

    A statistical design and analysis of both elemental analyses and weight percent solids analyses data was utilized to evaluate the MFT homogeneity at low heel levels and low agitator speed at both high and low solids feed concentrations. The homogeneity was also evaluated at both low and high agitator speed at the 6000+ gallons static level. The dynamic level portion of the test simulated feeding the Melter from the MFT to evaluate the uniformity of the solids slurry composition (Frit-PHA-Sludge) entering the melter from the MFT. This final report provides the results and conclusions from the second half of the study, the low weight percent solids concentration portion, as well as a comparison with the results from the first half of the study, the high weight percent solids portion.

  13. Wind Energy Could Produce 20 Percent of U.S. Electricity By 2030 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Energy Could Produce 20 Percent of U.S. Electricity By 2030 Wind Energy Could Produce 20 Percent of U.S. Electricity By 2030 May 12, 2008 - 11:30am Addthis DOE Report Analyzes U.S. Wind Resources, Technology Requirements, and Manufacturing, Siting and Transmission Hurdles to Increasing the Use of Clean and Sustainable Wind Power WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) today released a first-of-its kind report that examines the technical feasibility of

  14. NREL Solar Cell Sets World Efficiency Record at 40.8 Percent - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL NREL Solar Cell Sets World Efficiency Record at 40.8 Percent August 13, 2008 Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have set a world record in solar cell efficiency with a photovoltaic device that converts 40.8 percent of the light that hits it into electricity. This is the highest confirmed efficiency of any photovoltaic device to date. The inverted metamorphic triple-junction solar cell was designed, fabricated and

  15. Fact #763: January 21, 2013 Eighty-four Percent of Scrapped Tires Are

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recycled | Department of Energy 3: January 21, 2013 Eighty-four Percent of Scrapped Tires Are Recycled Fact #763: January 21, 2013 Eighty-four Percent of Scrapped Tires Are Recycled There were 263 million tires scrapped in 2009 (latest available data) which amounts to more than 4.7 million tons of waste. Fortunately, 84% of that waste was recycled. Most of the recycled tires were used to make fuel for industries such as pulp and paper mills, cement kilns, and electric utilities. Ground

  16. Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test August 21, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The successful bench-scale test of a novel carbon dioxide (CO2) capturing sorbent promises to further advance the process as a possible technological option for reducing CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants. The new sorbent, BrightBlack™, was originally developed for a

  17. An Order-of-Magnitude Estimation of Benzene Concentration in Saltstone Vault

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHOI, A

    2006-03-20

    The contents of Tank 48H that include the tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitates of potassium and cesium will be grouted and stored in the Saltstone vault. The grouting process is exothermic, which should accelerate the rate of decomposition of TPB precipitates eventually to benzene. Because the vault is not currently outfitted with an active ventilation system, there is a concern that a mixture of flammable gases may form in the vapor space of each cell filled with the curing grout. The purpose of this study was to determine if passive breathing induced by the diurnal fluctuations of barometric pressure would provide any mitigating measure against potential flammability in the cell vapor space. In Revision 0 of this document, a set of algorithms were presented that would predict the equilibrium concentration of benzene in the cell vapor space as a function of benzene generation rate, fill height, and passive breathing rate. The algorithms were derived based on several simplifying assumptions so that order of magnitude estimates could be made quickly for scoping purposes. In particular, it was assumed that passive breathing would occur solely due to barometric pressure fluctuations that were sinusoidal; the resulting algorithm for estimating the rate of passive breathing into or out of each cell is given in Eq. (10). Since Revision 0 was issued, the validity of this critical assumption on the mode of passive breathing was checked against available passive ventilation data for the Hanford waste tanks. It was found that the passive breathing rates estimated from Eq. (10) were on average 50 to 90% lower than those measured for 5 out of 6 Hanford tanks considered in this study (see Table 1); for Tank U-106, the estimated passive breathing rates were on average 20% lower than the measured data. These results indicate that Eq. (10) would most likely under predict passive breathing rates of the Saltstone vault. At a given fill height and benzene generation rate, under predicted breathing rates would in turn make the benzene concentration projections in the cell vapor space conservatively high, thus rendering the overall flammability assessment conservative. The results of this validation effort are summarized in Section 2.4 of this revision. It is to be noted that all the algorithms, numerical results and conclusions made in Revision 0 remain valid. In this work, the algorithms for estimating the equilibrium benzene concentration for a given scenario were derived by combining the asymptotic solutions to the transient mass balance equations for the exhaling and inhaling modes in a 24-hour period. These algorithms were then applied to simulate several test cases, including the baseline case where the cell was filled to the maximum height of 25 ft at the bulk benzene generation rate of 3.4 g/hr.

  18. FY 2007 Volume 5

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5 DOE/CF-006 Volume 5 Environmental management Department of Energy FY 2007 Congressional Budget Request February 2006 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 5 DOE/CF-006 Volume 5 Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Environmental management Department of Energy/ Environmental Management FY 2007 Congressional Budget Volume 5 Table of Contents Page Appropriation Account Summary .........................................................................................................3

  19. FY 2008 Volume 5

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5 DOE/CF-018 Volume 5 Environmental Management Department of Energy FY 2008 Congressional Budget Request February 2007 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 5 DOE/CF-018 Volume 5 Environmental Management Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Department of Energy/ Environmental Management FY 2008 Congressional Budget Volume 5 Table of Contents Page Appropriation Account Summary.............................................................................................................3

  20. FY 2010 Volume 4

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    4 DOE/CF-038 Volume 4 Science May 2009 Office of Chief Financial Officer FY 2010 Congressional Budget Request Volume 4 DOE/CF-038 Volume 4 Science Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Department of Energy/ Science FY 2010 Congressional Budget Volume 4 Table of Contents Page Appropriation Account Summary.............................................................................................................3 Appropriation Language

  1. FY 2012 Volume 4

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    0 Volume 4 Department of Energy FY 2012 Congressional Budget Request Science Science February 2011 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 4 DOE/CF-0060 Volume 4 Department of Energy FY 2012 Congressional Budget Request Science Science February 2011 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 4 Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Department of Energy/ Science FY 2012 Congressional Budget Volume 4 Table of Contents Page Appropriation Account Summary

  2. WPN 93-14: 40 Percent Waiver Provisions for Multifamily and Mobile Home Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This program notice provides guidance on multifamily and mobile home units weatherized by states, which adopt the approved 4.0 version of NEAT or other similar approved energy audits and receive a waiver of the 40 percent requirement from DOE.

  3. WPN 94-8: 40 Percent Waiver Provisions for Mobile Home Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This program notice provides clarifying guidance previously issued under Weatherization Program Notice 93-14 on mobile home units weatherized by states which adopt the approved 4.0 version of NEAT or other similar approved energy audits and receive a waiver of the 40 percent requirement from DOE.

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's 100 100 100 100 100 NA

  7. Figure 5. Production Schedules at Two Development Rates for the 5 Percent

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Probability of Recovering 16.0 Billion Barrels 5. Production Schedules at Two Development Rates for the 5 Percent Probability of Recovering 16.0 Billion Barrels of Technically Recoverable Oil from the ANWR Coastal Plain of Alaska fig5.jpg (3770

  8. Benzene under high pressure: A story of molecular crystals transforming to saturated networks, with a possible intermediate metallic phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N. W.

    2011-01-01

    In a theoretical study, benzene is compressed up to 300 GPa. The transformations found between molecular phases generally match the experimental findings in the moderate pressure regime (<20 GPa): phase I (Pbca) is found to be stable up to 4 GPa, while phase II (P43212) is preferred in a narrow pressure range of 4–7 GPa. Phase III (P21/c) is at lowest enthalpy at higher pressures. Above 50 GPa, phase V (P21 at 0 GPa; P21/c at high pressure) comes into play, slightly more stable than phase III in the range of 50–80 GP, but unstable to rearrangement to a saturated, four-coordinate (at C), one-dimensional polymer. Actually, throughout the entire pressure range, crystals of graphane possess lower enthalpy than molecular benzene structures; a simple thermochemical argument is given for why this is so. In several of the benzene phases there nevertheless are substantial barriers to rearranging the molecules to a saturated polymer, especially at low temperatures. Even at room temperature these barriers should allow one to study the effect of pressure on the metastable molecular phases. Molecular phase III (P21/c) is one such; it remains metastable to higher pressures up to ~200 GPa, at which point it too rearranges spontaneously to a saturated, tetracoordinate CH polymer. At 300 K the isomerization transition occurs at a lower pressure. Nevertheless, there may be a narrow region of pressure, between P = 180 and 200 GPa, where one could find a metallic, molecular benzene state. We explore several lower dimensional models for such a metallic benzene. We also probe the possible first steps in a localized, nucleated benzene polymerization by studying the dimerization of benzene molecules. Several new (C6H6)2 dimers are predicted.

  9. The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1990-02-01

    The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Reactions of the CN Radical with Benzene and Toluene: Product Detection and Low-Temperature Kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trevitt, Adam J.; Goulay, Fabien; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2009-12-23

    Low temperature rate coefficients are measured for the CN + benzene and CN + toluene reactions using the pulsed Laval nozzle expansion technique coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The CN + benzene reaction rate coefficient at 105, 165 and 295 K is found to be relatively constant over this temperature range, 3.9 - 4.9 x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. These rapid kinetics, along with the observed negligible temperature dependence, are consistent with a barrierless reaction entrance channel and reaction efficiencies approaching unity. The CN + toluene reaction is measured to have a slower rate coefficient of 1.3 x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 105 K. At room temperature, non-exponential decay profiles are observed for this reaction that may suggest significant back-dissociation of intermediate complexes. In separate experiments, the products of these reactions are probed at room temperature using synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry. For CN + benzene, cyanobenzene (C6H5CN) is the only product recorded with no detectable evidence for a C6H5 + HCN product channel. In the case of CN + toluene, cyanotoluene (NCC6H4CH3) constitutes the only detected product. It is not possible to differentiate among the ortho, meta and para isomers of cyanotoluene because of their similar ionization energies and the ~;; 40 meV photon energy resolution of the experiment. There is no significant detection of benzyl radicals (C6H5CH2) that would suggest a H-abstraction or a HCN elimination channel is prominent at these conditions. As both reactions are measured to be rapid at 105 K, appearing to have barrierless entrance channels, it follows that they will proceed efficiently at the temperatures of Saturn?s moon Titan (~;;100 K) and are also likely to proceed at the temperature of interstellar clouds (10-20 K).

  11. Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene near their Glass Transition Temperatures Investigated using Inert Gas Permeation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Robert A.; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2013-11-21

    We investigate the mobility of supercooled liquid toluene, ethylbenzene, and benzene near their respective glass transition temperatures (Tg). The permeation rate of Ar, Kr, and Xe through the supercooled liquid created when initially amorphous overlayers heated above their glass transition temperature is used to determine the diffusivity. Amorphous benzene crystallizes at temperatures well below its Tg and as a result the inert gas underlayer remains trapped until the onset of benzene desorption. In contrast, for toluene and ethylbenzene the onset of inert gas permeation is observed at temperatues near Tg. The inert gas desorption peak temperature as a function of the heating rate and overlayer thickness is used to quantify the diffusivity of supercooled liquid toluene and ethylbenzene from 115 K to 135 K. In this temperature range, diffusivities are found to vary across five orders of magnitude (~10-14 to 10-9 cm2/s). These data are compared to viscosity measurements and used to determine the low temperature fractional Stokes-Einstein exponent. Efforts to determine the diffusivity of a mixture of benzene and ethylbenzene are detailed, and the effect of mixing these materials on benzene crystallization is explored using infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alaska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.8 99.4 99.1 2000's 99.8 96.2 90.2 72.2 66.9 68.6 63.1 70.0 78.2 72.5 2010's 70.5 60.8 100.0 9

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Florida Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 10.5 7.3 5.0 2000's 5.2 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.4 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.2 2010's 3.0 3.0 2.7 3.2

  14. Evaluation Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving 90 Percent of Annual Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Program U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 
 
 November 2009 Case Study Series-Demonstrating Value of Program Evaluation 
 Evaluation Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving 90 Percent of Annual Costs A program within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is saving $90,000 per year on its online energy audit tool after an evaluation prompted managers to scale back its features. The Home Energy Advisor collects information from homeowners and makes

  15. NNSA Achieves 50 Percent Production for W76-1 Units | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Achieves 50 Percent Production for W76-1 Units | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo

  16. NNSA hits 21 percent of CFC goal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    hits 21 percent of CFC goal | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs

  17. FY 2007 Volume 1

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Chief Financial Officer Volume 1 DOE/CF-002 Volume 1 National Nuclear Security Administration Office of the Administrator Weapons Activities Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Naval Reactors Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Department of Energy FY 2007 Congressional Budget Request February 2006 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 1 DOE/CF-002 Volume 1 National Nuclear Security Administration Office of the Administrator Weapons Activities Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Naval Reactors

  18. FY 2012 Volume 7

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3 Volume 7 Department of Energy FY 2012 Congressional Budget Request Nuclear Energy D f N l W t Di l Defense Nuclear Waste Disposal Nuclear Waste Disposal February 2011 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 7 Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Department of Energy/ Volume 7 FY 2012 Congressional Budget Volume 7 Table of Contents Page Appropriation Account Summary ........................................................................................................... 3 Nuclear Energy

  19. FY 2013 Volume 5

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 DOE/CF-0075 Volume 5 Environmental Management Department of Energy FY 2013 Congressional Budget Request February 2012 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 5 DOE/CF-0075 Volume 5 Environmental Management Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Department of Energy FY 2013 Congressional Budget Request Environmental Management Page 1 FY 2013 Congressional Budget Volume 5 Table of Contents Page Appropriation Account Summary

  20. FY 2008 Volume 6

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    6 DOE/CF-019 Volume 6 Power Marketing Administrations Southeastern Power Administration Southwestern Power Administration Western Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration Department of Energy FY 2008 Congressional Budget Request February 2007 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 6 DOE/CF-019 Volume 6 Power Marketing Administrations Southeastern Power Administration Southwestern Power Administration Western Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration Printed with soy ink

  1. FY 2009 Volume 6

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    6 DOE/CF-029 Volume 6 Power Marketing Administrations Southeastern Power Administration Southwestern Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration February 2008 Office of Chief Financial Officer Department of Energy FY 2009 Congressional Budget Request Volume 6 DOE/CF-029 Volume 6 Power Marketing Administrations Southeastern Power Administration Southwestern Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration Printed

  2. FY 2012 Volume 1

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    7 Volume 1 Department of Energy FY 2012 Congressional Budget Request National Nuclear Security Administration Office of the Administrator Weapons Activities Weapons Activities Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Naval Reactors February 2011 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 1 Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Department of Energy/ National Nuclear Security Administration FY 2012 Congressional Budget Volume 1 Table of Contents Page Appropriation Account Summary

  3. FY 2012 Volume 5

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 Volume 5 Department of Energy FY 2012 Congressional Budget Request Environmental Management February 2011 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 5 Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Environmental Management FY 2011 Congressional Budget Volume 5 Table of Contents Page Appropriation Account Summary .............................................................................................................3 Appropriation Language

  4. FY 2013 Volume 6

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Volume 6 Department of Energy FY 2013 Congressional Budget Request Power Marketing Administrations Southeastern Power Administration Southwestern Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration February 2012 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 6 DOE/CF-0076 Volume 6 Department of Energy FY 2013 Congressional Budget Request Power Marketing Administrations Southeastern Power Administration Southwestern Power

  5. JV Task 86 - Identifying the Source of Benzene in Indoor Air Using Different Compound Classes from TO-15 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2007-04-15

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) data that had already been collected using EPA method TO-15 at four different sites under regulatory scrutiny (a school, strip mall, apartment complex, and business/residential neighborhood) were evaluated to determine whether the source of indoor air benzene was outdoor air or vapor intrusion from contaminated soil. Both the use of tracer organics characteristic of different sources and principal component statistical analysis demonstrated that the source of indoor air at virtually all indoor sampling locations was a result of outdoor air, and not contaminated soil in and near the indoor air-sampling locations. These results show that proposed remediation activities to remove benzene-contaminated soil are highly unlikely to reduce indoor air benzene concentrations. A manuscript describing these results is presently being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed journal.

  6. CleanFleet. Volume 2, Project Design and Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motorfuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eight-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

  7. Evolution of soot size distribution in premixed ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flames: Experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echavarria, Carlos A.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Lighty, JoAnn S.; D'Anna, Andrea

    2011-01-15

    The effect of benzene concentration in the initial fuel on the evolution of soot size distribution in ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flat flames was characterized by experimental measurements and model predictions of size and number concentration within the flames. Experimentally, a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to allow spatially resolved and online measurements of particle concentration and sizes in the nanometer-size range. The model couples a detailed kinetic scheme with a discrete-sectional approach to follow the transition from gas-phase to nascent particles and their coagulation to larger soot particles. The evolution of soot size distribution (experimental and modeled) in pure ethylene and ethylene flames doped with benzene showed a typical nucleation-sized (since particles do not actually nucleate in the classical sense particle inception is often used in place of nucleation) mode close to the burner surface, and a bimodal behavior at greater height above burner (HAB). However, major features were distinguished between the data sets. The growth of nucleation and agglomeration-sized particles was faster for ethylene/benzene/air flames, evidenced by the earlier presence of bimodality in these flames. The most significant changes in size distribution were attributed to an increase in benzene concentration in the initial fuel. However, these changes were more evident for high temperature flames. In agreement with the experimental data, the model also predicted the decrease of nucleation-sized particles in the postflame region for ethylene flames doped with benzene. This behavior was associated with the decrease of soot precursors after the main oxidation zone of the flames. (author)

  8. Adsorption, Desorption, and Dissociation of Benzene on TiO2(110) and Pd/TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Jing; Dag, Sefa; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Hathorn, Bryan C; Kalinin, Sergei V; Meunier, Vincent; Mullins, David R; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H; Baddorf, Arthur P

    2006-01-01

    Adsorption and reaction of benzene molecules on clean TiO{sub 2}(110) and on TiO{sub 2}(110) with deposited Pd nanoparticles are investigated using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), temperature-programmed desorption, and first-principles calculations. Above {approx}50 K, the one-dimensional motion of benzene between bridging oxygen rows is shown to be too fast for STM imaging. At 40 K benzene molecules form chains on top of titanium rows, with calculations indicating every other benzene is rotated 30{sup o}. Both experimental and theoretical studies find no dissociative reactivity of benzene on the clean TiO{sub 2}(110) surface, due to little hybridization between TiO{sub 2} and benzene electronic states. After deposition of Pd nanoparticles, molecular benzene is observed with STM both on the substrate and adjacent to metallic particles. Upon heating to 800 K, benzene fully breaks down into its atomic constituents in a multistep decomposition process.

