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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Detection of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, and Xylenes (BTEX) Using Toluene Dioxygenase-Peroxidase Coupling Reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bioassay may be suitable for field monitoring of BTEX to identify and track contaminated water and follow in contaminated water because of their accuracy and sensitivity. Although very sensitive, the cost associatedDetection of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, and Xylenes (BTEX) Using Toluene Dioxygenase

Chen, Wilfred

2

The atmospheric release of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene from contaminated soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the remediation of gasoline contaminated soils. Excavation and removal of soils containing hydrocarbons is the most widely used remediation technique because of immediate and total site cleanup. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) combined are from...

Ramsey, Ronald Roland

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Acute toxicity of toluene, hexane, xylene, and benzene to the rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large number of studies on the biological effects of oil pollution in the aquatic environment deal with the effects of whole crude or refined oils or their water-soluble fractions. However, low boiling, aromatic hydrocarbons, which are probably the most toxic constituents of oil, have until now not been examined in sufficient detail. Toluene, benzene and xylene, constitute a major component of various oils. They may be readily lost by weathering but are toxic in waters that are relatively stagnant and are chronically polluted. Korn et al. have stated that toluene is more toxic than many other hydrocarbons such as benzene, though the latter are more water-soluble. Report of the effects of exposure to organic solvents like hexane or toluene are still limited although organic solvents are a well-known group of neurointoxicants. Various benzene derivates continue to be used as chemical intermediates, solvents, pesticides, so on, in spite of incomplete knowledge of their chronic toxicity. The majority of toxicity studies about the effects of pollution on aquatic organisms under controlled conditions have used either fish or the cladoceran Daphnia magna and there are few studies reported using rotifers. The effects of herbicides on population variables of laboratory rotifer cultures have been investigated. Rotifers are one of the main sources of zooplankton production and they have an important ecological significance in the aquatic environment. The present work was designed to investigate the effect of short-term exposure to some petroleum derivates which might be expected to occur immediately under an oil-slick, on freshwater and brackish environment rotifers. 18 refs., 1 tab.

Ferrando, M.D.; Andreu-Moliner, E. (Univ. of Valencia (Spain))

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene near their Glass Transition Temperatures Investigated using Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene,...

5

Mechanistic Studies of Reactions of Peroxodiiron(III) Intermediates in T201 Variants of Toluene/o-Xylene Monooxygenase Hydroxylase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Site-directed mutagenesis studies of a strictly conserved T201 residue in the active site of toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase (ToMOH) revealed that a single mutation can facilitate kinetic isolation of two ...

Lippard, Stephen J.

6

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic toluene mineralization Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

processes for hydrocarbon removal and remediation... of ground- water contamination by benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) (Council... in changes in...

7

Reactions of the CN Radical with Benzene and Toluene: Product Detection and Low-Temperature Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low temperature rate coefficients are measured for the CN + benzene and CN + toluene reactions using the pulsed Laval nozzle expansion technique coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The CN + benzene reaction rate coefficient at 105, 165 and 295 K is found to be relatively constant over this temperature range, 3.9 - 4.9 x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. These rapid kinetics, along with the observed negligible temperature dependence, are consistent with a barrierless reaction entrance channel and reaction efficiencies approaching unity. The CN + toluene reaction is measured to have a slower rate coefficient of 1.3 x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 105 K. At room temperature, non-exponential decay profiles are observed for this reaction that may suggest significant back-dissociation of intermediate complexes. In separate experiments, the products of these reactions are probed at room temperature using synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry. For CN + benzene, cyanobenzene (C6H5CN) is the only product recorded with no detectable evidence for a C6H5 + HCN product channel. In the case of CN + toluene, cyanotoluene (NCC6H4CH3) constitutes the only detected product. It is not possible to differentiate among the ortho, meta and para isomers of cyanotoluene because of their similar ionization energies and the ~;; 40 meV photon energy resolution of the experiment. There is no significant detection of benzyl radicals (C6H5CH2) that would suggest a H-abstraction or a HCN elimination channel is prominent at these conditions. As both reactions are measured to be rapid at 105 K, appearing to have barrierless entrance channels, it follows that they will proceed efficiently at the temperatures of Saturn?s moon Titan (~;;100 K) and are also likely to proceed at the temperature of interstellar clouds (10-20 K).

Trevitt, Adam J.; Goulay, Fabien; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Leone, Stephen R.

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

8

www.rsc.org/analyst The airliquid interface of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the molecular environment at their respective air­liquid interface. Introduction Aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of urban regions,1,2 and in surface and ground water.3­5 These compounds are emitted into the environment from many sources,6 including fuel combustion.7,8 In the environment, aromatic hydrocarbons may

9

Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene near their Glass Transition Temperatures Investigated using Inert Gas Permeation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the mobility of supercooled liquid toluene, ethylbenzene, and benzene near their respective glass transition temperatures (Tg). The permeation rate of Ar, Kr, and Xe through the supercooled liquid created when initially amorphous overlayers heated above their glass transition temperature is used to determine the diffusivity. Amorphous benzene crystallizes at temperatures well below its Tg and as a result the inert gas underlayer remains trapped until the onset of benzene desorption. In contrast, for toluene and ethylbenzene the onset of inert gas permeation is observed at temperatues near Tg. The inert gas desorption peak temperature as a function of the heating rate and overlayer thickness is used to quantify the diffusivity of supercooled liquid toluene and ethylbenzene from 115 K to 135 K. In this temperature range, diffusivities are found to vary across five orders of magnitude (~10-14 to 10-9 cm2/s). These data are compared to viscosity measurements and used to determine the low temperature fractional Stokes-Einstein exponent. Efforts to determine the diffusivity of a mixture of benzene and ethylbenzene are detailed, and the effect of mixing these materials on benzene crystallization is explored using infrared spectroscopy.

May, Robert A.; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

10

Vaporliquid equilibrium for the binary systems tetrahydrothiophene+toluene and tetrahydrothiophene+o-xylene at 368.15K and 383.15K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Isothermal vaporliquid equilibrium (VLE) for tetrahydrothiophene+toluene and tetrahydrothiophene+o-xylene at 368.15K and 383.15K was measured with a recirculation still. Liquid- and vapor-phase compositions were determined with gas chromatography. All systems exhibit a small positive deviation from Raoult's law and show nearly ideal behavior. All VLE measurements passed the point test used. The experimental results were correlated with the Wilson model and compared with COSMO-SAC predictive models. COSMO-SAC predictions show a slight negative deviation from Raoult's law for all systems measured. Raoult's law can be used to describe all systems studied. The activity coefficients at infinite dilution are presented.

Erlin Sapei; Petri Uusi-Kyyny; Kari I. Keskinen; Juha-Pekka Pokki; Ville Alopaeus

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Alpha-Subunit Positions Methionine 180 and Glutamate 214 of Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 Toluene-o-Xylene Monooxygenase Influence Catalysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Vardar Thomas K. Wood Corresponding author...product efflux as a gate residue. Toluene...site, and another gate residue, TouA...loop of helix E (red) and the N-terminal...Shim, and T. K. Wood. 2002. Directed...and T. K. Wood. 2004. Protein...product efflux as a gate residue. | Department...

Gnl Vardar; Thomas K. Wood

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Pyrolysis of Mixed Plastic Wastes for the Recovery of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene (BTX) Aromatics in a Fluidized Bed and Chlorine Removal by Applying Various Additives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It seems that the char removal system, which was composed of a cyclone and a hot filter, almost perfectly removed the char particles. ... To absorb the hydrogen chloride that was formed from the degradation of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the mixed plastic wastes, additives (calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, crushed oyster shells, and rice straw) were added to a fraction of the mixed plastic wastes. ... For different additives, different Ca/Cl ratios should be chosen based on the cost, HCl removal efficiency and utilization efficiency of additive. ...

Min-Hwan Cho; Su-Hwa Jung; Joo-Sik Kim

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Evaluation of Indoor Exposition to Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylene, and Styrene by Passive Sampling with a Solid-Phase Microextraction Device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......expensive air-sampling pumps. However, potentially faulty batteries tend to present constant hurdles to the air-sampling professional...method was carried out in indoor air passive sam- pling at two fuel analysis laboratories (A and B) and in an office with wet......

Fabrcio V. Parreira; Ciomara R. de Carvalho; Zenilda de L. Cardeal

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 87978811, 2013 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/8797/2013/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, acrolein, benzene, toluene and xylenes are also emitted. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied

Meskhidze, Nicholas

15

Low cost benzene reduction for RFG  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the typical refinery benzene comes from several sources including: light straight run gasoline, isomerate, reformate, hydrocrackate, FCC gasoline, and coker gasoline. However the benzene from the reformer usually represents 50--80% of the total. As a result the reformate is the natural place to focus benzene reduction. The benzene content of the reformate is normally in the range of 2.5 to 8 volume %. The higher benzene concentrations occur in high pressure reformers due to hydrodealkylation of toluene and heavier alkylbenzenes. Benzene can be reduced in the reformate by removing benzene precursors such as cyclic C{sub 6}`s in the reformer feed. However, hydrodealkylation of other aromatics in the reformer will still leave a reformate benzene content of 1 to 1.5 volume %. More complete control of benzene can be achieved by removing it from the reformate rather than by treating the reformer feed stream. The paper describes the conventional benzene saturation process and the CDHydro process, which combines fractionation with hydrogenation. Capitalized costs are summarized. Refiners can maintain gasoline compositions with high aromatic contents by using the flexibility offered by the Complex Model. CDHydro provides a very cost effective method of benzene control for the refiner. Benzene reduction targets for both 1995 and 2000 are easily met. CDHydro can provide much higher benzene removal than required by the models, thus giving the refiner valuable options for averaging and trading credits.

Rock, K.L. [CDTECH, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Vadose Zone Monitoring System Installation Report for McClellan AFB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chloro- Toluene benzene Ethyl- PCE Xylene 1.3.5- 1.2,4- 1.3-Chloro- Toluene benzene Ethyl- PCE Xylene 1.3.5- 1.2,4- 1.3-Chlorobenzene Toluene PCE A Xylene 1.2,4-THB 1.3-

Zawislanski, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Polyfunctional catalyst for processiing benzene fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A by-product of the coke industry is a raw benzene fraction benzene- 1 which may serve as for catalytic processes. The paper reports a study on the influence of the composition and temperatures on the activity and selectivity of NiO-V{sub 2}O{sub 6}-MoO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts and the corresponding binary and tertiary subsystems are studied by a pulse method in model reactions; the hydrodealkylating of toluene and the hydrodesulfurizing of thioprhene. The optimal catalyst composition is established. The new catalyst is compared with industrial catalysts.

G. Byakov; B.D. Zubitskii; B.G. Tryasunov; I.Ya. Petrov [Kuznetsk Basin State Technical University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Diesel PM Polycyclic organic Matter (POM) Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde 1,3-Butadiene Acrolein Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene Xylene Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Diesel...

19

Why Sequence a Benzene-Degrading Methanogenic Consortium?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a Benzene-Degrading Methanogenic Consortium? a Benzene-Degrading Methanogenic Consortium? As recently as the 1990's, aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene and toluene were thought to be resistant to degradation under anaerobic conditions. It is now appreciated that biodegradation in the absence of oxygen contributes significantly to the attenuation of hydrocarbons and other pollutants in the environment. Unravelling the yet unknown pathways and mechanisms of anaerobic benzene metabolism is a critical milestone for hydrocarbon bioremediation. While many pathways have been suggested, none has been proven, and no genes or enzymes are known. The elucidation of this pathway, including the identification of the genes and enzymes involved, is vital for the demonstration, validation, and regulatory acceptance of in-situ

20

Understanding orchestrated chemical reactions in toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from pseudomonas sporium OX1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 1. Geometric and Functional Versatility of Carboxylate-Bridged Nonheme- Diiron Motifs: sMMO and ToMO. Several metalloenzymes utilize a carboxylate-bridged non-heme diiron motif for dioxygen activation. Despite their ...

Song, Woon Ju

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Benzene release. status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scoping benzene release measurements were conducted on 4 wt percent KTPB `DEMO` formulation slurry using a round, flat bottomed 100-mL flask containing 75 mL slurry. The slurry was agitated with a magnetic stirrer bar to keep the surface refreshed without creating a vortex. Benzene release measurements were made by purging the vapor space at a constant rate and analyzing for benzene by gas chromatography with automatic data acquisition. Some of the data have been rounded or simplified in view of the scoping nature of this study.

Dworjanyn, L.O. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Rappe, K.G.; Gauglitz, P.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

22

Baytown Xylene Fractionation Energy Reduction using Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Baytown Xylene Fractionation Energy Reduction using Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC) IETC 2014 New Orleans, Louisiana David Hokanson ExxonMobil Research and Engineering May 22, 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-33 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy... Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 2Outline Baytown Chemical Complex Xylene Fractionation Overview Dynamic Matrix Control Results Benefits/Wrap-Up ESL-IE-14-05-33 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology...

Hokanson, D.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Toluene pyrolysis studies and high temperature reactions of propargyl chloride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main focus of this program is to investigate the thermal decompositions of fuels that play an important role in the pre-particle soot formation process. It has been demonstrated that the condition of maximum soot yield is established when the reaction conditions of temperature and pressure are sufficient to establish a radical pool to support the production of polyaromatic hydrocarbon species and the subsequent formation of soot particles. However, elevated temperatures result in lower soot yields which are attributed to thermolyses of aromatic ring structures and result in the bell-shaped dependence of soot yield on temperature. The authors have selected several acyclic hydrocarbons to evaluate the chemical thermodynamic and kinetic effects attendant to benzene formation. To assess the thermal stability of the aromatic ring, the authors have studied the pyrolyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene and pyridine. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF) is employed to analyze the reaction zone behind reflected shock waves. Reaction time histories of the reactants, products, and intermediates are constructed and mechanisms are formulated to model the experimental data. The TOF work is often performed with use of laser schlieren densitometry (LS) to measure density gradients resulting from the heats of various reactions involved in a particular pyrolytic system. The two techniques, TOF and LS, provide independent and complementary information about ring formation and ring rupture reactions.

Kern, R.D.; Chen, H.; Qin, Z. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Adsorption Equilibria of Toluene on Polymeric Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption Equilibria of Toluene on Polymeric Adsorbents ... adsorbed at equil., vm is the vol. of gas adsorbed when the entire adsorbent surface is covered with a unimol. ...

Jae-Hoon Choung; Young-Whan Lee; Dae-Ki Choi; Sung-Hyun Kim

2001-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

25

Detonation and deflagration characteristics of p-Xylene/gaseous hydrocarbon fuels/air mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract p-Xylene is an important intermediate for the production of polyethylene terephthalate, it has growing chemical industrial demand based on the statistics in the last few decades. In the process of producing p-Xylene, gaseous hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., H2, C1C3) are usually involved, which renders p-Xylene highly possible mix with those gaseous hydrocarbon fuels as leaking occurs, this presents fire or explosion/detonation hazard at some specific conditions. To date, very limited data regarding its detonation and deflagration characteristics are available in previous literatures. In this study, experiments of measuring the overpressure and velocity of p-Xylene/gaseous hydrocarbon fuels (i.e., H2, C2H4, C3H8, CO)/air mixtures are carried out in a vertical detonation tube with an inner diameter of 200mm and a length of 6.5m to explore the detonation and deflagration characteristics of p-Xylene. The experimental results indicate that under the same initiation energy of 0.189MJm?2, pure p-Xylene/air and p-Xylene/CO/air cannot achieve detonation, only deflagrations are observed. However, under this same initiation energy, detonations occur in p-Xylene/H2/air, p-Xylene/C2H4/air and p-Xylene/C3H8/air mixtures. By comparing the combinatorial compositions of p-Xylene along with gaseous hydrocarbon fuels that within which detonation observed, the detonation sensitive of the mixtures in increasing order are obtained as following: p-Xylene/H2/air, p-Xylene/C3H8/air and p-Xylene/C2H4/air. The results also indicate the relative ease that p-Xylene/gaseous hydrocarbon fuel/air can be detonated mainly depends on the detonation sensitive of the gaseous fuel, which is supported by the critical energy of direct detonation initiation and chemical kinetic analysis.

Bo Zhang; Guangli Xiu; Jian Chen; Shaopeng Yang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Fuel Dependence of Benzene Pathways  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relative importance of formation pathways for benzene, an important precursor to soot formation, was determined from the simulation of 22 premixed flames for a wide range of equivalence ratios (1.0 to 3.06), fuels (C{sub 1}-C{sub 12}), and pressures (20 to 760 torr). The maximum benzene concentrations in 15 out of these flames were well reproduced within 30% of the experimental data. Fuel structural properties were found to be critical for benzene production. Cyclohexanes and C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} fuels were found to be among the most productive in benzene formation; and long-chain normal paraffins produce the least amount of benzene. Other properties, such as equivalence ratio and combustion temperatures, were also found to be important in determining the amount of benzene produced in flames. Reaction pathways for benzene formation were examined critically in four premixed flames of structurally different fuels of acetylene, n-decane, butadiene, and cyclohexane. Reactions involving precursors, such as C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species, were examined. Combination reactions of C{sub 3} species were identified to be the major benzene formation routes with the exception of the cyclohexane flame, in which benzene is formed exclusively from cascading fuel dehydrogenation via cyclohexene and cyclohexadiene intermediates. Acetylene addition makes a minor contribution to benzene formation, except in the butadiene flame where C{sub 4}H{sub 5} radicals are produced directly from the fuel, and in the n-decane flame where C{sub 4}H{sub 5} radicals are produced from large alkyl radical decomposition and H atom abstraction from the resulting large olefins.

Zhang, H; Eddings, E; Sarofim, A; Westbrook, C

2008-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

27

Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50.degree. C. to 300.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Houston, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50 C to 300 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered. 2 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1995-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

29

Low temperature oxidation of benzene and toluene in mixture with ndecane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

machine [6] and in a HCCI engine [7]. The fuel consumption and the formation of some main aromatics with more reactive fuel components have mainly concerned global reactivity at high obtained via the consumption of the aromatic reactants. Yahyaoui et al. [5] have given a detailed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

The influence of initial soil moisture content on the fate of xylene applies to soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, non ? polar compound. The most important properties of xylene which will influence its mobility are its density and water solubility. Xylene is essentially immiscible with water, with a water ? 1 0 solubility of 230. 0 ~ L L st 20 C (Chemical Rubber...

Aurelius, Marcus William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

31

Baytown Energy Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

project at ExxonMobil's Baytown Chemical Plant, the Baytown Energy Project (BEP) utilized this planning strategy to redeploy assets by changing the fractionation configuration of the plant. In the aromatics recovery plant, aromatics (benzene... fractionation scheme involves using a prefractionator followed by a set of integrated towers to separate the ternary product mixture of benzene toluene and xylenes from a toluene disproportionation unit. The towers also fractionated a concentrated benzene...

Porter, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Design and Control of Acetic Acid Dehydration Column with p-Xylene or m-Xylene Feed Impurity. 1. Importance of Feed Tray Location on the Process Design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the production of aromatic acids, such as terephthalic acid and isophthalic acid, tiny amounts of reactant p-xylene or m-xylene may also enter into the acetic acid dehydration column through the feed stream. ... The column total stages and the feed tray location obtained from this optimum search will be used in the second study with tiny amounts of PX or MX entering the column through the feed stream. ... The TAC formula for this case, case 2, is modified as the following equation by including an additional term to reflect the loss of HAc and IBA through the side stream. ...

Hsiao-Ping Huang; Hao-Yeh Lee; Tang-Kai Gau; I-Lung Chien

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

Transient Performance of a Two-Phase Partitioning Bioscrubber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transient Performance of a Two-Phase Partitioning Bioscrubber Treating a Benzene-Contaminated Gas and deactivation due to inhibition by toxic substrates such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene-phasepartitioningbioreactor to improve the bioavailability of poorly water soluble substrates (5), a TPPB can increase the absorption

Daugulis, Andrew J.

34

Benzene Dimer: Dynamic Structure and Thermodynamics Derived from...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Benzene Dimer: Dynamic Structure and Thermodynamics Derived from On-the-Fly ab initio DFT-D Molecular Dynamic Simulations. Benzene Dimer: Dynamic Structure and Thermodynamics...

35

Continuous Operation of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactors Treating Toluene Vapors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/bit.20619 Abstract: Continuous operation of a new bioreactor for air pollution control Periodicals, Inc. Keywords: VOC control; biofilter; air pollution control; toluene; biologically activated biofilters and biotrickling filters for the treatment of air pollutants such as toluene. ? 2005 Wiley

36

Molecular Diversity of Plasmids Bearing Genes That Encode Toluene and Xylene Metabolism in Pseudomonas Strains Isolated from Different Contaminated Sites in Belarus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mixture of lubricants, diesel fuel, and phenol; central...mixture of lubricants, diesel fuel, and phenol; northwestern...soil contaminated with diesel oil; building area in...industrial lubricants and engine oil; local landfill...Apr ColE1 replicon; general cloning vector Promega...

Vladimir S. Sentchilo; Alexander N. Perebituk; Alexander J. B. Zehnder; Jan Roelof van der Meer

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Marathon selects Shaw for benzene reduction work  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Shaw Group Inc's Energy & Chemicals Group is to provide project management, engineering and procurement services for the feasibility and definition phases of benzene reduction projects at Marathon Oil Corp's refineries in Robinson, Illinois; Garyville, Louisiana; and Catlettsburg, Kentucky.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

BitumenToluene Mutual Diffusion Coefficients Using Microfluidics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

BitumenToluene Mutual Diffusion Coefficients Using Microfluidics ... Determination of Dew Point Conditions for CO2 with Impurities Using Microfluidics ... Determination of Dew Point Conditions for CO2 with Impurities Using Microfluidics ...

Hossein Fadaei; John M. Shaw; David Sinton

2013-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

39

Predicting toluene degradation in organic Rankine-cycle engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the measurement of toluene degradation in dynamic loop tests that simulate operation of an organic Rankine-cycle engine. Major degradation products and degradation mechanisms are identified, and degradation is quantified. Results indicate that toluene is a stable fluid with benign degradation products, provided that oxygen is excluded from the engine. A means of predicting degradation in the engine is developed. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Cole, R.L.; Demirgian, J.C.; Allen, J.W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Characterization of Micronuclei Induced in Human Lymphocytes by Benzene Metabolites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Department of Energy and Oak Ridge Associated Universities...human leukemogen. Workers occupationally exposed...benzene- exposed workers. Other metabolites...Department of Energy and Oak Ridge Associated Universities...benzene-exposed workers have re ported a...

Janice W. Yager; David A. Eastmond; Moire L. Robertson; William M. Paradisin; and Martyn T. Smith

1990-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The Internal Molecular Potential Between the Substituent Groups in a Benzene Ring as Derived from the Heats of Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that differences in the observed heats of combustion of isomeric benzene derivatives can be interpreted as the internal molecular potential existing between their substituent groups. A like interpretation can be given for the differences between the values observed for the heats of combustion of certain nonisomeric benzene derivatives and those calculated by the rule of additivity. This internal potential, to which the attractive and repulsive forces between the groups are due, results from the electrostatic potential of the group moments (dipole effect), the polarization of the substituents and of the ring (induction effect), the dispersion effect, and from steric hindrance. We have, therefore, a new and direct method of measuring the internal potential, which determines both the internal motion of groups within an organic molecule and its most stable configuration. The values thus measured are in good agreement with values theoretically evaluated from the above intermolecular (van der Waals) forces. From the data derived by this method we conclude in the case of o-xylene that valence angles of 120 between the CCH3 bond and the aromatic CC bonds are extremely stable, for the energy required to distort these angles through 10 is greater than 2 K cal/mole. We find, also, very restricted rotation for the butane molecule, from which it follows that saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in the gaseous state tend to form zigzag chains. Such restricted rotation is found for the ether molecule as well.

H. A. Stuart

1931-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

The development of a passive dosimeter for airborne benzene vapors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of the Measured vs. Cal- culated Iieight of Benzene Adsorbed in the 3. 5 cm Dosimeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3. Comparison of the Measured vs. Cal- culated Igeight of Benzene Adsorbed in the 3. 5 cm Dosimeter with Alumina Pre 1 ayer.... 38 Comparison of the Measured vs. Cal- culated Weight of' Benzene Adsorbed in the 4. 5 cm Dosimeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of the Measured vs. Cal- culated IJeight of Benzene Ad orbed in the 4. 5 cm Dosimeter with Alumina Prelayer...

Hager, David William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

43

Formation of benzene in the interstellar medium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...a closed shell hydrocarbon, which is associated...with unsaturated hydrocarbons shows that their rate constants...star thermally heats the grains thus...Interstellar Versus Combustion Chemistry. We would...of benzene under combustion relevant conditions...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons...

Brant M. Jones; Fangtong Zhang; Ralf I. Kaiser; Adeel Jamal; Alexander M. Mebel; Martin A. Cordiner; Steven B. Charnley

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

SYNCHROTRON X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY, ELECTRON PROBE MICROANALYSIS, AND NMR OF TOLUENE WASTE IN CEMENT.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synchrotron X-ray microtomography shows vesicular structures for toluene/cement mixtures, prepared with 1.22 to 3.58 wt% toluene. Three-dimensional imaging of the cured samples shows spherical vesicles, with diameters ranging from 20 to 250 {micro}m; a search with EPMA for vesicles in the range of 1-20 {micro}m proved negative. However, the total vesicle volume, as computed from the microtomography images, accounts for less than 10% of initial toluene. Since the cements were cured in sealed bottles, the larger portion of toluene must be dispersed within the cement matrix. Evidence for toluene in the cement matrix comes from {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, which shows a reduction in chain silicates with added toluene. Also, {sup 2}H NMR of d{sub 8}-toluene/cement samples shows high mobility for all, toluene and thus no toluene/cement binding. A model that accounts for all observations follows: For loadings below about 3 wt%, most toluene is dispersed in the cement matrix, with a small fraction of the initial toluene phase separating from the cement paste and forming vesicular structures that are preserved in the cured cement. Furthermore, at loadings above 3 wt%, the abundance of vesicles formed during toluene/cement paste mixing leads to macroscopic phase separation (most toluene floats to the surface of the cement paste).

BUTLER,L.G.

1999-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

45

Development of a Recyclable Remediation System for Gaseous BTEX: Combination of Iron Oxides Nanoparticles Adsorbents and Electrochemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We designed a two-step green technique to remove and recycle selected gaseous air pollutants. The first step includes the assessment of adsorption efficiencies of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) on magnetite, hematite, and their ...Naturally occurring iron oxides nanoparticles are efficient adsorption interfaces for the removal of gaseous BTEX pollutants and can be effectively regenerated by electrochemistry.

Zhenzhong Hu; Maximilien Beuret; Hassan Khan; Parisa A. Ariya

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

46

Kinetic Modeling of Toluene Oxidation for Surrogate Fuel Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New environmental issues, like the effect of combustion-generated greenhouse gases, provide motivation to better characterize oxidation of hydrocarbons. Transportation, in particular, significantly contributes to energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. Kinetic studies about the combustion of fuels under conditions typical of internal combustion engines provides important support to improve mechanism formulation and to eventually provide better computational tools that can be used to increase the engine performance. It is foreseeable that at least in the next 30 years the main transportation fuels will be either gasoline or diesel. Unfortunately, these fuels are very complex mixtures of many components. Moreover, their specifications and performance requirements significantly change the composition of these fuels: gasoline and diesel mixtures are different if coming from different refineries or they are different from winter to summer. At the same time a fuel with a well defined and reproducible composition is needed for both experimental and modeling work. In response to these issues, surrogate fuels are proposed. Surrogate fuels are defined as mixtures of a small number of hydrocarbons whose relative concentrations is adjusted in order to approximate the chemical and physical properties of a real fuel. Surrogate fuels are then very useful both for the design of reproducible experimental tests and also for the development of reliable kinetic models. The primary reference fuels (PRF) are a typical and old example of surrogate fuel: n-heptane and iso-octane mixtures are used to reproduce antiknock propensity of complex mixtures contained in a gasoline. PRFs are not able to surrogate gasoline in operating conditions different from standard ones and new surrogates have been recently proposed. Toluene is included in all of them as a species able to represent the behavior of aromatic compounds. On the other side, the toluene oxidation chemistry is not so well established and uncertainties still remain in the mechanism. This is especially true in the low temperature regime (< 850K). In these conditions, the toluene reactivity is too low to be conveniently investigated. Nonetheless, gasoline surrogates work in the engine at low temperatures, because of the presence of very reactive alkanes. The effect of these component interactions have to be taken into account. This work's aim is to present the model activity carried out by two different research groups, comparing the main pathways and results, matching data carried out in different devices both for pure toluene and mixtures. This is the starting point for a further activity to improve the two kinetic schemes.

Frassoldati, A; Mehl, M; Fietzek, R; Faravelli, T; Pitz, W J; Ranzi, E

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

47

Ultrasonic study of an emulsion of toluene in water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Previously reported ultrasonic attenuation results in the frequency range 4 to 50 MHz and theoretical predictions [J. R. Allegra and S. A. Hawley J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51 1545 (1971)] for an emulsion of toluene in water have indicated that the observed excess attenuation in the measured frequency range was largely due to heat conduction losses. In the present paper ultrasonicabsorptionmeasurements on a 20% emulsion of toluene in water in the frequency range 1 to 135 MHz at 25 C are described. The excess attenuation due to the emulsion globules as a function of frequency was compared with explicit expressions for heat conduction viscous drag losses and scattering of sound by emulsion globules. Unlike the previous work the agreement between theoretically predicted excess attenuation and that observed can only be obtained if a wide distribution of globule sizes was assumed. The assumption of a globule size distribution spanning from 600 to 6000 in diameter produced a theoretical curve in good agreement with the observed excess absorption over the entire frequency range. [Work supported by ONR.

M. A. Barrett Gultepe; M. E. Gultepe; J. L. McCarthy; E. Yeager

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Two New Mycobacterium Strains and Their Role in Toluene Degradation in a Contaminated Stream  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of toluene manufactured in 1994 (). Industry uses toluene in refining gasoline; chemical...water, or soil at 29 of the hazardous waste sites surveyed; the average amounts...isolated from the soil of a former coal gasification site and is able to degrade the polycyclic...

Stephen T.-L. Tay; Harold F. Hemond; Martin F. Polz; Colleen M. Cavanaugh; Indhira Dejesus; Lee R. Krumholz

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Fractionation during Anaerobic Biodegradation of Benzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...modeling. Ground Water 27: 823-834...after active remediation. Biodegradation...intrinsic remediation of a BTEX...benzene in ground water beneath a...enrichment ground water hydrocarbons...reclamation remediation soils spectra...

Silvia A. Mancini; Ania C. Ulrich; Georges Lacrampe-Couloume; Brent Sleep; Elizabeth A. Edwards; Barbara Sherwood Lollar

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ? Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ? Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ? Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ? Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene-induced reward enhancement.

Chan, Ming-Huan [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China) [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Institute of Neuroscience, National Changchi University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Shiang-Sheng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China) [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacy, Yuli Veterans Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Stoker, Astrid K.; Markou, Athina [Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Chen, Hwei-Hsien, E-mail: hwei@nhri.org.tw [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China) [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Division of Mental Health and Addiction Medicine, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Effect of Key Parameters on the Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene at Low  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effect of Key Parameters on the Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene at Low Effect of Key Parameters on the Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene at Low Concentrations in Air under 254 + 185 nm UV Irradiation Title Effect of Key Parameters on the Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene at Low Concentrations in Air under 254 + 185 nm UV Irradiation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Quici, Natalia, María L. Vera, Hyeok Choi, Gianluca Li Puma, Dionysios D. Dionysiou, Marta I. Litter, and Hugo Destaillats Journal Applied Catalysis B: Environmental Volume 95 Issue 3-4 Pagination 312-319 Date Published 04/2010 Keywords air treatment, environmental chemistry, exposure & risk group, heterogeneous photocatalysis, indoor environment department, indoors, oxidation, photocatalytic, tio2, titania, toluene, uvpco, volatile organic compounds

52

Supercritical fluid extraction of Chinese Maoming oil shale with water and toluene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chinese Maoming (Guangdong Province) oil shale was subjected to supercritical fluid extraction with ... water, although the weight losses of the oil shale with toluene and water were almost the...n-alkanes were a...

T Funazukuri; N Wakao

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Kinetics of the Electrochemically Assisted Autoxidation of Toluene in Acetic Acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratoire de Gnie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS, Universit Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cdex 04, France ... The oxidation of toluene in acetic acid solution by dioxygen was studied at 100 and 109 C in a classic gas?liquid reactor supplied with two electrodes of graphite. ... The average concentration of cobalt(III) acetate was higher than in absence of electric current; this led to an appreciable improvement of the kinetics of the oxidation of toluene by dioxygen. ...

Jean Lozar; Gilles Falgayrac; Andr Savall

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

54

New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Hydrology Days 2014 Thermally Enhanced Attenuation of Substituted Benzenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a remediation technique for substituted benzenes, anaerobic soil microcosms were constructed using soils from at the field site. The device allows for the determination of water quality, temperature, and resistivity values as a function of depth. Additionally, carbon dioxide fluxes are being determined at the ground

56

E-Print Network 3.0 - aldopentose disproportionation reactions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and transalkylation reactions. These processes offer a way to utilize the low cost toluene and TMB... in xylene production reactions, including toluene ... Source:...

57

Health assessment for H and H Incorporated Burn Site, Farrington, Virginia, Region 3. CERCLIS No. VAD980539878. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The H H Incorporated Burn Site, located in Hanover County, Virginia, contains a pit where dry printing ink residues were disposed of. Groundwater contaminants of concern (and maximum concentrations) include benzene (25 ppb), toluene (1180 ppb), chromium (110 ppb), barium (1,300 ppb), beryllium (20 ppb). Organics, including phthalates (131,000 ppb), vinyl chloride (3,600 ppb), toluene (82 ppb), and xylenes (45 ppb), were detected in leachate and/or runoff, presumably emanating from the pit area. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of human exposure to hazardous substances.

Not Available

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

58

In-situ cryocrystallization of 1,2-dimethyl-3-nitrobenzene and 2,4-dimethyl-1-nitrobenzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The crystal structures of 1,2-dimethyl-3-nitrobenzene and 2,4-dimethyl-1-nitrobenzene, which are liquids at room temperature, have been obtained through in-situ cryocrystallization. Weak C-HO and - interactions have been identified in both compounds.

