National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for bend dry piney

  1. Piney Point Village, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) | OpenBethlehem Biomass Facility JumpPineview,Piney Point

  2. Profits and Losses from On-farm Drying and Storage of Grain Sorghum in Central Texas and the Coastal Bend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hildreth, R. J.; Moore, C. A.

    1958-01-01

    AND STORAGE OF GRAIN SORGHUM FOR UNITS OF SELECTED SIZE AND TYPE - - Item Round bin Quonset type Dimensions Capacity1 2-2,200 bushel 1-32 x 60 bins building 2.274 cwt. 7.815 cwt. Annual costs --- Dollars - - - Depreciation on structure, fans, grain...' . 'N @ and Storage. of < 4 GJ@$& A. .-+-%aL in Central Texas and tte Coastal Bend TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS. DIRECTOR. COLLEGE STATION. TEXAS IN COOPERATION WITH THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUMMARY...

  3. An Economic Study of Farm Organization in the Piney Woods Farming Area of Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonnen, C. A. (Clarence Alfred); Thibodeaux, B. H.; Criswell, J. F.

    1932-01-01

    the d Piney Woods farming area of Texas comprises twenty-three counties northeastern part of the state. The majority of the farms are !d by family labor. Topographic conditions do not permit the 1 use of large machinery; consequently these farms.... The enterprises are maluated in terms of their production requirements dion to crop yields and livestock production. The usual require- s for the production of an acre of cotton yielding 324 pounds of cotton, for example, were 76 hours of man labor, 40 hours...

  4. Reversal bending fatigue testing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

    2014-10-21

    Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

  5. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6RU N INDIANA315BNSFBOE

  6. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6RU N INDIANA315BNSFBOEGas

  7. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6RU N

  8. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Oglesby, Ken

    2012-01-01

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  9. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Oglesby, Ken

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  10. Bending map and strong convergence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlenker, Jean-Marc

    to a * *complete hyperbolic metric associates its bending measured geodesic lamination. In the p* *resent paper Bending map and strong convergence Abstract The bending map of a hyperbolic 3-manifold with boundary maps a geometr* *ically hyper

  11. Bending map and strong convergence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlenker, Jean-Marc

    metric associates its bending measured geodesic lamination. In the present paper, we investigate someBending map and strong convergence Cyril LECUIRE May 2004 Abstract The bending map of a hyperbolic 3-manifold with boundary maps a geometrically hyper- bolic metric to its bending measured geodesic

  12. Louisiana Nuclear Profile - River Bend

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    River Bend" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...

  13. TECHNOLOGICAL FLUENCY THROUGH CIRCUIT BENDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Textbook Handmade Electronic Music Nicolas Collins #12;Circuit Bending Creatively hacking and re-purposing (upcycling?) electronics in the service of making sound ! Hardware Hacking vs. Circuit Bending #12 Toy hacking Oscillators Final project #12;Readings / Context Experimental and electronic music

  14. Passive, achromatic, nearly isochronous bending system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David R.; Yunn, Byung C.

    2004-05-18

    A particle beam bending system having a geometry that applies active bending only beyond the chord of the orbit for any momentum component. Using this bending configuration, all momentum components emerge dispersed in position only; all trajectories are parallel by construction. Combining a pair of such bends with reflective symmetry produces a bend cell that is, by construction, achromatic to all orders. By the particular choice of 45.degree. individual bends, a pair of such achromats can be used as the basis of a 180.degree. recirculation arc. Other rational fractions of a full 180.degree. bend serve equally well (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.90.degree./bend.times.1 cell /arc; 2 bends/cell.times.30.degree./bend.times.3 cells/arc, etc), as do combinations of multiple bending numerologies (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.22.5.degree./bend.times.2 cells+2 bends/cell.times.45.degree./bend.times.1 cell). By the choice of entry pole face rotation of the first magnet and exit pole face rotation of the second magnet (with a value to be determined from the particular beam stability requirements imposed by the choice of bending angle and beam properties to be used in any particular application), desirable focusing properties can be introduced and beam stability can be insured.

  15. Method for uniformly bending conduits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dekanich, S.J.

    1984-04-27

    The present invention is directed to a method for bending metal tubing through various radii while maintaining uniform cross section of the tubing. The present invention is practical by filling the tubing to a sufficient level with water, freezing the water to ice and bending the ice-filled tubing in a cooled die to the desired radius. The use of the ice as a filler material provides uniform cross-sectional bends of the tubing and upon removal of the ice provides an uncontaminated interior of the tubing which will enable it to be used in its intended application without encountering residual contaminants in the tubing due to the presence of the filler material.

  16. Compaction managed mirror bend achromat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David (Yorktown, VA)

    2005-10-18

    A method for controlling the momentum compaction in a beam of charged particles. The method includes a compaction-managed mirror bend achromat (CMMBA) that provides a beamline design that retains the large momentum acceptance of a conventional mirror bend achromat. The CMMBA also provides the ability to tailor the system momentum compaction spectrum as desired for specific applications. The CMMBA enables magnetostatic management of the longitudinal phase space in Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) thereby alleviating the need for harmonic linearization of the RF waveform.

  17. Continuity of the bending map Cyril LECUIRE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlenker, Jean-Marc

    Continuity of the bending map Cyril LECUIRE May 2004 Abstract The bending map of a hyperbolic 3-manifold maps a convex cocompact hyperbolic metric on a hyperbolic 3-manifold with boundary to its bending measured geodesic lamination. As proved in [KeS] and [KaT], this map is continuous. In the present paper we

  18. Equilibria for anisotropic bending energies Bennett Palmer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Bennett

    Equilibria for anisotropic bending energies Bennett Palmer Department of Mathematics, Idaho State involving an anisotropic bending energy for surfaces. Surfaces with boundary and closed equilibria are discussed. Keywords: plate, bending energy, Willmore functional , anisotropic PACS: 87.16.Dg, 02.40.Hw

  19. PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ACCELERATORS; BEAM DUMPS; BENDING; CHANNELING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Channeling through Bent Crystals Mack, Stephanie; Ottawa U. SLAC 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ACCELERATORS; BEAM DUMPS; BENDING; CHANNELING; CRYSTAL LATTICES; DETECTION; FORTRAN;...

  20. Exact map through ideal bends (again?)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-06-01

    There are three logically independent facets to calculating the transfer map through a bend magnet: physics, geometry, and representation. We will derive the exact map for transit through ideal bends while separating these three, esp., isolating the geometry problem from the other two.

  1. A two-mode fiber optic-bending sensor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Covington, Charles Eric

    1993-01-01

    relating the bending sensitivity to the shape of the profile's asymmetry are discussed. A temperature and strain compensated bending sensor for bending over arbitrary paths is demonstrated as an application of this technology. Some alternate two...

  2. Dry effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, J.D. (Anderson, 2000 Inc., Peachtree City, GA (US))

    1988-01-01

    The available choices of pollution control systems depend on what is being burned and how stringent the regulations are. The common systems are gas cooling by a waste heat boiler or an air-air heat exchanger followed by fabric filtration or electrostatic precipitation for particulate removal; alkaline spray absorbers followed by fabric filters (dry scrubbers) for particulate and acid gas removal; wet scrubbers for simultaneous particulate and acid gas removal, and; the newest - spray evaporation, followed by wet scrubbing for particulate and acid gas removal. Each has advantages and each has disadvantages. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the spray evaporator and wet scrubber combination.

  3. Minimal Bending Energies of Bilayer Polyhedra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christoph A. Haselwandter; Rob Phillips

    2011-06-10

    Motivated by recent experiments on bilayer polyhedra composed of amphiphilic molecules, we study the elastic bending energies of bilayer vesicles forming polyhedral shapes. Allowing for segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges of polyhedra, we find that bilayer polyhedra can indeed have lower bending energies than spherical bilayer vesicles. However, our analysis also implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the snub dodecahedron, rather than the icosahedron, generally represents the energetically favorable shape of bilayer polyhedra.

  4. How paper folds: bending with local constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jemal Guven; Martin Michael Mueller

    2007-12-06

    A variational framework is introduced to describe how a surface bends when it is subject to local constraints on its geometry. This framework is applied to describe the patterns of a folded sheet of paper. The unstretchability of paper implies a constraint on the surface metric; bending is penalized by an energy quadratic in mean curvature. The local Lagrange multipliers enforcing the constraint are identified with a conserved tangential stress that couples to the extrinsic curvature of the sheet. The framework is illustrated by examining the deformation of a flat sheet into a generalized cone.

  5. Modeling of bend discontinuity in plasmonic and spoof plasmonic waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahbarihagh, Yaghoob; Shahabadi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a method to characterize the bend discontinuity for plasmonic and spoof plasmonic waveguides in terms of scattering parameters. By means of this method, the waveguide is modelled by a two-port network and its scattering parameters are extracted. The parameters for the L-shaped sharp curved bends at different frequencies and under different bending angles are determined.

  6. TOPOLOGICAL ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF THE KIRCHHOFF PLATE BENDING PROBLEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel, Amstutz

    . The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the model associated to the Kirchhoff plate bendingTOPOLOGICAL ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF THE KIRCHHOFF PLATE BENDING PROBLEM S. AMSTUTZ AND A.A. NOVOTNY associated to the Kirchhoff plate bending problem, when a circular inclusion is introduced at an arbitrary

  7. Micromechanical Models for Bending Behavior of Woven Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soykasap, Omer

    ; these bundles are not homogenous through the thickness. This paper presents micromechanical models for bending 1). This papers studies bending behavior of plain weave composites. A schematic crossMicromechanical Models for Bending Behavior of Woven Composites ¨O. Soykasap Department

  8. Computer-aided engineering analysis of tooth-bending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    reliability, Horizontal axis wind turbine, Tooth-bending fatigue failure Paper type Research paper 1Computer-aided engineering analysis of tooth-bending fatigue-based failure in horizontal-axis wind-life of a wind-turbine gearbox in the case when the service-life is controlled by the gear-tooth bending

  9. Fracture of surface cracks loaded in bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Y.J.; Reuter, W.G.

    1997-12-31

    Theoretical background of the constraint effect in brittle fracture of solids is reviewed. Fracture test data from D6-aC, a high strength steel, using three-point-bend (SE(B)) specimens and surface cracked plate (SC(B)) specimens under bending are presented. It is shown that the SE(B) data has an elevated fracture toughness for increasing a/W, i.e., a crack geometry with a larger T/K corresponds to a higher K{sub c} which is consistent with the theoretical prediction. The fundamental fracture properties, i.e., the critical strain and the critical distance, determined from the SE(B) test data are then applied to the interpretation and prediction of the SC(B) test data. Reasonable agreement is achieved for the crack growth initiation site and the load.

  10. Bend, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformation Beaufort County,BelBelvedere, SouthBend, Oregon: Energy

  11. Bend, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformation Beaufort County,BelBelvedere, SouthBend, Oregon:

  12. Regional Service Planning for the Coastal Bend 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coastal Bend Council of Governments

    2006-12-01

    -Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ?R?E?G?I?O?N?A?L? ?S?E?R?V?I?C?E? ?P?L?A?N?N?I?N?G ?F?O?R? ?T?H?E? ?C?O?A?S?T?A?L? ?B?E?N?D ?R?e?g?i?o?n?a?l? ?P?u?b?l?i?c? ?T?r?a?n?s?p?o?r?t?a?t?i?o?n ?C?o?o?r?d?i?n?a?t?i?o?n? ?S?t?u?d?y ?w...?w?w?.?r?e?g?i?o?n?a?l?s?e?r?v?i?c?e?p?l?a?n?n?i?n?g?.?o?r?g ?D?e?c?e?m?b?e?r? ?1?,? ?2?0?0?6 Regional Service Planning for the Coastal Bend Regional Public Transportation Coordination Study This study was funded by financial grant from the Texas...

  13. Suppression of microbunching instability using bending magnets in FEL linacs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang, Ji

    2014-01-01

    using bending magnets in FEL linacs Ji Qiang, Chad E.for free electron laser (FEL) radiation. In this letter, weaccelerators for next generation FEL light sources. Instead

  14. Statistical mechanics of bend flexoelectricity and the twist-bend phase in bent-core liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaikh M. Shamid; Subas Dhakal; Jonathan V. Selinger

    2013-05-21

    We develop a Landau theory for bend flexoelectricity in liquid crystals of bent-core molecules. In the nematic phase of the model, the bend flexoelectric coefficient increases as we reduce the temperature toward the nematic to polar phase transition. At this critical point, there is a second order transition from high-temperature uniform nematic phase to low-temperature nonuniform polar phase composed of twist-bend or splay-bend deformations. To test the predictions of Landau theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to find the director and polarization configurations as functions of temperature, applied electric field, and interaction parameters.

  15. Bending behavior of general unsymmetric laminates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danielson, Kent Thomas

    1987-01-01

    ( ?, ) I + P12[2 ( ? ) (b ) ) + P22(4 (b ) ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 ~ ~ [p [~Sm RRmnR ] p [~Sn Rmncm 1 1 16 2 2 26 2 b2 pq porn q~n 422 qab + p66(" ', b' )H, n- [ ' 2)((-1)' - 1J((-1)n - 1) = p mn~ (38c) where m = l, . . . , ~ and R and S are the same... ng Unsymmetr1c lam1nates exhibit a coupl1ng between membrane strains and curvatures. Th1s "Bending-Stretching Coupl ing" greatly complicates the analysis compared to that of symmetric lam1nates. Currently, unsymmetr1c laminates are used only 1n a...

  16. Structure-borne sound Flexural wave (bending wave)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Structure-borne sound · Flexural wave (bending wave) »One dimensional (beam) +(/x)dx +(/x)dx = (/x) (/x)dx=(2/x2)dx Mz +(Mz/x)dx Mz vy Fy Fy +(Fy/x)dx Structure-borne sound · Bending wave ­ flexural wave #12;2 Structure-borne sound · Two obliquely propagating waves + - + + - + - Structure

  17. Classification of perturbations for membranes with bending 10October 1996

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiese, Kay Jörg

    EISEVIER Classification of perturbations for membranes with bending 10October 1996 Physics a manifold with van- ishing tension but with bending rigidity. In this case r(x) is the amplitude structure. The goal is to find the eigen- operators of the renormalization-group flow. The paper

  18. Cooking with Dry Beans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    This fact sheet describes the nutritonal value and safe storage of dry beans, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas.

  19. Cooking with Dried Potatoes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of dried potatoes, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas.

  20. Cooking with Dry Spaghetti 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    of mushroom soup 1 10.75-ounce can of tomato soup 4 cups cooked, hot spaghetti 1 teaspoon dried oregano (if you like) 1 teaspoon dried basil (if you like) How to make it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area...

  1. Cast-stone sectors for lining bends in pipework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chechulin, V.A.; Novikov, A.I.; Karpov, V.M.; Sotnik, A.A.; Sedyshev, B.L.

    1987-03-01

    The authors disclose an efficient method for lining the bends of pipelines used to deliver coal dust to the burners of coal-fired power plants or to transport coal slurries in mining and preparation enterprises. The method consists of melting a wear-resistant silicate compound and casting it in the form of rings whose increased width on the outboard side accounts for the angle of the bend when the rings are installed consecutively inside the pipe. Enhanced service life estimations and cost benefit analyses are given for pipe bends thus lined in both of the above applications.

  2. The seasonality of aerosol properties in Big Bend National Park 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Christopher Lee

    2007-04-25

    ), to characterize the seasonal variability of the Big Bend regions aerosol optical properties. Mass extinction efficiencies and relative humidity scattering enhancement factors were calculated for both externally and internally mixed aerosol populations for all size...

  3. The determination of thru-thickness residual bending stresses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rinehart, Adam James

    2000-01-01

    In order to understand the fatigue behavior of dents in pressurized pipelines it is necessary to understand the residual stresses that result from cyclic plastic bending. Three approaches are taken here in studying a beam cross section: a discrete...