  9. Method to produce alumina aerogels having porosities greater than 80 percent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2003-09-16

    A two-step method for producing monolithic alumina aerogels having porosities of greater than 80 percent. Very strong, very low density alumina aerogel monoliths are prepared using the two-step sol-gel process. The method of preparing pure alumina aerogel modifies the prior known sol method by combining the use of substoichiometric water for hydrolysis, the use of acetic acid to control hydrolysis/condensation, and high temperature supercritical drying, all of which contribute to the formation of a polycrystalline aerogel microstructure. This structure provides exceptional mechanical properties of the alumina aerogel, as well as enhanced thermal resistance and high temperature stability.

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in U.S. Total Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 18.1 16.1 18.8 2000's 19.8 20.8 22.7 22.1 23.6 24.0 23.4 22.2 20.4 18.8 2010's 18.0 16.3 16.2 16.6 15.9 15.9

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alabama Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 24.6 23.3 21.8 2000's 22.4 22.2 21.6 21.2 20.8 23.6 23.5 24.0 27.2 27.9 2010's 23.7 23.5 22.1 23.6 23.3 23.3

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arizona Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 25.1 33.4 36.2 2000's 26.8 46.4 41.2 40.0 55.1 43.6 37.9 31.3 29.6 29.1 2010's 25.5 24.2 21.4 16.6 12.8 NA

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arkansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 10.7 9.5 10.1 2000's 8.3 6.0 5.0 5.4 5.9 5.2 4.8 4.2 3.9 3.7 2010's 2.8 2.1 1.8 1.7 1.8

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Colorado Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 7.3 7.6 7.1 2000's 1.8 0.7 1.2 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 2010's 5.2 7.5 6.8 7.2 7.7 NA

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 31.0 22.4 16.6 2000's 10.6 16.1 13.4 15.6 11.7 12.2 9.0 9.8 5.8 2.1 2010's 5.3 1.6 0.3 0.3 0.3 NA

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Georgia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 26.7 25.3 23.9 2000's 20.2 19.9 19.2 15.9 16.4 17.1 17.0 17.2 16.1 17.6 2010's 18.2 18.2 20.0 18.9 20.0 NA

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Idaho Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.0 2.5 2.7 2000's 2.7 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.7 2010's 1.8 2.0 1.9 2.5 2.8 NA

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 11.5 9.3 9.1 2000's 9.0 9.9 9.3 9.9 9.0 9.5 8.7 9.5 9.4 7.7 2010's 7.4 6.3 6.0 6.8 6.4 5.7

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 16.0 9.3 5.8 2000's 10.3 7.7 8.6 9.0 8.3 7.9 7.2 7.4 6.7 7.0 2010's 5.6 3.5 1.9 2.0 2.1 NA

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 8.7 6.8 7.4 2000's 7.0 7.5 7.6 7.9 8.4 9.8 8.5 6.5 6.6 6.4 2010's 5.8 5.5 5.2 5.6 4.8 NA

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 9.2 9.9 10.1 2000's 10.4 9.3 10.8 7.9 6.9 6.3 7.3 5.9 7.8 6.7 2010's 7.0 9.5 9.7 9.3 8.3 NA

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 19.2 17.8 17.5 2000's 19.0 18.7 17.7 18.8 16.9 16.9 15.8 16.6 17.5 18.1 2010's 17.9 17.6 17.8 18.3 17.2 16.0

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maine Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 91.4 87.4 78.2 2000's 13.1 8.1 10.7 10.5 1.7 3.1 0.9 0.8 0.8 1.2 2010's 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.9 1.9

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 7.4 7.0 6.5 2000's 6.1 8.5 8.0 10.0 8.2 8.2 6.7 7.8 6.3 5.3 2010's 5.3 5.5 5.1 6.8 7.3 NA

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Michigan Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 12.5 10.8 11.1 2000's 10.2 11.3 10.2 10.9 10.7 10.1 10.2 12.6 12.5 11.8 2010's 8.8 9.3 7.4 7.4 7.6 NA

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Missouri Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 21.5 18.2 18.5 2000's 16.8 16.5 16.0 14.8 13.8 14.2 13.2 12.8 13.9 13.2 2010's 13.1 13.4 12.5 13.9 14.0 12.3

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Montana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.1 1.5 1.7 2000's 1.9 2.2 2.1 1.8 1.6 1.8 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.1 2010's 1.5 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.4 NA

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 27.0 12.7 14.2 2000's 15.4 18.0 15.7 16.5 16.5 16.3 11.6 9.7 10.2 8.9 2010's 8.2 7.6 6.8 7.8 7.4 7.1

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 6.3 15.5 22.5 2000's 18.1 33.3 34.3 19.1 16.5 17.2 16.8 17.1 17.8 17.3 2010's 18.4 17.8 15.5 15.7 15.5 NA

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 49.3 49.5 47.9 2000's 23.5 21.6 20.8 19.5 16.4 19.9 19.5 20.6 11.0 9.0 2010's 8.4 8.2 6.5 6.1 6.6 NA

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 9.5 9.8 16.4 2000's 16.5 10.1 15.6 12.3 11.2 8.4 11.6 10.6 10.0 11.9 2010's 12.4 10.2 7.9 8.0 7.5 NA

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 18.5 14.6 14.9 2000's 13.9 9.8 9.2 45.9 51.1 27.5 42.3 48.1 46.2 34.8 2010's 29.7 37.4 34.7 37.9 34.7 39.6

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 5.7 4.3 4.1 2000's 5.3 6.5 4.0 3.9 3.5 3.6 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.8 2010's 2.1 2.0 1.6 2.2 2.0 NA

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.7 3.6 3.9 2000's 4.2 4.2 3.3 2.4 1.6 1.6 1.1 0.9 0.6 0.5 2010's 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.8 NA

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 16.3 14.3 13.6 2000's 17.7 21.5 14.4 17.5 24.9 33.2 26.6 21.8 20.1 18.9 2010's 17.1 17.1 16.7 16.9 17.2

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 17.4 7.4 6.5 2000's 34.0 27.3 27.3 18.9 15.7 15.3 13.6 11.6 11.7 9.2 2010's 6.5 6.0 6.3 9.0 8.1 5.3

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 24.1 35.6 37.0 2000's 41.9 42.1 19.4 25.5 28.2 30.2 33.6 17.8 16.9 14.4 2010's 10.4 4.7 4.3 5.2 4.6 4.1

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 17.2 14.1 23.7 2000's 29.6 35.0 43.0 43.9 48.8 54.6 55.4 54.7 50.4 47.2 2010's 48.6 39.0 39.4 41.7 40.3 40.7

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 8.9 8.6 9.5 2000's 10.0 10.4 13.6 13.6 19.8 19.5 20.1 14.1 12.7 12.2 2010's 12.1 12.7 11.0 11.1 10.5 8.6

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 76.6 2000's 83.8 75.4 74.7 78.8 78.3 81.7 78.4 78.0 79.6 77.9 2010's 77.1 80.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 NA

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 13.0 12.8 12.1 2000's 17.6 17.3 15.3 17.3 16.0 17.1 13.9 14.1 17.3 15.8 2010's 15.3 13.6 10.9 10.3 11.1 NA

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.5 2.0 2.9 2000's 2.6 2.5 2.9 1.8 2.1 3.7 3.5 3.0 3.2 3.1 2010's 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2 1.3

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alabama Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 79.6 82.7 80.7 80.8 80.3 80.1 81.1 64.7 80.5 70.5 2000's 81.4 82.5 80.5 81.8 82.1 80.5 80.2 79.8 80.2 78.8 2010's 79.3 78.9 76.2 76.6 78.4 77.6

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alaska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 79.9 63.4 54.5 49.6 55.4 2000's 59.3 60.5 60.0 59.1 55.5 51.2 56.3 76.0 74.9 85.3 2010's 87.7 88.6 94.9 94.5 94.5 98.2

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arizona Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.7 93.2 92.6 91.5 90.7 88.4 85.2 84.5 85.0 82.5 2000's 83.7 92.6 92.8 90.7 93.5 93.3 93.1 93.4 93.1 88.0 2010's 88.7 87.8 86.6 85.5 84.4 83.8

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arkansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 92.3 91.5 90.7 91.8 95.1 96.0 95.0 94.2 90.8 89.3 2000's 89.9 87.0 80.8 81.9 80.3 74.1 71.7 70.4 64.5 59.4 2010's 55.6 51.5 40.2 43.7 45.5 42.5

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Colorado Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.3 96.0 95.5 95.5 94.8 94.2 93.2 92.8 94.3 97.5 2000's 97.4 95.6 95.3 95.3 94.7 95.2 95.4 95.7 95.2 94.8 2010's 94.6 93.8 92.2 94.7 94.5 NA

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.8 2000's 98.0 98.3 82.8 82.8 81.6 83.3 77.5 74.8 70.6 53.5 2010's 49.8 53.4 43.7 45.0 46.2 45.7

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Florida Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.6 97.4 97.7 97.8 97.9 97.6 97.1 97.5 96.6 94.5 2000's 67.4 56.6 42.3 42.3 41.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 38.5 37.0 33.3 32.3 NA

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Georgia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 88.4 87.5 88.1 90.5 92.0 93.5 94.1 89.1 83.6 61.0 2000's 17.1 20.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Idaho Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 87.9 87.6 85.7 86.8 85.9 86.0 86.6 86.1 86.4 85.9 2000's 86.3 86.3 85.9 85.2 85.7 85.6 85.8 84.8 86.0 83.7 2010's 82.0 80.8 77.0 77.4 76.6 74.6

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 57.6 59.0 57.7 55.3 52.8 50.4 53.9 54.3 47.4 42.8 2000's 41.9 41.1 40.9 43.1 41.2 41.5 39.7 42.2 43.3 41.3 2010's 42.3 38.1 36.8 38.4 38.5 NA

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.7 94.2 96.8 95.2 92.3 87.8 96.3 89.9 79.2 78.3 2000's 78.0 77.1 78.4 79.8 78.2 82.1 79.4 78.1 77.9 73.9 2010's 72.5 70.2 67.4 68.2 67.6 NA

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.6 97.7 95.7 94.7 90.4 89.3 87.7 88.2 85.8 83.4 2000's 81.1 82.0 81.4 78.0 78.3 78.3 77.3 77.7 75.8 72.5 2010's 72.0 72.1 72.2 72.5 74.4 NA

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 91.6 89.2 84.4 82.6 78.4 73.6 71.7 70.3 69.5 66.7 2000's 57.3 63.1 58.9 59.1 57.3 68.5 65.4 64.8 64.9 65.7 2010's 66.0 62.6 59.8 61.4 59.3 NA

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.0 94.0 93.1 92.6 91.4 89.2 90.8 90.0 87.4 87.9 2000's 85.6 81.8 78.9 79.2 78.7 79.7 81.3 81.7 82.0 80.1 2010's 80.5 79.2 77.4 78.8 80.5 79.2

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maine Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2000's 100.0 100.0 61.6 70.2 64.6 59.9 48.7 46.2 45.0 51.0 2010's 45.0 45.8 42.1 42.6 49.1 51.5

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.6 96.6 96.0 96.6 97.1 96.9 91.9 67.1 36.6 33.4 2000's 39.1 32.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 27.3 24.7 26.2 27.3 27.4

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Michigan Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 69.9 68.3 68.8 68.6 65.7 66.4 66.9 63.7 59.7 56.6 2000's 58.8 63.5 62.9 64.2 65.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 54.1 51.0 53.2 55.2 55.4

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Missouri Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.0 85.9 85.5 84.6 83.3 83.3 82.2 79.9 78.3 78.6 2000's 80.0 80.8 80.0 80.5 77.4 77.1 76.4 76.9 77.5 76.7 2010's 76.5 73.1 69.2 72.3 70.5 71.1

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Montana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.9 97.5 95.4 93.2 91.8 91.6 91.5 91.5 77.2 79.8 2000's 73.5 76.1 75.1 68.8 76.0 77.4 76.9 78.5 79.6 49.2 2010's 54.6 53.3 52.8 53.3 53.5 NA

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 93.9 91.8 88.2 91.0 80.2 77.1 70.0 74.2 72.5 66.6 2000's 61.1 63.7 63.7 65.4 63.5 64.5 65.1 63.9 57.5 61.3 2010's 60.6 60.6 55.8 57.3 56.4 56.1

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.7 90.8 88.3 92.7 82.5 76.5 74.2 71.3 70.2 60.9 2000's 54.6 73.9 78.5 67.2 67.9 68.1 68.2 67.0 67.0 65.1 2010's 65.4 64.3 61.4 60.1 58.4 57.9

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 94.8 93.9 92.4 91.6 91.6 86.3 73.3 56.2 60.5 56.0 2000's 56.9 57.5 49.1 50.7 48.1 51.6 46.9 44.2 42.1 38.3 2010's 36.1 32.6 30.8 35.2 32.0 NA

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 83.1 77.7 70.0 62.5 62.4 60.3 64.7 71.0 67.0 63.0 2000's 62.2 67.3 72.5 70.3 69.0 69.0 65.0 64.2 62.6 58.2 2010's 60.7 59.8 57.0 57.0 54.4 NA

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 74.8 70.0 68.9 72.7 79.6 80.9 88.0 88.9 83.8 88.2 2000's 89.5 90.1 91.6 94.4 92.6 92.9 93.0 93.3 93.4 92.9 2010's 92.6 92.8 91.9 92.6 93.1 NA

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 87.3 86.7 85.6 84.6 81.5 76.3 71.8 65.5 55.0 46.4 2000's 45.2 41.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 92.1 91.3 88.5 90.0 88.5 85.2 84.5 81.8 73.2 71.6 2000's 72.4 74.0 71.0 71.3 61.6 53.1 49.9 48.1 51.3 46.4 2010's 47.5 46.3 41.1 44.6 45.3 43.7

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.7 97.9 97.8 97.9 98.1 98.1 98.3 98.5 99.0 98.8 2000's 98.8 99.3 98.7 98.4 98.6 98.6 98.5 98.5 98.5 98.4 2010's 97.4 97.4 96.9 96.6 96.0 NA

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 91.8 80.5 59.2 53.2 2000's 53.2 58.0 65.9 72.1 73.3 74.3 73.1 66.5 66.2 68.0 2010's 61.2 56.9 55.4 54.5 52.2 53.9

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.4 81.8 82.4 83.9 89.1 86.9 82.7 83.3 84.2 81.2 2000's 83.1 84.2 83.1 82.3 82.3 83.5 82.1 81.2 83.0 82.2 2010's 80.9 81.7 81.6 81.6 81.6 81

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 89.8 89.3 79.7 83.8 82.4 68.6 83.5 61.4 81.0 77.3 2000's 79.0 88.4 71.8 73.7 74.6 79.5 82.0 81.9 82.5 78.3 2010's 76.4 73.4 72.4 72.8 72.6 NA

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 83.3 81.8 81.9 83.2 82.5 82.9 2000's 83.9 84.4 83.7 84.4 84.4 86.8 86.8 86.9 86.4 85.6 2010's 86.2 86.7 83.9 81.8 78.3 77.0

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 93.2 93.6 90.7 88.8 86.7 84.1 85.3 77.9 72.1 67.4 2000's 66.4 65.8 61.4 65.7 63.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 54.1 52.1 54.6 55.8 54

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 99.8 99.0 98.0 98.0 96.1 93.6 85.9 84.1 90.5 89.1 2000's 90.0 86.5 48.7 51.7 51.4 49.3 47.8 49.3 65.6 65.5 2010's 65.3 64.0 62.6 62.9 60.8 NA

  16. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This case study outlines how General Motors (GM) developed a highly efficient pumping system for their Pontiac Operations Complex in Pontiac, Michigan. In short, GM was able to replace five original 60- to 100-hp pumps with three 15-hp pumps whose speed could be adjusted to meet plant requirements. As a result, the company reduced pumping system energy consumption by 80 percent (225,100 kWh per year), saving an annual $11,255 in pumping costs. With a capital investment of $44,966 in the energy efficiency portion of their new system, GM projected a simple payback of 4 years.

