National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for benin cameroon cote

  1. WorldWide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Australia Bangladesh Benin Botswana Brazil Burkina Faso Cameroon Canada Chile China Colombia Congo Cote d'lvoire Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Egypt Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia ...

  2. Cote d'Ivoire IAEA Energy Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "IAEA Project Database" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCoted%27IvoireIAEAEnergyPlanning&oldid328577" Feedback Contact needs updating Image...

  3. Benin: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available


    This paper reports Ashland discovered additional oil reserves deeper than current production in Seme, Benin's only oil field. The field is on a steep decline, producing as little as 2,500 bopd, down from 7,671 bopd in 1984. In an effort to restart offshore exploration, three offshore blocks have been designated. Hardy Oil and Gas (UK) Ltd. has since acquired 20% interest in Blocks 1 and 2 from International Petroleum Ltd. (IPL). IPL completed seismic work during 1990 that identified two large channel prospects similar to those that produce offshore elsewhere in West Africa. The first well is expected in 1991.

  4. Benin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Benin Population 9,983,884 GDP 7,429,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.05 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BJ 3-letter ISO code BEN Numeric ISO...

  5. Benin: Increased Access to Modern Energy Project | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bank1 The objective of the Increased Access to Modern Energy Project is to improve reliability, efficiency, and access to modern energy services in Benin. There are three...

  6. Cameroon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Cameroon Population 17,463,836 GDP 30,000,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.10 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code CM 3-letter ISO code CMR Numeric ISO...

  7. Cameroon-Forest Sector Development in a Difficult Political Economy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bank Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Implementation, Market analysis Resource Type Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:lnweb90.worldbank.orgo Country Cameroon UN...

  8. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)


    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  9. WWS_LorrieC157L_0915

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cameroon Canada Chile China Colombia Congo Cote d'lvoire Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Egypt Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Germany Ghana Greece Honduras India Indonesia...

  10. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote...

  11. African Development Bank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    field and country offices across the continent." Shareholders Regional Members Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad...

  12. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E


    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in Cameroon using 1-D shear wave velocity models obtained from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and P-receiver functions for 32 broadband seismic stations. From the 1-D shear wave velocity models, we obtain new insights into the composition and structure of the crust and upper mantle across Cameroon. After briefly reviewing the geological framework of Cameroon, we describe the data and the joint inversion method, and then interpret variations in crustal structure found beneath Cameroon in terms of the tectonic history of the region.

  13. 105(scaled land 215%)7-22-05

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cntrl African Rep. Chad Chile China Colombia Dem. Rep. Congo Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark ...

  14. Municipal solid waste management in Africa: Strategies and livelihoods in Yaounde, Cameroon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parrot, Laurent Sotamenou, Joel; Dia, Bernadette Kamgnia


    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the capital of Cameroon, Yaounde, and suggests some possible solutions for its improvement. The institutional, financial, and physical aspects of MSW management, as well as the livelihoods of the population, were analyzed. Our study revealed that distances and lack of infrastructure have a major impact on waste collection. Garbage bins are systematically mentioned as the primary infrastructure needed by the population in all quarters, whether it be a high or low standard community. The construction of transfer stations and the installation of garbage bins are suggested as a solution to reduce distances between households and garbage bins, thus improving waste collection vehicle accessibility. Transfer stations and garbage bins would enable the official waste collection company to expand its range of services and significantly improve waste collection rates. Several transfer stations have already been set up by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs), but they require technical, institutional and funding support. Research is needed on the quality and safety of community-made compost, as well as on soil fertility in urban and peri-urban areas. Most of the stakeholders, municipalities, the official waste collection company and households acknowledge the need for better monitoring and regulation of MSW management. The urban community of Yaounde also needs to maintain its support of MSW management and promote the sustainability of NGOs and CBOs operating in underserved areas not yet covered by adequate infrastructures. A major opportunity for implementation of such waste policy is the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) program dedicated to urban planning and good governance.