  4. Freeze drying method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  5. Mechanical characterization of NiTi wires under pure bending G.Antherieu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payan, Yohan

    crystallographic states: cold-worked, austenitic and martensitic. Results of a bending test on a steel wire and moment measurement during pure bending tests on steel wires (Figure 1) Bending moment/load measurements.m; the minimum reached radius of curvature was about 1.5cm. Results of a bending test on a steel wire

  6. Bounding the bending of a hyperbolic 3-manifold Martin Bridgeman and Richard D. Canary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canary, Dick

    , 2015 Abstract In this paper we obtain bounds on the total bending of the boundary of the convex coreBounding the bending of a hyperbolic 3-manifold Martin Bridgeman and Richard D. Canary April 19 the bending lamination. The bending lamination inherits a transverse measure which keeps track of how much

  7. Modeling and Identification of Material Parameters in Coupled Torsion and Bending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    coupled torsion and bending. In this paper we present a model (Section 2) for coupled torsion and bending and damping (bending and torsional) in vibration experiments. The model presented in this paper is itself new3 y 3 y Modeling and Identification of Material Parameters in Coupled Torsion and Bending H

  8. Bounding the bending of a hyperbolic 3manifold Martin Bridgeman and Richard D. Canary \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canary, Dick

    September 29, 2002 Abstract In this paper we obtain bounds on the total bending of the boundaryBounding the bending of a hyperbolic 3­manifold Martin Bridgeman and Richard D. Canary \\Lambda, called the bending lamination. The bending lamination inherits a transverse measure which keeps track

  9. Case1: Outlet of the pipe without a bend and a weld Case2: Outlet of the pipe with 90/90 bend and 30 weld

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    1 #12;Case1: Outlet of the pipe without a bend and a weld Case2: Outlet of the pipe with 90°/90° bend and 30° weld 2 #12;3 Y X Z symmetry Velocity Inlet Wall Pressure Outlet Wall Normalized by Djet inlet from pipeflow study with a 30° weld out of bend plan, and with a 90°/90° bend. Mesh: 15M. #12;Hg

  10. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  11. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  12. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, David W. (9253 Glenoaks Blvd., Sun Valley, CA 91352)

    1997-01-01

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  13. Tension bending ratcheting tests of 304 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, L.D.; Jones, D.P.; Rapp, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses results of an experimental program conducted to investigate the strain ratcheting behavior of 304 stainless steel under various combinations of applied membrane load and displacement controlled cyclic bending strain. Tests were performed on uniaxial specimens at temperatures of 70 F (21 C) and 550 F (288 C). Bending strain, ratchet strain and axial displacement of the specimens were monitored throughout the tests. Membrane stress to monotonic yield stress ratios of 2/3, 1/2, and 1/3 were tested with pseudo-elastic bending stress to yield stress ratios ranging from 1.4 to 10.7. Test output was in the form of plots of cumulative axial membrane strain versus cycles up to the point of shakedown, i.e., the point at which no additional progressive strain was observed. Shakedown was demonstrated in the 500 F tests but not the room temperature tests. The 550 F results are shown in terms of shakedown membrane strain versus equivalent bending stress ratio for each of the tested membrane stress ratios. The cyclic and monotonic stress-strain curves for the test materials are presented to enable the use of various models for predicting the ratcheting and shakedown behavior. The results may be used to develop improved ratcheting and shakedown rules permitting a relaxation of the traditional ratcheting rules in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

  14. Flexpad: Highly Flexible Bending Interactions for Projected Handheld Displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flexpad: Highly Flexible Bending Interactions for Projected Handheld Displays Jürgen Steimle MIT of plain paper or foam into flexible, highly deformable, and spatially aware handheld displays. We present application examples: curved cross-cuts in volumetric images, deforming virtual paper characters, and slicing

  15. Bending Waves in Flattened Stellar Systems a Department of Mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bending Waves in Flattened Stellar Systems a C. Hunter Department of Mathematics Florida State the explanation of galactic warps, that is the topic of this paper. Massive dark halos may very well play a major supported in part by National Science Foundation Grant DMS­9304012. This paper is based on an invited talk

  16. The Clinch Bend Regional Industrial Site and economic development opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This effort focuses initially on the Clinch Bend site. Other sites and developable tracts of land are identified with the assistance of communities in proximity to Oak Ridge, the State of Tennessee, and others, and compared with the projected site requirements for large industrial facilities.

  17. Impingement drying of potato chips 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caixeta, Aline Teixeira

    2001-01-01

    ) on the drying rate of potato chips and on the product quality properties such as shrinkage, density, porosity, microstructure, color, texture, and nutrition loss was investigated. Furthermore, superheated steam impingement dried potato chips (130 and 145° C, h...

  18. Experimental estimation of dynamic plastic bending moments by plastic hinge models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sogo, T.; Ujihashi, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Adachi, T.

    1995-12-31

    In the present paper, the experimental estimation of dynamic plastic bending moments for metallic materials is investigated. The three-point bending, test under impact and static loads is applied to aluminum alloy (JIS A6063S) and mild steel (JIS SS400). It is confirmed that tile dynamic bending deformations in three-point bending test can be modeled as a plastic hinge, tile experimental results show that the consumed energies of the specimens are proportional to the bending angles. The ratio of the consumed energy to the bending angle is approximately equal to the plastic bending moment. In the case of aluminum alloy, the dynamic plastic bending moments for the different average bending angular velocities coincide with the static plastic bending moments. On the other hand, in the case of mild steel, the dynamic plastic bending moments are proportional to the average bending angular velocities. As a result, we confirm that the present method based on the plastic hinge model and the consumed energy is efficient for determining tile dynamic plastic bending moment.

  19. The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and condensation heat transfer in tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traviss, Donald P.

    1971-01-01

    The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient of condensing refrigerant R-12 was studied experimentally. Flow patterns in glass return bends of 1/2 to 1 in. radius and 0.315 ...

  20. Numerical and experimental investigation of laser induced tube bending Wenchuan Li andY. Lawrence Yao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    normally requires repeated annealing when mechanical bending is used. Silve, et a!. investigated procedures for laser bending ofsquare cross-section tubes ofmild steel1 · Different scanning sequences were compared

  1. Characterization of bending stiffness and spontaneous buckling of alpha-helices and coiled coils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakkaraju, Sirish Kaushik

    2009-05-15

    Elasticity of ?-helices and coiled coils have often been described by a linear response to local bending with bending stiffness (Kb) and persistence length (Lp) describing their flexibility. However, we observed that the non-bonded forces along...

  2. Dry Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table272/S The National

  3. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  4. Quantization of bending deformations of polygons , hypergeometric integrals and the Gassner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millson, John

    bending Hamiltonians. 1 #12;The point of this paper is to compute the representation ^ ;r : Pn ! Aut(T ;rQuantization of bending deformations of polygons in E 3 , hypergeometric integrals and the Gassner of the bending deformations of n-gons in E3 studied in KM] and Kly] give rise to a Hamiltonian action

  5. Bending Burning Matches and Crumpling Burning Paper Texas A&M University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keyser, John

    Bending Burning Matches and Crumpling Burning Paper Zeki Melek Texas A&M University Department burning. Specifically, we can simulate the bending of burning matches, and the folding of burning paper objects. Examples include the upward bending seen in burning matches and the crumpling of burning paper

  6. A fast multipole boundary element method for solving the thin plate bending problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yijun

    in this paper. The method is based on the Kirchhoff thin plate bending theory and the biharmonic equationA fast multipole boundary element method for solving the thin plate bending problem S. Huang, Y: Fast multipole method Boundary element method Thin plate bending problem a b s t r a c t A fast

  7. Mechanics-Based Modeling of Bending and Torsion in Active Cannulas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    transmissions. In this paper, we consider both bending and torsion, describing the total elastic energy storedMechanics-Based Modeling of Bending and Torsion in Active Cannulas D. Caleb Rucker, and Robert J cannula more accurately than previous models, reducing tip error by 72% over a bending-only model, and 35

  8. Quantization of bending deformations of polygons 3 , hypergeometric integrals and the Gassner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millson, John

    of all bending Hamiltonians. 1 #12; The point of this paper is to compute the representation â?? ae fflQuantization of bending deformations of polygons in E 3 , hypergeometric integrals and the Gassner of the bending deformations of n­gons in E 3 studied in [KM] and [Kly] give rise to a Hamiltonian action

  9. The peeling behavior of thin films with finite bending stiffness and the implications on gecko adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This paper assesses the influence of the bending stiffness on thin film peeling and argues that detailedThe peeling behavior of thin films with finite bending stiffness and the implications on gecko the bending stiffness of the spatula has a strong influence on the peeling force which is neglected

  10. Macromolecules 1994,27,981-988 981 Bending and Twisting Elasticity of DNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siggia, Eric

    to bending persistence, persistence of internal twisting degrees of f r e e d ~ m . ~ ~ ~In this paper, weMacromolecules 1994,27,981-988 981 Bending and Twisting Elasticity of DNA J. F.Marko' and E to the independentbendingandtorsionalenergiesincorporatedin previoustheories,apreviouslyunknowncoupling between twist and bend. If the backbone is given

  11. Slow convergence of the BEM with constant elements in solving beam bending problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yijun

    beam bending problems. This paper presents some BEM results with large-scale 2D models of simple beamSlow convergence of the BEM with constant elements in solving beam bending problems Y.J. Liu n , Y online 13 November 2013 Keywords: Boundary element method Constant element Beam bending problem a b s t r

  12. Modified Theis equation by considering the bending effect of the confining unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    . This paper investigated the impact of the bending effect of the confining unit on drawdown. An analyticalModified Theis equation by considering the bending effect of the confining unit Xu Sheng Wang a rigidity and therefore may bend like a plate to a certain extent. The increase in the effective stress

  13. Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , they have not reported any optical measurements on this sharp-bend structure.16 In this paper, weGuiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal experimentally demonstrated the guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic EM waves in highly confined

  14. Facet bending in the driven crystalline curvature flow in the plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikegami, Takashi

    Facet bending in the driven crystalline curvature flow in the plane Yoshikazu Giga1 , Piotr Rybka2, then they begin to bend. Key words: singular energies, bending of facets, driven curvature flow, variational prin- clidean curvature. In this paper we are interested in the case when is not C1, for example

  15. MHK Projects/Vicksburg Bend | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050 JumpCoosSlough Bend

  16. Bending light on demand by holographic sculpturing its wavefront

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    A classical light beam propagates along a straight line and does not bend unless in a medium of variable refractive index. It is well known that by modifying the wavefront in a certain manner, the light intensity can be turned into a certain shape. Examples are optical lenses or Fresnel Zone Plates for focusing an incident wave to a point at the focal plane. Another example are Airy beams created by modifying the phase distribution of the wavefront into an Airy function resulting in a bending of the light intensity while propagating. A further example is holography, where the phase of the wavefront passing through a hologram is changed to mimic the object wavefront, thus providing the illusion that the original object is present in space. However, all these known techniques allow for limited light modifications: either focusing within a limited region in space2 or shaping a certain class of parametric curves along the optical axis or creating a bend in a quadratic-dependent declination as in the case of Airy ...

  17. Control of Prestressing Force in Rod for Reducing Bending in Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, M. B.

    2010-05-21

    This paper presents a method to determine the prestressing force required in a rod for reducing the bending effects in a beam. The rod is positioned underneath the beam such that the prestressing force is counteracting the effects of beam bending. It has been found that the prestressing force may also increase the bending as a result of P-delta effect. Therefore, the choice of both the prestressing force and the rod eccentricity from the beam axis is important in determining the appropriate actions to resist the bending of the beam. Over-prestressing the rod may even induce bending or buckling failure in the beam in the reverse direction.

  18. Design and optimization of a high-efficiency nanoscale 90 light-bending structure by mode selection and tailoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chau, Kenneth

    before and after the bend. In this paper, we design a nanoscale light-bending struc- ture capable of 90Design and optimization of a high-efficiency nanoscale 90° light-bending structure by mode of a nanoscale structure to enable 90° visible light-bending. The geometry and constituent materials

  19. Demonstration of high waveguide bending efficiency (>90%) in a photonic-crystal slab at 1.5m wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -crystal waveguide bend. In this paper, we reported the first quantitative experimental study of bending efficiency in a photonic crystal waveguide bend at =1.5µm. The paper is structured as follows. In the first part. In the second part of paper, we report the quantitative analysis of bending efficiency in a photonic- crystal

  20. Reversible Bending Fatigue Testing on Zry-4 Surrogate Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L

    2014-01-01

    Testing high-burnup spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presents many challenges in areas such as specimen preparation, specimen installation, mechanical loading, load control, measurements, data acquisition, and specimen disposal because these tasks are complicated by the radioactivity of the test specimens. Research and comparison studies conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) resulted in a new concept in 2010 for a U-frame testing setup on which to perform hot-cell reversible bending fatigue testing. Subsequently, the three-dimensional finite element analysis and the engineering design of components were completed. In 2013 the ORNL team finalized the upgrade of the U-frame testing setup and the integration of the U-frame setup into a Bose dual linear motor test bench to develop a cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT). A final check was conducted on the CIRFT test system in August 2013, and the CIRFT was installed in the hot cell in September 2013 to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The fatigue responses of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding and the role of pellet pellet and pellet clad interactions are critical to SNF vibration integrity, but such data are not available due to the unavailability of an effective testing system. While the deployment of the developed CIRFT test system in a hot cell will provide the opportunity to generate the data, the use of a surrogate rod has proven quite effective in identifying the underlying deformation mechanism of an SNF composite rod under an equivalent loading condition. This paper presents the experimental results of using surrogate rods under CIRFT reversible cyclic loading. Specifically, monotonic and cyclic bending tests were conducted on surrogate rods made of a Zry-4 tube and alumina pellet inserts, both with and without an epoxy bond.

  1. Ice plug employed on subsea pipeline bend during repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-22

    The first controlled-temperature ice plug in the bend of an offshore gas trunkline has been carried out for Phillips Petroleum Co. Norway on its Norpipe A.S. platform in the German sector of the North Sea. The procedure was part of a subsea valve repair operation. The ice plug was successfully formed offshore and tested to a differential pressure of 1,450 psi. Repair of two valves required only 5 days during which time gas production was operating at close to 50--60% via the platform bypass, says the service company. The paper discusses the procedure.

  2. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts: Connectors, bends anddeveloping flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2004-03-01

    In ventilation duct flow the turbulent flow profile is commonly disturbed or not fully developed and these conditions are likely to influence particle deposition to duct surfaces. Particle deposition rates at eight S-connectors, in two 90{sup o} duct bends and in two ducts where the turbulent flow profile was not fully developed were measured in a laboratory duct system with both galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle diameters of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition of particles with nominal diameters of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m was measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces. Deposition at S-connectors, in bends and in straight ducts with developing turbulence was often greater than deposition in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence for equal particle sizes, air speeds and duct surface orientations. Deposition rates at all locations were found to increase with an increase in particle size or air speed. High deposition rates at S-connectors resulted from impaction and these rates were nearly independent of the orientation of the S-connector. Deposition rates in the two 90{sup o} bends differed by more than an order of magnitude in some cases, probably because of the difference in turbulence conditions at the bend inlets. In straight steel ducts where the turbulent flow profile was developing, the deposition enhancement relative to fully developed turbulence generally increased with air speed and decreased with downstream distance from the duct inlet. This enhancement was greater at the duct ceiling and wall than at the duct floor. In insulated ducts, deposition enhancement was less pronounced overall than in steel ducts. Trends that were observed in steel ducts were present, but weaker, in insulated ducts.

  3. MHK Projects/Walker Bend Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK5 < MHKKembla < MHK Projects2Walker Bend

  4. Big Bend, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformation BeaufortBentMichigan:Greece) JumpGeorgia: EnergyEnergyBend,

  5. MHK Projects/Cow Island Bend | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050 JumpCoos Bay OPT Wave Park < MHKIsland Bend <

  6. MHK Projects/New Madrid Bend Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050 JumpCoos Bay OPTHalf|Myette PointMadrid Bend Project

  7. MHK Projects/Newton Bend Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050 JumpCoos Bay OPTHalf|Myette PointMadrid Bend2Newton

  8. MHK Projects/Slough Bend | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050 JumpCoosSlough Bend < MHK Projects Jump to:

  9. MHK Projects/Springfield Bend | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050 JumpCoosSlough Bend < MHK Projects

  10. MHK Projects/St Rose Bend | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050 JumpCoosSlough Bend < MHK ProjectsSt Clair

  11. Big Bend Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYorkColoradoBelcher HomesBeverly,Lake, California:Big Bend

  12. Drying Fruits and Vegetables at Home. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putnam, Peggy H.

    1981-01-01

    Methods Sun (solar) heaters and dehydrators. Or dryers some times are used to dry foods. They can be made fairly easily at various costs. SUD heatets are effective when drying foods requiring humidity or when drying s'mall lots of food. Dehydrators... ............. ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Drying Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Sun-Drying .................................................... 3 Oven...

  13. Finite element residual stress analysis of induction heating bended ferritic steel piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kima, Jong Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Oh, Young-Jin; Chang, Hyung-Young; Park, Heung-Bae

    2014-10-06

    Recently, there is a trend to apply the piping bended by induction heating process to nuclear power plants. Residual stress can be generated due to thermo-mechanical mechanism during the induction heating bending process. It is well-known that the residual stress has important effect on crack initiation and growth. The previous studies have focused on the thickness variation. In part, some studies were performed for residual stress evaluation of the austenitic stainless steel piping bended by induction heating. It is difficult to find the residual stresses of the ferritic steel piping bended by the induction heating. The study assessed the residual stresses of induction heating bended ferriticsteel piping via finite element analysis. As a result, it was identified that high residual stresses are generated on local outersurface region of the induction heating bended ferritic piping.

