Sample records for bend dry piney

  1. Piney Point Village, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska: Energy ResourcesPicketGeothermalPinecrest,North Carolina:Piney

  2. Profits and Losses from On-farm Drying and Storage of Grain Sorghum in Central Texas and the Coastal Bend.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hildreth, R. J.; Moore, C. A.

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUMMARY The cost of owning and operating round bins and drying equipment when used at capacity for on-farm drying and storage of grain sorghuni in the Coastal Bend area was 34 cents per hundred- weight and 30 cents per... hundredweight in the Central Texas area; These costs- were based on a study of 91 units over two drying and storage seasons, 1954-55 and 1955-56. The costs with a building were slightly higher. The seasonal price spread cannot be compared directly...

  3. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 7. Gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the seventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal. The period of the gasification test was July 18-24, 1983. 6 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Reversal bending fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

  5. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Oglesby, Ken

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  6. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oglesby, Ken

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  7. Louisiana Nuclear Profile - River Bend

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    River Bend" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...

  8. Passive, achromatic, nearly isochronous bending system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David R.; Yunn, Byung C.

    2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A particle beam bending system having a geometry that applies active bending only beyond the chord of the orbit for any momentum component. Using this bending configuration, all momentum components emerge dispersed in position only; all trajectories are parallel by construction. Combining a pair of such bends with reflective symmetry produces a bend cell that is, by construction, achromatic to all orders. By the particular choice of 45.degree. individual bends, a pair of such achromats can be used as the basis of a 180.degree. recirculation arc. Other rational fractions of a full 180.degree. bend serve equally well (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.90.degree./bend.times.1 cell /arc; 2 bends/cell.times.30.degree./bend.times.3 cells/arc, etc), as do combinations of multiple bending numerologies (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.22.5.degree./bend.times.2 cells+2 bends/cell.times.45.degree./bend.times.1 cell). By the choice of entry pole face rotation of the first magnet and exit pole face rotation of the second magnet (with a value to be determined from the particular beam stability requirements imposed by the choice of bending angle and beam properties to be used in any particular application), desirable focusing properties can be introduced and beam stability can be insured.

  9. Method for uniformly bending conduits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dekanich, S.J.

    1984-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for bending metal tubing through various radii while maintaining uniform cross section of the tubing. The present invention is practical by filling the tubing to a sufficient level with water, freezing the water to ice and bending the ice-filled tubing in a cooled die to the desired radius. The use of the ice as a filler material provides uniform cross-sectional bends of the tubing and upon removal of the ice provides an uncontaminated interior of the tubing which will enable it to be used in its intended application without encountering residual contaminants in the tubing due to the presence of the filler material.

  10. Compaction managed mirror bend achromat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David (Yorktown, VA)

    2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for controlling the momentum compaction in a beam of charged particles. The method includes a compaction-managed mirror bend achromat (CMMBA) that provides a beamline design that retains the large momentum acceptance of a conventional mirror bend achromat. The CMMBA also provides the ability to tailor the system momentum compaction spectrum as desired for specific applications. The CMMBA enables magnetostatic management of the longitudinal phase space in Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) thereby alleviating the need for harmonic linearization of the RF waveform.

  11. alternating bending load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bend angle Physics Websites Summary: mercury water flow through a bend pipe into the air environment Medium Reynolds Number Inner DiameterSimulation for pipes with changing bend...

  12. Equilibria for anisotropic bending energies Bennett Palmer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Bennett

    's investigation of the Chladni plates in the nineteenth century. More recently, the bending energy has been

  13. Bending Energy of Rods and Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    descriptors DUH HFFHQWULFLW\\ VSKHULFLW\\ 3$ SHULPHWHU VTXDUHG GLYLGHG E\\ WLPHV area) and bending energy185 Chapter 9 Bending Energy of Rods and Plates Integrated curvature and bending energy of a closed curvature/energy values over a chain-code description of the contour (as in binary length estimators). We

  14. Microsoft Word - Kokanee Bend CX.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Manager - KEWM-4 Proposed Action: Kokanee Bend South Conservation Easement funding Fish and Wildlife Project No. and Contract No.: 2008-800-00, BPA-006863 Categorical...

  15. Gravitational Bending of Light with Frequency Shifts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. D. Morley

    1993-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-static gravitational fields generally introduce frequency shifts when bending light. In this paper, I discuss the frequency shifts induced in the bending of light by moving masses. As examples, I treat the recently discovered high-velocity pulsar PSR 2224+65 and a typical Einstein ring.

  16. Bending of light in conformal Weyl gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, Demosthenes [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States) and Department of Mathematics, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We reexamine the bending of light issue associated with the metric of the static, spherically symmetric solution of Weyl gravity discovered by Mannheim and Kazanas (1989). To this end we employ the procedure used recently by Rindler and Ishak to obtain the bending angle of light by a centrally concentrated spherically symmetric matter distribution in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter background. In earlier studies the term {gamma}r in the metric led to the paradoxical result of a bending angle proportional to the photon impact parameter, when using the usual formalism appropriate to asymptotically flat space-times. However, employing the approach of light bending of Rindler and Ishak we show that the effects of this term are in fact insignificant, with the discrepancy between the two procedures attributed to the definition of the bending angle between the asymptotically flat and nonflat spaces.

  17. A two-mode fiber optic-bending sensor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Covington, Charles Eric

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    relating the bending sensitivity to the shape of the profile's asymmetry are discussed. A temperature and strain compensated bending sensor for bending over arbitrary paths is demonstrated as an application of this technology. Some alternate two...

  18. Drying Foods at Home Safely Drying Herbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    jars, freezer bags, and airtight plastic containers. Like other foods dried at home, dried herbs in an airtight container and store in a cool, dry, and dark place. Recommended containers include glass canning

  19. EA-1880: Big Bend to Witten Transmission Line Project, South...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    880: Big Bend to Witten Transmission Line Project, South Dakota EA-1880: Big Bend to Witten Transmission Line Project, South Dakota Summary The USDA Rural Utilities Service, with...

  20. Dry effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, J.D. (Anderson, 2000 Inc., Peachtree City, GA (US))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The available choices of pollution control systems depend on what is being burned and how stringent the regulations are. The common systems are gas cooling by a waste heat boiler or an air-air heat exchanger followed by fabric filtration or electrostatic precipitation for particulate removal; alkaline spray absorbers followed by fabric filters (dry scrubbers) for particulate and acid gas removal; wet scrubbers for simultaneous particulate and acid gas removal, and; the newest - spray evaporation, followed by wet scrubbing for particulate and acid gas removal. Each has advantages and each has disadvantages. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the spray evaporator and wet scrubber combination.

  1. Minimal Bending Energies of Bilayer Polyhedra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christoph A. Haselwandter; Rob Phillips

    2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by recent experiments on bilayer polyhedra composed of amphiphilic molecules, we study the elastic bending energies of bilayer vesicles forming polyhedral shapes. Allowing for segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges of polyhedra, we find that bilayer polyhedra can indeed have lower bending energies than spherical bilayer vesicles. However, our analysis also implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the snub dodecahedron, rather than the icosahedron, generally represents the energetically favorable shape of bilayer polyhedra.

  2. Elasticity of Twist-Bend Nematic Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epifanio G. Virga

    2014-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The ground state of twist-bend nematic liquid crystals is a heliconical molecular arrangement in which the nematic director precesses uniformly about an axis, making a fixed angle with it. Both precession senses are allowed in the ground state of these phases. When one of the two \\emph{helicities} is prescribed, a single helical nematic phase emerges. A quadratic elastic theory is proposed here for each of these phases which features the same elastic constants as the classical theory of the nematic phase, requiring all of them to be positive. To describe the helix axis, it introduces an extra director field which becomes redundant for ordinary nematics. Putting together helical nematics with opposite helicities, we reconstruct a twist-bend nematic, for which the quadratic elastic energies of the two helical variants are combined in a non-convex energy.

  3. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

  4. Bend, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass Conversions IncBayBelmont County, Ohio: EnergyBelvedere,Hill81728°,Bend,

  5. DISTRIBUTION OF THE SYNCHROTRON RADIATION FROM BENDING MAGNETS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DISTRIBUTION OF THE SYNCHROTRON RADIATION FROM BENDING MAGNETS LS-91 S. Kim November 1988 NO DISTRIBUTION REFERENCE ONLY This note describes the distribution of the synchrotron...

  6. Suppression of microbunching instability using bending magnets in FEL linacs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang, Ji

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using bending magnets in FEL linacs Ji Qiang, Chad E.for free electron laser (FEL) radiation. In this letter, weaccelerators for next generation FEL light sources. Instead

  7. A notched radial fillet in pure bending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edmiston, Richard Munson

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /r, ex/r snd ey/r, or 8 and ar/r would comp]e tely define the loca- tion snd de p th o f pena tration o f the no tch, a cho Ice was pre- sented as to which combInation would b' chosen for this in- vestigation, 'l. 'hercas ea, ev, 9, and ar involved...- centration factor for full fillets in bend1ng, Kf. The ratio Kn/Kf is defined as the effect of the notch, K'. "4 TABLE 1, PATE CASE POH a/r = 0 Figure a/r b/r r/d D/d ~r/r Q n n Z K& K~ 9 A 15, 16 0 0. 993 0. 446 1. 893 0, 00213 3. 8 9 0 6. 58 1, 37 1...

  8. Bending behavior of general unsymmetric laminates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danielson, Kent Thomas

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ( ?, ) I + P12[2 ( ? ) (b ) ) + P22(4 (b ) ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 ~ ~ [p [~Sm RRmnR ] p [~Sn Rmncm 1 1 16 2 2 26 2 b2 pq porn q~n 422 qab + p66(" ', b' )H, n- [ ' 2)((-1)' - 1J((-1)n - 1) = p mn~ (38c) where m = l, . . . , ~ and R and S are the same... ng Unsymmetr1c lam1nates exhibit a coupl1ng between membrane strains and curvatures. Th1s "Bending-Stretching Coupl ing" greatly complicates the analysis compared to that of symmetric lam1nates. Currently, unsymmetr1c laminates are used only 1n a...

  9. Bimodular rubber buckles early in bending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Destrade; Michael D. Gilchrist; Julie A. Motherway; Jerry G. Murphy

    2013-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A block of rubber eventually buckles under severe flexure, and several axial wrinkles appear on the inner curved face of the bent block. Experimental measurements reveal that the buckling occurs earlier ---at lower compressive strains--- than expected from theoretical predictions. This paper shows that if rubber is modeled as being bimodular, and specifically, as being stiffer in compression than in tension, then flexure bifurcation happens indeed at lower levels of compressive strain than predicted by previous investigations (these included taking into account finite size effects, compressibility effects, and strain-stiffening effects.) Here the effect of bimodularity is investigated within the theory of incremental buckling, and bifurcation equations, numerical methods, dispersion curves, and field variations are presented and discussed. It is also seen that Finite Element Analysis software seems to be unable to encompass in a realistic manner the phenomenon of bending instability for rubber blocks.

  10. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with good mechanical properties - Loading approaching targets - Process parameter optimization necessary to make thinner films with better density characteristics Images of dry...

  11. Transporting Dry Ice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements for Shipping Dry Ice IATA PI 904 Source: Reg of the Day from ERCweb 2006 Environmental Resource Center | 919-469-1585 | webmaster@ercweb.com http:...

  12. Cooking with Dry Beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the nutritonal value and safe storage of dry beans, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: DRI

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DRI ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter On March 19, 2013, in DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Surety, Facilities, Grid Integration,...

  14. Computing Optimal Waveguide Bends with Constant and Ya Yan Lu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Ya Yan

    such as polarization rotators [2]. A basic problem facing a bend is the power loss related to the open nature to excite the radiating waves. To keep the power loss at an acceptable level, the size of a conventional with minimal power loss. Previ- ous efforts have mostly been concentrated on circular bends or concatenation

  15. Insulation of Pipe Bends Improves Efficiency of Hot Oil Furnaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haseltine, D. M.; Laffitte, R. D.

    of the convective sections. Consultation with the furnace manufacturer then revealed that furnaces made in the 1960's tended to not insulate the pipe bends in the convective section. When insulation was added within the covers of the pipe bends on one furnace...

  16. Structure-borne sound Flexural wave (bending wave)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Structure-borne sound · Flexural wave (bending wave) »One dimensional (beam) +(/x)dx +(/x)dx = (/x) (/x)dx=(2/x2)dx Mz +(Mz/x)dx Mz vy Fy Fy +(Fy/x)dx Structure-borne sound · Bending wave ­ flexural wave #12;2 Structure-borne sound · Two obliquely propagating waves + - + + - + - Structure

  17. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ratecapacity match cathode 12 8. Down-select low cost anode process 50% vs baseline capex + opex 13 9. Scale cathode film to support task 16 10 m 17 10. Lab prototype cell dry...

  18. Freeze drying method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  19. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  20. Thru-thickness bending stress distribution at elevated temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Lee Conner

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    the extreme fiber strains exceeded ten percent, which further adds to the increased risk of the flange plate cracking during fabrication. The highest residual stresses through the plate??s thickness occurred during cold bending. The residual stresses through...

  1. The seasonality of aerosol properties in Big Bend National Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Christopher Lee

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    ), to characterize the seasonal variability of the Big Bend regions aerosol optical properties. Mass extinction efficiencies and relative humidity scattering enhancement factors were calculated for both externally and internally mixed aerosol populations for all size...

  2. Theory of bending waves with applications to disk galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theory of bending waves is surveyed which provides an explanation for the required amplification of the warp in the Milky Way. It also provides for self-generated warps in isolated external galaxies. The shape of observed warps and partly their existence in isolated galaxies are indicative of substantial spheroidal components. The theory also provides a plausible explanation for the bending of the inner disk (<2 kpc) of the Milky Way.

  3. Tennessee: Bringing Jobs and Economic Development to Piney Flats...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    design, accounting, and safety training Produce product installation training videos. The Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Office (WIPO) provides funding and...

  4. Tennessee: Bringing Jobs and Economic Development to Piney Flats |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative JC3 RSS SeptemberRenewable Energy, U.S. DepartmentTechnology Ten Year Site

  5. Cooking with Dried Potatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    make a tasty vegetable dish. For added flavor, you can add salt and pepper along with small amounts of grated cheese, margarine or butter. Be careful: Adding large amounts of cheese, butter or margarine can turn a low-fat vegetable, such as potatoes..., into a high-fat dish. How to store them Store packages of dried potatoes in a cool, dry, place. After the package is opened, store the potatoes in an airtight container. Store cooked potatoes in a covered dish in the refrigerator. Use within 3 days...

  6. Cooling Dry Cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , little work has been done on the responses of cooling cows in this period. The dry period is particularly crucial because it involves regen- eration of the mammary gland and rapid fetal growth. This is also when follicles begin develop- ing and maturing...

  7. MHK Projects/Vicksburg Bend | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose Bend < MHK Projects Jump to:Vicksburg Bend < MHK Projects Jump

  8. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, David W. (9253 Glenoaks Blvd., Sun Valley, CA 91352)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  9. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  10. 2010 Dry Bean Research Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010 Dry Bean Research Report Assessment of Narrow Row Technology Michigan Dry Edible Bean Production RESEARCH ADVISORY BOARD #12;The Michigan Bean Commission was awarded a grant from the MDA Technology for the Michigan Dry Bean Industry". Expected outcomes from this project are: 1. Identification

  11. 2012 Dry Bean Research Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012 Dry Bean Research Report Assessment of Narrow Row Technology Michigan Dry Edible Bean Production Research Advisory Board #12;The Michigan Bean Commission was awarded a grant from the MDA Technology for the Michigan Dry Bean Industry". Expected outcomes from this project are: 1. Identification

  12. Characterization of bending loss in hollow flexible terahertz waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    and metal/dielectric coated polycarbonate waveguides were investigated using an optically pumped far infrared (FIR) laser at 215 µm. The bending loss of silver coated polycarbonate waveguides were measured. Pedersen, and E. Mueller, "Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz

  13. Drying Rough Rice in Storage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorenson, J. W. Jr.; Crane, L. E.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying. Rough Rice in Storage Ih AGRf""' TURP YPERIMENT STAT10 I. TEXAS SUMMARY Research was conducted at the Rice-Pasture Experiment Station near Beaumont during 7 crop years (1952-53 through 1958-59) to determine the engineering problems... and the practicability of dry- ing rough rice in storage in Texas. Drying rice in storage means drying rice in the same bin in which it is to be stored. Rough rice, with initial moisture contents of 15.0 to 23.0 percent, was dried at depths of 4 to 10 feet...

  14. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  15. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  16. The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and condensation heat transfer in tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traviss, Donald P.

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient of condensing refrigerant R-12 was studied experimentally. Flow patterns in glass return bends of 1/2 to 1 in. radius and 0.315 ...

  17. POWER SUPPLIES FOR THE BENDING MAGNETS OF THE BEP AND VEPP-2000 STORAGE RING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozak, Victor R.

    POWER SUPPLIES FOR THE BENDING MAGNETS OF THE BEP AND VEPP-2000 STORAGE RING K.M. Gorchakov, S new complex VEPP-2000. The two new power supply for bending magnet was built for BEP and VEPP-2000 storage ring. POWER SUPPLY FOR THE BENDING MAGNETS OF THE BEP Below are the parameters of the supply (the

  18. A fast multipole boundary element method for solving the thin plate bending problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yijun

    A fast multipole boundary element method for solving the thin plate bending problem S. Huang, Y: Fast multipole method Boundary element method Thin plate bending problem a b s t r a c t A fast multipole boundary element method (BEM) for solving large-scale thin plate bending problems is presented

  19. Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low...

  20. Asymptotic results for bifurcations in pure bending of rubber blocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coman, Ciprian; 10.1093/qjmam/hbn009

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bifurcation of an incompressible neo-Hookean thick block with a ratio of thickness to length {eta}, subject to pure bending, is considered. The two incremental equilibrium equations corresponding to a nonlinear pre-buckling state of strain are reduced to a fourth-order linear eigenproblem that displays a multiple turning point. It is found that for 0 {infty} degenerates into a surface instability. Singular perturbation methods enable us to capture this transition, while direct numerical simulations corroborate the analytical results.

  1. Bending-induced Symmetry Breaking of Lithiation in Germanium Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Perea, Daniel E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions, regulating these biological and physiochemical processes. The coupled effect is particularly evident in electrochemical lithiation/delithiation cycling of high-capacity electrodes, such as silicon (Si), where on one hand lithiation-generated stress mediates lithiation kinetics, and on the other electrochemical reaction rate regulates stress generation and mechanical failure of the electrodes. Here we report for the first time the evidence on the controlled lithiation in germanium nanowires (GeNWs) through external bending. Contrary to the symmetric core-shell lithiation in free-standing GeNWs, we show bending GeNWs breaks the lithiation symmetry, speeding up lithaition at the tensile side while slowing down at the compressive side of the GeNWs. The bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in GeNWs is further corroborated by chemomechanical modeling. In the light of the coupled effect between lithiation kinetics and mechanical stress in the electrochemical cycling, our findings shed light on strain/stress engineering of durable high-rate electrodes and energy harvesting through mechanical motion.

  2. 2013 Dry Bean Research Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page 1 2013 Dry Bean Research Report Black Bean Color Retention and White Mold Control in Narrow Row Production Systems Michigan Dry Edible Bean Production Research Advisory Board #12;Page 2 The Michigan Bean Commission was awarded a grant from the MDARD Specialty Crop Block Grant Program-Farm Bill

  3. Reversible Bending Fatigue Testing on Zry-4 Surrogate Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing high-burnup spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presents many challenges in areas such as specimen preparation, specimen installation, mechanical loading, load control, measurements, data acquisition, and specimen disposal because these tasks are complicated by the radioactivity of the test specimens. Research and comparison studies conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) resulted in a new concept in 2010 for a U-frame testing setup on which to perform hot-cell reversible bending fatigue testing. Subsequently, the three-dimensional finite element analysis and the engineering design of components were completed. In 2013 the ORNL team finalized the upgrade of the U-frame testing setup and the integration of the U-frame setup into a Bose dual linear motor test bench to develop a cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT). A final check was conducted on the CIRFT test system in August 2013, and the CIRFT was installed in the hot cell in September 2013 to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The fatigue responses of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding and the role of pellet pellet and pellet clad interactions are critical to SNF vibration integrity, but such data are not available due to the unavailability of an effective testing system. While the deployment of the developed CIRFT test system in a hot cell will provide the opportunity to generate the data, the use of a surrogate rod has proven quite effective in identifying the underlying deformation mechanism of an SNF composite rod under an equivalent loading condition. This paper presents the experimental results of using surrogate rods under CIRFT reversible cyclic loading. Specifically, monotonic and cyclic bending tests were conducted on surrogate rods made of a Zry-4 tube and alumina pellet inserts, both with and without an epoxy bond.

  4. Mixed lipid bilayers with locally varying spontaneous curvature and bending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Gueguen; Nicolas Destainville; Manoel Manghi

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A model of lipid bilayers made of a mixture of two lipids with different average compositions on both leaflets, is developed. A Landau hamiltonian describing the lipid-lipid interactions on each leaflet, with two lipidic fields $\\psi_1$ and $\\psi_2$, is coupled to a Helfrich one, accounting for the membrane elasticity, via both a local spontaneous curvature, which varies as $C_0+C_1(\\psi_1-\\psi_2)/2$, and a bending modulus equal to $\\kappa_0+\\kappa_1(\\psi_1+\\psi_2)/2$. This model allows us to define curved patches as membrane domains where the asymmetry in composition, $\\psi_1-\\psi_2$, is large, and thick and stiff patches where $\\psi_1+\\psi_2$ is large. These thick patches are good candidates for being lipidic rafts, as observed in cell membranes, which are composed primarily of saturated lipids forming a liquid-ordered domain and are known to be thick and flat nano-domains. The lipid-lipid structure factors and correlation functions are computed for globally spherical membranes and planar ones. Phase diagrams are established, within a Gaussian approximation, showing the occurrence of two types of Structure Disordered phases, with correlations between either curved or thick patches, and an Ordered phase, corresponding to the divergence of the structure factor at a finite wave vector. The varying bending modulus plays a central role for curved membranes, where the driving force $\\kappa_1C_0^2$ is balanced by the line tension, to form raft domains of size ranging from 10 to 100~nm. For planar membranes, raft domains emerge via the cross-correlation with curved domains. A global picture emerges from curvature-induced mechanisms, described in the literature for planar membranes, to coupled curvature- and bending-induced mechanisms in curved membranes forming a closed vesicle.

  5. The determination of thru-thickness residual bending stresses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rinehart, Adam James

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by Bidirectional Bending for the Case y?, & y, , 110 5-1 Finite Elemenl, Mesh Used in Study 116 5-2 Comparison ol Percent Deviation of 100 and 200 Element. FE Models from Exact Solution, 800 k-in Released Moment, No Initial Stresses 123 5-3 Comparison of 200... Elcmcnt FE Solution to Exact Solution for Residual Stress Distribution Produced by 800 k-in Released Momem. in an Initially Stress Free Cross Section, . 124 5-4 Residual Stress Distributions for Increasing Levels of Released Moment, Initially Stress...

  6. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts: Connectors, bends anddeveloping flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In ventilation duct flow the turbulent flow profile is commonly disturbed or not fully developed and these conditions are likely to influence particle deposition to duct surfaces. Particle deposition rates at eight S-connectors, in two 90{sup o} duct bends and in two ducts where the turbulent flow profile was not fully developed were measured in a laboratory duct system with both galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle diameters of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition of particles with nominal diameters of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m was measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces. Deposition at S-connectors, in bends and in straight ducts with developing turbulence was often greater than deposition in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence for equal particle sizes, air speeds and duct surface orientations. Deposition rates at all locations were found to increase with an increase in particle size or air speed. High deposition rates at S-connectors resulted from impaction and these rates were nearly independent of the orientation of the S-connector. Deposition rates in the two 90{sup o} bends differed by more than an order of magnitude in some cases, probably because of the difference in turbulence conditions at the bend inlets. In straight steel ducts where the turbulent flow profile was developing, the deposition enhancement relative to fully developed turbulence generally increased with air speed and decreased with downstream distance from the duct inlet. This enhancement was greater at the duct ceiling and wall than at the duct floor. In insulated ducts, deposition enhancement was less pronounced overall than in steel ducts. Trends that were observed in steel ducts were present, but weaker, in insulated ducts.

  7. Fort Bend County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489Information HydroFontana,dataset nameFort Bend County, Texas:

  8. Hudson Bend, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel Jump to:Pennsylvania:County,Ohio: Energy ResourcesHuberandHudolBend,

  9. MHK Projects/Hickman Bend Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformationCygnet < MHKSound, NYMananBend Project < MHK

  10. MHK Projects/Kempe Bend Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformationCygnet < MHKSound,Ironton LightKempe Bend

  11. MHK Projects/Kenner Bend Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformationCygnet < MHKSound,Ironton LightKempeKenner Bend

  12. MHK Projects/New Madrid Bend Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformationCygnet <| OpenMarisolNJBPU 1NenanaMadrid Bend

  13. MHK Projects/Scotlandville Bend Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformationCygnet.7413°,Scotlandville Bend Project < MHK

  14. MHK Projects/St Rose Bend | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose Bend < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return

  15. South Bend, Indiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistmaSinosteelSolarSolkarTopics BackgroundBend, Indiana: Energy

  16. Big Bend, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouth Carolina:Energy LLC2.9562798°, -87.1422895°EnergyBend,

  17. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orloff, D.I.; Phelan, P.M.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted on a sheet-fed pilot-scale shoe press to compare impulse drying and double-felted pressing. Both an IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology) ceramic coated and Beloit Type A press roll were evaluated for lienrboard sheet structures having a wide range of z-direction permeability. Purpose was to find ways of correcting sheet sticking problems observed in previous pilot-scale shoe press experiments. Results showed that impulse drying was superior to double felted pressing in both press dryness and in important paper physical properties. Impulse drying critical temperature was found to depend on specific surface of the heated layer of the sheet, thermal properties of the press roll surface, and choice of felt. Impulse drying of recycled and two-ply liner was demonstrated for both Southern Pile and Douglas fir-containing furnishes.

  18. Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protocol for this run, and subsequent drying test runs, was modified. These modifications were made to allow for improved data correlation with drying procedures proposed under the IPS. Details of these modifications are discussed in Section 3.0.

  19. Finite element residual stress analysis of induction heating bended ferritic steel piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kima, Jong Sung [Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-ro, Sucheon, Jeonnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Oh, Young-Jin; Chang, Hyung-Young; Park, Heung-Bae [KEPCO E and C, Co., Ltd., 188, Kumi-ro, Seongnam, Kyounggi (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, there is a trend to apply the piping bended by induction heating process to nuclear power plants. Residual stress can be generated due to thermo-mechanical mechanism during the induction heating bending process. It is well-known that the residual stress has important effect on crack initiation and growth. The previous studies have focused on the thickness variation. In part, some studies were performed for residual stress evaluation of the austenitic stainless steel piping bended by induction heating. It is difficult to find the residual stresses of the ferritic steel piping bended by the induction heating. The study assessed the residual stresses of induction heating bended ferriticsteel piping via finite element analysis. As a result, it was identified that high residual stresses are generated on local outersurface region of the induction heating bended ferritic piping.

  20. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  1. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  2. Extreme bendability of DNA double helix due to bending asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salari, Hossein; Naderi, M S; Ejtehadi, M R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental data of the DNA cyclization (J-factor) at short length scales, as a way to study the elastic behavior of tightly bent DNA, exceed the theoretical expectation based on the wormlike chain (WLC) model by several orders of magnitude. Here, we propose that asymmetric bending rigidity of the double helix in the groove direction can be responsible for extreme bendability of DNA at short length scales and it also facilitates DNA loop formation at these lengths. To account for the bending asymmetry, we consider the asymmetric elastic rod (AER) model which has been introduced and parametrized in an earlier study (B. Eslami-Mossallam and M. Ejtehadi, Phys. Rev. E 80, 011919 (2009)). Exploiting a coarse grained representation of DNA molecule at base pair (bp) level, and using the Monte Carlo simulation method in combination with the umbrella sampling technique, we calculate the loop formation probability of DNA in the AER model. We show that, for DNA molecule has a larger J-factor compared to the WLC model w...

  3. Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal...

  4. Black Rocks, Brown Clouds and the Borderlands: Air Quality and the Making of the Big Bend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donez, Francisco

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nick. 2005. Far Out Far West Texas. Texas Observer, Decembervarious locations in west Texas (Green et al. 2000, Faulknerthe Big Bend,” or “west Texas,” referring to this extensive

  5. Could Gila Bend, Arizona, Become the Solar Capital of the World?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Serving approximately 9,000 homes with clean renewable energy, the Paloma and Cotton Center solar plants highlight the rapidly rising solar corridor in Gila Bend, Arizona.