Sparkes, H.A.

2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

59

Evaluation of the In Situ Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Ethenes by Toluene-Utilizing Microorganisms Using Push-Pull Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single-well-push-pull tests were used in a contaminated aquifer to evaluate the ability of toluene-oxidizing microorganisms to aerobically cometabolize chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) such as trichloroethene (TCE). Groundwater containing dissolved toluene was injected into the saturated zone in biostimulate indigenous toluene-utilizers. The test solution was injected into the aquifer using a standard monitoring well and then was transported under natural-gradient conditions. Transport tests demonstrated similar transport characteristics of the conservative tracer and the reactive solutes. Biostimulation tests were then performed by injecting a test solution containing dissolved toluene substrate, hydrogen peroxide, bromide and nitrate in order to increase the biomass of toluene-utilizing microorganisms. During the biostimulation tests, decreases in toluene concentration and the production of o-cresol as an intermediate oxidation product, indicated the simulation of toluene-utilizing microorganisms containing an ortho-monooxygenase enzyme. Transformation tests conducted after biostimulation demonstrated that indigenous microorganisms have the capability to transform the surrogate compounds (e.g. isobutene). Isobutene was transformed to isobutene oxide, indicating transformation by a toluene ortho-monooxygenase.

Azizian, Mohammad F.; Istok, Jonathan; Semprini, Lewis

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

60

The environmental aspects of the evaporation of BTEX from gasoline with and without ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work the vapours from two columns simulating gasoline-contaminated soils (with and without ethanol) were monitored. Standards mixtures of BTEX, containing different ethanol contents were also analysed. The instrumental analysis was performed by Gas Chromatography with a Flame Ionisation Detector. Among BTEX, except benzene, in both columns the evaporation rate increases with time. In the gasoline/ethanol column this effect is higher particularly for the xylenes. Although the benzene concentrations were reduced in both columns, this reduction was less marked in the gasoline/ethanol column. The toluene concentrations were higher in the pure gasoline column.

Franciele Fedrizzi; Jóice Cagliari; Cláudia Echevenguá Teixeira; Alexandra Rodrigues Finotti; Irajá do Nascimento Filho

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Effect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and todlux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and tod­lux Expression with increasing influent concentrations of ethanol, acetate, or phenol. Three inhibitory mechanisms were) by acetate and ethanol, which was quantified by a decrease in specific bioluminescence; (2) competitive

Alvarez, Pedro J.

62

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic benzene degradation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic benzene degradation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Biodegradation 11: 107116, 2000. 2001 Kluwer Academic...

63

Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies Rula A. Deeb1 ; Jonathan with Federal Clean Air Act requirements for carbon monoxide and ozone attainment, ethanol is being considered as a replacement for MTBE. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential impact of ethanol on benzene

Alvarez, Pedro J.

64

Benzene Uptake in Hookah Smokers and Non-smokers Attending Hookah Social Events: Regulatory Implications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...SPMA levels in study populations, such as air pollution. For example, mean ambient air levels of benzene are reported to range from...particulate matter and high-level benzene urban air pollution in relation to oxidative DNA damage.Carcinogenesis...

Nada O.F. Kassem; Noura O. Kassem; Sheila R. Jackson; Sandy Liles; Reem M. Daffa; Adam T. Zarth; Maram A. Younis; Steven G. Carmella; C. Richard Hofstetter; Dale A. Chatfield; Georg E. Matt; Stephen S. Hecht; and Melbourne F. Hovell

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Modeling benzene plume elongation mechanisms exerted by ethanol using RT3D with a general  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of E10 gasoline (10% vol/vol ethanol), which compares favorably to field observations. For low benzene Act requirements. The widespread use of ethanol in gasoline has led to an increase in its potential E10 gasoline (i.e., a blend with 10% vol/vol ethanol/ gasoline) showed that mean benzene plume

Alvarez, Pedro J.

66

Femtosecond Near-Infrared Laser Desorption of Multilayer Benzene on Pt{111}: A Molecular Newton's Cradle?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Femtosecond Near-Infrared Laser Desorption of Multilayer Benzene on Pt{111}: A Molecular Newton Recently, the intense near-infrared laser desorption of intact benzene molecules has been reported.1 Three, 1999; In Final Form: February 11, 2000 Velocity distributions resulting from the intense, near-IR laser

Levis, Robert J.

67

Production of Benzene Polycarboxylic Acids from Lignite by Alkali-Oxygen Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Production of Benzene Polycarboxylic Acids from Lignite by Alkali-Oxygen Oxidation ... The oxidation of coal to produce high-valued benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), which are obtained currently from diminishing petroleum reserves, is a promising industrial process of the future. ...

Wenhua Wang; Yucui Hou; Weize Wu; Muge Niu; Weina Liu

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

68

Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios of Phenolic Compounds in Secondary Particulate Organic Matter Formed by Photooxidation of Toluene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios for phenolic compounds in secondary particulate organic matter (POM) formed by photooxidation of toluene were studied. Secondary POM generated by photooxidation of toluene using a continuous-flow reactor and an 8 cubic meter indoor smog chamber was collected, and then extracted with acetonitrile. Eight phenolic compounds were identified in the extracts by a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer, and their compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios were determined by a gas chromatograph coupled with a combustion furnace followed by an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The majority of the products, including methylnitrophenols and methylnitrocatechols, were isotopically depleted by 5 to 6 permil compared to the initial isotope ratio for toluene, whereas the isotope ratio for 4_nitrophenol remained the same as the initial isotope ratio for toluene. Based on the reaction mechanisms postulated in literature, stable carbon isotope ratios of these produc...

Irei, Satoshi; Huang, Lin; Auld, Janeen; Collin, Fabrice; Hastie, Donald

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at ?80C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure resulted in oxidative damage in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 12month old rats. Although increases in oxidative damage are associated with increases in horizontal motor activity in older rats, further research is warranted to determine if these changes in OS parameters are related to neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects of toluene in animal models of aging.

Prasada Rao S. Kodavanti; Joyce E. Royland; Judy E. Richards; Jonathan Besas; Robert C. MacPhail

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Chemical Composition of the Organic Matter of Oil Shale (Kerogen-70) from Leningrad Oblast (Benzene-Ethanol Extract)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detailed data are reported on the chemical composition of the benzene-ethanol extract of oil shale (kerogen-70).

V. V. Platonov; V. A. Proskuryakov; A. V. Glybina

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Modeling Studies on the Transport of Benzene and H2S in CO2-Water Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interest in subcritical (hot/liquid) water from 298 K to 473subcritical region. Modeling Studies on the Transport of Benzene and H 2 S in CO 2 -Water

Zheng, L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Gaseous phase benzene decomposition by non-thermal plasma coupled with nano titania catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synergistic effect of atmospheric non-thermal plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge and nano ... degradation was visible by added photocatalyst in the plasma reactor. When concentration of benzene was ...

T. Zhu M. Sc.; J. Li Ph.D.; Y. Q. Jin

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Hydrogen production from the reaction of solvated electrons with benzene in water-ammonia mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Product analysis data for the reaction of the ammoniated electron with benzene-water mixtures in liquid ammonia show that the dominant product is evolved hydrogen and not 1,4-cyclohexadiene.

Dewald, R.R.; Jones, S.R.; Schwartz, B.S.

1980-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

74

Assessment of variations in benzene concentration produced from vehicles and gas stations in Tehran using GIS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigates the variations of benzene concentration levels in district 1, situated in the north part of Tehran, capital of Iran. Thirty-three stations in five categories, namely roadsides, busy ... ar...

F. Atabi; F. Moattar; N. Mansouri

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Evaluation of genotoxic effects of benzene and its derivatives in workers of gas stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The search for reliable biomarkers of human exposure to benzene and its derivatives is still subject of research. Many of the proposed biomarkers have limitations ranging from the low sensitivity to the wide vari...

Patrcia Trevisan; Juliane Nascimento da Silva

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Desorption efficiencies of toluene and n-butanol in an organic vapor monitor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

&jards has become one of the most important industrial hygiene f unct i one e The levei of exposure to many organic vapor;=, is det r- mined by co' lecting the chemical on some type o solid sor- bent. Of the various adsorbents available {silica gel... two of these paramet rs) ~ The objective of this re, . earch wa, . to investigate the effe ts of chemical phase (liquid or vapor) on the desorp- tion efficiencies of toluene and n-buta?ol adsorbed on acti- vated charcoal in organic vapor monitors...

Heaney, Mary Ann

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

77

Determination of a peak benzene exposure to consumers at typical self-service gasoline stations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DETERMINATION OF A PEAK BENZENE EXPOSURE TO CONSUMERS AT TYPICAL SELF-SERVICE GASOLINE STATIONS A Thesis by TED CARAPEZZA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene DETERMINATION OF A PEAK BENZENE EXPOSURE TO CONSUMERS AT TYPICAL SELF-SERVICE GASOLINE STATIONS A Thesis by TED CARAPEZZA Approved as to style and content by: (. (iL, &? Chairman...

Carapezza, Ted

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

78

308nm photochemical reaction of gaseous HNO3 and benzene on ?-Fe2O3 surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The 308nm photochemical reactions of nitric acid (HNO3) and benzene in the gas phase and on ?-Fe2O3 surface at 298K was investigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration and yield of HONO and p-nitrophenol (p-NP) had been examined as a function of reaction time, benzene initial concentration and relative humidity on photochemical reaction. The results showed that gaseous HNO3 did not directly react with benzene in the dark, and p-NP was formed irradiation under 308nm UV light. When HNO3 initial concentration was 400Pa and benzene was 300Pa, the illumination time was 100min, the concentration of p-NP produced from the photochemical reaction of HNO3 and benzene on ?-Fe2O3 surface was about 3.08 times higher than that in the gas phase. In the meantime, while reaction time was 40min and relative humidity was 70%, the concentration of HONO and p-NP formed on ?-Fe2O3 surface were about 3.55 and 2.51 times higher than those in the gas phase, and the yield of p-NP was 3.74% and 2.99%, respectively. Surfaces effect played a leading role in photochemical reaction of HNO3 and benzene on ?-Fe2O3 surface.

Jun Zhao; Chengzhu Zhu; Jun Lu; Jiaji Zou; Shuchuan Peng; Tianhu Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Test of electron beam technology on Savannah River Laboratory low-activity aqueous waste for destruction of benzene, benzene derivatives, and bacteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High energy radiation was studied as a means for destroying hazardous organic chemical wastes. Tests were conducted at bench scale with a {sup 60}Co source, and at full scale (387 l/min) with a 1.5 MV electron beam source. Bench scale tests for both benzene and phenol included 32 permutations of water quality factors. For some water qualities, as much as 99.99% of benzene or 90% of phenol were removed by 775 krads of {sup 60}Co irradiation. Full scale testing for destruction of benzene in a simulated waste-water mix showed loss of 97% of benzene following an 800 krad dose and 88% following a 500 krad dose. At these loss rates, approximately 5 Mrad of electron beam irradiation is required to reduce concentrations from 100 g/l to drinking water quality (5 {mu}g/l). Since many waste streams are also inhabited by bacterial populations which may affect filtering operations, the effect of irradiation on those populations was also studied. {sup 60}Co and electron beam irradiation were both lethal to the bacteria studied at irradiation levels far lower than were necessary to remove organic contaminants.

Dougal, R.A. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 276 (2007) 816 Oxidative carbonylation of toluene to p-toluic acid catalyzed by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the water-gas-shift reaction leading to a reduction of Rh(III) to Rh(I). A mechanism for the overall 2007 Abstract The mechanism and kinetics of the liquid phase, oxidative carbonylation of toluene. The concentration of water, produced during the reoxidation of Rh(I) to Rh(III), in the reaction system must

Bell, Alexis T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Flexible Optical Chemical Sensor Platform for BTX  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An in-plane flexible sensor platform for \\{BTXs\\} detection was developed using low-cost patterning techniques and foil-based optical components. The platform was produced by a combination of laser patterning, inkjet printing and capillary filling. Key optical components such as lightguides, optical cladding layers and metallic interconnections were realized on low cost substrates such as paper and PET. The sensing mechanism is based on the change in fluorescence spectra of a reporter dye, supported over a porous matrix. Detection limits down to 1ppm for benzene, toluene and xylene have been measured. Response times down to a few seconds were observed for different gas concentrations.

Juan Diego Arias Espinoza; Viacheslav Sazhnikov; Sami Sabik; Dmitriy Ionov; Edsger Smits; Sandeep Kalathimekkad; Geert Van Steenberge; Michail Alfimov; Ma?gorzata Po?niak; El?bieta Dobrzy?ska; Ma?gorzata Szewczy?ska; Krzysztof Benczek; Herman Schoo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Investigation of Gallium Partitioning Behavior in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems Containing Polyethylene Glycol and Ammonium Sulfate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gallium is assumed to be an indispensable rare metal mainly because of its fast growing demand as gallium arsenide (GaAs) in integrated circuits. ... Traditional extraction methods for gallium usually are organic?water two-phase systems, which involve volatile, flammable, and explosive organic solvents, such as n-hexane, toluene, xylene, benzene, nitrobenzene and kerosene. ... (17) A temperature increase reduces the mutual solubility of the two phases and results in an increase of PEG concentration in the upper phase and of volume in the lower phase, which all make ?w1 increase. ...

Yuhuan Chen; Xiaoli Liu; Yan Lu; Xiuying Zhang

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

83

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Inputs & Utilization Inputs & Utilization Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline.

84

Determination of the structure of 2(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid)1.5(pyrene)2(methanol) and comparison with that of 2(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid)pyrene2(ethanol)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed comparison is made of the structures of 2(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid)1.5(pyrene)2(methanol) (new determination) and of 2(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid)pyrene2(ethanol) (data from the literature).

Herbstein, F.H.

2001-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

85

On the performance and mechanisms of toluene removal by FeOx/SBA-15-assisted non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract FeOx/SBA-15 catalysts were prepared via impregnation and utilized for toluene removal in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Toluene removal was investigated in the environment of various mixed N2/O2 plasmas, showing that toluene removal efficiency and \\{COx\\} selectivity were greatly increased by FeOx/SBA-15 and that the organic intermediates were greatly reduced by catalysts. In pure N2 plasma, the bulk oxygen in the catalyst was involved in the toluene oxidation, and the 3%FeOx/SBA-15 catalyst showed the optimal toluene oxidation activity. The catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorptiondesorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and O2 temperature-programmed desorption (O2-TPD), showing that toluene oxidation was closely related to the highly dispersed nature of iron on the SBA-15 surface, the reduction temperature of Fe2+ and the oxygen adsorption ability of the catalyst. The pathways of toluene decomposition in the combination of FeOx/SBA-15 with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) system were proposed based on the identified intermediates.

Meijuan Lu; Rong Huang; Junliang Wu; Mingli Fu; Limin Chen; Daiqi Ye

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Anhydrous aluminum chloride as an alkylation catalyst: identification of mono- and dialkyl-benzenes from the condensation of tertiary butyl alcohol with benzene.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIBRARY a a w c"I. I. SI - O~ TI:YAf ANHYDROUS ALUMINUM CHLORIDE AS AN ALKYLATION CATALYST: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DIALKYIZENZENES FROM THE CONDENSATION QF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENKENE IACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS 4 A Thesis Submitted...: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DI~NZZNES FROM THE CONDENSATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENZENE A Thesis By LACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS Approved as to style and content hy: Chairman of Committee Head of Chemistry Department 1959 ACKNOWLEDGME1VTS The author...

Scoggins, Lacey E

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content on the lifespan and maximum length of benzene plumes Diego E. Gomez1 and Pedro 10 March 2009. [1] A numerical model was used to evaluate how the concentration of ethanol

Alvarez, Pedro J.

88

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 134, 134701 (2011) Binding of hydrogen on benzene, coronene, and graphene from quantum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and graphene from quantum Monte Carlo calculations Jie Ma,1,2,3 Angelos Michaelides,2,3,4 and Dario Alfè3 the binding energy curves of hydrogen on benzene, coronene, and graphene. The DMC results on benzene agree well with MP2, giving an adsorption energy of 40 meV. For physisorbed hydrogen on graphene, DMC

Alfè, Dario

89

Organosulfur chemistry on W(211) surfaces. 2. A comparison of benzene, thiophene, and tetrahydrothiophene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interactions of benzene, thiophene, and tetrahydrothiophene with clean, oxidized, and sulfided W(211) surfaces were studied with LEED, AES, and temperature programmed reaction. Benzene and thiophene appear to absorb as bases making -bonds to the surface. Benzene decomposed to yield adsorbed carbon and hydrogen. Thiophene appeared to undergo electrophilic attack at the 2-position forming a carbon bound surface intermediate. This surface intermediate was desulfurized and the resulting hydrocarbon surface intermediate underwent C-C bond scission forming C3 hydrocarbons as the dominate desorption product. The electrophilic attack at the 2-position was shown by methyl group elimination from 2,5-dimethylthiophene. Adsorbed oxygen and sulfur enhanced the adsorption of benzene and thiophene by making the surface more acidic. Tetrahydrothiophene (THT) appear to adsorb as a base, forming a bond between the S(3p) electrons and the surface. Desulfurization of adsorbed THT led to C4 hydrocarbons as the dominate desorption product. Adsorbed oxygen and sulfur inhibited reaction of THT. These results suggest that the surface reactivity and subsequent desulfurization of thiophene is controlled by electrophilic attack on the aromatic ring, and the ensuing reduction of resonance stabilization facilitates sulfur removal. 41 references, 8 figures, 4 tables.

Preston, R.E.; Benziger, J.B.

1985-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

90

Biomarkers of Leukemia Risk: Benzene Martyn T. Smith and Luoping Zhang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomarkers of Leukemia Risk: Benzene as a Model Martyn T. Smith and Luoping Zhang Division://ehpnetl.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1998/Suppl-4/937-946smith/abstract.html Key words: genetic susceptibility, chemical exposure, molecular preparation. Address correspondence to M.T. Smith, Professor of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Division

California at Berkeley, University of

91

Two-dimensional 1,3,5-Tris(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene self-assembly at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two-dimensional 1,3,5-Tris(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene self-assembly at the 1-phenyloctane and published work see http://pubs.rsc.org/en/journals/journalissues/tc. Two-dimensional (2D) self-assembly storage, selective ion exchange, high den- sity data storage, etc. Molecular self-assembly offers unique

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

UPTAKE, DISTRIBUTION, AND DEPURATION OF 14C-BENZENE IN NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX, AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bay areas. Al- though the chronic levels are low, if fish ac- cumulate benzene over field products was studied in two species of marine fish. Mature northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, and juvenile. Increased drilling, transportation, and refining of crude oils near or on coastal waters has led to the need

93

Accurately modeling benzene and alkylbenzenes using a group contribution based SAFT approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In recent work, the GC-SAFT-VR equation, which combines the SAFT equation for potentials of variable range (VR) with a group contribution (GC) approach, was proposed. Parameters for key functional groups (such as CH3, CH2, CH, CH2CH, CO, C6H5, ether, ester, OH, NH2, CHO, COOH) were obtained by fitting to experimental vapor pressure and saturated liquid density data for selected low molecular weight fluids and then used to predict the phase behavior of both pure non-associating and associating fluids and their mixtures, generally without adjusting the group parameters to binary mixture data. In the GC-SAFT-VR approach the benzene ring was modeled as a single group (C6H6 for benzene and C6H5, for alkylbenzenes) however, in common with other group-contribution based SAFT approaches, this approach fails to reproduce the correct curvature seen in the experimental liquid density of alkylbenzenes. In this work, to improve upon the model adopted for ring molecules, the benzene ring is explicitly considered through the connectivity of several smaller groups to more accurately capture the ?? interactions. We demonstrate that the improved model better captures the curvature present in the experimental saturated liquid density data of pure alkylbenzenes. Additionally, mixtures of several non-associating and associating fluids with benzene and alklybenzenes are studied.

Gaurav Das; M. Carolina dos Ramos; Clare McCabe

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Transport study of hafnium(IV) and zirconium(IV) ions mutual separation by using Tri-n-butyl phosphate-xylene-based supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Hf transport study through supported liquid membranes has been carried out to determine flux and permeability data for this metal ion. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-xylene-based liquid membranes supported in polypropylene hydrophobic microporous film have been used. These data for hafnium and the previous data for zirconium have furnished the Zr to Hf flux ratio (S) as a function of nitric acid and TBP concentrations of the order of 12 in a single stage at room temperature. Optimum conditions for the separation of these two metal ions appear to 5-6 TBP mol/dm{sup 3} HNO{sub 3}, concentrations {le} 2.93 mol/dm{sup 3}, and 10C. The value of S from an aqueous solution containing 2.4% Hf with respect to Zr has been found to be >125 at 10C and 1.78 mol/dm{sup 3} TBP concentration in the membrane. The technique appears to be feasible for purification of Zr respect to Hf or vice versa.

Chaudry, M.A.; Ahmed, B. (Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

The counting of naturally occuring radiocarbon in the form of benzene in a liquid scintillation counter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A counting system is described for C14 dating with a benzene scintillator solution. The single photomultiplier counter used is relatively simple and reliable. Different sizes and forms of the counting solution containers were investigated. A 6 ml cell with a background of 4?0 counts/min and a 45 per cent detection efficiency is recommended for routine C14 dating. A 60 ml cell with a background of 14?6 counts/min and a 45 per cent detection efficiency is capable of dating samples as old as 57,500 years (4 ? statistics, 48 hr counting). The calibration and operation of the counter is discussed. On comparison with standard gas counter methods, it is suggested that routine C14 dating by the benzene method is preferable in those cases where the laboratory personnel are more skilled in chemical manipulations than electronic technique.

C. Leger; M.A. Tamers

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Benzene Exposure and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Martyn T. Smith, Rachael M. Jones, and Allan H. Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Benzene Exposure and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Martyn T. Smith, Rachael M. Jones, and Allan H. Smith Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University

California at Berkeley, University of

97

acronyms.PDF  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

HEALTH AND SAFETY ACRONYMS HEALTH AND SAFETY ACRONYMS AFRD Accelerator and Fusion Research Division ACFD Alameda County Fire Department AHD Activity Hazard Documentation ALARA as low as reasonably achievable ALCO Alameda County (Fire Department) ALS Advanced Light Sources ASD Administrative Services Department ASPCP Accidental Spill Prevention and Containment Plan AST Above ground storage tank BAAQMD Bay Area Air Quality Management District Basin Plan Water Quality Control Plan BBAP Behavior-Based Accident Prevention (peer-based safety observation program to identify and communicate at-risk work behaviors - see WOW) Berkeley Lab Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory BSO Berkeley Site Office (DOE) Bq becquerel BTEX benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene CAA Clean Air Act CARB California Air Resources Board

98

A complex chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of gasoline surrogate fuels: n heptane, iso octane and toluene - Mechanism development and validation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The development and validation against experimental results of a new gasoline surrogate complex kinetic mechanism is presented in this paper. The surrogate fuel is a ternary mixture of n heptane, iso octane and toluene. The full three components mechanism is based on existing n heptane/iso octane (gasoline PRF) and toluene mechanisms which were modified and coupled for the purpose of this work. Mechanism results are compared against available experimental data from the literature. Simulations with the PRF plus toluene mechanism show that its behavior is in agreement with experimental results for most of the tested settings. These include a wide variety of thermodynamic conditions and fuel proportions in experimental configurations such as HCCI engine experiments, rapid compression machines, a shock tube and a jet stirred reactor.

Da Cruz, A Pires; Anderlohr, Jrg; Bounaceur, Roda; Battin-Leclerc, Frdrique

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Surface Vibrational Spectroscopy Study of Benzene and 2,2,2-Trifluoroacetophenone on Pt(111)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dpartement de Chimie, Universit Laval, Qubec (Qc), Canada G1 V 0A6 ... Although benzene on Pt(111) has been studied experimentally by several techniques, including HREELS,(27-30) RAIRS,(31) STM,(32) LEED,(33) NEXAFS,(34) and ARUPS,(35) no firm consensus has been achieved concerning the adsorption site. ... The authors acknowledge financial support from the National Science and Engineering research Council (NSERC), the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), and the Fonds qubcois de la recherche sur la nature et les technologies (FQRNT) through support for the Centre in Green Chemistry and Catalysis (CCVC/CGCC). ...

Vincent Demers-Carpentier; Peter H. McBreen

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/TN APCRP-CC-15  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and will provide an alternative to acrolein (2-propenal) and xylene (1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4-dimethyl benzene), which

US Army Corps of Engineers

102

ITP Chemicals: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Chemical Industry, May 2000  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Profiles about the ethylene chain, propylene chain, benzene-toulene-xylene chain, agricultural chemicals chain, chlor-alkali industry, and supporting processes

103

Evolution of soot size distribution in premixed ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flames: Experimental and modeling study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of benzene concentration in the initial fuel on the evolution of soot size distribution in ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flat flames was characterized by experimental measurements and model predictions of size and number concentration within the flames. Experimentally, a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to allow spatially resolved and online measurements of particle concentration and sizes in the nanometer-size range. The model couples a detailed kinetic scheme with a discrete-sectional approach to follow the transition from gas-phase to nascent particles and their coagulation to larger soot particles. The evolution of soot size distribution (experimental and modeled) in pure ethylene and ethylene flames doped with benzene showed a typical nucleation-sized (since particles do not actually nucleate in the classical sense particle inception is often used in place of nucleation) mode close to the burner surface, and a bimodal behavior at greater height above burner (HAB). However, major features were distinguished between the data sets. The growth of nucleation and agglomeration-sized particles was faster for ethylene/benzene/air flames, evidenced by the earlier presence of bimodality in these flames. The most significant changes in size distribution were attributed to an increase in benzene concentration in the initial fuel. However, these changes were more evident for high temperature flames. In agreement with the experimental data, the model also predicted the decrease of nucleation-sized particles in the postflame region for ethylene flames doped with benzene. This behavior was associated with the decrease of soot precursors after the main oxidation zone of the flames. (author)

Echavarria, Carlos A.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Lighty, JoAnn S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); D'Anna, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita ''Federico II'' di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Detailed Hydration Maps of Benzene and Cyclohexane Reveal Distinct Water Structures Tanya M. Raschke* and Michael Levitt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of water to exclude apolar groups play a key role in the stabilization of protein native states,1Detailed Hydration Maps of Benzene and Cyclohexane Reveal Distinct Water Structures Tanya M of a single solute in water. Detailed, spatially resolved, three-dimensional maps of the density of the water

Raschke, Tanya M.

105

Routine Analysis of Oxygenates and Benzene in Retail Motor Fuel: A Survey by the State of Alabama  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......gasoline. Figure 4. Chromatogram of gasoline run on TCEP and methyl silicone column...for the routine analysis of 1600 gasoline samples. Results indicate that...that benzene is often found in straight- run gasoline at concentrations of 1 to 2......

Guy Vaughan Johnson

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Nonresonant hyper?Raman and hyper?Rayleigh scattering in benzene and pyridine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is discussed in Sec. III, and results and discussion are presented in Sec. IV, The HRS spectra of benzene and pyr- a) ACS-PRF Summer Research Fellow. Current address: Carroll College, Waukesha, WI 53186. b) Author to whom correspondence should be addressed...I(c)lI(a) + GG'rG'JrJI rIG (OJIi,GO -OJ\\)(OJJJ,GO -OJ\\ +OJs ) + GG'rG'JrJI rIG h a lI(b)lI(a)lI(c) ] (OJIi,GO + OJs )(OJJj,GO - OJ\\ + OJs ) (glQa li) vii) (l10) } X , b - b, where f..Lg'J = (G I (OIf..La IJ(O, etc. (7) The A term is the Condon...

Neddersen, John P.; Mounter, Sarah A.; Bostick, James M.; Johnson, Carey K.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Effect of Key Parameters on the Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene at Low Concentrations in Air under 254 + 185 nm UV Irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of key experimental parameters on the removal of toluene under 254 + 185 nm irradiation was investigated using a benchtop photocatalytic flow reactor. Toluenewas introduced at low concentrations between 10 and 500 ppbv, typical of indoorenvironments, and reacted on TiO2-coated Raschig rings. Two different TiO2-coated rings were prepared: in one case, by dip-coating using a P25 aqueous suspension and, on the other, using an organic/inorganic sol-gel method that produced thin films of mesoporous anatase. Flow rates in the photoreactor varied between 4 L min-1 and 125 mL min-1, leading to residence times in the range 100 ms< tau< 2 s. For these conditions, toluene removal efficiencies were between 30 and 90percent, indicating that the system did not achieve total conversion in any case. For each air flow rate, the conversion oftoluene was significantly higher when the reactor length was 10 cm, as compared with 5 cm; however, only marginal increases in conversions were achieved in the two reactor lengths at equal residence time and different concentration of toluene, suggesting that that the reactor is effectively behaving as an ideal reactor and that the reaction is first-order in the concentration of toluene. Experiments were carried out between 0 and 66percent relative humidity (RH), the fastest reaction rate being observed at moderately low humidity conditions (10percent RH), with respect to both dry air and higher humidity levels. Formaldehyde was formed as a partial oxidation byproduct at low and at high residence times (240 and 960 ms), although higher formaldehyde molar yields (up to 20percent) were observed at low tau (240 ms) and moderate humidity conditions (10 and 33percent), suggesting that both tau and RH can be optimized toreduce the formation of harmful intermediates. Toluene removal efficiency increased with the TiO2 thickness (i.e., mass) until a maximum value of 500 nm, beyond which the removal efficiency decreased. This should be attributed to limitations on the rates of toluene decomposition imposed by radiation transport through the film and/or internal diffusion resistances, which can take place within the porous photocatalytic films.

Quici, Natalia; Vera, Maria L.; Choi, Hyeok; Puma, Gianluca Li; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.; Litter, Marta I.; Destaillats, Hugo

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 5. Recovery of benzene/benzene plus phenol from the Great Pplains Gasification Plant crude phenol stream. Interim report, September 1987-February 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential for production of jet fuels from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant located in Buelah, North Dakota. Funding was provided to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This report details the program with Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., a subcontractor to Burns and Roe Services Corporation, who, as a subcontractor to DOE, investigated the potential of producing benzene or benzene plus phenol from the crude phenol stream.

Harris, E.C.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-assisted synthesis through a hydrothermal reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Reaction of a SeCl{sub 4} aqueous solution with a NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as capping agent and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant, produces nanosized nickel selenide through a hydrothermal method. The effect of temperature, reaction time and amounts of reductant on the morphology, particle sizes of NiSe nanostructures has been investigated. Highlights: ? NiSe nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ? A novel Se source was used to synthesize NiSe. ? SDBS as capping agent plays a crucial role on the morphology of products. ? A mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe was prepared in the presence of 2 ml hydrazine. ? A pure phase of NiSe was prepared in the presence of 4 or 6 ml hydrazine. -- Abstract: The effects of the anionic surfactant on the morphology, size and crystallization of NiSe precipitated from NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O and SeCl{sub 4} in presence of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant were investigated. The products have been successfully synthesized in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant via an improved hydrothermal route. A variety of synthesis parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, capping agent and amount of reducing agent have a significant effect on the particle size, phase purity and morphology of the obtained products. The sample size became bigger with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing reaction time. In the presence of 2 ml hydrazine, the samples were found to be the mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe. With increasing the reaction time and amount of hydrazine a pure phase of hexagonal NiSe was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate phase, particle size and morphology of the products. Chemical composition and purity of the products were characterized by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study the optical properties of NiSe samples.

Sobhani, Azam [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

A fivefold interpenetrating diamondoid three-dimensional metal-organic framework constructed from benzene-1,4-diacetic acid and flexible triazole derivatives: poly[[(2-benzene-1,4-diacetato-2O:O){2-1,4-bis[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]benzene-2N4:N4'}zinc(II)] monohydrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The title compound has a fivefold interpenetrating diamondoid three-dimensional metal-organic framework, with each ZnII centre surrounded by two O-donor atoms from monodentate carboxylate groups belonging to two different benzene-1,4-diacetate ligands and by two triazole N-donor atoms from two different 1,4-bis[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]benzene ligands.

Shen, H.

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

111

A Complete Basis Set Estimate of Cation-p Bond Strengths: Na+(ethylene) and Na+(benzene)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large scale second order perturbation theory and couple cluster theory calculations were performed on the Na+(ethylene) and Na+(benzene) complexes in an effort to estimate binding enthalpies in the complete basis set limit. The resulting best estimates are DH0[Na+(ethylene)] = -13.7 ? 0.2 kcal/mol and DH0[Na+(benzene)] = -23.9 ? 0.3 kcal/mol, which include small corrections for core/valence correlation effects. The former value can be compared to a measurement of -10.3 ? 1.0 kcal/mol obtained from collision induced dissociation, while the latter value is approximately midway between the two existing experimental values which differed by 6.5 kcal/mol. For the basis sets considered in this study, the counterpoise-corrected binding energies were found to be in much worse agreement with the complete basis set limit than the raw values.

Feller, David F.

2000-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

112

The influence of transition metal ions on the catalytic performance of Ru particles during the liquid phase hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of some transition metal ions including Fe2+, Ni2+, Cr3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cd2+...on the catalytic performance of Ru particles during the liquid phase partial hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexene was ...

Yixin Qu; Chengxuan Fang; Chengyang Qian

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Phase separation of quaternary solubilized solutions or micro emulsion of hydrocarbons containing sodium oleate + phenol + benzene + water by freezing point measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The depressions in freezing point measurements in quaternary solubilized solutions or micro-emulsion in sodium oleate + phenol + benzene + water are measured. Maxima and minima were observed, Gibbs' phase rule...