  14. Analytical quantitative description of wide plate U-free bend process of intelligent control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Chun-jian; Guo, Su-min

    2013-01-01

    According to flexure theory of plate, on the premise of plane deformation assumption, an analytic model of U-free bend theory is proposed in this paper, which considered the harden, anisotropy and elastic deformation of material. Then the theoretical analysis on U-free bending of wide plate is made, the change rules of bending force with bending stroke and formula of target angularity are obtained, the various factors affecting bending force and rebound are analyzed. Furthermore, theoretical calculation and experiment and simulation results are compared, which provided theoretical basis for identifying parameters of the wide plate U-free bending intelligent control as well as determining variables of the input layer and output layer of prediction model.

  15. Extreme bendability of DNA double helix due to bending asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossein Salari; B. Eslami-Mossallam; M. S. Naderi; M. R. Ejtehadi

    2015-05-23

    Experimental data of the DNA cyclization (J-factor) at short length scales, as a way to study the elastic behavior of tightly bent DNA, exceed the theoretical expectation based on the wormlike chain (WLC) model by several orders of magnitude. Here, we propose that asymmetric bending rigidity of the double helix in the groove direction can be responsible for extreme bendability of DNA at short length scales and it also facilitates DNA loop formation at these lengths. To account for the bending asymmetry, we consider the asymmetric elastic rod (AER) model which has been introduced and parametrized in an earlier study (B. Eslami-Mossallam and M. Ejtehadi, Phys. Rev. E 80, 011919 (2009)). Exploiting a coarse grained representation of DNA molecule at base pair (bp) level, and using the Monte Carlo simulation method in combination with the umbrella sampling technique, we calculate the loop formation probability of DNA in the AER model. We show that, for DNA molecule has a larger J-factor compared to the WLC model which is in excellent agreement with recent experimental data.

  16. Experiments and analyses on undermatched interleaf specimens in bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, D.M.; Ganti, S.; McClintock, F.A.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, L.R.; Reuter, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    Model weldment fracture specimens have been fabricated, tested, and analyzed using finite elements. The specimens consist of an interleaf of commercially pure titanium diffusion-bonded to a harder alloy titanium. A deep edge crack is introduced symmetrically into the interleaf, and the specimens are loaded in pure bending. Variation of the thickness (2h) of the soft interleaf layer provides insight into effects of weld geometry in strongly undermatched weldments tested in plane strain bending. Ductile crack growth (beyond blunting) initiated at loads giving J {doteq} 95 kJ/m{sup 2} in all specimens. In the thickest interleaf geometries, stable tearing was obtained, but in the thinnest interleaf (2h {doteq} 3mm), crack initiation resulted in a massive pop-in of 5.4 mm across an initial ligament of 12 mm. Finite element studies show that the thinnest interleaf geometry had slightly higher peak stress triaxiality at the beginning of cracking, and that the highest triaxiality extended over a larger region than in the thicker interleaf specimens loaded to the same initiation J-values. More importantly, the blockage of plastic straining above and below the crack tip in the 3 mm interleaf specimen forced higher values of plastic strain to spread forward into the {+-} 45{degree} sector of highest stress triaxiality directly ahead of the crack tip. The higher strains, in conjunction with the slightly higher stress triaxiality, led to the unstable pop-in initiation.

  17. Extreme bendability of DNA double helix due to bending asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salari, Hossein; Naderi, M S; Ejtehadi, M R

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data of the DNA cyclization (J-factor) at short length scales, as a way to study the elastic behavior of tightly bent DNA, exceed the theoretical expectation based on the wormlike chain (WLC) model by several orders of magnitude. Here, we propose that asymmetric bending rigidity of the double helix in the groove direction can be responsible for extreme bendability of DNA at short length scales and it also facilitates DNA loop formation at these lengths. To account for the bending asymmetry, we consider the asymmetric elastic rod (AER) model which has been introduced and parametrized in an earlier study (B. Eslami-Mossallam and M. Ejtehadi, Phys. Rev. E 80, 011919 (2009)). Exploiting a coarse grained representation of DNA molecule at base pair (bp) level, and using the Monte Carlo simulation method in combination with the umbrella sampling technique, we calculate the loop formation probability of DNA in the AER model. We show that, for DNA molecule has a larger J-factor compared to the WLC model w...

  18. Drying Rough Rice in Storage. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorenson, J. W. Jr.; Crane, L. E.

    1960-01-01

    feet columna erating schedule is drying at a rate fast enou 7.2 8 1.80 to prevent mold development. Another importa : 10 3.00 consideration is simplicity of operating instrr : 9.0 8 2.50 tions requiring a minimumjof supervision of i ( 10 4....25 drying operation. Other desirable features in : 10.8 6 1.80 fan operating schedule are maximum drying eE : 8 3.25 ciency and use of minimum air flow rates. . 'Based on data presented by C. K. Shedd (2). The direction of air movement through ri a...

  19. Ultrafast dynamics of liquid water: Frequency fluctuations of the OH stretch and the HOH bend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imoto, Sho; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Saito, Shinji

    2013-07-28

    Frequency fluctuations of the OH stretch and the HOH bend in liquid water are reported from the third-order response function evaluated using the TTM3-F potential for water. The simulated two-dimensional infrared (IR) spectra of the OH stretch are similar to previously reported theoretical results. The present study suggests that the frequency fluctuation of the HOH bend is faster than that of the OH stretch. The ultrafast loss of the frequency correlation of the HOH bend is due to the strong couplings with the OH stretch as well as the intermolecular hydrogen bond bend.

  20. A Superconducting Bending Magnet System for a Compact Synchrotron Light Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Garren, "Optimization of Superconducting Bending Magnets foral, "Development of a Superconducting Compact Storage Ringsdesigns M. A Green, "Superconducting Dipole Magnets for

  1. Could Gila Bend, Arizona, Become the Solar Capital of the World?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Serving approximately 9,000 homes with clean renewable energy, the Paloma and Cotton Center solar plants highlight the rapidly rising solar corridor in Gila Bend, Arizona.

  2. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul R. Jones; Xiuqing Hao; Eduardo R. Cruz-Chu; Konrad Rykaczewski; Krishanu Nandy; Thomas M. Schutzius; Kripa K. Varanasi; Constantine M. Megaridis; Jens H. Walther; Petros Koumoutsakos; Horacio D. Espinosa; Neelesh A. Patankar

    2014-09-29

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

  3. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  4. Report on Biomass Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amos, W. A.

    1999-01-12

    Using dry fuel provides significant benefits to combustion boilers, mainly increased boiler efficiency, lower air emissions, and improved boiler operation. The three main choices for drying biomass are rotary dryers, flash dryers, and superheated steam dryers. Which dryer is chosen for a particular application depends very much on the material characteristics of the biomass, the opportunities for integrating the process and dryer, and the environmental controls needed or already available.

  5. Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

  6. Twist-bend instability for toroidal DNA condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor M. Kulic; Denis Andrienko; Markus Deserno

    2003-12-08

    We propose that semiflexible polymers in poor solvent collapse in two stages. The first stage is the well known formation of a dense toroidal aggregate. However, if the solvent is sufficiently poor, the condensate will undergo a second structural transition to a twisted entangled state, in which individual filaments lower their bending energy by additionally orbiting around the mean path along which they wind. This ``topological ripening'' is consistent with known simulations and experimental results. It connects and rationalizes various experimental observations ranging from strong DNA entanglement in viral capsids to the unusually short pitch of the cholesteric phase of DNA in sperm-heads. We propose that topological ripening of DNA toroids could improve the efficiency and stability of gene delivery.

  7. Tennessee: Bringing Jobs and Economic Development to Piney Flats...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    facility, which will allow DPI to manufacture frame components, such as base plates, poles and bracketing, which had been previously outsourced overseas Train employees to use...

  8. Tennessee: Bringing Jobs and Economic Development to Piney Flats |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report15 MeetingDevelopmentDepartment of Energy Tennessee:

  9. Unsteady laminar flow and convective heat transfer in a sharp 180 bend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Yongmann M.

    Unsteady laminar flow and convective heat transfer in a sharp 180° bend Yongmann M. Chung a , Paul Unsteady laminar flow and heat transfer in a sharp 180° bend is studied numerically to investigate to be strong. Ó 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Laminar; Unsteady; Heat transfer

  10. Carbon emissions in China: How far can new efforts bend the curve?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon emissions in China: How far can new efforts bend the curve? Xiliang Zhang, Valerie J future; and improve methods to model, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts emissions in China: How far can new efforts bend the curve? Xiliang Zhang§* , Valerie J. Karplus , Tianyu Qi

  11. Improved bends for two-dimensional photonic crystal , Ya Yan Lu b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Ya Yan

    is a three-dimensional (3D) structure with a 2D periodicity. Typically, it is a dielectric slab. Keywords: Optical waveguides, photonic crystal waveguides, waveguide bends, optimal design, numerical material to realize such waveguide bends. Mekis et al. [2] first theoretically demonstrated high

  12. A POSTERIORI ERROR ANALYSIS OF THE LINKED INTERPOLATION TECHNIQUE FOR PLATE BENDING PROBLEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovadina, Carlo

    A POSTERIORI ERROR ANALYSIS OF THE LINKED INTERPOLATION TECHNIQUE FOR PLATE BENDING PROBLEMS CARLO Interpolation Tech- nique' to approximate the solution of plate bending problems. We show that the proposed. 1. Introduction. In this paper we present an a posteriori error analysis for the so-called `Linked

  13. Bending stiffness calculation for nanosize structures E. A. IVANOVA, A. M. KRIVTSOV and N. F. MOROZOV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivtsov, Anton M.

    Bending stiffness calculation for nanosize structures E. A. IVANOVA, A. M. KRIVTSOV and N. F of corrections taking into account the scale effects. The presented paper is devoted to theoretical investigation of the influence of the scale effects on the bending stiffness of a nanocrystal, which is extended in one direction

  14. Structural Stability of Carbon Nanotube Films: The Role of Bending Buckling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    Structural Stability of Carbon Nanotube Films: The Role of Bending Buckling Alexey N. Volkov treatment of CNT materials.22 In this paper we report the results of a computa- tional investigation self-assembly of CNTs into continuous networks of bundles and reveal that the bending buckling

  15. LOCKING-FREE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR A BENDING MOMENT FORMULATION OF TIMOSHENKO BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Rodolfo

    LOCKING-FREE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR A BENDING MOMENT FORMULATION OF TIMOSHENKO BEAMS FELIPE LEPE, DAVID MORA, AND RODOLFO RODR´IGUEZ Abstract. In this paper we study a finite element formulation of the transverse displacement, rota- tion, shear stress and bending moment. By using the classical Babuska

  16. FL43CH19-Shelley ARI 10 September 2010 19:30 Flapping and Bending Bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelley, Michael

    FL43CH19-Shelley ARI 10 September 2010 19:30 R E V I E W S IN A D V A N CE Flapping and Bending, flutter, flexible bodies, instability, drag reduction Abstract The flapping or bending of a flexible is important to applications such as paper processing (Watanabe et al. 2002), as well as to possible approaches

  17. High-Temperature Infrared Measurements in the Region of the Bending Fundamental of H12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quapp, Wolfgang

    High-Temperature Infrared Measurements in the Region of the Bending Fundamental of H12 C14 N, H12 C allowed us to measure the bending vibrational levels up to the 0 1111 0 state, at more than 7900 cm 1 in this paper and in a recent paper on deuterated isotopomers. © 2000 Academic Press Key Words: HCN; bond

  18. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF A BENDING MOMENT FORMULATION FOR THE VIBRATION PROBLEM OF A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Rodolfo

    FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF A BENDING MOMENT FORMULATION FOR THE VIBRATION PROBLEM OF A NON-HOMOGENEOUS TIMOSHENKO BEAM FELIPE LEPE, DAVID MORA, AND RODOLFO RODR´IGUEZ Abstract. In this paper we analyze a low-homogeneous Timoshenko beam. We consider a formulation in which the bending moment is introduced as an additional unknown

  19. Bending tests of carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible Daniel Pham1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    Bending tests of carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible substrate Daniel Pham1 , Harish, San Marcos, TX 78666. ABSTRACT Bending tests of carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible substrate have been characterized in this paper. The device channel consisting of dense, aligned, 99% pure

  20. Bulging and bending of Kelvin-Helmholtz billows controlled by symmetry and phase of initial perturbation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfgat, Alexander

    Bulging and bending of Kelvin-Helmholtz billows controlled by symmetry and phase of initial or oblique initial wave, the resulting instability can set in as a spanwise bending or bulging of a two-dimensional instabilities. 1. Introduction The present paper is devoted to study of secondary three

  1. Modeling and Bayesian parameter estimation for shape memory alloy bending actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In this paper we employ a computationally efficient model for a SMA bending actuator. Furthermore, we utilizeModeling and Bayesian parameter estimation for shape memory alloy bending actuators John H. Crewsa Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, United States ABSTRACT In this paper, we employ a homogenized

  2. EFFECT OF MOISTURE ON BENDING AND BREAKING RESISTANCE (IF COMMERCIAL ORIENTED STRANDBOARDS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) ABSTRACT This is ZI short addendum to an earlier paper (Wu and Suchsland 1997) on bending resistance (E.1EFFECT OF MOISTURE ON BENDING AND BREAKING RESISTANCE (IF COMMERCIAL ORIENTED STRANDBOARDS1 Qinglin the quality and performance of OSB. In an F ) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~Wu and Suchsland However, the paper did

  3. Bending and Twisting of Suspended Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Bending and Twisting of Suspended Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Solution Ya-Qiong Xu, Arthur-stranded DNA. By analyzing their thermal fluctuations, we are able to obtain the torsional and bending manipulate nanotubes by molecular-scale forces. In this paper, we present the first measurement

  4. Stability Analysis of the Immersed Boundary Method for a Two-dimensional Membrane with Bending Rigidity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Huaxiong

    Stability Analysis of the Immersed Boundary Method for a Two-dimensional Membrane with Bending Rigidity Zhaoxin Gong1 , Huaxiong Huang1,2 and Chuanjing Lu1 Abstract: In this paper, we analyse with bending rigidity. The smoothed version, using a standard regularization technique for the singular force

  5. CONVERGENCE OF NUMERICAL APPROXIMATIONS TO A PHASE FIELD BENDING ELASTICITY MODEL OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONVERGENCE OF NUMERICAL APPROXIMATIONS TO A PHASE FIELD BENDING ELASTICITY MODEL OF MEMBRANE, Number 1, Pages 1­18 CONVERGENCE OF NUMERICAL APPROXIMATIONS TO A PHASE FIELD BENDING ELASTICITY MODEL OF MEMBRANE DEFORMATIONS QIANG DU AND XIAOQIANG WANG This paper is dedicated to Prof.Max Gunzburger

  6. Light's Bending Angle due to Black Holes: From the Photon Sphere to Infinity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savitri V. Iyer; Arlie O. Petters

    2007-03-15

    The bending angle of light is a central quantity in the theory of gravitational lensing. We develop an analytical perturbation framework for calculating the bending angle of light rays lensed by a Schwarzschild black hole. Using a perturbation parameter given in terms of the gravitational radius of the black hole and the light ray's impact parameter, we determine an invariant series for the strong-deflection bending angle that extends beyond the standard logarithmic deflection term used in the literature. In the process, we discovered an improvement to the standard logarithmic deflection term. Our perturbation framework is also used to derive as a consistency check, the recently found weak deflection bending angle series. We also reformulate the latter series in terms of a more natural invariant perturbation parameter, one that smoothly transitions between the weak and strong deflection series. We then compare our invariant strong deflection bending-angle series with the numerically integrated exact formal bending angle expression, and find less than 1% discrepancy for light rays as far out as twice the critical impact parameter. The paper concludes by showing that the strong and weak deflection bending angle series together provide an approximation that is within 1% of the exact bending angle value for light rays traversing anywhere between the photon sphere and infinity.

  7. M i l i u m The Bending of Plates of Dissimilar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M i l i u m The Bending of Plates of Dissimilar Materials Willi Cracks1 M. L. WILLIAMS.2 The authors are to be commended for com- pleting an analysis of the companion bending problem for a cracked. In the extensional paper [5), it was pointed out. that, there were two sets of (complex) solutions corre- sponding

  8. ROBUST BDDC PRECONDITIONERS FOR REISSNER-MINDLIN PLATE BENDING PROBLEMS AND MITC ELEMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovadina, Carlo

    ROBUST BDDC PRECONDITIONERS FOR REISSNER-MINDLIN PLATE BENDING PROBLEMS AND MITC ELEMENTS L. BEIR Method by Constraints (BDDC) is constructed and analyzed for the Reissner-Mindlin plate bending problem. The main results of the paper are the proof and numerical verification that the proposed BDDC plate

  9. Mechanics of Bending, Torsion, and Variable Precurvature in Multi-Tube Active Cannulas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanics of Bending, Torsion, and Variable Precurvature in Multi-Tube Active Cannulas D. Caleb by their use of preshaped tubes that transmit bending moments as they slide within one an- other. In this paper we consider the general case of an arbitrary number of component tubes and precurvatures that vary

  10. Predicting the ultimate bending capacity of concrete beams from the ``relaxation ratio'' analysis of AE signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Predicting the ultimate bending capacity of concrete beams from the ``relaxation ratio'' analysis Available online 26 July 2005 Abstract This paper presents an alternative approach to the problem, based the unloading and loading phases of a cycle test and it showed a clear correlation with the bending failure load

  11. Oregon Lake Watch Program Training Sunday -June 22, 2014 from noon to 6 pm -Bend, OR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Downtown Bend Library, 601 NW Wall St. Bend, OR (between NW Kansas Ave and NW Louisiana Ave) head upstairs to the Hutchinson Room. Free parking is available in parking lots directly east and south of the library Notes - Water Quality monitoring o Description of types of data we will collect o Collection protocols o

  12. HIV-1 Fusion Peptide Decreases Bending Energy and Promotes Curved Fusion Intermediates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagle, John F.