  6. Effective bending stiffness for plates with microcracks D. C. Simkins Jr, S. Li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Shaofan

    Effective bending stiffness for plates with microcracks D. C. Simkins Jr, S. Li Summary. C. Simkins Jr, S. Li (&) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California

  7. A Superconducting Bending Magnet System for a Compact Synchrotron Light Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, M.A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Garren, "Optimization of Superconducting Bending Magnets foral, "Development of a Superconducting Compact Storage Ringsdesigns M. A Green, "Superconducting Dipole Magnets for

  8. Spent fuel drying system test results (first dry-run)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site. Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the first dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. The empty test apparatus was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The data from this dry-run test can serve as a baseline for the first two fuel element tests, 1990 (Run 1) and 3128W (Run 2). The purpose of this dry-run was to establish the background levels of hydrogen in the system, and the hydrogen generation and release characteristics attributable to the test system without a fuel element present. This test also serves to establish the background levels of water in the system and the water release characteristics. The system used for the drying test series was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, which is located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodology are given in section 3.0, and the experimental results provided in Section 4.0. These results are further discussed in Section 5.0.

  9. Optical diffraction for measurements of nano-mechanical bending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermans, Rodolfo I; Ndieyira, Joseph Wafula; McKendry, Rachel A; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micromechanical transducers such as cantilevers for AFM often rely on optical readout methods that require illumination of a specific region of the microstructure. Here we explore and exploit the diffraction effects that have been previously neglected when modeling cantilever bending measurement techniques. The illumination of a cantilever end causes an asymmetric diffraction pattern at the photodetector that significantly affects the calibration of the signal in the popular optical beam deflection technique (OBDT). Conditions for optimized linear signals that avoid detection artifacts conflict with small numerical aperture illumination and narrow cantilevers which are softer and therefore more sensitive. Embracing diffraction patterns as a physical measurable allows a richer detection technique that decouples measurements of tilt and curvature and simultaneously relaxes the requirements on the alignment of illumination and detector. We show analytical results, numerical simulations and physiologically releva...

  10. Numerical Simulation of the Flow of a Power Law Fluid in an Elbow Bend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanakamedala, Karthik

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical study of flow of power law fluid in an elbow bend has been carried out. The motivation behind this study is to analyze the velocity profiles, especially the pattern of the secondary flow of power law fluid in a bend as there are several...

  11. Damping of bending waves in truss beams by electrical transmission lines with PZT actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Damping of bending waves in truss beams by electrical transmission lines with PZT actuators F. dell of the truss beam with an electrical transmission line by a line distribution of PZT actuators. It has been-order transmission line, and that such a line is not suitable to damp bending waves. In the present paper, we propose

  12. Oregon Lake Watch Program Training Sunday -June 22, 2014 from noon to 6 pm -Bend, OR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Downtown Bend Library, 601 NW Wall St. Bend, OR (between NW Kansas Ave and NW Louisiana Ave) head upstairs to the Hutchinson Room. Free parking is available in parking lots directly east and south of the library Notes - Water Quality monitoring o Description of types of data we will collect o Collection protocols o

  13. POWER SUPPLIES FOR THE BENDING MAGNETS OF THE BEP AND VEPP-2000 STORAGE RING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozak, Victor R.

    POWER SUPPLIES FOR THE BENDING MAGNETS OF THE BEP AND VEPP-2000 STORAGE RING S.S. Vasichev, V of the collider. The beam energy change lead to the necessity to develop new power supplies for the main field for the supplies and design of the power part has been revised completely. POWER SUPPLY FOR THE BENDING MAGNETS

  14. Transformation optofluidics for large-angle light bending and tuning{{ L. K. Chin,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    Transformation optofluidics for large-angle light bending and tuning{{ Y. Yang,*a L. K. Chin,a J. M DOI: 10.1039/c2lc40442g Transformation optics is a new art of light bending by designing materials with spatially variable parameters for developing wave-manipulation devices. Here, we introduce a transformation

  15. Predicting the ultimate bending capacity of concrete beams from the ``relaxation ratio'' analysis of AE signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on ``testing'' the real structure rather than trying to model it. Experiments on reinforced concrete (RC) beamsPredicting the ultimate bending capacity of concrete beams from the ``relaxation ratio'' analysis the unloading and loading phases of a cycle test and it showed a clear correlation with the bending failure load

  16. Modeling and Bayesian parameter estimation for shape memory alloy bending actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling and Bayesian parameter estimation for shape memory alloy bending actuators John H. Crewsa energy model (HEM) for shape memory alloy (SMA) bending actuators. Additionally, we utilize a Bayesian. Keywords: shape memory alloys, uncertainty quantificiation, markov chain monte carlo 1. INTRODUCTION Shape

  17. Interferometric fiber-optic bending/nano-displacement sensor using plastic dual-core fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    Interferometric fiber-optic bending/nano-displacement sensor using plastic dual-core fiber H. Qu,1); published August 13, 2014 We demonstrate an interferometric fiber-optic bending/nano-displacement sensor for sensing the displacement. © 2014 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (060.2370) Fiber optics sensors

  18. Bending Creep Test to Measure the Viscosity of Porous Materials during Sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messing, Gary L.

    Bending Creep Test to Measure the Viscosity of Porous Materials during Sintering Sang-Ho Lee creep test is proposed for measuring the change in viscosity of a porous material during densification be measured. Experiments with porous Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 beams were used to illustrate the bending creep test

  19. Bending buckling of single-walled carbon nanotubes by atomic-scale finite element

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Hanqing

    - vered SWNT loaded by a follower lateral force at the free end and found that it exhibited local bucklingBending buckling of single-walled carbon nanotubes by atomic-scale finite element X. Guo a , A Abstract This paper employs the atomic-scale finite element method to study bending buckling of single

  20. Effect of bending buckling of carbon nanotubes on thermal conductivity of carbon nanotube materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    Effect of bending buckling of carbon nanotubes on thermal conductivity of carbon nanotube materials and lateral lattice strain states under a tensile load in as-reacted and prebent CuNb/Nb3Sn wires using;Effect of bending buckling of carbon nanotubes on thermal conductivity of carbon nanotube materials

  1. Isotope effect in normal-to-local transition of acetylene bending modes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Jianyi [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, (United States); Xu, Dingguo [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, (United States) and Sichuan Univ. (China); Guo, Hua [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, (United States); Tyng, Vivian [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Kellman, Michael E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The normal-to-local transition for the bending modes of acetylene is considered a prelude to its isomerization to vinylidene. Here, such a transition in fully deuterated acetylene is investigated using a full-dimensional quantum model. It is found that the local benders emerge at much lower energies and bending quantum numbers than in the hydrogen isotopomer HCCH. This is accompanied by a transition to a second kind of bending mode called counter-rotator, again at lower energies and quantum numbers than in HCCH. These transitions are also investigated using bifurcation analysis of two empirical spectroscopic fitting Hamiltonians for pure bending modes, which helps to understand the origin of the transitions semiclassically as branchings or bifurcations out of the trans and normal bend modes when the latter become dynamically unstable. The results of the quantum model and the empirical bifurcation analysis are in very good agreement.

  2. Isotope effect in normal-to-local transition of acetylene bending modes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Jianyi; Xu, Dingguo; Guo, Hua; Tyng, Vivian; Kellman, Michael E.

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The normal-to-local transition for the bending modes of acetylene is considered a prelude to its isomerization to vinylidene. Here, such a transition in fully deuterated acetylene is investigated using a full-dimensional quantum model. It is found that the local benders emerge at much lower energies and bending quantum numbers than in the hydrogen isotopomer HCCH. This is accompanied by a transition to a second kind of bending mode called counter-rotator, again at lower energies and quantum numbers than in HCCH. These transitions are also investigated using bifurcation analysis of two empirical spectroscopic fitting Hamiltonians for pure bending modes, which helpsmore »to understand the origin of the transitions semiclassically as branchings or bifurcations out of the trans and normal bend modes when the latter become dynamically unstable. The results of the quantum model and the empirical bifurcation analysis are in very good agreement.« less

  3. Passive gust load alleviation through bend-twist coupling of composite beams on typical commercial airplane wings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gauthier Perron, Sébastien

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of bend-twist coupling on typical commercial airplane wings are evaluated. An analytical formulation of the orthotropic box beam bending stiffness matrix is derived by combining Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and ...

  4. Comparison of the Phenomena of Light Refraction and Gravitational Bending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert J. Buenker

    2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of light in the presence of electromagnetic and gravitational fields are compared. Once one takes account of the fact that clock rates vary with distance from a massive object, it is argued that in an absolute sense light frequencies remain constant in both interactions. It is also pointed out that the criterion used by Einstein for the angle of curvature of light rays passing close to the sun is not their actual trajectory but rather Huygens' Principle. The latter only requires that the speed of light vary with distance from a gravitational source in order to produce a measurable effect. As a result, the observed displacement of star images during solar eclipses can be explained on the basis of a rotation of the wave front of light without assuming that individual photons are actually deflected by the sun. A calculation reported by Schiff in 1960 based on the assumption that light travels in a straight line for all local observers obtains the same closed expression for the angle of displacement of star images as in Einstein's original work, in support of this interpretation. Since light is believed to follow a straight-line trajectory within any given homogeneous transparent medium, it is argued that light refraction and gravitational bending have more in common than is generally realized.

  5. Nonlinear Dynamics of Dry Friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franz-Josef Elmer

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamical behavior caused by dry friction is studied for a spring-block system pulled with constant velocity over a surface. The dynamical consequences of a general type of phenomenological friction law (stick-time dependent static friction, velocity dependent kinetic friction) are investigated. Three types of motion are possible: Stick-slip motion, continuous sliding, and oscillations without sticking events. A rather complete discussion of local and global bifurcation scenarios of these attractors and their unstable counterparts is present.

  6. Drying and Storing Sorghum Grain.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchison, J. E.

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying and Storing Sorghum Grain W. S. ALLEN AND J. W. SORENSON. JR.* lead to insect. niold and heat damage in stored grain. They cause most of the problems encountered in storing grain. High moisture may result from leak- age of outside... moisture through hin walls or from placing high-moisture grain in storage. If the following recornrnendations and procedures are followed. sorghum grain can be stored safely. The! are based on research conducted at Beeville by the Texas Agricultural...

  7. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  8. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  9. Drying and Storing Cooperative Extension Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    . Sunflowers Joseph P. Harner Extension Agriculture Engineer The fire hazard is DECREASED when the fan can draw for attachment to the drying fan. Guidelines for drying sunflowers are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Use good housekeeping practices. Clean up around the dryer and in the plenum chamber daily. Do not over dry. Ensure continuous

  10. Characterization of Optical Fiber Strength Under Applied Tensile Stress and Bending Stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.E. Klingsporn

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various types of tensile testing and bend radius tests were conducted on silica core/silica cladding optical fiber of different diameters with different protective buffer coatings, fabricated by different fiber manufacturers. The tensile tests were conducted to determine not only the average fiber strengths at failure, but also the distribution in fracture strengths, as well as the influence of buffer coating on fracture strength. The times-to-failure of fiber subjected to constant applied bending stresses of various magnitudes were measured to provide a database from which failure times of 20 years or more, and the corresponding minimum bend radius, could be extrapolated in a statistically meaningful way. The overall study was done to provide an understanding of optical fiber strength in tensile loading and in applied bending stress as related to applications of optical fiber in various potential coizfgurations for weapons and enhanced surveillance campaigns.

  11. Bending Elasticity of Anti-Parallel b-Sheets Seungho Choe and Sean X. Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Sean

    fluctuations of the structure at room temperature. By matching the probability distributions of elastic strainsBending Elasticity of Anti-Parallel b-Sheets Seungho Choe and Sean X. Sun Department of Mechanical

  12. Black Rocks, Brown Clouds and the Borderlands: Air Quality and the Making of the Big Bend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donez, Francisco

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    including choking pollution in Mexico City. They dismissedpollution issues in the Big Bend region of the Texas-Mexicopollution in the park probably originated not only from northern Mexico

  13. anti-symmetric bending moment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of constraint on the bent portion of the specimen; a guided-bend test using a mandrel or plunger of defined dimensions to force the mid-length of the specimen between two supports...

  14. Implementation of a python version of a scaled boundary finite element method for plate bending analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Lingfeng, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Common finite element programs for plate bending analysis are complicated and limited by the common plate theories. Such programs are usually not user-friendly for designers to implement. Lately, Hou Man et al. from the ...

  15. Microsoft Word - CX-NorthBendWoodPoles_FY13_WEB.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    North Bend District Wood Pole Replacement Projects PP&A Project No.: 2658 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Location:...

  16. Energy losses in thermally cycled optical fibers constrained in small bend radii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guild, Eric; Morelli, Gregg

    2012-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy laser pulses were fired into a 365?m diameter fiber optic cable constrained in small radii of curvature bends, resulting in a catastrophic failure. Q-switched laser pulses from a flashlamp pumped, Nd:YAG laser were injected into the cables, and the spatial intensity profile at the exit face of the fiber was observed using an infrared camera. The transmission of the radiation through the tight radii resulted in an asymmetric intensity profile with one half of the fiber core having a higher peak-to-average energy distribution. Prior to testing, the cables were thermally conditioned while constrained in the small radii of curvature bends. Single-bend, double-bend, and U-shaped eometries were tested to characterize various cable routing scenarios.

  17. Bedrock acquifer geometry in the Panther Junction area of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbott, Caroline Lownes

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    areas where an igneous intrusive i. s known to exist as indicated by well data and geologic maps . The location of these impermeable igneous intrusions and their relationship to the water bearing sediments is important as a trapping mechanism. , espec.... Bouguer gravity map of the Big Bend region by Metcalfe and Clarke with the location of the gravity study in the Panther Juncti. on area. Generalised stratigraphic nomenclature and correlation, Panther Junction Area, Big Bend National Park...

  18. Experimental and numerical analysis of pre-compressed masonry walls in two-way-bending with second order effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering (ABC), Politecnico diMilano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Olivito, Renato S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile - Università della Calabria Via P Bucci 39 B - 87036 RENDE (CS) (Italy); Tralli, Antonio [Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The buckling behavior of slender unreinforced masonry (URM) walls subjected to axial compression and out-of-plane lateral loads is investigated through a combined experimental and numerical homogenizedapproach. After a preliminary analysis performed on a unit cell meshed by means of elastic FEs and non-linear interfaces, macroscopic moment-curvature diagrams so obtained are implemented at a structural level, discretizing masonry by means of rigid triangular elements and non-linear interfaces. The non-linear incremental response of the structure is accounted for a specific quadratic programming routine. In parallel, a wide experimental campaign is conducted on walls in two way bending, with the double aim of both validating the numerical model and investigating the behavior of walls that may not be reduced to simple cantilevers or simply supported beams. Panels investigated are dry-joint in scale square walls simply supported at the base and on a vertical edge, exhibiting the classical Rondelet’s mechanism. The results obtained are compared with those provided by the numerical model.

  19. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  20. Drying Fruits and Vegetables at Home.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putnam, Peggy H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that are responsible for their maturation, or their becoming ripe. These enzymes cause color and flavor changes, some of which may become more extensive when food surfaces are cut and exposed to air. The changes con tinue during drying and storage unless the enzyme... in recommendations for treatment before dry ing, for methods of drying, for temperatures and length of drying time, and for conditioning prior to storage. You may have to use the "trial and error" approach in finding out which drying technique works best for your...

  1. Microwave drying of ferric oxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickles, C.A.; Xia, D.K. [Queens` Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of microwave energy for the drying of ferric oxide pellets has been investigated and evaluated. It is shown that the microwave drying rates are much higher than those observed in the conventional process. Also there is some potential for improved quality of the product. As a stand-alone technology it is unlikely that microwave drying would be economical for pellets due to the low cost of conventional fuels. However, based on an understanding of the drying mechanisms in the conventional process and in the microwave process, it is shown that microwave-assisted drying offers considerable potential. In this hybrid process, the advantages of the two drying techniques are combined to provide an improved drying process.

  2. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Technical University Ilmenau, Weimarer Strasse 25, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute, E-mail: ute.kaiser@uni-ulm.de [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Turchanin, Andrey [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, Bielefeld 33615 (Germany)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  3. Vapor Transport in Dry Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-vapor movement in soils is a complex process, controlled by both diffusion and advection and influenced by pressure and thermal gradients acting across tortuous flow paths. Wide-ranging interest in water-vapor transport includes both theoretical and practical aspects. Just how pressure and thermal gradients enhance water-vapor flow is still not completely understood and subject to ongoing research. Practical aspects include dryland farming (surface mulching), water harvesting (aerial wells), fertilizer placement, and migration of contaminants at waste-sites. The following article describes the processes and practical applications of water-vapor transport, with emphasis on unsaturated (dry) soil systems.

  4. Dry melting of high albite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anovitz, L.M.: Blencoe, J.G.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of albitic melts are central to thermodynamic models for synthetic and natural granitic liquids. The authors have analyzed published phase-equilibrium and thermodynamic data for the dry fusion of high albite to develop a more accurate equation for the Biggs free energy of this reaction to 30 kbar and 1,400 C. Strict criteria for reaction reversal were sued to evaluate the phase-equilibrium data, and the thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid albite were evaluated using the published uncertainties in the original measurements. Results suggest that neither available phase-equilibrium experiments nor thermodynamic data tightly constrain the location of the reaction. Experimental solidus temperatures at 1 atm range from 1,100 to 1,120 C. High-pressure experiments were not reversed completely and may have been affected by several sources of error, but the apparent inconsistencies among the results of the various experimentalists are eliminated when only half-reversal data are considered. Uncertainties in thermodynamic data yield large variations in permissible reaction slopes. Disparities between experimental and calculated melting curves are, therefore, largely attributable to these difficulties, and there is no fundamental disagreement between the available phase-equilibrium and thermodynamic data for the dry melting of albite. Consequently, complex speciation models for albitic melts, based on the assumption that these discrepancies represent a real characteristic of the system, are unjustified at this time.

  5. Freeze-drying bovine spermatozoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faris, Harvey Lee

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~~to t~ roi'ipxg QQ ca dry ai gjuu QQjQigog aud ta Qst~~co cho ~~grso Qg 86lhVdratiea KXpkos Q~Kd Wlthstsud?. V~4MK Qhaersat9ZBE3 Vora used apprs~w~~~ a%oct@ a8 virious uaistma Eoroko as assess hot~& driad. OC WQQ QVBSd Chat horaous gQ Sud 2' hours...KK Hmm 'tiaao ZXZ"d. XnCEICno ~. ?n~ cpa~ Vms::Hach. . UIadpicoKdSq. X6, ESP& S&~o~c. L947, Tha Eccaaacii"cLBCII @IE HacCai. 'La Ljy Uqrlaj. ':. J? QvaacaL EELaoabiaKagyp X. " HSR;. K7p EESCKQ~~UZp g. 8 X956. ParCELU HaIILaa Saciemi HHCaC THicaa...

  6. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  7. 8-oxoguainine enhances bending of DNA that favors binding of glycosylases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Miller

    2003-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out on the DNA oligonucleotide GGGAACAACTAG:CTAGTTGTTCCC in its native form and with guanine in the central G19:C6 base pair replaced by 8-oxoguanine (8oxoG). A box of explicit water molecules was used for solvation and Na+ counterions were added to neutralize the system. The direction and magnitude of global bending were assessed by a technique used previously to analyze simulations of DNA containing a thymine dimer. The presence of 8oxoG did not greatly affect the magnitude of DNA bending; however, bending into the major groove was significantly more probable when 8oxoG replaced G19. Crystal structures of glycosylases bound to damaged-DNA substrates consistently show a sharp bend into the major groove at the damage site. We conclude that changes in bending dynamics that assist the formation of this kink are a part of the mechanism by which glycosylases of the base excision repair pathway recognize the presence of 8oxoG in DNA.

  8. Using and Storing Nonfat Dry Milk Nonfat dry milk is convenient to store, easy to use and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in a cool, dry place. s Dry milk products are very sensitive to temperature and humidity. The area where your dry milk is stored should be kept as cool as possible. s Dry milk will absorb moisture and odorsUsing and Storing Nonfat Dry Milk Nonfat dry milk is convenient to store, easy to use

  9. Cold vacuum drying system conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, F.W.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes the activities involved in the removal of the SNF from the leaking basins and to place it in stable dry storage.

  10. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M. (A123 Systems, Inc.)

    2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  11. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  12. Cooking with Non-fat Dry Milk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of non-fat dry milk, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

  13. The bends in the slopes of radial abundance gradients in the disks of spiral galaxies -- do they exist?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin

    2002-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Spiral galaxies with a reported bend in the slope of gradient in the oxygen abundances (O/H)_R23, derived with traditionally used R23 - method, were examined. It is shown that the artificial origin of the reported bends can be naturally explained. Two reasons that result in a false bend in the slope of (O/H)_R23 gradient are indicated. It is concluded that at the present time there is no example of a galaxy with an undisputable established bend in the slope of the oxygen abundance gradient.

  14. The application of boundary layer removal to a 90 degree bend used as a flow turing device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Edward Harrison

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attached to Nozzle; High Velocity 30 Efficiency vs Percent Flow Removed; Bend. Attached to Nozzle; Low Velocity 31 Efficiency vs Percent Flow Removed; Bend Attached to 1. 5 Foot Duct; High Velocity 32 Efficiency vs Percent Flow Removed; Bend Attached... to 1. 5 Foot Duct; Low Velocity 33 Static Pressure vs Angle of Bend 37 38 40 41 A C K N 0 W L E D G E M E N T S The author wishes to express his appreciation to Profes- sor Alfred E. Cronk for his advice and patience; and to his wife, Annabelle...

  15. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 2: dry deposition and resuspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruppacher, H.R.; Semanin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Papers are presented under the headings: dry deposition of gases, dry deposition of particles, wind erosion, plutonium deposition and resuspension, air-sea exchange, tropical and polar, global scale, and future studies.

  16. Bending elasticity of a curved amphiphilic film decorated anchored copolymers: a small angle neutron scattering study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacqueline Appell; Christian Ligoure; Gregoire Porte

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Microemulsion droplets (oil in water stabilized by a surfactant film) are progressively decorated with increasing amounts of poly ethylene- oxide (PEO) chains anchored in the film by the short aliphatic chain grafted at one end of the PEO chain . The evolution of the bending elasticity of the surfactant film with increasing decoration is deduced from the evolution in size and polydispersity of the droplets as reflected by small angle neutron scattering. The optimum curvature radius decreases while the bending rigidity modulus remains practically constant. The experimental results compare well with the predictions of a model developed for the bending properties of a curved film decorated by non-adsorbing polymer chains, which takes into account, the finite curvature of the film and the free diffusion of the chains on the film.

  17. TEST SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL BENDING STIFFNESS AND VIBRATION INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL] [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL] [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL] [ORNL; Flanagan, Michelle [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) must meet safety requirements specified by federal regulations. For normal conditions of transport, vibration loads incident to transport must be considered. This is particularly relevant for high-burnup fuel (>45 GWd/MTU). As the burnup of the fuel increases, a number of changes occur that may affect the performance of the fuel and cladding in storage and during transportation. The mechanical properties of high-burnup de-fueled cladding have been previously studied by subjecting defueled cladding tubes to longitudinal (axial) tensile tests, ring-stretch tests, ring-compression tests, and biaxial tube burst tests. The objective of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties and behavior of both the cladding and the fuel in it under vibration/cyclic loads similar to the sustained vibration loads experienced during normal transport. The vibration loads to SNF rods during transportation can be characterized by dynamic, cyclic, bending loads. The transient vibration signals in a specified transport environment can be analyzed, and frequency, amplitude and phase components can be identified. The methodology being implemented is a novel approach to study the vibration integrity of actual SNF rod segments through testing and evaluating the fatigue performance of SNF rods at defined frequencies. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a bending fatigue system to evaluate the response of the SNF rods to vibration loads. A three-point deflection measurement technique using linear variable differential transformers is used to characterize the bending rod curvature, and electromagnetic force linear motors are used as the driving system for mechanical loading. ORNL plans to use the test system in a hot cell for SNF vibration testing on high burnup, irradiated fuel to evaluate the pellet-clad interaction and bonding on the effective lifetime of fuel-clad structure bending fatigue performance. Technical challenges include pure bending implementation, remote installation and detachment of the SNF test specimen, test specimen deformation measurement, and identification of a driving system suitable for use in a hot cell. Surrogate test specimens have been used to calibrate the test setup and conduct systematic cyclic tests. The calibration and systematic cyclic tests have been used to identify test protocol issues prior to implementation in the hot cell. In addition, cyclic hardening in unidirectional bending and softening in reverse bending were observed in the surrogate test specimens. The interface bonding between the surrogate clad and pellets was found to impact the bending response of the surrogate rods; confirming this behavior in the actual spent fuel segments will be an important aspect of the hot cell test implementation,

  18. Seasonal Price Change and Costs of Storing Grain Sorghum in the Coastal Bend.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitney, Howard S.; Moore, Clarence A.

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . instead of increasing. Figure 1. Coastal Bend area and the Eighth CF:' : This would add to his losses if the farmer were depend- Reporting District. ing on the market in his operations. With charges for storage that prevailed in the Coastal Bend during... consistency in the months when peak prices occurred, which adds to the risk of storing grain for future sale. I With the price-support program in effect it has not been necessary for the farmer to rel!.nn the market altogether in deciding whether to sell...

  19. An experimental investigation of high temperature, high pressure paper drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Kamal Raoji

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    % moisture removed oven dried mass of handsheet, g mass of handsheet after drying test, g mass of handsheet before drying test, g relative moisture removed from handsheet moisture removed by drying, % initial moisture (im) initial handsheet sample mass..., and the effects on the paper sheet and drying felt can be detrimental. Elevated temperatures reduce water viscosity which permits reduced resistance to water flow in the sheet. Pressing with a drying temperature of 95 C gives increased drying capacity, reduced...

  20. Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes Saves Energy Energy Efficiency Research Office PIER This research will use infrared heating technology for peeling tomatoes. Infrared dry peeling, a device, producing less wastewater and preserving product quality. Infrared drypeeling is expected to reduce

  1. Cooking and Using Dried Beans and Peas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooking and Using Dried Beans and Peas Beans and peas are good for you Beans and peas beans with rice or corn to provide high quality complete protein. If you are on a special diet, remember that beans and peas are low in sodium and fat. How to store dried beans and peas Store beans and peas

  2. Growing Dry Beans for an Emerging Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Growing Dry Beans for an Emerging Market JOIN US FOR AN EVENING WITH JACK LAZOR, OF BUTTERWORKS FARM AND JOE BOSSEN, OF VERMONT BEAN CRAFTERS APRIL 10TH , 2012, 6:15-8PM AT THE KELLOGG-HUBBARD LIBRARY EAST MONTPELIER ROOM 135 MAIN ST., MONTPELIER, VT 05602 Jack Lazor has grown dry beans for local

  3. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  4. Bending properties of epoxy resin matrix composites filled with NiMnGa ferromagnetic shape memory alloy powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Bending properties of epoxy resin matrix composites filled with Ni­Mn­Ga ferromagnetic shape memory­Mn­Ga Composite materials Mechanical properties Microstructure Two types of epoxy resin matrix composites filled­Mn­Ga epoxy resin composites were reported, yet the bending property of Ni­Mn­Ga-polymer smart composites has

  5. Off-fault Damage Associated with a Localized Bend in the North Branch San Gabriel Fault, California 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Andrew 1987-

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of scales within the damage zone adjacent to an abrupt 13 degree bend over 425 m in the NBSGF in order to constrain the relative role of the initiation of new damage versus the reactivation of preexisting damage adjacent to a bend. Field investigation...

  6. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic engineering procedures at depth may still be attained if high temperature sites with extensive fracturing are developed or exploited. [DJE -2005

  7. Water dimer hydrogen bond stretch, donor torsion overtone, and ``in-plane bend'' vibrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Water dimer hydrogen bond stretch, donor torsion overtone, and ``in-plane bend'' vibrations Frank N. Brown Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 Heather A. Harker and Poul B. © 2003 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1614774 I. INTRODUCTION Water clusters have been

  8. Modified Theis equation by considering the bending effect of the confining unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    of pumping in a confined aquifer. It is well known that the observed drawdown at early times has an obvious in the aquifer due to pumping may not contribute entirely to the compression of the aquifer, but may be partially by including the bending effect of the confining unit. Both a hypothetical exam- ple and a field pumping test

  9. Analytical and numerical methods for processing Hopkinson Bar Loaded Bending test on concrete: a comparative study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Analytical and numerical methods for processing Hopkinson Bar Loaded Bending test on concrete on dynamic characteristics of concrete. Various techniques have been used to test concretes at high strain for concrete structures subjected to dynamic loading such as explosions or im- pacts require information

  10. Carbon emissions in China: How far can new efforts bend the curve?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon emissions in China: How far can new efforts bend the curve? Xiliang Zhang, Valerie J interactions among natural and human climate system components; objectively assess uncertainty in economic, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended

  11. A four-point bending test for the bonding evaluation of composite pavement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A four-point bending test for the bonding evaluation of composite pavement M. Hun1 , A. Chabot1 , F investigate the crack initiation and propagation at the interface between layers of composite pavements affects the durability of composite pavements made with asphalt and cement materials. Two main problems

  12. Tour of Entergy's Nuclear Power Plant in River Bend Owner: Entergy Gulf States Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ervin, Elizabeth K.