Dr. Bhagwan Swaroop

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Thorium ions transport across Tri-n-butyl phosphate-benzene based supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transport of Th(IV) ions across tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) benzene based liquid membranes supported in microporous hydrophobic polypropylene film (MHPF) has been studied. Various parameters such as variation of nitric acid concentration in the feed, TBP concentration in the membrane, and temperature on the given metal ions transport have been investigated. The effects of nitric acid and TBP concentrations on the distribution coefficient were also studied, and the data obtained were used to determine the Th ions-TBP complex diffusion coefficient in the membrane. Permeability coefficients of Th(IV) ions were also determined as a function of the TBP and nitric acid concentrations. The optimal conditions for the transport of Th(IV) ions across the membrane are 6 mol{sm_bullet}dm{sup -3} HNO{sub 3} concentration, 2.188 mol {center_dot} dm{sup -3} TBP concentration, and 25{degrees}C. The stoichiometry of the chemical species involved in chemical reaction during the transport of Th(IV) ions has also been studied.

Rasul, G.; Chaudry, M.A. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Islamabad (Pakistan); Afzal, M. [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Area of Entry Area of Entry Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

116

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Stocks Total Stocks Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton.

117

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries Definitions Key Terms Definition Alkylate The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Aromatics Hydrocarbons characterized by unsaturated ring structures of carbon atoms. Commercial petroleum aromatics are benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX). Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton.

118

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Stocks by Type Stocks by Type Definitions Key Terms Definition Alaskan in Transit Alaskan crude oil stocks in transit by water between Alaska and the other States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

119

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. Imports by Country of Origin U.S. Imports by Country of Origin Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

120

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Refinery Stocks Refinery Stocks Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and Blender Net Inputs and Blender Net Inputs Definitions Key Terms Definition Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline.

122

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Supply and Disposition Balance Supply and Disposition Balance Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

123

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Products Supplied Products Supplied Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

124

PriceTechNotes2011.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

ASTM: The American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation Gasoline (Finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifi- cations are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specifica- tion MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components: Naphthas that will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates. Barrel (petroleum): A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Biomass Waste:

125

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Weekly Supply Estimates Weekly Supply Estimates Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton.

126

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Imports & Exports Imports & Exports Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock.

127

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

PAD District Imports by Country of Origin PAD District Imports by Country of Origin Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

128

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Imports by Destination Imports by Destination Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

129

ConsumTechNotes2011.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Note: Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials Aviation Gasoline (Finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifi- cations are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specifica- tion MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components: Naphthas that will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes ox- ygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are re- ported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates. Barrel

130

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Exports by Destination Exports by Destination Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

131

Microenvironmental Exposures to VOCs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Microenvironmental Exposures to VOCs Microenvironmental Exposures to VOCs Speaker(s): Miranda Loh Date: February 1, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 The Boston Exposure Assessment in Microenvironments (BEAM) study was designed to examine the concentration distributions of VOCs in various microenvironments in and around Boston with the main objective of reducing the uncertainties in predicting exposure levels. A suite of VOC's with potential health effects including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, several chlorinated compounds and aldehydes were collected in all microenvironments. Phase I. BEAM examined common non-residential microenvironments that have not been extensively studied, in particular, dining, shopping, and transportation microenvironments. Sampling using scripted activities in these microenvironments. For some compounds,

132

In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants are described. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating. 21 figs.

Taylor, R.T.; Jackson, K.J.; Duba, A.G.; Chen, C.I.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

133

In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating.

Taylor, Robert T. (Livermore, CA); Jackson, Kenneth J. (San Leandro, CA); Duba, Alfred G. (Livermore, CA); Chen, Ching-I (Danville, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Monitoring with the use of passive samplers ?? a useful source of information for the mapping and modelling of urban atmosphere pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Due to human activities, increasing numbers of harmful substances are emitted into the atmosphere; they are recognised as potentially dangerous to living organisms, mainly because of their toxicity. Among others, compounds from the BTEX group, e.g. benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, are considered as such toxic substances. They are present in the air above urbanised as well as rural areas due to their transport in the atmosphere. In order to estimate the human population exposure to the analytes from the BTEX group in the air, it is necessary to monitor the concentration levels of these compounds. The environmental data obtained can be processed further to allow modelling of pollution transport in the atmosphere, and pollution mapping. In this study, literature data on the monitoring of the BTEX concentrations by means of passive dosimetry, and mapping of air pollution from BTEX are presented.

Magdalena Urbanowicz; Bozena Zabiegala; Monika Partyka; Jacek Namiesnik; Cezary Orlowski

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Input Input Definitions Key Terms Definition Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include:

136

Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic study of the interaction of potassium with carbon monoxide and benzene on the Pt(111) surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of potassium with carbon monoxide and benezene has been studied on the Pt(111) crystal surface by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The adsorptive changes reported in previous studies for carbon monoxide and benzene when potassium is coadsorbed are correlated with the UPS results presented here and are explained with the aid of a molecular orbital analysis. The authors find that the valence molecular orbitals increase their binding energy slightly when the potassium is coadsorbed, implying a model in which the adsorbates sense the potassium-induced changes in dipole field at the surface. 36 references, 11 figures.

Kudo, M.; Garfunkel, E.L.; Somorjai, G.A.

1985-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

137

Impact of the revised OSHA exposure standard on evaluation and control of benzene and other volatile organic chemicals in the liquid petroleum pipeline industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary purpose of this study was to determine the benzene exposure potential of workers in the liquid petroleum pipeline industry and to assess the impact of compliance with the revised standard on this industry. In addition, exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB), and ethylene dichloride (EDC), which have toxicological profiles similar to that of benzene and are routinely found in this industry, were evaluated and appropriate control protocols were recommended. Exposure potential to benzene in excess of the 0.5 ppm (8-hour TWA) OSHA action level was shown to be limited to three free product handling operations, and that this increased exposure potential was dependent on the length of time necessary to perform the operations. The incidence and magnitude of benzene overexposure was not severe and control could be accomplished with engineering methods, along with work practice controls and personal protective equipment. Through application of a risk assessment model it was shown that 14 excess leukemia deaths per one thousand workers could be expected in the employee population that routinely performs those operation having maximum benzene exposure potential. This compares to less than on excess leukemia death per one thousand workers in the total work population. The evaluation of EDB and EDC indicated that exposure potential to EDB was of greatest concern. Even though exposure could be limited through application of standard industrial hygiene methods, any control protocol short of total elimination of EDB from the product stream may be not sufficient to reduce exposure to accepted levels.

Mercer, D.O.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Thermodynamic analysis of organic Rankine cycle using dry working fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utilization of waste heat is not economically incentive to the industry once the temperature of the waste heat drops to a certain level. This is primarily due to a low efficiency when converting the energy of the waste heat to some forms of useful power. A Rankine cycle using organic fluids as working fluids, called organic Rankine cycle (ORC), is potentially feasible in recovering low-enthalpy containing heat sources. Nevertheless, an efficient operation of the ORC depends heavily on two factors: working conditions of the cycle and the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of these two factors on the performance of the ORC. The working fluids under investigation are: benzene (C{sub 6}H), toluene (C{sub 7}H{sub 8}), p-xylene (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}), R113 and R123. Irreversibility of a system using various working fluids was studied since it represents the energy balance in recovering the waste heat. The study shows that the system efficiency increases as the inlet pressure of the turbine increases regardless of the working fluid used. Among the working fluids under investigation, p-xylene shows the highest efficiency while benzene the lowest. The study also shows that irreversibility depends on the type of heat source. Generally speaking, p-xylene has the lowest irreversibility in recovering a high temperature waste heat while R113 and R123 have a better performance in recovering a low temperature waste heat. In addition, an economic feasibility of ORC using various working fluids is given for ORC`s with commercial capacities.

Wang, S.K.; Hung, T.C. [I-Shou Univ., Tashu (Taiwan, Province of China). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

Surface structure of coadsorbed benzene and carbon monoxide on the rhodium(111) single crystal analyzed with low-energy electron diffraction intensities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first structural analysis of a molecular coadsorbate system is presented. Mutual reordering and site shifting are found to occur for benzene and CO coadsorbed in a (/sub 13//sup 31/) lattice on Rh(111). This low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) intensity analysis yields the first confirmed hollow-site adsorption of CO on a single-crystal metal surface, with a C-O bond length expanded by 0.06 +/- 0.05 A from the gas phase. The flat-lying benzene is found centered over hcp-type hollow sites with a strong Kekule-type distortion: C-C bond lengths alternate between 1.33 +/- 0.15 A (hydrogen positions were not determined). This suggests the possibility of a 1,3,5-cyclohexatriene species being formed. The Rh-C bond length is 2.35 +/- 0.05 A for benzene and 2.16 +/- 0.04 A for CO.

Van Hove, M.A.; Lin, R.F.; Somorjai, G.A.

1986-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

140

Facile preparation of sphere-like copper ferrite nanostructures and their enhanced visible-light-induced photocatalytic conversion of benzene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Spinel CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a facile method. CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres showed high photocatalytic activity toward benzene. Ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde were the intermediate products. - Abstract: Spinel copper ferrite nanospheres with diameters of about 116 nm were synthesized in high yield via a facile solvothermal route. The prepared nanospheres had cubic spinel structure and exhibited good size uniformity and regularity. The band-gap energy of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres was calculated to be about 1.69 eV, indicating their potential visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity. The dramatically enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres was evaluated via the photocatalytic conversion of benzene under Xe lamp irradiation. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} was produced as the final product during the reaction process. This study provided new insight into the design and preparation of functional nanomaterials with sphere structure in high yield, and the as-grown architectures demonstrated an excellent ability to remove organic pollutants in the atmosphere.

Shen, Yu, E-mail: shenyuqing0322@gmail.com [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Yanbo; Xu, Hongfeng; Fu, Jie [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Effects of Fluorine-Containing Graft and Block Copolymer Additives on Removal Characteristics of Dilute Benzene in Water by Microphase-Separated Membranes Modified with These Additives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Add to ACS ChemWorx ... When larger amounts of the PFA-g-PDMS and PFA-b-PDMS were added to a PMMA/PDMS, the latter additive could keep the microphase-separated structures with a continuous PDMS phase, but the former did not. ... Thus, in this study the pervaporation characteristics for the removal of benzene from a dilute aqueous solution of benzene using PFA-g-PDMS/PMMA-g-PDMS and PFA-b-PDMS/PMMA-g-PDMS membranes, which were prepared by adding fluorine-containing graft and block copolymer additives to the PMMA-g-PDMS membrane, were investigated. ...

Tadashi Uragmi; Hiroshi Yamada; Takashi Miyata

2006-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

142

Structural investigations of hydroxylase proteins and complexes in bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bacterial multicomponent monooxgenases (BMMs) such as toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO), phenol hydroxylase (PH), and soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) catalyze hydrocarbon oxidation reactions at a carboxylatebridged ...

McCormick, Michael S. (Michael Scott)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Identification of Adsorbed Phenyl (C6H5) Groups on Metal Surfaces: Electron-Induced Dissociation of Benzene on Au(111)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identification of Adsorbed Phenyl (C6H5) Groups on Metal Surfaces: Electron-Induced Dissociation thermal and electron-induced chemistry of benzene (C6H6) adsorbed on a Au(111) surface. Thermal desorption investigate whether EID at an incident energy of 30 eV can cleanly prepare adsorbed phenyl (C6H5(a)) groups

Ellison, Barney

144

Charge transfer from TiO2 into adsorbed benzene diazonium compounds Tel-Aviv University, School of Electrical Engineering, Ramat-Aviv 69978, Israel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charge transfer from TiO2 into adsorbed benzene diazonium compounds A. Merson Tel-Aviv University (Received 24 February 2004; accepted 8 June 2004) Electron transfer from sol­gel­prepared TiO2 into adsorbed are stably adsorbed. The potential of maximum current Upeak depends strongly on the diazonium salt. Upeak

Shapira, Yoram

145

Lignin removal and benzenealcohol extraction effects on lignin measurements of the hydrothermal pretreated bamboo substrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignin content of hydrothermal pretreated bamboo chips was determined by the two methods: TAPPI standard method (222om-06) and TAPPI standard method without benzenealcohol extraction (BAE). The results showed that including BAE resulted in lower Klason lignin (KL) and acid soluble lignin (ASL) measurements in the prehydrolyzed substrate, that is to say, BAE removed parts of KL and ASL. Therefore, the TAPPI standard method should be modified by omitting the BAE for lignin measurements of pretreated substrate. The following lignin removal analysis suggested that lignin was removed from the bamboo substrate during pretreatment by a combination of degradation reaction and deconstruction; thereafter the pseudo lignin generated in the hydrothermal pretreatment and condensation reaction between the lignin fragments accounted for the later KL increase.

X.J. Ma; S.L. Cao; X.F. Yang; L. Lin; L.H. Chen; L.L. Huang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

147

On the scintillation efficiency of carborane-loaded liquid scintillators for thermal neutron detection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The scintillation efficiency in response to thermal neutrons was studied by loading different concentrations of carborane (08.5wt%) and naphthalene (0 and 100g/L) in five liquid organic scintillators. The sample was characterized in Pb and Cd shields under the irradiation of the thermal neutrons from a 252Cf source. A method was developed to extract the net neutron response from the pulse-height spectra. It was found that the order of scintillation efficiencies for both ?-rays and thermal neutrons is as follows: diisopropylnaphthalene>toluene (concentrated solutes)>toluene~pseudocumene~m-xylene. The quench constants, obtained by fitting the SternVolmer model to the plots of light output versus carborane concentration, are in the range of 0.351.4M?1 for all the scintillators. The Birks factors, estimated using the specific energy loss profiles of the incident particles, are in the range of 9.314mgcm?2MeV?1 for all the samples. The light outputs are in the range of 6386keV electron equivalents (keVee) in response to thermal neutrons. Loading naphthalene generally promotes the scintillation efficiency of the scintillator with a benzene derivative solvent. Among all the scintillators tested, the diisopropylnaphthalene-based scintillator shows the highest scintillation efficiency, lowest Birks factor, and smallest quench constants. These properties are primarily attributed to the double fused benzene-ring structure of the solvent, which is more efficient to populate to the excited singlet state under ionizing radiation and to transfer the excitation energy to the fluorescent solutes.

Zheng Chang; Nkemakonam C. Okoye; Matthew J. Urffer; Alexander D. Green; Kyle E. Childs; Laurence F. Miller

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Modeling the -lectrons of Benzene as Particles on a Ring Calculate the wavelength of the photon required for the first allowed (HOMO-LUMO) electronic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+ nf 2 h 2 2 me C 2 = Fundamental constants and conversion factors: pm 10 12- m:= aJ 10 18- J:= h 6. Energy Level Diagram for Benzene's Electrons _______ _______4 h 2 2 m C 2 n = +/- 2 LUMO h 2 2 m C 2 ___xo___ ___xo___ n = +/- 1 HOMO ___xo___ 0 n = 0 Energy conservation requires: ni 2 h 2 2 me C 2 h c

Rioux, Frank

149

Fractionation of reformate: A new variant of gasoline production technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery is the largest domestic producer of the unique high-octane unleaded automotive gasolines AI-93 and AI-95 and the aviation gasolines B-91/115 and B-92. The base component for these gasolines is obtained by catalytic reforming of wide-cut naphtha; this basic component is usually blended with certain other components that are expensive and in short supply: toluene, xylenes, and alkylate. For example, the unleaded gasoline AI-93 has been prepared by blending reformate, alkylate, and toluene in a 65:20:15 weight ratio; AI-95 gasoline by blending alkylate and xylenes in an 80:20 weight ratio; and B-91/115 gasoline by compounding a reformate obtained with light straight-run feed, plus alkylate and toluene, in a 55:35:10 weight ratio. Toluene and xylenes have been obtained by process schemes that include the following consecutive processes: redistillation of straight-run naphtha cuts to segregate the required narrow fraction; catalytic reforming (Platforming) of the narrow toluene-xylene straight-run fraction; azeotropic distillation of the reformate to recover toluene and xylenes. A new technology based on the use of reformate fractions is proposed.

Karakuts, V.N.; Tanatarov, M.A.; Telyashev, G.G. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Introducing constricted variational density functional theory in its relaxed self-consistent formulation (RSCF-CV-DFT) as an alternative to adiabatic time dependent density functional theory for studies of charge transfer transitions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have applied the relaxed and self-consistent extension of constricted variational density functional theory (RSCF-CV-DFT) for the calculation of the lowest charge transfer transitions in the molecular complex X-TCNE between X = benzene and TCNE = tetracyanoethylene. Use was made of functionals with a fixed fraction (?) of Hartree-Fock exchange ranging from ? = 0 to ? = 0.5 as well as functionals with a long range correction (LC) that introduces Hartree-Fock exchange for longer inter-electronic distances. A detailed comparison and analysis is given for each functional between the performance of RSCF-CV-DFT and adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is shown that in this particular case, all functionals afford the same reasonable agreement with experiment for RSCF-CV-DFT whereas only the LC-functionals afford a fair agreement with experiment using TDDFT. We have in addition calculated the CT transition energy for X-TCNE with X = toluene, o-xylene, and naphthalene employing the same functionals as for X = benzene. It is shown that the calculated charge transfer excitation energies are in as good agreement with experiment as those obtained from highly optimized LC-functionals using adiabatic TDDFT. We finally discuss the relation between the optimization of length separation parameters and orbital relaxation in the RSCF-CV-DFT scheme.

Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Seth, Mike; Ziegler, Tom [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, University Drive 2500, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, University Drive 2500, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

151

Natural attenuation of fuel hydrocarbon contaminants: Hydraulic conductivity dependency of biodegradation rates in a field case study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two biodegradation models are developed to represent natural attenuation of fuel-hydrocarbon contaminants as observed in a comprehensive natural-gradient tracer test in a heterogeneous aquifer on the Columbus Air Force Base in Mississippi. The first, a first-order mass loss model, describes the irreversible losses of BTEX and its individual components, i.e., benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and xylene (X). The second, a reactive pathway model, describes sequential degradation pathways for BTEX utilizing multiple electron acceptors, including oxygen, nitrate, iron and sulfate, and via methanogenesis. The heterogeneous aquifer is represented by multiple hydraulic conductivity (K) zones delineated on the basis of numerous flowmeter K measurements. A direct propagation artificial neural network (DPN) is used as an inverse modeling tool to estimate the biodegradation rate constants associated with each of the K zones. In both the mass loss model and the reactive pathway model, the biodegradation rate constants show an increasing trend with the hydraulic conductivity. The finding of correlation between biodegradation kinetics and hydraulic conductivity distributions is of general interest and relevance to characterization and modeling of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in other petroleum-product contaminated sites.

Lu, Guoping; Zheng, Chunmiao

2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Natural Attenuation of Fuel Hydrocarbon Contaminants: Correlation of Biodegradation with Hydraulic Conductivity in a Field Case Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two biodegradation models are developed to represent natural attenuation of fuel-hydrocarbon contaminants as observed in a comprehensive natural-gradient tracer test in a heterogeneous aquifer on the Columbus Air Force Base in Mississippi, USA. The first, a first-order mass loss model, describes the irreversible losses of BTEX and its individual components, i.e., benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and xylene (X). The second, a reactive pathway model, describes sequential degradation pathways for BTEX utilizing multiple electron acceptors, including oxygen, nitrate, iron and sulfate, and via methanogenesis. The heterogeneous aquifer is represented by multiple hydraulic conductivity (K) zones delineated on the basis of numerous flowmeter K measurements. A direct propagation artificial neural network (DPN) is used as an inverse modeling tool to estimate the biodegradation rate constants associated with each of the K zones. In both the mass loss model and the reactive pathway model, the biodegradation rate constants show an increasing trend with the hydraulic conductivity. The finding of correlation between biodegradation kinetics and hydraulic conductivity distributions is of general interest and relevance to characterization and modeling of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in other petroleum-product contaminated sites.

Lu, Guoping; Zheng, Chunmiao

2003-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Drinking Water Problems: Benzene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

their water. Activated charcoal or granular activated carbon Cellulose fibers Unfiltered water inlet Filtered water outlet Carbon granules Cellulose fibers Cellulose fibers Figure 2: Granular activated carbon (GAC) filter (adapted from Parrott et al...). filters used to improve the taste or remove odor of the water also can remove some contaminants in water supplies. These filters are effective in removing vola- tile organic compounds which easily vaporize into the atmosphere under normal conditions...

Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

154

PLS versus zeolites as sorbents and catalysts: Part 9. An unexpected reaction of Al-PILC sorbed \\{CCl4\\} with benzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reactivity of \\{CCl4\\} on alumina-pillared clays (PILCs) has been exploited to investigate if benzene activation is possible under both static and dynamic conditions. PILC-encapsulated \\{CCl4\\} indeed reacts, giving chlorobenzene (PhCl) and biphenyl as main products (with benzoyl chloride as a side-product). Although overall yields are low (24%, calculated on starting benzene) they increase when a transition metal-containing pillar is present (e.g. FAZA, which has Fe2+/Fe3+-alumina pillars and activity comparable with the mid-pore zeolite ZSM-5). Yields increase further (e.g. PhCl>5%) when the PILC is also cation-exchanged, as in Cu-FAZA. Trends in yields on changing reaction parameters show that the reaction giving PhCl occurs via a cation-intermediate, whereas biphenyl is formed via a free-radical mechanism. Finally, chlorohydroxybenzenes can be obtained in both mid-pore zeolites and PILCs, which is rationalised in terms of generation of active oxygen species at the Lewis acid sites. It is suggested that benzoyl chloride forms from interaction between in situ-generated \\{COCl2\\} and Lewis acid sites.

Adriana De Stefanis; Giorgio Perez; Anthony A.G. Tomlinson

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

The structures of CO, NO and benzene on various transition metal surfaces: Overview of LEED (low-energy electron diffraction) and HREELS (high-resolution electron energy loss) results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent results are summarized concerning the adsorption structures of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) chemisorbed on various transition metal surfaces, and of benzene (C6H6) on Pd, Rh and Pt(111). These results were for the most part obtained with intensity analysis of low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS).

Ohtani, H.; Van Hove, M.A.; Somorjai, G.A.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Quantum effects and anharmonicity in the H{sub 2}-Li{sup +}-benzene complex: A model for hydrogen storage materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantum and anharmonic effects are investigated in H{sub 2}-Li{sup +}-benzene, a model for hydrogen adsorption in metal-organic frameworks and carbon-based materials. Three- and 8-dimensional quantum diffusion Monte Carlo (QDMC) and rigid-body diffusion Monte Carlo (RBDMC) simulations are performed on potential energy surfaces interpolated from electronic structure calculations at the M05-2X/6-31+G(d,p) and M05-2X/6-311+G(2df,p) levels of theory using a three-dimensional spline or a modified Shepard interpolation. These calculations investigate the intermolecular interactions in this system, with three- and 8-dimensional 0 K H{sub 2} binding enthalpy estimates, ?H{sub bind} (0 K), being 16.5 kJmol{sup ?1} and 12.4 kJmol{sup ?1}, respectively: 0.1 and 0.6 kJmol{sup ?1} higher than harmonic values. Zero-point energy effects are 35%of the value of ?H{sub bind} (0 K) at M05-2X/6-311+G(2df,p) and cannot be neglected; uncorrected electronic binding energies overestimate ?H{sub bind} (0 K) by at least 6 kJmol{sup ?1}. Harmonic intermolecular binding enthalpies can be corrected by treating the H{sub 2} helicopter and ferris wheel rotations as free and hindered rotations, respectively. These simple corrections yield results within 2% of the 8-dimensional anharmonic calculations. Nuclear ground state probability density histograms obtained from the QDMC and RBDMC simulations indicate the H{sub 2} molecule is delocalized above the Li{sup +}-benzene system at 0 K.

Kolmann, Stephen J.; D'Arcy, Jordan H.; Jordan, Meredith J. T., E-mail: m.jordan@chem.usyd.edu.au [School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

157

The weathering of oil after the Deepwater?Horizon oil spill: insights from the chemical composition of the oil from the sea surface, salt marshes and sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oil released during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill may have both short-?and long-time impacts on the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystems. An understanding of how the composition and concentration of the oil are altered by weathering, including chemical, physical and biological processes, is needed to evaluate the oil toxicity and impact on the ecosystem in the northern Gulf of Mexico. This study examined petroleum hydrocarbons in oil mousse collected from the sea surface and salt marshes, and in oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead after the DWH oil spill. Oil mousses were collected at two stations (OSS and CT, located 130 and 85?km away from the wellhead, respectively) in May 2010, and two sediment samples from stations SG and SC, within 6 km of the wellhead, in May 2011. We also collected oil mousse from salt marshes at Marsh Point (MP), Mississippi, 186?km away from the wellhead in July 2010. In these samples, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, BTEX (collective name of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-, m-, and o-xylenes), C3-benzenes and trace metals were measured to examine how the oil was altered chemically. The chemical analysis indicates that the oil mousses underwent different degrees of weathering with the pattern of OSS?DWH oil spill, as supported by the presence of short-chained n-alkanes (C10?C 15), BTEX and C 3-benzenes. The weathering of oil in sediment may result from biological degradation and dissolution, evidenced by the preferential loss of mid-chained n-alkanes C16?C 27, lower ratios of n-C 17/Pr and n-C 18/Ph , and preferential loss of PAHs relative to alkylated PAHs.

Zhanfei Liu; Jiqing Liu; Qingzhi Zhu; Wei Wu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been employed to determine the structures and energies of the isomers of the OH-toluene adduct, the methyl hydroxycyclohexadienyl radical, and their corresponding transitio  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Laboratory Investigation of Organic Aerosol Formation from Aromatic Hydrocarbons (DOE Award No. DE-FG02-02ER63098) Prepared by Luisa T. Molina, Renyi Zhang and Mario J. Molina Our work for this DOE funded project includes: (1) measurements of the kinetics and mechanism of the gas-phase oxidation reactions of the aromatic hydrocarbons initiated by OH; (2) measurements of aerosol formation from the aromatic hydrocarbons; and (3) theoretical studies to elucidate the OH-toluene reaction mechanism using quantum-chemical and rate theories. (1) Measurements of Gas-Phase Kinetics and Mechanism Work has been accomplished to develop laboratory instrumentation to conduct kinetic and mechanistic measurements of the aromatic hydrocarbon reactions initiated by OH, using

159

Adsorption and hydrogenation of ethylene, 1-hexene, and benzene and CO adsorption on Pt/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Pt-Sn/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adsorption and hydrogenation of ethylene, 1-hexene, and benzene, and carbon monoxide adsorption on alumina-supported Pt and Pt-Sn catalysts were studied. Gravimetric experiments and infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy combined with chemisorption measurements were used for this purpose. Additionally fresh and coked catalysts were characterized by the IR spectra of CO and chemisorption data. Added tin causes a slight increase in benzene adsorption and a distinct decrease in ethylene and 1-hexene uptakes, whereas the hydrogenation activity is inhibited. Adsorption and catalytic data with benzene can be explained by a model of flat adsorption on Pt/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and tilted adsorption on Pt-Sn/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and are consistent with electronic modification of platinum by tin. Electronic interaction between platinum and tin is also indicated by the IR data. The most active sites for hydrocarbon decomposition on the platinum surface are the same as those on which carbon monoxide is multiply bonded. Deposited coke and tin block the same active sites on the platinum surface.

Palazov, A.; Bonev, C.; Shopov, D.; Lietz, G.; Sarkany, A.; Voelter, J.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Effect of potassium halide salts on mutual solubility of water+aromatic hydrocarbons liquidliquid interface studied with surface and interfacial tensions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Surface tension (?, mN/m) of benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene (EB) aromatic hydrocarbons (AHCs, low density liquids, LDL) and interfacial tension (IFT, mN/m) both with water and aqueous 0.1, 0.5, 1.0molkg?1 KF, KCl, KBr, KI (high density liquids, HDL) separately at 303.15K are reported. Contributions of CH3 and CH2CH3 of toluene and EB to hydrophobic interactions are calculated from ?toluene?benzene and ?EB?benzene, respectively. \\{IFTs\\} of water+AHCs liquidliquid interfaces (LLI) are as toluene (34.71)>EB (32.35)>benzene (32.32mNm?1), with a ~32.32mNm?1 decrease from 71.40mNm?1 of water. \\{AHCs\\} with hyperconjugation (HC) and positive inductive effects (+ve IE) with toluene and EB LLI have reduced IFT by 39.08, 2.39, ?1.56mNm?1, respectively. The effects of ?-conjugation, H, CH3 and CH2CH3 on surface tension are calculated as ?-conjugation=?(IFTairliquid?IFTAPHSbenzene), CH3=?(IFTAPHStoluene?IFTAPHSbenzene). The effects of halide salts on hypercongugation H(CH3)/3, CH2CH3 are obtained from ?(IFTAPHSEB ?IFTAPHSbenzene).

Man Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk.

J. Pinedo; R. Ibez; J.P.A. Lijzen; . Irabien

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

The Influence of MSI (Metal-Support Interactions) and the Solvent in Liquid-Phase Reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results were repeatedly obtained that were consistent with a hypothesis proposed at the beginning of this program, i.e., due to Metal-Support Interactions (MSI), unique active sites can be created in the metal-support interfacial region to enhance activity and improve selectivity in certain types of reactions, especially those involving the hydrogenation of carbonyl and unsaturated C=C bonds. Higher turnover frequencies (TOF-molecule/s/site) and increased selectivity for C=O bond versus C=C bond hydrogenation was established in the hydrogenation reactions of: acetone, crotonaldehyde, acetophenone, phenylethanol, acetylcyclohexane, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenylacetaldehyde and citral over Pt/TiO{sub 2} MSI catalysts. Higher rates of hydrogenation benzene, toluene and xylene could be obtained over certain supported Pt and Pd catalysts. Au/TiO{sub 2} catalysts were developed that were active for CO hydrogenation at subambient temperatures. The influence of support and metal crystallite size were established for the adsorption of H{sub 2}, CO and O{sub 2} on families of Pt and Pd catalysts.

Vannice, M. A.

2003-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

A sequential checklist for the assessment of natural attenuation of dissolved petroleum contaminant plumes from leaking underground storage tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimates of the number of leaking underground storage tanks (UST) are measured in the hundreds of thousands in the United States alone. The discussion in this article largely pertains to the lighter motor fuels which contain aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons. These include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). The occurrence of dissolved BTEX groundwater contaminant plumes is most commonly associated with leaking gasoline USTs. However, their association with other petroleum products is not uncommon. this article and checklist provide guidance for completing UST assessments, which can support the decision-making process presented in the ASTM Emergency Standard Guide. Following the checklist will measure that the initial site assessment results in an accurate and functional characterization of the details and subtleties of the UST Source Impact Zone. This includes evaluating the UST area to identify release pathways for residual contamination in soil and groundwater. Based on the results obtained from the Source Impact Zone Evaluation, natural attenuation can be assessed for its applicability and performance.

De Rose, N. [Langan Engineering and Environmental Services, Inc., Doylestown, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

FCC Tail Gas olefins conversion to gasoline via catalytic distillation with aromatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of every refiner is to continually improve profitability by such means as increasing gasoline production, increasing gasoline octane pool and in cases where fuel balance becomes a problem, decreasing refinery fuel gas production. A new refinery process is currently being developed which accomplish these goals. Chemical Research and Licensing Company (CR and L) developed Catalytic Distillation technology in 1978 to produce MTBE. They have since used the Catalytic Distillation technique to produce cumene. CR and L has further developed this technology to convert olefin gases currently consumed as refinery fuel, to high octane gasoline components. The process, known as CATSTILL, alkylates olefin gases such as ethylene, propylene and butylene, present in FCC Tail Gas with light aromatics such as benzene, toluene and xylene, present in reformate, to produce additional quantities of high octane gasoline components. A portable CATSTILL demonstration plant has been constructed by Brown and Root U.S.A., under an agreement with CR and L, for placement in a refinery to further develop data necessary to design commercial plants. This paper presents current data relative to the CATSTILL development.

Partin, E.E. (Brown and Root U.S.A., Inc., Houston, TX (US))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

166

The mechanisms and relative importance of abiotic and biological processes for VOC loss from sludge amended soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in sewage sludge has been a cause of increasing concern due to the possible risk to human health and the environment when sludge is applied to agricultural soils. Sludge application to agricultural land in the UK is expected to increase as a result of restrictions on alternative disposal routes and also increasingly stringent wastewater treatment requirements. Few studies have examined the fate and behavior of VOCs in sewage sludge amended soils and those reported have used spiked sludge rather than investigating the behavior of VOCs resident in the sludge itself. This study was designed to evaluate the behavior of aromatic VOCs (namely toluene, xylene and ethyl benzene) in unspiked sewage sludge amended soils and assess the relative importance and mechanisms of abiotic and biological loss processes. This was undertaken by adding sewage sludge to sterilized and unsterilized soil in closed and open systems. Results indicated that abiotic loss processes, primarily volatilization, were most important for the removal of VOCs. Initial rate of VOC loss was similar in all systems. After 65 days a residual VOC soil concentration remained which was apparently dependent on the conditions within the system.

Wilson, S.C.; Jones, K.C. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Biological Sciences

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

Volatile organic compound losses from sewage sludge-amended soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) applied to soil in sludge have been assumed to disappear quickly and completely. The VOC behavior in sludge-amended soils has been studied previously only in laboratory systems where the sludged soil has been spiked with compounds of interest. Behavior in these systems may not necessarily represent compound behavior in field soils to which contaminated sludge is added. A series of laboratory microcosm experiments were designed therefore to investigate the behavior of toluene, ethyl benzene, o-, m-, and p-xylene applied to soil in contaminated sludge, and factors influencing loss processes. The VOC loss from sludge-amended soil was well described by a simple one step pseudo-first-order model but in certain soils was better described by a two step first-order model. Volatilization was the predominant loss process. Rates of loss depended on sludge application rate, method of sludge application, soil properties, and on compound characteristics. Experiments indicated that spiking sludge-amended soils gave a reasonable indication of VOC loss rates from systems amended with contaminated sludge at least over a period of 23 d. The majority of VOCs applied to soils in sludge volatilizes quickly to the atmosphere over a few to 10s of days with a small fraction lost more slowly. Potential for VOC crop uptake, livestock ingestion, and contamination of ground water is low under routine, managed applications of sewage sludge to agricultural land.