  15. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.


    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.


    The contents of this book are: Introduction, Argentina, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Bourkina (Upper Volta), Brazil, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields, Appendix II, Phytomass Files, and References.

  17. Benin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWhyear 100 2008 NREL Coal Reserves Unavailable Million Short Tons NA 2008 EIA Natural Gas Reserves 1,133,000,000 Cubic Meters (cu m) 97 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves...

  18. Stump the Scientist Question Form | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Please Help Us Stump the Scientist Ask Your Question *Required fields Name* Email* School/Company* Twitter Handle Country* Select Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad

  19. Benin-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  20. Benin-Climate Finance Readiness Programme | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    support from the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). The Programme will prepare developing countries to effectively and...

  1. Opportunities in African power generation: A business briefing for industry and investment executives. Held in Baltimore, Maryland, June 21-22, 1995. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)


    The report, prepared by the Institute of International Education, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The information contained in the report was compiled in part for a power generation conference held in Baltimore, Maryland. The focus of the report is the market created by electric power projects financed by multilateral development banks. The study contains country information and project profiles related to the energy sector for eleven countries: Benin, Botswana, Cote D`Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Morocoo, Senegal, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The report also outlines the range of service opportunities in the region such as consulting, engineering, construction and project management, and equipment procurement. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Agenda/Program; (2) African Energy Sector Overview; (3) Project Profiles; (4) Country Information; and (5) Attendees.

  2. Application for Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-371 Northern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robert Cote Application for Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-371 Northern Pass: Comments from Robert Cote Application from Northern Pass to construct, operate and maintain ...

  3. Agricultural Progress in Cameroon, Mali and Ghana: Why it Happened...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development (IFAD). The purpose was to identify constraints to agricultural growth and poverty reduction that might be eased through better policy, both domestically and...

  4. Cameroon-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  5. LEDSGP/events/2013workshop/presentations | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Green Growth Best Practices Initiative GGGIppt.pdf Economic and Social Benefits of Low Carbon Green Growth File:UNescap.pdf Case Study - Cote D'Ivoire CoteDIvoireppt.pdf Tools...

  6. Application for Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-371 Northern Pass:

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Comments from Robert Cote | Department of Energy Robert Cote Application for Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-371 Northern Pass: Comments from Robert Cote Application from Northern Pass to construct, operate and maintain electric transmission facilities at the U.S. - Canada Border. PDF icon Cote_NorthernPass_Intervention.pdf More Documents & Publications Application for Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-371 Northern Pass: Comments from Ann Vennerbeck Application for Presidential

  7. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.


    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  8. Technical Standards Managers

    Broader source: (indexed) [DOE]

    Central Technical Authority Chief, Nuclear Safety Sta - CTACNS 1000 Independence Ave., ... Cote FNAL TSM TJ Sarlina Bonneville Power Administraon Idaho Naonal Laboratory ...

  9. ENV-Linkages General Equilibrium Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topics: Co-benefits assessment Resource Type: Softwaremodeling tools Website: www.oecd.orgofficialdocumentsdisplaydocumentpdf?coteECOWKP(2008)6 References: OECD1...

  10. Application for Presidential permit OE Docket No. PP-371 Northern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Michael Marino 082613 Comments from Robert Martin 082613 Comments from Linda Upham ... Lindsey Coombs 091613 Comments from Robert Cote 091613 Comments from John Doane ...

  11. Status of U.S. Nuclear Outages - U.S. Energy Information Administratio...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  12. International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  13. BETA - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  14. Sandia Energy - SNL-ESSC (Sandia National Laboratories - Extreme...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana...

  15. African Biofuel & Renewable Energy Fund (ABREF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Compnay (ABREC) Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Biomass, - Biofuels Website http:www.bidc-ebid.comenfo Country Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Ivory...

  16. Microsoft Word - TOC Section I Conformed thru Mod 274.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nicaragua, or Singapore); (3) A least developed country (Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Central African...