    Tour of Entergy's Nuclear Power Plant in River Bend Owner: Entergy Gulf States Inc. Reactor Type a nuclear power plant. Plant was Entergy, a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) type. Built in the 80's, it has of the veteran plant workers. The presentation gave the nuclear plant engineering basics and built

  13. EIS-0296: South Oregon Coast Reinforcement Project, Coos Bay/North Bend, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration proposes to build a 500- kilovolt (kV) transmission line and new substation to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of the state of Oregon. Nucor Steel, a division of Nucor Corporation, may build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend, Oregon, area.

  14. EIS-0296: South Oregon Coast Reinforcement Project, Coos Bay/North Bend, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes BPA's proposed action to build a 500- kilovolt (kV) transmission line and new substation to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of the state of Oregon. Nucor Steel, a division of Nucor Corporation, may build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend, Oregon, area.

  15. Guided wave radiation from a point source in the proximity of a pipe bend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brath, A. J.; Nagy, P. B. [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Simonetti, F. [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221,USA and Cincinnati NDE, Cincinnati, OH 45244 (United States); Instanes, G. [ClampOn AS, 5162 Laksevaag, Bergen, Norway and Cincinnati NDE, Cincinnati, OH 45244 (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout the oil and gas industry corrosion and erosion damage monitoring play a central role in managing asset integrity. Recently, the use of guided wave technology in conjunction with tomography techniques has provided the possibility of obtaining point-by-point maps of wall thickness loss over the entire volume of a pipeline section between two ring arrays of ultrasonic transducers. However, current research has focused on straight pipes while little work has been done on pipe bends which are also the most susceptible to developing damage. Tomography of the bend is challenging due to the complexity and computational cost of the 3-D elastic model required to accurately describe guided wave propagation. To overcome this limitation, we introduce a 2-D anisotropic inhomogeneous acoustic model which represents a generalization of the conventional unwrapping used for straight pipes. The shortest-path ray-tracing method is then applied to the 2-D model to compute ray paths and predict the arrival times of the fundamental flexural mode, A0, excited by a point source on the straight section of pipe entering the bend and detected on the opposite side. Good agreement is found between predictions and experiments performed on an 8” diameter (D) pipe with 1.5 D bend radius. The 2-D model also reveals the existence of an acoustic lensing effect which leads to a focusing phenomenon also confirmed by the experiments. The computational efficiency of the 2-D model makes it ideally suited for tomography algorithms.

  16. Theoretical solution for light transmission of a bended hollow light guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Darula, Stanislav; Kittler, Richard [ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 9, Dubravska Road, 845 03 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kundracik, Frantisek [Department of Experimental Physics, FMPI, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow light guides with very high reflective inner surfaces are novel daylight systems that collect sunlight and skylight available on the roof of buildings transporting it into deep or windowless interiors in building cores. Thus the better utilization of daylight can result in energy savings and wellbeing in these enclosed indoor spaces. An analytical complex solution of a straight tube system was solved in the HOLIGILM method with a user-friendly tool available on the http://www.holigilm.info. An even more difficult light flow transport is to be determined in bended tubes usually placed on sloped roofs where a bend is necessary to adjust the vertical pass through the ceilings. This paper presents the theoretical derivation of the model with its graphical representation and coordinate system respecting backward ray-tracing bend distortions. To imagine the resulting illuminance on the horizontal plane element in the interior, the virtual ray (i.e. luminance in an elementary solid angle) has to pass the ceiling diffuser interface, the inner mirror like tube with a bend, through a roof cupola attachment to the element of the sky and sun light source. Due to this complexity and the lengthy derivation and explanations more practical applications will be published later in a separate contribution. (author)

  17. Electromagnetic detection of plate hydration due to bending faults at the Middle America Trench

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constable, Steve

    images show that the extensive network of trench parallel normal faults penetrates the entire oceanic bending faults on the incoming oceanic plate of the Middle America Trench offshore Nicaragua have been observed to penetrate to mantle depths, suggesting a permeable pathway for hydration of the crust

  18. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  19. Advanced wet-dry cooling tower concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Troxell Kimmel

    The purpose of this years' work has been to test and analyze the new dry cooling tower surface previously developed. The model heat transfer test apparatus built last year has been instrumented for temperature, humidity ...

  20. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  1. Dry cooling: Perspectives on future needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guyer, E.C. (Yankee Scientific, Inc., Ashland, MA (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The factors that can be expected to determine the future role of dry cooling in the United States electric power generation industry are identified and characterized. Focus is primarily on the issues of water availability for the electric power industry and the environmental impacts of evaporative cooling systems. The question of future water availability is addressed in terms of both limitations and opportunities facing the industry. A brief review of the status of dry cooling applications is provided. Included is a summary of an extensive survey of electric utility industry perspectives on the future requirements and role for dry cooling. Some regional assessments of the expected future requirements for this technology are also provided. Conclusions are a qualitative characterization of the expected future role of dry cooling in the electric power industry. 72 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Dry Cask Storage Study Feb 1989

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report on the use of dry-cask-storage technologies at the sites of civilian nuclear power reactors has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE} in response to the requirements of...

  3. Resuspension and dry deposition research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author concludes that better predictive models are needed for the signifcant health, ecological, and economic impacts of resuspended particles and their subsequent dry deposition. Both chemical and radioactive aerosols are discussed. (PSB)

  4. High strength air-dried aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  5. Compression of cooked freeze-dried carrots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macphearson, Bruce Alan

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to precompression characteristics (Brockmann, 1966). Hsmdy (1962) found that acceptable, compressed and freeze-dried spinach could be obtained by plasticizing the product to a moisture content of 9X before compression. Ishler (1962) reported that spraying... the dehydrated food before compression with either water, glycerine or propylene glycol produced bars with excellent rehydra- tion characteristics. He recommended spraying freeze-dried cellu- lar foods to 5-13X moisture, compressing, and redrying to lees than...

  6. Determination of Water Saturation in Relatively Dry Porous Media...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Saturation in Relatively Dry Porous Media Using Gas-phase Tracer Tests. Determination of Water Saturation in Relatively Dry Porous Media Using Gas-phase Tracer Tests....

  7. Wet-dry cooling demonstration. Test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allemann, R.T.; DeBellis, D.E.; Werry, E.V.; Johnson, B.M.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale test of dry/wet cooling using the ammonia phase-change system, designated the Advanced Concepts Test (ACT), has been operated at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Kern Station at Bakersfield, California. The facility is capable of condensing 60,000 lbs/h of steam from a small house turbine. Two different modes of combining dry and evaporative cooling have been tested. One uses deluge cooling in which water is allowed to flow over the fins of the dry (air-cooled) heat exchanger on hot days; the other uses a separate evaporative condenser in parallel to the dry heat exchanger. A third mode of enhancing the dry cooling system, termed capacitive cooling has been tested. In this system, the ammonia-cooled steam condenser is supplemented by a parallel conventional water-cooled condenser with water supplied from a closed system. This water is cooled during off-peak hours each night by an ammonia heat pump which rejects heat through the ACT Cooling Tower. If operated over the period of a year, each of the wet/dry systems would use only 25% of the water normally required to reject this heat load in an evaporative cooling tower. The third would consume no water, the evaporative cooling being replaced by the delayed cooling of the closed system water supply.

  8. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  9. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  10. Rate of drying and stresses in the first period of drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, S.J.; Rybicki, A.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents a computer simulated processes and illustrate how the drying induced stresses are influenced by the rate of drying. It is shown that the moisture transport coefficient, and thus the rate of drying, depends on the thermal state of the drying material, defined by the wet-bulb temperature. Through these simulated processes one can observe the evolution of the moisture content and stress distributions during drying at constant, but in each process different, wet-bulb temperatures. A convective drying process of a bar with rectangular cross-section is considered as example, and a two-dimensional initial-boundary value problem is solved numerically with the use of the finite element method. The numerical results are visualized in spatial diagrams.

  11. An Economic Study of Farm Organization in the Piney Woods Farming Area of Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonnen, C. A. (Clarence Alfred); Thibodeaux, B. H.; Criswell, J. F.

    1932-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Farm: G. T. McNess, Superintendent Apiculture (San Antonio) : H. B. Parks, B. S.. Chief A. H. Alex, B. S., Queen Breeder Feed Control Service : F. D. Fuller. M. S., Chief Zames Sullivan, Asst. Chief I S. D. Pearce. Secretarv j J. H. ~ogers...I TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT S~AT~ON-~~~O I I A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR 1 COLLEGE STATION. BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS / BULLETIN NO. 453 SEPTEMBER, 1932 I I - 1 DIVISION OF FARM AND RANCH ECONOMICS I IN COOPERATION WITH BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL...

  12. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugustDecade5-F, 2012June-19,-2015DecemberI-5BOE

  13. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugustDecade5-F, 2012June-19,-2015DecemberI-5BOEGas

  14. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugustDecade5-F,

  15. HVOF coatings of Diamalloy 2002 and Diamalloy 4010 onto steel: Tensile and bending response of coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Shehri, Y. A.; Hashmi, M. S. J. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Eng., DCU, Dublin (Ireland); Yilbas, B. S. [Mech. Eng. Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    HVOF coating of Diamalloy 2002 powders and Diamalloy 4010 powders as well as two-layered coatings consisting of these powders is carried out. In the two-layered structure, Diamalloy 4010 is sprayed at the substrate surface while Diamalloy 2002 is sprayed on the top of Diamalloy 4010 coating. The mechanical properties of the coatings are examined through tensile and three-point bending tests. The coating microstructure and morphology are examined using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that the coating produced is free from defects including voids and cracks. The failure mechanism of coating during tensile and three-point bending tests is mainly crack formation and propagation in the coating. The elastic modulus of coating produced from Diamalloy 2002 is higher than that of Diamalloy 4010 coating, which is due to the presence of 12% WC in the coating.

  16. Methods and apparatus for twist bend coupled (TCB) wind turbine blades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; LeMieux, David Lawrence; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for controlling a wind turbine having twist bend coupled rotor blades on a rotor mechanically coupled to a generator includes determining a speed of a rotor blade tip of the wind turbine, measuring a current twist distribution and current blade loading, and adjusting a torque of a generator to change the speed of the rotor blade tip to thereby increase an energy capture power coefficient of the wind turbine.

  17. Riparian mammals in Big Bend National Park and their interrelationships with visitor usages and impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boeer, William Jacob

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . , 1944; McDougall and Sperry, 1951; Denyes, 1956; and Warnock and Kittams, 1970). The Chisos Mountains support dense stands of Mexican Pinyon-Oak-Juniper and Ponderosa Pine- Douglas Fir woodlands (for a list of scientific names of all plants... research work. Studies involving mammals of the Big Bend area began with gene. al surveys (Bailey, 1905; Johnson, 1936; Borell and Bryant, 1942; and Taylor et al. , 1944) designed to identify and document the varied fauna of the area. After the park...

  18. Mountain lion use of an area of high recreational development in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruth, Toni Karen

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /Site Restrictions and Closures Habitat/Site Alterations. . . . . . . . . . . . Protocol for Incidents of Attack or Depredation. 113 113 120 128 135 141 147 150 Recommendations f or Management. . . . . . . . . Education of Visitors and Residents... subadults should be considered high risk. Alternative management actions for reducing risk to visitors were identified and evaluated. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was cooperatively funded by Big Bend National Park (BIBE), Texas; The National Park Service...

  19. Elastic continuum theory: Fully understanding of the twist-bend nematic phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovanni Barbero; Luiz Roberto Evangelista; Michely Patrícia Rosseto; Rafael Soares Zola; Ioannis Lelidis

    2015-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The twist-bend nematic phase, $N_{\\rm TB}$, may be viewed as a heliconical molecular arrangement in which the director $\\bf n$ precesses uniformly about an extra director field, $\\bf t$. It corresponds to a nematic ground state exhibiting nanoscale periodic modulation. To demonstrate the stability of this phase from the elastic point of view, a natural extension of the Frank elastic energy density is proposed. The elastic energy density is built in terms of the elements of symmetry of the new phase in which intervene the components of these director fields together with the usual Cartesian tensors. It is shown that the ground state corresponds to a deformed state for which $K_{22} > K_{33}$. When the elastic free energy is interpreted in analogy with the Landau theory, it is demonstrated the existence of a second order phase transition between the usual and the twist-bend nematic phase, driven by a new elastic parameter playing a role similar to the one of the main dielectric anisotropy of classical nematics and being closely related to the bulk compression modulus representing the pseudo-layers of twist-bend nematic phases. A phase transition and the value of the nanoscale pitch are predicted in accordance to experimental results.

  20. Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a , Eric Blond1, b , Alain Gasser1 Forbach, France a damintode.kolani@univ-orleans.fr, b eric.blond@univ-orleans.fr Keywords: coal, drying: drying process and pyrolysis of coal. A heat and mass transfer model was developed to simulate the drying

  1. Method and apparatus for drying web

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orloff, David I. (Atlanta, GA); Kloth, Gerald R. (Kennesaw, GA); Rudemiller, Gary R. (Paducah, KY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for drying a web of paper utilizing impulse drying techniques. In the method of the invention for drying a paper web, the paper web is transported through a pair of rolls wherein at least one of the rolls has been heated to an elevated temperature. The heated roll is provided with a surface having a low thermal diffusivity of less than about 1.times.10.sup.-6 m.sup.2 /s. The surface material of the roll is preferably prepared from a material selected from the group consisting of ceramics, polymers, glass, inorganic plastics, composite materials and cermets. The heated roll may be constructed entirely from the material having a low thermal diffusivity or the roll may be formed from metal, such as steel or aluminum, or other suitable material which is provided with a surface layer of a material having a low thermal diffusivity.

  2. Study of band bending effect in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell through Constant-Current-Discharging Voltage Decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A measurement method of constant-current-discharging voltage decay is established to characterize the band bending effect in the heterojunction of conducting glass/TiO2 for typical dye-sensitized solar cells. Furthermore, a dark-state electron transport regarding the TiO2 conduction band bending is proposed based upon the viewpoints of thermionic emission mechanism, which suggests an origin of the band bending effect in a theoretical model. This model quantitatively agrees well with our experimental results and indicates that both the Fermi level decay in TiO2 and the potential difference across the heterojunction will lead to the TiO2 conduction band bending downwards.

  3. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, R.J.; Constantine, C.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A dry etching method is disclosed. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators. 1 fig.

  4. Annotated Bibliography for Drying Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebecca E. Smith

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internationally, the nuclear industry is represented by both commercial utilities and research institutions. Over the past two decades many of these entities have had to relocate inventories of spent nuclear fuel from underwater storage to dry storage. These efforts were primarily prompted by two factors: insufficient storage capacity (potentially precipitated by an open-ended nuclear fuel cycle) or deteriorating quality of existing underwater facilities. The intent of developing this bibliography is to assess what issues associated with fuel drying have been identified, to consider where concerns have been satisfactorily addressed, and to recommend where additional research would offer the most value to the commercial industry and the U. S. Department of Energy.

  5. Adsorptive Drying of Organic Liquids- An Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, S.; Humphrey, J. L.; Fair, J. R.

    (which is very heat sensitive and can poly merize in the presence of adsorbents) by freeze drying at -20 0 C and centrifuging the ice crystals. The water oontent was reduced from 700 ppm to 1~0 ppm. Pervaporation One of the recent advances... at The University of Texas at Austin will also be given. INTRODUCTION In the process industries it is often necessary to dry fluids before they can be processed further. For example, if a liquid is to be subjected to cryo genic conditions, its frost point must...

  6. Hog Fuel Drying Using Vapour Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; MacEachen, I.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    complicated and capital intensive drying process, yields a product of approximately 15% moisture, which due to its particle size, may only be burnt in suspension. iii) From an energy standpotnt the processes are inefficient as only a fractton... fuel. TR.e evaporated moisture is sep rated from the dried hog fuel-oil slurry n 768 ESL-IE-84-04-133 Proceedings from the Sixth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference Volume II, Houston, TX, April 15-18, 1984 l'ltlwr d separate vessel...

  7. Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, T.; White, D. A.; Knowles, T. P. J.

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics T. Mu¨ller,1 D. A. White,1 and T. P. J. Knowles1, a) Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, United Kingdom (Dated: 25 November 2014) We present an approach... for interfacing an electromechanical sensor with a microfluidic device for the accurate quantification of the dry mass of analytes within microchannels. We show that depositing solutes onto the active surface of a quartz crystal microbalance by means of an on...

  8. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell (Livermore, CA); Keller, Jay O. (Oakland, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat transfer apparatus includes a first chamber having a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, and an outlet. A first heat transfer gas source provides a first gas flow to the first chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A second gas flow through a second chamber connected to the side of the first chamber, generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling of the first and second gases in the acoustically augmented first chamber. The first chamber may also include a material inlet for receiving material to be dried, in which case the gas outlet serves as a dried material and gas outlet.

  9. Self-protection in dry recycle technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hannum, W.H.; Wade, D.; Stanford, G.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the INFCE conclusions, the U.S. undertook development of a new dry fuel cycle. Dry recycle processes have been demonstrated to be feasible. Safeguarding such fuel cycles will be dramatically simpler than the PUREX fuel cycle. At every step of the processes, the materials meet the {open_quotes}spent-fuel standard.{close_quotes} The scale is compatible with collocation of power reactors and their recycle facility, eliminating off-site transportation and storage of plutonium-bearing materials. Material diverted either covertly or overtly would be difficult (relative to material available by other means) to process into weapons feedstock.

  10. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantine, Christopher (Safety Harbor, FL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dry etching method. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators.

  11. Theoretical and experimental study of the bending influence on the capacitance of interdigitated micro-electrodes patterned on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina-Lopez, F.; Briand, D.; Rooij, N. F. de [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) - Institute of Microengineering (IMT) – Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Laboratory - SAMLAB, 2002 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Kinkeldei, T.; Tröster, G. [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETHZ) – Electronics Laboratory, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Interdigitated electrodes are common structures in the fields of microelectronics and MEMS. Recent developments in flexible electronics compel an understanding of such structures under bending constraints. In this work, the behavior of interdigitated micro-electrodes when subjected to circular bending has been theoretically and experimentally studied through changes in capacitance. An analytical model has been developed to calculate the expected variation in capacitance of such structures while undergoing outward and inward bending along the direction perpendicular to the electrodes. The model combines conformal mapping techniques to account for the electric field redistribution and fundamental aspects of solid mechanics in order to define the geometrical deformation of the electrodes while bending. To experimentally verify our theoretical predictions, several interdigitated electrode structures with different geometries were fabricated on polymeric substrates by means of photolithography. The samples, placed in a customized bending setup, were bent to controlled radii of curvature while measuring their capacitance. A maximum variation in capacitance of less than 3% was observed at a minimum radius of curvature of 2.5?mm for all the devices tested with very thin electrodes whereas changes of up to 7% were found on stiffer, plated electrodes. Larger or smaller variations would be possible, in theory, by adjusting the geometry of the device. This work establishes a useful predictive tool for the design and evaluation of truly flexible/bendable electronics consisting of interdigitated structures, allowing one to tune the bending influence on the capacitance value through geometrical design.

  12. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Esherick, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Parmeter, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Rieger, Dennis J. (Tijeras, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for dry etching of transition metals. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorous-containing .pi.-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the .pi.-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the .pi.-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex.

  13. Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste is a nightmare for any construction engineer of the concrete or cement paste surface. Inspired by the art of molecular cooking a team of TU Delft scientists for instance sodium alginates. When sprayed on the surface of concrete or cement paste, a rapid chemical

  14. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  15. Spent fuel integrity during dry storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinnon, M.A.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information on spent fuel integrity is of interest in evaluating the impact of long-term dry storage on the behavior of spent fuel rods. Spent fuel used during cask performance tests at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offers significant opportunities for confirmation of the benign nature of long-term dry storage. The cask performance tests conducted at INEL included visual observation and ultrasonic examination of the condition of cladding, fuel rods, and fuel assembly hardware before dry storage and consolidation of the fuel; and a qualitative determination of the effect of dry storage and fuel consolidation on fission gas release from the spent fuel rods. A variety of cover gases and cask orientations were used during the cask performance tests. Cover gases included vacuum, nitrogen, and helium. The nitrogen and helium backfills were sampled and analyzed to detect leaking spent fuel rods. At the conclusion of each performance test, periodic gas sampling was conducted on each cask as part of a surveillance and monitoring activity. Continued surveillance and monitoring activities are being conducted for intact fuel in a CASTOR V/21 cask and for consolidated fuel in a VSC-17 cask. The results of the gas sampling activities are reported in this paper.

  16. Hog Fuel Drying Using Vapour Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; MacEachen, I.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous hog fuel drying pilot plant based on the principle of mixing hog fuel with a hot oil (e.g., crude tall oil) as the heat transfer medium, and recirculating the suspension through a steam heated exchanger was designed, built...

  17. Non-Linear Drying Diffusion and Viscoelastic Drying Shrinkage Modeling in Hardened Cement Pastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Chin K.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    modeling with an average diffusion coefficient and with determined viscoelastic parameters from creep tests agreed well compared to the shrinkage data from experiments, indicating that drying shrinkage of cement paste may be considered as a poroviscoelastic...

  18. Non-Linear Drying Diffusion and Viscoelastic Drying Shrinkage Modeling in Hardened Cement Pastes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Chin K.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of diffusion rate over short drops of ambient relative humidity. Techniques to determine drying isotherms prior to full equilibration of mass loss, as well as converting mass loss into concentration of water vapor were developed. Using the measured water vapor...

  19. A photoelastic investigation of the bending moment on a gear tooth due to a concentrated load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Pu-Ning

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    parallel to the X-Y plane was proportional to the stress CI on the X surface, or that ness, Mx, times the thickness of a slice, b, so that 12 Then M = M ~ b, or M M x ' x b 13 xmax 6M x h But since h = 1 in, for all models used in this research... AND LOADING . Material Mold . Casting Loading IV. ANALYSIS OF DATA r2 Orientation of Coordinate System. . . . . . . Determination of the Bending Moment, Mx, along the Fixed Edge Normal Stresses-Shear Difference Method . 12 12 l8 V. DISCUSSION...

  20. The structure and the bending potential of the 2A1 state of Ph2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Clinton William

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT The Structure and the Bendinq Potential of the A State of PH2. (Hay 1976) 2 Clinton 'Hilliam Allen II, B. S. , Texas AEH University Chairman of Advisory Coamittee: Dr. J. B. Coon The bendinq vibration of PH2 in the Al excited state was studied... of the large amplitude bending was treated by an inteqral transformation over the reduced mass bendinq coordinate. The bonds were held rigid to eliminate stretching vibration. The theory of the symmetric top was used for the rotational motion with only...

  1. A photoelastic study of rectangular beams in bending with a hole on the vertical center line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, James Fletcher

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . To plot the stress concentration factors in the tested beams so that they may be used in design work. 4. To compare the results of this study with those obtained by Cox (1)~, Morgan (2), and Lindsay (3) . * Numbers in parentheses refer to references... that the maximum stresses occurred at one of four points on each of the beams tested. The four points of stress concentration were at the top or bottom of the beam and of the hole. In a rectangular beam in bending, without a hole on the vertical center line...

  2. 1997 DRY BEAN VARIETY CANNING TRIALS MICHIGAN DRY BEAN PRODUCTION RESEARCH ADVISORY BOARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1997 DRY BEAN VARIETY CANNING TRIALS MICHIGAN DRY BEAN PRODUCTION RESEARCH ADVISORY BOARD Rating 1=poor, 2=fair, 3=good, 4=above average, 5=excellent NAVY LIGHT RED KIDNEY BEANS VARIETY GRATIOT HURON 8.4 3.3 ASG96YT8 2.1 1.8 DARK RED KIDNEY BEANS ASG96YT37 3.4 2.1 VARIETY MONTCALM BAY 7 YEAR AVE ASG96YT

  3. Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, T; Knowles, T P J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an approach for interfacing an electromechanical sensor with a microfluidic device for the accurate quantification of the dry mass of analytes within microchannels. We show that depositing solutes onto the active surface of a quartz crystal microbalance by means of an on-chip microfluidic spray nozzle and subsequent solvent removal provides the basis for the real-time determination of dry solute mass. Moreover, this detection scheme does not suffer from the decrease in the sensor quality factor and the viscous drag present if the measurement is performed in a liquid environment, yet allows solutions to be analysed. We demonstrate the sensitivity and reliability of our approach by controlled deposition of nanogram levels of salt and protein from a micrometer-sized channel.

  4. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); McInnes, Ian D. (San Jose, CA); Massey, John V. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  5. Wall Drying in Hot and Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, K.; Weston, T.; Pascual, X.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WALL DRYING IN HOT AND HUMID CLIMATES Kimdolyn Boone Theresa Weston, PhD Xuaco Pascual Product Development Engineer Building Scientist Field Services Engineer E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company Richmond, VA ABSTRACT... time based on the varying weather conditions. Constant interior conditions of 70?F and 55% RH were chosen. This corresponds to typical interior temperatures and a high level of moisture production within the house. This was chosen as a worse...

  6. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility hazard analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krahn, D.E.

    1998-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) hazard analysis to support the CVDF phase 2 safety analysis report (SAR), and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, and implements the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  7. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert States

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  8. Combined Effects of Gravity, Bending Moment, Bearing Clearance, and Input Torque on Wind Turbine Planetary Gear Load Sharing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; LaCava, W.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This computational work investigates planetary gear load sharing of three-mount suspension wind turbine gearboxes. A three dimensional multibody dynamic model is established, including gravity, bending moments, fluctuating mesh stiffness, nonlinear tooth contact, and bearing clearance. A flexible main shaft, planetary carrier, housing, and gear shafts are modeled using reduced degrees-of-freedom through modal compensation. This drivetrain model is validated against the experimental data of Gearbox Reliability Collaborative for gearbox internal loads. Planet load sharing is a combined effect of gravity, bending moment, bearing clearance, and input torque. Influences of each of these parameters and their combined effects on the resulting planet load sharing are investigated. Bending moments and gravity induce fundamental excitations in the rotating carrier frame, which can increase gearbox internal loads and disturb load sharing. Clearance in carrier bearings reduces the bearing load carrying capacity and thus the bending moment from the rotor can be transmitted into gear meshes. With bearing clearance, the bending moment can cause tooth micropitting and can induce planet bearing fatigue, leading to reduced gearbox life. Planet bearings are susceptible to skidding at low input torque.

  9. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Dry Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. M. Goff; M. F. Simpson

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dry (non-aqueous) separations technologies have been used for treatment of used nuclear fuel since the 1960s, and they are still being developed and demonstrated in many countries. Dry technologies offer potential advantages compared to traditional aqueous separations including: compactness, resistance to radiation effects, criticality control benefits, compatibility with advanced fuel types, and ability to produce low purity products. Within the Department of Energy’s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, an electrochemical process employing molten salts is being developed for recycle of fast reactor fuel and treatment of light water reactor oxide fuel to produce a feed for fast reactors. Much of the development of this technology is based on treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel, which is metallic. Electrochemical treatment of the EBR-II fuel has been ongoing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility, located at the Materials and Fuel Complex of Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. More than 3.8 metric tons of heavy metal of metallic fast reactor fuel have been treated using this technology. This paper will summarize the status of electrochemical development and demonstration activities with used nuclear fuel, including high-level waste work. A historic perspective on the background of dry processing will also be provided.

  11. Transfer of hot dry rock technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.C.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program has focused worldwide attention on the facts that natural heat in the upper part of the earth's crust is an essentially inexhaustible energy resource which is accessible almost everywhere, and that practical means now exist to extract useful heat from the hot rock and bring it to the earth's surface for beneficial use. The Hot Dry Rock Program has successfully constructed and operated a prototype hot, dry rock energy system that produced heat at the temperatures and rates required for large-scale space heating and many other direct uses of heat. The Program is now in the final stages of constructing a larger, hotter system potentially capable of satisfying the energy requirements of a small, commercial, electrical-generating power plant. To create and understand the behavior of such system, it has been necessary to develop or support the development of a wide variety of equipment, instruments, techniques, and analyses. Much of this innovative technology has already been transferred to the private sector and to other research and development programs, and more is continuously being made available as its usefulness is demonstrated. This report describes some of these developments and indicates where this new technology is being used or can be useful to industry, engineering, and science.