Wilson, S.C.; Jones, K.C.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Experimental investigation of regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel blended with ethanol and dodecanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow-sulfur diesel as the main fuel, ethanol as the oxygenate additive and dodecanol as the solvent, to investigate the regulated and unregulated emissions of the engine under five engine loads at an engine speed of 1800revmin?1. Blended fuels containing 6.1%, 12.2%, 18.2% and 24.2% by volume of ethanol, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by mass of oxygen in the blended fuel, were used. The results indicate that with an increase in ethanol in the fuel, the brake specific fuel consumption becomes higher while there is little change in the brake thermal efficiency. Regarding the regulated emissions, HC and CO increase significantly at low engine load but might decrease at high engine load, \\{NOx\\} emission slightly decreases at low engine load but slightly increases at high engine load, while particulate mass decreases significantly at high engine load. For the unregulated gaseous emissions, unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde increase but formaldehyde, ethene, ethyne, 1,3-butadiene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decrease, especially at high engine load. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is found to reduce significantly most of the pollutants, including the air toxics.

C.S. Cheung; Yage Di; Zuohua Huang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation on  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Characterization of Nonequilibrium Sorption of Gasoline Components by Surfactant-Modified Zeolite Characterization of Nonequilibrium Sorption of Gasoline Components by Surfactant-Modified Zeolite Characterization of Nonequilibrium Sorption of Gasoline Components by Surfactant-Modified Zeolite Authors: Joshua A. Simpson and Robert S. Bowman, New Mexico Technological University, Socorro, NM Venue: 44th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society in Santa Fe, NM, June 3–7, 2007 (http://www.clays.org/home/HomeAnnualMeeting.html [external site]). Abstract: Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been shown to effectively remove benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) from water generated during oil and natural gas production (produced water). The BTEX sorption isotherms are linear and noncompetitive, suggesting that the removal mechanism is partitioning into the surfactant’s hydrophobic bilayer formed on SMZ. Even though BTEX sorption in batch systems is rapid, chemical equilibrium models do not accurately describe BTEX transport through packed beds of SMZ. Comparison with transport of a nonreactive tracer (tritium) suggests that two-site, diffusive nonequilibrium sorption-desorption controls BTEX transport. We conducted batch experiments with SMZ to determine the nonequilibrium sorption kinetics of each BTEX constituent. The kinetic measurements were used to parameterize a nonequilibrium transport model to predict BTEX removal under varying flow conditions. The accuracy of predictions is being tested using laboratory column experiments with produced water from the San Juan Basin of New Mexico

170

Versatile Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The commonly used solvents like benzene, toluene, methylene chloride etc. for organic synthesis, particularly in industrial production, are known to cause health and environmental problems. In view of this, th...

V. K. Ahluwalia; M. Kidwai

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

When benzene's bonds break | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

are infrastructure ready. In the syngas upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels pathway, biomass feedstocks are gasified to produce a syngas, which is used as a feedstock for hydrocarbon...

172

Thermal Desorption Treatment of Contaminated Soils in a Novel Batch Thermal Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) Flare pit material (Domtar refinery, Alberta, Canada) contaminated up to 20 wt % with hydrocarbons ranging from C8 to C60 with particularly large quantities of xylene, toluene, and C13?C28 compounds. ... (4)?Hsieh, H. N.; Yu, Q. R.; Chang, J.; Burn, T. Thermal Treatment and Stabilization of the BTM. ...

Marline T. Smith; Franco Berruti; Anil K. Mehrotra

2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

173

Functionalization/passivation of porous graphitic carbon with di-tert-amylperoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Porous graphitic carbon (PGC) particles were functionalized/passivated in situ in packed beds at elevated temperature with neat di-tert-amylperoxide (DTAP) in a column oven. The performance of these particles for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was assayed before and after this chemistry with the following analytes: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, n-propyl benzene, n-butyl benzene, p-xylene, phenol, 4-methylphenol, phenetole, 3,5-xylenol, and anisole. After the first functionalization/passivation, the retention factors, k, of these compounds decreased by about 5% and the number of theoretical plates (N) increased by ca. 15%. These values of k then remained roughly constant after a second functionalization/ passivation but a further increase in N was noticed. In addition, after each of the reactions, the peak asymmetries decreased by ca. 15%, for a total of ca. 30%. The columns were then subjected twice to methanol at 100 C for 5 h at 1 mL/min. After these stability tests, the values of k remained roughly constant, the number of plates increased, which is favorable, and the asymmetries rose and then declined, where they remained below the initial values for the unfunctionalized columns. Functionalized and unfunctionalized particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and BET measurements, which showed no difference between the functionalized and unfunctionalized materials, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), where ToF-SIMS suggested some chemical differences between the functionalized and unfunctionalized materials. In particular ToF-SIMS suggested that the expected five-carbon fragments from DTAP exist at higher concentrations on DTAP-functionalized PGC. First principle calculations on model graphitic surfaces suggest that the first addition of a DTAP radical to the surface proceeds in an approximately isothermal or slightly favorable fashion, but that subsequent DTAP additions are then increasingly thermodynamically favorable. Thus, this analysis suggests that the direct functionalization/passivation of PGC with DTAP is plausible. Chemometric analyses of the chromatographic and ToF-SIMS data are also presented.

Jensen, David S.; Gupta, Vipul; Olsen, Rebecca E.; Miller, Alex T.; Davis, Robert C.; Ess, Daniel; Zhu, Zihua; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Linford, Matthew R.

2011-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

174

Density hysteresis of heavy water confined in a nanoporous silica matrix  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...transition between LDA and HDA has been reported...confined toluene (65) and benzene (66). Recently, the reliability...liquids: Experiments, MD simulations and theory . J Phys Condens Matter...glass transition of confined benzene . J Phys Chem B 110 : 19735...

Yang Zhang; Antonio Faraone; William A. Kamitakahara; Kao-Hsiang Liu; Chung-Yuan Mou; Juscelino B. Leo; Sung Chang; Sow-Hsin Chen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Toluene Monooxygenase-Catalyzed Epoxidation of Alkenes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the production of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and polymers. Although there are...similar increases are expected in the agrochemical and polymer markets (). This increased...For example, differences in membrane compositions or transport mechanisms or the presence...

Kevin McClay; Brian G. Fox; Robert J. Steffan

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Selective solid-phase microextraction of explosives using fibers coated with the La (III) complex of p-di (4,4,5,5,6,6,6-hepafluoro-1,3-hexanediony) benzene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research demonstrates enhanced capture of explosives on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers coated with a metal beta-diketonate polymer, [La(III) complex of p-di(4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptafluoro-1,3-hexanedionyl)benzene, La(dihed)], compared to PDMS control fibers. SPME sampling was performed in an explosives bunker where the concentration of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was estimated at less than 3 parts-per-trillion (v/v). Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed an approximate ten-fold enhancement in the quantity of 2,4-dinitrotoluene captured on La(dihed) over the control fiber. La(dihed) sampling also resulted in a strong signal for TNT, whereas this explosive was well below the detection limit (1 pg on fiber) on the control fiber.

Harvey, Scott D.

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

177

Method of uranium reclamation from aqueous systems by reactive ion exchange. [US DOE patent application; anion exchange resin of copolymerized divinyl-benzene and styrene having quarternary ammonium groups and bicarbonate ligands  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reactive ion exchange method for separation and recovery of values of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, or americium from substantially neutral aqueous systems of said metals comprises contacting said system with an effective amount of a basic anion exchange resin of copolymerized divinyl-benzene and styrene having quarternary ammonium groups and bicarbonate ligands to achieve nearly 100% sorption of said actinyl ion onto said resin and an aqueous system practically free of said actinyl ions. The method is operational over an extensive range of concentrations from about 10/sup -6/ M to 1.0 M actinyl ion and a pH range of about 4 to 7. The method has particulr application to treatment of waste streams from Purex-type nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and hydrometallurgical processes involving U, Np, P, or Am.

Maya, L.

1981-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

178

A Convenient One-Pot Procedure for the Synthesis of 2-Aryl Quinazolines Using Active MnO2 as Oxidant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Green Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330022, China b,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazolines, have been prepared in solvent-free [29] and a number of solvents, including benzene or xylene reaction. Among the VC 2010 HeteroCorporation 1240 Vol 47 #12;solvents we screened, we found CHCl3 or H2O

Shen, Jun

179

The 700-1500 cm{sup ?1} region of the S{sub 1} (A{sup ~1}B{sub 2}) state of toluene studied with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI), zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy, and time-resolved slow-electron velocity-map imaging (tr-SEVI) spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report (nanosecond) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI), (nanosecond) zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) and (picosecond) time-resolved slow-electron velocity map imaging (tr-SEVI) spectra of fully hydrogenated toluene (Tol-h{sub 8}) and the deuterated-methyl group isotopologue (?{sub 3}-Tol-d{sub 3}). Vibrational assignments are made making use of the activity observed in the ZEKE and tr-SEVI spectra, together with the results from quantum chemical and previous experimental results. Here, we examine the 7001500 cm{sup ?1} region of the REMPI spectrum, extending our previous work on the region ?700 cm{sup ?1}. We provide assignments for the majority of the S{sub 1} and cation bands observed, and in particular we gain insight regarding a number of regions where vibrations are coupled via Fermi resonance. We also gain insight into intramolecular vibrational redistribution in this molecule.

Gardner, Adrian M.; Green, Alistair M.; Tam-Reyes, Victor M.; Reid, Katharine L.; Davies, Julia A.; Parkes, Victoria H. K.; Wright, Timothy G., E-mail: Tim.Wright@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

180

Potential of producing various hydrocarbons from canola oil by catalytic treatment over Pt-ZSM-5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Canola oil conversion was studied at atmospheric pressure over Pt-ZSM-5 catalyst (0.5 wt% Pt) in a fixed bed micro-reactor. The operating conditions were: temperature range of 400--500 C, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 1.8 and 3.6 h{sup {minus}1} and steam/oil ratio of 4:1. The products were coke, gas, an organic liquid product (OLP) and residue. The gas and OLP consisted mainly of hydrocarbons. The objective of this study was to maximize the amount of gasoline range hydrocarbons in the OLP and the selectivity to isohydrocarbons in the gas. The gas yields varied between 22--65 wt% and were higher in the presence of steam compared to the operation without steam. Also, the gas fraction decreased with increase in space velocity. The olefin/paraffin ratio of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbon gases varied between 0.31--0.79. The amount of isohydrocarbons relative to n-hydrocarbons were higher with Pt-ZSM-5 (1.6--4.8) compared to pure HZSM-5 catalyst (0.2--0.3). The OLP yields with Pt-ZSM-5 (20--55wt% of canola oil) were slightly lower compared to HZSM-5 (40--63wt% of canola oil) under similar conditions. The major components of OLP were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The main aromatic hydrocarbons were benzene, toluene, xylenes and trimethylbenzenes. Alkylated pentane and hexane were the main aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the presence of steam, Pt-ZSM-5 gave higher yields of liquid hydrocarbons within the gasoline boiling range than HZSM-5.

Katikaneni, S.P.R.; Adjaye, J.D.; Bakhshi, N.N. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

Thermal Decomposition of Radiation-Damaged Polystyrene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiation-damaged polystyrene (given the identification name of 'polycube') was fabricated by mixing high-density polystyrene material ("Dylene Fines # 100") with plutonium and uranium oxides. The polycubes were used in the 1960s for criticality studies during processing of spent nuclear fuel. The polycubes have since been stored for almost 40 years at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) after failure of two processes to reclaim the plutonium and uranium oxides from the polystyrene matrix. Thermal decomposition products from this highly cross-linked polystyrene matrix were characterized using Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) system coupled to a horizontal furnace. The decomposition studies were performed in air and helium atmospheres at about 773 K. The volatile and semi-volatile organic products for the radiation-damaged polystyrene were different compared to virgin polystyrene. The differences were in the number of organic species generated and their concentrations. In the inert (i.e., helium) atmosphere, the major volatile organic products identified (in order of decreasing concentrations) were styrene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, nathphalene, propane, .alpha.-methylbenzene, indene and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene. But in air, the major volatile organic species identified changed slightly. Concentrations of the organic species in the inert atmosphere were significantly higher than those for the air atmosphere processing. Overall, 38 volatile organic species were identified in the inert atmosphere compared to 49 species in air. Twenty of the 38 species in the inert conditions were also products in the air atmosphere. Twenty-two oxidized organic products were identified during thermal processing in air.

Abrefah, John; Klinger, George S.

2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

182

Evaluation of immunoassay-based field test kits for the detection of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons in soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to identify, experimentally evaluate and implement the use of alternative field screening methods that are specific for environmental contaminants of interest and concern to the Department of Energy. Immunochemical techniques are rapidly becoming a significant component in the arsenal of field screening methods. Analytical results obtained by immunoassay have been shown to correlate well with those obtained by traditional laboratory methods. Also, the use of immunoassay-based field screening methods can significantly reduce the cost and time required for environmental assessment. The authors are currently evaluating the effectiveness of several immunoassay-based test kits for detecting petroleum fuel hydrocarbons in soil. Evaluations of two kits, one a semiquantitative assay and the other a quantitative assay, have been completed. The samples analyzed were either solvent or soil spiked with either a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the three isomers of xylene (BTEX), or gasoline. The kits performed well and according to the manufacturers` claims. Of the 50 assays made with the semiquantitative test, the concentrations of 44 samples were correctly determined. The other six samples were determined to be false positives. A soil matrix effect was observed that could account for some of the false positive results. Experimental results using the quantitative test with BTEX (68 assays) correlated well with those expected; R{sup 2} of 0.976 to 0.983 with slopes of 0.94 to 0.97. With gasoline (38 assays) R{sup 2} values of 0.957 to 0.987 and slopes of 0.76 to 0.78 were obtained. The lower slopes with gasoline are indicative of the lower immunoreactivity of that particular sample of gasoline relative to BTEX.

Waters, L.C.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Iodine Charge-Transfer Salts of Benzene-Bridged Bis(1,2,3,5-diselenadiazolyl) Diradicals. Electrocrystallization and Solid-State Characterization of 1,3- and 1,4-[(Se2N2C)C6H4(CN2Se2)][I  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electroreduction of 1,3- and 1,4-benzene-bridged bis(diselenadiazolium) salts [1,4-Se][SbF6]2 and [1,4-Se][SbF6]2 in acetonitrile, at a Pt wire and in the presence of iodine affords the 1:1 charge-transfer salts [1,4-Se][I] and [1,3-Se][I]. Crystals of [1,...

C. D. Bryan; A. W. Cordes; N. A. George; R. C. Haddon; C. D. MacKinnon; R. T. Oakley; T. T. M. Palstra; A. S. Perel

1996-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

184

Comprehensive quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR) investigations of (1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene and (1,2-epoxy-2-phenyl)propane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Aromatic epoxides are causative factors for mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of polycyclic arenes. The 1,2- or 2,3-epoxy compounds are widely used to a considerable extent in the textile, plastics, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, detergent and photochemical industries. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of (1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene and (1,2-epoxy-2-phenyl)propane are recorded in the regions 4000400cm?1 and 4000100cm?1, respectively. The observed fundamentals are assigned to different normal modes of vibration. The structure of the compound has been optimised with B3LYP method using 6-311++G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The IR and Raman intensities are determined. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the molecule are constructed by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method to display electrostatic potential (electron+nuclei) distribution. The electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of the compounds has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecules have been analysed.

V. Arjunan; R. Anitha; L. Devi; S. Mohan; Haifeng Yang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Microbial Activity during Biodegradation and its Effects on Groundwater Velocity in a Contaminated Aquifer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers (BTEX) (Yerushalmi et al., 1999; Landmeyer and Bradley 2003). Such passive methods rely on the ambient groundwater velocity to deliver contaminants to the reactive zone. Biostimulation techniques operate... Microbial Activity during Biodegradation and its Effects on Groundwater Velocity in a Contaminated Aquifer by Copyright 2008 Peter Curtis Schillig B.S. (Dept. Hons), Ohio University, 2005 Submitted to the Department...

Schillig, Peter C.

2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

186

The Centenary of the Discovery of Benzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the fame of Faraday rests almost entirely upon his striking contributions to scientific knowledge. His ambit was thus more circumscribed than that of Huxley, but his discoveries were more revolutionary, ... the nature of electricity and magnetism, and on the correlation of the different forms of energy, foreshadowed in a remarkable way the results of later investigations; but, as Helmholtz ...

MICHAEL FARADAY

1925-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

187

Formation of benzene in the interstellar medium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...closed shell hydrocarbon, which is associated...and Leones data were recorded...with unsaturated hydrocarbons shows that their rate constants...star thermally heats the grains thus...Interstellar Versus Combustion Chemistry. We would...Files in this Data Supplement...Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related...

Brant M. Jones; Fangtong Zhang; Ralf I. Kaiser; Adeel Jamal; Alexander M. Mebel; Martin A. Cordiner; Steven B. Charnley

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Increased combustion rate of chlorobenzene on Pt/?-Al2O3 in binary mixtures with hydrocarbons and with carbon monoxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic combustion of chlorobenzene on a 2wt.% Pt/?-Al2O3 catalyst in binary mixtures with various hydrocarbons (toluene, benzene, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, 1,4-cyclohexadiene, 2-butene, and ethene) and with carbon monoxide has been explored. For all binary mixtures used the (excess of) added hydrocarbon increased the rate of conversion of chlorobenzene. With 2-butene, T50% and T100% for chlorobenzene were reduced by 100 and 200C, respectively. Toluene and ethene were almost equally efficient as 2-butene. Co-feeding benzene or carbon monoxide resulted in a much smaller decrease of the T50%. The additional heat and water production in hydrocarbon combustion may contribute to some extent to the observed rate acceleration, but removal of Cl from the surface due to the hydrocarbon appears to be the major factor. The co-feeding of hydrocarbons invariably reduced the output of polychlorinated benzenes, which are formed as byproducts in the combustion of chlorobenzene on Pt/?-Al2O3. Again, especially toluene, ethene, and 2-butene were very efficient. Benzene as well as cyclohexane, cyclohexene, and 1,4-cyclohexadiene, which were converted in situ into benzene was much less effective, due to chlorination of the aromatic nucleus. In chlorobenzeneCO mixtures the levels of polychlorinated benzenes were almost as high as with chlorobenzene per se. Removal of Cl from the surface (mainly in the form of HCl) by (non-aromatic) hydrocarbons is responsible for reducing the formation of byproducts.

R.W. van den Brink; R. Louw; P. Mulder

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Gas chromatographic studies of the solvent extraction systemsIII: Tris-butoxyethyl phosphate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic data at infinite dilution is evaluated from gas chromatography measurements using the theories of the athermal, thermal and associated solutions. A number of binary tris-butoxyethyl phosphate-diluent systems are analysed. The diluents include hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, acetone, dioxane, methanol, ethanol and water.

A. Apelblat

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Effect of xenobiotics on the respiratory activity of rat heart mitochondria and the concomitant formation of superoxide radicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of the xenobiotics atrazine, benzene, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), lindane, toluene, and xylenol on the respiration of isolated rate heart mitochondria were studied. Bioenergetic parameters such as respiratory control (RC) and ATP/oxygen (P/O) values decreased considerably in the presence of these substances, and a concomitant increase of superoxide radical (O[sub 2][sup [minus

Stolze, K.; Nohl, H. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Pharmacology and Toxicology)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Characterizing the Spatial Variation of Air Pollutants and the Contributions of High Emitting Vehicles in Pittsburgh, PA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We used a mobile measurement platform to characterize a suite of air pollutants (black carbon (BC), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PBPAH), benzene, and toluene) in the city of Pittsburgh and surrounding areas. More than 270 h of data ...

Yi Tan; Eric M. Lipsky; Rawad Saleh; Allen L. Robinson; Albert A. Presto

2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

192

Rana Novini ATOC 3500 Open-air pits are used to burn garbage and other wastes at bases in Iraq and Afghanistan that lack  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

found in the study: Acetone, Acrolein**, Benzene, Carbon Disulfide, Chlorodifluoromethane, Chloromethane, Toluene Acrolein and Hexachlorobutadiene were occasionally detected far above the MEG ratio--over 1800 percent above the MEG for Acrolein and over 500 percent above the MEG for Hexachlorobutadiene. Plaintiffs

Toohey, Darin W.

193

Adaptive microbial population shifts in response to a continuous ethanol blend release increases biodegradation potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive microbial population shifts in response to a continuous ethanol blend release increases 2013 Accepted 28 March 2013 Keywords: Pyrosequencing Ethanol Microbial diversity Temperature a b s t r a pilot- scale continuous release (10 months) of a 10% v:v ethanol solution mixed with benzene and toluene

Alvarez, Pedro J.

194

Photopolymerized Sol-Gel Monoliths for Capillary Electrochromatography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

catalyst, water, toluene, and a pho- toinitiator was irradiated at 365 nm for 5 min in a 75-µm i-molecular- weight neutral compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkyl benzenes, alkyl phenyl by application of an electric field. As a demonstration, a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

Zare, Richard N.

195

Naphthalene and o-Xylene Adsorption onto High Carbon Fly Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

remediation technique for petroleum hydrocarbons because of its ease of use and high efficiency used to investigate the adsorption of two nonpolar petroleum contam- inants, naphthalene and o- tial of HCFA to stabilize petroleum-contaminated soils for use in highway environments. The results

Aydilek, Ahmet

196

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation on  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Field Evaluation of a Surfactant-Modified Zeolite System for Removal of Organics from Produced Water Field Evaluation of a Surfactant-Modified Zeolite System for Removal of Organics from Produced Water Field Evaluation of a Surfactant-Modified Zeolite System for Removal of Organics from Produced Water Authors: Robert S. Bowman, New Mexico Technological University, Socorro, NM; Enid J. Sullivan, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM; and Lynn E. Katz and Kerry A. Kinney, University of Texas, Austin, TX. Venue: 44th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society in Santa Fe, NM, June 3–7, 2007 (http://www.clays.org/home/HomeAnnualMeeting.html [external site]). Abstract: About 2.3 billion cubic meters (600 billion gallons) of wastewater (produced water) is generated each year as a byproduct of oil and gas operations in the continental United States. Disposal of this water represents about 10% of the cost of hydrocarbon production. Inexpensive treatment technologies can lower the cost of disposal and generate higher-quality water for other uses. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been shown to effectively sorb a variety of nonpolar organic compounds from water. SMZ was tested as a medium to remove benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from produced water generated during extraction of coalbed natural gas. BTEX removal is necessary prior to surface discharge of produced waters or as a pretreatment for reverse osmosis. We demonstrated in laboratory column experiments that BTEX-saturated SMZ is readily regenerated by air sparging. There was no loss in BTEX sorption capacity, and a minor decrease in hydraulic conductivity, after 50 sorption/regeneration cycles. Based upon the laboratory results, a pilot-scale produced-water treatment system was designed and tested at a reinjection facility in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico. The SMZ-based system was designed to treat up to 110 liters (30 gallons) of produced water per hour on a continuous basis by running two SMZ columns in series. The system performed as predicted, based on laboratory results, over repeated feed and regeneration cycles during the month-long operation. The BTEX-laden sparge gases were treated with a vapor-phase bioreactor system, resulting in an emissions-free process

197

Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, pH, Photosynthetically Activate Radiation (PAR) and dissolved oxygen (DO); and a ~2 gallons per minute (gpm) algae culture dewatering system. Among the three algae strains, Scenedesmus showed the most tolerance to temperature and irradiance conditions in Phoenix and the best self-settling characteristics. Experimental findings and operational strategies determined through these tests guided the operation of the algae cultivation system for the scale-up study. Effect of power plant flue gas, especially heavy metals, on algae growth and biomass adsorption were evaluated as well.

Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

2011-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

198

Process to recycle shredder residue  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

Jody, Bassam J. (Chicago, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL); Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Channahon, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Ion exchange characteristics of enhanced oil recovery systems: miscibility studies. Biennial report for the period April 1, 1977-March 30, 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented on the effect of NaCl concentration on solubility of alkyl benzene sulfonates in water; effect of alkyl benzene sulfonate concentration on miscibility of a selected hydrocarbon, toluene, with water; effect of alkyl substitution on alkyl benzene sulfonates on miscibility; analogous effects of alcohol required to produce miscibility between toluene and an aqueous solution of an alkyl benzene sulfonate at a given concentration for different hydrocarbon/aqueous ratios; the effect of number of alkyl carbons, both in alkanes and in alkyl benzenes, on miscibility with a selected aqueous alkyl benzene sulfonate; and miscibilities of similar systems with mixtures of hydrocarbons. At a given protosurfactant concentration, increase in alkyl substitution on the alkyl benzene sulfonate or carboxylate increased solubilization of a hydrocarbon in the aqueous phase; in systems containing a cosurfactant, amounts of alcohol necessary to effect miscibility decreased with alkyl substitution on the organic salt. For alkyl benzene sulfonates substituted with up to four alkyl carbons, different isomers had essentially the same effect on miscibility at a given concentration; at higher degrees of substitution, differences were significant, though small. Higher concentrations of protosurfactants in most cases increased miscibility. Increasing the number of alkyl carbons of the hydrocarbon, either alkanes or phenyl alkanes, decreased miscibility. Alcohol requirements for miscibility were similar, but not identical, for alkanes and phenyl alkanes having the same number of alkyl carbons; whether more or less was required for the alkane or the corresponding phenyl alkane varied with the type of alcohol. Alcohol requirements for miscibility of hydrocarbon mixtures with aqueous protosurfactant solutions varied linearally with the weight fraction of the hydrocarbon components, other conditions being constant.

Ho, P.C.; Kraus, K.A.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Lietzke, M.H.; Thomas, M.M.; Ogden, S.B.; Burnette, R.G.; Hydzik, R.J.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Researchers from the University of Missouri and ICx Nomadics have reported on the use of a optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) sensor for on-column detection ?. ... Although substantial differences were noted between fresh and aged (or oxidized) oils, many of the compounds in the oxidized oil went unidentified due to lack of library mass spectral data. ... A high resolution MEMS based gas chromatography column for the analysis of benzene and toluene gaseous mixtures ...

Frank L. Dorman; Joshua J. Whiting; Jack W. Cochran; Jorge Gardea-Torresdey

2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Multiplexed Selective Detection and Identification of TCE and Xylene in Water by On-Chip Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and identify chemical and biological analytes based on photonic crystal platform has been investigated more can do multiplexed detection of two different chemicals on one chip by using infrared absorption. Consequently, the absorption of these two chemicals can be enhanced by the slow light effect. The MMI structure

Chen, Ray

202

A SPRAY REACTOR CONCEPT FOR CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF P-XYLENE TO PRODUCE HIGH-PURITY TEREPHTHALIC ACID  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was funded by National Science Foundation and U.S. Department of Agriculture. Finally, I own so much to my parents, Yuefang Hao and Zhicai Li, for their unconditional love and support, and for respecting my decision to go to another country for my continued....5.1 Introduction to LCA .................................................................................................108 5.5.2 Methodology ............................................................................................................110 5...

LI, MENG

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

A GC/FT-IR Analysis of Commercial Divinyl Benzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......As a demonstration of the utility...make cation exchange resins. Wiley and...absorptions. In addition, some novel...specific ion chromatogram...M + l)+ ion^ Identification...41) + ions were also...avoided. In addition, the analysis......

J.D. Witt; M.K. Gabriel; R.L. Julian

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Development of Synthetic Phenol from Benzene Halides1  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

William J. Hale , Edgar C. Britton ... Halogen-Containing Hydrocarbons from Petroleum and Natural Gas ...

William J. Hale; Edgar C. Britton

1928-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Recovery of benzene in an organic vapor monitor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solid adsorbents available (silica gel, activated alumina, etc. ), activated charcoal is most frequently utilized. Activated charcoal has retentivity for sorbed vapors several times that of silica gel and it displays a selectivity for organic vapors... (diffusion rate) of the vapor molecules to the sur- face of the adsorbent. The adsorption process determine how effective the adsorbent collects and holds the contam- inant on the surface of the activated charcoal. Recovery of the contaminant from...

Krenek, Gregory Joel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

206

Development of Probabilistic Emission Inventories of Benzene, Formaldehyde  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, NC Prepared by: H. Christopher Frey, Ph Hanna. Input from and collaboration with John Irwin of EPA and Jeff Vukovich and Sarav Arunachalam

Frey, H. Christopher

207

Benzene Dimer DOI: 10.1002/anie.201300653  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

** Melanie Schnell,* Undine Erlekam, P. R. Bunker, Gert von Helden, Jens-Uwe Grabow, Gerard Meijer, and Ad

208

Bacterial Utilization of Dodecyl Sulfate and Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...METHODS Bacteria. Samples of soils obtained near the outfall from...the foaming capacity of this surfactant. A freshly inoculated culture...extract in the mineral salts-surfactant media greatly stimulated the...from DBS cultures lysed in the washing buffer on many occasions...

W. J. Payne; V. E. Feisal

1963-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Expanding benzene to giant graphenes: towards molecular devices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...part of the natural solar spectrum. These results...materials for organic solar cells. Recently, the template-assisted synthesis of a monodisperse...Schematic design of a solar cell. (b) Tapping-mode...12 (a) Template-assisted formation of carbon...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Degradation kinetics of aromatic organic solutes introduced into a heterogeneous aquifer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Degradation rates of benzene, p-xylene, naphthalene, and o-dichlorobenzene have been determined in the Columbus, MS aquifer. The objective of this research was to measure the degradation of organic compounds in an aquifer, using pulse injection. Degradation rates of these compounds were calculated, and the rates were related to aquifer structure and hydrologic properties. the injection was made into the saturated zone of the unconfined aquifer. This technique is suggested for future field experiments because it distinguishes solute degradation from solute losses by sorption and evaporation and allows mass balance to be demonstrated throughout the course of the reaction in the aquifer. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

MacIntyre, W.G. (College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA (United States)); Boggs, M. (Tennessee Valley Lab., Norris, TN (United States)); Antworth, C.P.; Stauffer, T.B. (Tyndall Air Force Base, Panama City, FL (United States))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Benzene Metabolism by Ethanol-, Acetone-, and Benzene-inducible Cytochrome P-450 (IIE1) in Rat and Rabbit Liver Microsomes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Deacetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 with ethanol in human colonic epithelial cells Hyeran...observations have implicated chronic excess ethanol consumption as a risk factor for various...Recent epigenetic studies demonstrated that ethanol causes selective acetylation of histone...

Inger Johansson and Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Benzene Metabolism by Ethanol-, Acetone-, and Benzene-inducible Cytochrome P-450 (IIE1) in Rat and Rabbit Liver Microsomes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...strates metabolized by the ethanol-inducible form of cyto...presented for a mechanism of ethanol oxi dation by this type of...oxidizing species of equivalent energy (20). It was therefore surprising...registered in systems containing the ethanol- inducible P-450 when acetone...

Inger Johansson and Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Effects of dispersion and partial reduction on the catalytic properties of Rh/Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalysts in the steam reforming of mono- and bicyclic aromatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The steam reforming of toluene, cumene, and methyl-1-naphthalene was studied on well-reduced Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts of different dispersions and on partially reduced catalysts in which the dispersion of the metallic phase was maintained at 25 {plus minus} 2%. The principal reactions were dehydrogenation DH (cumene {yields} {alpha}-methylstyrene), dealkylation DA (for instance, toluene {yields} benzene), naphthalene ring opening NRO (methylnaphthalene {yields} benzene + toluene), and degradations DN (total gasification of the molecules). Dispersion and partial reduction effects are shown to occur and can be summarized as follows: a partially reduced sample behaves catalytically as would dispersed and well-reduced catalysts. In this case, DN reactions are much inhibited, whereas DA and, to a lesser extent, NRO are relatively less affected by partial reduction. Moreover, DH is quite unaffected by these factors. The results may be expressed in terms of either electronic (DN favored on particles where the metal is more capable of donating electrons) or geometric effects (DN favored on a large ensemble of adjacent sites). These models are discussed on the basis of kinetic and XPS results, particularly those obtained on partially reduced Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst samples. Alloy effects (selectivities modified by the presence of RhAl alloy) could also occur on a catalyst calcined and reduced at high temperatures.

Delahay, G.; Duprez, D. (Universite de Poitiers (France))

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Key parameters influencing the performance of photocatalytic oxidation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Key parameters influencing the performance of photocatalytic oxidation Key parameters influencing the performance of photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) air purification under realistic indoor conditions Title Key parameters influencing the performance of photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) air purification under realistic indoor conditions Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Destaillats, Hugo, Mohamad Sleiman, Douglas P. Sullivan, Catherine Jacquiod, Jean Sablayrolles, and Laurent Molins Journal Applied Catalysis B: Environmental Volume 128 Pagination 159-170 Date Published 11/30/2012 Abstract Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) air cleaning is a promising technology suitable for the elimination of a broad range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, performance of poorly designed PCO systems may be affected by the formation of volatile aldehydes and other partially oxidized byproducts. This study explored the role of key design and dimensioning parameters that influence the effective removal of primary pollutants and can help reduce or eliminate the formation of secondary byproducts. A model pollutant mixture containing benzene, toluene, o-xylene, undecane, 1-butanol, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde was introduced at a constant rate in a 20-m3 environmental chamber operating at an air exchange rate of 1 h-1. Individual pollutant concentrations were kept at realistically low levels, between 2 and 40 μg m-3. A prototype air cleaner provided with flat or pleated PCO filtering media was operated in an external ductwork loop that recirculated chamber air at flow rates in the range 178-878 m3 h-1, corresponding to recycle ratios between 8.5 and 38. Air samples were collected upstream and downstream of the air cleaner and analyzed off-line to determine single-pass removal efficiency. The final-to-initial chamber concentration ratio was used to determine the global chamber removal efficiency for each pollutant. In the flat filter configuration, longer dwelling times of compounds on the TiO2 surface were attained by reducing the recirculation airflow by a factor of ∼5, leading to increasing total pollutant removal efficiency from 5% to 44%. Net acetaldehyde and formaldehyde removal was achieved, the later at airflow rates below 300 m3 h-1, illustrating the critical importance of controlling the contact time of primary and secondary pollutants with the TiO2 surface. The use of pleated media was shown to increase significantly the system performance by extending the dwelling time of pollutants on the irradiated surface of the PCO media, with a 70% degradation of target pollutants. With the pleated media, formaldehyde removal efficiency increased to 60%. Irradiation using either a UVC or a UVA lamp under identical flow conditions produced similar pollutant elimination. A simple correlation between the steady-state single pass removal efficiency and the global chamber removal efficiency was used to rationalize these experimental results and identify optimal operating conditions.