  17. L'Institut de Recherche en Energies Renouvelables (L'IREN) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "UN Cote d'Ivoire country page" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleL%27InstitutdeRechercheenEnergiesRenouvelables(L%27IREN)&oldid765956" Feedback...

  18. National Action Programmes on Desertification | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho,...

  19. Table 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Algerian Condensate Angolan Cabinda Canadian Lloydminster Cameroon Kole Marine Ecuadorian Oriente Mexican Isthmus Mexican Mayan 1978 Average ... W 14.07 - W 13.85 13.54 -...

  20. Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Algerian Condensate Angolan Cabinda Canadian Lloydminster Cameroon Kole Marine Ecuadorian Oriente Mexican Isthmus Mexican Mayan 1978 Average ... W 13.32 - W 12.87 13.24 -...

  1. USAID West Africa Climate Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Sao Tome and Principe, Cape Verde Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western...

  2. Category:Economic Community of West African States | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total. B Benin Burkina Faso C Cape Verde G Gambia Ghana G cont. Guinea Guinea-Bissau I Ivory Coast L Liberia M Mali N Niger Nigeria...

  3. Platinum-group element abundance patterns in different mantle environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rehkaemper, M.; Halliday, A.N.; Barfod, D.; Fitton, J.G.; Dawson, J.B.


    Mantle-derived xenoliths from the Cameroon Line and northern Tanzania display differences in their platinum-group element (PGE) abundance patterns. The Cameroon Line lherzolites have uniform PGE patterns indicating a homogeneous upper mantle over several hundreds of kilometers, with approximately chondritic PGE ratios. The PGE patterns of the Tanzanian peridotites are similar to the PGE systematics of ultramafic rocks from ophiolites. The differences can be explained if the northern Tanzanian lithosphere developed in a fluid-rich suprasubduction zone environment, whereas the Cameroon Line lithosphere only experienced melt extraction from anhydrous periodotites. 32 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Wide Area Thermal Processing of Light Emitting Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, Chad E; Joshi, Pooran C; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Angelini, Joseph Attilio; Sabau, Adrian S


    Laboratory laser materials synthesis of wide bandgap materials has been successfully used to create white light emitting materials (LEMs). This technology development has progressed to the exploration on design and construction of apparatus for wide area doping and phase transformation of wide bandgap material substrates. The objective of this proposal is to develop concepts for wide area doping and phase transformation based on AppliCote Associates, LLC laser technology and ORNL high density pulsed plasma arc technology.

  5. Africa: Unrest and restrictive terms limit abundant potential. [Oil and gas exploration and development in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available


    This paper summarizes the drilling and exploration activity of the oil and gas industries of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, the Congo, Angola, and South Africa. Information is provided on current and predicted trends in well drilling activities (both onshore and offshore), numbers of new wells, footage information, production statistics and what fields accounted for this production, and planned new exploration activities. The paper also describes the current status of government policies and political problems affecting the oil and gas industry.

  6. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available


    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  7. Enhancing the effectiveness of governmental and non-governmental partnership in natural resources management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay, K.L.; Gow, D.; Brown, C.; Christophersen, K.; Gaylord, E.


    The African sub-continent (Sub-Saharan Africa) is a vast continent of mangroves and deserts, rainforests, mountains and, miles upon thousands of miles of flat wooded plains. It is a continent whose people rely directly on its basic natural resources--land, water, soils, animals and vegetation--for their day-to-day subsistence and development. The effects of environmental degradation have taught bilateral and multilateral agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and national governments harsh lessons about the critical importance of natural resources management to food security and development. The report examines the role of NGO's as resource stewards and explores the relationship between NGO's and donors in the environmental field, with particular reference to experiences from the Natural Resources Management Support Project for Africa and from the literature. Practical guidelines for enhancing the effectiveness of donor- collaboration are suggested. Annexes present case studies of Cameroon, Madagascar, and Mali.