    HIV-1 Fusion Peptide Decreases Bending Energy and Promotes Curved Fusion Intermediates Stephanie in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is fusion between the viral envelope and the T x-ray scattering is that the bending modulus KC is greatly reduced upon addition of the HIV fusion

  13. Transformation optofluidics for large-angle light bending and tuning{{ L. K. Chin,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    Transformation optofluidics for large-angle light bending and tuning{{ Y. Yang,*a L. K. Chin,a J. M DOI: 10.1039/c2lc40442g Transformation optics is a new art of light bending by designing materials with spatially variable parameters for developing wave-manipulation devices. Here, we introduce a transformation

  14. POWER SUPPLIES FOR THE BENDING MAGNETS OF THE BEP AND VEPP-2000 STORAGE RING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozak, Victor R.

    to the control computer. Particularities of the supply design do not allow realizing complete symmetry of powerPOWER SUPPLIES FOR THE BENDING MAGNETS OF THE BEP AND VEPP-2000 STORAGE RING K.M. Gorchakov, S new complex VEPP-2000. The two new power supply for bending magnet was built for BEP and VEPP-2000

  15. Bending Creep Test to Measure the Viscosity of Porous Materials during Sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messing, Gary L.

    Bending Creep Test to Measure the Viscosity of Porous Materials during Sintering Sang-Ho Lee creep test is proposed for measuring the change in viscosity of a porous material during densification be measured. Experiments with porous Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 beams were used to illustrate the bending creep test

  16. Towards photonic integrated circuits : design and fabrication of passive InP waveguide bends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Sarah J. (Sarah Janelle), 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Waveguide bends, in the (In,Ga)(As,P) material system, have been simulated, fabricated and tested. A process is developed for waveguides of 1 [micro]m through 7[micro]m widths. Waveguides containing S-bends of varying ...

  17. Isotope effect in normal-to-local transition of acetylene bending modes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Jianyi; Xu, Dingguo; Guo, Hua; Tyng, Vivian; Kellman, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The normal-to-local transition for the bending modes of acetylene is considered a prelude to its isomerization to vinylidene. Here, such a transition in fully deuterated acetylene is investigated using a full-dimensional quantum model. It is found that the local benders emerge at much lower energies and bending quantum numbers than in the hydrogen isotopomer HCCH. This is accompanied by a transition to a second kind of bending mode called counter-rotator, again at lower energies and quantum numbers than in HCCH. These transitions are also investigated using bifurcation analysis of two empirical spectroscopic fitting Hamiltonians for pure bending modes, which helpsmore »to understand the origin of the transitions semiclassically as branchings or bifurcations out of the trans and normal bend modes when the latter become dynamically unstable. The results of the quantum model and the empirical bifurcation analysis are in very good agreement.« less

  18. The Effect of Element Formulation on the Prediction of Boost Effects in Numerical Tube Bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardelcik, A.; Worswick, M.J.

    2005-08-05

    This paper presents advanced FE models of the pre-bending process to investigate the effect of element formulation on the prediction of boost effects in tube bending. Tube bending experiments are conducted with 3'' (OD) IF (Interstitial-Free) steel tube on a fully instrumented Eagle EPT-75 servo-hydraulic mandrel-rotary draw tube bender. Experiments were performed in which the bending boost was varied at three levels and resulted in consistent trends in the strain and thickness distribution within the pre-bent tubes. A numerical model of the rotary draw tube bender was used to simulate pre-bending of the IF tube with the three levels of boost from the experiments. To examine the effect of element formulation on the prediction of boost, the tube was modeled with shell and solid elements. Both models predicted the overall strain and thickness results well, but showed different trends in each of the models.

  19. Isotope effect in normal-to-local transition of acetylene bending modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jianyi; Xu, Dingguo; Guo, Hua; Tyng, Vivian; Kellman, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The normal-to-local transition for the bending modes of acetylene is considered a prelude to its isomerization to vinylidene. Here, such a transition in fully deuterated acetylene is investigated using a full-dimensional quantum model. It is found that the local benders emerge at much lower energies and bending quantum numbers than in the hydrogen isotopomer HCCH. This is accompanied by a transition to a second kind of bending mode called counter-rotator, again at lower energies and quantum numbers than in HCCH. These transitions are also investigated using bifurcation analysis of two empirical spectroscopic fitting Hamiltonians for pure bending modes, which helps to understand the origin of the transitions semiclassically as branchings or bifurcations out of the trans and normal bend modes when the latter become dynamically unstable. The results of the quantum model and the empirical bifurcation analysis are in very good agreement.

  20. Dry cleaning of Turkish coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

  1. Drying rate and temperature profile for superheated steam vacuum drying and moist air drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, S.; Dakin, M. [New Zealand Forest Research Inst., Ltd., Rotorua (New Zealand). Mfg. Technologies Portfolio

    1999-07-01

    Two charges of green radiata pine sapwood lumber were dried, ether using superheated steam under vacuum (90 C, 0.2 bar abs.) or conventionally using hot moist air (90/60 C). Due to low density of the drying medium under vacuum, the circulation velocity used was 10 m/s for superheated steam drying and 5.0 m/s for moist air drying, and in both cases, the flow was unidirectional. In drying, stack drying rate and wood temperatures were measured to examine the differences between the superheated steam drying and drying using hot moist air. The experimental results have shown that the stack edge board in superheated steam drying dried faster than in the hot moist air drying. Once again due to the low density of the steam under vacuum, a prolonged maximum temperature drop across load (TDAL) was observed in the superheated steam drying, however, the whole stack dried slower and the final moisture content distribution was more variable than for conventional hot moist air drying.

  2. Cool, Dry, Quiet Dehumidification with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    dehumidification system as the best new HVAC dehumidification product for 2006. #12;Trane CDQTM (Cool Dry Quiet are optional. Size range is 1,000 - 70,000 cfm. Note: Under LEED, this unit may qualify for innovation points qualify for innovation points. Trane Climate ChangerTM air handler with CDQ dehumidification Trane Climate

  3. Effect of Loading Mode and Coating on Dynamic Fatigue of Optical Fiber in Two-Point Bending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    and hence on the reliability of the bending technique. This paper presents dynamic fatigue results usingEffect of Loading Mode and Coating on Dynamic Fatigue of Optical Fiber in Two-Point Bending Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855-0909 Tho-point bending

  4. JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 1, NO. 2, DECEMBER 2005 207 Bending Angle Effects on the Multi-Domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    ]. In this paper, we analyzed the bending-angle effect of the chevron-shaped electrodes in the multi-domain (MDJOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 1, NO. 2, DECEMBER 2005 207 Bending Angle Effects on the Multi, which combines the finite element and finite difference methods for fast solutions. The bending angle

  5. Identities for the fundamental solution of thin plate bending problems and the nonuniqueness of the hypersingular BIE solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yijun

    for the fundamental solution of thin plate bending problems are presented in this paper. These identities canIdentities for the fundamental solution of thin plate bending problems and the nonuniqueness bending Boundary integral equation Boundary element method a b s t r a c t Four integral identities

  6. Digital Method of Analyzing the Bending Stiffness of Non-Crimp Fabrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soteropoulos, Dimitri; Fetfatsidis, Konstantine; Sherwood, James A.; Langworthy, Joanna [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Lowell One University Ave., Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2011-05-04

    A digital-analytical method for characterizing the bending behavior of NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) is developed. The study is based on a hanging fabric loaded to a known displacement. The image of the deformed fabric is captured digitally, and then analyzed to describe the deformed shape of the beam using x-y coordinates. The bending stiffness of the fabric is then determined through an iterative method using a finite element method (ABAQUS). This effective bending stiffness is of importance in the formation of wave defects in NCFs during manufacturing processes such as thermoforming, vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, and compression molding.

  7. The importance of jet bending in gamma-ray AGNs—revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, P. J.; Tingay, S. J.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that ?-ray-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have a greater tendency for jet bending than ?-ray-loud AGNs, revisiting the analysis of Tingay et al. We perform a statistical analysis using a large sample of 351 radio-loud AGNs along with ?-ray identifications from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Our results show no statistically significant differences in jet-bending properties between ?-ray-loud and ?-ray-quiet populations, indicating that jet bending is not a significant factor for ?-ray detection in AGNs.

  8. An Archaeological Survey for the Bastille Pipline and Gulag Well Site in Fort Bend County Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, William; Baxter, Edward

    2015-07-28

    An archaeological survey of a proposed natural gas pipeline (2500 feet) and well site (three acres) on the Central Unit of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice in Fort Bend County, Texas was performed by Brazos Valley Research Associates (BVRA...

  9. Curvature of a cantilever beam subjected to an equi-biaxial bending moment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krulevitch, P.; Johnson, G.C.

    1998-04-28

    Results from a finite element analysis of a cantilever beam subjected to an equi-biaxial bending moment demonstrate that the biaxial modulus E/(I-v) must be used even for narrow beams.

  10. Late Cretaceous to Paleocene oroclinal bending in the central Pontides (Turkey)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Late Cretaceous to Paleocene oroclinal bending in the central Pontides (Turkey) Maud J. M. Meijers (Turkey), Tectonics, 29, TC4016, doi:10.1029/2009TC002620. 1. Introduction [2] The Turkish Pontides

  11. Energy losses in thermally cycled optical fibers constrained in small bend radii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guild, Eric; Morelli, Gregg

    2012-09-23

    High energy laser pulses were fired into a 365?m diameter fiber optic cable constrained in small radii of curvature bends, resulting in a catastrophic failure. Q-switched laser pulses from a flashlamp pumped, Nd:YAG laser were injected into the cables, and the spatial intensity profile at the exit face of the fiber was observed using an infrared camera. The transmission of the radiation through the tight radii resulted in an asymmetric intensity profile with one half of the fiber core having a higher peak-to-average energy distribution. Prior to testing, the cables were thermally conditioned while constrained in the small radii of curvature bends. Single-bend, double-bend, and U-shaped eometries were tested to characterize various cable routing scenarios.

  12. Implementation of a python version of a scaled boundary finite element method for plate bending analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Lingfeng, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Common finite element programs for plate bending analysis are complicated and limited by the common plate theories. Such programs are usually not user-friendly for designers to implement. Lately, Hou Man et al. from the ...

  13. A batch fabricated biomimetic dry adhesive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northen, Michael T; Turner, K L

    2005-01-01

    nano-structures as dry adhesives J. Adhesion Sci. Technol.al 2003 Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hairfabricated biomimetic dry adhesive Michael T Northen 1,3 and

  14. Steam drying of products containing solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pothmann, E.; Schluender, E.U. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    1995-12-31

    Drying experiments with single, porous spheres wetted with mixtures of 2-propanol and water were performed using superheated steam, air, or steam-air mixtures as drying agent. Both the drying rate and the moisture composition were determined experimentally for different temperatures and compositions of the drying agent and for different initial compositions of the moisture. It is shown that evaporation of 2-propanol is enhanced by using superheated steam as drying agent instead of air due to steam condensing on the sample. While the overall drying rate increases with rising steam temperature, the evaporation rate of 2-propanol is hardly affected. When drying samples containing mixtures of 2-propanol and water, internal boiling can occur depending on the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Vapor generated inside the sample may cause mechanical dewatering of the sample which greatly increases the drying rate.

  15. Numerical simulations of the bending of narrow-angle-tail radio jets by ram pressure or pressure gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soker, N.; Sarazin, C.L.; O'Dea, C.P.

    1988-04-01

    Three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations are used to study the bending of radio jets. The simulations are compared with observations of jets in narrow-angle-tail radio sources. Two mechanisms for the observed bending are considered: direct bending of quasi-continuous jets by ram pressure from intergalactic gas and bending by pressure gradients in the interstellar gas of the host galaxy, the pressure gradients themselves being the result of ram pressure by intergalactic gas. It is shown that the pressure gradients are much less effective in bending jets, implying that the jets have roughly 30 times lower momentum fluxes if they are bent by this mechanism. Ram-pressure bending produces jets with kidney-shaped cross sections; when observed from the side, these jets appear to have diffuse extensions on the downstream side. On the other hand, pressure-gradient bending causes the jets to be densest near their upstream side. 31 references.

  16. Bending rigidity of stiff polyelectrolyte chains: Single chain and a bundle of multichains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae-Yeun Ha; D. Thirumalai

    2003-12-12

    We study the bending rigidity of highly charged stiff polyelectrolytes, for both a single chain and many chains forming a bundle. A theory is developed to account for the interplay between competitive binding of counterions and charge correlations in softening the polyelectrolyte (PE) chains. The presence of even a small concentration of multivalent counterions leads to a dramatic reduction in the bending rigidity of the chains that are nominally stiffened by the repulsion between their backbone charges. The variation of the bending rigidity as a function of $f_{0}$, the fraction of charged monomers on the chain, does not exhibits simple scaling behavior; it grows with increasing $f_{0}$ below a critical value of $f_{0}$. Beyond the critical value, however, the chain becomes softer as $f_{0}$ increases. The bending rigidity also exhibits intriguing dependence on the concentration of multivalent counterion $n_{2}$; for highly charged PEs, the bending rigidity decreases as $n_2$ increases from zero, while it increases with increasing $n_{2}$ beyond a certain value of $n_{2}$. When polyelectrolyte chains form a $N$-loop condensate (e.g., a toroidal bundle formed by $N$ turns (winds) of the chain), the inter-loop coupling further softens the condensate, resulting in the bending free energy of the condensate that scales as $N$ for large $N$.

  17. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  18. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  19. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  20. Vapor Transport in Dry Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-16

    Water-vapor movement in soils is a complex process, controlled by both diffusion and advection and influenced by pressure and thermal gradients acting across tortuous flow paths. Wide-ranging interest in water-vapor transport includes both theoretical and practical aspects. Just how pressure and thermal gradients enhance water-vapor flow is still not completely understood and subject to ongoing research. Practical aspects include dryland farming (surface mulching), water harvesting (aerial wells), fertilizer placement, and migration of contaminants at waste-sites. The following article describes the processes and practical applications of water-vapor transport, with emphasis on unsaturated (dry) soil systems.

  1. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  2. Microwave drying of ferric oxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickles, C.A.; Xia, D.K. [Queens` Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The application of microwave energy for the drying of ferric oxide pellets has been investigated and evaluated. It is shown that the microwave drying rates are much higher than those observed in the conventional process. Also there is some potential for improved quality of the product. As a stand-alone technology it is unlikely that microwave drying would be economical for pellets due to the low cost of conventional fuels. However, based on an understanding of the drying mechanisms in the conventional process and in the microwave process, it is shown that microwave-assisted drying offers considerable potential. In this hybrid process, the advantages of the two drying techniques are combined to provide an improved drying process.

  3. The bends in the slopes of radial abundance gradients in the disks of spiral galaxies -- do they exist?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin

    2002-10-17

    Spiral galaxies with a reported bend in the slope of gradient in the oxygen abundances (O/H)_R23, derived with traditionally used R23 - method, were examined. It is shown that the artificial origin of the reported bends can be naturally explained. Two reasons that result in a false bend in the slope of (O/H)_R23 gradient are indicated. It is concluded that at the present time there is no example of a galaxy with an undisputable established bend in the slope of the oxygen abundance gradient.

  4. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  5. Bending elasticity of a curved amphiphilic film decorated anchored copolymers: a small angle neutron scattering study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacqueline Appell; Christian Ligoure; Gregoire Porte

    2004-06-30

    Microemulsion droplets (oil in water stabilized by a surfactant film) are progressively decorated with increasing amounts of poly ethylene- oxide (PEO) chains anchored in the film by the short aliphatic chain grafted at one end of the PEO chain . The evolution of the bending elasticity of the surfactant film with increasing decoration is deduced from the evolution in size and polydispersity of the droplets as reflected by small angle neutron scattering. The optimum curvature radius decreases while the bending rigidity modulus remains practically constant. The experimental results compare well with the predictions of a model developed for the bending properties of a curved film decorated by non-adsorbing polymer chains, which takes into account, the finite curvature of the film and the free diffusion of the chains on the film.

  6. Cold vacuum drying system conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, F.W.

    1996-05-01

    This document summarizes the activities involved in the removal of the SNF from the leaking basins and to place it in stable dry storage.

  7. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06301977" ,"Release Date:","11...

  8. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  9. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  10. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 2: dry deposition and resuspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruppacher, H.R.; Semanin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N.