  17. FY 2006 Volume 1

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    National Nuclear Security Administration Office of the Administrator Weapons Activities Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Naval Reactors Office of Management, Budget and Evaluation/CFO Volume 1 February 2005 DOE/ME-0046 Volume 1 Department of Energy FY 2006 Congressional Budget Request National Nuclear Security Administration Office of the Administrator Weapons Activities Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Naval Reactors Office of Management, Budget and Evaluation/CFO Volume 1 February 2005

  18. FY 2006 Volume 2

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 February 2005 DOE/ME-0047 Volume 2 Other Defense Activities Security & Performance Assurance Environment, Safety & Health Legacy Management Nuclear Energy Defense Related Administrative Support Office of Hearings & Appeals Safeguards & Security Crosscut Department of Energy FY 2006 Congressional Budget Request Office of Management, Budget and Evaluation/CFO Volume 2 February 2005 DOE/ME-0047 Volume 2 Other Defense Activities Security & Performance Assurance Environment,

  19. FY 2006 Volume 5

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5 February 2005 DOE/ME-0050 Volume 5 Environmental Management Defense Site Acceleration Completion Defense Environmental Services Non-Defense Site Acceleration Completion Non-Defense Environmental Services Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund Department of Energy FY 2006 Congressional Budget Request Office of Management, Budget and Evaluation/CFO Volume 5 February 2005 DOE/ME-0050 Volume 5 Environmental Management Defense Site Acceleration Completion Defense Environmental

  20. FY 2006 Volume 6

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    6 February 2005 DOE/ME-0051 Volume 6 Power Marketing Administrations Southeastern Power Administration Southwestern Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration Department of Energy FY 2006 Congressional Budget Request Office of Management, Budget and Evaluation/CFO Volume 6 February 2005 DOE/ME-0051 Volume 6 Power Marketing Administrations Southeastern Power Administration Southwestern Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Bonneville

  1. FY 2006 Volume 7

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    7 February 2005 DOE/ME-0052 Volume 7 Interior & Related Agencies Fossil Energy Research & Development Naval Petroleum & Oil Shale Reserves Elk Hills School Lands Fund Energy Conservation Economic Regulation Strategic Petroleum Reserve Energy Information Administration Clean Coal Technology Department of Energy FY 2006 Congressional Budget Request Office of Management, Budget and Evaluation/CFO Volume 7 February 2005 DOE/ME-0052 Volume 7 Interior & Related Agencies Fossil Energy

  2. FY 2007 Volume 2

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 DOE/CF-003 Volume 2 Other defense activities Security & Safety Performance assurance Environment, safety & health Legacy management Nuclear energy Defense related administrative support Hearings and appeals Safeguards & security crosscut Department of Energy FY 2007 Congressional Budget Request February 2006 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 2 DOE/CF-003 Volume 2 Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Other defense activities Security & Safety Performance assurance

  3. FY 2007 Volume 3

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3 DOE/CF-004 Volume 3 Energy supply and Conservation Energy efficiency and renewable energy Electricity delivery and energy reliability Nuclear energy Environment, safety and health Legacy management Department of Energy FY 2007 Congressional Budget Request February 2006 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 3 DOE/CF-004 Volume 3 Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Energy supply and Conservation Energy efficiency and renewable energy Electricity delivery and energy reliability Nuclear

  4. FY 2007 Volume 6

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    6 DOE/CF-007 Volume 6 Power marketing administrations Southeastern power administration Southwestern power administration Western power administration Bonneville power administration Department of Energy FY 2007 Congressional Budget Request February 2006 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 6 DOE/CF-007 Volume 6 Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Power marketing administrations Southeastern power administration Southwestern power administration Western power administration Bonneville

  5. FY 2007 Volume 7

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    7 DOE/CF-008 Volume 7 Fossil energy and other Fossil energy research and development Naval petroleum & oil shale reserves Elk hills school lands fund Strategic petroleum reserve Clean coal technology Energy information administration Department of Energy FY 2007 Congressional Budget Request February 2006 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 7 DOE/CF-008 Volume 7 Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Fossil energy and other Fossil energy research and development Naval petroleum & oil

  6. FY 2008 Volume 1

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 DOE/CF-014 Volume 1 National Nuclear Security Administration Office of the Administrator Weapons Activities Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Naval Reactors Department of Energy FY 2008 Congressional Budget Request February 2007 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 1 DOE/CF-014 Volume 1 National Nuclear Security Administration Office of the Administrator Weapons Activities Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Naval Reactors Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Office of the Administrator

  7. FY 2008 Volume 2

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 DOE/CF-015 Volume 2 Other Defense Activities Health, Safety and Security Legacy Management Nuclear Energy Defense-Related Administrative Support Hearings and Appeals Safeguards and Security Crosscut Department of Energy FY 2008 Congressional Budget Request February 2007 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 2 DOE/CF-015 Volume 2 Other Defense Activities Health, Safety and Security Legacy Management Nuclear Energy Defense-Related Administrative Support Hearings and Appeals Safeguards and

  8. FY 2008 Volume 3

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3 DOE/CF-016 Volume 3 Energy Supply and Conservation Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Nuclear Energy Legacy Management Department of Energy FY 2008 Congressional Budget Request February 2007 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 3 DOE/CF-016 Volume 3 Energy Supply and Conservation Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Nuclear Energy Legacy Management Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Energy

  9. FY 2008 Volume 7

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    7 DOE/CF-020 Volume 7 Fossil Energy and Other Fossil Energy Research and Development Naval Petroleum & Oil Shale Reserves Elk Hills School Lands Fund Strategic Petroleum Reserve Clean Coal Technology Ultra-Deepwater Unconventional Natural Gas Energy Information Administration Department of Energy FY 2008 Congressional Budget Request February 2007 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 7 DOE/CF-020 Volume 7 Fossil Energy and Other Fossil Energy Research and Development Naval Petroleum &

  10. FY 2009 Volume 1

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 DOE/CF-024 Volume 1 National Nuclear Security Administration Office of the Administrator Weapons Activities Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Naval Reactors February 2008 Office of Chief Financial Officer Department of Energy FY 2009 Congressional Budget Request Volume 1 DOE/CF-024 Volume 1 National Nuclear Security Administration Office of the Administrator Weapons Activities Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Naval Reactors Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Office of the Administrator

  11. FY 2009 Volume 7

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    7 DOE/CF-030 Volume 7 Fossil Energy Research and Development Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Strategic Petroleum Reserve Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Clean Coal Technology Ultra-Deepwater Unconventional Natural Gas February 2008 Office of Chief Financial Officer Department of Energy FY 2009 Congressional Budget Request Volume 7 DOE/CF-030 Volume 7 Fossil Energy Research and Development Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Strategic Petroleum Reserve Northeast Home Heating Oil

  12. FY 2010 Volume 1

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 DOE/CF-035 Volume 1 National Nuclear Security Administration Office of the Administrator Weapons Activities Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Naval Reactors May 2009 Office of Chief Financial Officer FY 2010 Congressional Budget Request Volume 1 DOE/CF-035 Volume 1 National Nuclear Security Administration Office of the Administrator Weapons Activities Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Naval Reactors Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Office of the Administrator Weapons Activities Defense

  13. FY 2010 Volume 6

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    6 DOE/CF-040 Volume 6 Power Marketing Administrations Southeastern Power Administration Southwestern Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration May 2009 Office of Chief Financial Officer FY 2010 Congressional Budget Request Volume 6 DOE/CF-040 Volume 6 Power Marketing Administrations Southeastern Power Administration Southwestern Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration Printed with soy ink on recycled

  14. FY 2005 Volume 1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Volume 1 February 2004 Volume 1 National Nuclear Security Administration National Nuclear Security Administration Office of the Administrator Office of the Administrator Weapons Activities Weapons Activities Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Naval Reactors Naval Reactors Office of Management, Budget and Evaluation/CFO Department of Energy Department of Energy FY 2005 Congressional Budget FY 2005 Congressional Budget Request Request DOE/ME-0032 Volume 1 February

  15. FY 2005 Volume 4

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ME-0035 Volume 4 Science Science Nuclear Waste Disposal Nuclear Waste Disposal Defense Nuclear Waste Disposal Defense Nuclear Waste Disposal Departmental Administration Departmental Administration Inspector General Inspector General Working Capital Fund Working Capital Fund February 2004 Volume 4 Office of Management, Budget and Evaluation/CFO Department of Energy Department of Energy FY 2005 Congressional Budget FY 2005 Congressional Budget Request Request DOE/ME-0035 Volume 4 Science Science

  16. FY 2013 Volume 2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Volume 2 f Department of Energy FY 2013 Congressional B d R Budget Request Other Defense Activities Departmental Administration Inspector General Working Capital F nd Working Capital Fund Safeguards and Security Crosscut Pensions February 2012 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 2 DOE/CF-0072 Volume 2 f Department of Energy FY 2013 Congressional B d R Budget Request Other Defense Activities Departmental Administration Inspector General Working Capital F nd Working Capital Fund Safeguards

  17. FY 2013 Volume 4

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 DOE/CF-0074 Volume 4 Science Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy Department of Energy FY 2013 Congressional Budget Request February 2012 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 4 DOE/CF-0074 Volume 4 Science Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Department of Energy FY 2013 Congressional Budget Request Science Advanced Research Projects Agency- Energy Science Advanced Research Projects Agency- Energy Department of Energy/Science/ Advanced

  18. FY 2013 Volume I

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE/CF-0071 Volume 1 National Nuclear Security Administration Office of the Administrator Weapons Activities Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Naval Reactors Department of Energy FY 2013 Congressional Budget Request February 2012 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 1 DOE/CF-0071 Volume 1 National Nuclear Security Administration Office of the Administrator Weapons Activities Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Naval Reactors Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Department of Energy FY 2013

  19. Thermodynamic Features of Benzene-1,2-Diphosphonic Acid Complexes with Several Metal Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syouhei Nishihama; Ryan P. Witty; Leigh R Martin; Kenneth L. Nash

    2013-08-01

    Among his many contributions to the advancement of f-element chemistry and separation science, Professor Gregory R. Choppin’s research group completed numerous investigations featuring the application of distribution techniques to the determination of metal complexation equilibrium quotients. Most of these studies focused on the chemistry of lanthanide and actinide complexes. In keeping with that tradition, this report discusses the complex formation equilibrium constants for complexes of trivalent europium (Eu3+) with benzene-1,2-diphosphonic acid (H4BzDP) determined using solvent extraction distribution experiments in 0.2 M (Na,H)ClO4 media in the temperature range of 5 – 45 degrees C. Protonation constants for HnBzDP4-n and stoichiometry and stability of BzDP4- complexes with Zn2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ have also been determined using potentiometric titration (at I = 0.1 M) and 31P NMR spectroscopy. Heats of protonation of HnBzDPn-4 species have been determined by titration calorimetry. From the temperature dependence of the complex Eu3+-HnBzDPn-4 equilibrium constant, a composite enthalpy (?H = -15.1 (+/-1.0) kJ mol-1) of complexation has been computed. Comparing these thermodynamic parameters with literature reports on other diphosphonic acids and structurally similar carboxylic acids indicates that exothermic heats of complexation are unique to the Eu-BzDP system. Comparisons with thermodynamic data from the literature indicate that the fixed geometry imposed by the benzene ring enhances complex stability.

  20. Changes in the peripheral blood transcriptome associated with occupational benzene exposure identified by cross-comparison on two microarray platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping; Lan, Qing; Li, Guilan; Hubbard, Alan E.; Forrest, Matthew S.; Vermeulen, Roel; Chen, Jinsong; Shen, Min; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Yin, Songnian; Smith, Martyn T.; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2009-03-01

    Benzene is an established cause of leukemia and a possible cause of lymphoma in humans but the molecular pathways underlying this remain largely undetermined. This study sought to determine if the use of two different microarray platforms could identify robust global gene expression and pathway changes associated with occupational benzene exposure in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression of a population of shoe-factory workers with well-characterized occupational exposures to benzene. Microarray data was analyzed by a robust t-test using a Quantile Transformation (QT) approach. Differential expression of 2692 genes using the Affymetrix platform and 1828 genes using the Illumina platform was found. While the overall concordance in genes identified as significantly associated with benzene exposure between the two platforms was 26% (475 genes), the most significant genes identified by either array were more likely to be ranked as significant by the other platform (Illumina = 64%, Affymetrix = 58%). Expression ratios were similar among the concordant genes (mean difference in expression ratio = 0.04, standard deviation = 0.17). Four genes (CXCL16, ZNF331, JUN and PF4), which we previously identified by microarray and confirmed by real-time PCR, were identified by both platforms in the current study and were among the top 100 genes. Gene Ontology analysis showed over representation of genes involved in apoptosis among the concordant genes while Ingenuity{reg_sign} Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified pathways related to lipid metabolism. Using a two-platform approach allows for robust changes in the PBMC transcriptome of benzene-exposed individuals to be identified.

  1. Genotoxicity and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster exposed to benzene, toluene and xylene: Attenuation by quercetin and curcumin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Mahendra P.; Mishra, M.; Sharma, A.; Shukla, A.K.; Mudiam, M.K.R.; Patel, D.K.; Ram, K. Ravi; Chowdhuri, D. Kar

    2011-05-15

    Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) such as benzene, toluene and xylene are being extensively used for various industrial and household purposes. Exposure to these hydrocarbons, occupationally or non-occupationally, is harmful to organisms including human. Several studies tested for toxicity of benzene, toluene and xylene, and interestingly, only a few studies looked into the attenuation. We used Drosophila model to test the genotoxic and apoptotic potential of these compounds and subsequently evaluated the efficiency of two phytochemicals, namely, quercetin and curcumin in attenuating test chemical induced toxicity. We exposed third instar larvae of wild type Drosophila melanogaster (Oregon R{sup +}) to 1.0-100.0 mM benzene, toluene or xylene, individually, for 12, 24 and 48 h and examined their apoptotic and genotoxic potential. We observed significantly (P < 0.001) increased apoptotic markers and genotoxicity in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in organisms exposed to benzene, toluene or xylene. We also observed significantly (P < 0.001) increased cytochrome P450 activity in larvae exposed to test chemicals and this was significantly reduced in the presence of 3',4'-dimethoxyflavone, a known Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) blocker. Interestingly, we observed a significant reduction in cytochrome P450 activity, GST levels, oxidative stress parameters, genotoxic and apoptotic endpoints when organisms were exposed simultaneously to test chemical along with quercetin or curcumin. The study further suggests the suitability of D. melanogaster as an alternate animal model for toxicological studies involving benzene, toluene and xylene and its potential in studying the protective role(s) of phytochemicals.

  2. FY 2012 Volume 6

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 Volume 6 Department of Energy FY 2012 Congressional Budget Request Power Marketing Administrations Southeastern Power Administration Southwestern Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration February 2011 Office of Chief Financial Officer Volume 6 Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Southeastern Power Administration Southwestern Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration

  3. FY 2005 Volume 2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Volume 2 February 2004 Volume 2 Office of Management, Budget and Evaluation/CFO Other Defense Activities Other Defense Activities Energy Security and Assurance Energy Security and Assurance Security Security Independent Oversight & Performance Assurance Independent Oversight & Performance Assurance Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Environment, Safety & Health Environment, Safety & Health Legacy Management Legacy Management Nuclear

  4. FY 2005 Volume 3

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Volume 3 February 2004 Volume 3 Office of Management, Budget and Evaluation/CFO Energy Supply Energy Supply Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Electric Transmission and Distribution Electric Transmission and Distribution Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Environment, Safety & Health Environment, Safety & Health Future Liabilities Future Liabilities Legacy Management Legacy

  5. FY 2005 Volume 5

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Volume 5 Environmental Management Environmental Management Defense Site Acceleration Completion Defense Site Acceleration Completion Defense Environmental Services Defense Environmental Services Non Non - - Defense Site Acceleration Completion Defense Site Acceleration Completion Non Non - - Defense Environmental Services Defense Environmental Services Uranium Enrichment Decontamination Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund and Decommissioning Fund February 2004 Volume 5

  6. FY 2005 Volume 6

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 Volume 6 Power Marketing Administrations Power Marketing Administrations Southeastern Power Administration Southeastern Power Administration Southwestern Power Administration Southwestern Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration February 2004 Volume 6 Office of Management, Budget and Evaluation/CFO Department of Energy Department of Energy FY 2005 Congressional Budget FY 2005

  7. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 1, summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, called CleanFleet, was conducted in the Los Angeles area from April 1992 through September 1994. The demonstration consisted of 111 package delivery vans operating on five alternative fuels and the control fuel, unleaded gasoline. The alternative fuels were propane gas, compressed natural gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol with 15 percent RFG (called M-85), and electricity. This volume of the eight volume CleanFleet final report is a summary of the project design and results of the analysis of data collected during the demonstration on vehicle maintenance and durability, fuel economy, employee attitudes, safety and occupational hygiene, emissions, and fleet economics.

  8. High-performance, high-volume fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-15

    This booklet offers the construction professional an in-depth description of the use of high-volume fly ash in concrete. Emphasis is placed on the need for increased utilization of coal-fired power plant byproducts in lieu of Portland cement materials to eliminate increased CO{sub 2} emissions during the production of cement. Also addressed is the dramatic increase in concrete performance with the use of 50+ percent fly ash volume. The booklet contains numerous color and black and white photos, charts of test results, mixtures and comparisons, and several HVFA case studies.

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1990 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1991 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1992 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1993 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1994 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1995 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1996 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1990 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1991 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1992 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1993 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1994 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1995 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1996 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in U.S. Total Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 93.1 90.8 89.1 1990's 86.6 85.1 83.2 83.9 79.3 76.7 77.6 70.8 67.0 66.1 2000's 63.9 66.0 77.4 78.2 78.0 82.1 80.8 80.4 79.7 77.8 2010's 77.5 67.3 65.2 65.8 65.8 65.3

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2002 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2003 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2004 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2005 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2006 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2007 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2008 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

  13. Possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose measurements in clinical electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose (PDD) measurements in high-energy clinical electron beams. Methods: The cavity correction factor, P{sub cav}, for cylindrical chambers with various diameters was calculated as a function of depth from the surface to R{sub 50}, in the energy range of 6-18 MeV electrons with the EGSnrc C ++ -based user-code CAVITY. The results were compared with those for IBA NACP-02 and PTW Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers. The effective point of measurement (EPOM) for the cylindrical chamber and the parallel-plate chamber was positioned according to the IAEA TRS-398 code of practice. The overall correction factor, P{sub Q}, and the percent depth-ionization (PDI) curve for a PTW30013 Farmer-type chamber were also compared with those of NACP-02 and Roos chambers. Results: The P{sub cav} values at depths between the surface and R{sub 50} for cylindrical chambers were all lower than those with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth for cylindrical chambers equal to or less than 4 mm in diameter was equivalent to or smaller than that for parallel-plate chambers. The P{sub Q} values for the PTW30013 chamber mainly depended on P{sub cav}, and for parallel-plate chambers depended on the wall correction factor, P{sub wall}, rather than P{sub cav}. P{sub Q} at depths from the surface to R{sub 50} for the PTW30013 chamber was consequently a lower value than that with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth was equivalent to that of parallel-plate chambers at electron energies equal to or greater than 9 MeV. The shift to match calculated PDI curves for the PTW30013 chamber and water (perturbation free) varied from 0.65 to 0 mm between 6 and 18 MeV beams. Similarly, the shifts for NACP-02 and Roos chambers were 0.5-0.6 mm and 0.2-0.3 mm, respectively, and were nearly independent of electron energy. Conclusions: Calculated PDI curves for PTW30013, NACP-02, and Roos chambers agreed well with that of water by using the optimal EPOM. Therefore, the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers can be expected for PDD measurements in clinical electron beams.