  12. On the dry deposition of submicron particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesely, M. L.

    1999-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The air-surface exchange of particles can have a strong role in determining the amount, size, and chemical composition of particles in the troposphere. Here the authors consider only dry processes (deposition processes not directly aided by precipitation) and mostly address particles less than about 2 {micro}m in diameter (often referred to as submicron particles because most of such particles are less than 1 {micro}m in diameter). The processes that control the dry exchange of particulate material between the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth are numerous, highly varied, and sometimes poorly understood. As a result, determining which of the surface processes to parameterize or simulate in modeling the tropospheric mass budget of a particulate substance can be a significant challenge. Dry deposition, for example, can be controlled by a combination of Brownian diffusion, impaction, interception, and gravitational settling, depending on the size of the particles, the roughness of the surface on both micrometeorological and microscopic scales, the geometrical structure of vegetative canopies, and other surface characteristics such as wetness. Particles can be added to the lower atmosphere by resuspension from land surfaces and sea spray. The roles of rapid gas-to-particle conversion and growth or shrinkage of particles as a result of water condensation or evaporation in the lower few meters of the atmosphere can also have a significant impact on particle concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Here, a few micrometeorological observations and inferences on particle air-surface exchange are briefly addressed.

  13. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  14. Illumination of interior spaces by bended hollow light guides: Application of the theoretical light propagation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darula, Stanislav; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Kittler, Richard [ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kundracik, Frantisek [Department of Experimental Physics, FMPI, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To ensure comfort and healthy conditions in interior spaces the thermal, acoustics and daylight factors of the environment have to be considered in the building design. Due to effective energy performance in buildings the new technology and applications also in daylight engineering are sought such as tubular light guides. These allow the transport of natural light into the building core reducing energy consumption. A lot of installations with various geometrical and optical properties can be applied in real buildings. The simplest set of tubular light guide consists of a transparent cupola, direct tube with high reflected inner surface and a ceiling cover or diffuser redistributing light into the interior. Such vertical tubular guide is often used on flat roofs. When the roof construction is inclined a bend in the light guide system has to be installed. In this case the cupola is set on the sloped roof which collects sunlight and skylight from the seen part of the sky hemisphere as well as that reflected from the ground and opposite facades. In comparison with the vertical tube some additional light losses and distortions of the propagated light have to be expected in bended tubular light guides. Recently the theoretical model of light propagation was already published and its applications are presented in this study solving illuminance distributions on the ceiling cover interface and further illuminance distribution on the working plane in the interior. (author)

  15. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Propagating Warps and Bending Waves In Accretion Discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard P. Nelson; John C. B. Papaloizou

    1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a study of propagating warp or bending waves in accretion discs. Three dimensional hydrodynamic simulations were performed using SPH, and the results of these are compared with calculations based on the linear theory of warped discs. We consider primarily the physical regime in which the dimensionless viscosity parameter `alpha' disc aspect ratio, so that bending waves are expected to propagate. We also present calculations in which `alpha' > H/r, where the warps are expected to behave diffusively. Small amplitude perturbations are studied in both Keplerian and slightly non Keplerian discs, and we find that the SPH results can be reasonably well fitted by those of the linear theory. The main results of these calculations are: (1) the warp in Keplerian discs when `alpha' H/r, (3) the non Keplerian discs exhibit a substantially more dispersive behaviour of the warps. Initially imposed higher amplitude nonlinear warping disturbances were studied in Keplerian discs. The results indicate that nonlinear warps can lead to the formation of shocks, and that the evolution of the warp becomes less wave-like and more diffusive in character. This work is relevant to the study of the warped accretion discs that may occur around Kerr black holes or in misaligned binary systems. The results indicate that SPH can accurately model the hydrodynamics of warped discs, even when using rather modest numbers of particles.

  16. Roles of Dry Friction in Fluctuating Motion of Adiabatic Piston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomohiko G. Sano; Hisao Hayakawa

    2014-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The motion of an adiabatic piston under dry friction is investigated to clarify the roles of dry friction in non-equilibrium steady states. We clarify that dry friction can reverse the direction of the piston motion and causes a discontinuity or a cusp-like singularity for velocity distribution functions of the piston. We also show that the heat fluctuation relation is modified under dry friction.

  17. SiC-CMC-Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding Performance during 4-Point Tubular Bend Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IJ van Rooyen; WR Lloyd; TL Trowbridge; SR Novascone; KM Wendt; SM Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE NE) established the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to develop technologies and other solutions to improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development Pathway in the LWRS program encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. Recent investigations of potential options for “accident tolerant” nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) cladding. One of the proposed SiC-based fuel cladding designs being investigated incorporates a SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) as a structural material supplementing an internal Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) liner tube, referred to as the hybrid clad design. Characterization of the advanced cladding designs will include a number of out-of-pile (nonnuclear) tests, followed by in-pile irradiation testing of the most promising designs. One of the out-of-pile characterization tests provides measurement of the mechanical properties of the cladding tube using four point bend testing. Although the material properties of the different subsystems (materials) will be determined separately, in this paper we present results of 4-point bending tests performed on fully assembled hybrid cladding tube mock-ups, an assembled Zr-4 cladding tube mock-up as a standard and initial testing results on bare SiC-CMC sleeves to assist in defining design parameters. The hybrid mock-up samples incorporated SiC-CMC sleeves fabricated with 7 polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) cycles. To provide comparative information; both 1- and 2-ply braided SiC-CMC sleeves were used in this development study. Preliminary stress simulations were performed using the BISON nuclear fuel performance code to show the stress distribution differences for varying lengths between loading points and clad configurations. The 2-ply sleeve samples show a higher bend momentum compared to those of the 1-ply sleeve samples. This is applicable to both the hybrid mock-up and bare SiC-CMC sleeve samples. Comparatively both the 1- and 2-ply hybrid mock-up samples showed a higher bend stiffness and strength compared with the standard Zr-4 mock-up sample. The characterization of the hybrid mock-up samples showed signs of distress and preliminary signs of fraying at the protective Zr-4 sleeve areas for the 1-ply SiC-CMC sleeve. In addition, the microstructure of the SiC matrix near the cracks at the region of highest compressive bending strain shows significant cracking and flaking. The 2-ply SiC-CMC sleeve samples showed a more bonded, cohesive SiC matrix structure. This cracking and fraying causes concern for increased fretting during the actual use of the design. Tomography was proven as a successful tool to identify open porosity during pre-test characterization. Although there is currently insufficient data to make conclusive statements regarding the overall merit of the hybrid cladding design, preliminary characterization of this novel design has been demonstrated.

  18. Heat-transfer characteristics of a dry and wet/dry advanced condenser for cooling towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, H.D.; McIlroy, K.; Webster, D.J.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An EPRI-funded, experimental evaluation of two types of advanced, air-cooled ammonia condensers for a phase-change dry/wet cooling system for electric power plants is described. Condensers of similar design, but much bigger, are being tested in a 15 MWe demonstration plant at the Pacific Gas and Electric Kern Power Station in Bakersfield, California. These condensers, featuring different air-side augmentation, were tested in Union Carbide's ammonia phase-change pilot plant (0.3 MWe). The first unit consisted of the Curtiss-Wright integral shaved-fin extruded aluminum tubing designed for dry operation. Heat transfer and air-side pressure loss characteristics were measured under varying air face velocities (600 to 1000 FPM) and initial temperature differences, ITD (20 to 60/sup 0/F). Overall heat transfer coefficients (based on air-side surface), U, ranged between 7.0 to 8.6 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ F. The second configuration constituted the Hoterv aluminum plate-fin/tube assembly of which two different sizes (5 ft/sup 2/ and 58 ft/sup 2/ frontal area) were performance tested; in both dry and wet modes at 200 to 800 FPM air face velocities, ITD's of 10 to 60/sup 0/F and at water deluge rates up to 3.0 gpm/ft. of core width. In the dry mode, U's ranged from 7.0 to 12.0 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ F. Increasing water deluge greatly enhanced the heat rejection capacity over dry operation - as high as 4 times, depending on operating conditions. This deluge augmentation was greater for lower air relative humidities and lower ITD's. A brief description of the recently completed ammonia phase-change dry/wet-dry cooling demonstration plant at the Kern Power Station concludes this document.

  19. Dry friction avalanches: Experiment and theory Sergey V. Buldyrev,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buldyrev, Sergey

    Dry friction avalanches: Experiment and theory Sergey V. Buldyrev,1 John Ferrante,2 and Fredy R and theoretical models are presented supporting the conjecture that dry friction stick-slip is described by self in systems presenting stick-slip due to dry friction has been under scrutiny 11 . Experimental evidence

  20. 11 The Prandtl-Tomlinson Model for Dry Photodetector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    11 The Prandtl-Tomlinson Model for Dry Friction Cantilever Photodetector Laser Beam 11-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 #12;156 11 The Prandtl-Tomlinson Model for Dry Friction model." Prandtl considered properties of dry friction. Actually, we must apply a minimum force to the body so that a mac- roscopic

  1. Torsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction Eugene I. Butikov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butikov, Eugene

    by viscous and dry (Coulomb) friction are investigated analytically and with the help of computer simulations-state oscillations. 1. Introduction Mechanical vibration systems with combined viscous and dry (Coulomb) friction. Even the simplest dry friction model, the Coulomb friction, can explain the principal peculiarities

  2. Torsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction Eugene Butikov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butikov, Eugene

    at investigation of free oscillations of a torsion spring pendulum damped by dry (Coulomb) friction. An idealizedTorsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction Manual Eugene Butikov Annotation. The manual includes as a prerequisite for the virtual lab "Torsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction." The manual includes also a set

  3. Review of Drying Methods for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Large, W.S.

    1999-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    SRTC is developing technology for direct disposal of aluminum spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The development program includes analyses and tests to support design and safe operation of a facility for ''road ready'' dry storage of SNF-filled canisters. The current technology development plan includes review of available SNF drying methods and recommendation of a drying method for aluminum SNF.

  4. Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process Vijay Singh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process Vijay Singh1 , Kent D. Rausch1 *, Ping Yang2 , Hosein Shapouri3-265-0697). #12;Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process ­ University of Illinois 2 Table of Contents 1. Introductory.....................................................................................................7 3.2. Dry Grind Ethanol

  5. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  6. Project W-441, cold vacuum drying facility design requirements document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This document has been prepared and is being released for Project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document sets forth the physical design criteria, Codes and Standards, and functional requirements that were used in the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document contains section 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements Document. The remaining sections will be issued at a later date. The purpose of the Facility is to dry, weld, and inspect the Multi-Canister Overpacks before transport to dry storage.

  7. DRI Renewable Energy Center (REC) (NV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoekman, S. Kent; Broch, Broch; Robbins, Curtis; Jacobson, Roger; Turner, Robert

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project was to utilize a flexible, energy-efficient facility, called the DRI Renewable Energy Experimental Facility (REEF) to support various renewable energy research and development (R&D) efforts, along with education and outreach activities. The REEF itself consists of two separate buildings: (1) a 1200-ft2 off-grid capable house and (2) a 600-ft2 workshop/garage to support larger-scale experimental work. Numerous enhancements were made to DRI's existing renewable power generation systems, and several additional components were incorporated to support operation of the REEF House. The power demands of this house are satisfied by integrating and controlling PV arrays, solar thermal systems, wind turbines, an electrolyzer for renewable hydrogen production, a gaseous-fuel internal combustion engine/generator set, and other components. Cooling needs of the REEF House are satisfied by an absorption chiller, driven by solar thermal collectors. The REEF Workshop includes a unique, solar air collector system that is integrated into the roof structure. This system provides space heating inside the Workshop, as well as a hot water supply. The Workshop houses a custom-designed process development unit (PDU) that is used to convert woody biomass into a friable, hydrophobic char that has physical and chemical properties similar to low grade coal. Besides providing sufficient space for operation of this PDU, the REEF Workshop supplies hot water that is used in the biomass treatment process. The DRI-REEF serves as a working laboratory for evaluating and optimizing the performance of renewable energy components within an integrated, residential-like setting. The modular nature of the system allows for exploring alternative configurations and control strategies. This experimental test bed is also highly valuable as an education and outreach tool both in providing an infrastructure for student research projects, and in highlighting renewable energy features to the public.

  8. Hot dry rock venture risks investigation:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses a promising resource in central Utah as the potential site of a future commerical hot dry rock (HDR) facility for generating electricity. The results indicate that, if the HDR reservoir productivity equals expectations based on preliminary results from research projects to date, a 50 MWe HDR power facility at Roosevelt Hot Springs could generate power at cost competitive with coal-fired plants. However, it is imperative that the assumed productivity be demonstrated before funds are committed for a commercial facility. 72 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs.

  9. Lithographic dry development using optical absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olynick, Deirdre; Schuck, P. James; Schmidt, Martin

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel approach to dry development of exposed photo resist is described in which a photo resist layer is exposed to a visible light source in order to remove the resist in the areas of exposure. The class of compounds used as the resist material, under the influence of the light source, undergoes a chemical/structural change such that the modified material becomes volatile and is thus removed from the resist surface. The exposure process is carried out for a time sufficient to ablate the exposed resist layer down to the layer below. A group of compounds found to be useful in this process includes aromatic calixarenes.

  10. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization2Climate,CobaltCold Vacuum Drying

  11. Dry lake reveals evidence of Southwestern 'megadroughts'

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscovering HowAna MooreDrought-induced treeDry lake

  12. Dry Creek Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential MicrohydroDistrict ofDongjin Semichem CoDow CorningDrive5Drum)Dry

  13. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrew Bittner About Us Drew BittnerHomeDry Process

  14. dry-regen | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , ., ..., ,+ .-detonation7 ComparisonDry Regenerable

  15. Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  16. Doppler Effects from Bending of Light Rays in Curved Space-Times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matteo Luca Ruggiero; Angelo Tartaglia; Lorenzo Iorio

    2006-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study Doppler effects in curved space-time, i.e. the frequency shifts induced on electromagnetic signals propagating in the gravitational field. In particular, we focus on the frequency shift due to the bending of light rays in weak gravitational fields. We consider, using the PPN formalism, the gravitational field of an axially symmetric distribution of mass. The zeroth order, i.e. the sphere, is studied then passing to the contribution of the quadrupole moment, and finally to the case of a rotating source. We give numerical estimates for situations of physical interest, and by a very preliminary analysis, we argue that analyzing the Doppler effect could lead, in principle, in the foreseeable future, to the measurement of the quadrupole moment of the giant planets of the Solar System.

  17. Transfer of optical signals around bends in two-dimensional linear photonic networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgios M. Nikolopoulos

    2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to navigate light signals in two-dimensional networks of waveguide arrays is a prerequisite for the development of all-optical integrated circuits for information processing and networking. In this article, we present a theoretical analysis of bending losses in linear photonic lattices with engineered couplings, and discuss possible ways for their minimization. In contrast to previous work in the field, the lattices under consideration operate in the linear regime, in the sense that discrete solitons cannot exist. The present results suggest that the functionality of linear waveguide networks can be extended to operations that go beyond the recently demonstrated point-to-point transfer of signals, such as blocking, routing, logic functions, etc.

  18. Self drying roofs: What! No dripping!

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, A.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Many roofs are replaced because water accumulates in portions of the roofing system.These accumulations can cause dripping, accelerated membrane failure, poor thermal performance, the threat of structural decay, and the depreciation of building assets. Traditionally, the roofing industry has been concerned with controlling the inflow of water into the roof. An example of this strategy would be the development of a more reliable membrane. However, roof membranes inevitably leak. For this reason, the roof design strategy of the future must be concerned with controlling water outflow. The requirements of this type of roof system are described. Under normal operating conditions (no leaks), the total moisture content of a self-drying roof system shall not increase with time and condensation shall not occur under the membrane during winter uptake. Moisture vapor movement by convection must be eliminated and the flow of water by gravity through imperfections in the roof system must be controlled. After a leak has occurred, no condensation on the upper surface of the deck shall be tolerated and the water introduced by the leak must be dissipated to the building interior in a minimum amount of time. Finite difference computer modeling is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design. The impact of deck and insulation permeance, climate, leaks, and wintertime water uptake are simulated. A database of simulations is qualitatively described; this database will be used in future work to produce a simplified means of assessing the design parameters of a self-drying roof system.

  19. Economics of dry FGD by sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naulty, D.J.; Hooper, R.G.; McDowell, D.A.; Scheck, R.W.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The body of information in this paper is directed to engineers involved in desulfurization of boiler flue gas. The problems of wet scrubbing SO/sub 2/ from power plant flue gases have been well documented. The utility industry has been interested in developing new processes that would overcome problems associated with wet slurry systems. While spray dryer technology for FGD may alleviate many of these problems, this concept has problems as well. Dry injection FGD takes the development process one step further to a totally dry system, thus eliminating the difficulties of wet slurry handling. The concept of using the fabric filter as a chemical contactor for the SO/sub 2/ absorption was proposed in the late 1960s by Chaffee and Hill. In the early 1970s, Superior Oil Company, Wheelabrator Frye, Carborundum, and others investigated the use of nahcolite for SO/sub 2/ removal. Nahcolite is a natural occurring sodium bicarbonate found in great quantities in the oil shale regions of Colorado. In general, these developments were found viable in certain circumstances, but commercialization was hampered by the lack of nahcolite suppliers.

  20. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  1. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  2. Design Parameters for a 7.2 Tesla Bending Magnet for a 1.5 GeV Compact Light Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, M.A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a Central Induction of 7 tesla [l] D. B. Cline A. A. Gmen.Design Parameters for a 7.2 Tesla Bending Magnet for a 1.5Design Parameters for a 7.2 Tesla Bending Magnet for a 1.5

  3. Heat Transfer Performance of a Dry and Wet / Dry Advanced Cooling Tower Condenser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fricke, H. D.; Webster, D. J.; McIlroy, K.; Bartz, J. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an EPRI-funded experimental evaluation of advanced air-cooled ammonia condensers for a phase. Change dry/wet cooling system for power plants. Two condenser surfaces with different air-side augmentation were tested in an ammonia...

  4. Use of plasmon coupling to reveal the dynamics of DNA bending and cleavage by single EcoRV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liphardt, Jan

    Use of plasmon coupling to reveal the dynamics of DNA bending and cleavage by single Eco proposed as ``plasmon rulers'' based on the dependence of their light scattering on the interparticle distance. Preliminary work has suggested that plasmon rulers can be used to measure and monitor dynamic

  5. IMAGING OF EARLY-STAGE CRACKING ON REAL-SIZE CONCRETE STRUCTURE FROM 4-POINTS BENDING TEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IMAGING OF EARLY-STAGE CRACKING ON REAL-SIZE CONCRETE STRUCTURE FROM 4-POINTS BENDING TEST Yuxiang difficulty on complexes material such as concrete, which is in part due the use of coherent waves in a very the application of this new technique on a real-size 15 tons concrete structure for imaging early-stage cracking

  6. Effect of Loading Mode and Coating on Dynamic Fatigue of Optical Fiber in Two-Point Bending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Effect of Loading Mode and Coating on Dynamic Fatigue of Optical Fiber in Two-Point Bending Vincenzo V Rondinella*and M. John Matthewson* Fiber Optic Materials Research Program, Department of Ceramic is a useful method for investigating the mechanical properties of optical fiber and has several advantages

  7. Molecular Theory of Bending Elasticity and Branching of Cylindrical Micelles Sylvio May, Yardena Bohbot, and Avinoam Ben-Shaul*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Shaul, Avinoam

    to form intermicellar junctions (branches). The internal (free) energy of the micelles, before and after a bending deformation and junction formation, are calculated using mean field theories for the free energies of the molecules constituting these structures. The molecular free energies, which depend on the local packing

  8. In order to swim, fish transfer momentum to the surrounding water by passing waves of bending down their bodies. By

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McHenry, Matt

    In order to swim, fish transfer momentum to the surrounding water by passing waves of bending down kinematic variables describe the shape and speed of the undulatory wave and, along with the caudal fin kinematics of their axial midline. Wave mechanics Blight (1976, 1977) suggested that the precaudal region

  9. Vegetation patterns of Pine Canyon, Big Bend National Park, Texas, in relation to elevation and slope aspect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bryan Joseph

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data on the woody vegetation of Pine Canyon, Big Bend National Park, Texas was gathered on an elevational gradient from 1250 m to 2000 m elevation using the point-centered quarter method. Sampling was conducted at 12 sites at 1250 m, 1500 m, 1625 m...

  10. 286 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 26, No. 5 / March 1, 2001 Quantitative analysis of bending efficiency in photonic-crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -loss optical waveguide bend is a key component for building future integrated photonic circuits. A conventional, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 S. G. Johnson and J. D designed line defect in a photonic- crystal structure, a guiding band can be created within the photonic

  11. Mathematical and experimental modelling of heat pump assisted microwave drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiguo Jia (Univ. of Queensland (Australia))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying is one of the most energy intensive operations in industry and agriculture. In the quest to increase drying efficiency and product quality, new technologies and methods are constantly being sought. Of these technologies, heat pump assisted drying and microwave drying have proved to be the most promising contenders. In order to achieve a better understanding and provide a computer design tool for heat pump assisted convective and microwave drying, both mathematical modelling and experimental investigations of heat pump assisted microwave dryers have been undertaken in this study. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the steady-state performance of a heat pump assisted continuous microwave dryer, with emphasis on the simulation of heat and mass transfer processes in the evaporator and drying chamber. The model is intend to serve as a design tool in the study of heat pump dryers. To achieve the optimum design, the influences of the key design and operating parameters, as well as the comparison of different drying configurations, have been examined. Based on investigation results, several methods have been proposed to improve the performance of heat pump assisted microwave drying, such as the use of a recuperator. To validate the above mathematical model, extensive drying tests using foam rubber as the test material have been conducted on a prototype heat pump assisted microwave dryer. The prototype heat pump input power was 5 kW with a maximum microwave input power of 10 kW. The experimental performance data confirmed the veracity of the simulation model. The experimental results on drying test materials indicate that with careful design heat pump assisted microwave drying is comparable to convective drying in energy consumption while with a much higher drying speed.

  12. Dynamics of Dry Friction: A Numerical Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. F. Lim; Kan Chen

    1998-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform extended numerical simulation of the dynamics of dry friction, based on a model derived from the phenomenological description proposed by T. Baumberger et al.. In the case of small deviation from the steady sliding motion, the model is shown to be equivalent to the state- and rate-dependent friction law which was first introduced by Rice and Ruina on the basis of experiments on rocks. We obtain the dynamical phase diagram that agrees well with the experimental results on the paper-on-paper systems. In particular, the bifurcation between stick-slip and steady sliding are shown to change from a direct (supercritical) Hopf type to an inverted (subcritical) one as the driving velocity increases, in agreement with the experiments.

  13. Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

  14. Curing and drying effects upon the quality of Spanish peanuts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aristizabal, Leon

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Treatments . Atmospheric Drying Pr ewa s hing Vacuum Drying Air Separation Roasting Chemical Analyses Moisture Content Oil Content Reducing Sugars Physical Analyses Surface Color Percent Transmittance of the Oil Tenure . Density Organoleptic... PEANUTS 48 Table Pa ge THE EFFECTS OF VACUUM DRYING TREAT- MENTS ON THE ORGANOLEPTIC AND PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES OF IMMATURE (I) AND MATURE (M) SPANISH PEANUTS 52 10 SIMPLE CORRELATIONS AMONG THE CHEMICAL, PHYSICA L AND ORGANOLEPTIC ATTRIBUTES...

  15. High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    potentially significant impact on nuclear plant licensing and operations. While dry storage of lower burnup SNF less than 45 gigawatt days per metric ton uranium (GWD MTU)...

  16. antarctic dry valley: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UK b Department of Geological Sciences and Institute.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Uranium isotopes; Dry Valleys; Antarctica; Weathering; Lake chemistry 1 isotopes. The supply...

  17. antarctic dry valleys: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UK b Department of Geological Sciences and Institute.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Uranium isotopes; Dry Valleys; Antarctica; Weathering; Lake chemistry 1 isotopes. The supply...

  18. Reservoir Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico- Tracer Test Results Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Reservoir Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System,...

  19. aerosol dry deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    43 Drying and deposition of poly(ethylene oxide) droplets determined by Pclet number Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: We report results of a detailed experimental...

  20. atmospheric dry deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water vapor, and we confirm such predictions in a numerical model. There have been a number 38 Dual nitrate isotopes in dry deposition: Utility for partitioning NOx source...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  2. Membranes and MEAs for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions - Kick off 4 3...

  3. Water volume okay; early runoff leads to dry year declaration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water-volume-okay-early-runoff-leads-to-dry-year-declaration Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  5. Gas Composition Transients in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACKER, M.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculations with plotted results presented as confirmation bases for selected problems involving the prediction of transient gas compositions during Cold Vacuum Drying Operations.

  6. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  7. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  8. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  9. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  10. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  11. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  12. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  13. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  14. air dried soil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    102 Concentration, size distribution, and dry deposition rate of particle-associated metals in the Los Angeles region University of California eScholarship Repository Summary:...

  15. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI); Zidan, Ragaiy A. (Honolulu, HI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  16. Crack opening area estimates in pressurized through-wall cracked elbows under bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, C.; Gilles, P.; Pignol, M.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important aspects in the leak-before-break approach is the estimation of the crack opening area corresponding to potential through-wall cracks at critical locations during plant operation. In order to provide a reasonable lower bound to the leak area under such loading conditions, numerous experimental and numerical programs have been developed in USA, U.K. and FRG and widely discussed in literature. This paper aims to extend these investigations on a class of pipe elbows characteristic of PWR main coolant piping. The paper is divided in three main parts. First, a new simplified estimation scheme for leakage area is described, based on the reference stress method. This approach mainly developed in U.K. and more recently in France provides a convenient way to account for the non-linear behavior of the material. Second, the method is carried out for circumferential through-wall cracks located in PWR elbows subjected to internal pressure. Finite element crack area results are presented and comparisons are made with our predictions. Finally, in the third part, the discussion is extended to elbows under combined pressure and in plane bending moment.

  17. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Point Frazer Bend Reach, Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, W.W.; Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The port of Georgetown, South Carolina, is served by navigational channels within Winyah Bay and the lower Sampit River. Dredging is required to maintain these waterways and to facilitate normal shipping traffic. Prior to dredging, ecological evaluations must be conducted to determine the suitability of the proposed dredged material for open-ocean disposal. These evaluations are to be performed under Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and, Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), following the testing protocols presented in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal Testing Manual, hereafter referred to as the 1991 Implementation Manual. The Charleston Intensive Project is a reevaluation of sediments collected from two stations (IH-2 and IH-3) in the Frazier Point Bend reach of the Winyah Bay channel. Reference sediment was also collected from site IH-R2, just south of Hare Island. The results of physical/chemical analyses indicated that some contaminants of concern were present in test treatments representing dredged material when compared with the reference treatment IH-R2. The results of this study indicate that, based on the acute toxicity and chemical analyses, dredged material represented by these test treatments is suitable for open-ocean disposal.

  18. Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivtsov, Anton M.

    Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model Anton M. Krivtsov a of percussive drilling assuming a dry friction mechanism to explain the experimentally observed drop in pene as a frictional pair, and this can generate the pattern of the impact forces close to reality. Despite quite

  19. Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group Purdue Improved Drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    to maintain quality of grain in storage. n Farmers primarily depended on open air solar drying after logistics Grain & pest management Pre-Harvest losses from: Insect, molds and birds Harvesting & handling of PICS, technology Open Air Solar Drying of Maize in Ejura Market, Ashanti Region, Ghana #12;4 Chronology

  20. Horizontal Air Flow Drying Foods at Home Safely

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horizontal Air Flow Drying Foods at Home Safely Choosing a Food Dehydrator Drying is one. The thermostat should go up to 160 degrees F. The unit should have a fan or blower for air circulation. Mesh purposes. Types of Dehydrators There are two main types of dehydrators: those with vertical air flow

  1. How to make dried blood dots for genetic studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schall, Joseph J.

    How to make dried blood dots for genetic studies If a vertebrate is in-hand, and blood being taken, it is easy to make both a blood smear and dried blood dots. Modern research on malaria parasites demands that BOTH a blood smear and blood samples be taken. Blood can be stored in lysis buffers of various kinds

  2. RISO-M-2438 Dry deposition and resuspension of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO RISO-M-2438 2 S Dry deposition and resuspension of particulate matter in city environments N 1984 få #12;RISØ-M-2438 DRY DEPOSITION AND RESUSPENSION OF PARITUCLATE NATTER IN CITY ENVIRONMENTS N.O. Jensen Abstract. The report describes, mostly in qualitative terms, the deposition and resuspension

  3. Heat transfer modeling of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geologic codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geologic repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

  4. Heat Transfer Modeling of Dry Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geological codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geological repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

  5. The US Hot Dry Rock project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, R.H.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy project began in the early 1970's with the objective of developing a technology to make economically available the large ubiquitous thermal energy of the upper earth crust. The program has been funded by the Department of Energy (and its predecessors) and for a few years with participation by West Germany and Japan. An energy reservoir was accessed by drilling and hydraulically fracturing in the precambrian basement rock outside the Valles Caldera of north-central New Mexico. Water was circulated through the reservoir (Phase I, 1978-1980) producing up to 5 MWt at 132/sup 0/C. A second (Phase II) reservoir has been established with a deeper pair of holes and an initial flow test completed producing about 10 MWt at 190/sup 0/C. These accomplishments have been supported and paralleled by developments in drilling, well completion and instrumentation hardware. Acoustic or microseismic fracture mapping and geochemistry studies in addition to hydraulic and thermal data contribute to reservoir analyses. Studies of some of the estimated 430,000 quads of HDR resources in the United States have been made with special attention focused on sites most advantageous for early development.