215

Solvated Electron Technology{sup TM}. Non-Thermal Alternative to Waste Incineration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solvated Electron Technology (SET{sup TM}) is a patented non-thermal alternative to incineration for treating Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and other mixed waste by destroying organic hazardous components. SET{sup TM} is a treatment process that destroys the hazardous components in mixed waste by chemical reduction. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In application, contaminated materials are placed into a treatment cell and mixed with the solvated electron solution. In the case of PCBs or other halogenated contaminants, chemical reactions strip the halogen ions from the chain or aromatic ring producing sodium chloride and high molecular weight hydrocarbons. At the end of the reaction, ammonia within the treatment cell is removed and recycled. The reaction products (such as sodium salts) produced in the process remain with the matrix. The SET{sup TM} process is 99.999% effective in destroying: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethene (TCE); dioxins; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX); pesticides; fungicides; herbicides; chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), explosives and chemical-warfare agents; and has successfully destroyed many of the wastes listed in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 261. In September 2007, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Research and Development permit for SET for chemical destruction of 'pure' Pyranol, which is 60% PCBs. These tests were completed in November 2007. SET{sup TM} is recognized by EPA as a non-thermal process equivalent to incineration and three SET{sup TM} systems have been permitted by EPA as commercial mobile PCB destruction units. This paper describes in detail the results of select bench-, pilot-, and commercial-scale treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes for EPA, Department of Energy (DOE), and the Department of Defense(DoD), and the applicability of SET{sup TM} to currently problematic waste streams that have very limited treatment alternatives. In summary: SET{sup TM} operates as a non-thermal destruction process under low pressure. The process occurs in a closed system producing no hazardous off-gases and no regulated by-products such as dioxins or furans or their precursors. Advantages of SET{sup TM} include: - Organic contaminants are destroyed, not just removed, diluted or concentrated. - Operates as a closed system - produces no regulated secondary wastes. - Holds an EPA permit for PCB destruction. - Operates at ambient temperatures (70 deg. F). - Portable and sets up quickly in less than 4000 square feet of space. - Scalable to accommodate any size waste stream. - Requires minimal amounts of power, water and infrastructure. - Applicable to heterogeneous waste streams in all phases. The SET{sup TM} process is 99.9999% effective in destroying organic constituents of RCRA and TSCA waste, explosives and chemical-warfare agents; and has successfully destroyed many of the wastes listed in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 261. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In November 2007, Commodore completed a treatability study on Pyranol to determine the effectiveness of SET{sup TM} treatment on oil containing 600,000 PPM PCBs. Laboratory results proved destruction of PCBs to less than 1 PPM at low temperatures and pressures. SET{sup TM} is a proven, safe and cost-effective alternative to incineration for some of the most difficult waste treatment problems that exist today. (authors)

Foutz, W.L.; Rogers, J.E.; Mather, J.D. [Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) toluene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Anaerobic Mineralization of Toluene by Enriched Sediments with Quinones and Humus as Terminal Electron Acceptors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...leaked into the harbor, causing major oil contamination of the sediment. Diverse...consequence, APH sediment is contaminated with oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons...30-mul samples with an autosampler (Marathon) into a high-performance liquid chromatograph...

Francisco J. Cervantes; Wouter Dijksma; Tuan Duong-Dac; Anna Ivanova; Gatze Lettinga; Jim A. Field

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Application of Atmospheric Non Thermal Plasma-Catalysis Hybrid System for Air Pollution Control: Toluene removal.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Application of Atmospheric Non Thermal Plasma-Catalysis Hybrid System for Air Pollution Control for these technologies. As an alternative to conventional VOCs abatement techniques, atmospheric non-thermal plasma (NTP rue d'Issoudun, BP 6744, 45067 Orléans Cedex 02, France. Keywords: Non thermal Plasma, Catalysis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic toluene degraders Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in a two-phase partitioning... as a model VMS, from aerobic and anaerobic waste gas streams were ... Source: Deshusses, Marc - Department of Chemical and Environmental...

220

Two modes of excision repair in toluene-treated Escherichia coli.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...light (UV)- induced pyrimidine dimers is thought to pro- ceed by a series of enzymatic steps (2, 18). Initially single-strand...incision breaks accumulate, provided irradiation does not ex- ceed a certain threshold dose ('50 ergs/mm 2). In view of results...

R Sharon; C Miller; R Ben-Ishai

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Isolation, characterization, and distribution of denitrifying toluene degraders from a variety of habitats.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...C. He was the carrier gas. Acetylene and ethylene...at 320 C with N2 as the gas carrier. NO3 and N02...methane as the carrier gas. Nucleotide sequence...industrial 2/3 INA sludge Ontario, Canada; pulp...begin to be seen on 1/10 strength TSA as DNA isolated from...

M R Fries; J Zhou; J Chee-Sanford; J M Tiedje

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Imperial Oil/Champion Chemicals, Monmouth County, NJ. (Second remedial action), September 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 9.67-acre Industrial Latex site is a chemical adhesives and natural and synthetic rubber compounds manufacturer in Wallington, Bergen County, New Jersey. From 1951 to 1980, the Industrial Latex Corporation manufactured both chemical adhesives and natural and synthetic rubber compounds. Adhesives were initially formulated using vegetable protein in a solvent base. The ROD addresses the final remedy for the contamination present in the soil, sediment, buildings and equipment, drums, sludge, septic system, and hardened latex, as the first of two operable units. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, sludge, and debris are VOCs including PCE, TCE, toluene, and xylenes; other organics, including PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, and phenols; and metals, including arsenic and lead.

Not Available

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Industrial Latex, Bergen County, Wallington, NJ. (First remedial action), September 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 9.67-acre Industrial Latex site is a chemical adhesives and natural and synthetic rubber compounds manufacturer in Wallington, Bergen County, New Jersey. From 1951 to 1980, the Industrial Latex Corporation manufactured both chemical adhesives and natural and synthetic rubber compounds. Adhesives were initially formmulated using vegetable protein in a solvent base. The ROD addresses the final remedy for the contamination present in the soil, sediment, buildings and equipment, drums, sludge, septic system, and hardened latex, as the first of two operable units. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, sludge, and debris are VOCs including PCE, TCE, toluene, and xylenes; other organics, including PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, and phenols; and metals, including arsenic and lead.

Not Available

1992-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

224

Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Third annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls, feedforward from a feed composition analyzer, and decouplers. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning for setpoint changes was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. In addition, robustness tests were conducted by inducting reboiler duty upsets. For single composition control, the (L, V) configuration was found to be best. For dual composition control, the optimum configuration changes from one column to another. Moreover, the use of analysis tools, such as RGA, appears to be of little value in identifying the optimum configuration for dual composition control. Using feedforward from a feed composition analyzer and using decouplers are shown to offer significant advantages for certain specific cases.

Riggs, J.B.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Pester Refinery, Butler County, El Dorado, KS. (First remedial action), September 1992. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 10-acre Pester Refinery site is a former petroleum refining facility located in El Dorado, Butler County, Kansas. Petroleum refining operations in the area began in 1917, and from 1958 to 1977, Fina Oil Company operated a petroleum refinery at this site. Process wastes, such as slop-oil emulsion solids, API separator sludge, and heat exchanger bundle cleaning sludge were sent through a pipe to a burn pond. Gaseous waste products were ignited at the end of the pipe, and whatever did not burn was discharged to the pond. The ROD provides a final remedy for the principal source of contamination at the site, the burn pit sludge. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and sludge are VOCs, including ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes; other organics, including PAHs and phenols; and metals, including arsenic, chromium, and lead.

Not Available

1992-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

226

Recovery of propylene glycol from dilute aqueous solutions by reversible chemical complexation with organoboronates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extractants consisting of an ion-pair of Aliquat 336 with phenylboronate or 3-nitrophenylboronate were prepared in various diluents (2-ethylhexanol, toluene, o-xylene or diisobutylketone). In batch experiments propyleneglycol (1,2-PD) was effectively extracted even at low concentrations. Heterogeneous complexation constants {beta}{sub 11} calculated at 25 C were 45-120 (mol/1){sup {minus}1} in 2-ethylhexanol, 34.8 (mol/l){sup {minus}1} in toluene, 37.6 (mol/l){sup {minus}1} in o-xylene and 14.4 (mol/l){sup {minus}1} in diisobutylketone. In 2-ethythexanol, there was no significant effect of extractant concentration on the complexation constant. Equilibrium water concentration in the extractants was 8-12 wt %, decreasing with 1,2-PD uptake. Nearly all extractant/diluent systems exhibited overloading (more than stoichiometric uptake of 1,2-PD). Evidence for aggregation of the ion-pair extractant in organic phase was found from water solubilization studies (molar solubilization ratios up to 10) and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy studies. Solubilization of 1,2-PD within hydrophilic aggregate interiors may explain the observed overloading. The complexation constant decreased with increasing temperature, but not enough to make back extraction after a temperature change attractive. Back extraction may be achieved after acidification with carbon dioxide to convert the organoboronate anion to the corresponding organoboronic acid. Up to 80% of the extracted 1,2-PD was backextracted in a batch extraction using C0{sub 2}. The extractant could then be regenerated by stripping carbon dioxide from solution at temperatures exceeding 110 C. However, at these temperatures the extractant appears to undergo a transformation in which color changes and extraction capacity is reduced to about 60% of original value.

Broekhuis, R.R.; Lynn, S.; King, C.J.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Diffusion in associated and non-associated homologous series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and carbon dioxide and of the alkanes n-octane, n ? decane, n-dodecane, n-tetradecane, and n-hexadecane in the solvents n ? heptane, n-dodecane, and n-hexadecane. Values of Vn and P for each solute-solvent pair were determined. For the dissolved gases, Vn... consisted of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, cycloheptane, methylcyclopentane, and cycloheptane. The data were interpreted using the Wilke-Chang diffusivity equation. Haluska and Clover (1971) used a...

Alhamid, Khalid A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Public health assessment for Petro-Chemical, Inc. (Turtle Bayou) Liberty, Liberty County, Texas, Region 6. CERCLIS No. TXD980873350. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Petro-Chemical Systems, Inc. site, located near Liberty, Texas, is a site where unauthorized disposal of petroleum-based oils has taken place. Although there is evidence of past exposure to site contaminants, the best available evidence does not indicate that humans are currently being exposed to site contaminants at levels that could cause adverse health effects. Contaminated ground water, surface water, soils, and surface water sediments have been found on the site. Although sampling was done for 144 priority pollutants, the primary contaminants of concern are benzene, ethylbenzene, xylene, naphthalene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and lead. Because the greatest threat to public health would be contamination of drinking water, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has recommended that necessary actions are taken to insure that private wells do not become contaminated with site contaminants.

Not Available

1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

229

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): Petro-Chemical (Turtle Bayou), Liberty County, TX. (Second remedial action), September 1991. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 500-acre Petro-Chemical (Turtle Bayou) site is in Liberty County, Texas. Current land use in the area is divided among cropland, pasture, range, forest, and small rural communities. Since 1971, numerous undocumented disposal activities occurred onsite involving primarily petrochemical wastes. The ROD for OU2 focuses on three areas of contamination at the site affecting soil and ground water contamination, known as the main waste area, the east disposal area, and the Bayou disposal area. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including benzene and xylenes; other organics including PAHs; and metals including lead. The selected remedial action for the site includes treating 302,800 cubic yards of contaminated soil onsite using in-situ vapor extraction to remove VOCs, controlling vertical air infiltration using an engineered soil and synthetic liner cap; consolidating lead-contaminated soil in the Main Waste Area, followed by capping.

Not Available

1991-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

230

Investigation of optical limiting properties of Aluminium nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation in different carrier media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this communication, we carried out the systematic investigation of nonlinear absorption and scattering properties of Aluminium nanoparticles (Al NPs) in various polar and non-polar solvents. Al NPs were synthesized with pulsed Nd:YAG laser operated at 1064 nm by ablating Al target in polar and non-polar liquid environment like chloroform, chlorobenzene, toluene, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride. Synthesized Al NPs colloids of various solvents differ in appearance and UV-Vis extinction spectra exhibit absorption in the UV region. The characterization of Al NPs performed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies reveal that NPs are made up of a well crystallized Al inner part (bright zone) embedded with an amorphous metal Al shell (dark region). Growth, aggregation, and precipitation mechanisms which influence the optical properties and stability of NPs are found to be related to the dipole moment of the surrounding liquid environment. The nonlinear absorption and scattering studies are performed by open aperture Z-scan technique with 532 nm under nanosecond pulse excitation. The Z-scan measurements are fitted theoretically to estimate both two-photon absorption (TPA) and nonlinear scattering (NLS) coefficients. In polar solvents like chlorobenzene, chloroform synthesized Al NPs exhibited higher TPA, NLS coefficient values, and lower optical limiting threshold values in comparison with partially polar solvent like toluene and non-polar solvents like benzene and carbontetrachloride. These results indicate the potential use of Al NPs as a versatile optical limiting material.

Kuladeep, Rajamudili; Jyothi, L.; Narayana Rao, D. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046 (India)] [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Prakash, P.; Mayank Shekhar, S. [Center of Excellence in Lasers and Optoelectronic Sciences, International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India)] [Center of Excellence in Lasers and Optoelectronic Sciences, International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India); Durga Prasad, M. [Center for Nanotechnology, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046 (India)] [Center for Nanotechnology, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

231

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) benzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Benzene Oligocarboxylic Acids: Characterization by Isocratic, Linear Gradient, and Frontal Anion-Exchange Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus. A series of nine...addressed: Department of Natural Sciences, School...Sciences, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus. Journal of Chromatographic...3 where R is the gas constant, and T is......

Hong Li; Leo Lue; Costa S. Patrickios

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Regional Modeling of the Atmospheric Fate and Transport of Benzene and Diesel Particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is oxidized in the atmosphere slowly by hydroxyl (OH) radicals; its atmospheric lifetime is on the order of 1 week. ... The surrogates used in this study include agriculture, airports, housing, major highways, ports, population, railroads, water, and land area. ... PM2.5 emissions from the 1996 EPA National Emission Trends (NET) were used to generate diesel particle emissions. ...

Christian Seigneur; Betty Pun; Kristen Lohman; Shiang-Yuh Wu

2003-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

234

Assessment of Potential Benzene Contamination of the Ogallala Aquifer at the Pantex Plant, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National Laboratory Brian Looney, Savannah River Site Background and Objectives: In 1999 the Pantex Plant. A number of parallel investigations were initiated at the Pantex Plant, the Savannah River Technology Center, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The objective of this Independent Review

Hazen, Terry

235

Non-Incineration Treatment to Reduce Benzene and VOC Emissions from Green Sand Molding Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Final report describing laboratory, pilot scale and production scale evaluation of advanced oxidation systems for emissions and cost reduction in metal casting green sand systems.

Fred S. Cannon; Robert C. Voigt

2002-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

236

Formation of the diphenyl molecule in the crossed beam reaction of phenyl radicals with benzene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

February 2008 The chemical dynamics to form the D5-diphenyl molecule, C6H5C6D5, via the neutral-neutral experiment at a collision energy of 185 kJ mol-1 . The laboratory angular distribution and time, diphenyl C6H5C6H5 , which is considered as a building block to form anthracene and more complex PAHs

Kaiser, Ralf I.

237

Modeling marrow damage from response data: Morphallaxis from radiation biology to benzene toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Consensus principles from radiation biology were used to describe a generic set of nonlinear, first-order differential equations for modeling of toxicity-induced compensatory cell kinetics in terms of sublethal injury, repair, direct killing, killing of cells with unrepaired sublethal injury, and repopulation. This cellular model was linked to a probit model of hematopoietic mortality that describes death from infection and/or hemorrhage between {approximately} 5 and 30 days. Mortality data from 27 experiments with 851 doseresponse groups, in which doses were protracted by rate and/or fractionation, were used to simultaneously estimate all rate constants by maximum-likelihood methods. Data used represented 18,940 test animals distributed according to: (mice, 12,827); (rats, 2,925); (sheep, 1,676); (swine, 829); (dogs, 479); and (burros, 204). Although a long-term, repopulating hematopoietic stem cell is ancestral to all lineages needed to restore normal homeostasis, the dose-response data from the protracted irradiations indicate clearly that the particular lineage that is ``critical`` to hematopoietic recovery does not resemble stem-like cells with regard to radiosensitivity and repopulation rates. Instead, the weakest link in the chain of hematopoiesis was found to have an intrinsic radioresistance equal to or greater than stromal cells and to repopulate at the same rates. Model validation has been achieved by predicting the LD{sub 50} and/or fractional group mortality in 38 protracted-dose experiments (rats and mice) that were not used in the fitting of model coefficients.

Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Hasan, J.S.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

COMMENTS ON McBRIDE'S COMPLETION OF KRONER'S PROOF THAT HYDROGENS OF BENZENE ARE HOMOTOPIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for rigid and non-rigid propane molecules. 1/36 [ (1 +f) +for rigid and non-rigid propanes to be 4 and 2, indicating

Balasubramanian, K.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Parameter-Free Structure?Property Correlation via Progressive Reaction Posets for Substituted Benzenes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CRC?Handbook?of?Chemistry?and?Physics, ... Physical?Properties?of?Chemical?Compounds; ... CRC?of?Chemistry?and?Physic, ...

T. Ivanciuc; D. J. Klein

2004-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

240

Isobaric vaporliquid equilibria of binary system ethyl acetate+ethyl benzene+lithium bromide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lithium bromide salt (99.9wt% purity) ... . The salt studied was dissolved in ethyl acetate as a solvent to the saturated level...

Zaid Ahmed Al-Anber; Munther Issa Kandah

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Measurements of benzene concentration by difference-frequency laser absorption spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; polychlorinated biphenyl compounds and polychlorinated terphenyl compounds; and dioxins and furans. The need

242

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic benzene communities Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical treatment steps on the waste streams produced... incineration or co-frring), pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or methanation. From a water pollution control... , centrate...

243

Isolation of a Benzene Valence Isomer with One-Electron Phosphorus-Phosphorus Bonds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...center located at the center of a rectangular P4 framework, which is almost perpendicular to two three-membered rings (P4/P2C: 97 the NR2 groups are slightly tilted out of the P-P-C planes (0.164 a). The P-C and P-P bond lengths in the three-membered...

Yves Canac; Didier Bourissou; Antoine Baceiredo; Heinz Gornitzka; Wolfgang W. Schoeller; Guy Bertrand

1998-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

244

The effect of benzene hexachloride-DDT spray on the insect population and the cotton plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~ ~ent to ecucs hgarg, fa e@ge tests eceibcote6 ip Rgb sml QrLug (X$) Pl@ was shcegn to be ~ the teGaccaa bat less tcoge to tbe baL1 veerQ, Gc6nes en6 Qaia f'I), Rveuotsc ~ ea6 Evkng QV) sino wepcetc6 that the g ~ %If ~ ecc4gc41e6 tbe bc6lacecc... , ~ xm ' QV78 SDT 9@ ee Vg @C 30$ ce 9' ee a% eo @g oe ~ $86( SIC ~~ SR @8Dg T~ ?@Sf Hg +VV/ KC ?66Tp SA ~ RC 46"/g QK gN ea p3g ee g@ oe a%68 K+ gag HHQ @op T~ ?~? 9% gVQCg %Pl Q$g IPZ +9 eo /LE ae QX$ ey - P5%4S N ISP %F8 Ns $C, ~ ER Zoma...

Lloyd, Edwin Phillips

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

245

DYNAMIC MODELING AND CONTROL OF REACTIVE DISTILLATION FOR HYDROGENATION OF BENZENE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at other photolysis wave- lengths were also simulated. The OH transitions were labeled following Hund?s case (a). The P, Q, or R branches are for the cases of ?J or ?N )-1, 0, and 1, and the subscript 1 or 2 represents the different spin-orbit states ? 3/2... out in different processing units 1. Consequently, there has been a lot of interest in this type of process intensification in recent years. Emphasis has been on steady-state modeling and the foundations of RD column design. Still, comparably little...

Aluko, Obanifemi

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

246

A quantitative relationship between structure and reactivity for the reactions between diphenyldiazomethanes and benzoic acids in toluene at 25 C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

., 1956, p. 69* H. Jaffe, Chem. Rev., 53, 191 (1953). Zf C. K. Hancock, R. F. Gilby, and J. S. Westmoreland, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 79 > 1917 (1957)* 5C. K. Hancock and J. S. Westmoreland, ibid., 80, 5^ +5 (19 acid and diphenyldiazomethane to give... benzhydryl benzoate and nitrogen is C.H.COOH + (C>;H_)0CN^ ? > C^COOCHCC.H-)- + N ?6 5 6 5 2 2 6 5 6 5 2 2 Two methods have been used for determining the rate of g this reaction? Norris and Strain used a gasometric method for the rates of k...

Westmoreland, John Sherman

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

247

Simulating Organic Aerosol Formation during the Photooxidation of Toluene/NOx Mixtures:? Comparing the Equilibrium and Kinetic Assumption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The water uptake properties of organic particles are currently a major area of uncertainty in Earth system models. ...

Craig A. Stroud; Paul A. Makar; Diane V. Michelangeli; Michael Mozurkewich; Donald R. Hastie; Andreea Barbu; Janya Humble

2004-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

248

Isolation and Characterization of a Subsurface Bacterium Capable of Growth on Toluene, Naphthalene, and Other Aromatic Compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to harbor two plasmids larger than 100 kb. Restricted...to harbor two plasmids larger than 100 kb. Restricted...sediments harbored relatively large (>100 kb) plasmids...were obtained from a borehole designated C-10 drilled...ination of cores during drilling, bacteria were isolated...

J. K. Fredrickson; F. J. Brockman; D. J. Workman; S. W. Li; T. O. Stevens

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Increased Radical Cation Yields: Arenes in DCE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Increased Yields of Radical Cations by Arene Addition to Irradiated Increased Yields of Radical Cations by Arene Addition to Irradiated 1,2-Dichloroethane Alison M. Funston and John R. Miller Radiat. Phys. Chem., 72, 601-611 (2005). [Find paper at Elsevier Science Direct] Abstract: Pulse radiolysis in chlorinated hydrocarbon liquids such as 1,2-dichloroethane is a versatile and effective method for the generation of solute radical cations. The addition of a large concentration of toluene or benzene to solutions of 1,2-dichloroethane is found to increase the yield of solute radical cations (G = 0.68 molecules/100 eV in 1,2-dichloroethane (Wang et al., 1979) by a factor of 2.5. The increased yield is found for solutes which have a potential of ~ 1.1 V (vs SCE) or below for the S+·/S couple and is due to reaction of the chlorine

250

Health Impacts Research - Emissions & Emission Controls - FEERC  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Health Impacts Research Health Impacts Research Another aspect of the emissions research at ORNL focuses on Health Impacts. This effort concentrates on analyzing exhaust for Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) or other unregulated exhaust species that have the potential to harm human health. MSATs are a group of chemical species defined by the U.S. EPA that may pose risk to humans; formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and toluene are some example species. Engines operated with new combustion modes and alternative fuels are studied for MSAT emissions to determine insure that the advanced technologies being developed pose no additional risk to humans. A large part of the Health Impacts research effort at ORNL focuses on particulate matter (PM) which is also defined as an MSAT by the U.S. EPA.

251

Eco-design and Life Cycle Assessment of a chemical process: the case study of HDA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The well-known benchmark process for hydrodealkylation of toluene (HDA) to produce benzene is revisited in a multi-objective approach to identify environmentally friendly and cost-effective solutions. Some guidelines to develop an eco-design framework for chemical processes, involving multiple criteria to be satisfied simultaneously are proposed, based on simulation, optimization, multiple choice decision making procedures and life cycle assessment. Two studies related to the selection of the primary energy source, either fuel oil or natural gas for the utility production system (UPS) of the HDA process are conducted. In each case, a multi-objective optimization problem involving the total annual cost of the process, and five environmental burdens is carried out.

Adama Ouattara; Luc Pibouleau; Catherine Azzaro-Pantel; Serge Domenech

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Low pressure noncryogenic processing for ethylene recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for recovering ethylene from a hydrocarbon gas feed stream containing components selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, nitrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, at least 5 mol % of ethylene, ethane, heavier saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons and mixtures. It comprises: countercurrently contacting the hydrocarbon gas feed stream with a lean physical solvent. It comprises paraffinic solvents; naphthenic solvents; benzene, toluene, C{sub 8}--C{sub 10} aromatic compounds; dialkyl ethers of polyalkylene glycol; regenerating the ethylene rich solvent in a distillation column equipped with at least one reflux condenser and at least one reboiler to produce ethylene plus hydrocarbon product as an overhead stream and the lean physical solvent as a bottom stream, the ethylene plus hydrocarbon product being suitable for bypassing a downstream demethanizer.

Mehrta, Y.R.

1991-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

253

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Maxey Flats Nuclear Disposal site, Fleming County, KY. (First remedial action), September 1991. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 280-acre Maxey Flats Nuclear Disposal site is an inactive low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Fleming County, Kentucky. The estimated 663 people who reside within 2.5 miles of the site use the public water supply for drinking purposes. From 1962 to 1977, Nuclear Engineering Company, Inc. (NECO), operated a solid by-product, source, and special nuclear material disposal facility under a license with the State. Several State investigations in the 1970's revealed that leachate contaminated with tritium and other radioactive substances was migrating from the disposal trenches to unrestricted areas. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses final remediation of soil, debris, and associated leachate. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and debris are VOCs including benzene, TCE, and toluene; metals including arsenic and lead; and radioactive materials. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

Not Available

1991-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

254

Indoor Residential Chemical Exposures as Risk Factors for Asthmaand Allergy in Infants and Children: a Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most research into effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. This paper briefly reviews reported findings on associations of asthma or allergy in infants or children with risk factors related to indoor chemical emissions from residential materials or surface coatings. Associations, some strong (e.g., odds ratios up to 13), were reported. The most frequently identified risk factors were formaldehyde, aromatic organic compounds such as toluene and benzene, plastic materials and plasticizers, and recent painting. Exposures and consequent effects from indoor sources may be exacerbated by decreased ventilation. Identified risk factors may be proxies for correlated exposures. Findings suggest the frequent occurrence of important but preventable effects on asthma and allergy in infants and children worldwide from modern residential building materials and coatings.

Mendell, M.J.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Numerical Model Investigation for Potential Methane Explosion and Benzene Vapor Intrusion Associated with High-Ethanol Blend  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Associated with High-Ethanol Blend Releases Jie Ma, Hong Luo, George E. DeVaull,§ William G. Rixey, and Pedro ABSTRACT: Ethanol-blended fuel releases usually stimulate methanogenesis in the subsurface, which could conditions exist. Ethanol- derived methane may also increase the vapor intrusion potential of toxic fuel

Alvarez, Pedro J.

256

Effect of dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) and lauric amine (LA) on the associating state and rheology of heavy oils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effects of two amphiphiles, DBSA and LA, on the associating state and viscosity of three heavy oils with different resin/asphaltene (R/A) mass ratios were investigated through DSC analysis, rheological test and electrical conductivity measurement. The wax appearance temperatures of the three heavy oils are lower than 40C. The viscosity of heavy oils at temperature range 50~70C increases with increasing DBSA concentration but decreases with increasing LA concentration. Addition of DBSA increases the electrical conductivity of heavy oils, which implies that the DBSA acts as asphaltene dispersants; the electrical conductivity of heavy oils decreases after LA addition, which implies that the LA acts as asphaltene flocculants. The addition of DBSA decreases the size of asphaltene particles and generates new solvation layers, both of which favor the increase of heavy oil viscosity; the addition of LA increases the size of asphaltene particles and releases some liquid oils bounded by asphaltene particles, both of which favor the decrease of heavy oil viscosity. With the increase of R/A mass ratio, the stability of heavy oils increases while the viscosity enhancing/reducing efficiency of DBSA/LA decreases.

Fei Yang; Chuanxian Li; Shuang Yang; Qin Zhang; Jie Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Gas-Phase Synthesis of Phenyl Oxoborane (C6H5BO) via the Reaction of Boron Monoxide with Benzene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) spectroscopy after its generation via flash pyrolysis of the corresponding boroxine.3 Further, the role

Kaiser, Ralf I.

258

Routine Analysis of Oxygenates and Benzene in Retail Motor Fuel: A Survey by the State of Alabama  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......alternative to Mideast oil dependency; fuel pumps carried the corn insignia and the message, "Buy American." This trend...conventional ASTM method. Approximate values. an existing wet-milling corn facility in Decatur, Alabama is considering an expansion......

Guy Vaughan Johnson

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Routine Analysis of Oxygenates and Benzene in Retail Motor Fuel: A Survey by the State of Alabama  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......chromatography data station. The...the internal-combustion engine. There...thermodynamics of combustion relative to gasoline...as mixtures of hydrocarbons with end-point...for internal- combustion gasoline engines...14.6 Latent heat of vaporization...with relevant data with which to......

Guy Vaughan Johnson

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Remediation of ground water containing chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbons, benzene and chromate by sequential treatment using ZVI and GAC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A laboratory experiment with two sequenced columns was performed as a preliminary study for the installation of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) at a site where a mixed ground water contamination exists. The...

Volkmar Plagentz; Markus Ebert; Andreas Dahmke

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

High-Resolution Solid State 13C NMR Studies of Bent-Core Mesogens of Benzene and Thiophene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The 2-dimensional separated local field (2D-SLF) NMR method was used to obtain the 13C1H dipolar couplings of carbons in the center ring as well as in the side-wing phenyl rings. ... The present investigation thus highlights the ability of the 13C 2D-SLF technique to provide the geometry of the bent-core mesogens in a straightforward manner through the measurement of the 13C1H dipolar couplings. ... Figure 5. 2D SLF NMR spectrum of PMBAPH in B1 phase at 145 C. ...

M. Kesava Reddy; E. Varathan; Nitin P. Lobo; Bibhuti B. Das; T. Narasimhaswamy; K. V. Ramanathan

2014-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

262

A study of the condensation of propene and isobutene with benzene in the presence of anhydrous ferric chloride  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A STUDT Qt THE OCNZESlSATIQS OP PHQP%SE ASO ZSOSOTESE SZTH EEWZCEE IH THE ~QE Qp ASHTCEOUS WEEHZQ OHX QEISE Lewis Lialea Qarpeater Jwas 1ESS Approval as to style aa4 contest rsec~alehi H Q o t 0 p rtasat o Ohealstrr ma Qh~ A STUDI Of THE O... of the 44rlsaltaral an4 Hsshaaf sal Oolloso ef Texas Partial Falfilmoat of ihs Reqairsasats for the BeSres of Raster of Solsaae Ha Jor Sab)eot s Ohematsal Eagaoerlsg By Loafs Lla4sa OarPsa'tor yea? LOSS ) zzP 7 gest-& The writer ?%shee ae express...

Carpenter, Louis Linden

1938-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Routine Analysis of Oxygenates and Benzene in Retail Motor Fuel: A Survey by the State of Alabama  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......a multidimensional gas chromatograph to determine...a multidimensional gas chromatograph to determine...examine alcohol's cost of production, physical pro perties...difficult and increasing cost to pipeline suppliers...employed multidimensional gas chromatography to......

Guy Vaughan Johnson

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

A RADIOTRACER TECHNIQUE FOR ADSORPTION AND CATALYSIS STUDIES: APPLICATION TO 14C-BENZENE CHEMISORPTION AND REHYDROGENATION ON Pt(111)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be carried out in UHV in connection with adsorption andout in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) using well-defined surfaces.barrier de- tector in UHV, the count rates for background,

Davis, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Anhydrous ferric chloride as an alkylation catalyst: The condensation of 2-methylpropene and benzene, preparation and identification of several fractions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-butylbe!!zeno. i':o tri-t-buty''oe:&zones ar, fo& ~ ed d!&r-'n~ t ! &. s &. en c't i c&n 24. . ? Dej", e, J. . 'r . Ch. !-. oc. , 60 2079 , lot&7) 25. ? Price an Cir):o;;. .-:. ' i, ibid. , (0, 2! 9o (lo3&&) 26. ? Fairbrother, Trans. Fa~ra av '~oc. , 37, 7'. 3...

Mommessin, Pierre Robert

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

266

A Comparison of Ten Different Methods for the Analysis of Saturates, Olefins, Benzene, Total Aromatics, and Oxygenates in Finished Gasolines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......overview of the changing European gasoline specifications with time...combined. These reformulated gasolines may now contain straight run naphtha, fluid catalytically...analysis of hydrocarbon types in gasoline is the fluorescent indi- cator......

Jan Beens; Hans Thomas Feuerhelm; Jrg-Christian Frhling; Jerry Watt; Gertjan Schaatsbergen

267

40 CFR Ch. I (7105 Edition)Pt. 194 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene (Benzene, 1,2,4-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.21 Inspections. 194.22 Quality assurance. 194.23 Models and computer codes. 194.24 Waste characterization. 194 events in performance assessments. 194.34 Results of performance assessments. ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS 194.61 Advance notice of proposed rule- making for certification. 194.62 Notice of proposed rulemaking

268

Induction of Sister Chromatid Exchanges and Cell Division Delays in Human Lymphocytes by Microsomal Activation of Benzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Crude interphase extract with energy regenerating mix was converted to mitosis by...made and supplemented with energy regenerating mix and sperm chromatin. At 10-min...Crude interphase extracts with energy regenerating mix were treated with DMSO (vehicle...

Kanehisa Morimoto

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed dynamic simulations of two industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter and a xylene/toluene column) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state relative gain array (RGA) values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity) were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

Riggs, J.B.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. ATV identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal PI composition controllers. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state RGA values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity), were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Fourth annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selection for single-ended and dual-composition control as well as compare conventional and advanced control approaches. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that in order to identify the optimum configuration, detailed testing using dynamic simulation is required. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the control performance of conventional PI controllers, DMC (Dynamic Matrix Control), PMBC (Process Model Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that DMC works best when one product is much more important than the other while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and DMC.

Riggs, J.B.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Slide 1  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Selective production of p-xylene from biomass via catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). Significance and Impact This study opens the door to inexpensive production of renewable p-xylene...