  14. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-assisted synthesis through a hydrothermal reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobhani, Azam; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Reaction of a SeCl{sub 4} aqueous solution with a NiCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as capping agent and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) as reductant, produces nanosized nickel selenide through a hydrothermal method. The effect of temperature, reaction time and amounts of reductant on the morphology, particle sizes of NiSe nanostructures has been investigated. Highlights: ? NiSe nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ? A novel Se source was used to synthesize NiSe. ? SDBS as capping agent plays a crucial role on the morphology of products. ? A mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe was prepared in the presence of 2 ml hydrazine. ? A pure phase of NiSe was prepared in the presence of 4 or 6 ml hydrazine. -- Abstract: The effects of the anionic surfactant on the morphology, size and crystallization of NiSe precipitated from NiCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O and SeCl{sub 4} in presence of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) as reductant were investigated. The products have been successfully synthesized in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant via an improved hydrothermal route. A variety of synthesis parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, capping agent and amount of reducing agent have a significant effect on the particle size, phase purity and morphology of the obtained products. The sample size became bigger with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing reaction time. In the presence of 2 ml hydrazine, the samples were found to be the mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe. With increasing the reaction time and amount of hydrazine a pure phase of hexagonal NiSe was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate phase, particle size and morphology of the products. Chemical composition and purity of the products were characterized by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study the optical properties of NiSe samples.

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alaska Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Florida Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 96.2 96.1 96.3 96.1 96.4 96.0 96.7 94.9 1991 96.5 97.0 97.5 98.1 97.8 97.8 97.9 97.8 98.2 97.8 96.8 96.8 1992 96.8 97.2 97.4 98.2 98.3 98.2 98.1 98.1 98.3 98.2 97.4 97.0 1993 97.2 97.2 97.2 98.3 98.4 98.4 98.3 98.3 98.3 98.2 97.3 97.0 1994 97.3 97.6 97.8 98.3 97.6 98.3 98.2 98.4 98.5 97.9 97.8 97.0 1995 96.7 97.3 97.5

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maine Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.0 98.9 98.7 98.3 96.2 94.7 94.2 93.4 93.5 94.7 99.0 99.7 1990 99.6 99.3 96.6 94.4 94.3 93.2 89.3 86.4 87.1 86.2 91.7 96.5 1991 98.1 96.5 95.8 91.8 92.3 89.1 89.5 80.6 89.2 90.0 93.2 97.0 1992 96.9 95.7 92.1 87.7 94.1 91.3 88.6 80.7 80.7 86.4 94.8 96.9 1993 93.6 94.0 93.7 91.2 88.5 86.4 87.1 79.8 84.6 90.0 92.4 93.8 1994 94.9 96.2 96.3 89.8 87.4 85.1 81.4 82.2 83.6 88.0 89.6 92.1 1995 93.7 92.4 91.3 87.4 84.5

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 93.0 89.2 91.4 86.5 86.6 83.4 80.2 81.9 80.2 86.9 85.6 87.6 1990 87.1 85.1 86.7 84.2 80.3 78.9 78.6 75.5 76.5 78.5 79.0 83.2 1991 82.4 82.5 82.0 83.6 82.2 61.4 67.4 71.0 73.8 71.7 75.5 72.9 1992 84.7 84.9 75.3 73.0 64.0 66.5 62.4 64.4 60.8 57.9 57.0 61.1 1993 68.1 66.2 68.0 60.1 57.8 49.4 58.2 55.4 41.6 68.1 65.0 65.9 1994 66.9 68.5 64.6 61.7 54.5 54.5 60.3 44.5 54.8 60.3 64.2 68.5 1995 59.9 75.1 60.3 57.6 47.7

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 81.7 84.8 84.0 83.9 80.6 74.8 69.2 64.9 71.4 70.9 74.8 81.6 1990 83.9 82.5 78.4 76.0 75.4 69.7 54.3 53.3 57.4 58.4 69.8 75.8 1991 79.4 79.9 74.9 71.7 70.6 59.0 49.6 47.6 49.6 48.7 67.6 70.1 1992 71.7 73.7 72.0 71.6 73.6 63.8 61.6 58.8 57.2 56.8 67.3 68.9 1993 77.1 73.8 77.4 76.8 73.3 62.6 58.1 54.0 53.5 56.0 74.2 78.9 1994 82.6 86.8 83.1 82.1 78.4 69.7 66.2 63.2 61.8 64.0 82.2 76.9 1995 84.3 85.9 84.3 83.2 80.0

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 87.1 83.9 47.7 48.9 40.4 44.6 82.7 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 75.5 80.2 97.3 91.1 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 92.8 93.1 92.8 92.1 92.5 91.6 90.2 89.4 90.0 89.6 91.1 92.0 1990 90.7 90.1 90.2 88.0 78.4 83.0 81.9 82.4 82.0 77.7 82.0 86.3 1991 84.8 83.0 80.5 83.4 79.5 74.9 74.3 74.3 74.5 76.7 83.4 85.2 1992 87.0 83.3 85.6 83.1 80.7 73.5 72.3 74.6 78.0 76.5 81.8 84.7 1993 86.5 83.9 84.4 81.2 76.4 73.3 74.9 72.9 75.8 78.7 90.0 91.2 1994 92.9 92.3 92.6 88.4 84.7 74.7 72.7 82.0 79.0 83.4 88.4 92.1 1995 92.1 90.8 89.7 87.2 82.8

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 83.8 85.2 82.9 82.4 77.7 77.9 76.4

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 99.6 99.7 99.7 1990 99.7 99.7 99.7 99.8 99.7 99.7 99.6 99.6 99.5 99.5 99.7 99.7 1991 99.9 99.9 99.4 98.9 99.0 98.2 97.4 98.3 97.2 98.4 98.6 98.5 1992 98.6 98.1 97.8 98.4 97.9 97.2 96.5 97.1 97.4 97.2 98.2 98.3 1993 98.8 98.2 98.4 98.1 98.2 96.9 97.1 96.5 95.0 97.1 97.2 99.0 1994 98.1 96.0 96.9 97.3 95.2 91.7 93.4 92.1 93.5 95.6 96.1 96.8 1995 88.4 98.2 93.6 92.4 89.2

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in U.S. Total Represented by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1983 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1984 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1985 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1986 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1987 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1988 93.8 93.3 92.5 91.7 89.4 87.5 86.3 87.2 87.6 87.4 88.7 89.7 1989 91.0 91.2 90.8 89.2 88.2 86.1 85.1 85.1 84.6 85.2 87.7 90.7 1990 90.8 88.8 88.3 86.9 85.5 83.8 81.8 81.7 80.3 81.2 84.7 87.9 1991 89.4 88.5 87.8

  7. A pilot-scale field study on the anaerobic biotreatment of soil impacted with highly chlorinated benzenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanand, K.; Foulke, B.; Delnicki, W.A.; Ying, A.C.; Baek, N.H.; Coats, M.L.; Duffy, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    An on-site pilot-scale demonstration of anaerobic biodegradation of highly chlorinated benzenes was successfully performed at a chemical manufacturing industrial facility in Niagara Falls, New York. The field investigation was conducted in 6-yd{sup 3} capacity soil boxes. Approximately 4 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with chlorinated compounds was placed in each soil box. Chlorinated benzenes with 3 or more chlorines accounted for about 85% of the total chemistry in the soil. The soil box amended with water, nutrients, and acclimated soil microbial inoculum exhibited greater than 78% reduction in the levels of highly chlorinated compounds after one year of field study. The total concentrations of hexa-, penta-, tetra-, and trichlorobenzenes decreased from 920 mg/kg to less than 190 mg/kg, while the total concentrations of di-, and monochlorobenzene increased from 8 mg/kg to greater than 400 mg/kg during one year of field operation. The control soil that did not receive any external nutrient or microbial amendments maintained the same percentage of the highly chlorinated benzenes after one year and di-, and monochlorobenzene never exceeded more than 4 mg/kg at any given time period. The anaerobic activity was further confirmed by monitored parameters such as nutrient consumption (butyrate, nitrogen, organic matter), sulfate depletion, and methane production.

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alabama Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 84.0 82.5 89.4 90.6 83.8 86.2 55.5 83.6 78.9 84.4 78.4 85.7 1990 86.9 82.1 80.0 76.8 74.9 79.8 76.8 73.3 76.5 78.0 69.7 81.4 1991 82.2 87.0 87.9 83.2 84.0 85.4 85.7 81.3 75.8 74.4 75.5 81.7 1992 83.7 86.8 84.0 83.2 79.0 77.6 75.3 74.7 74.4 73.2 74.2 80.6 1993 84.1 85.3 85.8 84.0 79.8 76.8 75.9 74.0 74.4 71.3 74.7 79.3 1994 86.1 87.7 84.1 83.1 78.0 76.5 74.8 71.8 64.7 70.0 73.6 76.7 1995 82.5 85.7 85.8 81.4 77.5 75.7

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arizona Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 96.1 96.3 94.1 93.5 92.8 91.7 89.1 89.1 91.6 91.6 94.8 95.3 1990 97.6 97.4 96.3 94.9 95.6 92.8 92.0 90.9 94.6 96.4 96.7 97.0 1991 98.0 94.9 93.5 92.6 91.7 89.6 87.0 88.1 88.5 92.8 92.8 97.7 1992 97.2 97.0 96.3 92.7 89.9 88.9 86.3 86.0 90.5 91.2 89.1 92.9 1993 93.3 93.4 92.5 90.1 91.2 90.6 88.3 89.5 90.2 92.1 90.7 92.5 1994 94.2 92.5 91.9 89.9 90.5 88.3 87.2 86.4 89.3 90.4 89.9 91.5 1995 91.7 92.8 88.7 86.9 87.8 87.9

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arkansas Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 95.3 95.6 95.9 94.3 91.3 91.5 87.2 86.2 88.2 87.5 90.7 93.4 1990 95.8 94.8 93.7 93.2 90.7 88.8 88.4 86.9 87.4 86.8 90.6 91.5 1991 93.8 94.7 96.1 91.0 87.7 85.1 84.8 85.5 85.9 86.5 90.5 92.3 1992 93.0 94.7 91.3 92.7 88.4 87.0 85.9 85.4 86.4 87.6 88.7 90.8 1993 92.5 93.0 92.8 91.8 87.6 84.2 85.9 84.7 85.7 87.8 92.7 98.7 1994 93.9 95.9 95.4 94.8 91.2 91.7 94.2 94.3 96.6 95.3 96.4 97.4 1995 97.2 98.0 96.3 95.1 93.3 93.1

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Colorado Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.0 98.1 98.3 97.8 97.3 97.3 95.0 91.8 95.8 95.6 96.9 97.2 1990 98.1 98.0 97.9 97.6 97.3 97.4 94.7 94.5 95.5 94.6 97.0 97.0 1991 96.8 97.1 96.1 96.2 96.9 97.2 93.7 93.9 93.6 92.3 94.7 96.3 1992 96.7 96.7 95.9 95.7 95.1 96.0 94.2 93.3 93.6 91.2 93.7 96.2 1993 96.6 96.4 96.5 95.8 95.2 95.5 93.0 93.1 95.2 90.6 94.1 95.9 1994 95.9 96.1 95.7 94.9 95.3 94.3 91.2 91.7 93.1 91.5 93.2 95.5 1995 95.9 96.0 95.1 94.3 95.1 95.5

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Georgia Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 96.6 93.6 89.7 88.2 85.3 81.7 80.7 80.2 83.0 86.4 89.4 96.8 1990 96.5 90.3 88.7 86.9 82.0 80.9 80.1 82.5 78.9 84.3 87.9 94.1 1991 92.1 90.7 88.8 84.7 81.6 79.7 79.6 80.3 78.8 82.8 90.7 92.5 1992 90.8 90.6 89.3 88.2 85.0 82.7 79.7 83.3 83.4 84.6 87.9 92.9 1993 91.5 92.9 94.6 90.9 86.5 83.0 85.4 84.9 85.6 86.0 91.2 93.0 1994 97.0 94.9 92.4 90.3 89.3 86.8 87.9 89.0 86.1 88.6 91.6 92.6 1995 96.1 97.1 93.3 90.7 89.7 88.4

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Idaho Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 88.9 90.2 90.6 89.0 82.8 85.9 86.8 83.0 84.1 79.3 84.6 87.4 1990 91.5 90.4 89.7 87.7 85.8 88.1 86.1 85.2 85.0 79.3 86.3 86.4 1991 91.0 91.7 88.5 87.4 87.4 86.8 84.7 84.0 82.9 73.6 85.1 87.5 1992 89.4 89.0 87.1 85.2 83.1 80.2 81.0 82.4 80.2 77.9 82.2 88.3 1993 89.4 89.9 91.0 87.9 87.4 82.3 82.8 81.3 79.2 77.7 81.5 87.8 1994 87.8 88.6 88.1 85.9 83.2 82.7 84.2 80.1 80.6 79.4 84.1 87.6 1995 89.7 89.1 86.5 85.5 86.0 85.3

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 71.8 73.5 69.8 69.6 67.5 59.7 50.2 47.4 62.4 64.5 68.9 74.5 1990 65.6 65.7 60.2 55.3 52.9 40.6 40.7 41.8 44.5 54.6 52.2 63.6 1991 66.1 62.7 61.0 56.7 49.1 45.4 39.4 43.5 55.0 54.8 60.4 60.3 1992 63.0 58.2 59.5 57.5 53.0 43.4 44.4 49.2 47.0 55.5 60.5 59.9 1993 61.0 58.4 58.3 56.3 51.5 43.4 42.9 38.3 50.0 50.2 53.7 56.0 1994 59.1 59.9 58.0 49.9 46.5 37.8 36.1 36.3 39.7 47.5 49.9 52.0 1995 54.8 53.2 52.9 49.3 40.2 42.9

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.1 93.9 94.3 92.6 92.6 97.2 96.7 96.8 89.1 91.9 97.7 98.9 1990 99.2 98.5 93.4 90.1 92.1 90.6 92.2 89.7 88.4 91.8 98.4 98.6 1991 94.2 93.3 93.2 93.2 92.6 89.2 89.9 89.6 92.6 98.5 97.9 95.4 1992 93.6 92.4 98.6 99.1 99.7 99.9 92.8 99.6 91.9 99.8 99.9 98.0 1993 94.5 94.1 99.6 99.5 100.0 91.9 90.4 91.1 92.9 90.7 92.2 96.1 1994 94.1 97.5 93.7 91.5 88.4 85.6 84.6 85.9 84.3 86.7 91.3 91.4 1995 89.7 89.9 89.5 87.0 83.4 76.1

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.4 98.4 98.5 98.0 97.0 96.3 95.4 95.0 95.2 96.6 97.6 98.3 1990 98.5 98.2 98.1 97.8 97.3 96.3 95.3 95.6 92.3 95.5 97.5 97.7 1991 98.4 98.4 98.2 97.3 96.7 95.7 94.9 91.5 96.0 96.3 98.5 98.0 1992 97.6 97.4 96.5 96.2 94.3 93.2 91.3 90.6 88.7 91.0 96.1 96.7 1993 96.6 96.6 95.8 96.4 92.9 90.8 90.2 88.3 88.9 92.8 95.2 93.2 1994 92.9 94.3 91.2 90.5 87.9 84.1 81.3 80.0 80.5 86.0 90.4 91.0 1995 91.7 92.0 91.1 88.8 86.1 81.9

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.8 94.4 94.1 94.6 92.9 89.2 93.7 94.7 91.8 88.9 88.2 92.9 1990 92.7 90.8 90.6 92.6 91.6 93.1 94.3 94.0 93.3 87.0 88.0 89.4 1991 92.5 91.6 87.9 91.2 88.5 87.1 91.3 89.7 86.9 82.0 87.7 85.3 1992 82.9 83.8 83.9 86.8 88.8 86.8 88.4 88.9 86.9 81.1 78.0 82.7 1993 84.3 83.1 86.1 84.4 85.3 83.0 84.4 86.3 81.3 72.2 75.5 79.9 1994 82.2 85.6 82.3 75.3 69.9 70.4 70.9 71.5 71.9 77.1 83.9 79.5 1995 87.8 73.6 83.2 69.5 62.9 64.8

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 97.1 96.6 96.4 94.9 91.0 89.2 89.5 88.2 89.8 90.7 94.4 97.0 1990 97.2 96.9 96.3 94.8 91.6 91.6 89.5 89.5 89.1 93.3 95.0 96.2 1991 97.1 95.7 94.7 89.8 86.4 85.5 87.5 88.0 91.1 91.5 95.7 95.5 1992 95.4 94.2 93.6 91.9 87.9 86.9 86.7 87.4 87.9 93.0 94.6 94.9 1993 91.6 91.6 95.3 93.5 92.4 93.5 89.9 81.6 88.1 88.5 94.5 95.4 1994 93.6 95.9 94.6 92.1 88.2 85.4 83.0 83.5 83.4 87.6 87.9 89.9 1995 90.8 91.2 89.9 86.3 87.4 80.6

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 97.1 96.6 97.1 96.7 95.9 95.1 94.3 94.7 94.1 94.2 94.6 96.8 1990 97.6 97.1 96.0 95.7 94.3 94.5 93.6 93.1 92.6 93.3 94.7 95.6 1991 97.3 97.5 97.1 96.6 95.9 94.8 94.5 94.7 94.1 95.8 96.5 97.4 1992 97.2 97.2 96.3 95.6 94.1 92.8 93.1 92.7 94.1 95.0 97.0 97.4 1993 97.3 97.4 96.5 96.3 94.6 96.2 95.0 93.4 93.4 95.4 97.1 98.1 1994 98.1 98.3 98.2 95.8 95.8 95.4 95.2 94.1 95.2 96.2 96.5 97.8 1995 97.9 98.5 97.8 96.7 95.9 96.2