  6. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.S. Tang

    2004-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Dry Transfer Facility No.1 (DTF-1) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, and ship out loaded waste packages and empty casks. Doses received by workers due to maintenance operations are also included in this revision. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation, excluding the remediation area of the building. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the DTF-1 and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  7. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS--Tapteal Bend Riparian Corridor Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the restoration of approximately 500 feet of streambank along the Yakima River at river mile 8, upstream of the Van Giesen Bridge on SR 224, in and between Richland and West Richland, Washington. This project will also result in the acquisition of Fox Island, a 12-acre island directly across the river from the restoration area. There is no development planned for the island. The proposed project includes: The installation of a bio-engineered streambank that incorporates barbs to capture silt and deflect flow, roughened rock or log toes, a riparian buffer, soil reinforcement, and bank grading. Long-term photo-point and plot sampling will also be implemented to evaluate the effectiveness and success of the restoration project. The NEPA compliance checklist for this project was completed by Darrel Sunday, a contractor with Sunday and Associates, Inc. (April 4, 2004), and meets the standards and guidelines for the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species that may occur in the general vicinity of the project area are the pygmy rabbit, bald eagle, bull trout, Ute ladies'-tresses, and mid-Columbia Steelhead. The pygmy rabbit, bald eagle, and Ute ladies'Tresses are not known to occur in the immediate project vicinity, and it was determined that the proposed restoration project would have no effect on these species. It is difficult to determine if bull trout occur within the Tapteal project area and Dave Carl of the Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife was contacted and concurred with this assumption. It was determined that the project may affect, but is not likely to adversely affect bull trout, and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service has concurred with that determination (July 28, 2004). For the mid-Columbia Steelhead, an anadromous fish species, BPA has determined that if conducted in accordance with the applicable terms and conditions identified in the ESA Consultation Biological Opinion (BO) and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Essential Fish Habitat Consultation, for BPA's Habitat Improvement Program (HIP), the Tapteal Bend Restoration Project meets the requirements of consistency and no further consultation is required. ESA listed fish may be present in the project vicinity but will not be affected because the project does not involve instream work. In complying with the requirements of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, BPA contracted with the Cultural Resources Protection Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) for cultural resource survey work. Shawn Steinmetz prepared a report (December 15, 2002) concluding that there were only two isolated finds in the project area. BPA and the Washington Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation have concurred with the conclusions and recommendations set out in the report and the determination that no historic properties will be affected by the current project as proposed (January 31, 2003). It was recommended that a cultural resource monitor be present during ground disturbing activities. In the unlikely event that archaeological material is discovered during project implementation, an archaeologist should be notified immediately and work halted in the vicinity of the finds until they can be inspected and assessed. Standard water quality protection procedures and Best Management Practices should be followed during the implementation of the Tapteal Bend Restoration project. No construction is authorized to begin until the proponent has obtained all applicable local, state, and federal permits and approvals.

  8. Thermal Analysis of a Dry Storage Concept for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    There are 1,936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project is conducted under the assumption that the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event that vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. The Capsule Advisory Panel (CAP) was created by the Project Manager for the Hanford Site Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP). The purpose of the CAP is to provide specific technical input to the CDSP; to identify design requirements; to ensure design requirements for the project are conservative and defensible; to identify and resolve emerging, critical technical issues, as requested; and to support technical reviews performed by regulatory organizations, as requested. The CAP will develop supporting and summary documents that can be used as part of the technical and safety bases for the CDSP. The purpose of capsule dry storage thermal analysis is to: (1) Summarize the pertinent thermal design requirements sent to vendors, (2) Summarize and address the assumptions that underlie those design requirements, (3) Demonstrate that an acceptable design exists that satisfies the requirements, (4) Identify key design features and phenomena that promote or impede design success, (5) Support other CAP analyses such as corrosion and integrity evaluations, and (6) Support the assessment of proposed designs. It is not the purpose of this report to optimize or fully analyze variations of postulated acceptable designs. The present evaluation will indicate the impact of various possible design features, but not systematically pursue design improvements obtainable through analysis refinements and/or relaxation of conservatisms. However, possible design improvements will be summarized for future application. All assumptions and related design features, while appropriate for conceptual designs, must be technically justified for the final design. The pertinent thermal design requirements and underlying assumptions are summarized in Section 1.3. The majority of the thermal analyses, as described in Sections 4.2 and 4.3, focus on an acceptable conceptual design arrived at by refinement of a preliminary but unacceptable design. The results of the subject thermal analyses, as presented in Section 4.0, satisfy items 3 and 4 above.

  9. Structural Sensitivity of Dry Storage Canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Karri, Naveen K.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This LS-DYNA modeling study evaluated a generic used nuclear fuel vertical dry storage cask system under tip-over, handling drop, and seismic load cases to determine the sensitivity of the canister containment boundary to these loads. The goal was to quantify the expected failure margins to gain insight into what material changes over the extended long-term storage lifetime could have the most influence on the security of the containment boundary. It was determined that the tip-over case offers a strong challenge to the containment boundary, and identifies one significant material knowledge gap, the behavior of welded stainless steel joints under high-strain-rate conditions. High strain rates are expected to increase the material’s effective yield strength and ultimate strength, and may decrease its ductility. Determining and accounting for this behavior could potentially reverse the model prediction of a containment boundary failure at the canister lid weld. It must be emphasized that this predicted containment failure is an artifact of the generic system modeled. Vendor specific designs analyze for cask tip-over and these analyses are reviewed and approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Another location of sensitivity of the containment boundary is the weld between the base plate and the canister shell. Peak stresses at this location predict plastic strains through the whole thickness of the welded material. This makes the base plate weld an important location for material study. This location is also susceptible to high strain rates, and accurately accounting for the material behavior under these conditions could have a significant effect on the predicted performance of the containment boundary. The handling drop case was largely benign to the containment boundary, with just localized plastic strains predicted on the outer surfaces of wall sections. It would take unusual changes in the handling drop scenario to harm the containment boundary, such as raising the drop height or changing the impact angle. The seismic load case was derived from the August 23, 2011 earthquake that affected the North Anna power station. The source of the data was a monitoring station near Charlottesville, Virginia, so the ground motion is not an exact match. Stresses on the containment boundary were so low, even from a fatigue standpoint, that the seismic load case is generally not a concern. Based on this study, it is recommended that high strain rate testing of welded stainless steel test samples be pursued to define the currently unknown material behavior. Additional modeling is recommended to evaluate specific dry storage cask system designs subjected to tip-over loads using a high level of model detail. Additional modeling of the canister interior components (basket, fuel assemblies, etc.) is also recommended, to evaluate the feasibility of fuel retrievability after a tip-over incident. Finally, additional modeling to determine how much degradation a system could undergo and still maintain the integrity of the confinement barrier should be performed.

  10. Multilayered gold/silica nanoparticulate bilayer devices using layer-by-layer self organisation for flexible bending and pressure sensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah Alam, Md. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, Asian Institute of Technology, 12120 Pathumthani (Thailand); Mohammed, Waleed S., E-mail: waleed.m@bu.ac.th [Center of Research in Optoelectronics, Communication and Control System (BU-CROCCS), School of Engineering, Bangkok University, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Dutta, Joydeep, E-mail: dutta@squ.edu.om [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, Asian Institute of Technology, 12120 Pathumthani (Thailand); Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al Khoud 123 (Oman)

    2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure and bending sensor was fabricated using multilayer thin films fabricated on a flexible substrate based on layer-by-layer self-organization of 18?nm gold nanoparticles separated by a dielectric layer of 30?nm silica nanoparticles. 50, 75, and 100 gold-silica bi-layered films were deposited and the device characteristics were studied. A threshold voltage was required for electron conduction which increases from 2.4?V for 50 bi-layers to 3.3?V for 100 bi-layers. Upon bending of the device up to about 52°, the threshold voltage and slope of the I-V curves change linearly. Electrical characterization of the multilayer films was carried out under ambient conditions with different pressures and bending angles in the direct current mode. This study demonstrates that the developed multilayer thin films can be used as pressure as well as bending sensing applications.

  11. Calculation of the transverse kicks generated by the bends of a hollow electron lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam in high-energy accelerators. They were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for abort-gap clearing, beam-beam compensation, and halo scraping. A beam-beam compensation scheme based upon electron lenses is currently being implemented in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This work is in support of a conceptual design of hollow electron beam scraper for the Large Hadron Collider. It also applies to the implementation of nonlinear integrable optics with electron lenses in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator at Fermilab. We consider the axial asymmetries of the electron beam caused by the bends that are used to inject electrons into the interaction region and to extract them. A distribution of electron macroparticles is deposited on a discrete grid enclosed in a conducting pipe. The electrostatic potential and electric fields are calculated using numerical Poisson solvers. The kicks experienced by the circulating beam are estimated by integrating the electric fields over straight trajectories. These kicks are also provided in the form of interpolated analytical symplectic maps for numerical tracking simulations, which are needed to estimate the effects of the electron lens imperfections on proton lifetimes, emittance growth, and dynamic aperture. We outline a general procedure to calculate the magnitude of the transverse proton kicks, which can then be generalized, if needed, to include further refinements such as the space-charge evolution of the electron beam, magnetic fields generated by the electron current, and longitudinal proton dynamics.

  12. Kinetics of the clay roofing tile convection drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, S. (Univ. of Osijek (Croatia). Faculty of Food Technology); Skansi, D. (Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology); Sokele, M. (Croatian Post and Telecommunications, Zagreb (Croatia). Telecommunications Center)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kinetics of the convection drying process of flat tile has been investigated experimentally in an industrial tunnel dryer. Several velocities of wet tile movement through the dryer were tested to obtain maximum allowable drying rate curve. As there are various models to describe the kinetics of convection drying, finding a model that would fairly well approximate the kinetics of the whole drying process was part of the research. Especially the polynomial and exponential models were tested. It was found that exponential model of the type: B(t) = (a[minus]B[sub e])[center dot]EXP([minus]bt[sup 2])+B[sub e], ([minus]dB(t)/dt) = 2bt(B(t)[minus]B[sub e]) significantly correlates the kinetics of the whole tile drying process. Applying the maximum allowable drying rate curve obtained for flat tile in the first period of drying, a grapho-analytic model for the optimal conducting of the process has been developed.

  13. Energy-efficient regenerative liquid desiccant drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL); Grodzka, Philomena G. (Huntsville, AL); McCormick, Paul O. (Athens, AL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the use of desiccants in conjunction with an open oop drying cycle and a closed loop drying cycle to reclaim the energy expended in vaporizing moisture in harvested crops. In the closed loop cycle, the drying air is brought into contact with a desiccant after it exits the crop drying bin. Water vapor in the moist air is absorbed by the desiccant, thus reducing the relative humidity of the air. The air is then heated by the used desiccant and returned to the crop bin. During the open loop drying cycle the used desiccant is heated (either fossil or solar energy heat sources may be used) and regenerated at high temperature, driving water vapor from the desiccant. This water vapor is condensed and used to preheat the dilute (wet) desiccant before heat is added from the external source (fossil or solar). The latent heat of vaporization of the moisture removed from the desiccant is reclaimed in this manner. The sensible heat of the regenerated desiccant is utilized in the open loop drying cycle. Also, closed cycle operation implies that no net energy is expended in heating drying air.

  14. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A. (TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg[sub evap] to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  15. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A. [TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg{sub evap} to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  16. Meat Alternate Cookery: Eggs, Nuts, Soybeans, Dried Beans and Peas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeten, Mary K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sources of B vitamins . Nuts, because of the high fat content, are more readily digested if eaten in combination with cereals, vegetables or fruits . Dried beans and peas make nourishing dishes which are very filling. These legumes are good sources... . Soybeans are the best vegetable protein source to re place meat. Dry soybeans contain 1 V2 times as much protein as other dried beans and 11 times as much fat. Soybeans are limited in one of the essential amino acids so they must be combined...

  17. A Study On Critical Thinning In Thin-walled Tube Bending Of Al-Alloy 5052O Via Coupled Ductile Fracture Criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Heng; Yang He; Zhan Mei [School of Materials Science, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, 710072 (China)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin-walled tube bending(TWTB) method of Al-alloy tube has attracted wide applications in aerospace, aviation and automobile,etc. While, under in-plane double tensile stress states at the extrados of bending tube, the over-thinning induced ductile fracture is one dominant defect in Al-alloy tube bending. The main objective of this study is to predict the critical wall-thinning of Al-alloy tube bending by coupling two ductile fracture criteria(DFCs) into FE simulation. The DFCs include Continuum Damage Mechanics(CDM)-based model and GTN porous model. Through the uniaxial tensile test of the curved specimen, the basic material properties of the Al-alloy 5052O tube is obtained; via the inverse problem solution, the damage parameters of both the two fracture criteria are interatively determined. Thus the application study of the above DFCs in the TWTB is performed, and the more reasonable one is selected to obtain the critical thinning of Al-alloy tube in bending. The virtual damage initiation and evolution (when and where the ductile fracture occurs) in TWTB are investigated, and the fracture mechanisms of the voided Al-alloy tube in tube bending are consequently discussed.

  18. Insights into the historical construction of species-rich Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests: the diversification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olson, Mark

    Insights into the historical construction of species-rich Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical, Mesoamerica, niche conservatism, seasonally dry tropical forests. Summary · Mesoamerican arid biomes epitomize the vast species richness of Meso- american seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), and to evaluate

  19. Drilling Complete on Australian Hot Dry Rock Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The first commercial attempt to create a commercial geothermal power plant using hot dry rock technology reached a crucial milestone on January 22, when a production well successfully reached its target depth.

  20. Technical and economical considerations of new DRI melting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Shuzo; Tokuda, Koji; Sammt, F.; Gray, R.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The new DRI melting process can effectively and economically produce high quality molten iron. This process utilizes hot charging of DRI directly from a reduction furnace into a dedicated new melting furnace. The molten iron from this DRI premelter can be charged into a steelmaking furnace, such as an electric arc furnace (EAF), where the molten iron, together with other iron sources, can be processed to produce steel. Alternatively the molten iron can be pigged or granulated for off-site merchant sales. Comprehensive research and development of the new process has been conducted including operational process simulation, melting tests using FASTMET DRI, slag technology development, and refractory corrosion testing. This paper describes the process concept, its operational characteristics and further applications of the process.

  1. Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electric Grid Workshop, April 19-20, 2011 Before the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy and Power Effects of Multiple Drying Cycles on HBU PWR Cladding Alloys...

  2. Disneyland’s Dry Cleaning Gets an Energy Efficient Upgrade

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As the provider of laundry and dry cleaning services for Disneyland Resort’s costumes and hospitality supply items, L&N Costume and Linen Service knows a little something about both quantity and quality.

  3. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  4. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 2. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruppacher, H.R.; Semonin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 2 of these proceedings contains papers on dry deposition and resuspension of airborne pollutants. Items within the scope of EDB have been entered separately into the data base. (ACR)

  5. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:22:39 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NA1160SNY2"...

  6. Supply chain management in the dry bulk shipping industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Bryan E. (Bryan Edward)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is intended to show the importance of supply chain management in the dry-bulk shipping industry. A hypothetical company, the Texas Grain and Bakery Corporation, was created. The values and calculations used are ...

  7. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility, Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, G

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  9. Drying studies for corroded DOE aluminum plate fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lords, R.E.; Windes, W.E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Crepeau, J.C.; Sidwell, R.W. [Idaho Univ., Idaho Falls, ID (United States) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) currently stores a wide variety of spent nuclear fuel. The fuel was originally intended to be stored underwater for a short period of thermal cooling, then removed and reprocessed. However, it has been stored underwater for much longer thank originally anticipated. During this time dust and airborne desert soil have entered the oldest INEL pool, accumulating on the fuel. Also, the aluminum fuel cladding has corroded compromising the exposed surfaces of the fuel. Plans are now underway to move some the the more vulnerable aluminum plate type fuels into dry storage in an existing vented and filtered fuel storage facility. In preparation for dry storage of the fuel a drying and canning station is being built at the INEL. The two primary objectives of this facility are to determine the influence of corrosion products on the drying process and to establish temperature distribution inside the canister during heating.

  10. GEOLOGY O F THE NORTHERN PCIRT O F DRY MOUNTAXN,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seamons, Kent E.

    GEOLOGY O F THE NORTHERN PCIRT O F DRY MOUNTAXN, SOUTHERN UASCSTCH H Q - W T A X H E i i - UT&H #12;BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY RESEARCH STUDIES Geology Seri,es Vol. 3 No. 2 April, 1956 GEOLOGY OF THE NORTHERN Department of Gedogy Provo, Utah #12;GEOLOGY OF THE NORTHERN PART OF DRY MOUNTAIN, SOUTHERN WASATCH M O U N

  11. Dry scrubber reduces SO sub 2 in calciner flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.W. (Refining Consulting Services, Englewood, CO (US)); Roderick, D. (Western Slope Refining Co., Fruita, CO (US)); Nastri, A. (NATEC Resources Inc., Dallas, TX (US))

    1991-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the installation of a dry sulfur dioxide scrubber for an existing petroleum coke calciner at its Fruita, Colo., refinery. The dry scrubbing process was developed by the power industry to help cope with the acid rain problem. It is the first application of the process in an oil refinery. The process could also remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a fluid catalytic cracker, fluid coker, or other refinery sources.

  12. Gravitational bending of light by planetary multipoles and its measurement with microarcsecond astronomical interferometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Makarov, Valeri V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Michelson Science Center, California Technology Institute, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    General-relativistic deflection of light by mass, dipole, and quadrupole moments of the gravitational field of a moving massive planet in the solar system is derived in the approximation of the linearized Einstein equations. All terms of order 1 {mu}as are taken into account, parametrized, and classified in accordance with their physical origin. The monopolar light-ray deflection, modulated by the radial Doppler effect, is associated with the total mass and radial velocity of the gravitating body. It displaces the apparent positions of stars in the sky plane radially away from the origin of the celestial coordinates associated with the planet. The dipolar deflection of light is due to a translational mismatch of the center of mass of the planet and the origin of the planetary coordinates caused by the inaccuracy of planetary ephemeris. It can also originate from the difference between the null cone for light and that for gravity that is not allowed in general relativity but can exist in some of the alternative theories of gravity. The dipolar gravity field pulls the apparent position of a star in the plane of the sky in both radial and orthoradial directions with respect to the origin of the coordinates. The quadrupolar deflection of light is caused by the physical oblateness, J{sub 2}, of the planet, but in any practical experiment it will have an admixture of the translation-dependent quadrupole due to inaccuracy of planetary ephemeris. This leads to a bias in the estimated value of J{sub 2} that should be minimized by applying an iterative data reduction method designed to disentangle the different multipole moments and to fit out the translation-dependent dipolar and quadrupolar components of light deflection. The method of microarcsecond interferometric astrometry has the potential of greatly improving the planetary ephemerides, getting unbiased measurements of planetary quadrupoles, and of thoroughly testing the null-cone structure of the gravitational field and the speed of its propagation in the near-zone of the solar system. We calculate the instantaneous patterns of the light-ray deflections caused by the monopole, the dipole, and the quadrupole moments, and derive equations describing apparent motion of the deflected position of the star in the sky plane as the impact parameter of the light ray with respect to the planet changes due to its orbital motion. We discuss the observational capabilities of the near-future optical (SIM) and radio (SKA) interferometers for detecting the Doppler modulation of the radial deflection, and the dipolar and quadrupolar light-ray bendings by Jupiter and Saturn.

  13. Use of oil-emulsion mud in the Sivells Bend Field: Gas and gas condensate operations for the independent producer. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Echols, Walter Harlan

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Deyartnsnh or Stndszk kdriser) LIBRARY A A M COLLESE OF TEXAS USE OF OIL EHULSICM 1%D Ig THE SIVELL8 HEEB FIEKB GAS AHD Gkg COHDENSkTE OPERATIOES FOR THE IEMPEMDEHT PRODUCER Prior Pah1Leatione Accepted in Id. su of Thesis HALTER HARLAN ECHOLS I I I..., Iuc, printed in USA 2 USE OP OIL-EMULSION MUD IN THE SIVELLS BEND I&IELD sand fields in North Texas indicate that they are rather consistently of the dis- solved gas-drive type, resulting in short flowing lives, comparatively long pumping lives...

  14. Effects of toughness anisotropy and combined tension, torsion, and bending loads on fracture behavior of ferritic nuclear pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan, R.; Marshall, C.; Ghadiali, N.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes work on angled through-wall-crack initiation and combined loading effects on ferritic nuclear pipe performed as part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s research program entitled {open_quotes}Short Cracks In Piping an Piping Welds{close_quotes}. The reader is referred to Reference 1 for details of the experiments and analyses conducted as part of this program. The major impetus for this work stemmed from the observation that initially circumferentially oriented cracks in carbon steel pipes exhibited a high tendency to grow at a different angle when the cracked pipes were subjected to bending or bending plus pressure loads. This failure mode was little understood, and the effect of angled crack grown from an initially circumferential crack raised questions about how cracks in a piping system subjected to combined loading with torsional stresses would behave. There were three major efforts undertaken in this study. The first involved a literature review to assess the causes of toughness anisotropy in ferritic pipes and to develop strength and toughness data as a function of angle from the circumferential plane. The second effort was an attempt to develop a screening criterion based on toughness anisotropy and to compare this screening criterion with experimental pipe fracture data. The third and more significant effort involved finite element analyses to examine why cracks grow at an angle and what is the effect of combined loads with torsional stresses on a circumferentially cracked pipe. These three efforts are summarized.

  15. Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohac, C.E.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is that dry ash stacking might change the potential for groundwater contamination at the KFP. This report addresses each of these issues. The effects on the ash pond and its discharge are described first. The report is intended to provide reference material to TVA staff in preparation of environmental review documents for new ash disposal areas at Kingston. Although the investigation was directed toward analysis of dry stacking, considerations for other disposal options are also discussed. This report was reviewed in draft form under the title Assessment of Kingston Fossil Plant Dry Ash Stacking on the Ash Pond and Groundwater Quality.'' 11 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Hot dry rock energy: Hot dry rock geothermal development program. Progress report. Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, J.; Brown, M. [eds.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extended flow testing at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test facility concluded in Fiscal Year 1993 with the completion of Phase 2 of the long-term flow test (LTFT) program. As is reported in detail in this report, the second phase of the LTFT, although only 55 days in duration, confirmed in every way the encouraging test results of the 112-day Phase I LTFT carried out in Fiscal Year 1992. Interim flow testing was conducted early in FY 1993 during the period between the two LTFT segments. In addition, two brief tests involving operation of the reservoir on a cyclic schedule were run at the end of the Phase 2 LTFT. These interim and cyclic tests provided an opportunity to conduct evaluations and field demonstrations of several reservoir engineering concepts that can now be applied to significantly increase the productivity of HDR systems. The Fenton Hill HDR test facility was shut down and brought into standby status during the last part of FY 1993. Unfortunately, the world`s largest, deepest, and most productive HDR reservoir has gone essentially unused since that time.

  17. Linear Extrusion 400 Tons/Day Dry Solids Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Sprouse; David Matthews

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept that uses rocket engine experience to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to current state-of-the-art systems. The PWR gasifier concept uses a compact and highly efficient (>50%) dry solids pump that has excellent availability (>99.5%). PWR is currently developing this dry solids pump under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement. The conceptual design on two dry solids pumps were completed under this agreement and one pump concept was selected for preliminary design. A preliminary design review (PDR) of the selected pump was presented on September 20, 2007 to PWR management and numerous technical specialists. Feedback from the PDR review team has been factored into the design and a Delta-PDR was held on April 9, 2008.

  18. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility operations manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998) and, the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1997, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 3a. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence, and has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  19. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 {open_quotes}Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask{close_quotes} contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed.

  20. Alternative barrier layers for surface covers in dry climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stormont, J.C.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface covers are one of the most widespread remediation and waste management options in all climates. Barrier layers to limit percolation through cover systems are principal features of engineered, multi-component cover designs. Conventional barrier layer components developed for humid climates have limitations in dry climates. One alternative barrier layer is a capillary barrier, which consists of a fine-over-coarse soil arrangement. The capacity of capillary barrier to laterally divert downward moving water is the key to their success. Another alternative is a dry barrier, in which atmospheric air is circulated through a coarse layer within the cover to remove water vapor. Incorporating a coarse layer which stores water for subsequent removal by air flow reduces the requirements for the air flow velocity and increases the applicability of the dry barrier.

  1. A comparison of spanwise aerodynamic loads estimated from measured bending moments versus direct pressure measurements on horizontal axis wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simms, D A; Butterfield, C P

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two methods can be used to determine aerodynamic loads on a rotating wind turbine blade. The first is to make direct pressure measurements on the blade surface. This is a difficult process requiring costly pressure instrumentation. The second method uses measured flap bending moments in conjunction with analytical techniques to estimate airloads. This method, called ALEST, was originally developed for use on helicopter rotors and was modified for use on horizontal axis wind turbine blades. Estimating airloads using flap bending moments in much simpler and less costly because measurements can be made with conventional strain gages and equipment. This paper presents results of airload estimates obtained using both methods under a variety of operating conditions. Insights on the limitations and usefulness of the ALEST bending moment technique are also included. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Refraction-Based Alternative Explanation for: Bending of Light Near a Star, Gravitational Red/Blue Shift and Black-Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. C. Gupta; Anirudh Pradhan; Sushant Gupta

    2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of the general-relativity-tests such as bending of light near a star and gravitational red/blue shift are explained without general-relativity & without Newtonian-approach. The authors first cast doubts on both, the Newtonian and the relativistic approach; and proposes a novel alternative-explanation. The new alternative explanation is based on refraction-phenomenon of optics. Estimation of results, with new approach, are in agreement with known values. Though physics is different, but it is argued that general-relativity based gravitational-bending and refraction-based bending have more in common than is generally realized. Also discussed are black-hole and gravitational-lensing in the new perspective of refraction. The new refraction-based theory makes a few new predictions and also suggests a few tests..

  3. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Technical Safety Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRAHN, D.E.

    2000-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt of multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel. removal of free water from the MCOs using the cold vacuum drying process, and inerting and testing of the MCOs before transport to the Canister Storage Building. Controls required for public safety, significant defense in depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological and toxicological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines are included.

  4. Saving for dry days: Aquifer storage and recovery may help 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 2 Saving for dry days Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 3 Aquifer storage and recovery may help With reoccurring droughts and growing population, Texas will always be looking for better ways to save or use water. Some water... suppliers in Texas are turning to aquifer storage and recovery. During the dry summer of 2008, the San Antonio Water System (SAWS) had enough assets in its ?bank? (of water) to make with- drawals to meet the needs of its customers. The water bank...

  5. Nevada Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996) in DelawareTotal ConsumptionThousand CubicfromDry NaturalDry

  6. Missouri Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,CubicWithdrawals6,992 6,895Vehicle FuelFeet)(Dollars 2012DryDry

  7. Drying of a model soil P. Faure, P. Coussot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    depend on the paste structure. With a kaolin suspension the CRP lasts down to very low water densities plays a critical role in agriculture: an inadequate water supply may limit crop production, and soilDrying of a model soil P. Faure, P. Coussot Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Navier, Champs sur

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Technical Safety Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRAHN, D.E.

    1999-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation. Controls required for public safety, significant defense-in-depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological and toxicological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines are included.

  9. STUDIES OF THE DYNAMICS OF DRY-FRICTION-DAMPED BLADE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STUDIES OF THE DYNAMICS OF DRY-FRICTION-DAMPED BLADE ASSEMBLIES by J er^ome Guillen A dissertation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.3 Multi-DOF systems with a single friction damper . . . . . . . 20 2.3.1 System model with multiple friction dampers . . . . . . 31 2.5 Conclusion

  10. Evaluation of the Technical Basis for Extended Dry Storage and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -- Executive Summary U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board December 2010 #12;U.S.U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board Authors This report was prepared for the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board.NWTRB.GOV ii #12;Extended Dry Storage and Transportation of Used Nuclear Fuel U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical

  11. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  12. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  13. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR.

  14. Anionic Salt Programs for Close-Up Dry Cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    1998-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Dairy farmers can improve long-term milk production by having a well-managed program for dry cows during the last 3 weeks before calving. This publication explains how an anionic salt program can help control subclinical hypocalcemia and "droopy cow...

  15. Radiation budget changes with dry forest clearing in temperate Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    Radiation budget changes with dry forest clearing in temperate Argentina J A V I E R H O U S P A N, Argentina, Catedra de Climatologia Agricola, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios, Oro Verde, Argentina Abstract Land cover changes may affect climate and the energy balance

  16. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Electrical System Design Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BRISBIN, S.A.