273

Slide 1  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

performed molecular simulation to understand the role of solvent in the production of renewable p-xylene, a key monomer for green plastics. Driving up the Yield of Para-Xylene Work...

274

Fast pyrolysis of a waste fraction of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) containing brominated flame retardants in a fluidized bed reactor: The effects of various Ca-based additives (CaO, Ca(OH)2 and oyster shells) on the removal of bromine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A waste fraction of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) containing brominated flame retardants and antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) as a synergist was pyrolyzed in a bench-scale system equipped with a fluidized bed and char separation system. Experiments were carried out to observe the effects of the reaction temperature and three additives (CaO, Ca(OH)2, oyster shells) on the removal of bromine. An analysis of the pyrolysis oils obtained showed the oils were mainly composed of toluene, ethyl-benzene, styrene, cumene, ?-methylstyrene, 1,3-diphenylpropane, 1,3-diphenylbutane and (1-bromoethyl)-benzene. When the Ca-based additives were used, the concentration of styrene was markedly increased; whereas, those of ethlybenzene and cumene were reduced. The total bromine content of pyrolysis oil produced without any additive at 459C was about 5wt.%. When Ca(OH)2 and oyster shells were applied, the total bromine contents of the pyrolysis oils were decreased to 1.3 and 2.7wt.%, respectively. The antimony content in the pyrolysis oil was relatively small due to the efficient operation of the char separation system.

Su-Hwa Jung; Seon-Jin Kim; Joo-Sik Kim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

The toxicity of oil and chemically dispersed oil to the seagrass Thalassia testudinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Turtle grass beds, a valuable natural resource, are diminishing throughout the tropics because of damage from dredging, boats, and other factors. The toxicity of chemical dispersants and crude oil to turtle grass was determined in the laboratory to assess the potential for damage from spills occurring in the field. Studies of water-soluble fractions (WSF) of crude oil in static bioassays showed that a chemical dispersant (Corexit 9527) increased the amount of total oil in water more than 50-fold. The toxicity of chemically dispersed oil was assessed by conventional (96-h 50% lethal concentration) methods in static systems, and the results were compared with toxicity measurements where the system was flushed after 12 h. Prudhoe Bay crude WSF was more toxic than dispersed oil or dispersant alone, possibly because of the large component of benzene, toluene, and C-2 benzene. The percentage of green (chlorophyllous) leaves was useful as evidence of toxicity. The importance of anatomical features such as recessed meristem and abundant leaf sheaths in protecting the growing region from waterborne pollutants was evident.

Baca, B.J.; Getter, C.D.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.06.029 Solubility of metallic mercury in octane, dodecane and toluene at temperatures between  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hg°, HgCl2, CH3Hg and (CH3)2Hg, and con- cluded that the solubility of these species decreases to predict the behavior of nonpolar solutes in polar solvents. This modification involves an adjustment of the Lennard Jones Potential and the hard-sphere diameters of solute and solvent to account for the effects

Long, Bernard

277

Studies of Immobilized Homogeneous Metal Catalysts on Silica Supports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tethered, chiral, chelating diphosphine rhodium complex, which catalyzes the enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl-{alpha}-acetamidocinnamate (MAC), has the illustrated structure as established by {sup 31}P NMR and IR studies. Spectral and catalytic investigations also suggest that the mechanism of action of the tethered complex is the same as that of the untethered complex in solution. The rhodium complexes, [Rh(COD)H]{sub 4}, [Rh(COD){sub 2}]{sup +}BF{sub 4}{sup -}, [Rh(COD)Cl]{sub 2}, and RhCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O, adsorbed on SiO{sub 2} are optimally activated for toluene hydrogenation by pretreatment with H{sub 2} at 200 C. The same complexes on Pd-SiO{sub 2} are equally active without pretreatments. The active species in all cases is rhodium metal. The catalysts were characterized by XPS, TEM, DRIFTS, and mercury poisoning experiments. Rhodium on silica catalyzes the hydrogenation of fluorobenzene to produce predominantly fluorocyclohexane in heptane and 1,2-dichloroethane solvents. In heptane/methanol and heptane/water solvents, hydrodefluorination to benzene and subsequent hydrogenation to cyclohexane occurs exclusively. Benzene inhibits the hydrodefluorination of fluorobenzene. In DCE or heptane solvents, fluorocyclohexane reacts with hydrogen fluoride to form cyclohexene. Reaction conditions can be chosen to selectively yield fluorocyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, or cyclohexane. The oxorhenium(V) dithiolate catalyst [-S(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}s-]Re(O)(Me)(PPh{sub 3}) was modified by linking it to a tether that could be attached to a silica support. Spectroscopic investigation and catalytic oxidation reactivity showed the heterogenized catalyst's structure and reactivity to be similar to its homogeneous analog. However, the immobilized catalyst offered additional advantages of recyclability, extended stability, and increased resistance to deactivation.

Keith James Stanger

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

UNIT NUMBER:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 KOW Toluene SDill Area UNIT NAME: REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Southwest of plant site APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS: 200 feet wide by 800 feet ong FUNCTION: Storage of Toluene...

279

Importance of unattached bacteria and bacteria attached to sediment in determining potentials for degradation of xenobiotic organic contaminants in an aerobic aquifer.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Suspensions Toluene metabolism Water Microbiology Water Pollutants, Chemical metabolism...plumes experimental studies ground water hydrocarbons in situ naphthalene...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons remediation thallophytes toluene water treatment...

P E Holm; P H Nielsen; H J Albrechtsen; T H Christensen

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Molecular Analysis of Microbial Community Structures in Pristine and Contaminated Aquifers: Field and Laboratory Microcosm Experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Phylogeny Toluene metabolism Water Microbiology Water Pollutants, Chemical metabolism...studies field studies geochemistry ground water hydrocarbons hydrochemistry...compounds pollutants pollution remediation spatial distribution toluene...

Y. Shi; M. D. Zwolinski; M. E. Schreiber; J. M. Bahr; G. W. Sewell; W. J. Hickey

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

Dr. James B. Riggs

2000-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

282

Growth and properties of Lithium Salicylate single crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An attractive feature of {sup 6}Li containing fluorescence materials that determines their potential application in radiation detection is the capture reaction with slow ({approx}< 100 keV) neutrons: {sup 6}Li + n = {sup 4}He + {sup 3}H + 4.8MeV. The use of {sup 6}Li-salicylate (LiSal, LiC{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}) for thermal neutron detection was previously studied in liquid and polycrystalline scintillators. The studies showed that both liquid and polycrystalline LiSal scintillators could be utilized in pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques that enable separation of neutrons from the background gamma radiation. However, it was found that the efficiency of neutron detection using LiSal in liquid solutions was severely limited by its low solubility in commonly used organic solvents like, for example, toluene or xylene. Better results were obtained with neutron detectors containing the compound in its crystalline form, such as pressed pellets, or microscopic-scale (7-14 micron) crystals dispersed in various media. The expectation drown from these studies was that further improvement of pulse height, PSD, and efficiency characteristics could be reached with larger and more transparent LiSal crystals, growth of which has not been reported so far. In this paper, we present the first results on growth and characterization of relatively large, a cm-scale size, single crystals of LiSal with good optical quality. The crystals were grown both from aqueous and anhydrous (methanol) media, mainly for neutron detection studies. However, the results on growth and structural characterization may be interesting for other fields where LiSal, together with other alkali metal salicylates, is used for biological, medical, and chemical (as catalyst) applications.

Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hull, G; Saw, C; Carman, L; Cherepy, N; Payne, S

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

283

Source Term Modeling for Evaluating the Potential Impacts to Groundwater of Fluids Escaping from a Depleted Oil Reservoir Used for Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years depleted oil reservoirs have received special interest as carbon storage reservoirs because of their potential to offset costs through collaboration with enhanced oil recovery projects. Modeling is currently being conducted to evaluate potential risks to groundwater associated with leakage of fluids from depleted oil reservoirs used for storage of CO2. Modeling results reported here focused on understanding how toxic organic compounds found in oil will distribute between the various phases within a storage reservoir after introduction of CO2, understanding the migration potential of these compounds, and assessing potential groundwater impacts should leakage occur. Two model scenarios were conducted to evaluate how organic components in oil will distribute among the phases of interest (oil, CO2, and brine). The first case consisted of 50 wt.% oil and 50 wt.% water; the second case was 90 wt.% CO2 and 10 wt.% oil. Several key organic compounds were selected for special attention in this study based upon their occurrence in oil at significant concentrations, relative toxicity, or because they can serve as surrogate compounds for other more highly toxic compounds for which required input data are not available. The organic contaminants of interest (COI) selected for this study were benzene, toluene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. Partitioning of organic compounds between crude oil and supercritical CO2 was modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state over temperature and pressure conditions that represent the entire subsurface system (from those relevant to deep geologic carbon storage environments to near surface conditions). Results indicate that for a typical set of oil reservoir conditions (75C, and 21,520 kPa) negligible amounts of the COI dissolve into the aqueous phase. When CO2 is introduced into the reservoir such that the final composition of the reservoir is 90 wt.% CO2 and 10 wt.% oil, a significant fraction of the oil dissolves into the vapor phase. As the vapor phase moves up through the stratigraphic column, pressures and temperatures decrease, resulting in significant condensation of oil components. The heaviest organic components condense early in this process (at higher pressures and temperatures), while the lighter components tend to remain in the vapor phase until much lower pressures and temperatures are reached. Based on the model assumptions, the final concentrations of COI to reach an aquifer at 1,520 kPa and 25C were quite significant for benzene and toluene, whereas the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons that reach the aquifer were very small. This work demonstrates a methodology that can provide COI source term concentrations in CO2 leaking from a reservoir and entering an overlying aquifer for use in risk assessments.

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

284

Surface Chemistry of Monochlorinated and Dichlorinated Benzenes on Si(100)21:? Comparison Study of Chlorine Content and Isomeric Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada ... 10 Briefly, the sample preparation chamber was equipped with an ion-sputtering gun for sample cleaning, and four-grid retarding-field optics for both reverse-view low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy. ...

X. J. Zhou; K. T. Leung

2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

285

Proteogenomic Elucidation of the Initial Steps in the Benzene Degradation Pathway of a Novel Halophile, Arhodomonas sp. Strain Rozel, Isolated from a Hypersaline Environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...frames (ORFs) 1080, 1082, and...the six ORFs (1079 to 1084) corresponding...of ORFs 1078, 1085, 1086, 1087, 1088, 1089, and 1090 were...3e161 P19734 1085 115 Plant type...44 3e15 A1K6K5 1086 317 Catechol...48 4e49 A1K899 1089 141 Putative...

Sonal Dalvi; Sei Azetsu; Marianna A. Patrauchan; Deniz F. Aktas; Babu Z. Fathepure

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

286

Time-Resolved Infrared Spectral Studies of Photochemically Induced Oxidative Addition of Benzene to trans-RhCl(CO)(PMe3)2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, and Bioscience/Biotechnology Group (CST-4), Chemical Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 ... The observation of a non-zero intercept for this plot would be consistent with partitioning of intermediate 3 between the second-order trapping by CO to reform 1 and other CO-independent pathways, one being an oxidative-addition pathway to give 2. ... This research was sponsored by a grant (Grant No. DE-FG-03-85ER13317) to P.C.F. from the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy, and by a Collaborative UC/Los Alamos Research (CULAR) Initiative grant from Los Alamos National Laboratory. ...

Jon S. Bridgewater; Brian Lee; Stefan Bernhard; Jon R. Schoonover; Peter C. Ford

1997-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

287

1,3,5-trichloro-2-(4-nitrophenoxy)benzene (CNP) in water, sediments, and shellfish of the Ishikari River  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since organochlorine compounds are known to be accumulated in benthic animals and CNP is very persistent in aquatic animals, shellfish might be useful as an indicator of environmental contamination by CNP. In order to understand the correlations between the concentrations in shellfish, water and sediments, it is necessary to investigate their temporal changes and the residue half-life time of CNP in the environment. For this purpose, CNP-free shellfish (Corbicula japonica) were transferred to fixed point in the lower reaches of the Ishikari River, and the CNP concentrations in shellfish, water and sediments, before and after CNP application, were examined biweekly from May to August and monthly from September to December 1984. The present paper will show that shellfish can be a biological indicator for CNP contamination in the river.

Not Available

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Determination of phase equilibria for binary polybutadiene/benzene and polybutadiene/cyclohexane systems at 333, 355 and 373 K using perturbation chromatography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

co rn o anuD a0 an o t- o I- I- o I-m o o I- m ~ o c-mc0 an 0 C7I 0 0 0 OI 0 0 0 0 R 0 Ch 0 ru me nJ me cu cut e o NN anano rum 0~aoaOa0 ot N Ot cDolaOOION 0 o an m cu t- o N an co cu o m an I- 00 nlmoooo~ooooo 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 D 0 dl E...' lralra O lftl ChOO NNNNNNNNNN NN 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 m ch o ara o mw mme ~ N w I Irt wco N~ m ocD Nco chNcoe art aca w a. m N art art ~ w m ~ art w w m O Nel tract Chl e ml 4'4 e mcD ara 0 e an~ o o Ica e ~ mN mmN N mmrnrnmmmmmm rn 0 t che...

Lau, Wing-Wah Robbie

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

289

Abstract 3792: Upregulation of TNF-? by ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in benzene-induced leukemic Wister rat: a possible mechanism of anticancer property  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...3792: Upregulation of TNF-alpha by ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in...Applied Biology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Ethanol extract of Monringa oleifera leaves has...Oloke. Upregulation of TNF-alpha by ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in...

Olufemi E. Akanni; Adebayo L. Adedeji; Kola J. Oloke

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Lack of Specificity of trans,trans-Muconic Acid as a Benzene Biomarker after Ingestion of Sorbic Acid-preserved Foods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ubiquitous because of its presence in gasoline and tobacco smoke (1) . Occupational...the parent compound itself. MA, 3 a straight chain metabolite, has been shown to be...No peak was obtained during a 45-min run (MA retention time, 12 min). When...

Virginia M. Weaver; Timothy Buckley; and John D. Groopman

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Abstract 3792: Upregulation of TNF-? by ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in benzene-induced leukemic Wister rat: a possible mechanism of anticancer property  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2013; Washington, DC Abstract 3584: Ethanol and aging promote pathogenesis of hepatocellular...additional hepatic injury. Methods: Ethanol was administered to ICR male mice through...Results: At 60th week, 40% of mice in the ethanol group had visible white nodules (5-10...

Olufemi E. Akanni; Adebayo L. Adedeji; Kola J. Oloke

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Version du 9/04/04 Optical basicity: a scale of acidity/basicity of solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-xylene into phthalic anhydride, or why Mo3VO11 is selective in the oxidation of acrolein to acrylic acid. Similarly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

293

The effectiveness of sulphur when used as a diluent for certain insecticides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Control of Cotton Aphids with Benzene Hexachloride- Clay and Benzene Hexachloride-Sulphur at a Medium Temperature (80-87?F.)..................... 20 IV. Control of Cotton Aphids with Benzene Hexachloride- Clay and Benzene Hexachloride-Sulphur at a Low... Milkweed Bugs with Benzene Hexa- chloride-Clay and Benzene Hexachloride-Sulphur...... J+0 XIV. Control of Large Milkweed Bugs with Chlordan-Clay and Chlordan-Sulphur................ .......... .... 4-2 XV. Control of Large Milkweed Bugs with DDT...

Hanna, Ralph Lynn

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

294

Synthesis and characterization of alkali-metal titanium alkoxide compounds MTi(O-i-Pr) sub 5 (M = Li, Na, K): Single-crystal x-ray diffraction structure of (LiTi(O-i-Pr) sub 5 ) sub 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The series (MTi(O-iPr){sub 5}), M = Li, Na, or K, has been prepared by the reaction of MO-i-Pr with Ti(O-i-Pr){sub 4}. A single-crystal x-ray diffraction study revealed that (LiTi(O-i-Pr){sub 5}) crystallizes from toluene at {minus}30{degree}C in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n, with unit cell dimensions a = 11.440 (8) {angstrom}, b = 16.396 (13) {angstrom}, c = 11.838 (8) {angstrom}, {beta} = 92.59 (5){degree}, and Z = 4, as a dimer containing two approximately trigonal-bipyramidal titanium centers linked by lithium bridges. In benzene solution, all three compounds are dimeric, as revealed by cryoscopic molecular weight determination, and all three undergo an alkoxide ligand exchange process that is rapid on the {sup 1}H NMR time scale at room temperature. The positions of {nu}(M-O) are assigned based on the low-energy shifts observed upon deuteriation of the isopropoxide ligands. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Hampden-Smith, M.J.; Williams, D.S. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (USA)); Rheingold, A.L. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (USA))

1990-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

295

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

2002-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

296

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Ciba-Geigy (McIntosh Plant), AL. (First remedial action), September 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1,500-acre Ciba-Geigy (McIntosh Plant) site is in southern Washington County, northeast of McIntosh, Alabama. The plant's initial operations, which began in 1952, were devoted solely to the manufacture of DDT. In 1970, the facility expanded its manufacturing operations to include herbicides, insecticides, and chelating and sequestering agents. Other products produced by Ciba-Geigy include resins and additives used in the plastics industry. Wastes and residues generated during production operations were managed onsite. In 1985, EPA issued Ciba-Geigy a RCRA Part B permit for active waste-management units onsite. The permit included a corrective-action plan requiring Ciba-Geigy to remove and treat contaminated ground water and surface water at the site. In 1987, as part of this plan, Ciba-Geigy installed a ground-water pumping and treatment system which has been effective in addressing the ground-water contamination. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground-water are VOCs including benzene and toluene; other organics including pesticides; and metals including arsenic.

Not Available

1989-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

297

THE COORDINATION CHEMISTRY OF METAL SURFACES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In coordinately unsaturated molecular metal complexes, carbon-hydrogen bonds of the peripheral ligands may, if the stereochemistry allows, closely approach a metal center so as to develop a three-center two-electron bond between the carbon, the hydrogen, and the metal atoms, C-H-M. In some instances, the interaction .is followed by a scission of the C-H bond whereby the metal is effectively oxidized and discrete M-H and M-C {sigma} bonds are forrned. This class of metal-hydrogen-carbon interactions and reactions is shown to be a common phenomenon in metal surface chemistry. Ultra high vacuum studies of nickel and platinum with simple organic molecules like olefins, and arenes are described. These surface chemistry studies were done as a function of surface crystallography and surface composition. The discussion is largely limited to the chemistry of methyl isocyanide, acetonitrile, benzene and toluene. Molecular orbital calculations are presented that support the experimental identification of the importance of C-H-M metal bonding for metal surfaces.

Muetterties, Earl L.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

driven. Calculations explain why benzene is a common constituent of geothermal fluids. Methane will react to form benzene at relatively high hydrogen fugacities. The...

299

APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Dec. 2008, p. 73137320 Vol. 74, No. 23 0099-2240/08/$08.00 0 doi:10.1128/AEM.01695-08  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-, and p-xylene (BTEX) compounds, was isolated by plating gasoline-contaminated sediment from a gasoline that strain BD-a59 has the potential to assist in BTEX biodegradation at contaminated sites. A considerable-, and p-xylene (BTEX) compound is one of the most common groundwater and soil contaminants (7). Because

Bae, Jin-Woo

300

Investigation on the solidification of several pure cyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons at pressures to 300 MPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of pressure on the solidification of several saturated cyclic hydrocarbons and three xylene isomers are experimentally determined with a variable-volume view cell at pressures to 300 MPa and temperatures starting at 293.15 K. Solidliquid transitions are observed for cyclooctane, cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane, trans-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane, p-xylene, o-xylene, and 2-methylnaphthalene. However, methylcyclohexane, ethylcyclohexane, cis-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane, and m-xylene remained liquid over the same operating pressure and temperature ranges. The experimental solidliquid transition data are well represented with two empirical equations, the Simon equation and a 2nd-order polynomial equation. Data obtained in this study agree with literature data within 0.4% for 2-methylnaphthalene and 0.2% for p-xylene.

Wu, Yue; Liu, Kun; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; McHugh, Mark A.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Metal-organic frameworks with high capacity and selectivity for harmful gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, chlorine, tetrahydrothiophene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethyl- ene oxide, and carbon monoxide. Kinetic

Yaghi, Omar M.

302

BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rubber and resins Chloro Benzenes Strong narcotic; possible lung. liver, and kidney damage Used in production

Cairns, Elton J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Characteristics of cabin air quality in school buses in Central Texas Donghyun Rim, Jeffrey Siegel, Jarett Spinhirne, Alba Webb, Elena McDonald-Buller*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur compounds, and hydrocarbons, including formaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, 1

Siegel, Jeffrey

304

Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2340, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mobile sources: acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; diesel particulate matter (PM) plus diesel exhaust

Bertini, Robert L.

305

Toward uniform nanotubular compounds: Synthetic approach and ab initio calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­12 fused benzene rings interconnected by biphenyl, tetrazine, or acetylene linkers. Depending upon

306

Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mixing ratios and vertical wind speed plotted as a functionPanel: De-trended vertical wind speed (blue) and toluene (between toluene and vertical wind speed. Dashed curve

Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D; Blake, D. R; Wiedinmyer, C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

ac502672b 1..8  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of oil and sand and extracted with toluene in a Soxhlet extractor. Materials. HPLC-grade solvents (hexanes (95% n-hexane, CAS no. 110-54-3), toluene (CAS no. 108-88-3), and...

308

Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ethene toluene n-butane propane i-pentane i-butane propeneethene, toluene, n-butane, propane and i-pentane. These fiveVOCs emitted. The high propane and n-butane emissions were

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Biotechnology Letters 21: 235239, 1999. 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the Netherlands. 235 Predation of bacteria by the protozoa Tetrahymena pyriformis in toluene-degrading cultures

310

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2005) 66: 696701 DOI 10.1007/s00253-004-1685-4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

toward toluene, trichloro- ethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), cis-1,2-di- chloroethylene (cis. stutzeri OX1 and P. putida F1 were chemotactic toward toluene, PCE, TCE, all DCEs, and VC. B. cepacia G4 was chemotactic toward toluene, PCE, TCE, cis-DCE, 1,1-DCE, and VC. Chemotaxis of P. stutzeri OX1 grown on o

Wood, Thomas K.

311

Demonstration of stimulated Raman scattering in the evanescent field of a tapered nanofiber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the following figure the modal Raman gain for a nanofiber immersed in a mixture of toluene and ethanol ; ethanol is used to reduce the refractive index below the one of silica. Fig. 1: Raman gain experienced by the guided mode versus the nanofiber radius and the fraction volume of toluene in a mixture of toluene-ethanol

Boyer, Edmond

312

Synthetic studies in nitrogen chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

N,N-Bis(benzotriazolylmethyl)arylamines were obtained quantitatively from mixtures of benzotriazole, formaldehyde and the corresponding arylamine in refluxing toluene with azeotropic removal of water. Treatment of these adducts with Grignard reagents or sodium borohydride afforded symmetrically substituted N,N-dialkylarylamines in high yields. Unsymmetrically substituted N,N-dialkylarylamines could also be obtained by similar stepwise procedures. Sterically hindered N,N-bis(sec-butyl)arylamines were prepared by alkylations of the anions of the corresponding arylamines with 2-iodobutane. Chlorosulfonation of 2-nitroanisole gave 4-methoxy-3-nitrobenzene-sulfon-yl chloride, which was converted with N-butyl-(3-phenylpropyl)-amine into the corresponding benzenesulfonamide. Hydrolysis of the methoxy group and reduction of the nitro substituent of this benzene-sulfonamide, followed by diazotization and coupling with 2-naphthol, afforded N-butyl-N-(3-phenylpropyl)-4-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)azobenzenesulfonamide. Medium-sized (7 and 8) benzosultams were synthesized by Friedel-Crafts cyclizations of w-phenylaklanesulfamoyl chlorides. New (benzotriazol-1-y)methyl derivatives of type Bt(1)CH[sub 2] X [Bt(1) = benzotriazol-1-yl] were prepared. [alpha]-(Benzotriazol-1-yl)acetophenone was converted to a number of interesting derivatives. Lithiation of 1-methylbenzotriazole followed by treatments with electrophiles gave various [alpha]-substituted 1-methylbenzotriazoles. Simple treatments of 2-alkylbenzotriazoles by LDA gave symmetrical [alpha],[beta]-bis-(benzotriazol-2-yl)alkanes sterospecifically as the [alpha],[alpha]-coupled products in high yields. A molecule [Bt(2)CH(CH[sub 3])CH(CH[sub 3])CH(CH[sub 3])CH(CH[sub 3])Bt(2)] [Bt(2) = benzotriazole-2-yl] with four asymmetric centers derived from four molecules of 2-ethylbenzotriazole was obtained as a single isomer. A new radical mechanism was first proposed to account for the chemistry of 2-alkylbenzotriazoles.

Wu, J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Behavior of partially miscible organic compounds in simulated ground water systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Serious ground water contamination problems result from leaks or spills of organic liquids which are partially miscible in water. Two important categories of these liquids include low molecular weight chlorinated solvents and gasoline. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCA) abiotically degrades in water forming approximately 17-25% 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) via an elimination reaction. Brominated analogs of TCA hydrolyze 11-13 times faster than TCA. As the number of bromines increase, the percent of elimination products increases. These geminal trihalides degrade by a unimolecular mechanism (E1/SN1). The rate coefficient for TCA degradation in buffered water at elevated temperature is approximately six times greater than hydrolysis of 1-chloropropane (SN2 mechanism) and more than 100 times greater than 1,1-dichloroethane. In the presence of sodium thiosulfate, the 1-chloropropane degradation rate increased by more than a factor of 100, 1,1-dichloroethane rate by 22 and TCA degradation by approximately two. The range of concentrations for major components of gasoline which partition into water was determined for 65 gasoline samples. Benzene concentrations in the water extracts ranged from 12.3-130 mg/l and toluene concentrations ranged from 23-185 mg/l. Fuel/water partition coefficients of seven major aromatic constituents were measured for 31 gasoline types and showed a standard deviation of 10-30%. These coefficients were highly correlated with the pure component solubilities. Chemometric techniques were applied to 20 peaks measured in the aqueous extracts of the 65 gasolines. Bivariate plots and principal component analyses show selected brands have distinguishing equilibrium concentrations, but complete separation of brands was not observed.

Cline, P.V.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Hanna, A., J. Vukovich, S. Arunachalam, D. Loughlin, H.C. Frey, J. Touma, J. Irwin, and V. Isakov, "Assessment of Uncertainty in Benzene Concentration Estimates in the Houston, TX, Area," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hanna, A., J. Vukovich, S. Arunachalam, D. Loughlin, H.C. Frey, J. Touma, J. Irwin, and V. Isakov Carolina Environmental Program University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill H. Christopher Frey North Carolina State University Jawad Touma and John Irwin U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Vlad Isakov

Frey, H. Christopher

315

Understanding and predicting soot generation in turbulent non-premixed jet flames.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the results of a project funded by DoD's Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) on the science behind development of predictive models for soot emission from gas turbine engines. Measurements of soot formation were performed in laminar flat premixed flames and turbulent non-premixed jet flames at 1 atm pressure and in turbulent liquid spray flames under representative conditions for takeoff in a gas turbine engine. The laminar flames and open jet flames used both ethylene and a prevaporized JP-8 surrogate fuel composed of n-dodecane and m-xylene. The pressurized turbulent jet flame measurements used the JP-8 surrogate fuel and compared its combustion and sooting characteristics to a world-average JP-8 fuel sample. The pressurized jet flame measurements demonstrated that the surrogate was representative of JP-8, with a somewhat higher tendency to soot formation. The premixed flame measurements revealed that flame temperature has a strong impact on the rate of soot nucleation and particle coagulation, but little sensitivity in the overall trends was found with different fuels. An extensive array of non-intrusive optical and laser-based measurements was performed in turbulent non-premixed jet flames established on specially designed piloted burners. Soot concentration data was collected throughout the flames, together with instantaneous images showing the relationship between soot and the OH radical and soot and PAH. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for ethylene combustion, including fuel-rich chemistry and benzene formation steps, was compiled, validated, and reduced. The reduced ethylene mechanism was incorporated into a high-fidelity LES code, together with a moment-based soot model and models for thermal radiation, to evaluate the ability of the chemistry and soot models to predict soot formation in the jet diffusion flame. The LES results highlight the importance of including an optically-thick radiation model to accurately predict gas temperatures and thus soot formation rates. When including such a radiation model, the LES model predicts mean soot concentrations within 30% in the ethylene jet flame.

Wang, Hai (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA); Kook, Sanghoon; Doom, Jeffrey; Oefelein, Joseph Charles; Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.; Pickett, Lyle M.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Compounds for neutron radiation detectors and systems thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A material according to one embodiment exhibits an optical response signature for neutrons that is different than an optical response signature for gamma rays, said material exhibiting performance comparable to or superior to stilbene in terms of distinguishing neutrons from gamma rays, wherein the material is not stilbene, the material comprising a molecule selected from a group consisting of: two or more benzene rings, one or more benzene rings with a carboxylic acid group, one or more benzene rings with at least one double bound adjacent to said benzene ring, and one or more benzene rings for which at least one atom in the benzene ring is not carbon.

Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Zaitseva, Natalia P; Cherepy, Nerine J; Carman, M. Leslie

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

317

PULSE COLUMN DESIGN By Lawrence E. Burkhart R.W. Fahien  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

in hot xylene then baked under an infrared lamp to remove the solvent, leaving a thin plastic film over the needle and the packing. The polyethylene was preferentially wet by the...

318

Chemistry on the inside: green chemistry in mesoporous materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to terephthalic acid, which is polymerized to give poly(ethylene terephthalate). In this case, the mixture of xylenes obtained...Mann, S. 1996 Chem. Commun., p. 1367. Clark, J. H., Price, P. M., Martin, K., Macquarrie, D. J. & Bastock...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Method for making thin polypropylene film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An economical method is provided for making uniform thickness polypropylene film as thin as 100 Angstroms. A solution of polypropylene dissolved in xylene is formed by mixing granular polypropylene and xylene together in a flask at an elevated temperature. A substrate, such as a glass plate or microscope slide is immersed in the solution. When the glass plate is withdrawn from the solution at a uniform rate, a thin polypropylene film forms on a flat surface area of the glass plate as the result of xylene evaporation. The actual thickness of the polypropylene film is functional of the polypropylene in xylene solution concentration, and the particular withdrawal rate of the glass plate from the solution. After formation, the thin polypropylene film is floated from the glass plate onto the surface of water, from which it is picked up with a wire hoop.

Behymer, R.D.; Scholten, J.A.

1985-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

320

University of Delaware | CCEI Patents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Patents and Patent Applications Production of Para-xylene by Catalytically Reacting 2,5-Dimethylfuran and Ethylene in a Solvent Dauenhauer, P. J.; Williams, C. L.; Vlachos, D. G.;...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Transport method for determining the association constants of complexes formed between aromatic hydrocarbons and?- and?-cyclodextrin in water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The association constants of 1 : 1 complexes formed in water between six aromatic hydrocarbons (o-,m-, andp-xylene, naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene) and?- and?-cyclodextrin were determined by the transport me...

Bo-Long Poh; Yoke Mooi Chow

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Investigation of Very Slowly Tumbling Spin Labels by Nonlinear Spin Response Techniques: Theory and Experiment for Stationary Electron Electron Double Resonance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...compared with computer simulations of spectra carried...Journal Article | 0 Benzene Derivatives 0 Spin Labels | Benzene Derivatives Computers...compared with computer simulations of spectra carried...eridinol-l-oxyl; HDA, 17jB-hydroxy-4...

Murray D. Smigel; Larry R. Dalton; James S. Hyde; Lauraine A. Dalton

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Ionic Liquids as an Attractive Alternative Solvent for Thermal Lens Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in volatile organic solvents such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and hexane. However, the ILs are more,2 Nonpolar, volative organic solvents such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and hexane should provide good

Reid, Scott A.

325

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications: Environmental Monitoring Program. Baseline sampling program report: Volume 2, Appendix sections 1--7  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains no text. It consist entirely of results monitoring stack opacity, benzene surveys, chemical effluent in wastewater, etc.

Stuart, L.M.

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

326

ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rubber and resins ChI oro Benzenes Strong narcotic; possible lung, liver, and kidney damage Used in production

Sonderegger, R. C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Topics for letter "b" | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

BDD Benchmark benefits benzene BER Bill Wiley bioanalysis bioenergy biofilm biofilms biofuel biofuels Biofuels Production biogenic biogeochemical Biogeochemistry Biological...

328

Molecular vibration demonstrations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molecular vibration demonstrations ... Two dynamic models that illustrate the normal-mode vibrations of the water and benzene molecules. ...

George Turrell; Robert Demol

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Supramolecular structures and metal-organic frameworks based on metal dipyrrin building blocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in organic solvents, but are dichroic red/green solids upongreen blocks were grown by diffusion of pentane into a toluene solution containing the complex. No solvent

Halper, Sara R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Acoustic emulsions of liquid, near-critical carbon dioxide and water : application to synthetic chemistry through reaction engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supervised by The need to eliminate hazardous solvents, such as methanol, toluene, and dichloromethane, in specialty and pharmaceutical chemical synthesis applications has motivated the development of alternative approaches. ...

Timko, Michael T., 1974-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Chemical Emissions of Residential Materials and Products: Review of Available Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of spray polyurethane foam insulation. Some of the risks ofin spray polyurethane foam insulation. Acute effects of MDIpolyurethane foam insulation. Toluene 2,4 diisocyanate (

Willem, Henry

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated enzyme immunoassays Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

recog- nition of the need for sample clean up with respect to enzyme immunoassay analysis of PCDD... , toluene, dichloromethane, or hexaneacetone 33. Enzyme immunoassays...