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Michigan Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 75.8 74.5 76.0 71.7 64.9 47.6 51.7 50.8 57.5 64.4 69.5 73.5 1990 73.1 74.0 74.5 72.3 67.4 58.1 49.6 51.5 52.2 62.1 70.1 74.6 1991 73.0 72.2 72.4 67.3 62.1 51.2 44.3 41.2 47.5 60.1 87.2 70.0 1992 73.7 74.5 71.4 70.5 66.6 55.5 48.5 51.6 49.9 61.1 68.6 73.1 1993 74.5 72.3 72.6 68.0 63.7 51.6 50.5 54.4 50.9 63.1 68.1 73.1 1994 73.7 71.6 70.8 66.3 60.1 45.7 41.7 42.3 45.4 55.4 63.4 69.8 1995 72.5 72.2 71.2 68.0 61.5 45.8

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Missouri Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.4 93.9 94.4 93.2 90.7 85.8 86.1 90.5 86.9 88.8 90.3 92.3 1990 93.7 90.7 89.2 88.2 82.5 77.4 70.9 70.8 72.6 74.8 83.8 85.9 1991 90.8 91.1 89.1 82.1 79.0 75.4 71.1 72.2 75.1 75.6 85.9 88.5 1992 89.7 90.1 89.1 88.1 82.7 80.6 71.9 75.8 74.5 76.1 81.0 87.2 1993 87.5 89.2 89.8 88.1 78.0 74.7 72.2 69.2 74.3 73.4 82.3 85.9 1994 88.8 87.2 87.6 85.1 79.0 75.0 70.2 70.0 68.2 70.2 77.0 82.0 1995 87.0 88.9 87.2 83.3 80.9 75.0

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Montana Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.3 98.9 98.8 98.6 97.4 96.8 96.4 96.3 96.3 97.5 97.9 98.1 1990 97.9 97.8 97.6 98.6 96.9 98.4 96.3 95.8 93.3 96.9 97.6 99.6 1991 98.5 98.1 98.0 97.7 97.8 96.9 95.8 95.8 95.8 96.3 96.5 97.2 1992 97.1 98.0 96.7 96.5 96.6 94.9 95.4 96.8 90.6 92.0 92.8 94.6 1993 95.4 94.0 94.9 93.9 94.9 91.1 91.2 91.2 87.5 88.8 91.5 93.5 1994 92.7 93.0 92.7 91.8 91.9 89.6 88.7 87.8 87.5 89.0 91.2 93.1 1995 93.0 92.5 92.5 91.9 92.0 90.1

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 96.8 96.5 97.1 99.8 99.7 99.8 99.9 99.9 99.7 98.8 98.1 98.5 1990 95.6 95.3 94.1 93.2 92.3 89.6 96.9 94.2 93.0 90.2 89.9 93.5 1991 93.6 93.3 91.8 87.9 85.4 88.2 96.4 95.2 85.8 86.1 90.5 91.4 1992 91.7 91.6 89.9 90.9 88.7 81.7 85.6 83.6 80.5 84.5 87.1 90.9 1993 94.1 94.7 94.5 93.4 89.5 88.4 88.1 87.8 82.9 85.2 84.8 92.0 1994 88.2 88.9 85.8 82.3 79.2 72.9 75.9 77.8 65.1 62.2 73.5 80.7 1995 81.4 80.6 79.2 79.8 76.0 71.8

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.0 98.1 96.9 95.0 94.2 94.3 92.7 91.7 91.2 96.2 97.2 98.8 1990 99.1 99.4 97.7 97.0 96.4 96.7 95.7 95.0 95.1 96.8 98.4 99.1 1991 99.4 99.4 94.3 92.2 90.6 87.2 84.0 85.2 79.5 84.3 82.2 89.0 1992 90.6 89.5 88.3 87.2 83.7 84.0 84.8 81.4 82.7 88.9 88.5 95.4 1993 97.0 96.0 94.3 91.0 92.5 90.6 89.7 86.7 89.6 89.7 90.9 93.5 1994 93.8 89.3 86.1 81.3 80.1 79.6 76.4 74.5 76.4 73.9 76.7 81.4 1995 81.5 83.2 77.4 78.9 77.1 76.5

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 87.4 88.1 87.1 86.0 81.2 74.4 75.5 75.0 78.9 85.1 87.8 90.3 1990 89.9 89.2 89.9 86.4 82.4 78.5 77.0 75.6 77.7 83.0 87.9 91.4 1991 91.6 90.0 87.2 83.6 78.6 74.7 75.5 73.7 75.6 82.6 87.8 89.8 1992 89.1 88.0 88.4 85.7 78.9 73.9 72.0 73.5 73.1 84.2 85.7 88.5 1993 89.4 87.0 86.9 83.8 76.1 73.9 74.6 69.4 72.6 82.8 84.5 86.3 1994 87.4 86.5 84.9 78.4 75.9 70.5 66.7 67.5 66.5 75.1 78.7 81.5 1995 81.0 80.0 78.6 76.8 67.8 61.4

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 89.7 90.2 91.7 87.9 89.1 86.6 86.7 85.0 86.8 86.5 89.1 91.2 1990 94.8 93.2 92.0 93.2 92.6 90.6 89.1 89.5 88.5 87.8 89.9 90.6 1991 94.6 95.1 92.9 91.4 90.3 88.7 87.1 85.6 86.8 81.2 87.6 90.6 1992 91.6 92.3 87.7 90.9 85.4 84.1 80.2 85.7 84.3 85.3 86.9 88.1 1993 91.8 92.0 91.7 90.9 89.1 83.1 80.5 82.2 83.4 83.1 91.5 91.9 1994 90.7 93.8 93.1 89.6 88.0 81.3 74.6 73.8 76.1 78.1 85.0 91.2 1995 90.7 89.8 89.7 85.3 84.9 79.3

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.1 99.2 98.7 98.3 97.6 97.6 97.0 97.2 97.4 96.7 97.3 98.0 1990 98.2 98.6 98.4 97.4 97.4 97.5 96.6 96.6 96.9 95.6 96.5 98.1 1991 98.7 98.3 97.8 97.7 97.5 98.0 97.3 97.2 97.2 95.9 97.6 98.0 1992 98.6 98.4 97.4 97.7 97.7 97.8 97.9 96.7 97.8 94.6 97.4 98.4 1993 98.6 99.0 98.5 98.0 97.6 97.8 97.6 97.5 97.3 93.6 96.5 98.2 1994 98.5 98.6 98.3 97.4 97.6 97.7 98.1 97.7 97.9 97.0 97.8 98.6 1995 98.5 98.5 98.2 98.2 97.9 97.8

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 87.2 92.4 93.7 92.5 90.6 89.6 93.3 91.2 83.1 87.3 87.9 93.2 1990 91.1 90.1 83.9 90.5 90.3 92.3 90.3 90.7 89.1 87.4 88.0 91.5 1991 92.1 91.3 91.8 92.1 87.7 91.4 91.1 90.4 87.3 80.7 84.8 87.6 1992 86.9 85.6 83.4 83.6 79.5 77.8 77.0 75.9 71.9 72.4 75.3 78.6 1993 85.5 86.7 85.6 85.2 80.1 81.0 82.7 85.1 80.7 81.1 84.2 84.0 1994 82.1 81.6 84.0 83.6 73.8 81.6 88.8 82.6 83.3 75.1 78.9 89.0 1995 72.8 71.3 73.6 70.2 55.0 72.7

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.3 98.4 98.1 97.1 96.4 96.4 93.9 94.1 95.4 93.3 96.4 97.9 1990 97.2 95.9 90.6 86.6 94.2 93.9 94.1 91.9 92.0 92.9 92.5 93.7 1991 95.9 96.9 95.2 93.6 91.8 90.8 91.3 89.5 90.2 92.6 90.9 93.5 1992 94.6 93.3 93.7 91.7 88.9 88.4 86.9 85.9 83.8 89.9 86.6 90.3 1993 90.2 91.8 89.8 87.6 90.1 87.6 85.4 77.2 85.9 79.8 88.8 93.2 1994 95.2 97.2 92.5 82.7 85.1 76.7 82.4 72.9 72.9 76.1 79.4 86.1 1995 90.8 90.0 88.7 77.6 76.2 74.7

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alaska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 99.6 99.6 99.6 99.7 97.1 92.7 90.5 89.6 94.4 94.9 99.3 99.3 2002 99.3 99.2 99.2 99.3 80.9 79.0 78.8 78.4 86.9 99.4 96.3 99.6 2003 97.3 98.3 81.5 78.0 62.0 62.8 61.5 54.7 55.2 70.5 100.0 95.4 2004 94.3 77.2 72.2 65.1 68.5 66.1 60.9 54.9 55.5 58.7 76.9 73.3 2005 76.0 75.0 71.9 66.3 71.4 64.0 61.8 63.1 67.6 76.6 70.9 69.0 2006 66.8 63.2 71.2 60.6 60.5 63.6 55.1 60.2 64.8 61.6 78.2 70.2 2007 77.8 76.7 78.2 73.6 78.3 72.5

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arizona Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 33.6 44.6 45.1 46.7 45.0 48.3 48.5 41.4 43.8 54.6 54.8 55.3 2002 55.5 54.5 47.0 46.9 41.4 41.7 36.1 34.9 36.7 33.1 32.9 33.0 2003 37.3 38.2 36.6 36.4 36.4 35.7 37.7 38.8 44.8 45.3 45.3 48.8 2004 58.9 65.1 52.4 51.8 51.2 55.8 50.6 52.0 51.7 53.3 55.4 57.8 2005 47.4 48.2 43.8 47.9 46.2 40.8 40.9 38.2 40.1 40.3 42.7 43.5 2006 37.1 41.1 37.8 37.6 36.4 37.6 38.3 35.9 37.9 39.7 37.1 37.6 2007 36.3 35.8 34.0 35.0 32.8 32.4

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arkansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 6.8 10.0 9.1 4.6 6.6 4.9 5.5 3.8 4.0 5.6 5.3 5.4 2002 6.1 6.1 6.5 5.0 4.1 3.9 5.1 3.8 3.8 5.0 4.8 4.9 2003 5.4 5.9 5.8 4.6 4.0 3.8 4.5 5.2 5.9 6.5 6.2 6.1 2004 6.5 6.8 6.3 5.7 5.1 6.0 5.8 4.4 4.9 7.2 7.0 5.0 2005 5.5 6.2 5.6 5.3 4.7 4.6 4.3 3.8 4.6 6.8 5.5 5.1 2006 5.3 5.7 5.2 4.6 4.0 4.1 3.7 3.3 4.1 5.4 5.5 5.8 2007 4.5 5.6 4.4 4.2 3.8 3.8 3.3 3.4 3.7 4.5 4.5 3.7 2008 4.1 4.6 3.9 4.0 3.1 2.8 3.0 2.9 3.2 4.8 5.4 4.4

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Colorado Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.6 1.2 2.9 2.8 1.7 0.4 0.4 0.1 2002 0.1 0.1 1.4 1.1 1.9 1.7 2.1 3.3 1.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 2003 0.1 0.0 0.3 1.2 0.8 0.9 1.9 3.0 2.7 0.9 0.4 0.1 2004 0.1 0.1 0.3 1.1 0.8 1.5 1.5 2.3 2.0 0.3 0.2 0.0 2005 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.7 2006 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.6 1.1 1.5 1.6 2.0 1.0 0.3 0.1 0.1 2007 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.8 1.3 1.5 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.1 2008 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.5

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 10.8 29.0 19.8 13.0 14.8 20.4 15.1 11.6 14.2 11.7 14.9 16.3 2002 18.4 19.6 20.4 17.5 21.7 15.6 11.9 9.9 8.0 8.6 10.6 10.3 2003 11.8 16.2 16.3 23.7 21.2 13.2 16.1 11.2 12.5 21.3 14.0 15.5 2004 10.7 11.4 12.2 12.8 9.4 14.4 11.1 12.1 11.5 12.2 10.9 12.8 2005 9.4 13.1 14.7 14.0 10.2 13.3 12.8 10.9 13.5 11.5 12.4 12.5 2006 10.7 9.8 9.6 11.0 8.9 6.2 7.6 7.5 8.5 9.3 8.3 10.7 2007 9.7 14.7 14.4 12.2 8.5 9.2 8.1 8.2 9.2 7.1 8.8

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Florida Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 6.1 4.5 3.5 4.7 5.9 3.6 1.9 2.9 2.5 2.5 3.3 4.0 2002 4.1 4.5 4.1 3.6 3.5 4.2 3.2 3.5 3.9 3.4 3.8 4.4 2003 4.2 5.9 4.4 3.9 3.5 3.7 3.3 2.6 3.7 3.2 4.4 3.3 2004 4.6 3.8 4.2 3.3 3.3 3.7 2.9 3.2 4.4 3.3 4.1 3.6 2005 2.7 4.1 3.8 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.6 2006 3.0 2.8 3.0 2.8 2.3 2.4 5.3 2.9 3.0 2.4 4.2 3.1 2007 2.6 3.1 3.5 2.3 2.9 4.0 2.8 2.6 3.6 2.5 3.7 3.6 2008 2.9 3.3 3.4 2.5 2.9 2.4 2.8 2.5 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.3

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Georgia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 28.1 24.7 21.2 18.5 19.8 19.2 17.1 18.0 16.4 17.5 19.5 19.7 2002 20.2 20.6 21.4 19.5 18.0 19.2 17.7 17.9 18.5 18.2 19.4 19.5 2003 16.7 19.1 17.2 16.0 16.8 14.4 12.6 13.4 14.2 15.3 16.5 18.0 2004 18.2 17.2 17.4 15.5 14.9 15.8 15.9 15.1 15.6 13.9 14.0 22.4 2005 19.9 18.4 15.9 17.9 13.7 14.6 12.9 15.6 19.7 18.7 19.4 18.3 2006 18.3 25.0 17.2 12.5 12.7 16.7 15.2 16.2 15.7 18.0 17.8 17.0 2007 17.2 19.3 17.9 18.7 16.7 16.6

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Idaho Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 3.3 3.2 2.5 2.2 1.9 1.6 1.5 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.8 2.3 2002 2.7 2.9 2.7 2.5 0.9 1.9 1.8 2.0 1.4 1.6 1.3 2.3 2003 2.2 2.5 2.1 1.8 1.7 1.6 2.0 2.2 1.8 2.0 2.4 3.1 2004 3.2 2.9 2.8 2.0 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.6 1.5 2.5 3.2 2005 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.4 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6 2.0 1.7 2.4 3.0 2006 2.5 2.6 2.3 2.0 1.8 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 2.0 2.3 2.6 2007 2.3 2.1 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.4 2008 2.2 2.3 2.4 1.8 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.9 1.4 1.8 2.3 2.1

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 14.3 14.6 11.7 8.9 7.1 6.7 5.8 6.1 7.5 8.7 10.3 12.1 2002 11.2 11.2 11.1 10.3 7.6 7.2 3.9 5.4 6.6 9.4 10.7 12.6 2003 13.4 13.4 12.9 9.2 7.9 6.9 5.7 7.6 5.3 9.1 10.5 10.6 2004 13.5 12.0 9.7 8.1 5.8 6.1 6.4 5.7 5.0 8.3 10.4 11.5 2005 12.9 11.8 10.7 8.2 6.0 4.7 6.3 6.0 6.8 10.6 11.6 12.5 2006 12.3 11.9 11.1 8.8 7.4 4.9 5.3 6.4 6.6 8.5 7.7 9.6 2007 11.5 12.7 12.8 10.6 10.3 7.8 6.0 5.4 6.4 7.5 7.7 10.4 2008 11.7 12.9 12.9

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 15.1 14.0 7.1 7.1 4.2 3.7 5.2 1.0 5.5 8.3 6.6 10.2 2002 8.4 8.1 10.1 6.4 5.3 6.2 5.3 5.9 6.6 12.5 12.6 12.4 2003 14.2 12.9 8.9 7.2 7.0 5.9 6.2 5.7 9.3 6.2 11.3 9.3 2004 9.2 8.9 8.9 6.9 6.4 6.2 6.9 6.5 7.3 7.9 10.4 11.6 2005 9.8 7.7 9.6 5.8 6.3 5.5 5.5 6.7 8.2 8.2 10.6 8.9 2006 8.2 9.3 7.4 4.3 7.0 5.0 6.4 5.9 6.3 8.2 8.3 8.4 2007 9.3 9.4 5.8 7.6 6.1 5.5 6.0 5.0 6.9 6.8 9.5 9.1 2008 8.4 7.5 7.0 6.7 5.5 4.5 4.7 4.7 5.3

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 3.0 2.9 3.2 2.9 7.8 9.4 18.1 21.2 16.4 7.7 7.9 4.4 2002 5.0 5.1 6.6 13.0 12.4 16.1 22.4 18.5 11.6 5.7 4.3 4.3 2003 2.4 3.4 3.2 8.2 11.0 6.9 14.8 21.1 9.1 5.3 5.0 3.1 2004 2.7 2.8 4.6 10.3 9.4 14.0 13.4 11.0 9.2 2.6 2.4 2.3 2005 1.7 1.4 1.4 3.2 6.6 8.2 16.3 19.2 9.0 3.8 2.5 1.7 2006 1.7 2.0 3.2 5.7 9.4 12.9 16.2 16.9 9.4 3.6 2.1 2.1 2007 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.4 4.9 9.8 16.2 17.3 9.6 4.0 2.8 1.7 2008 1.6 1.5 2.7 7.5 10.4 13.4