    1999-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a technical explanation of the design and operation of the electrical system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document identifies the requirements, and the basis for the requirements and details on how the requirements have been implemented in the design and construction of the facility. This document also provides general guidance for the surveillance, testing, and maintenance of this system.

  17. Photocatalytic properties of titania pillared clays by different drying methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Z.; Zhu, H.Y.; Lu, G.Q.; Greenfield, P.F. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photocatalysts based on titania pillared clays (TiO{sub 2} PILCs) have been prepared through a sol-gel method. Different drying methods, air drying (AD), air drying after ethanol extraction (EAD), and supercritical drying (SCD) have been employed and found to have significant effects on the photocatalytic efficiency of the resultant catalysts for the oxidation of phenol in water. Titania pillared clay (TiO{sub 2} PILC) obtained by SCD has the highest external and micropore surface area, largest amount and smallest crystallite size of anatase, and exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, silica titania pillared clay (SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} PILC) after SCD, titania coated TiO{sub 2} PILC (SCD) and SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} PILC (SCD) were synthesized to study the key factors controlling the photocatalytic activity. It is concluded that the dispersion of nanometer-sized anatase on the surface of the PILC particles and the suspensibility of the particles are the most important factors for high photocatalytic efficiency.

  18. Tropical mountain cradles of dry forest diversity Christopher W. Dick*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    * *Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 0843-03092, Balboa, Panama´; and Department of Ecology radiated at vastly different times, so fo- cus on a single taxon would be mislead- ing. On the side of rain- ple, the dry forest legume clade Leu- caena underwent endemic radiation in southwest Mexico beginning

  19. EFFECT OF DRYING CONDITIONS OF DEHYDRATED LUCERNE ON GROWTH PERFORMANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    EFFECT OF DRYING CONDITIONS OF DEHYDRATED LUCERNE ON GROWTH PERFORMANCES OF RABBITS RECEIVING DIETS CONTAINING LUCERNE F. LEBAS, J. DOLZ Annie ESPAIGNET* Marie-Oaude COUSIN e G. SARDI Station de Recherches sur * Station expérimentale de l'I. T. C. F., 91920 Boigneville In 1972, 18 different adjustments of the lucerne

  20. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 1. Precipitation scavenging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruppacher, H.R.; Semonin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N. (eds.)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These two volumes contain papers prepared for and presented at the Fourth International Conference on Precipitation Scavenging, Dry Deposition, and Resuspension (the Chamberlain Meeting) held during 29 November to 3 December, 1982 in Santa Monica, California. Papers presented are abstracted separately.

  1. Seismic Behavior of Spent Fuel Dry Cask Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaukat, Syed K. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States); Luk, Vincent K. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800. Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0744 (United States)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting a research program to investigate technical issues concerning the dry cask storage systems of spent nuclear fuel by conducting confirmatory research for establishing criteria and review guidelines for the seismic behavior of these systems. The program focuses on developing 3-D finite element analysis models that address the dynamic coupling of a module/cask, a flexible concrete pad, and an underlying soil/rock foundation, in particular, the soil-structure-interaction. Parametric analyses of the coupled models are performed to include variations in module/cask geometry, site seismicity, underlying soil properties, and cask/pad interface friction. The analyses performed include: 1) a rectangular dry cask module typical of Transnuclear West design at a site in Western USA where high seismicity is expected; 2) a cylindrical dry cask typical of Holtec design at a site in Eastern USA where low seismicity is expected; and 3) a cylindrical dry cask typical of Holtec design at a site in Western USA with medium high seismicity. The paper includes assumptions made in seismic analyses performed, results, and conclusions. (authors)

  2. TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR DRY BULK TERMINALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Practices 24 4.4 4.5 Pollutants 26 4.4.1 Fugitive Dust 26 4.4.2 Commodity Spillage 27 4.4.3 Oil, lubricant#12;TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR DRY BULK TERMINALS IN THE LOWER FRASER BASIN DOE FRAP 1996-19 Prepared for: Enviromnent Canada Environmental Protection Fraser Pollution Abatement North

  3. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Stack Air Sampling System Qualification Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2001-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents tests that were conducted to verify that the air monitoring system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility ventilation exhaust stack meets the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe, sample transport, and stack flow measurement accuracy.

  4. Using HPM-Sampling to Drive Dynamic Compilation Dries Buytaert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eeckhout, Lieven

    Using HPM-Sampling to Drive Dynamic Compilation Dries Buytaert Andy Georges Michael Hind Matthew the frequently executed methods. We de- scribe and comprehensively evaluate HPM-sampling, a sim- ple) that addresses the aforementioned limitations. We show that HPM-sampling is more accurate; has low overhead

  5. Mathematical modeling of impingement drying of corn tortillas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, Louise Marie

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    than 50'C) (Pang, 1997). Yoshida and Hyodo (1966) studied the use of superheated steam in drying potato slices. They found that at equivalent flow rates (15 kg/hr) and temperatures (350'C) evaporation was faster with superheated steam than with air...

  6. EIS-0473: W.A. Parish Post-Combustion CO2 Capture and Sequestration Project (PCCS), Fort Bend County, TX

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide financial assistance for a project proposed by NRG Energy, Inc (NRG). DOE selected NRG’s proposed W.A. Parish Post-Combustion CO2 Capture and Sequestration Project for a financial assistance award through a competitive process under the Clean Coal Power Initiative Program. NRG would design, construct and operate a commercial-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) capture facility at its existing W.A. Parish Generating Station in Fort Bend County, Texas; deliver the CO2 via a new pipeline to the existing West Ranch oil field in Jackson County, Texas, for use in enhanced oil recovery operations; and demonstrate monitoring techniques to verify the permanence of geologic CO2 storage.

  7. Computer studies of a combined-function bend magnet for a proposed redesign of the SLAC SLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Early, R.A.; Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposed redesign of the SLAC SLC Damping Ring requires a combined-function bending magnet. The magnet will operate with a main field of 1.8338 T, and quadrupole and sextupole gradients dB{sub y}/dx, d{sup 2}B{sub y}/dx{sup 2} of {minus}14.1 T/m and {minus}477 T/m{sup 2}, respectively. Because the orbit sagitta in the magnet is in excess of 2 cm, the pole will be curved with a 2 m radius of curvature. Furthermore, since the current must be variable over a range of {plus_minus}2 percent, we have considered using vanadium permendur poles to avoid a adverse saturation effects. Studies were done using POISSON in 2-D and TOSCA for 3-D end effects.

  8. Application Of A New Semi-Empirical Model For Forming Limit Prediction Of Sheet Material Including Superposed Loads Of Bending And Shearing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Held, Christian [Hochschul Institute Neckarsulm, Gottlieb-Daimler-Strasse 40, 74172 Neckarsulm (Germany); Liewald, Mathias; Schleich, Ralf [Institute for Metal Forming Technology, Universitaet Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Sindel, Manfred [AUDI AG, Neckarsulm (Germany)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of lightweight materials offers substantial strength and weight advantages in car body design. Unfortunately such kinds of sheet material are more susceptible to wrinkling, spring back and fracture during press shop operations. For characterization of capability of sheet material dedicated to deep drawing processes in the automotive industry, mainly Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) are used. However, new investigations at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology have shown that High Strength Steel Sheet Material and Aluminum Alloys show increased formability in case of bending loads are superposed to stretching loads. Likewise, by superposing shearing on in plane uniaxial or biaxial tension formability changes because of materials crystallographic texture. Such mixed stress and strain conditions including bending and shearing effects can occur in deep-drawing processes of complex car body parts as well as subsequent forming operations like flanging. But changes in formability cannot be described by using the conventional FLC. Hence, for purpose of improvement of failure prediction in numerical simulation codes significant failure criteria for these strain conditions are missing. Considering such aspects in defining suitable failure criteria which is easy to implement into FEA a new semi-empirical model has been developed considering the effect of bending and shearing in sheet metals formability. This failure criterion consists of the combination of the so called cFLC (combined Forming Limit Curve), which considers superposed bending load conditions and the SFLC (Shear Forming Limit Curve), which again includes the effect of shearing on sheet metal's formability.

  9. Dry Storage of Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel - 13321

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T.M.; Dunsmuir, M.D.; Leduc, D.R.; Severynse, T.F.; Sindelar, R.L. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Moore, E.N. [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC (United States)] [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent fuel from domestic and foreign research reactors is received and stored at the Savannah River Site's L Area Material Storage (L Basin) Facility. This DOE-owned fuel consists primarily of highly enriched uranium in metal, oxide or silicide form with aluminum cladding. Upon receipt, the fuel is unloaded and transferred to basin storage awaiting final disposition. Disposition alternatives include processing via the site's H Canyon facility for uranium recovery, or packaging and shipment of the spent fuel to a waste repository. A program has been developed to provide a phased approach for dry storage of the L Basin fuel. The initial phase of the dry storage program will demonstrate loading, drying, and storage of fuel in twelve instrumented canisters to assess fuel performance. After closure, the loaded canisters are transferred to pad-mounted concrete overpacks, similar to those used for dry storage of commercial fuel. Unlike commercial spent fuel, however, the DOE fuel has high enrichment, very low to high burnup, and low decay heat. The aluminum cladding presents unique challenges due to the presence of an oxide layer that forms on the cladding surface, and corrosion degradation resulting from prolonged wet storage. The removal of free and bound water is essential to the prevention of fuel corrosion and radiolytic generation of hydrogen. The demonstration will validate models predicting pressure, temperature, gas generation, and corrosion performance, provide an engineering scale demonstration of fuel handling, drying, leak testing, and canister backfill operations, and establish 'road-ready' storage of fuel that is suitable for offsite repository shipment or retrievable for onsite processing. Implementation of the Phase I demonstration can be completed within three years. Phases II and III, leading to the de-inventory of L Basin, would require an additional 750 canisters and 6-12 years to complete. Transfer of the fuel from basin storage to dry storage requires integration with current facility operations, and selection of equipment that will allow safe operation within the constraints of existing facility conditions. Examples of such constraints that are evaluated and addressed by the dry storage program include limited basin depth, varying fuel lengths up to 4 m, (13 ft), fissile loading limits, canister closure design, post-load drying and closure of the canisters, instrument selection and installation, and movement of the canisters to storage casks. The initial pilot phase restricts the fuels to shorter length fuels that can be loaded to the canister directly underwater; subsequent phases will require use of a shielded transfer system. Removal of the canister from the basin, followed by drying, inerting, closure of the canister, and transfer of the canister to the storage cask are completed with remotely operated equipment and appropriate shielding to reduce personnel radiation exposure. (authors)

  10. Dry Friction Avalanches: Experiment and Robin Hood model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergey V. Buldyrev; John Ferrante; Fredy R. Zypman

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents experimental evidence and theoretical models supporting that dry friction stick-slip is described by self-organized criticality. We use the data, obtained with a pin-on-disc tribometer set to measure lateral force to examine the variation of the friction force as a function of time. We study nominally flat surfaces of aluminum and steel. The probability distribution of force jumps follows a power law with exponents $\\mu$ in the range 2.2 -- 5.4. The frequency power spectrum follows a $1/{f^\\alpha}$ pattern with $\\alpha$ in the range 1 -- 2.6. In addition, we present an explanation of these power-laws observed in the dry friction experiments based on the Robin Hood model of self organized criticality. We relate the values of the exponents characterizing these power laws to the critical exponents $D$ an $\

  11. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, Janda K. G. (Edgewood, NM); Jellison, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Staley, David J. (Los Lunas, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs.

  12. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Jellison, J.L.; Staley, D.J.

    1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is disclosed for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs. 1 fig.

  13. Dry Transfer Facility #1 - Ventilation Confinement Zoning Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.D. Draper

    2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the preliminary Ventilation Confinement Zone (VCZ) for the Dry Transfer Facility (DTF). The results of this document is used to determine the air quantities for each VCZ that will eventually be reflected in the development of the Ventilation Flow Diagrams. The calculations contained in this document were developed by D and E/Mechanical-HVAC and are intended solely for the use of the D and E/Mechanical-HVAC department in its work regarding the HVAC system for the Dry Transfer Facility. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the D and E/Mechanical-HVAC department should be consulted before use of the calculation for purposes other than those stated herein or used by individuals other than authorized personnel in D and E/Mechanical-HVAC department.

  14. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY)

    1992-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  15. Process and apparatus for indirect-fired heating and drying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbasi, Hamid Ali; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav

    2005-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating flat or curved surfaces comprising injecting fuel and oxidant along the length, width or longitudinal side of a combustion space formed between two flat or curved plates, transferring heat from the combustion products via convection and radiation to the surface being heated on to the material being dried/heated, and recirculating at least 20% of the combustion products to the root of the flame.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2006, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. An integrated system composed of a downflow co-current contact absorber and two hollow screw conveyors (regenerator and cooler) was assembled, instrumented, debugged, and calibrated. A new batch of supported sorbent containing 15% sodium carbonate was prepared and subjected to surface area and compact bulk density determination.

  17. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Electrical System Design Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This system design description (SDD) provides a technical explanation of the design and operation of the electrical system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). This SDD also identifies the requirements, and the basis for the requirements and details on how the requirements have been implemented in the design and construction of the facility. This SDD also provides general guidance for the surveillance, testing, and maintenance of this system.

  18. A laboratory study of the activities of dried rumen microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harbers, Leniel Henry

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . cal pro? ceases vere made in this study to determine the ~ ~ activity of dried rumen microorganisms. . 'ellulose d1- gestion vas studied by employing a yurified cellulose preparation as a substrate and determination of the changes in concentration... the conditions of these experiments. There vere~ hovevsr~ bacteria present in the dr1ed rumen preparations vhich vere capable of hydro- lysing carboxymethyl cellulose. A method of detsrming "cellulose d1gestion" using a soluble cellulose derivative as a...

  19. Drum drying of black liquor using superheated steam impinging jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiravi, A.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Kubes, G.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel drum dryer for black liquor utilizing multiple impinging jets of superheated steam was designed and built to evaluate the performance characteristics and effects of various operating parameters thereon. Appropriate ranges of parameters such as steam jet temperature and velocity were examined experimentally to quantify the optimal operating conditions for the formation of black liquor film on the drum surface as well as the drying kinetics.

  20. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Hazards Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Hazard Analysis to support the CVDF Final Safety Analysis Report and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports,'' and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.''

  1. 7-forming, superconducting filaments through bicomponent dry spinning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuominen, Olli P. (Ogden, UT); Morgan, Carol W. (Asheville, NC); Burlone, Dominick A. (Asheville, NC); Blankenship, Keith V. (Asheville, NC)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fibers which contain potentially superconducting material are dry spun by the steps of preparing a suspension of potentially superconducting powder in a thickened solvent; preparing a solution of fiber-forming polymer; supplying the suspension and the solution to a spinning apparatus; in the spinning apparatus, arranging the solution and the suspension in a bicomponent arrangement; extruding the arranged solution and suspension from a spinneret as a bicomponent filament; and removing the solvent from the filament.

  2. Modeling a Dry Etch Process for Large-Area Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, R.J.; Hebner, G.A.; Ruby, D.S.; Yang, P.

    1999-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been considerable interest in developing dry processes which can effectively replace wet processing in the manufacture of large area photovoltaic devices. Environmental and health issues are a driver for this activity because wet processes generally increase worker exposure to toxic and hazardous chemicals and generate large volumes of liquid hazardous waste. Our work has been directed toward improving the performance of screen-printed solar cells while using plasma processing to reduce hazardous chemical usage.

  3. Will Amazonia Dry Out? Magnitude and Causes of Change from IPCC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon basin is under the control of subtropical as a result of deforestation and land-use change. Should this direct human impact continue at present rates

  4. The effect of drying on the heating value of biomass fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Pablo Gregorio

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been some speculation as to whether or not biomass fuels (such as feedlot manure) may lose volatile matter during the drying process. Since current standards state that heating value analysis may be performed before or after drying...

  5. The effect of drying treatment on the n-alkane analysis M Olivn, K Osoro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    38 and lucerne hay samples (n = 33) were prepared for the alkane analysis by two procedures : freeze-dried faeces and herbage (lucerne hay) samples. Therefore oven-drying would not affect on the estimation

  6. The Impacts of Dry-Storage Canister Designs on Spent Nuclear...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Impacts of Dry-Storage Canister Designs on Spent Nuclear Fuel Handling, Storage, Transportation, and Disposal in the U.S. The Impacts of Dry-Storage Canister Designs on Spent...

  7. amazon dry-season climate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    should remain largely stable because rainfall in the core of the basin drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon basin is under the control of subtropical...

  8. Safe Advantage on Dry Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em S.Paulo, Brazilian Navy Technological Center, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper aims to present the advantages of dry cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (cooling water pools) for SNF. When the nuclear fuel is removed from the core reactor, it is moved to a storage unit and it wait for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside water pools within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. After some period of time in pools, SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing facilities, or still, wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet facilities, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. Interim storage, up to 20 years ago, was exclusively wet and if the nuclear facility had to be decommissioned another storage solution had to be found. At the present time, after a preliminary cooling of the SNF elements inside the water pool, the elements can be stored in dry facilities. This kind of storage does not need complex radiation monitoring and it is safer then wet one. Casks, either concrete or metallic, are safer, especially on occurrence of earthquakes, like that occurred at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, in Japan on July 16, 2007. (authors)

  9. Dry Creek salt dome, Mississippi Interior Salt basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Ericksen, R.L.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent drilling of salt dome flanks in the Mississippi Salt basin has resulted in important new discoveries and the opening of a frontier play. This play is focused on gas/condensate reserves in several Cretaceous formations, most notably the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw and lower Tuscaloosa intervals and Lower Cretaceous Paluxy and Hosston formations. As many as eight domes have been drilled thus far; sandstones in the upper Hosston Formation comprise the primary target. Production has been as high as 3-5 Mcf and 500-1200 bbl of condensate per day, with estimated ultimate reserves in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 MBOE (million barrels oil equivalent) per well. As typified by discovery at Dry Creek salt dome, traps are related to faulting, unconformities, and updip loss of permeability. Previous drilling at Dry Creek, and in the basin generally, avoided the flank areas of most domes, due to geologic models that predicted latestage (Tertiary) piercement and breached accumulations. Recent data from Dry Creek and other productive domes suggest that growth was episodic and that piercement of Tertiary strata did not affect deeper reservoirs charged with hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous.

  10. Factors affecting the recovery of bacteria in freeze-dried model systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Custer, Carl Steven

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cellulose, and subsequently freeze-dried. The influences of the rate of freezing, time and atmosphere of storage, position of the bacteria within the model system and condition of incubation upon the survival and metabolic injury of the freeze-dried... storage. The type of atmosphere in which freeze-dried preparations were stored was important to bacterial survival. Nitrogen was less damaging to freeze-dried cells than air. Strata studies indicated that the viable bacterial population density...

  11. The effect of cultivar and maturity on the quality of freeze-dried carrots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schadle, Edward Richard

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plasticize freeze-dried foods to moisture levels of 5 to $0/: 1. Spraying the freeze-dried product until the desired level of moisture is reached. 2. Stopping the freeze drying operation when the product reaches the desired moisture level. 3. A11owing... freeze-dried foods to equilibrate in a humidified chamber until the material absorbs the desired amount of moisture. Curry (1974) found a significant increase in rehydration using the equilibrium method of plasticization over the spraying method...

  12. Extending dry storage of spent LWR fuel for 100 years.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einziger, R. E.

    1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of delays in closing the back end of the fuel cycle in the U.S., there is a need to extend dry inert storage of spent fuel beyond its originally anticipated 20-year duration. Many of the methodologies developed to support initial licensing for 20-year storage should be able to support the longer storage periods envisioned. This paper evaluates the applicability of existing information and methodologies to support dry storage up to 100 years. The thrust of the analysis is the potential behavior of the spent fuel. In the USA, the criteria for dry storage of LWR spent fuel are delineated in 10 CFR 72 [1]. The criteria fall into four general categories: maintain subcriticality, prevent the release of radioactive material above acceptable limits, ensure that radiation rates and doses do not exceed acceptable levels, and maintain retrievability of the stored radioactive material. These criteria need to be considered for normal, off-normal, and postulated accident conditions. The initial safety analysis report submitted for licensing evaluated the fuel's ability to meet the requirements for 20 years. It is not the intent to repeat these calculations, but to look at expected behavior over the additional 80 years, during which the temperatures and radiation fields are lower. During the first 20 years, the properties of the components may change because of elevated temperatures, presence of moisture, effects of radiation, etc. During normal storage in an inert atmosphere, there is potential for the cladding mechanical properties to change due to annealing or interaction with cask materials. The emissivity of the cladding could also change due to storage conditions. If there is air leakage into the cask, additional degradation could occur through oxidation in breached rods, which could lead to additional fission gas release and enlargement of cladding breaches. Air in-leakage could also affect cover gas conductivity, cladding oxidation, emissivity changes, and excessive creep and mechanical property changes. Postulated accident scenarios would be the same for 20-year or 100-year storage, because they are mostly governed by operational or outside events, and not by the cask or fuel. Analyses of accident scenarios during extended dry storage could be impacted by fuel and cask changes that would result from the extended period of storage. Overall, the results of this work indicate that, based on fuel behavior, spent fuel at burnups below {approximately}45 GWd/MTU can be dry stored for 100 years. Long-term storage of higher burnup fuel or fuels with newer cladding will require the determination of temperature limits based on evaluation of stress-driven degradation mechanisms of the cladding.

  13. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  14. Sludge drying reed beds: a full and pilot-scales study for activated sludge treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sludge drying reed beds: a full and pilot-scales study for activated sludge treatment S. Troesch.troesch@cemagref.fr, dirk.esser@sint.fr Abstract Sludge drying reed beds have been used for dewatering and mineralization of sludge since the beginning of the 90's, but their insufficient performances in terms of Dry Matter [DM

  15. On the rate-independent limit of systems with dry friction and small viscosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mielke, Alexander

    On the rate-independent limit of systems with dry friction and small viscosity Messoud A. Efendiev of this work is to present a model which is able to account for viscous as well as for dry-friction effects slow time scale, in which viscous transitions are seen as instantaneous jumps. However, effects of dry

  16. Firstpassage time of Brownian motion with dry friction Yaming Chen 1, # and Wolfram Just 1, +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Just, Wolfram

    First­passage time of Brownian motion with dry friction Yaming Chen 1, # and Wolfram Just 1, + 1­smooth stochastic model, namely Brownian motion with dry friction, using two di#erent but closely related approaches on the other. For the simple case containing only dry friction, a phase transi­ tion phenomenon in the spectrum

  17. An analytical approach to codimension2 sliding bifurcations in the dry friction oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An analytical approach to codimension­2 sliding bifurcations in the dry friction oscillator M In this paper, we consider analytically sliding bifurcations of periodic orbits in the dry friction oscillator] for a detailed account of these bifurcations in the case of periodic orbits. The dry friction oscillator

  18. An analytical approach to codimension-2 sliding bifurcations in the dry friction oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    An analytical approach to codimension-2 sliding bifurcations in the dry friction oscillator M consider analytically sliding bifurcations of periodic orbits in the dry friction oscillator. The system of periodic orbits. The dry friction oscillator is a very good example of a nonsmooth system containing

  19. Dry Friction and Impact Dynamics in Railway Vehicles Dan Erik Petersen Mark Hoffmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dry Friction and Impact Dynamics in Railway Vehicles Dan Erik Petersen Mark Hoffmann c973539 c Piotrowski. This model successfully takes into account damping due to dry friction in the suspension links due to dry friction. The wheelsets are constrained by guidance structures of the freight wagon

  20. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature13202 Classical shear cracks drive the onset of dry frictional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fineberg, Jay

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature13202 Classical shear cracks drive the onset of dry frictional motion Ilya contactsdefiningafrictionalinterface3,4 . Therearea varietyofviews on how best to describe the onset of dry frictional motion the interface. We investigated the onset of dry frictional motion by per- forming simultaneous high

  1. Experimental study of friction noise of dry contact under light load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le-Bot, Alain

    Experimental study of friction noise of dry contact under light load A. Le Bot ­ H. Ben Abdelounis of friction noise radiated from the contact area of two sliding solids. The domain of interest is dry contact, that is the friction sound aris- ing when two dry and rough surfaces are rubbed on each other under light normal load

  2. Torsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction Summary of the Principal Formulas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butikov, Eugene

    Torsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction ­ Problems Summary of the Principal Formulas The differential equation of motion of an oscillator acted upon by dry friction: J ¨ = -D( + m) for > 0, J ¨ = -D cases in which the effects either of viscous friction or of dry friction predominate: a = 4m T = 4 m

  3. Effect of air-drying of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. leaves on intake and digestion by sheep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of air-drying of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. leaves on intake and digestion by sheep H Abdouli-dried. The aim of the present study was to compare fresh to air-dried leaves for their intake, digestibility to the diets for the first 15 days and intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation parameters were measured

  4. Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets David Jon by raindrop impacts. We use high-speed imaging of drop impacts on dry sand to describe the drop (2007), Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets, J

  5. A first French assessment of population exposure to tetrachloroethylene from small dry cleaning facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such as the dry cleaning machine technology (fitted or unfitted with a carbon adsorber) and the ventilation (air that only a few percent of these machines are equipped with a carbon adsorber, CA, to capture PCE vapours buildings housing a dry cleaning facility. These studies involved dry cleaning machines fitted with a Carbon

  6. THE CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO ETHANOL USING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DERIVED FROM HOT DRY ROCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    97505 THE CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO ETHANOL USING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DERIVED FROM HOT DRY ROCK between a hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy source and the power requirements for the conversion -- geothermal energy derived from the vast resource of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) in our country, and biomass

  7. TOWARDS OBJECTIVE DESIGN OF DRY DAMS AT WATERSHED SCALE: HOW TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE SPATIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    21 TOWARDS OBJECTIVE DESIGN OF DRY DAMS AT WATERSHED SCALE: HOW TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE SPATIAL, the best location for 1 or 3 dry dams). To take into account the spatial variability of the rainfall, we, following subcatchments delineation. A dry dam can be placed at the outlet of any unit. Such a simple model

  8. Numerical analysis of a one-dimensional elastodynamic model of dry friction and unilateral contact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renard, Yves - Pôle de Mathématiques, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon

    .e. hyperbolic) model with dry friction. Since we consider a Coulomb friction law with a slip velocity dependentNumerical analysis of a one-dimensional elastodynamic model of dry friction and unilateral contact in the numerical analysis of more elaborated dynamic purely elastic problems with dry friction. Ó 2001 Elsevier

  9. Preharvest Treatment Options for Dry Edible Beans Christy Sprague, Associate Professor and Weed Extension Specialist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preharvest Treatment Options for Dry Edible Beans Christy Sprague, Associate Professor and Weed by earlier weed management practices and "green" stems or leaves of dry bean plants can be a major problem be used for preharvest treatments in dry beans. These products are Gramoxone Inteon 2SL (paraquat

  10. "Indian Rancherie on Dry Creek": An Early 1850s Indian Village on the Sacramento and San Joaquin County Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farris, Glenn

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I "Indian Rancherie on Dry Creek": An Early 185Ds IndianIndian Rancherie on Dry Creek." Cahfomia Pictorial Letterimage of the rancheria on Dry Creek with a commentary relat-

  11. Assessment of an active dry barrier for a landfill cover system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stormont, J.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ankeny, M.D.; Burkhard, M.E.; Tansey, M.K.; Kelsey, J.A. [Stephens (Daniel B.) and Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dry barrier is a layer of geologic material that is dried by air flow. An active dry barrier system can be designed, installed, and operated as part of a landfill cover system. An active system uses blowers and fans to move air through a high-permeability layer within the cover system. Depending principally on the air-flow rate, it is possible for a dry barrier to remove enough water to substantially reduce the likelihood of water percolating through the cover system. If a material with a relatively great storage capacity, such as processed tuff, is used as the coarse layer, then the efficiency of the dry barrier will be increased.

  12. Drying by Cavitation and Poroelastic Relaxations in Porous Media with Macroscopic Pores Connected by Nanoscale Throats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olivier Vincent; David A. Sessoms; Erik J. Huber; Jules Guioth; Abraham D. Stroock

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the drying dynamics of porous media with two pore diameters separated by several orders of magnitude. Nanometer-sized pores at the edge of our samples prevent air entry, while drying proceeds by heterogeneous nucleation of vapor bubbles (cavitation) in the liquid in micrometer-sized voids within the sample. We show that the dynamics of cavitation and drying are set by the interplay of the deterministic poroelastic mass transport in the porous medium and the stochastic nucleation process. Spatio-temporal patterns emerge in this unusual reaction-diffusion system, with temporal oscillations in the drying rate and variable roughness of the drying front.