    1983-01-01

    Papers are presented under the headings: dry deposition of gases, dry deposition of particles, wind erosion, plutonium deposition and resuspension, air-sea exchange, tropical and polar, global scale, and future studies.

  11. FRC Performance Comparison: Direct Tensile Test, FRC Performance Comparison: Direct Tensile Test, BeamBeamType Bending Test, and Round Panel TestType Bending Test, and Round Panel Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Shih-Ho

    FRC Performance Comparison: Direct Tensile Test, FRC Performance Comparison: Direct Tensile Test, BeamBeamType Bending Test, and Round Panel TestType Bending Test, and Round Panel Test ShihShihHo ChaoTo compare the performance of FRC materials when evaluated by three major types of material tests (Unia ial

  12. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  13. Reaction dynamics of atomic chlorine with methane: Importance of methane bending and torsional excitation in controlling reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reaction dynamics of atomic chlorine with methane: Importance of methane bending and torsional with methane vibrationally excited in trace quantities into low-energy bending and torsional modes­7 and detailed the effect on reactivity of C­H stretch vibrational excitation.5­7 This paper concerns our most

  14. Experimental and Analytical Modeling of Concrete-Filled FRP Tubes Subjected to Combined Bending and Axial Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    structures were considered. Axial load - bending moment interaction curves are presented. The paper presents1 Experimental and Analytical Modeling of Concrete-Filled FRP Tubes Subjected to Combined Bending and Axial Loads Amir Fam 1 , Bart Flisak 2 and Sami Rizkalla 3 Abstract This paper presents test results

  15. Visual Languages `94 Repenning, A., "Bending Icons: Syntactic and Semantic Transformation of Icons," Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Repenning, Alexander

    Visual Languages `94 Reprint: Repenning, A., "Bending Icons: Syntactic and Semantic Transformation-303. Bending Icons: Syntactic and Semantic Transformations of Icons Alex Repenning Department of Computer. These transformations can significantly reduce the laborious work of icon designers and programmers. This paper

  16. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 011902 (2012) Estimating the bending modulus of a FtsZ bacterial-division protein filament

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allard, Jun

    2012-01-01

    -division protein filament Eric N. Cytrynbaum* Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver into a highly curved conformation, we estimate the FtsZ filament bending modulus to be 310­390 pN nm2 . If we estimated values and, if correct, may raise challenges for models that rely on filament bending to generate

  17. A numerical method for predicting the bending fatigue life of NiTi and stainless steel root canal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    A numerical method for predicting the bending fatigue life of NiTi and stainless steel root canal. A numerical method for predicting the bending fatigue life of NiTi and stainless steel root canal instruments­titanium alloy (NiTi) and stainless steel (SS) endodontic files using finite element analysis. Methodology

  18. Four-point-bending-fatigue behavior of the Zr-based Vitreloy 105 bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, M. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Buchanan, R. A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liaw, Peter K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Green, B. A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Wang, G Y [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Chain T [ORNL; Horton Jr, Joe A [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make a direct comparison between four-point-bending and uniaxial fatigue tests with the Zr{sub 52.5}Cu{sub 17.9}Ni{sub 14.6}Al{sub 10.0}Ti{sub 5.0} (at.%) BMG alloy (Vitreloy 105). The fatigue lifetimes in four-point bending were found to be greater than those reported in uniaxial testing. However, the fatigue-endurance limit found in four-point bending was slightly less than that reported for uniaxial fatigue. Thus, the significant differences between fatigue studies in the literature are not likely due to this difference in testing geometry. On the contrary, the fatigue lifetimes were found to be highly dependent upon surface defects and material quality. The four-point-bending-fatigue performance of the Vit 105 alloy was found to be greater than most BMGs and similar to the 300 M high-strength steel and other crystalline alloys in spite of not being 'perfectly amorphous.' Due to the detrimental effects of these inhomogeneities and wear at the supporting pins, this fatigue behavior can be assumed to be a conservative estimate of the potential fatigue performance of a perfectly amorphous and homogeneous BMG.

  19. Theoretical solution for light transmission of a bended hollow light guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Darula, Stanislav; Kittler, Richard [ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 9, Dubravska Road, 845 03 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kundracik, Frantisek [Department of Experimental Physics, FMPI, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-08-15

    Hollow light guides with very high reflective inner surfaces are novel daylight systems that collect sunlight and skylight available on the roof of buildings transporting it into deep or windowless interiors in building cores. Thus the better utilization of daylight can result in energy savings and wellbeing in these enclosed indoor spaces. An analytical complex solution of a straight tube system was solved in the HOLIGILM method with a user-friendly tool available on the http://www.holigilm.info. An even more difficult light flow transport is to be determined in bended tubes usually placed on sloped roofs where a bend is necessary to adjust the vertical pass through the ceilings. This paper presents the theoretical derivation of the model with its graphical representation and coordinate system respecting backward ray-tracing bend distortions. To imagine the resulting illuminance on the horizontal plane element in the interior, the virtual ray (i.e. luminance in an elementary solid angle) has to pass the ceiling diffuser interface, the inner mirror like tube with a bend, through a roof cupola attachment to the element of the sky and sun light source. Due to this complexity and the lengthy derivation and explanations more practical applications will be published later in a separate contribution. (author)

  20. Design, Manufacture and Testing of A Bend-Twist D-Spar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, Cheng-Huat; Tsai, Stephen W.

    1999-06-01

    Studies have indicated that an adaptive wind turbine blade design can significantly enhance the performance of the wind turbine blade on energy capture and load mitigation. In order to realize the potential benefits of aeroelastic tailoring, a bend-twist D-spar, which is the backbone of a blade, was designed and fabricated to achieve the objectives of having maximum bend-twist coupling and fulfilling desirable structural properties (031 & GJ). Two bend-twist D-spars, a hybrid of glass and carbon fibers and an all-carbon D-spar, were fabricated using a bladder process. One of the D-spars, the hybrid D-spar, was subjected to a cantilever static test and modal testing. Various parameters such as materials, laminate schedule, thickness and internal rib were examined in designing a bend-twist D-spar. The fabrication tooling, the lay-up process and the joint design for two symmetric clamshells are described in this report. Finally, comparisons between the experimental test results and numerical results are presented. The comparisons indicate that the numerical analysis (static and modal analysis) agrees well with test results.

  1. Static and fatigue bending behavior of pultruded GFRP sandwich panels with through-thickness fiber insertions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Static and fatigue bending behavior of pultruded GFRP sandwich panels with through-thickness fiber testing a b s t r a c t This paper presents the findings of a research program that was undertaken to evaluate the effective elastic modulus, shear modulus and degree of composite interaction of the panels

  2. Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces Fion Sze-Yan Yeung 21 December 2005; published online 7 February 2006 We present results of a fast-response no of liquid crystal displays LCDs re- quire fast response times. For example, image blurring due to slow

  3. An investigation of axial stresses in a fabric reinforced plastic subjected to repeated bending 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, Herbert C

    1964-01-01

    &~. A. 7, Crs, sr? Sonoe. noous Stress Disl r~uuti rn C = 6E', CQ ps. Theoret;osl Stree Zzstrxbutxon Tn outernost F&ber ~Fi ure ~1 ~Fi 14 Theoretical Stress Distribution In Composite Material Due To Bending 50 Cycles to White Dot 2, 407, 000...

  4. Guided wave radiation from a point source in the proximity of a pipe bend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brath, A. J.; Nagy, P. B.; Simonetti, F.; Instanes, G.

    2014-02-18

    Throughout the oil and gas industry corrosion and erosion damage monitoring play a central role in managing asset integrity. Recently, the use of guided wave technology in conjunction with tomography techniques has provided the possibility of obtaining point-by-point maps of wall thickness loss over the entire volume of a pipeline section between two ring arrays of ultrasonic transducers. However, current research has focused on straight pipes while little work has been done on pipe bends which are also the most susceptible to developing damage. Tomography of the bend is challenging due to the complexity and computational cost of the 3-D elastic model required to accurately describe guided wave propagation. To overcome this limitation, we introduce a 2-D anisotropic inhomogeneous acoustic model which represents a generalization of the conventional unwrapping used for straight pipes. The shortest-path ray-tracing method is then applied to the 2-D model to compute ray paths and predict the arrival times of the fundamental flexural mode, A0, excited by a point source on the straight section of pipe entering the bend and detected on the opposite side. Good agreement is found between predictions and experiments performed on an 8” diameter (D) pipe with 1.5 D bend radius. The 2-D model also reveals the existence of an acoustic lensing effect which leads to a focusing phenomenon also confirmed by the experiments. The computational efficiency of the 2-D model makes it ideally suited for tomography algorithms.

  5. EIS-0296: South Oregon Coast Reinforcement Project, Coos Bay/North Bend, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes BPA's proposed action to build a 500- kilovolt (kV) transmission line and new substation to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of the state of Oregon. Nucor Steel, a division of Nucor Corporation, may build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend, Oregon, area.

  6. EIS-0296: South Oregon Coast Reinforcement Project, Coos Bay/North Bend, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration proposes to build a 500- kilovolt (kV) transmission line and new substation to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of the state of Oregon. Nucor Steel, a division of Nucor Corporation, may build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend, Oregon, area.

  7. Modified Timoshenko formula for bending of ultrathin strained bilayer films Ji Zang and Feng Liua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    - tions, such as coating, epitaxial growth of thin films, and device interconnection.3­7 Recently, classical Timoshenko formula has been used to calculate the bending curvature or radius of rolledAs/InAs nano- tubes from rolling up released GaAs/InAs bilayer films of only a few MLs thick.11 Nanotubes

  8. Electromagnetic detection of plate hydration due to bending faults at the Middle America Trench

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constable, Steve

    images show that the extensive network of trench parallel normal faults penetrates the entire oceanic bending faults on the incoming oceanic plate of the Middle America Trench offshore Nicaragua have been observed to penetrate to mantle depths, suggesting a permeable pathway for hydration of the crust

  9. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic engineering procedures at depth may still be attained if high temperature sites with extensive fracturing are developed or exploited. [DJE -2005

  10. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  11. Airless drying -- Developments since IDS'94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubbing, T.J.

    1999-09-01

    Since its introduction to IDS'94 delegates, significant progress has been made with the development of airless drying technology. The ceramic industry internationally is beginning to benefit from both the energy use and drying time reductions it achieves, while on the basis of further theoretical work carried out since 1993 other industries, including the bioenergy sector, should also soon begin to exploit its advantages. As global warming becomes a reality and oil reserves decline, superheated steam drying and gasification of biomass will contribute to the mitigation of those problems.

  12. Resuspension and dry deposition research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    The author concludes that better predictive models are needed for the signifcant health, ecological, and economic impacts of resuspended particles and their subsequent dry deposition. Both chemical and radioactive aerosols are discussed. (PSB)

  13. Advanced wet-dry cooling tower concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Troxell Kimmel

    The purpose of this years' work has been to test and analyze the new dry cooling tower surface previously developed. The model heat transfer test apparatus built last year has been instrumented for temperature, humidity ...

  14. Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This research will use infrared heating technology for peeling tomatoes. Infrared dry peeling, a device District: 8 Senate District: 5 Application: Nationwide Amount: $324,250 Term: November 1, 2010

  15. High strength air-dried aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  16. Wall Drying in Hot and Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, K.; Weston, T.; Pascual, X.

    2004-01-01

    's ability to dry is not considered during the design or material selection process. No cladding system or installation is perfect, therefore wall systems should be designed with the assumption that some moisture will enter and then consider the effects...

  17. Dry Cask Storage Study Feb 1989

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report on the use of dry-cask-storage technologies at the sites of civilian nuclear power reactors has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE} in response to the requirements of...

  18. A exact solution is presented for the cylindrical bending vibration of simply supported function-ally graded plates. Displacement functions that identically satisfy boundary conditions are used to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vel, Senthil

    ABSTRACT A exact solution is presented for the cylindrical bending vibration of simply supported-to-thickness ratios. Keywords: Functionally graded material; thick plate; cylindrical bending; vibration. INTRODUCTION for the Cylindrical Bending Vibration of Functionally Graded Plates S. S. VEL AND R. C. BATRA Proceedings

  19. Numerical analysis of a locking-free mixed finite element method for a bending moment formulation of Reissner-Mindlin plate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Rodolfo

    ´on, Chile. This paper deals with the approximation of the bending of a clamped plate modeled by ReissnerNumerical analysis of a locking-free mixed finite element method for a bending moment formulation the thickness t is small. Here, we propose a new mixed formulation in terms of the bending moments, shear stress

  20. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  1. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  2. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" June 7, 2015 Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" A well-known scientific principle...

  3. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dry by Global Warming" Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Climate change will challenge tall trees like California's redwoods. June 7, 2015...

  4. High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan The potential need to...

  5. Heat Transfer Performance of a Dry and Wet / Dry Advanced Cooling Tower Condenser 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fricke, H. D.; Webster, D. J.; McIlroy, K.; Bartz, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    PERFORMANCE OF A DRY AND WET/DRY ADVANCED COOLING TOWER CONDENSER Hans D. Fricke, David J. Webster, Kenneth McIlroy Union carbide Corporation - Linde Division, Tonawanda, New York John A. Bartz Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, california... cooling in creases siting flexibility, particularly for locations in arid Western coal fields. However, dry cooling requires considerable capital investment for the cooling towers. Hence, the development of effitient (low cost) heat transfer surfaces...

  6. Curvature-Induced Bunch Self-Interaction for an Energy-Chirped Bunch in Magnetic Bends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rui Li

    2006-01-04

    The curvature-induced bunch collective interaction in magnetic bends can be studied using effective forces in the canonical formulation of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect. In this paper, for an electron distribution moving ultrarelativistically in a bending system, the dynamics of a particle in the electron distribution is derived from the Hamiltonian of the particle in terms of the bunch internal coordinates. The consequent Vlasov equation manifests explicitly how the phase space distribution is perturbed by the effective CSR forces. In particular, we study the impact of an initial linear energy chirp of the bunch on the behavior of the effective longitudinal CSR force, which arises due to the modification of the retardation relation as a result of the energy-chirping-induced longitudinal-horizontal correlation of the bunch distribution (bunch tilt) in dispersive regions.

  7. Light bending in the galactic halo by Rindler-Ishak method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, Amrita; Nandi, Kamal K.; Isaev, Ruslan; Scalia, Massimo; Cattani, Carlo E-mail: subfear@gmail.com E-mail: ccattani@unisa.it

    2010-09-01

    After the work of Rindler and Ishak, it is now well established that the bending of light is influenced by the cosmological constant ? appearing in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime. We show that their method, when applied to the exact Mannheim-Kazanas-de Sitter solution of the Weyl conformal gravity, nicely yields the expected answer together with several other physically interesting new terms. Apart from ?, the solution is parametrized by a conformal parameter ?, which is known to play a dominant role in the galactic halo gravity. The application of the method yields exactly the same ?? correction to Schwarzschild bending as obtained by standard methods. Different cases are analyzed, which include some corrections to the special cases considered in the original paper by Rindler and Ishak.

  8. A new hydrocarbon empirical potential in angle bending calculation for the molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping, Tan Ai; Hoe, Yeak Su

    2014-07-10

    Typically, short range potential only depends on neighbouring atoms and its parameters function can be categorized into bond stretching, angle bending and bond rotation potential. In this paper, we present our work called Angle Bending (AB) potential, whereas AB potential is the extension of our previous work namely Bond Stretching (BS) potential. Basically, potential will tend to zero after truncated region, potential in specific region can be represented by different piecewise polynomial. We proposed the AB piecewise potential which is possible to solve a system involving three atoms. AB potential able to handle the potential of covalent bonds for three atoms as well as two atoms cases due to its degeneracy properties. Continuity for the piecewise polynomial has been enforced by coupling with penalty methods. There are still plenty of improvement spaces for this AB potential. The improvement for three atoms AB potential will be studied and further modified into torsional potential which are the ongoing current research.

  9. Strain concentrations in pipelines with concrete coating full scale bending tests and analytical calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verley, R.; Ness, O.B. [Statoil, Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results of full scale bending tests on 16 in. and 20 in. diameter, concrete coated pipes with polyethene and asphalt corrosion coatings. Constant moment, four-point bending was applied to a pipe string consisting of one pipe joint welded between two half-length joints. The strain concentration factor (SCF) at the field joints (FJ), expressing the ratio between the strain in the FJ and the average strain for the pipe joint, was investigated and compared to predictions using an analytical model presented in an accompanying paper (Ness and Verley, 1995). Material tests on the pipe steel, the corrosion coating and the concrete were conducted. The analytical model is found to give a good prediction of the strain distribution along the pipe joint, for both the steel and the concrete, and therefore also of the SCF. The sliding of the concrete over the steel is also predicted reasonably well.

  10. Methods and apparatus for twist bend coupled (TCB) wind turbine blades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; LeMieux, David Lawrence; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-10

    A method for controlling a wind turbine having twist bend coupled rotor blades on a rotor mechanically coupled to a generator includes determining a speed of a rotor blade tip of the wind turbine, measuring a current twist distribution and current blade loading, and adjusting a torque of a generator to change the speed of the rotor blade tip to thereby increase an energy capture power coefficient of the wind turbine.