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 27.3 21.8 18.9 13.8 17.8 15.8 17.4 17.4 17.3 19.6 16.5 16.9 2002 16.8 18.2 18.9 17.2 15.5 16.5 18.0 19.1 16.3 18.0 18.8 18.4 2003 20.6 20.1 18.7 19.5 19.2 20.3 16.6 16.0 18.1 18.2 18.1 18.4 2004 18.8 18.3 16.3 16.0 14.6 16.6 16.2 15.2 15.5 15.6 17.5 20.3 2005 16.5 17.5 17.3 16.0 15.8 15.2 16.1 14.9 17.4 17.9 17.2 19.7 2006 15.6 16.9 17.6 14.8 14.9 14.2 16.0 15.7 14.6 15.7 15.5 17.6 2007 16.6 18.1 17.0 17.7 16.1 17.5

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maine Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 7.1 9.5 8.2 5.5 7.6 14.7 17.1 12.4 4.5 8.9 4.5 3.6 2002 13.5 1.7 6.8 1.5 1.6 1.2 100.0 0.8 100.0 0.7 0.8 1.0 2003 10.9 12.0 11.3 10.5 11.9 9.1 7.6 10.1 9.0 7.3 9.2 16.5 2004 2.0 1.7 1.5 1.7 1.8 2.3 1.3 2.0 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.8 2005 3.8 4.1 3.6 3.0 2.8 2.5 3.2 2.0 1.4 3.4 3.2 3.8 2006 1.3 1.3 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.8 2007 0.9 1.0 4.3 0.9 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.6 1.3 2008 1.1 0.9 1.5 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.8 0.6 0.6

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 15.4 11.4 9.7 7.2 6.7 4.5 9.7 6.3 6.3 7.0 6.6 10.3 2002 10.3 11.3 13.0 5.3 5.8 6.0 4.5 5.8 4.3 6.9 7.1 11.9 2003 10.5 13.2 11.4 9.1 7.8 6.6 6.3 6.2 7.1 12.1 11.9 12.9 2004 11.2 10.7 8.8 9.1 6.4 4.7 5.0 5.6 7.2 7.2 9.4 10.9 2005 11.3 11.5 11.3 9.8 5.5 5.1 4.9 5.3 5.2 6.2 9.4 10.7 2006 8.7 10.4 8.9 6.1 4.5 4.4 3.7 3.9 6.5 5.8 7.7 9.2 2007 13.1 13.7 11.0 9.9 6.1 3.7 4.5 3.8 6.9 3.5 8.4 10.4 2008 9.5 10.4 7.5 6.6 4.7 3.1

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Michigan Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 18.6 17.2 15.3 13.3 9.0 5.7 5.4 5.8 6.0 7.3 9.9 12.0 2002 14.4 13.3 14.0 11.4 8.1 5.7 4.3 5.2 3.9 6.5 10.9 17.6 2003 15.4 14.6 15.1 11.9 8.7 5.9 6.1 3.8 6.7 6.9 9.6 14.4 2004 14.6 15.9 18.0 11.4 7.4 5.7 5.0 4.9 5.0 6.1 9.2 13.3 2005 14.3 17.0 15.8 10.7 8.1 5.3 4.0 3.8 4.6 7.2 9.8 13.8 2006 15.4 16.4 13.5 10.8 7.3 5.1 3.8 4.5 5.2 7.0 10.6 13.6 2007 14.8 17.3 16.9 13.5 11.5 8.4 6.3 6.0 6.2 7.4 11.4 16.6 2008 16.4 17.4

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Missouri Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 25.6 17.3 19.1 14.4 11.1 10.2 9.5 8.1 9.5 10.2 12.4 32.9 2002 21.7 26.8 26.8 15.8 10.2 9.8 9.3 9.8 10.9 9.0 14.0 18.7 2003 18.8 21.0 19.0 13.6 12.1 12.4 12.5 8.8 10.3 11.1 13.1 16.8 2004 17.4 20.0 16.1 14.7 11.4 10.1 9.6 9.7 10.5 11.0 12.6 15.4 2005 20.1 18.4 16.4 13.9 11.9 9.6 10.1 9.4 10.5 11.2 13.0 17.9 2006 17.2 17.0 14.8 13.7 10.5 10.2 9.9 9.6 10.2 10.8 13.2 16.7 2007 15.4 18.5 16.7 12.3 10.6 10.1 9.7 8.4 8.7 10.3

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Montana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 3.0 3.1 2.8 2.6 2.3 1.9 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.9 3.0 2002 3.0 2.9 3.6 2.3 2.0 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.8 1.1 2.1 3.4 2003 2.9 2.8 3.3 2.1 1.8 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.6 1.2 1.6 2004 1.8 2.4 1.9 1.0 1.5 1.4 1.1 0.7 0.8 1.1 1.8 2.4 2005 3.1 2.9 2.2 2.3 1.8 1.4 0.9 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.3 2.3 2006 1.3 1.0 1.1 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.6 1.0 2007 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 1.0 2008 1.3 1.4 1.8 1.1 0.9 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.9

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 25.7 29.6 30.3 21.0 19.7 16.7 8.3 12.9 13.3 18.6 12.0 18.7 2002 22.6 19.5 29.3 17.6 15.0 24.0 7.4 8.4 8.8 16.4 18.9 19.6 2003 20.3 22.7 24.9 19.3 17.1 24.1 8.7 9.7 10.9 15.7 17.7 19.4 2004 19.7 21.4 24.7 19.0 18.3 14.2 9.2 10.6 16.5 18.8 16.0 16.6 2005 24.4 20.0 24.6 18.5 19.0 18.2 10.0 8.6 12.9 15.1 14.2 18.3 2006 13.8 15.1 17.1 13.3 13.0 9.8 8.3 7.7 10.5 11.5 10.2 12.4 2007 12.1 13.0 14.5 11.6 9.7 8.9 7.1 6.4 6.9 9.8

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 32.2 25.0 16.8 19.7 13.2 12.9 38.9 31.5 31.7 41.7 48.4 68.2 2002 58.3 44.3 59.1 37.8 44.2 40.0 17.5 18.2 19.5 21.2 23.0 28.8 2003 25.6 28.9 20.3 22.8 14.8 13.2 13.6 11.9 12.5 15.8 23.9 21.7 2004 21.4 23.6 14.9 15.1 12.4 11.3 10.7 11.5 13.4 15.9 20.9 22.6 2005 24.3 25.3 17.8 18.4 14.8 14.1 9.6 12.3 13.6 15.9 18.3 19.5 2006 20.9 21.8 22.3 14.7 14.8 11.9 11.7 10.6 11.5 16.9 16.6 23.7 2007 22.1 26.8 17.9 16.6 14.8 11.6

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 14.8 6.1 7.1 30.9 9.0 7.4 7.0 8.5 8.1 5.6 6.0 4.1 2002 9.9 10.8 11.1 14.9 18.5 20.5 21.4 23.9 17.8 13.8 13.5 14.9 2003 9.1 9.6 9.4 11.5 13.6 12.9 14.3 16.6 14.1 13.8 11.6 10.4 2004 5.8 4.3 8.0 9.8 15.5 16.1 15.3 14.7 13.8 9.3 14.4 10.5 2005 5.0 3.9 4.2 6.7 8.0 9.2 13.3 14.3 8.8 8.1 8.9 8.3 2006 6.8 6.4 9.0 11.9 12.9 14.5 15.9 17.6 10.4 9.4 11.2 13.4 2007 8.3 7.4 6.4 10.0 11.1 9.0 12.4 13.2 14.1 12.5 13.8 10.1 2008

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 15.2 13.8 16.8 8.2 5.8 5.5 1.1 4.7 8.0 12.1 13.4 17.9 2002 9.8 10.6 12.6 10.1 7.4 4.8 5.1 5.2 6.7 11.6 14.4 13.2 2003 35.1 44.0 60.0 30.9 17.9 17.7 25.0 32.3 22.3 25.2 44.1 87.2 2004 54.7 46.4 57.3 56.1 36.3 16.0 13.5 58.7 63.2 58.6 55.3 53.4 2005 25.1 17.0 17.7 14.7 9.6 4.4 10.3 15.1 51.6 58.4 45.9 23.2 2006 26.1 18.4 28.8 53.1 58.6 61.2 13.1 13.9 43.4 56.3 52.6 19.1 2007 26.6 28.8 24.7 58.5 61.4 46.9 11.0 38.6

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 13.1 9.8 10.4 6.2 3.9 3.4 1.5 4.8 1.2 2.9 5.6 6.4 2002 5.4 6.2 5.4 4.8 1.9 1.7 1.6 2.1 2.5 2.3 4.9 6.7 2003 6.3 7.0 5.4 4.0 1.8 2.4 2.0 1.7 1.7 2.4 3.3 4.6 2004 5.1 5.7 4.0 3.8 2.1 2.3 1.7 2.3 2.2 2.7 3.4 4.5 2005 5.7 6.6 4.5 2.6 2.0 1.6 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.6 3.3 4.8 2006 4.6 4.7 4.0 2.7 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.2 3.0 3.5 2007 3.9 4.8 3.5 2.6 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.4 1.5 1.2 2.2 3.7 2008 3.9 4.2 3.5 2.5 1.1 1.7 1.9 1.4 1.4 1.6 2.7 4.1

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 27.2 17.0 18.7 20.3 20.5 20.7 23.5 26.8 24.2 21.1 20.6 21.4 2002 18.9 20.8 20.3 19.3 12.6 11.1 10.1 8.9 10.8 11.5 12.6 12.8 2003 13.8 14.3 13.8 12.7 16.1 16.2 15.5 15.6 19.2 21.1 24.5 25.4 2004 25.1 24.3 24.2 23.3 21.8 22.9 22.6 22.1 23.8 23.5 31.1 33.4 2005 34.3 34.3 32.7 31.0 30.2 30.1 31.4 32.1 33.6 35.0 34.8 38.2 2006 36.0 36.3 35.1 26.5 25.4 24.3 23.2 21.2 21.6 20.5 21.5 24.0 2007 23.6 24.3 22.9 21.8 20.8 21.8

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 41.4 29.5 26.1 37.6 29.0 29.3 26.0 26.2 22.4 26.8 29.3 13.6 2002 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 2003 15.7 18.9 21.5 19.6 26.7 11.7 16.8 18.8 18.6 22.1 18.5 22.3 2004 13.9 16.7 14.5 16.8 21.1 11.7 16.7 15.3 16.0 19.4 10.5 23.0 2005 17.8 14.7 15.9 11.0 16.3 16.5 12.9 13.8 16.3 13.2 16.5 19.7 2006 18.6 18.7 16.4 15.0 12.5 13.3 8.8 10.5 11.4 12.8 10.5 15.7 2007 13.0 19.0 15.1 12.7 10.1 14.3

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 51.1 54.8 52.4 50.8 35.1 32.7 28.6 26.5 24.1 33.3 45.5 44.5 2002 16.4 18.6 13.2 18.4 14.1 10.7 9.5 9.0 19.5 27.6 30.6 34.9 2003 26.3 24.4 27.3 26.0 23.9 22.4 24.7 23.3 25.3 24.8 26.8 29.1 2004 29.0 28.5 30.0 24.4 26.1 28.2 22.6 27.6 24.8 27.2 33.3 31.0 2005 28.5 28.0 33.6 26.7 31.6 26.1 28.9 31.7 27.8 30.4 33.3 35.8 2006 38.6 36.4 37.5 31.3 39.2 30.3 27.6 30.1 27.8 31.5 33.7 35.4 2007 33.8 31.8 31.3 15.2 16.2 12.1

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 35.8 35.7 33.7 34.2 32.9 34.2 36.5 34.8 37.5 36.0 35.1 34.5 2002 30.8 32.1 30.6 50.7 45.4 50.5 49.5 46.5 46.3 43.4 43.8 44.8 2003 40.1 39.5 39.1 39.5 39.8 36.1 50.7 46.2 49.0 47.8 47.2 48.2 2004 48.4 49.3 46.7 49.4 49.0 51.9 51.3 49.9 47.4 46.0 46.6 48.9 2005 58.7 57.0 56.9 55.8 55.8 54.9 56.8 55.0 52.5 49.7 51.1 49.5 2006 52.1 52.1 54.8 55.6 55.3 54.7 58.1 57.4 54.1 57.9 56.5 55.6 2007 52.7 51.6 52.4 53.0 54.2 56.0

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 11.9 9.2 10.7 10.1 9.5 9.5 10.1 11.5 9.4 9.2 11.0 13.8 2002 14.0 13.8 12.6 15.8 13.0 13.4 12.1 13.6 13.5 12.8 15.0 13.7 2003 14.5 14.6 13.1 14.9 14.1 13.2 11.8 12.7 13.8 13.9 13.2 13.1 2004 13.8 15.2 13.3 14.6 12.7 12.7 18.4 46.5 26.9 24.3 23.4 23.8 2005 18.4 18.6 18.4 17.7 18.6 21.3 20.0 21.2 21.3 21.5 18.3 19.9 2006 22.3 23.2 22.5 24.0 24.0 24.7 24.2 13.9 13.4 15.3 15.8 16.0 2007 14.4 13.6 14.4 14.6 13.3 12.7 14.5

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 95.2 80.1 79.2 79.2 69.2 67.8 65.6 67.7 70.7 73.3 76.0 79.0 2002 77.7 78.3 78.6 78.2 72.6 66.8 66.7 65.1 66.8 72.6 76.2 85.5 2003 87.3 100.0 100.0 75.7 74.2 72.4 75.0 67.7 70.4 73.2 77.4 80.1 2004 79.9 84.7 80.7 82.2 78.6 73.8 70.0 68.3 69.2 76.4 82.1 83.7 2005 83.6 86.4 82.6 78.0 74.4 71.5 72.1 83.9 94.3 82.4 75.7 96.4 2006 93.0 87.6 82.4 77.2 73.3 72.9 71.7 69.7 71.5 76.3 75.1 79.5 2007 83.0 84.1 81.8 76.2 72.2 71.7

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 27.4 24.1 20.8 18.6 13.3 23.5 10.9 12.9 15.0 24.1 11.2 15.4 2002 16.8 19.7 18.3 14.0 14.1 10.8 10.7 11.0 13.2 16.0 19.3 22.9 2003 25.6 22.5 16.5 23.9 12.9 9.1 13.4 19.6 12.6 17.7 17.9 17.0 2004 21.5 18.8 18.7 16.8 14.9 11.2 15.6 14.5 8.9 15.1 16.1 21.1 2005 18.3 21.6 18.1 19.3 15.7 16.6 9.5 11.6 16.0 18.7 21.5 20.0 2006 21.6 17.0 16.0 13.2 13.8 10.4 9.5 8.0 12.7 14.5 16.0 15.7 2007 17.0 20.0 17.1 17.2 15.4 9.5 10.3

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 3.6 3.9 3.7 2.8 1.9 2.1 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.2 1.8 2002 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.0 3.6 2.4 2.6 2.8 2.8 3.2 2.1 2.5 2003 2.4 2.4 2.1 1.8 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4 2.2 2.0 2004 2.0 1.9 2.2 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.7 1.7 2.3 2.0 2.3 2.4 2005 2.8 5.0 5.8 4.5 4.1 3.5 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.8 4.2 4.4 2006 4.4 4.5 4.2 3.9 3.3 2.7 2.2 2.3 2.8 3.3 3.8 3.7 2007 4.3 4.1 3.4 3.7 2.8 2.0 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.9 3.3 3.3 2008 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.9 2.9 2.1 2.0 1.7 2.5 3.0 3.6 3.9

  20. Viability Assessment Volume 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE,

    1998-12-01

    This volume presents a management summary of the cost estimate to complete the design, and to license, construct, operate, monitor, close, and decommission a Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. This volume summarizes the scope, estimating methodologies, and assumptions used in development of the Monitored Geologic Repository-VA cost estimate. It identifies the key features necessary to understand the summary costs presented herein. This cost summary derives from a larger body of documented cost analysis. Volume 5 is organized to reflect this structured approach to cost estimation and contains the following sections: Section 1, Cost Elements. This section briefly defines the components of each major repository cost element. Section 2, Project Phases. This section presents the definition, as used in the estimate, of five project phases (Licensing, Pre-emplacement Construction, Emplacement Operations, Monitoring, and Closure and Decommissioning) and the schedule dates for each phase. It also contains major milestone dates and a bar chart schedule. Section 3, Major Assumptions. This section identifies key high-level assumptions for the cost estimate basis. Additional detailed assumptions are included in the appendices. Section 4, Integrated Cost Summary. This section presents a high-level roll-up of the VA costs resulting from the estimating work. The tables and figures contained in this section were compiled from the more detailed cost estimates in the appendices. Section 5, References. This section identifies the references that support this cost volume. Appendices. For each major repository cost element, Appendices B-F [B, C, D, E, F] presents additional information on the scope of cost elements, identifies methodologies used to develop the cost estimates, lists underlying cost assumptions, and tabulates summary results. Appendix A contains a glossary to assist the reader in understanding the terminology in Volume 5. Appendix G presents costs associated with three VA design options, as described in Volume 2. These costs are provided for information and are not compiled into the integrated cost summary.