  13. Demonstrating the Safety of Long-Term Dry Storage - 13468

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCullum, Rod [Nuclear Energy Institute, 1201 F St. NW, Washington, DC, 20004 (United States)] [Nuclear Energy Institute, 1201 F St. NW, Washington, DC, 20004 (United States); Brookmire, Tom [Dominion Energy, 5000 Dominion Boulevard Glen Allen, VA 23060 (United States)] [Dominion Energy, 5000 Dominion Boulevard Glen Allen, VA 23060 (United States); Kessler, John [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 West W.T. Harris Boulevard, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)] [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 West W.T. Harris Boulevard, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States); Leblang, Suzanne [Entergy, 1340 Echelon Parkway, Jackson, MS 39211 (United States)] [Entergy, 1340 Echelon Parkway, Jackson, MS 39211 (United States); Levin, Adam [Exelon, 4300 Winfield Road, Warrenville, IL 60555 (United States)] [Exelon, 4300 Winfield Road, Warrenville, IL 60555 (United States); Martin, Zita [Tennessee Valley Authority, 1101 Market Street, Chattanooga, TN 37402 (United States)] [Tennessee Valley Authority, 1101 Market Street, Chattanooga, TN 37402 (United States); Nesbit, Steve [Duke Energy, 550 South Tryon Street, Charlotte, NC 28202 (United States)] [Duke Energy, 550 South Tryon Street, Charlotte, NC 28202 (United States); Nichol, Marc [Nuclear Energy Institute, 1201 F St. NW Washington DC, 2004 (United States)] [Nuclear Energy Institute, 1201 F St. NW Washington DC, 2004 (United States); Pickens, Terry [Xcel Energy, 414 Nicollet Mall, Minneapolis, MN 55401 (United States)] [Xcel Energy, 414 Nicollet Mall, Minneapolis, MN 55401 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial nuclear plants in the United States were originally designed with the expectation that used nuclear fuel would be moved directly from the reactor pools and transported off site for either reprocessing or direct geologic disposal. However, Federal programs intended to meet this expectation were never able to develop the capability to remove used fuel from reactor sites - and these programs remain stalled to this day. Therefore, in the 1980's, with reactor pools reaching capacity limits, industry began developing dry cask storage technology to provide for additional on-site storage. Use of this technology has expanded significantly since then, and has today become a standard part of plant operations at most US nuclear sites. As this expansion was underway, Federal programs remained stalled, and it became evident that dry cask systems would be in use longer than originally envisioned. In response to this challenge, a strong technical basis supporting the long term dry storage safety has been developed. However, this is not a static situation. The technical basis must be able to address future challenges. Industry is responding to one such challenge - the increasing prevalence of high burnup (HBU) used fuel and the need to provide long term storage assurance for these fuels equivalent to that which has existed for lower burnup fuels over the past 25 years. This response includes a confirmatory demonstration program designed to address the aging characteristics of HBU fuel and set a precedent for a learning approach to aging management that will have broad applicability across the used fuel storage landscape. (authors)

  14. Viability of Existing INL Facilities for Dry Storage Cask Handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randy Bohachek; Charles Park; Bruce Wallace; Phil Winston; Steve Marschman

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates existing capabilities at the INL to determine if a practical and cost effective method could be developed for opening and handling full-sized dry storage casks. The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603, Irradiated Spent Fuel Storage Facility, provides the infrastructure to support handling and examining casks and their contents. Based on a reasonable set of assumptions, it is possible to receive, open, inspect, remove samples, close, and reseal large bolted-lid dry storage casks at the INL. The capability can also be used to open and inspect casks that were last examined at the TAN Hot Shop over ten years ago. The Castor V/21 and REA-2023 casks can provide additional confirmatory information regarding the extended performance of low-burnup (<45 GWD/MTU) used nuclear fuel. Once a dry storage cask is opened inside CPP-603, used fuel retrieved from the cask can be packaged in a shipping cask, and sent to a laboratory for testing. Testing at the INL’s Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) can occur starting with shipment of samples from CPP-603 over an on-site road, avoiding the need to use public highways. This reduces cost and reduces the risk to the public. The full suite of characterization methods needed to establish the condition of the fuel exists and MFC. Many other testing capabilities also exist at MFC, but when those capabilities are not adequate, samples can be prepared and shipped to other laboratories for testing. This report discusses how the casks would be handled, what work needs to be done to ready the facilities/capabilities, and what the work will cost.

  15. The Drying Rates of Raw Paint Oils: A Comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brock, Frank Peterson

    1913-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    * 55. Conclusions * 56. B I B L I O G R A P H Y , 1898 C. Boettinger. Phenomena of Drying of Linseed Oil and the Influence of Pigments thereon. Chem. Zeit., 1898, 22, 558 ( Jour. Soc of Chem. Ind., 1898, 17, 932). 1899 Anon. The Absorption... (Preliminary Report) Jour. Am- Chem. S o c , 1903, 25, 826-836. ( Jour. S o c Chem. Ind., 1903, 22, 1095. 1906 Henry R. Procter and W. E. Holmes. The Oxida­ tion of Oils. Jour. Soc of Chem. Ind. 1905, 24, 1287-1290. (Chem. Soc Abstracts, 1906, i, 136. M...

  16. Impes modeling of volumetric dry gas reservoirs with mobile water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forghany, Saeed

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    . For abnormally or geopressured reservoirs, pressure gradients often approach values equal to the overburden pressure gradient (i.e., ~1.0 psi/ft). 8, 9 Among these types of dry gas reservoirs, in this study we will focus on volumetric reservoir. 1... properties of a given reservoir?s gas and water can handle pressures starting from standard conditions up to 4,000 psi and the units for this table are tabulated in Table 3.1. Table 3.1- Units for the PVT properties used in the input file Pressure...

  17. Evaluation of mixing characteristics of corn dry masa flours

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobeira Massu, Rodrigo

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by loyd . Roon (Chair of Com ' ee) Ronald L. Richter (Member) Ralph D. Waniska (Member) ert Almeida-Dominguez (Member) ry Acu (Chair, Food Science and Technology Faculty) E. C. A. Rung (Head... of the embryonic axis and the scutellum which functions as a nutritive organ for the embryo. The germ makes up 10-12% of the kernel dry weight. About 85'/o of the lipids in corn are in the germ which has a lipid concentration of 30-38'%%d . Mos t lipid sar e fre...

  18. Dried Citrus Pulp in Beef Cattle Fattening Rations.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, J. M. (John McKInley)

    1942-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    occurred in the milk during the feeding trials in question. They also observed that Florida dairymen have fed a considerable quantity of fresh citrus pulp to dairy cows and heifers and that the fermenting product tended to impart a slight flavor...- T 1 I I TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR College Station, Texas BULLETIS NO. 613 JULY 1949 DRIED CITRUS PULP IN BEEF CATTLE FATTENING RATIONS J. H. JONES, R. A. HALL E. 31. NEAL, J. H. JONES Division of Range...

  19. Dry, reconstituted, and early harvested sorghum grain for finishing cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrett, Ned Albert

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    upon a number of, factors such as diameter& length and revolving speed of the auger. A steady flow of dry grain and water must be maintained into the mixing auger in order to obtain proper and uniform water application. For a given installation... commenced. Reconstituting was accomplish . d by making use of a 70-foot auger conveyor, nine inches in diameter (Figure li. Water was added by metering into a one inch line located above the auger. Grain flow rate was regulated by use of a variable...

  20. Saving for dry days: Aquifer storage and recovery may help

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    underground storage (MUS) of recoverable water. The Committee on Sustainable Underground Storage of Recoverable Water uses MUS ?to denote purposeful recharge of water into an aquifer system for intended recovery and use as an element of long-term water...tx H2O | pg. 2 Saving for dry days Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 3 Aquifer storage and recovery may help With reoccurring droughts and growing population, Texas will always be looking for better ways to save or use water. Some water...

  1. Tenderness, flavor, and yield assessments of dry-aged beef

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laster, Megan Ann

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    , vacuum packaged, and imediately frozen. These steaks served as the baseline for tendernes and flavor asesments. The remaining subprimals (n=288) (6 replications x 2 grade groups x 3 subprimals x 4 aging periods x 2 aging treatments) were randomly 7... and reweighed (out of bag weight). In order for a purge loss value to be calculated, vacuum package bags then were washed, dried, and weighed. Using the band saw, ribeye rolls were cut into 2.54 cm-thick Bef Ribeye Steaks Lip-On BI (U.P.C. #1197) (refered...

  2. Probability analysis of dry-day sequences in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milne, Robert James

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the manuscript. I also appreciate the help oi Mr. Robert Orton, Texas State Climatolo- gist, during the initial planning of this research, and to Miss Carolyn Hugo, who patiently typed the manuscript. My deepest gratitude is due my wife, DeLane, and son, Robb... was d t Number of years of record and P(D /D ) Number of ears that the t th and t-1 th da s were dr t t-1 Number of years that the (t-1)th day was dry Statistical analysis has been used for a number of years to de- scribe the occurrence...

  3. U.S. Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Zandofpoint motional%^602SWPAChargeDry

  4. U.S. Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Zandofpoint motional%^602SWPAChargeDryArea:

  5. Alaska--Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-1538,469 39,194 39,008Dry

  6. Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Dry

  7. Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry

  8. Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan FebIncreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry Natural

  9. Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan FebIncreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry

  10. Nevada Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawals (MillionYear Jan(Dollars perfromDry

  11. Dry Lake II Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision| Open EnergyProjectDraper, Utah: Energy(Webinar) |Dry

  12. Dry oxidation and fracture of LWR spent fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, T.M.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the characteristics of oxidation and fracture of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in dry air. It also discusses their effects on radionuclide releases in the anticipated high-level waste repository environment. A sphere model may describe diffusion-limited formation of lower oxides, such as U{sub 4}O{sub 9}, in the oxidation of the spent fuel (SF) matrix. Detrimental higher oxides, such as U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, may not form at temperatures below a threshold temperature. The nucleation process suggests that a threshold temperature exists. The calculated results regarding fracture properties of the SF matrix agree with experimental observations. Oxidation and fracture of Zircaloy may not be significant under anticipated conditions. Under saturated or unsaturated aqueous conditions, oxidation of the SF matrix is believed to increase the releases of Pu-(239+240), Am-(241+243), C-14, Tc-99, I-129, and Cs-135. Under dry conditions, I-129 releases are likely to be small, unlike C-14, in lower oxides; Cl-36, Tc-99, I-129, and Cs-135 may be released fast in higher oxides. 79 refs.

  13. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  14. Operation of dry-cleaned and agglomerated precompaction system (DAPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Shigemi; Okanishi, Kazuya; Kikuchi, Akio; Yamamura, Yuichi

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to reduce the manufacturing cost of coke, it is necessary to reduce mainly (1) the material cost and (2) operating cost. Both of these costs can be reduced by lowering the moisture of charging coal. Because dust generation increases with decreasing moisture of charging coal, however, the lower limit of charging coal moisture in the existing coke-oven equipment was about 5%, which yielded good results in coal moisture control (CMC) equipment. Nippon Steel has furthered the development of techniques for lowering the moisture of charging coal as far as possible in the existing coke ovens and has recently succeeded in developing a dry-cleaned and agglomerated precompaction system (DAPS) and incorporating this system in commercial production equipment. In this system, a coal preparation process is undertaken that involves separating coal fines, which cause dust generation, from dried charging coal and agglomerating them. The equipment incorporating this system was installed in the No. 3 and No. 4 coke batteries at Oita Works and brought into full-scale operation in September 1992. The equipment has since been operating smoothly.

  15. Bending the world: stories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swann, Philip Cameron

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , almost to the limits of their endurance, by extraordinary circumstances. Character and action, however, cannot function independent of setting, and that is why I have chosen to take a more atomistic view This thesis follows 1985 MLA Guidelines...

  16. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Ali, M. K., E-mail: majidkhankhan@ymail.com, E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Ruslan, M. H., E-mail: majidkhankhan@ymail.com, E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muthuvalu, M. S., E-mail: sudaram-@yahoo.com, E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Wong, J., E-mail: sudaram-@yahoo.com, E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my [Unit Penyelidikan Rumpai Laut (UPRL), Sekolah Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Sulaiman, J., E-mail: ysuhaimi@ums.edu.my, E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my; Yasir, S. Md., E-mail: ysuhaimi@ums.edu.my, E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my [Program Matematik dengan Ekonomi, Sekolah Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m{sup 2} and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  17. On the velocity-strengthening behavior of dry friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Brener, Efim A; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The onset of frictional instabilities, e.g. earthquakes nucleation, is intimately related to velocity-weakening friction, in which the frictional resistance of interfaces decreases with increasing slip velocity. While this frictional response has been studied extensively, much less attention has been given to steady-state velocity-strengthening friction, in spite of its importance for various aspects of frictional phenomena such as the propagation speed of interfacial rupture fronts and the amount of stored energy released by them. In this note we suggest that a crossover from steady-state velocity-weakening friction at small slip velocities to steady-state velocity-strengthening friction at higher velocities might be a generic feature of dry friction. We further argue that while thermally activated rheology naturally gives rise to logarithmic steady-state velocity-strengthening friction, a crossover to stronger-than-logarithmic strengthening might take place at higher slip velocities, possibly accompanied by...

  18. Composition/bandgap selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Dishman, J.L.

    1985-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition and direct bandgap Eg/sub 1/ in the presence of a second semiconductor material of a different composition and direct bandgap Eg/sub 2/, wherein Eg/sub 2/ > Eg/sub 1/, said second semiconductor material substantially not being etched during said method. The method comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux and to the same gaseous etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said photons being of an energy greater than Eg/sub 1/ but less than Eg/sub 2/, whereby said first semiconductor material is photochemically etched and said second material is substantially not etched.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  20. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.

  1. Removal of impurities from dry scrubbed fluoride enriched alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuh, L. [ABB Corporate Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Wedde, G. [ABB Environmental, Oslo (Norway)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pot-gas from an aluminum electrolytic cell is cleaned by a dry scrubbing process using fresh alumina as a scrubbing agent. This alumina is enriched with fluorides and trace impurities in a closed loop system with the pots. The only significant removal of the impurities is due to metal tapping. An improved technique has been developed that is more effective than earlier stripper systems. The impurity-rich fine fraction (< 10 {micro}m) of the enriched alumina is partly attached to the coarser alumina. That attachment has to be broken. Selective impact milling under special moderate conditions and air classifying have shown to be a cost effective process for the removal of impurities. For iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) about 30--70% can be removed by the separation of 0.5--1% of the alumina. Full scale tests have successfully confirmed these results.

  2. On the chemical composition of Titan's dry lakebed evaporites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordier, Daniel; Ferreira, Abel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Titan, the main satellite of Saturn, has an active cycle of methane in its troposphere. Among other evidence for a mechanism of evaporation at work on the ground, dry lakebeds have been discovered. Recent Cassini infrared observations of these empty lakes have revealed a surface composition poor in water ice compared to that of the surrounding terrains --- suggesting the existence of organic evaporites deposits. The chemical composition of these possible evaporites is unknown. In this paper, we study evaporite composition using a model that treats both organic solids dissolution and solvent evaporation. Our results suggest the possibility of large abundances of butane and acetylene in the lake evaporites. However, due to uncertainties of the employed theory, these determinations have to be confirmed by laboratory experiments.

  3. Physical stability of spray dried solid dispersions of amorphous tolfenamic acid and polyvinylpyrolidone K30

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thybo, Pia

    2006-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Droplet-Gas Contact mixing and flow pattern Drying of Droplets moisture / volatiles evaporation (~ 10 sec.) Product Recovery separation of particles from the gas GPEN October 2006 Side 8 Pia Thybo The Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences... Formation of surface GPEN October 2006 Side 11 Pia Thybo The Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences Schematic picture of spray drying process Feed Heater 2 fluid nozzle Feed flow Nozzle gas flow Drying chamber Cyclone Collection vessel Bag filter...

  4. Data on production and use of DRI: World and U. S. [Direct Reduced Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, H.B.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will present data on the production and use direct-reduced iron (DRI) worldwide, focusing primarily on its use in the United States. The author is indebted to the Midrex Corporation for the data on world production of DRI. The U.S. data is his own and he will explain later how it was collected. He uses the term DRI to include all forms of direct-reduced iron, whether briquettes, pellets or lump.

  5. The effect of maturation on the quality of freeze-dried compressed carrots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennet, Richard Guy

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    agents allowing the vegetative cell walls to be compressed without serious fragmentation. Three techniques have been used to effectively plasticize freeze-dried foods to moisture levels from 5/o 20$ (Lamps 1967)t 1. Spraying the freeze-dried product...THE EFFECT OF MATURATION ON THE QUALITY OF FREEZE-DRIED COMPRESSED CARROTS A Thesis by RICHARD GUY BENNET Approved as to style and content bye Charm Committee Head of Department ember Member August 1976 ABSTRACT The Effect Of Maturation...

  6. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)); Haefner, R. (Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States). Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  7. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Drying Process for Lower Manufacturing Cost of Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Lambda Technologies at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced drying process...

  9. Bibliography of the geological and geophysical aspects of hot dry rock geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, G.; Sayer, S.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first issue of an annual compilation of references that are useful to the exploration, understanding and development of the hot dry rock geothermal resource.

  10. New quality index based on dry matter and acidity proposed for Hayward kiwifruit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gayle Crisosto, Gayle Crisosto; Hasey, Janine K; Zegbe, Jorge A; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nondestructive internal quality assessment of kiwifruitOur proposed dry matter quality index would segregate outkiwifruit of low con- sumer quality either harvested early

  11. Factors affecting the quality of freeze-dried and compressed spinach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisakowsky, Eugene Edward

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    critical to the preparation of freeze-dried and compressed spinach. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Freeze-Drying Freeze-drying, also designated as sublimation drying or lyphilization, is the removal of water as a vapor from a frozen substance under vaccuum... on the quality of 27 diff- erent raw materials. According to Winton (1935) the average chemical composition of spinach is as follows: water, 91. 3X; protein, 2. 1%; fat, 0. 35; nitrogen free extract, 3. 2/; fiber, 1. 9%; and ash, 2. 15. Giese (1930) found...

  12. Geometry for web microwave heating or drying to a desired profile in a waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Habeger, Jr., Charles C.; Patterson, Timothy F.; Ahrens, Frederick W.

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave heater and/or dryer has a nonlinear or curvilinear relative slot profile geometry. In one embodiment, the microwave dryer has at least one adjustable field modifier making it possible to change the geometry of the heater or dryer when drying different webs. In another embodiment, the microwave dryer provides more uniform drying of a web when the field modifier is adjusted in response to a sensed condition of the web. Finally, a method of microwave heating and/or drying a web achieves a uniform heating and/or drying profile.

  13. Instrumented, Shielded Test Canister System for Evaluation of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Dry Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    1999-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the development of an instrumented, shielded test canister system to store and monitor aluminum-based spent nuclear duel under dry storage conditions.

  14. Dose Rates for Various Loading Patterns of Spent Fuel Assemblies in a Dry Cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenquin, Urban P. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shielding calculations were performed to assess the impact of loading various combinations of spent fuel on dose rates and fuel temperature in a dry storage cask.

  15. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic...

  16. Development of Diagnostic Rules for a Dry Bulb Economizer Mixed Air Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underwood, D.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    knowledge base for a two fan variable air volume (VAV) air handling unit. Rules for the mixed air loop with a dry bulb economizer are presented....

  17. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold toDryDryDry NaturalCrude Oil + LeaseDry

  18. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of CH3OH: Rotation-Torsion-Vibration Structure for the CH3-Rocking and OH-Bending Modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lees, R M.; Xu, Li-Hong; Johns, Judy C.; Lu, Zhe; Winnewisser, Brenda P.; Sams, Robert L.

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution Fourier Transform Spectra of CH3OH have been investigated in the infrared region from 930 -1450 cm-1 in order to map the torsion-rotation energy manifolds associated with the v7 in-plane CH3 rock, the v11 out-of-plane CH3 rock, and the v6 OH bend. Upper-state term values have been determined from the assigned spectral subbands, and have been fitted to power-series expansions to obtain substate origins and effective B-values for the three modes. The substate origins have been grouped into related families according to systemic trends observed in the torsion-vibration energy map, but there are substantial differences from the traditional torsional patterns. There appears to be significant torsion-mediated spectral fractionation, and a variety of subbands of mixed torsion-vibration parentage have been observed. For example, coupling of the v6=1 OH bend to nearby torsionally excited (v1, vt) = (1,1) CH3-rock and (v8, vt) = (1,1) CO-stretch states introduces (v6, vt) = (1,0) ? (0,1) ''forbidden'' subbands into the spectrum and makes the v7+v12-v12 torsional hot band stronger than the v7 fundamental. The results suggest a picture of strong coupling the OH-bending, CH3-rocking and CO-stretching modes that modifies the traditional energy structure and raises interesting and provocative questions about the torsion-vibration identity of a number of the observed states.

  19. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Hugo Caram; Zheng Yao; Gu Feng

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. A description is given of the equipment, instrumentation and procedures being used for the fluidized bed drying experiments. Experimental data were obtained during this last quarter on the effects of particle size on drying rate for a North Dakota lignite. Other experiments looked at drying a PRB coal. The tests comparing drying rates with lignite particles of different diameters were carried out with particle top sizes from 2 to 9.5 mm and covered a range of air velocities. The results show that drying rate increased with air velocity, but that, within the accuracy of the data, the data for all four particle size distributions follow the same curve. This suggests the higher drying rates associated with the larger particles are due to higher air velocities and not to any inherently different drying rates due to particle size. The drying data with the PRB coal show qualitatively similar behavior to that observed with lignite. However, quantitative comparisons of the drying rate data obtained so far for the two coals show the PRB dried at rates which were 14 to 20 percent lower than the lignite, for comparable process conditions. The equilibrium relationship between relative humidity and coal moisture was refined using a correction for temperature. This reduced the scatter in the coal moisture versus relative humidity data and improved the predictions made with the first principle drying model.

  20. An analysis of the effects of farm size and tenure upon debt repayment capacity of farmers in the Coastal Bend Area of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF FARM SIZE AND ~ UPON DEBT REPAYMENT CAPACITY OF FAHMEM IN THE COASTAL REND AREA OF ~ A Thesis by MD. LUTFOR RAHMAE Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1966 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF FARM SIZE AND TENURE% UPON DEBT REPA~ CAPACITY OF FARMERS IN THE COASTAL BEND AREA OF ~ A Thesis by MD. LUTFOR RAHMAN...

  1. Cotton forward contracting in the Brazos bottom and lower Rio Grande valley and grain sorghum forward contracting in the coastal bend of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosson, C. Parr

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ' revue P. iclt Unfversit:y xn Iicrtial futf illicent of the requirement for th' degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 I'ejor 9 ili joe:ri: Pgricu1iurul Ecnnom'ce COTZ01 OPWARD CONTRACTING IN THE BRAEOS BOTTOM AND LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY... and Lower Ri. o Grande Valley and Grain Sorghum Forward Contracting in the Coastal Bend of Texas (December 1978) C. Parr Rosson Ill, B. S. Texas A&N University Directed by: Dr. Carl E. Shafer Price uncertainty characterizes the current agricultural mar...

  2. Climatology of katabatic winds in the McMurdo dry valleys, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fountain, Andrew G.

    Climatology of katabatic winds in the McMurdo dry valleys, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica of katabatic winds largely controls winter (June to August) temperatures, increasing 1°C per 1% increase of katabatic winds in the McMurdo dry valleys, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D

  3. An efficient scheme on wet/dry transitions for Shallow Water Equations with friction Christophe Berthona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coudière, Yves

    An efficient scheme on wet/dry transitions for Shallow Water Equations with friction Christophe discrepancy between both source terms comes from their relevance in dry regions. Indeed, the friction term the friction source terms in the shallow-water model. Such additional source terms are known to be very stiff

  4. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF DRY-FRICTION-DAMPED STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF DRY-FRICTION-DAMPED STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS by Olivier J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.1 Nonlinear methods for the analysis of friction-damped systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 II. HYBRID FREQUENCY-TIME DOMAIN METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS WITH DRY

  5. Digestive efficiency and dry-matter digestibility in Steller sea lions fed herring, pollock, squid, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Digestive efficiency and dry-matter digestibility in Steller sea lions fed herring, pollock, squid, and salmon D.A.S. Rosen and A.W. Trites Abstract: Dry-matter digestibility and energy digestive efficiency-matter digestibility (DMD) and digestive efficiency (DE) were measured using the energy and manganese concentration

  6. Dry Chamber Wall Thermo-Mechanical Behavior and Lifetime under IFE Cyclic Energy Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    assessment of dry chamber wall based on ion and photon spectra from a new direct-drive target proposed by NRLDry Chamber Wall Thermo-Mechanical Behavior and Lifetime under IFE Cyclic Energy Deposition Lifetime is a key issue for the IFE dry chamber wall configuration. Past studies, such as SOMBRERO

  7. SOLAR UPGRADE OF METHANE USING DRY REFORMING IN DIRECT CONTACT BUBBLE REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    process of a solar reformer of dry methane reforming was proposed to operate in a temperature range of 600SOLAR UPGRADE OF METHANE USING DRY REFORMING IN DIRECT CONTACT BUBBLE REACTOR Khalid Al-Ali 1 including lower melting point, thermal and chemical stability, acting simultaneously as heat transport

  8. Stochastic modeling of hourly dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, D.E.; Woeste, F.E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stochastic model of hourly dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures was developed. The periodic variations over the course of a year were estimated by least-square approximation. A multisite Markov model was used to simulate the stochastic nature of the data. These two models were combined to simulate years of hourly dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures.

  9. agronomie: agriculture and environment Dry matter accumulation and seed yield in faba bean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    agronomie: agriculture and environment Dry matter accumulation and seed yield in faba bean ( Vicia; Fifteen genotypes of spring faba bean, differing in flowering earliness, in growth habit (one determinate = faba bean / genetic variability / dry matter accumulation / yield / yield components / early indicator

  10. 2009 DRY BEAN YIELD TRIALS J.D. Kelly, E. Wright, N. Blakely, and J. Heilig

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 2009 DRY BEAN YIELD TRIALS J.D. Kelly, E. Wright, N. Blakely, and J. Heilig Crop and Soil Sciences The bean breeding program was relocated to a new 250 acre research farm, Saginaw Valley Research in small and medium-sized market classes, the Cooperative Dry Bean, and the Midwest Regional Performance

  11. Ecology and Management of the Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Corn and Dry Beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Ecology and Management of the Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Corn and Dry Beans Lansing MI 48824. J. Integ. Pest Mngmt. 1(1): 2010; DOI: 10.1603/IPM10003 ABSTRACT. The western bean mainly on corn and dry beans. The historical geographic range of the western bean cutworm covered

  12. CONTENT ANR @ MSU AgBioResearch 1999 DRY BEAN VARIETY CANNING TRIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SKIP TO CONTENT ANR @ MSU AgBioResearch Home Bean Info Beet Info Directions History InfoVideos Links 1999 DRY BEAN VARIETY CANNING TRIALS MICHIGAN DRY BEAN PRODUCTION RESEARCH ADVISORY BOARD Rating 1=poor, 2=fair, 3=good, 4=above average, 5=excellent NAVY LIGHT RED KIDNEY BEANS VARIETY GRATIOT HURON 10

  13. CONTENT ANR @ MSU AgBioResearch 2000 DRY BEAN VARIETY CANNING TRIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SKIP TO CONTENT ANR @ MSU AgBioResearch Home Bean Info Beet Info Directions History InfoVideos Links 2000 DRY BEAN VARIETY CANNING TRIALS MICHIGAN DRY BEAN PRODUCTION RESEARCH ADVISORY BOARD Rating 1=poor, 2=fair, 3=good, 4=above average, 5=excellent NAVY LIGHT RED KIDNEY BEANS VARIETY GRATIOT HURON 10

  14. 2013 DRY BEAN YIELD TRIALS J.D. Kelly, E. Wright, N. Blakely, and J. Heilig

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 2013 DRY BEAN YIELD TRIALS J.D. Kelly, E. Wright, N. Blakely, and J. Heilig Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences The dry bean breeding program initiated its fifth season on the new 320 acre Saginaw ten years. The drought resulted in overall lower yields but allowed for selection of those bean lines

  15. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL CONDITIONING ON THIN-LAYER DRYING OF ENERGY SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic energy varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench show promise as a bioenergy feedstock, however, high moisture content at the time of harvest results in unacceptable levels of degradation when stored in aerobic conditions. To safely store sorghum biomass for extended periods in baled format, the material must be dried to inhibit microbial growth. One possible solution is allowing the material to dry under natural in-field conditions. This study examines the differences in thin-layer drying rates of intact and conditioned sorghum under laboratory-controlled temperatures and relative humidity levels (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C from 40% to 85% relative humidity), and models experimental data using the Page’s Modified equation. The results demonstrate that conditioning drastically accelerates drying times. Relative humidity had a large impact on the time required to reach a safe storage moisture content for intact material (approximately 200 hours at 30 degrees C and 40% relative humidity and 400 hours at 30 degrees C and 70% relative humidity), but little to no impact on the thin-layer drying times of conditioned material (approximately 50 hours for all humidity levels < 70% at 30 degrees C). The drying equation parameters were influenced by temperature, relative humidity, initial moisture content, and material damage, allowing drying curves to be empirically predicted. The results of this study provide valuable information applicable to the agricultural community and to future research on drying simulation and management of energy sorghum.