  11. Null trajectories and bending of light in charged black holes with quintessence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharmanthie Fernando; Scott Meadows; Kevon Reis

    2015-06-15

    We have studied null geodesics of the charged black hole surrounded by quintessence. Quintessence is a candidate for dark energy and is represented by a scalar field. Here, we have done a detailed study of the photon trajectories. The exact solutions for the trajectories are obtained in terms of the Jacobi-elliptic integrals for all possible energy and angular momentum of the photons. We have also studied the bending angle using the Rindler and Ishak method.

  12. Folds above angular fault bends: mechanical constraints for backlimb trishear kinematic models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Li

    2004-11-15

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Judith S. Chester (Chair of Committee) Frederick M. Chester (Member) Charles P. Aubeny (Member) Andrew Hajash Jr. (Head of Department) August 2003 Major Subject: Geology iii ABSTRACT Folds... above Angular Fault Bends: Mechanical Constraints for Backlimb Trishear Kinematic Models. (August 2003) Li Zhang, B.E.; M.S., Southwest Petroleum Institute, P.R.China Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Judith S. Chester The backlimb trishear velocity eld...

  13. Off-fault Damage Associated with a Localized Bend in the North Branch San Gabriel Fault, California 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Andrew 1987-

    2012-08-15

    , such as bends and steps, are thought to affect earthquake rupture propagation and energy radiation, but the effects are not completely understood. We hypothesize that the rate of accumulation of new damage decreases as fault maturity increases, and damage...

  14. Collapsed Molecular Rectangles Based on Rhenium(I) Coordination of Ethynylpyridyl Porphyrins Synthesis, Structure, and Bending-Induced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FULL PAPER Collapsed Molecular Rectangles Based on Rhenium(I) Coordination of Ethynylpyridyl Porphyrins Synthesis, Structure, and Bending-Induced Charge-Transfer Behavior Kurt D. Benkstein,[a] Charlotte

  15. Method and apparatus for drying web

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orloff, David I. (Atlanta, GA); Kloth, Gerald R. (Kennesaw, GA); Rudemiller, Gary R. (Paducah, KY)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for drying a web of paper utilizing impulse drying techniques. In the method of the invention for drying a paper web, the paper web is transported through a pair of rolls wherein at least one of the rolls has been heated to an elevated temperature. The heated roll is provided with a surface having a low thermal diffusivity of less than about 1.times.10.sup.-6 m.sup.2 /s. The surface material of the roll is preferably prepared from a material selected from the group consisting of ceramics, polymers, glass, inorganic plastics, composite materials and cermets. The heated roll may be constructed entirely from the material having a low thermal diffusivity or the roll may be formed from metal, such as steel or aluminum, or other suitable material which is provided with a surface layer of a material having a low thermal diffusivity.

  16. Theoretical and experimental study of the bending influence on the capacitance of interdigitated micro-electrodes patterned on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina-Lopez, F.; Briand, D.; Rooij, N. F. de [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) - Institute of Microengineering (IMT) – Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Laboratory - SAMLAB, 2002 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Kinkeldei, T.; Tröster, G. [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETHZ) – Electronics Laboratory, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-07

    Interdigitated electrodes are common structures in the fields of microelectronics and MEMS. Recent developments in flexible electronics compel an understanding of such structures under bending constraints. In this work, the behavior of interdigitated micro-electrodes when subjected to circular bending has been theoretically and experimentally studied through changes in capacitance. An analytical model has been developed to calculate the expected variation in capacitance of such structures while undergoing outward and inward bending along the direction perpendicular to the electrodes. The model combines conformal mapping techniques to account for the electric field redistribution and fundamental aspects of solid mechanics in order to define the geometrical deformation of the electrodes while bending. To experimentally verify our theoretical predictions, several interdigitated electrode structures with different geometries were fabricated on polymeric substrates by means of photolithography. The samples, placed in a customized bending setup, were bent to controlled radii of curvature while measuring their capacitance. A maximum variation in capacitance of less than 3% was observed at a minimum radius of curvature of 2.5?mm for all the devices tested with very thin electrodes whereas changes of up to 7% were found on stiffer, plated electrodes. Larger or smaller variations would be possible, in theory, by adjusting the geometry of the device. This work establishes a useful predictive tool for the design and evaluation of truly flexible/bendable electronics consisting of interdigitated structures, allowing one to tune the bending influence on the capacitance value through geometrical design.

  17. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, R.J.; Constantine, C.

    1997-04-29

    A dry etching method is disclosed. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators. 1 fig.

  18. Annotated Bibliography for Drying Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebecca E. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Internationally, the nuclear industry is represented by both commercial utilities and research institutions. Over the past two decades many of these entities have had to relocate inventories of spent nuclear fuel from underwater storage to dry storage. These efforts were primarily prompted by two factors: insufficient storage capacity (potentially precipitated by an open-ended nuclear fuel cycle) or deteriorating quality of existing underwater facilities. The intent of developing this bibliography is to assess what issues associated with fuel drying have been identified, to consider where concerns have been satisfactorily addressed, and to recommend where additional research would offer the most value to the commercial industry and the U. S. Department of Energy.

  19. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell (Livermore, CA); Keller, Jay O. (Oakland, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A heat transfer apparatus includes a first chamber having a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, and an outlet. A first heat transfer gas source provides a first gas flow to the first chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A second gas flow through a second chamber connected to the side of the first chamber, generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling of the first and second gases in the acoustically augmented first chamber. The first chamber may also include a material inlet for receiving material to be dried, in which case the gas outlet serves as a dried material and gas outlet.

  20. Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste is a nightmare for any construction engineer of the concrete or cement paste surface. Inspired by the art of molecular cooking a team of TU Delft scientists for instance sodium alginates. When sprayed on the surface of concrete or cement paste, a rapid chemical

  1. Galaxy formation from dry and hydro simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciotti, L

    2009-01-01

    The effects of dry and wet merging on the Scaling Laws (SLs) of elliptical galaxies (Es) are discussed. It is found that the galaxy SLs, possibly established at high redshift by the fast collapse of gas-rich and clumpy stellar distributions in preexisting dark matter halos following the cosmological SLs, are compatible with a (small) number of galaxy mergers at lower redshift.

  2. Nanostructured Block Copolymer Dry Electrolyte Ayan Ghosha,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Nanostructured Block Copolymer Dry Electrolyte Ayan Ghosha, * and Peter Kofinasb,z a Department, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA We report on the synthesis and characterization of a solid-state polymer electrolyte with enhanced lithium transport based on a self-assembled diblock copolymer. The diblock copolymer

  3. Dry aging beef for the retail channel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Robert David

    2007-09-17

    USDA Choice (n=48) and Select (n=48) paired Beef Loin, Short Loins, Short Cut (IMPS #174) were separated randomly into one of two treatments, dry or wet aging, and were aged for 14, 21, 28, or 35 d. At the end of each aging period, short loins were...

  4. Hog Fuel Drying Using Vapour Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; MacEachen, I.

    1984-01-01

    A continuous hog fuel drying pilot plant based on the principle of mixing hog fuel with a hot oil (e.g., crude tall oil) as the heat transfer medium, and recirculating the suspension through a steam heated exchanger was designed, built...

  5. On simple and accurate finite element models for nonlinear bending analysis of beams and plates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urthaler Lapeira, Yetzirah Yksya

    2007-09-17

    –ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulflllment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, J.N. Reddy Committee Members, Steve Suh Harry Hogan Goong Chen Head of Department, Dennis O’Neal May... Bolivar Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. J.N. Reddy This study is concerned with the development of simple and accurate alterna- tive flnite element models to displacement flnite element models for geometrically nonlinear bending analysis of beams...

  6. Control of Springback in Sheet Metal U-bending Through Design Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chirita, Bogdan; Brabie, Gheorghe

    2007-05-17

    For the U-bending of sheet metals, springback represents the most important failure mode that is affecting the parts. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the reduction or the elimination of springback from the designing stage of the forming process. This paper describes a numerical procedure that combines simulation of springback by finite element method with a fractional factorial design and proposes the optimization of the forming parameters and tools geometry for the reduction of springback intensity. At the end of the study we were able to obtain an important improvement of part precision using the parameters predicted by the factorial design.

  7. Molecular origin of the difference in the HOH bend of the IR spectra between liquid water and ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imoto, Sho; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Saito, Shinji

    2013-02-07

    The intensity of the HOH bend in the IR spectrum of ice is significantly smaller than the corresponding one in liquid water. This difference in the IR intensities of the HOH bend in the two systems is investigated using MD simulations with the flexible, polarizable, ab-initio based TTM3-F model for water, a potential that correctly reproduces the experimentally observed increase of the HOH bend in liquid water and ice from the water monomer value. We have identified two factors that are responsible for the difference in the intensity of the HOH bend in liquid water and ice: (i) the decrease of the intensity of the HOH bend in ice caused by the strong anti-correlation between the permanent dipole moment of a molecule and the induced dipole moment of a neighboring hydrogen bond acceptor molecule and (ii) the weakening of this anti-correlation by the disordered hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The presence of the anti-correlation in ice is further confirmed by ab initio electronic structure calculations of water pentamer clusters extracted from the trajectories of the MD simulations for ice and liquid water.

  8. Combined Effects of Gravity, Bending Moment, Bearing Clearance, and Input Torque on Wind Turbine Planetary Gear Load Sharing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; LaCava, W.

    2012-09-01

    This computational work investigates planetary gear load sharing of three-mount suspension wind turbine gearboxes. A three dimensional multibody dynamic model is established, including gravity, bending moments, fluctuating mesh stiffness, nonlinear tooth contact, and bearing clearance. A flexible main shaft, planetary carrier, housing, and gear shafts are modeled using reduced degrees-of-freedom through modal compensation. This drivetrain model is validated against the experimental data of Gearbox Reliability Collaborative for gearbox internal loads. Planet load sharing is a combined effect of gravity, bending moment, bearing clearance, and input torque. Influences of each of these parameters and their combined effects on the resulting planet load sharing are investigated. Bending moments and gravity induce fundamental excitations in the rotating carrier frame, which can increase gearbox internal loads and disturb load sharing. Clearance in carrier bearings reduces the bearing load carrying capacity and thus the bending moment from the rotor can be transmitted into gear meshes. With bearing clearance, the bending moment can cause tooth micropitting and can induce planet bearing fatigue, leading to reduced gearbox life. Planet bearings are susceptible to skidding at low input torque.

  9. The shape of the DNA minor groove directs binding by the DNA-bending protein Fis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stella, Stefano; Cascio, Duilio; Johnson, Reid C.

    2010-06-21

    The bacterial nucleoid-associated protein Fis regulates diverse reactions by bending DNA and through DNA-dependent interactions with other control proteins and enzymes. In addition to dynamic nonspecific binding to DNA, Fis forms stable complexes with DNA segments that share little sequence conservation. Here we report the first crystal structures of Fis bound to high- and low-affinity 27-base-pair DNA sites. These 11 structures reveal that Fis selects targets primarily through indirect recognition mechanisms involving the shape of the minor groove and sequence-dependent induced fits over adjacent major groove interfaces. The DNA shows an overall curvature of {approx}65{sup o}, and the unprecedented close spacing between helix-turn-helix motifs present in the apodimer is accommodated by severe compression of the central minor groove. In silico DNA structure models show that only the roll, twist, and slide parameters are sufficient to reproduce the changes in minor groove widths and recreate the curved Fis-bound DNA structure. Models based on naked DNA structures suggest that Fis initially selects DNA targets with intrinsically narrow minor grooves using the separation between helix-turn-helix motifs in the Fis dimer as a ruler. Then Fis further compresses the minor groove and bends the DNA to generate the bound structure.

  10. Illumination of interior spaces by bended hollow light guides: Application of the theoretical light propagation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darula, Stanislav; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Kittler, Richard [ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kundracik, Frantisek [Department of Experimental Physics, FMPI, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-12-15

    To ensure comfort and healthy conditions in interior spaces the thermal, acoustics and daylight factors of the environment have to be considered in the building design. Due to effective energy performance in buildings the new technology and applications also in daylight engineering are sought such as tubular light guides. These allow the transport of natural light into the building core reducing energy consumption. A lot of installations with various geometrical and optical properties can be applied in real buildings. The simplest set of tubular light guide consists of a transparent cupola, direct tube with high reflected inner surface and a ceiling cover or diffuser redistributing light into the interior. Such vertical tubular guide is often used on flat roofs. When the roof construction is inclined a bend in the light guide system has to be installed. In this case the cupola is set on the sloped roof which collects sunlight and skylight from the seen part of the sky hemisphere as well as that reflected from the ground and opposite facades. In comparison with the vertical tube some additional light losses and distortions of the propagated light have to be expected in bended tubular light guides. Recently the theoretical model of light propagation was already published and its applications are presented in this study solving illuminance distributions on the ceiling cover interface and further illuminance distribution on the working plane in the interior. (author)

  11. Reduction of Beam Emittance of Pep-X Using Quadruple Bend Achromat Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Min-Huey; Cai, Yunhai; Hettel, Robert; Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC

    2009-05-26

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is studying an option of building a high brightness synchrotron light source machine, PEP-X, in the existing PEP-II tunnel [1, 2]. By replacing 6 arcs of FODO cells of PEPII High Energy Ring (HER) with two arcs of DBA and four arcs of TME and installation of 89.3 m long damping wiggler an ultra low beam emittance of 0.14 nm-rad (including intra-beam scattering) at 4.5 GeV is achieved. In this paper we study the possibility to further reduce the beam emittance by releasing the constraint of the dispersion free in the DBA straight. The QBA (Quadruple Bend Achromat) cell is used to replace the DBA. The ratio of outer and inner bending angle is optimized. The dispersion function in the non-dispersion straight is controlled to compromise with lower emittance and beam size at the dispersion straight. An undulator of period length 23 mm, maximum magnetic field of 1.053 T, and total periods of 150 is used to put in the 30 straights to simulate the effects of these IDs on the beam emittance and energy spread. The brightness including all the ID effects is calculated and compared to the original PEP-X design.

  12. Flow visualization study of inverted U-bend two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishii, M.; Kim, S.B.; Lee, R.

    1986-12-01

    A hot-leg U-bend experiment was performed. The experimental condition simulated the two-phase flow in a B and W primary loop during a small break loss of coolant accident or during some other abnormal transients. The loop design was based on the scaling criteria developed previously and the loop was operated either in a natural circulation mode or in a forced circulation mode using nitrogen gas and water. The two-phase flow regimes at the hot-leg were identified on the basis of visual observation. The phase separation at the top of the inverted U-bend was observed at low gas flow rate. The void fractions were measured using differential pressure transducers and compared with the prediction from the drift-flux model. The natural circulation flow interruption occurred in two different modes, namely, quasi-periodic and semi-permanent modes. This phenomenon is mainly dependent on the difference in the hydrostatic head in the riser and downcomer, and the flow regime at hot-leg. Besides this flow interruption phenomenon, dynamic flow instabilities of considerable amplitudes have been observed.

  13. Suite of three protein crystallography beamlines with single superconducting bend magnet as the source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDowell, Alastair A.; Celestre, Richard S.; Howells, Malcolm; McKinney, Wayne; Krupnick, James; Cambie, Daniella; Domning, Edward E; Duarte, Robert M.; Kelez, Nicholas; Plate, David W.; Cork, Carl W.; Earnest, Thomas N.; Dickert, Jeffery; Meigs, George; Ralston, Corie; Holton, James M.; Alber, Thomas; Berger, James M.; Agard, David A.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2004-08-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), three protein crystallography (PX) beamlines have been built that use as a source one of the three 6 Tesla single pole superconducting bending magnets (superbends) that were recently installed in the ring. The use of such single pole superconducting bend magnets enables the development of a hard x-ray program on a relatively low energy 1.9 GeV ring without taking up insertion device straight sections. The source is of relatively low power, but due to the small electron beam emittance, it has high brightness. X-ray optics are required to preserve the brightness and to match the illumination requirements for protein crystallography. This was achieved by means of a collimating premirror bent to a plane parabola, a double crystal monochromator followed by a toroidal mirror that focuses in the horizontal direction with a 2:1 demagnification. This optical arrangement partially balances aberrations from the collimating and toroidal mirrors such that a tight focused spot size is achieved. The optical properties of the beamline are an excellent match to those required by the small protein crystals that are typically measured. The design and performance of these new beamlines are described.