  1. Viability Assessment Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE

    1998-12-01

    Volume 4 provides the DOE plan and cost estimate for the remaining work necessary to proceed from completing this VA to submitting an LA to NRC. This work includes preparing an EIS and evaluating the suitability of the site. Both items are necessary components of the documentation required to support a decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend that the President approve the site for development as a repository. If the President recommends the site to Congress and the site designation becomes effective, then DOE will submit the LA to NRC in 2002 for authorization to construct the repository. The work described in Volume 4 constitutes the last step in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site and the design and evaluation of the performance of a repository system in the geologic setting of this site. The plans in this volume for the next 4 years' work are based on the results of the previous 15 years' work, as reported in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 of this VA. Volume 1 summarizes what DOE has learned to date about the Yucca Mountain site. Volume 2 describes the current, reference repository design, several design options that might enhance the performance of the reference design, and several alternative designs that represent substantial departures from the reference design. Volume 2 also summarizes the results of tests of candidate materials for waste packages and for support of the tunnels into which waste would be emplaced. Volume 3 provides the results of the latest performance assessments undertaken to evaluate the performance of the design in the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain. The results described in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 provide the basis for identifying and prioritizing the work described in this volume. DOE believes that the planned work, together with the results of previous work, will be sufficient to support a site suitability evaluation for site recommendation and, if the site is recommended and designated, a defensible LA. Volume 4 is divided into seven sections. Section 2 presents a rationale and summary for the technical work to be done to develop the preclosure and postclosure safety cases that will support the compliance evaluations required for the evaluation of site suitability and for licensing. Section 2 also describes other necessary technical work, including that needed to support design decisions and development of the necessary design information. Section 3 presents a more detailed description of the technical work required to address the issues identified in Section 2. Section 3 also describes activities that will continue after submittal of the site recommendation and the LA. Examples include the drift scale heater test in the Exploratory Studies Facility (Section 3.1.4.3) and long-term waste package corrosion testing (Section 3.2.2.9). Section 4 discusses the statutory and regulatory framework for site recommendation and submittal of an LA, and describes the activities and documentation that must be completed to achieve these milestones, including the development of an EIS. Section 5 describes the numerous activities required to support program milestones, including support for completing the testing program, continuing tests as part of the performance confirmation program, and managing information and records to support regulatory and legal review. Sections 6 and 7 provide cost and schedule information for the activities planned.

  2. Benchmark Theoretical Study of the ?–? Binding Energy in the Benzene Dimer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Apra, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2014-09-04

    We establish a new estimate for the interaction energy between two benzene molecules in the parallel displaced (PD) conformation by systematically converging (i) the intra- and intermolecular geometry at the minimum geometry, (ii) the expansion of the orbital basis set and (iii) the level of electron correlation. The calculations were performed at the second order Mřller - Plesset perturbation (MP2) and the Coupled Cluster including Singles, Doubles and a perturbative estimate of Triples replacements [CCSD(T)] levels of electronic structure theory. At both levels of theory, by including results corrected for Basis Set Superposition Error (BSSE), we have estimated the Complete Basis Set (CBS) limit by employing the family of Dunning’s correlation consistent polarized valence basis sets. The largest MP2 calculation was performed with the cc-pV6Z basis set (2,772 basis functions), whereas the largest CCSD(T) calculation with the cc-pV5Z basis set (1,752 basis functions). The cluster geometries were optimized with basis sets up to quadruple-? quality, observing that both its intra- and inter-molecular parts have practically converged with the triple-? quality sets. The use of converged geometries was found to play an important role for obtaining accurate estimates for the CBS limits. Our results demonstrate that the binding energies with the families of the plain (cc-pVnZ) and augmented (aug-cc-pVnZ) sets converge [to within < 0.01 kcal/mol for MP2 and < 0.15 kcal/mol for CCSD(T)] to the same CBS limit. In addition, the average of the uncorrected and BSSEcorrected binding energies was found to converge to the same CBS limit must faster than either of the two constituents (uncorrected or BSSE-corrected binding energies). Due to the fact that the family of augmented basis sets (especially for the larger sets) causes serious linear dependency problems, the plain basis sets (for which no linear dependencies were found) are deemed as a more efficient and straightforward path for obtaining an accurate CBS limit. We considered extrapolations of the uncorrected (?𝐸) and BSSE-corrected (?𝐸!") binding energies, their average value (?𝐸!"#) as well as the average of the latter over the plain and augmented sets (?𝐸!"#) with the cardinal number of the basis set n. Our best estimate of the CCSD(T)/CBS limit for the ?-? interaction energy in the PD benzene dimer is De = 2.65 ± 0.02 kcal/mol. The best CCSD(T)/cc-pV5Z calculated value is 2.62 kcal/mol, just 0.03 kcal/mol away from the CBS limit. For comparison, the MP2/CBS limit estimate is 5.00 ± 0.01 kcal/mol, demonstrating a 90% overbinding with respect to CCSD(T). The Spin-Component-Scaled (SCS) MP2 variant was found to closely reproduce the CCSD(T) results for each basis set, while Scaled-Opposite-Spin (SOS) yielded results that are too low when compared to CCSD(T).

  3. FY 2005 Volume 7

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8 Volume 7 Interior & Related Agencies Interior & Related Agencies Fossil Energy Research & Development Fossil Energy Research & Development Naval Petroleum & Oil Shale Reserves Naval Petroleum & Oil Shale Reserves Elk Hills School Lands Fund Elk Hills School Lands Fund Energy Conservation Energy Conservation Economic Regulation Economic Regulation Strategic Petroleum Reserve Strategic Petroleum Reserve Energy Information Administration Energy Information Administration

  4. Viability Assessment Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE

    1998-12-01

    This volume describes the major design features of the Monitored Geologic Repository. This document is not intended to provide an exhaustive, detailed description of the repository design. Rather, this document summarizes the major systems and primary elements of the design that are radiologically significant, and references the specific technical documents and design analyses wherein the details can be found. Not all portions of the design are at the same level of completeness. Highest priority has been given to assigning resources to advance the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation and for which there is no NRC licensing precedent. Those features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation, but for which there is an NRC precedent, receive second priority. Systems and features that have no impact on radiological safety or waste isolation receive the lowest priority. This prioritization process, referred to as binning, is discussed in more detail in Section 2.3. Not every subject discussed in this volume is given equal treatment with regard to the level of detail provided. For example, less detail is provided for the surface facility design than for the subsurface and waste package designs. This different level of detail is intentional. Greater detail is provided for those functions, structures, systems, and components that play key roles with regard to protecting radiological health and safety and that are not common to existing nuclear facilities already licensed by NRC. A number of radiological subjects are not addressed in the VA, (e.g., environmental qualification of equipment). Environmental qualification of equipment and other radiological safety considerations will be addressed in the LA. Non-radiological safety considerations such as silica dust control and other occupational safety considerations are considered equally important but are not addressed in th is volume of the VA (see Volume 1, Section 2.2.1.2, subsection on Health Related Mineral Issues).

  5. Final EIS Volume 3

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Volume 3 Final Environmental Impact Statement for Decommissioning and/or Long-Term Stewardship at the West Valley Demonstration Project and Western New York Nuclear Service Center DOE/EIS-0226 January 2010 The West Valley Site Comment Response Document Final Environmental Impact Statement for AVAILABILITY OF THE FINAL EIS FOR DECOMMISSIONING AND/OR LONG- TERM STEWARDSHIP AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AND WESTERN NEW YORK NUCLEAR SERVICE CENTER For further information on this Final

  6. FY 2013 Volume 3

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 DOE/CF-0073 Volume 3 Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Department of Energy FY 2013 Congressional Budget Request Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Nuclear Energy Fossil Energy Research and Development Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Strategic Petroleum Reserve Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Ultra-Deepwater Unconventional Natural Gas Elk Hills Lands Fund Advanced Tech. Vehicle Manufacturing Loan Program Title 17 Innovative Tech.

  7. Impact of the revised OSHA exposure standard on evaluation and control of benzene and other volatile organic chemicals in the liquid petroleum pipeline industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercer, D.O.

    1989-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the benzene exposure potential of workers in the liquid petroleum pipeline industry and to assess the impact of compliance with the revised standard on this industry. In addition, exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB), and ethylene dichloride (EDC), which have toxicological profiles similar to that of benzene and are routinely found in this industry, were evaluated and appropriate control protocols were recommended. Exposure potential to benzene in excess of the 0.5 ppm (8-hour TWA) OSHA action level was shown to be limited to three free product handling operations, and that this increased exposure potential was dependent on the length of time necessary to perform the operations. The incidence and magnitude of benzene overexposure was not severe and control could be accomplished with engineering methods, along with work practice controls and personal protective equipment. Through application of a risk assessment model it was shown that 14 excess leukemia deaths per one thousand workers could be expected in the employee population that routinely performs those operation having maximum benzene exposure potential. This compares to less than on excess leukemia death per one thousand workers in the total work population. The evaluation of EDB and EDC indicated that exposure potential to EDB was of greatest concern. Even though exposure could be limited through application of standard industrial hygiene methods, any control protocol short of total elimination of EDB from the product stream may be not sufficient to reduce exposure to accepted levels.

  8. Raman Spectroscopy of the Reaction of Thin Films of Solid-State Benzene with Vapor-Deposited Ag, Mg, and Al

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schalnat, Matthew C.; Hawkridge, Adam M.; Pemberton, Jeanne E.

    2011-07-21

    Thin films of solid-state benzene at 30 K were reacted with small quantities of vapor-deposited Ag, Mg, and Al under ultrahigh vacuum, and products were monitored using surface Raman spectroscopy. Although Ag and Mg produce small amounts of metal–benzene adduct products, the resulting Raman spectra are dominated by surface enhancement of the normal benzene modes from metallic nanoparticles suggesting rapid Ag or Mg metallization of the film. In contrast, large quantities of Al adduct products are observed. Vibrational modes of the products in all three systems suggest adducts that are formed through a pathway initiated by an electron transfer reaction. The difference in reactivity between these metals is ascribed to differences in ionization potential of the metal atoms; ionization potential values for Ag and Mg are similar but larger than that for Al. These studies demonstrate the importance of atomic parameters, such as ionization potential, in solid-state metal–organic reaction chemistry.

  9. Facile preparation of sphere-like copper ferrite nanostructures and their enhanced visible-light-induced photocatalytic conversion of benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yu; Wu, Yanbo; Xu, Hongfeng; Fu, Jie; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Spinel CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a facile method. • CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres showed high photocatalytic activity toward benzene. • Ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde were the intermediate products. - Abstract: Spinel copper ferrite nanospheres with diameters of about 116 nm were synthesized in high yield via a facile solvothermal route. The prepared nanospheres had cubic spinel structure and exhibited good size uniformity and regularity. The band-gap energy of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres was calculated to be about 1.69 eV, indicating their potential visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity. The dramatically enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres was evaluated via the photocatalytic conversion of benzene under Xe lamp irradiation. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} was produced as the final product during the reaction process. This study provided new insight into the design and preparation of functional nanomaterials with sphere structure in high yield, and the as-grown architectures demonstrated an excellent ability to remove organic pollutants in the atmosphere.

  10. Final EIS Volume 2

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Volume 2 Final Environmental Impact Statement for Decommissioning and/or Long-Term Stewardship at the West Valley Demonstration Project and Western New York Nuclear Service Center DOE/EIS-0226 January 2010 The West Valley Site (Appendices A through R) AVAILABILITY OF THE FINAL EIS FOR DECOMMISSIONING AND/OR LONG- TERM STEWARDSHIP AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AND WESTERN NEW YORK NUCLEAR SERVICE CENTER For further information on this Final EIS, or to request a copy of the EIS or

  11. U.S. net oil and petroleum product imports expected to fall to just 29 percent of demand in 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    net oil and petroleum product imports expected to fall to just 29 percent of demand in 2014 With rising domestic crude oil production, the United States will rely less on imports of crude oil and petroleum products to meet domestic demand next year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects total net imports to average 5.4 million barrels per day in 2014. That's down 2 million barrels per day from last year. As a result, the share of U.S. consumption met by

  12. Twisted mass finite volume effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colangelo, Gilberto; Wenger, Urs; Wu, Jackson M. S.

    2010-08-01

    We calculate finite-volume effects on the pion masses and decay constant in twisted mass lattice QCD at finite lattice spacing. We show that the lighter neutral pion in twisted mass lattice QCD gives rise to finite-volume effects that are exponentially enhanced when compared to those arising from the heavier charged pions. We demonstrate that the recent two flavor twisted mass lattice data can be better fitted when twisted mass effects in finite-volume corrections are taken into account.

  13. Volume 4 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Energy Before the House Committee on Space, Science, and Technology Volume 4 The Science and Energy Plan Careers & Internships Congressional Reports Contact Us Energy.gov...

  14. Rehab guide: Roofs. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-01

    Nine volumes will eventually make up The Rehab Guide in its entirety, and they are listed on the back cover of this volume. Each one is devoted to distinct elements of the house, and within each volume is a range of issues that are common to that element of home rehabilitation work. This volume, Roofs, for example, covers the major roofing systems including framing and sheathing; protective strategies such as underlayments and flashing; energy and air infiltration issues; roofing materials; and gutters and down-spouts. Each volume addresses a wide range techniques, materials, and tools, and recommendations based on regional differences around the country. Throughout The Rehab Guide, special attention is given to issues related to energy efficiency, sustainability, and accessibility.

  15. Product Guide Category Prices Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kerosene refiners 2,4,32 3,5,41 prime suppliers - 47 Table U.S. Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Monthly 1 Product Guide Category Prices Volumes No. 1 ...

  16. A density functional theory study of magneto-electric Jones birefringence of noble gases, furan homologues, and mono-substituted benzenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fahleson, Tobias; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia; Rizzo, Antonio; Rikken, Geert L. J. A.

    2013-11-21

    We report on the results of a systematic ab initio study of the Jones birefringence of noble gases, of furan homologues, and of monosubstituted benzenes, in the gas phase, with the aim of analyzing the behavior and the trends within a list of systems of varying size and complexity, and of identifying candidates for a combined experimental/theoretical study of the effect. We resort here to analytic linear and nonlinear response functions in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory. A correlation is made between the observable (the Jones constant) and the atomic radius for noble gases, or the permanent electric dipole and a structure/chemical reactivity descriptor as the para Hammett constant for substituted benzenes.

  17. Association of genetic polymorphisms in GADD45A, MDM2, and p14{sup ARF} with the risk of chronic benzene poisoning in a Chinese occupational population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Pin; Zhang Zhongbin; Wan Junxiang; Zhao Naiqing; Jin Xipeng; Xia Zhaolin

    2009-10-01

    Benzene reactive metabolites can lead to DNA damage and trigger the p53-dependent defense responses to maintain genomic stability. We hypothesized that the p53-dependent genes may play a role in the development of chronic benzene poisoning (CBP). In a case-control study of 303 patients with benzene poisoning and 295 workers occupationally exposed to benzene in south China, we investigated associations between the risk of CBP and polymorphisms in three p53-dependent genes. Potential interactions of these polymorphisms with lifestyle factors were also explored. We found p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 polymorphism was associated with risk of CBP (P = 0.014). Compared with those carrying the GG genotype, individuals carrying p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 GA+AA genotypes had a reduced risk of CBP ([adjusted odds ratio (OR{sub adj}) = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.36-0.89]. Further analysis showed p14{sup ARF} TGA/TAG diplotype was associated with an increased risk of CBP (P = 0.0006), whereas p14{sup ARF} TGG/TAA diplotype was associated with a decreased risk of CBP (P = 0.0000001). In addition, we found individuals carrying both MDM2 Del1518 WW genotype and p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 GA+AA genotypes had a lower risk of CBP (OR{sub adj} = 0.25; 95%CI = 0.10-0.62; P = 0.003). Although these results require confirmation and extension, our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in p14{sup ARF} may have an impact on the risk of CBP in the study population.

  18. Guidance for growth factors, projections, and control strategies for the 15 percent rate-of-progress plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Section 182(b)(1) of the Clean Air Act (Act) requires all ozone nonattainment areas classified as moderate and above to submit a State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision by November 15, 1993, which describes, in part, how the areas will achieve an actual volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions reduction of at least 15 percent during the first 6 years after enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). In addition, the SIP revision must describe how any growth in emissions from 1990 through 1996 will be fully offset. It is important to note that section 182(b)(1) also requires the SIP for moderate areas to provide for reductions in VOC and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as necessary to attain the national primary ambient air quality standard for ozone by November 15, 1996. The guidance document focuses on the procedures for developing 1996 projected emissions inventories and control measures which moderate and above ozone nonattainment areas must include in their rate-of-progress plans. The document provides technical guidance to support the policy presented in the 'General Preamble: Implementation of Title I of the CAAA of 1990' (57 FR 13498).

  19. Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester MLI (multilayer insulation) system for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.N.; Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.

    1989-09-01

    Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) were conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) under three experimental test arrangements. Each experiment measured the thermal performance of a 32-layer MLI blanket instrumented with twenty foil sensors to measure interstitial layer temperatures. Heat leak values and sensor temperatures were monitored during transient and steady state conditions under both design and degraded insulating vacuums. Heat leak values were measured using a heatmeter. MLI interstitial layer temperatures were measured using Cryogenic Linear Temperature Sensors (CLTS). Platinum resistors monitored system temperatures. High vacuum was measured using ion gauges; degraded vacuum employed thermocouple gauges. A four-wire system monitored instrumentation sensors and calibration heaters. An on-line computerized data acquisition system recorded and processes data. This paper reports on the instrumentation and experimental preparation used in carrying out these measurements. In complement with this paper is an associate paper bearing the same title head, but with the title extension Part 2: Laboratory results (300K--80K). 13 refs., 7 figs.

  20. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design Report - Volume 2: Physics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics You are accessing a ...

  1. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July - September 2004). Volume 100

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmid, Ansgar W.

    2004-09-01

    The key article in this volume of the LLE Review, covering July-September 2004, addresses "Shock Propagation in Deuterium-Tritium-Saturated Foam" by T. J. B. Collins (LLE) and A. Poludnenko, A. Cunningham, and A. Frank (UR, Department of Physics and Astronomy) (p. 227). Testing the assumption of homogeneous mixing in fibrous foams saturated with cryogenic deuterium and tritium, shock passage in wetted-foam mixtures was simulated by the adaptive-mesh, two-dimensional hydrodynamic code AstroBEAR. For foam fibers of diameter ~1/10 µm and relevant foam densities, the mixing length behind the shock is found to be of the order of microns. Transverse motion dampens out sufficiently that, at the mixing region's edge farthest from the shock, Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions are obeyed to within a few percent and shock speeds are also within a few percent of their homogeneous values. In addition, questions of feedthrough and feedout are addressed, showing that the stability of the shock front, once it leaves the wetted-foam layer, minimizes the effect of feedthrough. As a result, simulations of whole-foam-pellet implosions may model the wetted foam as a homogeneous mixture.