333

On-line Analysis of Organic Compounds in Diesel Exhaust Using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical ionization mass spectrometry using H3O+ proton transfer in an ion drift tube (PTR-MS) was used to measure volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations on-line in diesel engine exhaust as a function on engine load. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the PTR-MS instrument as an analytical tool for diesel engine emissions abatement research. Measured sensitivities determined from gas standards were found to be between 30% and 100% greater than calculated sensitivities. A slight humidity dependent sensitivity was observed for non-polar species, implying that reactions with H+(H2O)2 were important for some organics. The mass spectra of diesel exhaust were complex but displayed a pattern of strong ion signals at 14n+1 (n=3..8) masses, with a relative ion abundance similar to that obtained from electron impact ionization of alkanes. Laboratory experiments verified that C8-C16 n-alkanes and C8-C13 1-alkenes react with H3O+ in dissociative proton transfer reaction resulting in alkyl cation ion products, primarily m/z 41, 43, 57, 71 and 85. Monitoring the sum of these ions signals may be useful for estimating alkane emissions from unburnt diesel fuel. Alkane fragmentation likely simplified the diesel exhaust mass spectrum and reduced potential mass interferences with isobaric aromatic compounds. It is shown that the relative abundances of VOCs changed as a function of engine load. Concentrations of aldehydes and ketones dominated those of aromatic species with formaldehyde and acetaldehyde estimated to be the most abundant VOCs in the PTR-MS mass spectrum at all engine loads. The relative abundances of benzene and toluene increased with engine load indicating their pyrogenic origin. The relative abundance of alkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, and alcohols was broadly consistent with literature publications of diesel exhaust analysis by gas chromatography. About 75% of the organic ion signal could be assigned. On line analysis of diesel exhaust using this technology may be valuable tool for diesel engine emission research.

Jobson, B Tom T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Maupin, Gary D.; Muntean, George G.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Carbohydrate Changes in Glycoproteins of a Poorly Metastasizing Wheat Germ Agglutinin-resistant Melanoma Clone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...days at 50 under a toluene atmosphere. Fresh preincubated pro nase...8) at 37 under a toluene atmosphere for 48 hr. At 24 hr, 5 units...asialo-carbohydrate units derived from human plasma a,- acid glycoprotein by 360-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy and permethylation...

Jukka Finne; Tien-Wen Tao; and Max M. Burger

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 39 (2004) 2315 2325 Atomistic simulations of the solubilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the solvation Gibbs free energy for these nanotubes in toluene is small but positive suggesting of single-walled carbon nanotubes in toluene M. GRUJICIC, G. CAO Department of Mechanical Engineering 21005-5069, USA Solubilization of the armchair, metallic (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs

Grujicic, Mica

336

Analysis of the breakthrough of diisocyanates from a generated aerosol using the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Method number 42  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When sampling for isocyanates utilizing OSHA methodology, a glass fiber filter coated with I-(2-pyridyl)piperazine is used for collection. For OSHA Method 42 which is used for 2,6-toluene diisocyanate, 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, and 1,6-hexamethylene...

Player, Leah Montgomery

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

337

Analysis and reduction of degradation of working fluid in the Sundstrand Organic Rankine-Cycle System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies on understanding the location and construction levels of oxygen in the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit and establishing a rate of degradation with time for toluene in an operating ORC system are presented. Work on identifying the compounds in degraded toluene and contamination removal is discussed. (MHR)

Berger, R.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Hydroliquefaction of Big Brown lignite in supercritical fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Big Brown lignite was liquefied in a fixed bed tube reactor. Three solvents were used in the liquefaction studies, toluene, cyclohexane and methanol. Two co-solvents, tetralin and water were used with toluene. The effects of the solvents and co...

Chen, Hui

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

339

APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 0099-2240/99/$04.00 0  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Yolo silt loam) (11, 22). Development of a model describing the coupled diffusive transport and biodegradation of toluene and trichloroethylene in columns of Yolo silt loam indicated the need for a better of our study was to identify the indigenous population(s) responsible for toluene disappearance in Yolo

Macalady, Jenn

340

Synthesis, adsorption and regeneration of nanoporous silica aerogel and silica aerogel-activated carbon composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Usage of aerogels as an adsorbent has become more widespread because of its specifications such as high porosity and specific surface. Nanometer silica aerogel and silica aerogel-activated carbon composites were synthesized using a water glass precursor by ambient pressure drying method. Then, the adsorption capacity of synthesized adsorbents was studied in terms of benzene and ethyl benzene adsorption by chromatography method for continuous and batch testing. Results showed that silica aerogel and silica aerogel-activated carbon composites had high tendency for benzene and ethyl benzene adsorption. Silica aerogel showed maximum adsorption capacity of 2.3gg?1 and 0.7gg?1 in static adsorption of benzene and ethyl benzene respectively. Also, in dynamic adsorption of benzene and ethyl benzene, silica aerogel had maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity of 0.954gg?1 and 0.219gg?1 respectively. Minimum equilibrium adsorption capacity in benzene and ethyl benzene static adsorption was related to activated carbon with 0.7gg?1 and silica aerogel2wt% activated carbon with 0.25gg?1 respectively. After adsorption process, silica aerogel and silica aerogel0.5wt% activated carbon composite were regenerated by solvent extractionthermal treatment method and, after at least 15 adsorption/desorption cycles, their adsorption capacity became fixed.

Akbar Mohammadi; Jafarsadegh Moghaddas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Process for the preparation of cumene  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cumene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic by feeding propylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with propylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the propylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and cumene and diisopropyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the cumene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diisopropyl benzene to cumene which is again separated and recovered. 2 figures.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1991-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

342

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and power via biomass gasification. Biomass and Bioenergyrenewables Integrated coal gasification combined cycle withLubricants Waxes Naptha Gasification Ethane, Benzene, and

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and power via biomass gasification. Biomass and Bioenergyrenewables Integrated coal gasification combined cycle withLubricants Waxes Naptha Gasification Ethane, Benzene, and

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

1. Christopher L. Adams, H. Schneider and J. M. Weber, Vibrational autodetachment spectroscopy and low-energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Paul Wenthold, Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Nitrene Anions. 17. Gary Leach, Surface and interface-state vibronic interactions in fluorinated benzene radical cations. 26. Nancy Levinger, Clusters in condensed

Lineberger, W. Carl

345

Spectroscopic Investigations of Selected Cyclic and Bicyclic Molecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fluorescence spectroscopy of jet-cooled molecules along with ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. In recent years the group has investigated a number of bicyclic molecules containing the benzene ring including tetralin7 (TET) and 1,4-benzodioxan8 (14BZD... Description S 0 a S 1 b A? 1 1 C-H sym. stretch 3081 [3047] A? 26 35 Benzene stretch 756 722 2 2 C-H stretch [3072] [3028] 27 37 Benzene ring bend 712 682 3 3 C-H stretch 3060 R [3020] 28 39 Benzene ring bend 588 525 4 4 C...

McCann, Kathleen Rae

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

346

Surface science investigations of photoprocesses in model interstellar ices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetic energy of benzene and water molecules photodesorbed from astrophysically relevant ices on a sapphire substrate under irradiation by a UV laser tuned to the S{sub 1}(leftarrow)S{sub 0} {pi}{yields}{pi}* transition of benzene has been measured using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Three distinct photodesorption mechanisms have been identified--a direct adsorbate-mediated desorption of benzene, an indirect adsorbate-mediated desorption of water, and a substrate-mediated desorption of both benzene and water. The translational temperature of each desorbing population was well in excess of the ambient temperature of the ice matrix.

Thrower, J. D.; Collings, M. P.; McCoustra, M. R. S.; Burke, D. J.; Brown, W. A.; Dawes, A.; Holtom, P. D.; Kendall, P.; Mason, N. J.; Jamme, F.; Fraser, H. J.; Clark, I. P.; Parker, A. W. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); SOLEIL Synchrotron, BP 48, L'Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Department of Physics, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow East, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

E-Print Network 3.0 - azulene Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

, and azulenes, (b) porphyrins, particularly copper phthalo- cyanine, (c) carbon monoxide, (d) ethylene, and (e... , as expected from calculations for benzene on this...

348

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORT 1975-76  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a) soot particles from propane-benzene combustion in air;tempera downstream from a propane Photoelectron spectraand carbon (Is) regions of propane soot particles produced

Novakov, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

INFRARED and PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF S02 OXIDATION ON SOOT PARTICLES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generated with a conventional Bunsen burner using propaneor propane saturated with benzene vapor as fuel.The propane (Matheson) was either of research or instrument

Chang, S.G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN andCH3CN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

propene, acetone, benzene, propane and ?-pinene (Table 1).cyanide Acetonitrile Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-= Ethane Ethane Ethane Ethane Propane Propane Propane ARCTAS

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

E-Print Network 3.0 - acyclic diols triols Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of cyclophane molecular sensors... -Diels-Alder reaction of electron deficient tetrazine 48 with benzene cis-diol to produce dihydrodiol containing the 1... -shift Scheme...

352

Magnetism of the carbon allotropes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... a benzene ring. This analysis clearly shows the rationale behind the continuing interest in the magnetism of conjugated carbon compounds: properly interpreted,

R. C. Haddon

1995-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

353

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute systemic toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

12... that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute ... Source: Kane, Andrew S. -...

354

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity due Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

355

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

356

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic mode-of-action Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

357

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute testis toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

358

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic encephalopathy Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

359

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute renal toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

360

E-Print Network 3.0 - acutely toxic hepatitis Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute urinary toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

362

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic potency Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute ... Source: Kane, Andrew S. -...

363

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute liver toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

364

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic hepatitis Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

365

E-Print Network 3.0 - affecting calcium deficiency Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

France 1 - INTRODUCTION Overbased calcium... in lubricants, and catalysts in combustion processes. The most popular ones are calcium alkyl benzene sulfonate Source: Ecole...

366

Biotechnology Letters 23: 467473, 2001. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the Netherlands. 467 A two-phase partitioning bioreactor system for treating benzene-contaminated soil Sun-Ho Yeom

Daugulis, Andrew J.

367

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic microbial degradation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 Biodegradation 11: 107116, 2000. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. Summary: . 107 Anaerobic benzene degradation Derek R. Lovley Department of...

368

Synthesis and Characterization of Diverse Coordination Polymers. Linear and Zigzag Chains Involving Their Structural Transformation via Intermolecular Hydrogen-Bonded, Interpenetrating Ladders Polycatenane, and Noninterpenetrating Square Grid from Long, Rigid N,N-Bidentate Ligands:? 1,4-Bis[(x-pyridyl)ethynyl]benzene (x = 3 and 4)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 ... (11)?Leninger, S.; Olenyuk, B.; Stang, P. J. Chem. ...

Md. Badruz Zaman; Konstantin Udachin; John A. Ripmeester; Mark D. Smith; Hans-Conrad zur Loye

2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

369

Energy Efficiency of Phthalic Anhydride Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Data are based on the von Heyden process which is used under license by Davy McKee AG in all plants engineered by them. P.A. is produced by oxidising a-xylene with air ina vapour phase react i on over a heterogenous catalyst. The reaction...

Keunecke, G.; Mitchem, C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Time-Resolved Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study of Polyethylene Crystallization from Solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time-Resolved Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study of Polyethylene Crystallization from Solution-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS), the crystal- lization kinetics of polyethylene from deuterated of polyethylene crystallization from xylene solutions. One unique feature of this experimentation is that both

Wang, Howard "Hao"

371

Water Research 38 (2004) 25292536 The use of isotopic and lipid analysis techniques linking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, ethylbenzene and xylenes (i.e., BTEX) are common ground water pollutants that threaten water suppliesWater Research 38 (2004) 2529­2536 The use of isotopic and lipid analysis techniques linking, C16:0 fatty acid might be a useful biomarker for tracking contaminant degradation and 13 C flow

Alvarez, Pedro J.

372

Wat. Res.Vol.27,No. 4, pp.685--691,1993 0043-1354/93$6.00 + 0.00 Printedin GreatBritain.Allrightsreserved CopyrightC) 1993PergamonPressLtd  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University and xylenes (BTEX) in laboratory scale flow-through aquifer columns was tested separately with hydrogen in order to mimic contaminated groundwater conditions distal from a nutrient injection well

Alvarez, Pedro J.

373

ORIGINAL PAPER J. Fang M. J. Barcelona P. J. J. Alvarez  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and xylenes (BTEX) are common envi- ronmental contaminants that represent a serious threat to ground water to clean up BTEX-contaminated aqui- fers (National Research Council 1993). Nevertheless, process shifts due to the presence of BTEX com- pounds. Understanding the diversity of such adaptation mechanisms

Alvarez, Pedro J.

374

Toxicological Findings in Two Planned Complex Suicide Cases: Ingestion of Petroleum Distillates and Subsequent Hanging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......and toxicological data, the manners of...and toxicological data, the manners of...mainly for internal combustion engines (16...complex mix- ture of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers...any quan- titative data (23). Xylene...and there was a big heat- ing fuel tank in......

Mara Antonia Martnez; Salom Ballesteros

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Solvent Stress Response of the Denitrifying Bacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum Strain EbN1  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...9 AcnA2 Aconitase A2 1.8 4.5 General stress-related proteins BetB Betaine...m-xylene-degrading bacteria in a diesel fuel-contaminated laboratory aquifer...in oxidative (e.g., SodB) and general (e.g., ClpB) stress responses...

Kathleen Trautwein; Simon Khner; Lars Whlbrand; Thomas Halder; Kenny Kuchta; Alexander Steinbchel; Ralf Rabus

2008-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

376

JOURNALDE PHYSIQUE IV ColIoqueC7, supplkmentau Journal de Physique 111, Volume 3, novembre 1993  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis of poly(dimethylsily1ene-co-diphenylsilylene)polymers as precursors for Sic ceramics S by a Wurtz reaction involving the dechlorination of chlorosilane monomers using sodium in dry xylene. Three. The reaction is illustrated in Figure 1. Me Ph Me Me X D P D C S DMDCS L / Figure I: Synthesis of poly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

Effects of Chronic Ethanol Consumption on Benzo(a)pyrene Metabolism and Glutathione S-Transferase Activities in Syrian Golden Hamster Cheek Pouch and Liver  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Special Lecture Benzene Metabolism by Ethanol-, Acetone-, and Benzene-inducible...requests for reprints should be addressed. Ethanol is known to exert a synergistic effect...20-65-fold higher in liver microsomes from ethanol- or acetone-treated rats than in microsomes...

Sharon E. Murphy and Stephen S. Hecht

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Coding and learning of chemosensor array patterns in a neurodynamic model of the olfactory system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of four MOS sensors to three analytes: allyl alcohol, tert-butanol, benzene at five different concentrations.................................................................................................. 37 xiii Page Fig. 17. Repeatability... of the response of four MOS sensors to three analytes: allyl alcohol, tert-butanol, benzene ................................................................. 38 Fig. 18. Discrimination measure between the three odors as a function of the heater voltage...

Gutierrez Galvez, Agustin

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

379

Integrating Experiment and Theory in Electrochemical Surface Science: Studies on the Molecular Adsorption on Noble-Metal Electrode Surfaces by Density Functional Theory, Electron Spectroscopy, and Electrochemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The STM images of benzene chemisorbed on a Pd(111) electrode surface were simulated and the results suggested that, when the potential of the Pd electrode is held at 0.3 V, benzene is chemisorbed on a 3-fold site; while at 0.55 V, the molecule is adsorbed...

Javier, Alnald Caintic

2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

380

AirUCI Summer Training Workshop in Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

schedule Syllabus Wet Lab: MTBE in gasoline and ethanol in vodka / mouthwash measured by FTIR FTIR Wet Lab: Determination of ethanol and benzene in gasoline by GCMS GCMS Wet Lab: Determination of PAH in cigarette smoke and benzene in gasoline by GC/MS - MTBE in gasoline and ethanol in vodka / mouthwash measured by FTIR

Nizkorodov, Sergey

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Metropolis Evaluation of the HartreeFock Exchange Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

for the correlation energies of benzene and benzene dimer as well as for the correlation corrections to the energy, ionization potential, and electron affinity of C60. ... One of these, the damped shifted force method, shows a remarkable ability to reproduce the energetic and dynamic characteristics exhibited by simulations employing lattice summation techniques. ...

Yael Cytter; Daniel Neuhauser; Roi Baer

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

382

Destruction BoxDependent Degradation of Aurora B Is Mediated by the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome and Cdh1  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the United States Department of Energy. Kanehisa Morimoto 2 Laboratory...phosphate-generating system (S-9 mix) induced sister chromatid exchanges...optimal concentrations of S-9 mix for the conversion of benzene...of SCEs by benzene plus S-9 mix in a dose-dependent manner...

Scott Stewart and Guowei Fang

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Flame pyrolysis a preparation route for ultrafine pure ?-Fe2O3 powders and the control of their particle size and properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Highly dispersed ?-Fe2O3 powders with particle sizes down to 5 nm were directly synthesized by combustion of solutions of iron pentacarbonyl or iron(III) acetylacetonate in toluene in an oxyhydrogen flame. The .....

S GRIMM; M SCHULTZ; S BARTH; R MULLER

384

Northeast Site Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Interim Measures Progress...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

cis-1,2- DCE (mgkg) Methylene Chloride (mgkg) Toluene (mgkg) TCE (mgkg) Florida Petroleum Range Organics (mgkg) NAPL Remediation Goals 71,000 227,000 15,000 20,400 2,500,000...

385

Green waxes, adhesives and lubricants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Therefore, to develop ideal green waxes, it is expected that...and hydraulic fluids. 2. Green adhesives (a) Introduction...instance, in a conventional solvent-based adhesive formulation, solvents such as toluene and trichloroethane...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

CDDI Major Instrumentation and Software STERIS AMSCO Lab250  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

purification system - removes residual water from organic solvents (chroroform, tetrahydrofuran, toluene synthesis Multisample microwave oven -coming soon Innovative Technology Pure Solv solvent purification system Chromatography (HPLC/FPLC/MPLC), separation and solvent purification Thermo High-Flow Surveyor LC

Meyers, Steven D.

387

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Environmental Analytes Using Trifluoromethane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......addressed. Department of Chemistry, Virginia Polytechnic...Taylor Department of Chemistry, Virginia Polytechnic...0 supports vigorous combustion of flammable liquids...montan wax from a toluene coal tar extract (16...I. Barshad. In: Chemistry of the Soil, F.E......

A.L. Howard; W.J. Yoo; L.T. Taylor; F.K. Schweighardt; A.P. Emery; S.N. Chesler; W.A. MacCrehan

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Phenol Derivatives and Total Synthesis of Welwitindolinone Natural Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heterocyclic carbene ligand IPr in toluene at 120 C (Scheme1.52 Ni(COD) 2 (20 mol%) IPrHCl (40 mol%) OCH 3 HNR 2 NR 2heterocyclic carbene ligand IPr, allows for the coupling of

Quasdorf, Kyle

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Glucose Fermentation Pathway of Thermoanaerobium brockii  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the growth phase, cell suspensions were...toluene-treated cell suspensions were...L-lactate, acetate, hydrogen, and car- bon dioxide production...Clostridium pasteurianum. Cell extracts also contained...catabolic amounts of hydrogen- ase, phosphotransacetylase...

R. Lamed; J. G. Zeikus

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Confocal microscopy study of colloidal sedimentation and crystallization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-polar solvents such as toluene, as well as weakly polar solvents such as tetrahydrofuran that are too polar for 1-octadecanol coated particles.51,53,54 Finally, silanes such as octadecyltrimethoxysilane (OTMS) will attach octadecyl chains to the particle...

Beckham, Richard Edward

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

E-Print Network 3.0 - archaea-specific chemotaxis proteins Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thomas K. Wood Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1... was chemotactic toward toluene, PCE, TCE, cis-DCE, 1,1-DCE, and VC. Chemotaxis of P. stutzeri OX1 grown on o... of...

392

High Levels of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mate Drinks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons| Introduction Esophageal...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. PAHs...usually exposed to combustion products from burning...SRM 2260a Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Toluene, SRM 2269...dichloromethane; heat: preheat cell at 100C...

Farin Kamangar; Michele M. Schantz; Christian C. Abnet; Renato B. Fagundes; and Sanford M. Dawsey

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Ligand Mediated Surface Reconstruction of Photoluminescent CdTe Quantum Dots.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Enhancement of photoluminescence (PL) is observed for light-shielded dodecylamine-capped colloidal CdTe quantum dots (CdTe/DDA QDs) dispersed in toluene after washing and recapping. The PL quantum (more)

Onnink, A.J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

research 1..3  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the null angle method 21,25,26 to determine the molecular orientation of toluene at the carbon interface. Figure 2C shows the SFG intensity from both the bare HOPG surface, and...

395

Photochemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons: implications for ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

formation is essential to assess the urban air pollution. This dissertation consists of two parts: (1) theoretical investigation of the toluene oxidation initiated by OH radical using quantum chemical and kinetic calculations to understand the mechanism of O...

Suh, Inseon

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

396

Distribution of the catabolic transposon Tn5271 in a groundwater bioremediation system.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Toluene metabolism Water Microbiology georef...chemical waste ground water Hyde Park Site...pollutants pollution remediation sediments sludge...A GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION SYSTEM 89 b...gene sequences in ground- water and SBR samples...

R C Wyndham; C Nakatsu; M Peel; A Cashore; J Ng; F Szilagyi

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Cigarettes Health Risks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(used in embalming fluid), ammonia (found in household cleaners), and toluene (found in paint thinners, 22 percent of Hispanic and 13 percent of African American high school students currently smoke

Oregon, University of

398

The effect of aging techniques on asphalt low-temperature properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the separation of an asphalt into four fractions: asphaltenes, polar aromatics, naphthene aromatics and saturates. Saturates are typically paraffins and other branched alkanes. Naphthene aromatics are toluene soluble non-polar aromatic hydrocarbons, whereas... polar aromatics are their polar counterparts that are soluble in an ethanol-toluene solution. Saturates, naphthene aromatics and polar aromatics, all soluble in normal heptane, make up the maltene phase of the asphalt. Asphaltcnes are the heaviest...

Knorr, Daniel Brainard

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Numerical study of the effect of oxygenated blending compounds on soot formation in shock tubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This numerical study deals with the influence of blends on the amount of soot formed in shock tubes, which were simulated by assuming a homogeneous plug flow reactor model. For this purpose, first, the reaction model used here was validated against experimental results previously obtained in the literature. Then, the soot volume fractions of various mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-benzene, isobutene-benzene, methanol-benzene, and ethanol-benzene diluted in argon were simulated and compared to the results of benzene-argon pyrolysis at 1721 K and 5.4 MPa. For MTBE, isobutene, methanol, and ethanol, small amounts of additives to benzene-argon mixtures promoted soot formation, for the shock tube model assumed, while higher concentrations of these additives led to smaller soot volume fractions in comparison to pure benzene-argon pyrolysis. The most significant soot promotion effect was found for the additives MTBE and isobutene. The channel for MTBE decomposition producing isobutene and methanol is very effective at temperatures beyond 1200 K. Thus, both MTBE-benzene and isobutene-benzene mixtures diluted in argon showed rather similar behavior in regard to soot formation. Special emphasis was directed toward the causes for the concentration-dependent influence of the blends on the amount of soot formed. Aromatic hydrocarbons and acetylene were identified as key gas-phase species that determine the trends in the formation of soot of various mixtures. From reaction flux analysis for phenanthrene, it was deduced that the combinative routes including phenyl species play a major role in forming PAHs, especially at early reaction times. It is found that the additives play an important role in providing material to grow side chains, such as by reaction channels including phenylacetylene or benzyl, which are confirmed to form aromatic hydrocarbons and thus to influence the amount of soot formed, particularly when the concentrations of the blends are increased. (author)

Boehm, H. [Physikalische Chemie I, Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany); Braun-Unkhoff, M. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

Copolymerization study of 1,2- and 1,4-cyclohexene oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

soluble in this 'solvent blend, Better resolution of the tertiary proton resonance was obtained by running the copolymers in benzene. Copolymers g 0 through g 9 were run in benzene (See Table 2), Copolymers g 1, g 2 and 4 3 fractionated in benzene... spectrum has been published on the homo- polymer of 1, 4 -cyclohexene oxide, Partial] y deuterated 22 cis and trans 1, 4-cyclohexanediol have been studied by NNR. 36 It has been pointed out in the literature that equatorial protons are shifted further...

Glaesmann, Orville Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

XYLENE XYLENE NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. INTRODUCTION 2. METABOLISM AND DISPOSITION 2.1 ABSORPTION 2.2 DISTRIBUTION 2.3 METABOLISM 2.4 EXCRETION 3. NONCARCINOGENIC HEALTH EFFECTS 3.1 ORAL EXPOSURES 3.2 INHALATION EXPOSURES 3.3 OTHER ROUTES OF EXPOSURE 3.4 TARGET ORGANS/CRITICAL EFFECTS 4. CARCINOGENICITY 4.1 ORAL EXPOSURES 4.2 INHALATION EXPOSURES 4.3 OTHER ROUTES OF EXPOSURE 4.4 EPA WEIGHT-OF-EVIDENCE 4.5 CARCINOGENICITY SLOPE FACTORS 5. REFERENCES September 1994 Prepared by Carol S. Forsyth, Ph.D. and Rosmarie A. Faust, Ph.D., Chemical Hazard Evaluation Group, Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis

402

A route for polonium 210 production from alpha irradiated bismuth-209 A. Younes,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radioactive [1]. Second, one of its isotopes, polonium-210 (Po-210) that occurs naturally in the uranium-238: +33(0)2 51 85 85 36; fax: 33(0)2 51 85 84 52; e-mail: champion@subatech.in2p3.fr Summary A method by employing liquid­liquid extraction method using tributyl phosphate (TBP) in para-xylene from 7 M

Boyer, Edmond

403

Measurement and correlation of phase equilibria for (water+aromatic hydrocarbon) binary mixtures at T=(573 to 623)K using microfluidic mixing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(Vapour+liquid) and (liquid+liquid) equilibria for (water+p-xylene) and (water+decalin) mixtures at T=(573 to 623)K were measured by a flow type apparatus with microfluidic system. The liquidliquid slug flows in the microfluidic system were used for mixing of water and hydrocarbon due to high mass transfer between two liquid phases. The formations of the liquidliquid slugs for (water+p-xylene) system were studied by changing the flow rate. The results of the liquidliquid slug formations at hydrocarbon and water rich compositions were used for the measurements for (vapour+liquid) and (liquid+liquid) equilibria, respectively. It was found that the phase equilibria using the apparatus with the microfluidic system can be measured in a short residential time (1.6 to 3.2)min. The experimental results of the phase equilibria for (water+p-xylene) and (water+decalin) systems give that the regions of the (vapour+liquid) and (liquid+liquid) equilibria for both mixtures reduce with the increasing temperature. The mixture of (water+decalin) at T=(583 to 623)K forms the two phase regions of the (vapour+liquid) and (liquid+liquid) equilibria larger than those for (water+p-xylene) mixture. The experimental data of the phase equilibria obtained in this work were correlated with PengRobinsonStryjekVera equation of state. The correlated results of the (liquid+liquid) equilibria for both systems represent the experimental data. For (vapour+liquid) equilibria, the results give the qualitative representations in the shape of the two phase region for both mixtures.

Masaki Togo; Taisuke Maeda; Akira Ito; Yusuke Shimoyama

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Summerwood formation in loblolly pine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of products of anaerobic respiration. He supported his view by experimental data showing a high r espiratory quotient during the summer. In an attempt to clarify the relation between dormancy and auxin 10 Gouwentak (1941) studied the interaction of auxin... in phloroglucinol and hydrochloric acid. In early studies they were mounted in glycerin, but in later studies they were dehydrated on the slide with some absolute alcohol, saturated with xylene, and mounted in technic on. Even in technioon the stain would fade...

Van Buijtenen, Johannes Petrus

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Studies of thin films and surfaces with optical harmonic generation and electron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum frequency generation (SFG) were used to study C{sup 60} thin solid films (low energy ED forbidden electronic excitations), and electron spectroscopy was used to study organic overlayers (xylenes) on Pt(111). Theory of SHG from a thin film is described in terms of surface and bulk contributions as well as local and nonlocal contributions to the optical nonlinearities. (1)In situ SHG data on C{sub 60} films during UHV film growth can be described in terms of only nonlocal contributions to both surface and bulk nonlinear susceptibilities. Microscopic origin of SHG response is discussed in terms of electric quadrupole and ED transitions of C{sub 60}. (2)Adsorption and thermal decomposition of ortho- and para-xylene on Pt(111) is studied using HREELS, LEED, AES, and thermal desorption spectroscopy. We have observed preferential decomposition of the methyl groups which leads to distinct decomposition pathways for ortho- and para-xylene on Pt(111).

Wilk, D.E.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

A New Type of pi-Molecular Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structure, and Magnetism of a New Type of pi-Molecular Complex Structure, and Magnetism of a New Type of pi-Molecular Complex Containing Binuclear Copper(II) Complexes and Benzene: Bis[2,2-dimethyl-7-(phenylimino)-3,5, 7-octanetrionato]dicopper(II)-Benzene and Bis[2,2-dimethyl-7- ((4-nitrophenyl)imino)-3,5,7-octanetrionato]dicopper(II)-Bis(benzene) James F. Wishart, Christopher Ceccarelli, Richard L. Lintvedt, Jeremy M. Berg, David P. Foley, Tom Frey, James E. Hahn, Keith O. Hodgson and Robert Weis Inorg. Chem. 22, 1667-1671 (1983) Abstract: The title compounds have been crystallized and examined by X-ray diffraction techniques. The structure of Cu2(PAAan)2°C6H6 consists of stacks of alternating bis[2,2-dimethyl-7-(phenylimino)-3,5,7-octanetrionato]dicopper(II), Cu2(PAAan)2, and benzene molecules in an ADAD... pattern. Crystal data are

407

Iron-catalyzed reaction products of ?-tocopherol with methyl 13(S)-hydroperoxy-9(Z),11(E)-octadecadienoate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?-Tocopherol was reacted with methyl 13(S)-hydroperoxy-9(Z),11(E)-octadecadienoate in the presence of an iron-chelate, Fe(III)-acetylacetonate, at 37C in benzene. The...E)-octadecenoate, four stereoisomers of me...

Ryo Yamauchi; Norio Yamamoto; Koji Kato

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Oxidative dehydrogenation of tetrahydrothiophene to thiophene on metal sulfides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dehydration tetrahydrothiophane the presence of air oxygen over MoS2 at 365380C may produce thiophene in a yield of 77% and selectivity of 90100% without benzene admixtures.

L. V. Manuilova; A. Kh. Sharipov

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Francesca M. Kerton and Ray Marriott: Alternative Solvents for Green Chemistry, 2nd Edition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Having been educated in an era before health and safety became Health and Safety...and benzene was freely used as a degreaser, I approached this volume with a certain degree of scepticism. However, from a logical...

Edward R. Adlard

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Viscosity and Density of Reference Fluid.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The viscosity and density of bis(8-methylnonyl) benzene-1,2- dicarboxylate {diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP)}, with a nominal viscosity at T = 298 K and p = 0.1 MPa (more)

Almotari, Masaed Moti M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

412

Assessment of BTX Concentrations Near a Petrol Station Using Diffusive Samplers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

polluted area. Keywords: Air quality, population exposure, benzene, service Station, petrol, vapour Author manuscript, published in "International Conference Measuring Air Pollutants by Diffusive Sampling monitoring and dispersion modelling methodology was applied for assessing air quality related

Boyer, Edmond

413

Role of exchange in density-functional theory for weakly interacting systems: Quantum Monte Carlo analysis of electron density and interaction energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the density-functional theory (DFT) description of weak interactions by employing diffusion and reptation quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations, for a set of benzene-molecule complexes. While the binding energies ...

Grossman, Jeffrey C.

414

A role of selenium against methylmercury toxicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... at molar base was two or more times higher than that of Se estimated by flameless atomic absorption. Moreover, methylmercury from the benzene phase could be removed by cysteine solution ...

K. SUMINO; R. YAMAMOTO; S. KITAMURA

1977-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

415

Kroto and charisma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... vision of the benzene ring in a dream about a snake biting its tail. Sir Harry Kroto tells how his work at Rice University in Houston, Texas (with a team ...

Martin Kemp

1998-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

416

Session #1: Cutting Edge Methodologies--Beyond Current DFT  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

dimer PBE LDA Exp CCSD(T) LDA PBE vdW Interaction between H 2 and Carbon PBE Graphene CCSD(T) LDA Benzene omitted in the LDA and GGA van der Walls (vdW)-DFT: Langreth,...

417

Miguel Gonzalez | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the interaction of a variety of small gas molecules (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen, and argon) with Co2(dobdc) (dobdc4- 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzene-dic...

418

Carbon nanostructures production by AC arc discharge plasma process at atmospheric pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon nanostructures have received much attention for a wide range of applications. In this paper, we produced carbon nanostructures by decomposition of benzene using AC arc discharge plasma process at atmospheric pressure. Discharge was carried out ...

Shenqiang Zhao; Ruoyu Hong; Zhi Luo; Haifeng Lu; Biao Yan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Nitroaromatic Compounds, from Synthesis to Biodegradation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Songhua River (102). The resulting pollution contained benzene and nitrobenzene...chemistry of PAHs contribute to air pollution in urban settings. Although the...2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol in solution. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39...

Kou-San Ju; Rebecca E. Parales

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Exploring the relationship between traffic-related pollutants, adverse birth outcomes, and asthma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Vehicle Emissions Benzene Childhood Leukemia CO, PM Fetal Hypoxia, Growth, Birth weight, Prematurity, Birth defects of Case · Residence of Control -- ADT Road Segment and associated volume (cars/day) --Distance

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Childhood Cancer and Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in Pregnancy and Early Life  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exposure to traffic and nitrogen dioxide. Epidemiology 16(in Taiwan using nitrogen dioxide as an air pollutant marker.benzene and modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) as a marker of

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Catalytic reactive separation system for energy-efficient production of cumene  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to an atmospheric pressure, reactive separation column packed with a solid acid zeolite catalyst for producing cumene from the reaction of benzene with propylene. Use of this un-pressurized column, where simultaneous reaction and partial separation occur during cumene production, allow separation of un-reacted, excess benzene from other products as they form. This high-yielding, energy-efficient system allows for one-step processing of cumene, with reduced need for product purification. Reacting propylene and benzene in the presence of beta zeolite catalysts generated a selectivity greater than 85% for catalytic separation reactions at a reaction temperature of 115 degrees C and at ambient pressure. Simultaneously, up to 76% of un-reacted benzene was separated from the product; which could be recycled back to the reactor for re-use.