  16. Method for predicting dry mechanical properties from wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral data correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from a reference wood when dried and having a dry moisture content.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Andreas Weber; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2005, and December 31, 2005, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas from coal combustion. A field test was conducted to examine the extent to which RTI's supported sorbent can be regenerated in a heated, hollow screw conveyor. This field test was conducted at the facilities of a screw conveyor manufacturer. The sorbent was essentially completely regenerated during this test, as confirmed by thermal desorption and mass spectroscopy analysis of the regenerated sorbent. Little or no sorbent attrition was observed during 24 passes through the heated screw conveyor system. Three downflow contactor absorption tests were conducted using calcined sodium bicarbonate as the absorbent. Maximum carbon dioxide removals of 57 and 91% from simulated flue gas were observed at near ambient temperatures with water-saturated gas. These tests demonstrated that calcined sodium carbonate is not as effective at removing CO{sub 2} as are supported sorbents containing 10 to 15% sodium carbonate. Delivery of the hollow screw conveyor for the laboratory-scale sorbent regeneration system was delayed; however, construction of other components of this system continued during the quarter.

  18. On the velocity-strengthening behavior of dry friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yohai Bar-Sinai; Robert Spatschek; Efim A. Brener; Eran Bouchbinder

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The onset of frictional instabilities, e.g. earthquakes nucleation, is intimately related to velocity-weakening friction, in which the frictional resistance of interfaces decreases with increasing slip velocity. While this frictional response has been studied extensively, less attention has been given to steady-state velocity-strengthening friction, in spite of its potential importance for various aspects of frictional phenomena such as the propagation speed of interfacial rupture fronts and the amount of stored energy released by them. In this note we suggest that a crossover from steady-state velocity-weakening friction at small slip velocities to steady-state velocity-strengthening friction at higher velocities might be a generic feature of dry friction. We further argue that while thermally activated rheology naturally gives rise to logarithmic steady-state velocity-strengthening friction, a crossover to stronger-than-logarithmic strengthening might take place at higher slip velocities, possibly accompanied by a change in the dominant dissipation mechanism. We sketch a few physical mechanisms that may account for the crossover to stronger-than-logarithmic steady-state velocity-strengthening and compile a rather extensive set of experimental data available in the literature, lending support to these ideas.

  19. WIPP Remote Handled Waste Facility: Performance Dry Run Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrington, T. P.; Britain, R. M.; Cassingham, S. T.

    2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Remote Handled (RH) TRU Waste Handling Facility at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was recently upgraded and modified in preparation for handling and disposal of RH Transuranic (TRU) waste. This modification will allow processing of RH-TRU waste arriving at the WIPP site in two different types of shielded road casks, the RH-TRU 72B and the CNS 10-160B. Washington TRU Solutions (WTS), the WIPP Management and Operation Contractor (MOC), conducted a performance dry run (PDR), beginning August 19, 2002 and successfully completed it on August 24, 2002. The PDR demonstrated that the RHTRU waste handling system works as designed and demonstrated the handling process for each cask, including underground disposal. The purpose of the PDR was to develop and implement a plan that would define in general terms how the WIPP RH-TRU waste handling process would be conducted and evaluated. The PDR demonstrated WIPP operations and support activities required to dispose of RH-TRU waste in the WIPP underground.

  20. Prospects for hot dry rock in the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, M.E.; Murphy, H.D.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy program is a renewable energy program that can contribute significantly to the nation's balanced and diversified energy mix. The program was reviewed five times in the past three years. Three of these reviews were done by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and a fourth was conducted by the National Research Council at the request of DOE. In addition, HDR was evaluated in the Energy Research Advisory Board's Solid Earth Sciences Report. Recent economic studies for HDR have been performed by Bechtel National, Inc., the Electric Power Research Institute, and the United Kingdom. These studies are reviewed in light of recent progress at Fenton Hill in reducing drilling costs, and mapping and in identifying drilling targets. All of the attention focused on HDR has resulted in evaluating the way in which HDR fits within the nation's energy mix and in estimating when HDR will contribute to energy security. To establish a framework for evaluating the future of HDR, the status and progress of HDR are reviewed and the remaining Fenton Hill program is outlined. Recommendations are also made for follow-on activities that will lead to achieving full development of HDR technologies in the appropriate time frame.

  1. Oven rack having integral lubricious, dry porcelain surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrose, Jeffrey A; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail; Sikka, Vinod K; Qu, Jun

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A lubricious glass-coated metal cooking article capable of withstanding repeated heating and cooling between room temperature and at least 500.degree. F. without chipping or cracking the glass coating, wherein the glass coating includes about 0.1 to about 20% by weight of a homogeneously distributed dry refractory lubricant material having a particle size less than about 200 .mu.m. The lubricant material is selected from the group consisting of carbon; graphite; boron nitride; cubic boron nitride; molybdenum (FV) sulfide; molybdenum sulfide; molybdenum (IV) selenide; molybdenum selenide, tungsten (IV) sulfide; tungsten disulfide; tungsten sulfide; silicon nitride (Si.sub.3N.sub.4); TiN; TiC; TiCN; TiO.sub.2; TiAlN; CrN; SiC; diamond-like carbon; tungsten carbide (WC); zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2); zirconium oxide and 0.1 to 40 weight % aluminum oxide; alumina-zirconia; antimony; antimony oxide; antimony trioxide; and mixtures thereof.

  2. Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaskar Kura; Kalpalatha Kambham; Sivaramakrishnan Sangameswaran; Sandhya Potana [University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Hot dry rock geothermal energy. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This second EPRI workshop on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy, held in May 1994, focused on the status of worldwide HDR research and development and used that status review as the starting point for discussions of what could and should be done next: by U.S. federal government, by U.S. industry, by U.S. state governments, and by international organizations or through international agreements. The papers presented and the discussion that took place indicate that there is a community of researchers and industrial partners that could join forces, with government support, to begin a new effort on hot dry rock geothermal development. This new heat mining effort would start with site selection and confirmatory studies, done concurrently. The confirmatory studies would test past evaluations against the most current results (from the U.S. site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, and from the two sites in Japan, the one in Russia, and the two in western Europe) and the best models of relevant physical and economic aspects. Site selection would be done in the light of the confirmatory studies and would be influenced by the need to find a site where success is probable and which is representative enough of other sites so that its success would imply good prospects for success at numerous other sites. The test of success would be circulation between a pair of wells, or more wells, in a way that confirmed, with the help of flow modeling, that a multi-well system would yield temperatures, flows and lifetimes that support economically feasible power generation. The flow modeling would have to have previously achieved its own confirmation from relevant data taken from both heat mining and conventional hydrothermal geothermal experience. There may be very relevant experience from the enhancement of ''hot wet rock'' sites, i.e., sites where hydrothermal reservoirs lack, or have come to lack, enough natural water or steam and are helped by water injected cold and produced hot. The new site would have to be selected in parallel with the confirmatory studies because it would have to be modeled as part of the studies and because its similarity to other candidate sites must be known well enough to assure that results at the selected site are relevant to many others. Also, the industry partners in the joint effort at the new site must be part of the confirmatory studies, because they must be convinced of the economic feasibility. This meeting may have brought together the core of people who can make such a joint effort take place. EPRI sponsored the organization of this meeting in order to provide utilities with an update on the prospects for power generation via heat mining. Although the emerging rules for electric utilities competing in power generation make it very unlikely that the rate-payers of any one utility (or small group of utilities) can pay the differential to support this new heat mining research and development effort, the community represented at this meeting may be able to make the case for national or international support of a new heat mining effort, based on the potential size and economics of this resource as a benefit for the nation as a whole and as a contribution to reduced emissions of fossil CO{sub 2} worldwide.

  4. soluble fish proteins obtained by enzymatic treatment of fresh fish offals dried according to the Hatmaker or Spray methods. Six artificial milks were made by dry pelleting of either cow skim-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    to the Hatmaker or Spray methods. Six artificial milks were made by dry pelleting of either cow skim- milk powder

  5. Lead and other metals in dried fish from Nigerian markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okoye, C.O.B. (Univ. of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria))

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nigerian economy had remarkable industrial growth between 1970 and 1980 and industrialization and urbanization have been sustained albeit at a slower rate. Nevertheless, waste management remains grossly underdeveloped. Environmental concern is only a recent phenomenon, resulting thus far in the launching of a monthly clean-up campaign in 1984 and the establishment of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) in 1988. The level of public awareness has not been encouraging. The indiscriminate discharge of largely untreated factory and urban effluents has continued. Streets and home surroundings become littered soon after clean-up exercises. Inadequate facilities contribute to the unwholesome situation. Refuse collecting centers are mostly without any holding containers, and solid wastes, the focus of the monthly clean-up, are left on the bare ground. Heavy automobile traffic and high lead content of the local automobile fuels have not helped matters. Heavy metals in the human environment are of global concern. In developed countries, limits of concentrations in fish and other foods have been set to safeguard public health, but Nigeria has yet to set any standards because of lack of baseline data. Within the last decade, scientists have been reporting on heavy metal levels in fish from the aquatic environment of Nigeria. Among the metals, lead was the most prominent, with a mean value comparable to the set limits in Great Britain and New Zealand. The present study was aimed at further establishing the levels of contamination in fish by lead and other metals in the Nigerian aquatic systems. Smoke-dried fish, being the most consumed by the local population, was chosen for the survey on the levels of cadmium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc. Possible surface contamination arising from observed poor handling practices was also investigated. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Hot Dry Rock energy annual report fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winchester, W.W. [ed.; Duchane, D.V.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot Dry Rock technology took a giant leap forward this year as the long-awaited long-term flow test (LTFT) of the Phase 2 HDR reservoir at Fenton Hill got underway. Energy was produced on a twenty-four hour a day basis for a continuous period of nearly four months of steady-state testing. Hot water was brought to the surface at 90--100 gallons per minute (gpm) with temperatures of 180{degrees}C (356{degrees}F) and higher. During that time, the HDR plant achieved an on-line record of 98.8%. Surface temperature measurements and temperature logging deep within the wellbore confirmed that no decline in the average temperature of fluid produced from the reservoir occurred. Tracer experiments indicated that flow paths within the reservoir were undergoing continuous change during the test. Remarkably, it appeared that longer flow paths carried a larger proportion of the flow as the test proceeded, while more direct fluid pathways disappeared or carried a significantly reduced flow. In sum, access to hot rock appeared to improve over the span of the test. Water losses during the test averaged 10--12% and showed a slow long-term decline. These results confirmed what had been previously discovered in static pressurization testing: Water consumption declines significantly during extended operation of an HDR reservoir. In combination with a recent demonstration by the Japanese that water losses can be greatly reduced by the proper placement of multiple production wells, the recent results at Fenton Hill have effectively demonstrated that excessive water consumption should not be an issue for a properly engineered HDR facility at a well chosen site.

  7. Hot Dry Rock energy annual report fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duchane, D.V.; Winchester, W.W.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot Dry Rock technology took a giant leap forward this year as the long-awaited long-term flow test (LTFT) of the Phase II HDR reservoir at Fenton Hill got underway. Energy was produced on a twenty-four hour a day basis for a continuous period of nearly four months of steady-state testing. Hot water was brought to the surface at 90-100 gallons per minute (gpm) with temperatures of 180[degrees]C (356[degrees]F) and higher. During that time, the HDR plant achieved an on-line record of 98.8%. Surface temperature measurements and temperature logging deep within the wellbore confirmed that no decline in the average temperature of fluid produced from the reservoir occurred. Tracer experiments indicated that flow paths within the reservoir were undergoing continuous change during the test. Remarkably, it appeared that longer flow paths carried a larger proportion of the flow as the test proceeded, while more direct fluid pathways disappeared or carried a significantly reduced flow. In sum, access to hot rock appeared to improve over the span of the test. Water losses during the test averaged 10-12% and showed a slow long-term decline. These results confirmed what had been previously discovered in static pressurization testing: Water consumption declines significantly during extended operation of an HDR reservoir. In combination with a recent demonstration by the Japanese that water losses can be greatly reduced by the proper placement of multiple production wells, the recent results at Fenton Hill have effectively demonstrated that excessive water consumption should not be an issue for a properly engineered HDR facility at a well chosen site.

  8. Process and composition for drying of gaseous hydrogen halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tom, Glenn M. (New Milford, CT); Brown, Duncan W. (Wilton, CT)

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for drying a gaseous hydrogen halide of the formula HX, wherein X is selected from the group consisting of bromine, chlorine, fluorine, and iodine, to remove water impurity therefrom, comprising: contacting the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide with a scavenger including a support having associated therewith one or more members of the group consisting of: (a) an active scavenging moiety selected from one or more members of the group consisting of: (i) metal halide compounds dispersed in the support, of the formula MX.sub.y ; and (ii) metal halide pendant functional groups of the formula -MX.sub.y-1 covalently bonded to the support, wherein M is a y-valent metal, and y is an integer whose value is from 1 to 3; (b) corresponding partially or fully alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, of the metal halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); wherein the alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, when present, are reactive with the gaseous hydrogen halide to form the corresponding halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); and M being selected such that the heat of formation, .DELTA.H.sub.f of its hydrated halide, MX.sub.y.(H.sub.2 O).sub.n, is governed by the relationship: .DELTA.H.sub.f .gtoreq.n.times.10.1 kilocalories/mole of such hydrated halide compound wherein n is the number of water molecules bound to the metal halide in the metal halide hydrate. Also disclosed is an appertaining scavenger composition and a contacting apparatus wherein the scavenger is deployed in a bed for contacting with the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide.

  9. Drying analysis of a multiphase, porous-flow experiment in fractured volcanic tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, N.E.; Eaton, R.R.; Russo, A.J.

    1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A submeter-scale drying experiment has been analyzed using a finite element, multiphase-flow code. In the experiment, an initially wet cylindrical core of fractured volcanic tuff was dried by blowing dry nitrogen over the ends. Our model discretely accounts for three primary fractures that may be present in the core, as indicated by measurements of porosity and saturation. We show that vapor transport is unimportant in the interior of the core; the rate of drying is controlled by transport of liquid water to the ends of the core, where it can evaporate and escape into the dry environment outside. By using previous experimental results to estimate apparent spatial variations in permeability along the core, good agreement between measured and calculated drying rates was achieved. However, predicted saturation profiles were much smoother that those measured experimentally, presumably because of centimeter-scale inhomogeneities in the core sample. Our results indicate that water is transported chiefly as liquid from the interior to the edges of the core, where it evaporates and escapes out the ends. Thus, liquid-phase transport controls the overall drying rate. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Design of a dry sump lubrication system for a Honda® CBR 600 F4i engine for Formula SAE applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farkhondeh, Ehsan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dry sump lubrication system for a Formula SAE race car was designed and manufactured in order to gain the various advantages this type of system affords. A dry sump system stores oil in an external tank and pumps it ...

  11. Doping suppression and mobility enhancement of graphene transistors fabricated using an adhesion promoting dry transfer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheol Shin, Woo; Hun Mun, Jeong; Yong Kim, Taek; Choi, Sung-Yool; Jin Cho, Byung, E-mail: bjcho@kaist.edu, E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Taeshik; Kim, Taek-Soo, E-mail: bjcho@kaist.edu, E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the facile dry transfer of graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on copper film to a functional device substrate. High quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to oxidized silicon substrate was achieved by exploiting the beneficial features of a poly(4-vinylphenol) adhesive layer involving a strong adhesion energy to graphene and negligible influence on the electronic and structural properties of graphene. The graphene field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the dry transfer process exhibit excellent electrical performance in terms of high FET mobility and low intrinsic doping level, which proves the feasibility of our approach in graphene-based nanoelectronics.

  12. ,"Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold toDryDryDry NaturalCrudeGas,Crude Oil

  13. Brownian motion with dry friction: Fokker-Planck Hugo Touchette, Erik Van der Straeten, and Wolfram Just

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Just, Wolfram

    Brownian motion with dry friction: Fokker-Planck approach Hugo Touchette, Erik Van der Straeten Gennes, in which there is a solid-solid or dry friction force acting on a Brownian particle in addition-dependent Fokker-Planck equation. Exact results are found for the case where only dry friction acts on the particle

  14. Short-time Dynamics of Frictional Strength in Dry Friction O. Ben-David, G. Cohen and J. Fineberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fineberg, Jay

    Short-time Dynamics of Frictional Strength in Dry Friction O. Ben-David, G. Cohen and J. Fineberg interface that separates two PMMA blocks in dry frictional contact. At applied shear forces significantly weakening 1. Introduction The short-time dynamics of dry friction are of fundamental interest in fields

  15. Short-time Dynamics of Frictional Strength in Dry Friction O. Ben-David and J. Fineberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fineberg, Jay

    Short-time Dynamics of Frictional Strength in Dry Friction O. Ben-David and J. Fineberg The Racah that separates two PMMA blocks in dry frictional contact. At applied shear forces significantly below the static The short-time dynamics of dry friction are of fundamental interest in fields ranging from hard drive disk

  16. On large deviation properties of Brownian motion with dry friction Yaming Chen 1, # and Wolfram Just 1, +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Just, Wolfram

    On large deviation properties of Brownian motion with dry friction Yaming Chen 1, # and Wolfram with dry friction, including quantitative measures to characterize deviation from Gaussian behaviour to dry friction as an illustrative example where explicit expressions for the distribution of functionals

  17. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamrock, Steven J.

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20���ºC to 120���ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20���ºC to 120���ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA�¢����s comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20���ºC to 120���ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA�¢����s, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year R&D Plan. In the course of this four-year program we developed a new PEM with improved proton conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical stability. We incorporated this new membrane into MEAs and evaluated performance and durability.

  18. Adapting Dry Cask Storage for Aging at a Geologic Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Sanders; D. Kimball

    2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Aging System is a crucial part of operations at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository in the United States. Incoming commercial SNF that does not meet thermal limits for emplacement will be aged on outdoor pads. U.S. Department of Energy SNF will also be managed using the Aging System. Proposed site-specific designs for the Aging System are closely based upon designs for existing dry cask storage (DCS) systems. This paper evaluates the applicability of existing DCS systems for use in the SNF Aging System at Yucca Mountain. The most important difference between existing DCS facilities and the Yucca Mountain facility is the required capacity. Existing DCS facilities typically have less than 50 casks. The current design for the aging pad at Yucca Mountain calls for a capacity of over 2,000 casks (20,000 MTHM) [1]. This unprecedented number of casks poses some unique problems. The response of DCS systems to off-normal and accident conditions needs to be re-evaluated for multiple storage casks. Dose calculations become more complicated, since doses from multiple or very long arrays of casks can dramatically increase the total boundary dose. For occupational doses, the geometry of the cask arrays and the order of loading casks must be carefully considered in order to meet ALARA goals during cask retrieval. Due to the large area of the aging pad, skyshine must also be included when calculating public and worker doses. The expected length of aging will also necessitate some design adjustments. Under 10 CFR 72.236, DCS systems are initially certified for a period of 20 years [2]. Although the Yucca Mountain facility is not intended to be a storage facility under 10 CFR 72, the operational life of the SNF Aging System is 50 years [1]. Any cask system selected for use in aging will have to be qualified to this design lifetime. These considerations are examined, and a summary is provided of the adaptations that must be made in order to use DCS technologies successfully at a geologic repository.

  19. Tropical dry-forest mammals of Palo Verde: Ecology and conservation in a changing landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoner, Kathryn E.; Timm, Robert M.

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 114 species of mammals originally were present in Costa Rica’s tropical dry forest, and perhaps 110 species are still found there today. Bats are the most diverse group, with more than 66 species, followed by 11 species of rodents, 7 species of marsupials, 6 species in the weasel family, 5 species of cats, 3 species in the raccoon family, 3 species of primates, 3 species of artiodactyls, 2 species of canids, 2 species of xenarthrans (edentates), 1 rabbit, and 1 tapir. Costa Rica has no endemic dry forest mammals. The species that have been extirpated from this region were either highly prized game species that have been eliminated by overhunting (white-lipped peccaries) or were specialists that either feed on specific foods or have very specific habitat requirements that have been eliminated by habitat destruction. In Costa Rica 10 of the 13 mammal species recognized as endangered and 7 of the 14 found in reduced populations are found within tropical dry forest habitat. Mammals that inhabit tropical dry forest areas must be capable of dealing with high temperatures, low precipitation in the dry season, and large fluctuations in the availability of food resources during the year. Most mammals of the dry forest can be characterized as resident generalists that shift their diets in order to utilize seasonally available food resources; as resident specialists that forage on insects, seeds, or fruit and nectar; or as migrants that occupy dry forests only seasonally and move to other habitats during periods of low food availability in their foraging area in search of food sources in other areas. Bats, some of which serve as pollinators and seed dispersers, are important components of the dry forest fauna. Some species of bats change habitats within the dry forest or migrate into and out of the dry forest seasonally. Hunting has been, and continues to be, an important threat to most large mammals in dry forest habitats. As early as 1880, large numbers of deer skins were exported from Costa Rica to Europe, the majority of which came from Guanacaste. Illegal poaching is still a serious problem in the protected areas of Guanacaste. Throughout Mesoamerica, deforestation to create pastures and, in recent years, for crop cultivation has negatively affected many populations of tropical dry forest mammals. Approximately 50% of the 250,000 ha area in the lower Tempisque Basin had been deforested by 1956 and by 1970 most of the dry forest had been converted into pastureland. The spread of introduced African grasses and seasonal fires have continued to eliminate mature dry forest in northern Costa Rica in the last decades. Contamination by pesticides from agricultural fields has become a serious threat to the mammalian fauna in the region. The use of cattle as a management tool also threatens the mammalian fauna in tropical dry forest due to their affect on the natural vegetation. Cattle were reintroduced into Parque Nacional Palo Verde in the 1980s in an attempt to control the rapidly expanding cattails in the marsh, which were eliminating habitat for aquatic birds. However, cattle have been ineffective at controlling cattails, and overgrazing of tree seedlings has hindered regeneration of the forest because cattle graze selectively on seedlings of native species. The mammals of the tropical dry forest are among the most poorly known of any of the bioclimatic life zones. Conservation measures for this endangered fauna should include expanded research, training and educational programs for park personnel, economic alternatives, and sustainable development. In addition, efforts should be made for the creation of additional protected areas with buffer zones and for the development of natural regeneration programs.... contaminación por pesticidas en los campos agrícolas se ha convertido en una seria amenaza para los mamíferos de la región. El uso de ganado como herramienta de manejo también es una amenaza para la fauna de mamíferos en el bosque tropical seco debido a su...

  20. Effect of residual stress on the life prediction of dry storage canisters for used nuclear fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Bradley P. (Bradley Patrick)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Used nuclear fuel dry storage canisters will likely be tasked with holding used nuclear fuel for a period longer than originally intended. Originally designed for 20 years, the storage time will likely approach 100 years. ...

  1. Few-Layer Graphene as a Dry Lubricant | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Few-Layer Graphene as a Dry Lubricant Technology available for licensing: Graphene layers act as a two-dimensional nanomaterial and form a conformal protective coating on sliding...

  2. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  3. THE DYNAMICS OF A RAILWAY WAGON WHEEL SET WITH DRY FRICTION DAMPING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    stick-slip and hysteresis in our model of the dry friction and assume that Coulomb's friction law holds-rail interaction and this simplicity might be a contributing factor to the derailments. In this article a more

  4. The River Runs Dry: Examining Water Shortages in the Yellow River Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zusman, Eric

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Runs Dry: Examining Water Shortages in the Yellow Riverof the severity of water shortages in the river’s basin. Ina median level of runoff water shortages in the basin would

  5. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Dry-grind Highly Digestible Grain Sorghum Lines for Ethanol Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Joan R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential of high digestible grain sorghum (HDGS) with a modified starch protein endosperm matrix to replace corn in ethanol production was investigated using dry grind simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Preliminary...

  6. Control on (234 U) in lake water: A study in the Dry Valleys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    .V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Uranium isotopes; Dry Valleys; Antarctica; Weathering; Lake chemistry 1 isotopes. The supply of 234 U is therefore limited by decay of 238 U, suggesting that the two uranium

  7. Spray drying and attrition behavior of iron catalysts for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carreto Vazquez, Victor Hugo

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating attrition resistant iron catalysts prepared by spray drying technique. These catalysts are intended for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor...

  8. Operations to be Performed in the Waste Package Dry Remediation Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman E. Cole; Randy K. Elwood

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Describes planned and proposed operations for remediating damaged and/or out-of-compliance waste packages, casks, DPCs, overpacks, and containers at the Yucca Mountain Dry Transfer Facility.

  9. Regulators Experiences in Licensing and Inspection of Dry Cask Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baggett, S.; Brach, E.W. [Spent Fuel Project Office, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), through the combination of a rigorous licensing and inspection program, ensures the safety and security of dry cask storage. NRC authorizes the storage of spent fuel at an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) under two licensing options: site-specific licensing and general licensing. In July 1986, the NRC issued the first site-specific license to the Surry Nuclear Power Plant in Virginia authorizing the interim storage of spent fuel in a dry storage cask configuration. Today, there are over 30 ISFSIs currently licensed by the NRC with over 700 loaded dry casks. Current projections identify over 50 ISFSIs by the year 2010. No releases of spent fuel dry storage cask contents or other significant safety problems from the storage systems in use today have been reported. This paper discusses the NRC licensing and inspection experiences. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of "Dry Year Option" Water Transfers from Agricultural to Urban Use 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.; Jones, Lonnie L.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigated the economics of an Edwards Aquifer region "dry-year option" buyout directed toward decreasing agricultural water use in an effort to augment springflow. The research involved several phases. First, we applied crop growth...

  11. CONTENT ANR @ MSU AgBioResearch Planting Recommendations for Dry Edible Beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SKIP TO CONTENT ANR @ MSU AgBioResearch Home Bean Info Beet Info Directions History InfoVideos Links Planting Recommendations for Dry Edible Beans Market Class Variety Maturity Plants/Seeds/ Seeds

  12. CONTENT ANR @ MSU AgBioResearch Michigan Dry Bean Crop Protection Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SKIP TO CONTENT ANR @ MSU AgBioResearch Home Bean Info Beet Info Directions History InfoVideos Links Michigan Dry Bean Crop Protection Products Common Chemical Name Brand Name Company Crop Use Seed

  13. Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems I. Fluid...

  14. Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems II....

  15. Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  16. An investigation to determine the optimum number of supports for a typical supersonic tactical aircraft aileron with and without wing bending 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Marion Charles

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    0 I AGRAMS FOR CASE 1 I-R I G ID 4/I NG ~ 12 SPAB CAP FOR CASE l1-RIGID WING SPAR CAP INERTIA DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE 1 I? RIGIO WING. . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ -- * ~ 'l5 PIGMENT 0 I STRI BUT I QN FOR CASE I I'I-Rl G ID WING 16 SHEAB AND /1OMENT DIAGRAMS...4IHUH VALUE BASED Qll TNE ABOVE RATIO AND A HAILIHUN VALUE WITEN ALL SUPPORTS HAVE AN EQUAL WK I SN T DKTERH I NKD BY THE SUPPORT WK I DHT AT HAX I NUH SHEAR o THE A I L EBON CONNECTED TO A R I 0 I D Inl I NG IF THE AILERON DOES NOT BEND UNDER...

  17. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow and density of fluid in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  18. Time-resolved measurement of photon emission during fast crack propagation in three-point bending fracture of silica glass and soda lime glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiota, Tadashi, E-mail: tshiota@ceram.titech.ac.jp; Sato, Yoshitaka; Yasuda, Kouichi [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S7-13 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)] [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S7-13 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of photon emission (PE) and fast crack propagation upon bending fracture were conducted in silica glass and soda lime glass. Observation of fracture surfaces revealed that macroscopic crack propagation behavior was similar between the silica glass and soda lime glass when fracture loads for these specimens were comparable and cracks propagated without branching. However, a large difference in the PE characteristics was found between the two glasses. In silica glass, PE (645–655?nm) was observed during the entire crack propagation process, whereas intense PE (430–490?nm and 500–600?nm) was observed during the initial stages of propagation. In contrast, only weak PE was detected in soda lime glass. These results show that there is a large difference in the atomic processes involved in fast crack propagation between these glasses, and that PE can be used to study brittle fracture on the atomic scale.

  19. Specific gravities and dry weight relationships of planted slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) in East Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Anthony Laurence

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . , Texas ASM University; Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. David M, Moehring In this study wood specific gravity values of 220 plantation grown slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. ) trees growing in East Texas were calculated and related to tree... parameters. Also tree dry weight (DW) relationships with tree parameters were determined and dry weight tables calculated. Average specific gravity values of cores and disks at breast height and tree specific gravities respectively were 0. 457, 0. 493...

  20. Cold vacuum drying proof of performance (first article testing) test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCCRACKEN, K.J.

    1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents and details the test results of the first of a kind process referred to as Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD). The test results are compiled from several months of testing of the first process equipment skid and ancillary components to de-water and dry Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCO) filled with Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The tests results provide design verifications, equipment validations, model validation data, and establish process parameters.