  2. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masquelier, Donald A. (Tracy, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Willeke, Klaus (Cincinnati, OH)

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  3. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 contains papers from the following sessions: Plenary Session; Regulations, Licensing and Standards; LMFBR Systems Concepts; Risk/Safety Assessment I; Systems and Package Design; US Institutional Issues; Risk/Safety Assessment II; Leakage, Leak Rate and Seals; Poster Session A; Operations and Systems Experience I; Manufacturing Processes and Materials; and Quality Assurance and Maintenance. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  4. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: Safeguards-Related Problems; Neutronics and Criticality; Operations and Systems Experience II; Plutonium Systems; Intermediate Storage in Casks; Operations and Systems Planning; Institutional Issues; Structural and Thermal Evaluation I; Poster Session B; Extended Testing I; Structural and Thermal Evaluation II; Extended Testing II; and Emergency Preparedness and Response. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  5. VOLUME

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 4 SEPTEMBER 2000 Control of Density ... multichord arrays for the detection of both H a D a and soft x-ray radiation to ...

  6. VOLUME

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, NUMBER 10 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 8 SEPTEMBER 1997 Enhanced ... Particle content increases and H a radiation decreases upon application of bias and global ...

  7. VOLUME

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PPCD. The transition of the fluctuation to its low value coincides with a small saw- tooth in this and many improved PPCD plasmas. This is probably related to an abrupt but...

  8. VOLUME

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in a typical MST discharge. the cause of the sudden changes in rotation during saw- tooth crashes. First, we measure correlated triple products of three modes, and observe that...

  9. Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W W 843.8 W W 2,188.3 W W 193.2 133.6 - 326.8 November ... W W 818.4 1,151.9 NA 1,984.1 W W 189.5 127.0 - 316.5 December ... W W W...

  10. Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W 2,734.4 W W W W - 243.3 May ... W W 898.3 W W 2,818.3 W W W W - 255.4 June ... W W 919.7 W W 2,841.1 W W...

  11. Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    13,752.8 14,204.9 16,837.5 52,025.3 9,480.0 78,342.8 2,675.9 2,738.6 2,823.0 4,995.6 - 7,818.6 August ... 13,908.8 14,400.4 17,863.9 53,248.7 8,114.1...

  12. VOLUME

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 17 JULY 2000 Spectroscopic Observation of Fluctuation-Induced Dynamo in the Edge of the Reversed-Field Pinch P. W. Fontana, D. J. Den...

  13. Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    39,569.3 40,215.9 122,708.5 26,876.5 189,800.8 10,466.7 10,604.8 10,129.5 14,302.8 - 24,432.4 February ... 40,637.5 41,953.1 43,328.9 133,687.6...

  14. VOLUME

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0, NUMBER 10 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 9 MARCH 1998 Strong E 3 B Flow Shear and Reduced Fluctuations in a Reversed-Field Pinch B. E. Chapman, C.-S. Chiang, S. C. Prager, J. S. Sarff, and M. R. Stoneking Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (Received 8 May 1997) Large radial electric field gradients, leading to sheared E 3 B flow, are observed in enhanced confinement discharges in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch. The flow shear

  15. VOLUME

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    role in the fluctuation structure. These experiments also report that the sign of the flux can actually reverse in the region of the shear flow, an effect not predicted by the...

  16. VOLUME

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    18 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 6 MAY 2002 Measurement of the Current-Density Profile and Plasma Dynamics in the Reversed-Field Pinch D. L. Brower, W. X. Ding, and...

  17. VOLUME

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hussey, and R. E. Peterkin, Jr., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 83 (1995). 14 K. F. Schoenberg, R. A. Gerwin, R. W. Moses, Jr., J. T. Scheuer, and H. P. Wagner, Phys. Plasmas 5,...

  18. VOLUME

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Improved Confinement in the MST Reversed-Field Pinch B. E. Chapman, 1, * J. K. Anderson, 1 T. M. Biewer, 1 D. L. Brower, 2 S. Castillo, 1 P. K. Chattopadhyay, 1 C.-S....

  19. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current regulatory standards and is more familiar to some readers. Two tables are provided at the end of the Glossary to help readers: the first defines the prefixes used with SI units of measurement, and the second provides conversions to non-SI units.

  20. Characterization Of The Hydrogenation Products Of Bix (phenylethynyl) Benzene (DEB) Getter Using Combined GC/FTIR/MS, FT-Raman, and ATR Spectroscopies (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyrl, N. R.; Powell, G. L.

    2011-06-09

    Organic hydrogen getters are utilized to minimize hydrogen accumulation in sealed systems where such build up could produce either a safety problem from pressure build up or corrosion problem due the hydriding of metals contained in the sealed vessel. DEB (1,4 bis (phenyl ethynyl) benzene) is a hydrogen getter that is based on the palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of triple bonds to single bonds in aromatic aryl compound. DEB is a getter mixed with 25% carbon and 1% Pd and pressed into pellets with some porosity. The reaction mechanisms are complex involving solid state reactions with a heterogeneous catalyst leading to the many intermediates.

  1. State-selective laser photoionization of neutral benzene molecules ejected from keV ion bombarded C{sub 6}H{sub 6}/Ag{l_brace}111{r_brace}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meserole, C. A.; Vandeweert, E.; Chatterjee, R.; Chakraborty, B. R.; Garrison, B. J.; Winograd, N.; Postawa, Z.

    1998-12-16

    One-color two-photon ionization spectroscopy was used to probe state-selectively neutral benzene molecules desorbed from a benzene overlayer physisorbed on a Ag{l_brace}111{r_brace} surface upon 8 keV Ar{sup +} bombardment. Time distributions were measured for benzene molecules ejected in the zero level of the molecular ground state and in the first state of the {nu}{sub 6} ' vibration. These distributions are found to show a strong dependence both on the internal energy of the ejected molecules and the degree of coverage of the Ag surface. Up to monolayer coverages, benzene molecules are ejected by direct collisions with Ag particles sputtered from the underlying substrate. Molecules with higher internal energy leave the surface with a distribution shifted towards lower flight times. At multilayer coverages, a second, thermal-like ejection mechanism gains significance. It is suggested that only molecules excited near the benzene-vacuum interface, survive the ejection process without being deexcited.

  2. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (Volumes 1 through 4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison M.

    2013-03-27

    The design report consists of four volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary; Volume 2, Physics; Volume 3, Accelerator (Part I, R and D in the Technical Design Phase, and Part II, Baseline Design); and Volume 4, Detectors.

  3. Volume International: Order (2014-CE-32014)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Volume International Corporation to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Volume International had failed to certify that certain models of ceiling fans comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  4. OMAE 1993: Proceedings. Volume 5: Pipeline technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, M.; Murray, A.; Thygesen, J.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of conference proceedings is volume five of a five volume series dealing with offshore and arctic pipeline, marine riser, platforms, and ship design and engineering. This volume is a result of increased use of pipeline transportation for oil, gas, and liquid products and the resultant need for lower design and operating costs. Papers in this conference cover topics on environmental considerations, pipeline automation, computer simulation techniques, materials testing, corrosion protection, permafrost problems, pipeline integrity, geotechnical concerns, and offshore engineering problems.

  5. FTIR study of the photocatalytic degradation of gaseous benzene over UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} nanoballs synthesized by hydrothermal treatment in alkaline solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Zhengru [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Qidong; Qu, Zhenping; Hou, Yang; Zhao, Ling [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Shaomin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Chen, Guohua [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)] [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, photocatalysts of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs were obtained via a hydrothermal treating of commercial P25 in alkaline solution, and then characterized with SEM, XRD, BET and surface photovoltage spectroscopy techniques. The UV-assisted photodegradation of gaseous benzene over P25 and the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs was monitored by an in situ infrared technique. The results demonstrated that the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs in anatase form were more active than commercial P25 in photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous benzene. The promoted activity of the hydrothermal-treated TiO{sub 2} is attributed to the increasing specific surface area and larger band gap induced by the reduced crystallite size. The spectra of FTIR indicated that weakly adsorbed phenol was formed as the reaction progress. Hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs are able to react with photo-produced phenol, which is then retained on the catalyst surface leading to the progressive deactivation of the catalyst in the gas-solid system.

  6. Assessing electronic structure approaches for gas-ligand interactions in metal-organic frameworks: The CO{sub 2}-benzene complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witte, Jonathon; Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 ; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720

    2014-03-14

    Adsorption of gas molecules in metal-organic frameworks is governed by many factors, the most dominant of which are the interaction of the gas with open metal sites, and the interaction of the gas with the ligands. Herein, we examine the latter class of interaction in the context of CO{sub 2} binding to benzene. We begin by clarifying the geometry of the CO{sub 2}–benzene complex. We then generate a benchmark binding curve using a coupled-cluster approach with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] at the complete basis set (CBS) limit. Against this ?CCSD(T)/CBS standard, we evaluate a plethora of electronic structure approximations: Hartree-Fock, second-order Mřller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) with the resolution-of-the-identity approximation, attenuated MP2, and a number of density functionals with and without different empirical and nonempirical van der Waals corrections. We find that finite-basis MP2 significantly overbinds the complex. On the other hand, even the simplest empirical correction to standard density functionals is sufficient to bring the binding energies to well within 1 kJ/mol of the benchmark, corresponding to an error of less than 10%; PBE-D in particular performs well. Methods that explicitly include nonlocal correlation kernels, such as VV10, vdW-DF2, and ?B97X-V, perform with similar accuracy for this system, as do ?B97X and M06-L.

  7. Correlating Extent of Pt–Ni Bond Formation with Low-temperature Hydrogenation of Benzene and 1,3-butadiene over Supported Pt/Ni Bimetallic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lonergan, W.; Vlachos, D; Chen, J

    2010-01-01

    Low-temperature hydrogenation of benzene and 1,3-butadiene on supported Pt/Ni catalysts have been used as probe reactions to correlate hydrogenation activity with the extent of Pt-Ni bimetallic bond formation. Pt/Ni bimetallic and Pt and Ni monometallic catalysts were supported on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using incipient wetness impregnation. Two sets of bimetallic catalysts were synthesized: one set to study the effect of metal atomic ratio and the other to study the effect of impregnation sequence. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) CO adsorption studies were performed to characterize the surface composition of the bimetallic nanoparticles, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was utilized to characterize the particle size distribution. Batch reactor studies with FTIR demonstrated that all bimetallic catalysts outperformed monometallic catalysts for both benzene and 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation. Within the two sets of bimetallic catalysts, it was found that catalysts with a smaller Pt:Ni ratio possessed higher hydrogenation activity and that catalysts synthesized using co-impregnation had greater activity than sequentially impregnated catalysts. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements were performed in order to verify the extent of Pt-Ni bimetallic bond formation, which was found to correlate with the hydrogenation activity.

  8. Water on BN doped benzene: A hard test for exchange-correlation functionals and the impact of exact exchange on weak binding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Hamdani, Yasmine S.; Alfč, Dario; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Michaelides, Angelos

    2014-10-22

    Density functional theory (DFT) studies of weakly interacting complexes have recently focused on the importance of van der Waals dispersion forces, whereas the role of exchange has received far less attention. Here, by exploiting the subtle binding between water and a boron and nitrogen doped benzene derivative (1,2-azaborine) we show how exact exchange can alter the binding conformation within a complex. Benchmark values have been calculated for three orientations of the water monomer on 1,2-azaborine from explicitly correlated quantum chemical methods, and we have also used diffusion quantum Monte Carlo. For a host of popular DFT exchange-correlation functionals we show that the lack of exact exchange leads to the wrong lowest energy orientation of water on 1,2-azaborine. As such, we suggest that a high proportion of exact exchange and the associated improvement in the electronic structure could be needed for the accurate prediction of physisorption sites on doped surfaces and in complex organic molecules. Meanwhile to predict correct absolute interaction energies an accurate description of exchange needs to be augmented by dispersion inclusive functionals, and certain non-local van der Waals functionals (optB88- and optB86b-vdW) perform very well for absolute interaction energies. Through a comparison with water on benzene and borazine (B?N?H?) we show that these results could have implications for the interaction of water with doped graphene surfaces, and suggest a possible way of tuning the interaction energy.

  9. Solar Fundamentals Volume 1: Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report is one component of a multi-part series publication to assist in educating th'se seeking to become more familiar with the solar industry. This volume introduces solar technologies, explaining each technology’s applications, the components that make up a photovoltaic system, and how they can be used to optimize energy generation. This report explains solar insolation and how it impacts energy generation in illustrating where solar energy is a viable option. A final section highlights important considerations in solar project siting to maximize system production and avoid unexpected project development challenges.

  10. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  11. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  12. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for ...

  13. Proposed Southline Transmission Line Project - Volume 3 of 4...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Right-of-Way ... G-1 11 12 13 VOLUME SUMMARY 14 15 Volume 1 - Executive Summary, Chapters 1, 2, and 3 16 Volume 2 -...

  14. Ironmaking conference proceedings. Volume 54

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The technical presentations at this conference displayed a renewed sense of viability of the coke and ironmaking community. In addition, many of the papers show that the environmental aspects of ironmaking are being integrated into day-to-day operations rather than being thought of as separate responsibilities. This volume contains 68 papers divided into the following sections: Blast furnace injection; Blast furnace fundamental studies; Blast furnace general; Blast furnace repairs/rebuilds/modernization; Process control techniques for blast furnaces; Cokemaking general; Cokemaking environmental; Coke--by-products--plant operations; Coal and coke research; Battery operations; Pelletizing; Direct reduction and smelting; and Sintering. Most of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of d{sup 10} metal complexes with mixed 1,3-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene and multicarboxylate ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhi-Hao; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Shui-Sheng; Wang, Peng; Sun, Wei-Yin

    2013-06-15

    Seven new coordination polymers [Zn(H{sub 2}L)(mbdc)] (1), [Zn(H{sub 3}L)(btc)] (2), [Zn(H{sub 2}L)(Hbtc)] (3), [Zn(H{sub 2}L)(Hbtc)]·H{sub 2}O (4), [Zn{sub 2}(H{sub 2}L)(btc)(?{sub 2}-OH)] (5), [Cd(H{sub 2}L)(mbdc)] (6) and [Cd{sub 3}(H{sub 2}L){sub 2}(btc){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]·5H{sub 2}O (7) were synthesized by reactions of the corresponding metal salt with rigid ligand 1,3-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene (H{sub 2}L) and different carboxylic acids of 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}mbdc) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H{sub 3}btc), respectively. The results of X-ray crystallographic analysis indicate that complex 1 is 1D chain while 2 is a (3,3)-connected 2D network with Point (Schläfli) symbol of (4,8{sup 2}). Complexes 3 and 6 are 2D networks, 4 is a 3-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with Point (Schläfli) symbol of (6{sup 5},8) and 5 is a (3,8)-connected 2D network with Point (Schläfli) symbol of (3,4{sup 2}){sub 2}(3{sup 4},4{sup 6},5{sup 6},6{sup 8},7{sup 3},8), while 7 is a (3,10)-connected 3D net with Schläfli symbol of (3,4,5){sub 2}(3{sup 4},4{sup 8},5{sup 18},6{sup 12},7{sup 2},8). The thermal stability and photoluminescence of the complexes were investigated. Furthermore, DFT calculations were performed for 2–4 to discuss the temperature controlled self-assembly of the complexes. - Graphical abstract: Seven new coordination polymers with multicarboxylate and rigid ditopic 4-imidazole containing ligands have been obtained and found to show different structures and topologies. - Highlights: • Metal complexes with diverse structures of 1D chain, 2D network and 3D framework. • Mixed ligands of 1,3-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene and multicarboxylate. • Photoluminescence property.

  17. Benzene analogues of (quasi-)planar M@B{sub n}H{sub n} compounds (M = V{sup ?}, Cr, Mn{sup +}): A theoretical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lifen; Xu, Chang; Jin, Baokang; Cheng, Longjiu

    2013-11-07

    The stability of M@B{sub n}H{sub n} (M = V{sup ?}, Cr, Mn{sup +}; n = 5–8) is investigated by density functional theory. For n = 6–8, the isomers possess (quasi-)planar local minima showed by geometry optimization at TPSSh/6-311+G{sup **} level. All the optimized structures are thermodynamics stable according to the large HOMO-LUMO gap, binding energy, vertical ionization potential, and vertical electron affinity analysis. The peripheral and central atomic radius fit each other best at n = 7 confirmed by the variation of the binding energy values. The availability of d atom orbitals in M for participation in the ?-delocalized bonding with the peripheral ring leads to the aromaticity of the (quasi-)planar structures and makes them the benzene analogues. This work establishes firmly the metal-doped borane rings as a new type of aromatic molecule.

  18. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in foundry molding sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dungan, R.S. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (United States). Environmental Management & Byproducts Utilization Laboratory

    2005-07-01

    The use of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to determine benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in foundry molding sand, specifically a 'green sand' (clay-bonded sand) was investigated. The BTEX extraction was conducted using a 75 {mu} M carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR-PDMS) fiber, which was suspended above 10 g of sample. The SPME fiber was desorbed in a gas chromatograph injector port (280{sup o}C for 1 min) and the analytes were characterized by mass spectrometry. The effects of extraction time and temperature, water content, and clay and bituminous coal percentage on HS-SPME of BTEX were investigated. Because green sands contain bentonite clay and carbonaceous material such as crushed bituminous coal, a matrix effect was observed. The detection limits for BTEX were determined to be {lt}= 0.18 ng g{sup -1} of green sand.

  19. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  20. Constant Volume During Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Constant Volume During Combustion Constant Volume During Combustion This presentation covers constant volume during combustion and discusses how it can alter the kinematics of piston to crankshaft travel. PDF icon deer08_joniec.pdf More Documents & Publications Utilizing the Rapid Ignition Region of HCCI to Attain > 60% BTE 50% thermo-mechanical efficiency utilizing a free-piston engine in Hybrid vehicles DOE-HDBK-1018/1-93