  8. Marginal cost of natural gas in developing countries: concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashayekhi, A.


    Many developing nations are facing complex questions regarding the best strategy for developing their domestic gas reserves. The World Bank has addressed these questions in studies on the cost and prices of gas and its optimal allocation among different markets. Based on the average incremental method, an estimate of the marginal cost of natural gas in 10 developing countries proved to be $0.61-1.79/1000 CF or $3.59-10.54/bbl of oil equivalent, far below the border prices of competing fuels in these nations. Moreover, the cost of gas is not expected to rise in these countries within the next 20 years while the reserves/production ratios remain high. The sample involves a variety of gas compositions and production conditions among the countries of Bangladesh, Cameroon, Egypt, India, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Tunisia.

  9. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.


    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  10. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.


    All exploratory activity in central and southern Africa decreased in 1983, reflecting world economic conditions and excess productive capacity. Seismic activity has declined sharply from its peak year of 1981. Land operations suffered the greatest drop in 1983, whereas party-months of marine work increased slightly. 3-D recording continued to be used but at a reduced rate compared with 1982. Large aeromagnetic surveys were made in several countries; however, the coverage was less than in 1982. Gravity continues to be used to supplement other geophysical work, but other exploratory techniques are being used infrequently. Total wells drilled dropped from 464 in 1982 to 387 in 1983. Most of the decline was in exploratory drilling, which dropped from 132 to 86 wells. This was reflected in the number of discoveries, which decreased from 48 to 27 while the success rate continued about the same. Development drilling continued at a high level in Cameroon and Congo, whereas in Nigeria the emphasis shifted to the drilling of appraisal wells. In all, 2,937,708 ft (895,643 m) of hole was drilled, a decrease of about 20% from 1982. Oil production of 673,075,667 bbl in 1983 was an increase of 1.7% over 1982's production, bringing cumulative production to over 12 billion bbl. Marked increases in production were recorded in Cabinda, Ivory Coast, and Congo. Production from Nigerian fields continued to dominate this part of the world as they contributed about 67% of the annual production and 75% of the cumulative production. 44 figures, 15 tables.

  11. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.


    Exploratory activity in central and southern Africa continued to grow during 1981. Geophysical operations reached nearly record levels and the number of wells increased markedly. Oil production suffered from the adverse conditions that existed throughout the world and dropped by a significant amount. New Concession acquisitions occurred in several of the countries in northeast Africa. Elsewhere, the operating companies negotiated new concessions and renewed those that were expiring. In several countries where production has been proven, the operators were assigned exploitation concessions. Seismic crews and marine geophysical vessels were active throughout the countries in this area. A total of 365 party-months of work was done to yield 98,035 km of new lines. A moderate amount of 3-D recording was carried out in connection with field development. Some aeromagnetic work was done, principally in northeast Africa and in Mozambique. Forty-four new fields or pools were discovered by drilling 115 new-field wildcat and exploratory wells. These wells accounted for 1,060,254 ft (323,248 m) of hole. Appraisal and development drilling resulted in 321 wells with a total of 2,533,305 ft (772,349 m) of hole drilled. At year end, 25 exploratory wells were under way or resting, and 49 rigs were active in development drilling. Oil production for the year was 691,995,939 bbl, a decrease of nearly 25% from 1980. Nigeria suffered the greatest drop in production; however, increases were achieved in Cameroon, Congo, and Zaire. The cumulative production from this part of Africa passed the 10 billion bbl mark.