  14. SiC-CMC-Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding Performance during 4-Point Tubular Bend Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IJ van Rooyen; WR Lloyd; TL Trowbridge; SR Novascone; KM Wendt; SM Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE NE) established the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to develop technologies and other solutions to improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development Pathway in the LWRS program encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. Recent investigations of potential options for “accident tolerant” nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) cladding. One of the proposed SiC-based fuel cladding designs being investigated incorporates a SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) as a structural material supplementing an internal Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) liner tube, referred to as the hybrid clad design. Characterization of the advanced cladding designs will include a number of out-of-pile (nonnuclear) tests, followed by in-pile irradiation testing of the most promising designs. One of the out-of-pile characterization tests provides measurement of the mechanical properties of the cladding tube using four point bend testing. Although the material properties of the different subsystems (materials) will be determined separately, in this paper we present results of 4-point bending tests performed on fully assembled hybrid cladding tube mock-ups, an assembled Zr-4 cladding tube mock-up as a standard and initial testing results on bare SiC-CMC sleeves to assist in defining design parameters. The hybrid mock-up samples incorporated SiC-CMC sleeves fabricated with 7 polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) cycles. To provide comparative information; both 1- and 2-ply braided SiC-CMC sleeves were used in this development study. Preliminary stress simulations were performed using the BISON nuclear fuel performance code to show the stress distribution differences for varying lengths between loading points and clad configurations. The 2-ply sleeve samples show a higher bend momentum compared to those of the 1-ply sleeve samples. This is applicable to both the hybrid mock-up and bare SiC-CMC sleeve samples. Comparatively both the 1- and 2-ply hybrid mock-up samples showed a higher bend stiffness and strength compared with the standard Zr-4 mock-up sample. The characterization of the hybrid mock-up samples showed signs of distress and preliminary signs of fraying at the protective Zr-4 sleeve areas for the 1-ply SiC-CMC sleeve. In addition, the microstructure of the SiC matrix near the cracks at the region of highest compressive bending strain shows significant cracking and flaking. The 2-ply SiC-CMC sleeve samples showed a more bonded, cohesive SiC matrix structure. This cracking and fraying causes concern for increased fretting during the actual use of the design. Tomography was proven as a successful tool to identify open porosity during pre-test characterization. Although there is currently insufficient data to make conclusive statements regarding the overall merit of the hybrid cladding design, preliminary characterization of this novel design has been demonstrated.

  15. Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, T; Knowles, T P J

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach for interfacing an electromechanical sensor with a microfluidic device for the accurate quantification of the dry mass of analytes within microchannels. We show that depositing solutes onto the active surface of a quartz crystal microbalance by means of an on-chip microfluidic spray nozzle and subsequent solvent removal provides the basis for the real-time determination of dry solute mass. Moreover, this detection scheme does not suffer from the decrease in the sensor quality factor and the viscous drag present if the measurement is performed in a liquid environment, yet allows solutions to be analysed. We demonstrate the sensitivity and reliability of our approach by controlled deposition of nanogram levels of salt and protein from a micrometer-sized channel.

  16. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); McInnes, Ian D. (San Jose, CA); Massey, John V. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  17. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert States

    2006-07-15

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  18. New Technology Successes for Paper Drying 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aue, J.; Pierce, S.; Grabner, K.

    2004-01-01

    high speed paper machine. 2. Stationary siphons with open drive gears on dryer drums: removing existing rotary siphons on individually controlled open-geared dryers and replacing them with newly designed stationary siphons and self... automated functionality during upset conditions, such as when the strip or sheet of paper being made, called the ?web?, breaks. During upsets, control of steam flow through the paper machine?s drying cylinders, called ?cans? or ?drums?, traditionally...

  19. Dry Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. M. Goff; M. F. Simpson

    2009-09-01

    Dry (non-aqueous) separations technologies have been used for treatment of used nuclear fuel since the 1960s, and they are still being developed and demonstrated in many countries. Dry technologies offer potential advantages compared to traditional aqueous separations including: compactness, resistance to radiation effects, criticality control benefits, compatibility with advanced fuel types, and ability to produce low purity products. Within the Department of Energy’s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, an electrochemical process employing molten salts is being developed for recycle of fast reactor fuel and treatment of light water reactor oxide fuel to produce a feed for fast reactors. Much of the development of this technology is based on treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel, which is metallic. Electrochemical treatment of the EBR-II fuel has been ongoing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility, located at the Materials and Fuel Complex of Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. More than 3.8 metric tons of heavy metal of metallic fast reactor fuel have been treated using this technology. This paper will summarize the status of electrochemical development and demonstration activities with used nuclear fuel, including high-level waste work. A historic perspective on the background of dry processing will also be provided.

  20. On the dry deposition of submicron particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesely, M. L.

    1999-10-08

    The air-surface exchange of particles can have a strong role in determining the amount, size, and chemical composition of particles in the troposphere. Here the authors consider only dry processes (deposition processes not directly aided by precipitation) and mostly address particles less than about 2 {micro}m in diameter (often referred to as submicron particles because most of such particles are less than 1 {micro}m in diameter). The processes that control the dry exchange of particulate material between the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth are numerous, highly varied, and sometimes poorly understood. As a result, determining which of the surface processes to parameterize or simulate in modeling the tropospheric mass budget of a particulate substance can be a significant challenge. Dry deposition, for example, can be controlled by a combination of Brownian diffusion, impaction, interception, and gravitational settling, depending on the size of the particles, the roughness of the surface on both micrometeorological and microscopic scales, the geometrical structure of vegetative canopies, and other surface characteristics such as wetness. Particles can be added to the lower atmosphere by resuspension from land surfaces and sea spray. The roles of rapid gas-to-particle conversion and growth or shrinkage of particles as a result of water condensation or evaporation in the lower few meters of the atmosphere can also have a significant impact on particle concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Here, a few micrometeorological observations and inferences on particle air-surface exchange are briefly addressed.

  1. Transfer of hot dry rock technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.C.

    1985-11-01

    The Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program has focused worldwide attention on the facts that natural heat in the upper part of the earth's crust is an essentially inexhaustible energy resource which is accessible almost everywhere, and that practical means now exist to extract useful heat from the hot rock and bring it to the earth's surface for beneficial use. The Hot Dry Rock Program has successfully constructed and operated a prototype hot, dry rock energy system that produced heat at the temperatures and rates required for large-scale space heating and many other direct uses of heat. The Program is now in the final stages of constructing a larger, hotter system potentially capable of satisfying the energy requirements of a small, commercial, electrical-generating power plant. To create and understand the behavior of such system, it has been necessary to develop or support the development of a wide variety of equipment, instruments, techniques, and analyses. Much of this innovative technology has already been transferred to the private sector and to other research and development programs, and more is continuously being made available as its usefulness is demonstrated. This report describes some of these developments and indicates where this new technology is being used or can be useful to industry, engineering, and science.

  2. Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended Long Term Storage and Transportation of Used Fuel Rev0 Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for...

  3. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1998-02-10

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  4. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  5. DRI Model of the U.S. Economy -- Model Documentation:

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1993-01-01

    Provides documentation on Data Resources, Inc., DRI Model of the U.S. Economy and the DRI Personal Computer Input/Output Model. It also describes the theoretical basis, structure and functions of both DRI models; and contains brief descriptions of the models and their equations.

  6. Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the coal without chemical decomposition and pyrolysis converts dry coal into gas and coke [1]. The final1 Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a , Eric Blond1, b , Alain Gasser1 Forbach, France a damintode.kolani@univ-orleans.fr, b eric.blond@univ-orleans.fr Keywords: coal, drying

  7. Tour of Entergy's Nuclear Power Plant in River Bend Owner: Entergy Gulf States Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ervin, Elizabeth K.

    : Boiling Water Reactor Reactor Manufacturer: General Electric Turbine Generator Manufacturer: General a nuclear power plant. Plant was Entergy, a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) type. Built in the 80's, it has from the reactor is stored under water. An alternative storage is the dry cask storage which

  8. Transmission spectra of a double-clad fibre structure under bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zlodeev, I V; Ivanov, Oleg V

    2013-06-30

    We have studied a fibre-optic structure whose operation relies on conversion of core and cladding modes that are coupled across the interface between two fibres differing in refractive index profile. The structure contains a section of an SM630 double-clad, small-core, single-mode fibre inserted between two SMF-28 standard fibres. We have measured the transmission spectrum of the structure when the SM630 fibre was bent and analysed the mode structure of the double-clad fibre and the origin of dips in its transmission spectrum. The resonance dips have been found to shift to longer wavelengths with increasing fibre curvature. We have evaluated the shift as a function of the length of the inserted fibre, its bend direction and the nature of the input fibre. (fiber optics)

  9. Transfer of optical signals around bends in two-dimensional linear photonic networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgios M. Nikolopoulos

    2014-11-13

    The ability to navigate light signals in two-dimensional networks of waveguide arrays is a prerequisite for the development of all-optical integrated circuits for information processing and networking. In this article, we present a theoretical analysis of bending losses in linear photonic lattices with engineered couplings, and discuss possible ways for their minimization. In contrast to previous work in the field, the lattices under consideration operate in the linear regime, in the sense that discrete solitons cannot exist. The present results suggest that the functionality of linear waveguide networks can be extended to operations that go beyond the recently demonstrated point-to-point transfer of signals, such as blocking, routing, logic functions, etc.

  10. Some new schemes for producing high-accuracy elliptical X-ray mirrors by elastic bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padmore, H.A.; Howells, M.R.; Irick, S.; Renner, T.; Sandler, R.; Koo, Y.-M.

    1996-08-01

    Although x-ray micro-foci can be produced by a variety of diffractive methods, grazing incidence mirrors are the only route to an achromatic focus. In this paper we describe our efforts to produce elliptically shaped mirrors with the very high figure accuracy necessary for producing a micro-focus. The motivation for this work is provided by the need to produce achromatic foci for a range of applications ranging from tunable micro-focus x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ({mu}-XPS) at soft x-ray energies to micro-focus white beam x-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD) at hard x-ray energies. We describe the methodology of beam bending, a practical example of a system we have produced for {mu}-XRD, and results demonstrating the production of a surface with micro-radian figure accuracy.

  11. Homoclinic snaking in plane Couette flow: bending, skewing, and finite-size effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, John F

    2015-01-01

    Invariant solutions of shear flows have recently been extended from spatially periodic solutions in minimal flow units to spatially localized solutions on extended domains. One set of spanwise-localized solutions of plane Couette flow exhibits homoclinic snaking, a process by which steady-state solutions grow additional structure smoothly at their fronts when continued parametrically. Homoclinic snaking is well understood mathematically in the context of the one-dimensional Swift-Hohenberg equation. Consequently, the snaking solutions of plane Couette flow form a promising connection between the largely phenomenological study of laminar-turbulent patterns in viscous shear flows and the mathematically well-developed field of pattern-formation theory. In this paper we present a numerical study of the snaking solutions, generalizing beyond the fixed streamwise wavelength of previous studies. We find a number of new solution features, including bending, skewing, and finite-size effects. We show that the finite-si...

  12. Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1998-11-10

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  13. Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID); Boucher, Timothy J (Helena, MT)

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  14. DRI Renewable Energy Center (REC) (NV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoekman, S. Kent; Broch, Broch; Robbins, Curtis; Jacobson, Roger; Turner, Robert

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to utilize a flexible, energy-efficient facility, called the DRI Renewable Energy Experimental Facility (REEF) to support various renewable energy research and development (R&D) efforts, along with education and outreach activities. The REEF itself consists of two separate buildings: (1) a 1200-ft2 off-grid capable house and (2) a 600-ft2 workshop/garage to support larger-scale experimental work. Numerous enhancements were made to DRI's existing renewable power generation systems, and several additional components were incorporated to support operation of the REEF House. The power demands of this house are satisfied by integrating and controlling PV arrays, solar thermal systems, wind turbines, an electrolyzer for renewable hydrogen production, a gaseous-fuel internal combustion engine/generator set, and other components. Cooling needs of the REEF House are satisfied by an absorption chiller, driven by solar thermal collectors. The REEF Workshop includes a unique, solar air collector system that is integrated into the roof structure. This system provides space heating inside the Workshop, as well as a hot water supply. The Workshop houses a custom-designed process development unit (PDU) that is used to convert woody biomass into a friable, hydrophobic char that has physical and chemical properties similar to low grade coal. Besides providing sufficient space for operation of this PDU, the REEF Workshop supplies hot water that is used in the biomass treatment process. The DRI-REEF serves as a working laboratory for evaluating and optimizing the performance of renewable energy components within an integrated, residential-like setting. The modular nature of the system allows for exploring alternative configurations and control strategies. This experimental test bed is also highly valuable as an education and outreach tool both in providing an infrastructure for student research projects, and in highlighting renewable energy features to the public.

  15. Lithographic dry development using optical absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olynick, Deirdre; Schuck, P. James; Schmidt, Martin

    2013-08-20

    A novel approach to dry development of exposed photo resist is described in which a photo resist layer is exposed to a visible light source in order to remove the resist in the areas of exposure. The class of compounds used as the resist material, under the influence of the light source, undergoes a chemical/structural change such that the modified material becomes volatile and is thus removed from the resist surface. The exposure process is carried out for a time sufficient to ablate the exposed resist layer down to the layer below. A group of compounds found to be useful in this process includes aromatic calixarenes.

  16. Wet Sand flows better than dry sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jorge E. Fiscina; Christian Wagner

    2007-11-19

    We investigated the yield stress and the apparent viscosity of sand with and without small amounts of liquid. By pushing the sand through a tube with an enforced Poiseuille like profile we minimize the effect of avalanches and shear localization. We find that the system starts to flow when a critical shear of the order of one particle diameter is exceeded. In contrast to common believe, we observe that the resistance against the flow of wet sand is much smaller than that of dry sand. For the dissipative flow we propose a non-equilibrium state equation for granular fluids.

  17. Hot dry rock venture risks investigation:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This study assesses a promising resource in central Utah as the potential site of a future commerical hot dry rock (HDR) facility for generating electricity. The results indicate that, if the HDR reservoir productivity equals expectations based on preliminary results from research projects to date, a 50 MWe HDR power facility at Roosevelt Hot Springs could generate power at cost competitive with coal-fired plants. However, it is imperative that the assumed productivity be demonstrated before funds are committed for a commercial facility. 72 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs.

  18. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of2 FederalEnergy Green:Dry Process Electrode

  19. Biomass drying technologies. Final report, September 1997--May 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salomaa, E.

    1998-07-01

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the drying medium are discussed more closely, with comparison to the methods of drying using air or flue gas as the drying medium. Available types of steam dryers are described with reference to operating conditions, energy requirements, and types of biomass dried. Energy aspects are considered, as well as possibilities of steam utilization to recover the latent heat of vaporization. Thermal energy required for drying of biomass is calculated using tabulated values of steam properties. The amount of steam to provide the thermal energy needed for biomass drying, at different pressures and temperatures applicable in steam dryers, is calculated for both indirectly and directly heated steam dryers. The calculated heat requirement values of steam dryers have been compared with those reported in the literature. Further, anticipated emissions from flue gas and steam drying processes have been summarized.

  20. Mechanically Programmable Bend Radius for Fiber-Reinforced Soft Kevin C. Galloway1, Panagiotis Polygerinos2, Conor J. Walsh3, and Robert J. Wood4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    guidelines exist for achieving a variety of motions with soft actuators such as bending, contraction, extension, and twisting. These guidelines typically involve multi-step molding of composite materials swells radially and contracts lengthwise upon pressurization to shorten the overall length [5]. A bending

  1. Transport in microdroplets via channel bends Physics of Fluids (in press, 2015) Quantifying transport within a two-cell microdroplet induced by circular and sharp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasuriya, Sanjeeva

    Transport in microdroplets via channel bends Physics of Fluids (in press, 2015) Quantifying transport within a two-cell microdroplet induced by circular and sharp channel bends Sanjeeva Balasuriya1 the role of piecewise circular or straight channel boundaries on the transport within a two

  2. This document contains the draft version of the following paper: S.K. Gupta and D.A. Bourne. Sheet metal bending: Generating shared setups.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Satyandra K.

    This document contains the draft version of the following paper: S.K. Gupta and D.A. Bourne. Sheet metal bending: Generating shared setups. ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 121 Dr. S.K. Gupta (skgupta@umd.edu). #12;Sheet Metal Bending: Generating Shared Setups Satyandra K

  3. This document contains the draft version of the following paper: S.K. Gupta and D. Rajagopal. Sheet metal bending: Forming part families for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Satyandra K.

    This document contains the draft version of the following paper: S.K. Gupta and D. Rajagopal. Sheet metal bending: Forming part families for shared setup generation. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 21 Dr. S.K. Gupta (skgupta@umd.edu). #12;Sheet Metal Bending: Forming Part Families for Generating

  4. This document contains the draft version of the following paper: U. Alva and S.K. Gupta. Automated design of sheet metal punches for bending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Satyandra K.

    part. The flat part needs to be bent along the bend lines to create the final part. In this paper, weThis document contains the draft version of the following paper: U. Alva and S.K. Gupta. Automated design of sheet metal punches for bending multiple parts in a single setup. Robotics and Computer

  5. Design Parameters for a 7.2 Tesla Bending Magnet for a 1.5 GeV Compact Light Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    a Central Induction of 7 tesla [l] D. B. Cline A. A. Gmen.Design Parameters for a 7.2 Tesla Bending Magnet for a 1.5Design Parameters for a 7.2 Tesla Bending Magnet for a 1.5

  6. Deformation of polymer lms by bending forces Gerald Patzold , Thorsten Hapke, Andreas Linke, and Dieter W. Heermann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heermann, Dieter W.