Buelna, Genoveva (Nuevo Laredo, MX); Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

423

Coking of coal batch with different content of oxidized coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of oxidized coal in coking batch increases the analytical moisture content and ... increases the oxygen content; reduces the gross coke yield and the yield of tar, benzene ... of carbon dioxide, pyrogenet...

D. V. Miroshnichenko; I. D. Drozdnik; Yu. S. Kaftan; N. B. Bidolenko

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Studies of Fundamental Properties of Rutherfordium (element 104) using Organic Complexing Agents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the studies of TBP hydrolysis used nitric acid systems. The12 M. This is due to TBP extraction of nitric acid. At this1 M TBP in benzene and the concentration of nitric acid in

Czerwinski, K.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Antiradical Power of Carotenoids and Vitamin E: Testing the Hydrogen Atom Transfer Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solvent effects were included, using the polarizable continuum model (PCM),(46, 47) with water and benzene acting as the solvents for polar and nonpolar environments, respectively. ... Antiradical Power of CAR ... The electrodonating (?) and electroaccepting (?+) powers of the most relevant ... ...

Ana Martnez; Andrs Barbosa

2008-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

426

Moving Towards a Holistic View of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gal. 3.95E-01 Acrolein lb. 4.95E-07 Benzene lb. 4.77E-04 CO lb. 1.91E+00 CO 2 fossil lb. 2.78E+02 CO 2

Gray, Matthew

427

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

430

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

431

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL USE GRANT REVIEW FORM ECU policy requires that all grant proposals involving the use of hazardous chemicals be reviewed by an institutional review committee or  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-benezene 4-Aminodiphenyl Asbestos Coal tar pitch volatiles Methyl chloromethyl ether Formaldehyde Vinyl chloride Coke oven emissions 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane Lead Cadmium Benzene Cotton dust Chromium VI

433

Tuning the photophysical properties of amidophosphine complexes of copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A series of monomeric copper complexes that allow for the tuning of the emission properties is reported. Luminescence lifetimes up to 150 [mu]s are observed in benzene solution at ambient temperature, which are comparable ...

Mickenberg, Seth F. (Seth Fox)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PM, heavy metals, VOC, dioxins, furans) data (in addition toemissions (e.g. heavy metals, dioxins and furans) may be ofemissions of VOC, benzene, dioxin/furans, heavy metals (Ar,

Stadel, Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Co-generation of electricity and chemicals from propane fuel in solid oxide fuel cells with anode containing nano-bimetallic catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) produced from hydrocarbon in SOFCs. PAHs containing a benzene ring usually occur in oil, coal, and tar, PAHs are typically liquids at ambient temperature and pressure which make them convenient for capture

Frenkel, Anatoly

436

Methylbutylmalonamide as an extractant for U(VI), Pu(IV) and Am(III)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The unsymmetrical diamide methylbuthylmalonamide has been synthesized and used in the extraction of U(VI), Pu(IV) and Am(III) in benzene medium. The distribution ratio for the three cations was found to increa...

G. M. Nair; D. R. Prabhu; G. R. Mahajan

1994-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

437

Characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Asian and north American pollution plumes during INTEX-B: identification of specific Chinese air mass tracers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal and biofuel combustion and biomass burning (Khalil andcombustion products ethyne and benzene, and of the biomass/combustion tracer ethyne, the industrial solvent CH 2 Cl 2 , and the two coal/biomass

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Chemical Kinetics of Combustion Processes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Combustion Processes Hai Wang B. Yang, J. Camacho, S. Lieb, S. Memarzadeh, S.-K. Gao and S. Koumlis University of Southern California 2010 CEFRC Conference Benzene + O( 3 P) ...

439

Enhanced phytoremediation of volatile environmental pollutants with transgenic trees  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, and chloroform, are com- mon environmental conventional techniques. CYP2E1 P450 poplar trichloroethylene carbon tetrachloride Phytoremediation is the use greater public approval. Phytoremediation also yields other benefits including carbon sequestration, soil

440

942 Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 10, No. 5, 1971 solid (mp 43" with slight decomposition), which is sensitive to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is sensitive to air and water. I t is soluble in carbon tetrachloride, trichloro- fluoromethane, and benzene but insoluble in butane. The infrared spectrum (4000-200 cm-l) in carbon tetrachloride showed the following

Bodner, George M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Any correspondence concerning this service should be sent to the repository administrator: staff-oatao@inp-toulouse.fr  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with benzene, carbon tetrachloride and carbon dioxide, which proved to be satisfactory as well. Keywords: soft-SAFT, crossover, nitriles, isomers, acetonitrile, carbon tetrachloride. #12;1. Introduction Accurate thermodynamic

Mailhes, Corinne

442

Androgen radioimmunoassay in the ram : results of direct plasma testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solutions (100 yg/ml) in redistilled methanol or ethanol *. These standard solutions were changed every 4/ml in benzene-ethanol (9 v/1 v) and stored at -I- 4 !C. The specific activity of testosterone, 5

Boyer, Edmond

443

Combined isomerization of overhead cuts of straight-run naphtha and reformate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Technology was developed for combined isomerization of IBP-85C overhead cuts of straight-run naphtha and reformate to reduce the benzene content in automotive gasolines. In comparison to the traditional technolo...

Nguen Van Ty

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

A numerical model of perturbation gas chromatography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

37 38 39 10. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Species Profile for a Positive Benzene Perturbation in System 1 Species Profile for a Positive Cyclohexane Perturbation in System 1 Species Profile for a Positive n-Hexane Perturbation in System... 1 Species Profile for a Cyclohexane Perturbation in System 3 Species Profile for a Positive n ? Hexane Perturbation in System 2 Species Profile for a Positive Benzene Perturbation in System 2 Species Profile for a Positive Cyclohexane...

DeBarro, Marc Joseph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

445

Complete genome sequence of Tolumonas auensis type strain (TA 4T)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tolumonas auensis Fischer-Romero et al. 1996 is currently the only validly named species of the genus Tolumonas in the family Aeromonadaceae. The strain is of interest because of its ability to produce toluene from phenylalanine and other phenyl precursors, as well as phenol from tyrosine. This is of interest because toluene is normally considered to be a tracer of anthropogenic pollution in lakes, but T. auensis represents a biogenic source of toluene. Oth- er than Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, T. auensis strain TA 4T is the only other member in the family Aeromonadaceae with a completely sequenced type-strain genome. The 3,471,292 bp chromosome with a total of 3,288 protein-coding and 116 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program JBEI 2008.

Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Berry, Alison M [California Institute of Technology, University of California, Davis; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Beller, Harry R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

447

Complete genome sequence of Tolumonas auensis type strain (TA 4T)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tolumonas auensis (Fischer-Romero et al. 1996) is currently the only validly named species of the genus Tolumonas in the family Aeromonadaceae. The strain is of interest because of its ability to produce toluene from phenylalanine and other phenyl precursors, as well as phenol from tyrosine. This is of interest because toluene is normally considered to be a tracer of anthropogenic pollution in lakes, but T. auensis represents a biogenic source of toluene. Other than Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, T. auensis strain TA 4T is the only other member in the family Aeromonadaceae with a completely sequenced type-strain genome. The 3,471,292-bp chromosome with a total of 3,288 protein-coding and 116 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program JBEI 2008.

Chertkov, Olga; Copeland, Alex; Lucas1, Susa; Lapidus, Alla; Berry, KerrieW.; Detter, JohnC.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Hammon, Nancy; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Pitluck, Sam; Richardson, Paul; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Saunders, Elizabeth; Schmutz, Jeremy; Brettin, Thomas; Larimer, Frank; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Spring, Stefan; Rohde, Manfred; Kyrpides, NikosC.; Ivanova, Natalia; Gker, Markus; Beller, HarryR.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

448

Detailed kinetic models for the low-temperature auto ignition of gasoline surrogates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the context of the search for gasoline surrogates for kinetic modeling purpose, this paper describes a new model for the low-temperature auto-ignition of n-heptane/iso-octane/hexene/toluene blends for the different linear isomers of hexene. The model simulates satisfactory experimental results obtained in a rapid compression machine for temperatures ranging from 650 to 850 K in the case of binary and ternary mixtures including iso octane, 1-hexene and toluene. Predictive simulations have also been performed for the autoignition of n heptane/iso octane/hexene/toluene quaternary mixtures: the predicted reactivity is close to that of pure iso octane with a retarding effect when going from 1- to 3-alkene.

Bounaceur, Roda; Fournet, Ren; Warth, Valrie; Battin-Leclerc, Frdrique

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Carbon Nanotubes as High-Pressure Cylinders and Nanoextruders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nanotubes and demonstrated that even hard materials such as iron carbide or cobalt can be extruded under the pressures prevailing...dissolving 3 weight percent of a metallocene (ferrocene or cobalt acetylacetonate) in ethanol (for Fe) or toluene (for Co); the solution...

L. Sun; F. Banhart; A. V. Krasheninnikov; J. A. Rodrguez-Manzo; M. Terrones; P. M. Ajayan

2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

450

Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry 41: 155162, 2001. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into metal clusters, catalysts, and nanoparticles. Encapsulation of toxic heavy metal ions in porous(II) macrocycle, open framework, self-assembly, supramolecular chemistry Abstract Inclusion studies for metal. It binds PhOH in toluene, showing a sigmoid curve. It also binds transition metal complexes such as [Cu(NH3

Paik Suh, Myunghyun

451

Microsoft Word - DOE_RM_DM-#99768-v1-NAPL_Quarterly_Report_for...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

are gL) Well Screened Interval (ft bls) TCE cis-DCE methylene chloride toluene petroleum hydrocarbons+ 0573 5-15 2.5 U 63.3 5 U 2.5 U 2,170 0574 18-28 6.6 351 5 U 2.5 U 640...

452

APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 0099-2240/01/$04.00 0 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.67.9.38823887.2001  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 0099-2240/01/$04.00 0 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.67-picoline proceeds at only 4.5% of the rate of the natural reaction on toluene. Random mutagenesis of dioxygenases that degrade environmen- tal pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (7, 21). An alternative

Arnold, Frances H.

453

for the alkylation reaction. We (23) and others (24) observed similar carbon isotope effects in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

no wasteful by-products other than water. Whereas chlorinated solvents such as CH2Cl2 and C6H5Cl generally give the best results, nonchlorinated solvents such as toluene and tetrahydrofuran can be used in most- generation "green" catalytic processes. References and Notes 1. G. A. Olah, A. Molnár, Hydrocarbon Chemistry

Jacob, Daniel J.

454

Cey. J. Sci. (Bio. Sci.) 35 (1): 25-39, 2006 PHYTOREMEDIATION: AN AFFORDABLE GREEN TECHNOLOGY FOR THE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

no wasteful by-products other than water. Whereas chlorinated solvents such as CH2Cl2 and C6H5Cl generally give the best results, nonchlorinated solvents such as toluene and tetrahydrofuran can be used in most- generation "green" catalytic processes. References and Notes 1. G. A. Olah, A. Molnár, Hydrocarbon Chemistry

Rajakaruna, Nishanta

455

Green Chemistry Dynamic Article Links Cite this: Green Chem., 2011, 13, 2549  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Green Chemistry Dynamic Article Links Cite this: Green Chem., 2011, 13, 2549 www,6-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane core. The reaction took place efficiently in ionic liquid solvents instead of toluene as a heterogeneous catalyst in the preliminary study in molecular solvents, could be totally excluded thanks

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

456

Viscosity of semi-dilute polymer solutions M. Adam and M. Delsanti  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

549 Viscosity of semi-dilute polymer solutions M. Adam and M. Delsanti Laboratoire Léon viscosity measurements on semi-dilute solutions (c* c 10 %). The viscosity variation is independent to the solvent viscosity. With concentration, the following variations were observed : 2014 for PIB-toluene, ~r

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

457

Healing of Adsorbed Polymer Layers in a Narrow Gap Following Removal by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Healing of Adsorbed Polymer Layers in a Narrow Gap Following Removal by Shear Uri Raviv1 Mw = 37 kg/mol adsorbed onto smooth, curved solid (mica) surfaces across the good solvent toluene similar to those measured in earlier studies between adsorbed PEO layers. The shearing motion causes

Klein, Jacob

458

Synthesis of Small Molecule Candidate Insulin Mimics by the Claisen Rearrangement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

growth factor receptor iPr Isopropyl IR Insulin receptor IRR = Bu 78 R = allyl 79 R = iPr DIPEA, toluene rt, Ar O O N RR = Me 109 R = Bu 110 R = iPr Scheme 2.34 Sonogashira-indole

Nalbandian, Jenifer N.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Supplemental Information : Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Modern Diesel Engine Emissions, Shar Samy and1 Barbara Zielinska2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supplemental Information : Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Modern Diesel Engine Emissions emissions. For more detail on compositional and toxicity changes produced from further29 diesel engine use, including: engine age or total engine lifetime operation,23 differences in the initial in-chamber toluene

Meskhidze, Nicholas

460

Crystallization in the Thin and Ultrathin Films of Poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) and Linear Low-Density Polyethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Density Polyethylene Y. Wang, S. Ge, M. Rafailovich,*, J. Sokolov, Y. Zou, H. Ade, J. Lu1 ning,§ A. Lustiger, and G(ethylene-vinyl acetate) and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) films spun-cast from the polymer/toluene solutions spherulite to sheaflike ag- gregates in polyethylene thin films at a critical thickness of 400 nm. Scho

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Test method Evaluating the influence of contacting fluids on polyethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Test method Evaluating the influence of contacting fluids on polyethylene using acoustic emissions emissions Polyethylene Penetrant Toluene Aqueous detergent a b s t r a c t Identifying microstructural) on the structure of a semi-crystalline polymer (high density polyethylene, HDPE) over different periods of exposure

Thompson, Michael

462

Frustrated Organic Solids Display Unexpected Gas Sorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Calixarene based organic solid can hold guests such as toluene and other organic molecules we have discovered a new type of material which believe involves a frustration of the solvate lattice as it moves toward the thermodynamically stable desolvated state. The intermediated phase with partial solvent content unexpectedly sorbs gases such as carbon dioxide and highly explosive acetylene deep inside the crystal lattice.

Thallapally, Praveen K.; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Atwood, Jerry L.

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

463

IOP PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 19 (2008) 315709 (6pp) doi:10.1088/0957-4484/19/31/315709  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1088/0957-4484/19/31/315709 Gas adsorption and capillary condensation in nanoporous alumina films F`elix Casanova1 , Casey E of the sample in good agreement with independent structural measurements. The condensation for toluene lacks somewhat larger than the adsorbate molecular diameter. Capillary condensation during gas adsorption

Roshchin, Igor V.

464

Reaction of Ketones with Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: Competitive Enolizations and 1,2-Additions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS, TMS2NLi) displays highly solvent-dependent chemoselectivity. LiHMDS in THF/toluene effect by two sterically unhindered ligands: THF and pyrrolidine. Despite the isostructural relation- ship of THF and pyrrolidine, LiHMDS/THF mixtures effect clean enolization, whereas LiHMDS/pyrrolidine mixtures

Collum, David B.

465

Real-time Remote Sensing of Snowmobiles Emissions at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Real-time Remote Sensing of Snowmobiles Emissions at Yellowstone National Park: An Oxygenated Fuel 68509 #12;Real-time Remote Sensing of Snowmobile Emissions at Yellowstone National Park 2 Executive emissions from snowmobiles. Ratios of CO, HC and toluene to CO2 were measured and used to calculate %CO, %HC

Denver, University of

466

Method for measuring the effectiveness of gaseous-contaminant removal filters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report presents a brief review of the gas-adsorption kinetics theory applicable to adsorption of gaseous contaminants by filter media, and an algorithm for assessing the effectiveness of filtering devices with flow bypass. It briefly describes the selected testing technique for measuring the effectiveness of filter media, and presents experimental data for adsorption of n-butane, toluene, and carbon monoxide.

Mahajan, B.M.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Measurement of the Vaporization Enthalpy of Complex Mixtures by Correlation-Gas Chromatography. The  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in evaluating the mole fraction of each hydrocarbon present, as a function of size, is tested and determined on the development of fuels that, when heated, undergo endothermic decomposition to yield secondary products whose combustion is used for propulsion.2-4 The catalytic dehydrogenation of methyl- cyclohexane to toluene

Chickos, James S.

468

Polyferrocenylsilanes as Protective Charge Migration Coatings for Dielectrics*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+Business Media, Inc. #12;to an electrical field and may lead to a high energy arc discharge of sufficient energy from a concentrated toluene solution coated on Mylar did not experience any arc discharging when; arc discharge . 1. INTRODUCTION Orbiting at altitudes of 3­6 earth radii, numer- ous satellites

Balmain, Keith G.

469

Quantification of Fuel Oxygenate Ethers in Human Blood using Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Because ofwater solubility, fuel oxygenate...toluene. When water supplies are contaminated...followed by gas chromatography-high-resolution...helium-sparged distilled water (26) to produce...blanks,and water standardsfor daily...column carrier gas for all analyses...using liquid nitrogen from Air Liq......

Lalith K. Silva; Clayton R. Wilburn; Michael A. Bonin; Mitchell M. Smith; Katherine A. Reese; David L. Ashley; Benjamin C. Blount

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Quantitation of Phencyclidine, Its Metabolites, and Derivatives by Gas Chromatography with Nitrogen-Phosphorus Detection: Application for In Vivo and In Vitro Biotransformation Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......mln, spin Water Phase + 1H...1800C Carrier Gas: Nitrogen; rate, 25...Schemeof gas chromatographicassayof...25/~L of water. The toluene...pip PCP. Gas chromatographicconditionsaregiven...compounds from the water phase after...system has low solubility in water......

Elzbieta J. Holsztynska; Edward F. Domino

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Chromatographic and UV-Spectroscopic Properties of Solvated Oxygen in Mixtures of Acetonitrile and Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......responds to the solubility of oxygen in toluene...limit, as oxygen solubility decreases with...caused by solvent-gas interactions...are valid for water a n d are in accordance...absorbance of water and acetonitrile...c system, the gas b u b b l e will...volumes of helium or nitrogen are not Figure......

Jo Doehl

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Lord Justice of Appeal John Fletcher Moulton and explosives production in World War I: the mathematical mind triumphant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...total British prewar toluene production. When gas companies distilled...guncotton is weighed into an India rubber bag. The required volume...30 Unforeseen snags delayed production, so A6 filled the gap by...and expanding picric acid production. 37 Enough nitrate was available...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

A Bibliography of Vapor Phase Thermal Fragmentation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Catalysis 7, 386 (1967). S. J. Price, "Toluene," Can. J. Chem...Green, and L. P. Hallee, "Ethylene," Oil Gas J. 65, 192 (1967...1962). M. Krech and S. J. Price, "Dimethyl Mercury," Can...1963). M. Krech and S. J. Price, "Dimethyl Cadmium," Can......

Stanley F. Sarner

1972-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Carbohydrate Analysis by Ion Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......purchased from Burdick and Jackson. Poly(ethylene glycol), average MW 400, and p-toluene...phase was 4:1 acetonitrile-poly(ethylene glycol) MW 400. Columns were packed...personal communication. 14. Bio-Rad Price List, Richmond, CA, 2989, pp. 40-46......

Dan P. Lee; Mark T. Bunker

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Economic and environmental impacts of the energy source for the utility production system in the HDA of the energy source for the utility production system in the HDA process A. Ouattara a , L. Pibouleau b , C Assessment a b s t r a c t The well-known benchmark process for hydrodealkylation of toluene (HDA) to produce

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

476

5, 607654, 2005 A new experimental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of limonene with O3 and from the photooxidation of toluene in comparison with the combustion aerosol (soot transferred to a molecular flow reactor used for the titration reaction of the surface func- tional groups in a variety of ways (Finlayson-Pitts and Pitts, 2000; Thomas et al., 1989). On a global scale they directly25

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

477

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (1996) 45:248--256 Springer-Verlag 1996 ORIGINAL PAPER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HCl is one of the most frequently detected pollutants in hazardous waste sites and in ground water), and concentrations of copper in excess of 0.25 M have been found in pol- luted ground water (Phelps et al. 1992-suited for environmental remediation. With growth on phenol or toluene as a sole carbon source (Ensley and Kurisko 1994

Wood, Thomas K.

478

Lewis Base Adduct Stabilized Organogallium Azides:? Synthesis and Dynamic NMR Spectroscopic Studies of Novel Precursors to Gallium Nitride and Role of Ammonia as Reactive Carrier Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lewis Base Adduct Stabilized Organogallium Azides:? Synthesis and Dynamic NMR Spectroscopic Studies of Novel Precursors to Gallium Nitride and Role of Ammonia as Reactive Carrier Gas ... Solvents were dried under argon according to standard methods; n-pentane and toluene were stored over Na/K alloy, and diethyl ether and thf over potassium benzophenoate (residual water solubility in other solvents than thf. ...

Alexander Miehr; Mike R. Mattner; Roland A. Fischer

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

479

High-frequency ultrasound array element using thermoelastic expansion in an elastomeric film  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, was focused onto a light-absorbing film deposited on a glass substrate absorbing. We spin coated and cured a mixture of PDMS, carbon black,9 and toluene onto a microscope glass of a water tank Fig. 1 . A 5 cm focal length planoconvex lens focuses the laser pulse through the glass slide

Buma, Takashi

480

Lord Justice of Appeal John Fletcher Moulton and explosives production in World War I: the mathematical mind triumphant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...disclosed the true costs of manufacturing...prewar toluene production. When gas companies distilled...at 47% of the cost of the year before...at 40% of the cost of imported TNT...in explosive production had been surmounted...supplying poisonous gases. Their irrational...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "benzene toluene xylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Optical limiting and thermal lensing studies in C60 S. S. Harilal,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical limiting and thermal lensing studies in C60 S. S. Harilal,a) C. V. Bindhu, V. P. N 1999 Optical limiting and thermo-optic properties of C60 in toluene are studied using 532 nm, 9 ns pulses from a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. Optical limiting studies in these fullerene molecules lead

Harilal, S. S.

482

Spontaneous Enrichment of Organic Molecules from Aqueous and Gas Phases into a Stable Metallogel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-concentration hazardous organics, for example, chlorobenzene or toluene in water or poly- aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs or gas phases. Using nonpolar solvents to extract organic hazards from water is hardly practical since: bacteria (e.g., alkylotrophs) develop specialized cell walls that "dissolve" and accumulate hydrocarbons

Xing, Bengang

483

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control Eunsung Kan, Marc A. Deshusses used bioreactors for air pollution control. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 84: 240­244, 2003. Keywords: VOC control; biofilter; air pollution control; toluene; biologically activated foam

484

Properties of Fine Superconducting YBCO Particles Prepared by Dry- and Wet-Type Jet-Mill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Small YBCO particles which has an average size of 12 m were prepered from high quality YBCO pellets by dry-type jet-mill system. The resulting small YBCO...3COCH2CH3) or toluene(C6H5CH3).As a result, the fine Y...

Hiroshi Kezuka

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Indoor Air Quality Survey of Boston Nail Salons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) suggest that spontaneous abortion in workers exposed to toluene may occur nearly 3 times more than a control group. Roelofs et al. (2008) showed an elevation of respiratory symptoms, skin problems.5 (PM2.5) are linked with respiratory problems #12;Table 1: Information on Layout, Ventilation

Fraden, Seth

486

Chemical and Biological Engineering MPC Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LC LC cooling water Toluene Hydrogen purge Hydrogen, Methane fuel gas steam steamsteam Diphenyl Compressor cooling water CW CW quench TC LC LC LC TC open FC FC FC FC TC CC TC #12;B. Wayne Bequette for Advanced Control Economic return justifies capital and on-going maintenance costs Model Predictive Control

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

487

ADCHEM 2006 International Symposium on Advanced Control of Chemical Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- nomic) loss L as the difference between the actual value of the cost function and the truly optimal 12 9 8 14 Fresh toluene feed rate x x x x Recycle gas flow rate x Recycle gas hydrogen mole fraction x x x Recycle gas methane mole fraction x x x x Compressor power x x Compressor outlet pressure x

Skogestad, Sigurd

488

Effect of solvents on the radiation-induced polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of solvents on the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers (EVE and IPVE, respectively) was investigated. EVE and IPVE polymerizations were carried out in bulk and in solution under superdry conditions in which polar impurities, especially water, have been reduced to negligible levels. This was accomplished by means of a sodium mirror technique using joint free baked out glass equipment and high vacuum. Plots of the monomer conversions and irradiation times were obtained for EVE and IPVE polymerizations in bulk and in benzene solution at constant monomer concentrations. The monomer concentration dependence of the polymerization rate was studied for EVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene, diethlyl ether, diglyme and methylene chloride, and for IPVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene. Solvent effect on the estimated propagating rate constants was examined for EVE and IPVE polymerization in bulk and in solution. The effect of temperature on the polymerization rate was also investigated for EVE polymerization in bulk ad in benzene, diethyl and diisopropyl ethers, methylene chloride and nitromethane, and for IPVE ploymerization in bulk and in benzene.

Hsieh, W.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

8 Modern refining concepts-an update on naphtha-isomerization to modern gasoline manufacture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter discusses several major refinery processes to improve RON. These include naphtha-isomerization, reforming, addition of FCC-Naphtha, alkylation, addition of oxygenates or polygas or butanes. Naphtha isomerization is a simple and very cost effective technology for octane replacement. Isomerization of light naphtha streams rich in C5's and C6's typically results in an increase of 10 to 20 octane numbers. The octane increase depends upon the feed composition and the octane need of the refiner. Proper selection of the isomerization technology is an assurance against lack of octane and surplus of benzene in the gasoline pool. Normal C5's and C6's typically are abundant in streams from gas condensate units, light raffinate from aromatics extraction units, and light straight-run naphtha from atmospheric distillation. Even benzene containing feedstocks became potential sources for isomerization as modern catalysts help to manage the benzene surplus through saturation and ring opening reactions to high octane product. This conversion of benzene is an added benefit of isomerization to refiners' economics, especially in those countries where extra credit is given for benzene reduction in the gasoline pool. The isomerization reaction takes place over a catalyst under relatively mild conditions in the presence of hydrogen.

Hartmut Weyda; Ernst Khler

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Mapping surrogate gasoline compositions into RON/MON space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, new experimentally determined octane numbers (RON and MON) of blends of a tri-component surrogate consisting of toluene, n-heptane, i-octane (called toluene reference fuel TRF) arranged in an augmented simplex design are used to derive a simple response surface model for the octane number of any arbitrary TRF mixture. The model is second-order in its complexity and is shown to be more accurate to the standard ''linear-by-volume'' (LbV) model which is often used when no other information is available. Such observations are due to the existence of both synergistic and antagonistic blending of the octane numbers between the three components. In particular, antagonistic blending of toluene and iso-octane leads to a maximum in sensitivity that lies on the toluene/iso-octane line. The model equations are inverted so as to map from RON/MON space back into composition space. Enabling one to use two simple formulae to determine, for a given fuel with known RON and MON, the volume fractions of toluene, n-heptane and iso-octane to be blended in order to emulate that fuel. HCCI engine simulations using gasoline with a RON of 98.5 and a MON of 88 were simulated using a TRF fuel, blended according to the derived equations to match the RON and MON. The simulations matched the experimentally obtained pressure profiles well, especially when compared to simulations using only PRF fuels which matched the RON or MON. This suggested that the mapping is accurate and that to emulate a refinery gasoline, it is necessary to match not only the RON but also the MON of the fuel. (author)

Morgan, Neal; Kraft, Markus [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit [Reaction Engineering Solutions Ltd., 61 Canterbury Street, Cambridge CB4 3QG (United Kingdom); Cracknell, Roger; Kalghatgi, Gautam [Shell Global Solutions, Shell Technology Centre Thornton, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

491

Exploiting Neoteric Solvents for Sustainable Catalysis and Reaction Engineering: Opportunities and Challenges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several megaton catalytic processes (such as homogeneous hydroformylation of higher olefins, epoxidation of light olefins, and p-xylene oxidation to produce terephthalic acid) exist that produce the essential chemical intermediates for everyday products but present sustainability challenges with respect to reducing environmental footprints and enhancing energy efficiency. ... Effective integration of these elements into a sustainable technology requires a multiscale approach. ... The key challenge for reactor engineering is to establish the scientifically based sustainable technologies necessary for meeting the future energy, environmental, and materials needs of the world. ...

Bala Subramaniam

2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

492

Testing a new NIF neutron time-of-flight detector with a bibenzyl scintillator on OMEGA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector with a bibenzyl crystal as a scintillator has been designed and manufactured for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This detector will replace a nTOF20-Spec detector with an oxygenated xylene scintillator currently operational on the NIF to improve the areal-density measurements. In addition to areal density, the bibenzyl detector will measure the D-D and D-T neutron yield and the ion temperature of indirect- and direct-drive-implosion experiments. The design of the bibenzyl detector and results of tests on the OMEGA Laser System are presented.

Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Knauer, J. P.; Pruyne, A.; Romanofsky, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J. III; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Caggiano, J. A.; Carman, M. L.; Clancy, T. J.; Hatarik, R.; McNaney, J.; Zaitseva, N. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

493

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Condensed Toxicity Summary for BENZENE Condensed Toxicity Summary for BENZENE NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values. September 1992 Prepared by: Mary Lou Daugherty, M.S., Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication Group, Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division*, , Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Prepared for OAK RIDGE RESERVATION ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PROGRAM. *Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. Benzene is absorbed via ingestion, inhalation, and skin application.

494

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

495

New metal-organic nanomaterials synthesized by laser irradiation of organic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new type of metal-organic composition consisting of clusters of nanoparticles has been synthesised by laser irradiation of metallocene/benzene solutions. The metallocene molecules in this reaction become the source of the metal. Exposure to high-energy femtosecond laser pulses dehydrogenate benzene molecules and initiate the high-temperature high-pressure conditions that results in the synthesis of new materials. Irradiation experiments have been carried out on ferrocene/benzene and on other solutions. With ferrocene the synthesis of a new compound has been confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction as the peaks detected do not correspond to any known substance in the Crystallography Open Database. Theoretical simulation of the periodic structure of this new carbide predicts that it has hexagonal symmetry and a unit cell with a = 3.2A and c =2.8A. The exact structure is still uncertain but may be determined from scanning tunneling microscope (STM) studies.

Kuzmin, Stanislav L.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Duley, Walter W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

496

Rack-mounted chemistry IV: the thermal rearrangement of 7-oxabenzonorbornadienes into benzo[b]oxepines on and off the polycyclic rack  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The thermal rearrangement of [3]polynorbornane bis-imide rack-mounted 7-oxabenzonorbornadienes has been conducted using flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) at 520C and is compared with the FVP of similar 7-oxabenzonorbornadienes off the rack. The isomerisation is considered to involve (a) CO bond cleavage to a vinylogous 1,5-dipole, (b) formation of a benzene epoxide by nucleophilic ring-closure and (c) valence-isomerisation of the benzene epoxide to the oxepine. Competing fragmentation to the isobenzofuran by ejection of acetylene and other rearrangements become prominent pathways off the rack, whereas isomerisation to the oxepine is highly favored on the rack.

Muhong Shang; Douglas N. Butler; Ronald N. Warrener; Davor Margeti?

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Temperature-Accelerated Method for Exploring Polymorphism in Molecular Crystals Based on Free Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability of certain organic molecules to form multiple crystal structures, known as polymorphism, has important ramifications for pharmaceuticals and high energy materials. Here, we introduce an efficient molecular dynamics method for rapidly identifying and thermodynamically ranking polymorphs. The new method employs high temperature and adiabatic decoupling to the simulation cell parameters in order to sample the Gibbs free energy of the polymorphs. Polymorphism in solid benzene is revisited, and a resolution to a long-standing controversy concerning the benzene II structure is proposed.

Tang-Qing Yu and Mark E. Tuckerman

2011-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

498

A study of diffusion in binary solutions using spin echoes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acetone 21 ~ 25 26 27 5 The Concentration Dependence of the Diffusion Coefficient of' Benzene in C6H6-CC1~ Solution Intrinsic 29 The Concentration Dependence of the Diffusion Coefficient of Benzene in C6H6-CS2 Solution Intrinsic a 30 ~ ~ 32... The Concentration Dependence of the Intrinsic Diffusion Coefficient of Cyclohexane in a C6H12 CC1~ Solution The Concentration Dependence of the Intrinsic Diffusion Coefficient of Cyclohexane in a C6H12-CS2 Solution LIST C1" TABLES Table Page Comparison...

Rousseau, Cecil Clyde

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

499

A study of new mixture combining rules for prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geometric mean of Eq. 63 for methane and n- o ))an butane. 29 b. Propane (1) and Carbon Dioxide (2) In this system, experimental data for B12 are used as taken from Dymond and Smith(1980). Figure 7 is the fitting diagram of Bin for this system. The y... Dioxide (2). c. Carbon Dioxide (I) and Methanol (2). . d. Ethanol (I) and Benzene (2). . e. Propane (I) and Methanol (2). . f. Methanol (1) and Benzene (2). . g. Ethanol (1) and Water (2)? 15 15 17 20 20 29 29 30 30 38 57 V. DISCUSSIONS...

Shyu, Guor-Shiarn

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

 

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Xylene C8H10 Xylene C8H10 Quantity Value Units Value Units 0.54631 Density 0.870 g cm-3 Mean excitation energy 61.8 eV Minimum ionization 1.986 MeV g-1cm2 1.728 MeV cm-1 Nuclear collision length 57.1 g cm-2 65.66 cm Nuclear interaction length 80.8 g cm-2 92.90 cm Pion collision length 84.6 g cm-2 97.28 cm Pion interaction length 112.8 g cm-2 129.6 cm Radiation length 44.05 g cm-2 50.63 cm Critical energy 95.94 MeV (for e-) 93.43 MeV (for e+) Molière radius 9.74 g cm-2 11.19 cm Plasma energy 19.87 eV Muon critical energy 1214. GeV Composition: Elem Z Atomic frac* Mass frac* H 1 10.00 0.094935 C 6 8.00 0.905065 * calculated from mass fraction data. Explanation of some entries For muons, dE/dx = a(E) + b(E) E. Tables of b(E): PS PDF TEXT