  12. A Vorticity-Divergence Global Semi-Lagrangian Spectral Model for the Shallow Water Equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, JB


    The shallow water equations modeling flow on a sphere are useful for the development and testing of numerical algorithms for atmospheric climate and weather models. A new formulation of the shallow water equations is derived which exhibits an advective form for the vorticity and divergence. This form is particularly well suited for numerical computations using a semi-Lagrangian spectral discretization. A set of test problems, standard for the shallow water equations on a sphere, are solved and results compared with an Eulerian spectral model. The semi-Lagrangian transport method was introduced into atmospheric modeling by Robert, Henderson, and Turnbull. A formulation based on a three time level integration scheme in conjunction with a finite difference spatial discretization was studied by Ritchie. Two time level grid point schemes were derived by Bates et al. Staniforth and Cote survey developments of the application of semi-Lagrangian transport (SLT) methods for shallow water models and for numerical weather prediction. The spectral (or spherical harmonic transform) method when combined with a SLT method is particularly effective because it allows for long time steps avoiding the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) restriction of Eulerian methods, while retaining accurate (spectral) treatment of the spatial derivatives. A semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian formulation with spectral spatial discretization is very effective because the Helmholz problem arising from the semi-implicit time integration can be solved cheaply in the course of the spherical harmonic transform. The combination of spectral, semi-Lagrangian transport with a semi-implicit time integration schemes was first proposed by Ritchie. A advective formulation using vorticity and divergence was introduced by Williamson and Olson. They introduce the vorticity and divergence after the application of the semi-Lagrangian discretization. The semi-Lagrangian formulation of Williamson and Olson and Bates et al. has the property that the metric terms of the advective form are treated discretely requiring a delicate spherical vector addition of terms at the departure point and arrival point. In their formulation, the metric terms associated with the advection operator do not appear explicitly. The spherical geometry associated with the combination of vector quantities at arrival and departure points treats the metric terms and is derived in Bates et al. The formulation derived in this paper avoids this vector addition. It is possible to do this because our formulation is based entirely on a scalar, advective form of the momentum equations. This new form is made possible by the generalization of a vector identity to spherical geometry. In Section 2 the standard form of the shallow water equations in spherical geometry are given. Section 3 presents the vector identities needed to derive an advective form of the vorticity and divergence equations. The semi-implicit time integration and semi-Lagrangian transport method are described in Section 4. The SLT interpolation scheme is described in Section 5. Section 6 completes the development of the discrete model with the description of the semi-implicit spectral equations. A discussion of results on several standard test problems is contained in Section 7.

  13. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon SequestrationSites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.


    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO{sub 2} may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO{sub 2} overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO{sub 2} bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s{sup -1} at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s{sup -1}. Liquid CO{sub 2} bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO{sub 2} bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} at three different seepage rates reveals that ebullition and bubble flow will be the dominant form of gas transport in surface water for all but the smallest seepage fluxes or shallowest water bodies. The solubility of the gas species in water plays a fundamental role in whether ebullition occurs. We used a solubility model to examine CO{sub 2} solubility in waters with varying salinity as a function of depth below a 200 m-deep surface water body. In this system, liquid CO{sub 2} is stable between the deep regions where supercritical CO{sub 2} is stable and the shallow regions where gaseous CO{sub 2} is stable. The transition from liquid to gaseous CO{sub 2} is associated with a large change in density, with corresponding large change in bubble buoyancy. The solubility of CO{sub 2} is lower in high-salinity waters such as might be encountered in the deep subsurface. Therefore, as CO{sub 2} migrates upward through the deep subsurface, it will likely encounter less saline water with increasing capacity to dissolve CO{sub 2} potentially preventing ebullition, depending on the CO{sub 2} leakage flux. However, as CO{sub 2} continues to move upward through shallower depths, CO{sub 2} solubility in water decreases strongly leading to greater likelihood of ebullition and bubble flow in surface water. In the case of deep density-stratified lakes in which ebullition is suppressed, enhanced mixing and man-made degassing schemes can alleviate the buildup of CO{sub 2} and related risk of dangerous rapid discharges. Future research efforts are needed to increase understanding of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage in surface water and saturated porous media. For example, we recommend experiments and field tests of CO{sub 2} migration in saturated systems to formulate bubble-driven water-displacement models and relative permeability functions that can be used in simulation models.