    Deformation of polymer lms by bending forces Gerald Patzold , Thorsten Hapke, Andreas Linke (July 15, 1996) Abstract We study the deformation of nano{scale polymer lms which are subject characterization of deformed states for such lms. We resolve the kinetic and the dynamic stage of the deformation

  7. 286 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 26, No. 5 / March 1, 2001 Quantitative analysis of bending efficiency in photonic-crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -loss optical waveguide bend is a key component for building future integrated photonic circuits. A conventional, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 S. G. Johnson and J. D designed line defect in a photonic- crystal structure, a guiding band can be created within the photonic

  8. Fast Response No-Bias-Bend LCD F. S. Y. Yeung, Y. W. Li and H. S. Kwok

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fast Response No-Bias-Bend LCD F. S. Y. Yeung, Y. W. Li and H. S. Kwok Center for Display Research, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong ABSTRACT Fast for fast switching applications [6-10]. Its response time can be very fast since there is no backflow

  9. In-situ scanning electron microscopy study of fracture events during back-end-of-line microbeam bending tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanstreels, K. Zahedmanesh, H.; Bender, H.; Gonzalez, M.; De Wolf, I.; Lefebvre, J.; Bhowmick, S.

    2014-11-24

    This paper demonstrates the direct observation of crack initiation, crack propagation, and interfacial delamination events during in-situ microbeam bending tests of FIB milled BEOL structures. The elastic modulus and the critical force of fracture of the BEOL beam samples were compared for beams of different length and width.

  10. Would Tondu power plant trade health for jobs? From the August 28, 2005, issue of the South Bend Tribune

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

    's benefits, it may not be clean enough for "Cancer Alley." Its costs and experimental nature may make using such as ours. DOE says sulfuric acid releases from the American Electric Power "clean coal" plant in CheshireWould Tondu power plant trade health for jobs? From the August 28, 2005, issue of the South Bend

  11. The bending and dynamic mechanical properties of cortical bone: the effects of sodium fluoride and the relationship to physical properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCurdy-Rahn, Megan Calista

    1998-01-01

    treatment reduced the dynamic storage and three-point bending moduli, the yield and ultimate strengths, and ratio of yield to ultimate strength. This protocol also increased the tan 8, loss modulus, energy absorbed to failure, and percent of energy absorbed...

  12. Vegetation patterns of Pine Canyon, Big Bend National Park, Texas, in relation to elevation and slope aspect 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bryan Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Data on the woody vegetation of Pine Canyon, Big Bend National Park, Texas was gathered on an elevational gradient from 1250 m to 2000 m elevation using the point-centered quarter method. Sampling was conducted at 12 sites at 1250 m, 1500 m, 1625 m...

  13. Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam their vertebral column. With the evolution of fully

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long Jr., John H.

    Dolphins swim by rhythmically bending a variably flexible beam ­ their vertebral column. With the evolution of fully aquatic swimming behavior, the vertebral column of cetaceans has undergone comprehensive with terrestrial mammals, vertebral columns with reduced thoracic spinous processes, unfused and lengthened sacral

  14. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  15. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  16. Drying/self-assembly of nanoparticle suspensions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Plimpton, Steven James; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Grest, Gary Stephen

    2010-10-01

    The most feasible way to disperse particles in a bulk material or control their packing at a substrate is through fluidization in a carrier that can be processed with well-known techniques such as spin, drip and spray coating, fiber drawing, and casting. The next stage in the processing is often solidification involving drying by solvent evaporation. While there has been significant progress in the past few years in developing discrete element numerical methods to model dense nanoparticle dispersion/suspension rheology which properly treat the hydrodynamic interactions of the solvent, these methods cannot at present account for the volume reduction of the suspension due to solvent evaporation. As part of LDRD project FY-101285 we have developed and implemented methods in the current suite of discrete element methods to remove solvent particles and volume, and hence solvent mass from the liquid/vapor interface of a suspension to account for volume reduction (solvent drying) effects. To validate the methods large scale molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to follow the evaporation process at the microscopic scale.

  17. Non-Linear Drying Diffusion and Viscoelastic Drying Shrinkage Modeling in Hardened Cement Pastes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Chin K.

    2010-07-14

    The present research seeks to study the decrease in diffusivity rate as relative humidity (RH) decreases and modeling drying shrinkage of hardened cement paste as a poroviscoelastic respose. Thin cement paste strips of 0.4 and 0.5 w/c at age 3 and 7...

  18. Drying and burning wood waste using pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckkowski, A.G.; Eng, P.; Kitchen, J.A. [Novadyne Ltd., Ontario (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    Development of an industrial dryer using pulse combustion as a heating source for drying wood waste has continued. Pulse combustion offers the advantage of high heat transfer, efficient combustion, low NOx emissions and a source of kinetic energy for providing a motive force for a drying system. In our experiments, the drying system consists of a pulse combustor and a vertical drying column. The wood waste is injected into the exhaust gases from the combustor where the turbulence created by the pulsations enhance the drying process by reducing the boundary layer thicknesses. The material is further dried in the vertical drying column, then separated from the conveying airstream using a cyclone. The paper discusses two aspects of the drying system. Firstly, the performance of the drying tests are reviewed. Tests with the 1,000,000 BTU/hr test rig have shown that a gas-fired pulse combustion dryer can dry materials such as sawdust and pulverized hog fuel from a moisture content of 50% down to a 30% in a single pass, or further with multiple passes, without scorching or burning. Preliminary figures show that the operating costs of the dryer are reduced due to the kinetic energy created by the pulse combustor which offsets the use of electricity. Secondly, it has been shown that a pulse combustor can be fired with wood waste and thereby providing the potential to displace natural gas or propane as a fuel. The development of the wood burning combustor is reviewed.

  19. Reversible Bending Fatigue Test System for Investigating Vibration Integrity of Spent Nuclear Fuel during Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L; Flanagan, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) must meet safety requirements under normal and accident conditions as specified by federal regulations. During transportation, SNF experiences unique conditions and challenges to cladding integrity due to the vibrational and impact loading during road or rail shipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing testing capabilities that can be used to improve the understanding of the impacts on SNF integrity due to vibration loading, especially for high burn-up SNF in normal transportation operation conditions. This information can be used to meet the nuclear industry and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission needs in the area of safety and security of spent nuclear fuel storage and transport operations. The ORNL developed test system can perform reversible-bending fatigue testing to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The testing apparatus is also designed to meet the challenges of hot-cell operation, including remote installation and detachment of the SNF test specimen, in-situ test specimen deformation measurement, and implementation of a driving system suitable for use in a hot cell. The system contains a U-frame set-up equipped with uniquely designed grip rigs, to protect SNF rod and to ensure valid test results, and use of 3 specially designed LVDTs to obtain the in-situ curvature measurement. A variety of surrogate test rods have been used to develop and calibrate the test system as well as in performing a series of systematic cyclic fatigue tests. The surrogate rods include stainless steel (SS) cladding, SS cladding with cast epoxy, and SS cladding with alumina pellets inserts simulating fuel pellets. Testing to date has shown that the interface bonding between the SS cladding and the alumina pellets has a significant impact on the bending response of the test rods as well as their fatigue strength. The failure behaviors observed from tested surrogate rods provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying failure mechanisms of the SNF surrogate rod under vibration which has not been achieved previously. The newly developed device is scheduled to be installed in the hot-cell in summer 2013 to test high burnup SNF.

  20. A dry electrophysiology electrode using CNT arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruffini, G; Farres, E; Grau, C; Marco-Pallares, J; Mendoza, Eric; Ray, C; Silva, R; Dunne, Stephen; Farres, Esteve; Grau, Carles; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Mendoza, Ernest; Ray, Chris; Ruffini, Giulio; Silva, Ravi

    2006-01-01

    We describe the concept of a dry electrode sensor for biopotential measurement applications (ENOBIO) designed to eliminate the noise and inconvenience associated to the use of electrolytic gel. ENOBIO uses nanotechnology to remove gel-related noise, as well as maintaining a good contact impedance to minimise interference noise. The contact surface of the electrode will be covered with an array/forest of carbon nanotubes and will also be tested with an Ag/AgCl coating to provide ionic-electronic transduction. The nanotubes are to penetrate the outer layers of the skin, the Stratum Corneum, improving electrical contact. We discuss requirements, skin properties, nanotube penetration and transduction, noise sources, prototype design logic and biocompatibility. A future paper will report test results.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  2. ,"Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Dry Natural Gas Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06301981" ,"Release...

  3. ,"Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana & Alabama Dry Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana & Alabama Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06301981"...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  5. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  6. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  7. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic...

  8. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  9. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  10. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  11. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  12. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  13. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","09...

  14. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  15. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI); Zidan, Ragaiy A. (Honolulu, HI)

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  16. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  17. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  18. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  19. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  20. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  1. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","09...

  2. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic...

  3. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  4. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  5. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  6. Goos-Hänchen effect and bending of spin wave beams in thin magnetic films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruszecki, P. Krawczyk, M.; Romero-Vivas, J.; Dadoenkova, Yu. S.; Dadoenkova, N. N.; Lyubchanskii, I. L.

    2014-12-15

    For magnon spintronic applications, the detailed knowledge of spin wave (SW) beam dispersion, transmission (reflection) of SWs passing through (reflected from) interfaces, or borders or the scattering of SWs by inhomogeneities is crucial. These wave properties are decisive factors on the usefulness of a particular device. Here, we demonstrate, using micromagnetic simulations supported by an analytical model, that the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift exists for SW reflecting from thin film edge and that with the effect becomes observable. We show that this effect will exist for a broad range of frequencies in the dipole-exchange range, with the magnetization degree of pinning at the film edge as the crucial parameter, whatever its nature. Moreover, we have also found that the GH effect can be accompanied or even dominating by a bending of the SW beam due to the inhomogeneity of the internal magnetic field. This inhomogeneity, created by demagnetizing field taking place at the film edge, causes gradual change of SWs refractive index. The refraction of the SW beams by the non-uniformity of the magnetic field enables the exploration of graded index magnonics and metamaterial properties for the transmission and processing of information at nanoscale.

  7. Ultrahigh strain-rate bending of copper nanopillars with laser-generated shock waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colorado, H. A.; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin ; Navarro, A.; Prikhodko, S. V.; Yang, J. M.; Ghoniem, N.; Gupta, V.; Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095

    2013-12-21

    An experimental study to bend FIB-prepared cantilevered single crystal Cu nanopillars of several hundred nanometers in diameter and length at ultrahigh strain rate is presented. The deformation is induced by laser-generated stress waves, resulting in local strain rates exceeding 10{sup 7} s{sup ?1}. Loading of nano-scale Cu structures at these extremely short loading times shows unique deformation characteristics. At a nominal stress value of 297 MPa, TEM examination along with selected area electron diffraction characterization revealed that twins within the unshocked Cu pillars interacted with dislocations that nucleated from free surfaces of the pillars to form new subgrain boundaries. MD simulation results were found to be consistent with the very low values of the stress required for dislocation activation and nucleation because of the extremely high surface area to volume ratio of the nanopillars. Specifically, simulations show that the stress required to nucleate dislocations at these ultrahigh strain rates is about one order of magnitude smaller than typical values required for homogeneous nucleation of dislocation loops in bulk copper single crystals under quasi-static conditions.

  8. Fracture behavior of ceramic laminates in bending-I. Modeling of crack propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillipps, A.J.; Clegg, W.J.; Clyne, T.W. . Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy)

    1993-03-01

    This paper concerns the fracture behavior of specimens made up of ceramic sheets, separated by thin interlayers, which act to deflect cracks and thus to prevent catastrophic failure of the specimen. The treatment is divided into two parts. In this paper, the behavior of this type of material during bending is quantitatively modeled. The model is based on through-thickness cracks propagating when a critical stress is reached and interfacial cracks then advancing a distance dictated by the available energy. The variation in laminae strengths is modeled using a Monte Carlo method to determine the strength of successive laminae for a given Weibull modulus. The model is used to predict load/displacement plots and to explore the effects of changes in loading geometry and specimen variables, including Young's modulus, lamina strength, loading span, interfacial toughness, as well as lamina and sample thickness. A distinction is drawn between the energy actually absorbed in causing complete failure of the specimen as measured from the area under the load/displacement curve, and the amount of energy necessary to cause the crack propagation which occurred. These differ if the energy available to drive the interfacial cracks is more than sufficient for them to reach the ends of the specimen or if energy is dissipated elsewhere in the system. A criterion is derived by which specimens can be designed so as to minimize the difference between these two quantities. The significance of this concept in optimizing the toughness of these laminated materials is briefly discussed.

  9. Bending response of 3-D woven and braided preform composite materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pochiraju, K.; Parvizi-Majidi, A.; Chou, T.W.; Shah, B.

    1994-12-31

    Three dimensional textile carbon-epoxy composites exhibit general anisotropy. Further, these materials may possess different modulus in uniaxial tension than that in compression. In an earlier material characterization effort, the tension, compression, and shear properties of these composites were determined. In this paper, theoretical modeling of flexure of the textile composites and experimental correlation are presented. Four point bending tests were conducted according to STM D709 standards to determine the load to mid-span deflection relationships for typical textile composites. The results of experimental analysis are compared with classical beam theory, theory of elasticity solutions considering material orthotropy and shear deflection, and finite element analysis considering material orthotropy and finite deformation/rotations. The derivation of a harmonic function, required for the theory of elasticity solution, is described in the paper. Homogeneous orthotropic elastic properties are assumed for the 3-D textile composites, which is a reasonable approximation for specimens considerably larger than the repeated geometric unit of the fiber preform. The so called ``flex modulus`` is determined from the experimental data.

  10. Piezoresistive characterization of bottom-up, n-type silicon microwires undergoing bend deformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClarty, Megan M.; Oliver, Derek R. E-mail: Derek.Oliver@umanitoba.ca; Bruce, Jared P.; Freund, Michael S. E-mail: Derek.Oliver@umanitoba.ca

    2015-01-12

    The piezoresistance of silicon has been studied over the past few decades in order to characterize the material's unique electromechanical properties and investigate their wider applicability. While bulk and top-down (etched) micro- and nano-wires have been studied extensively, less work exists regarding bottom-up grown microwires. A facile method is presented for characterizing the piezoresistance of released, phosphorus-doped silicon microwires that have been grown, bottom-up, via a chemical vapour deposition, vapour-liquid-solid process. The method uses conductive tungsten probes to simultaneously make electrical measurements via direct ohmic contact and apply mechanical strain via bend deformation. These microwires display piezoresistive coefficients within an order of magnitude of those expected for bulk n-type silicon; however, they show an anomalous response at degenerate doping concentrations (?10{sup 20?}cm{sup ?3}) when compared to lower doping concentrations (?10{sup 17?}cm{sup ?3}), with a stronger piezoresistive coefficient exhibited for the more highly doped wires. This response is postulated to be due to the different growth mechanism of bottom-up microwires as compared to top-down.

  11. Seasonal Price Change and Costs of Storing Grain Sorghum in the Coastal Bend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitney, Howard S.; Moore, Clarence A.

    1957-01-01

    .369 14,532 2,302 2,858 3.386 4,740 1,382 2,992 14.355 33,574 10.660 9,905 7,181 8,224 7,295 24,161 95,410 132,506 8,379 11,726 65,763 68,048 2.957 7,261 227,679 321,262 Coastal Bend, the marketing season in this study begins in June and ends....19 2.30 2.38 2.42 2.48 2.54 2.48 2.64 2.61 2.66 Range: high 3.41 3.17 2.82 3.12 3.21 3.36 3.68 3.79 3.09 3.60 3.68 3.58 low 1.99 1.71 1.52 1.66 1.47 1.72 1.86 1.93 2.04 2.00 2.05 2.09 Absolute range 1.42 1.46 1.30 1.46 1.74 1.64 1.82 1.86 - 1.05 1...

  12. Finite element modeling of concentrating solar collectors for evauation of gravity loads, bending, and optical characterization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, Joshua M.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-04-01

    Understanding the effects of gravity and wind loads on concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors is critical for performance calculations and developing more accurate alignment procedures and techniques. This paper presents a rigorous finite-element model of a parabolic trough collector that is used to determine the impact of gravity loads on bending and displacements of the mirror facets and support structure. The geometry of the LUZ LS-2 parabolic trough collector was modeled using SolidWorks, and gravity-induced loading and displacements were simulated in SolidWorks Simulation. The model of the trough collector was evaluated in two positions: the 90{sup o} position (mirrors facing upward) and the 0{sup o} position (mirrors facing horizontally). The slope errors of the mirror facet reflective surfaces were found by evaluating simulated angular displacements of node-connected segments along the mirror surface. The ideal (undeformed) shape of the mirror was compared to the shape of the deformed mirror after gravity loading. Also, slope errors were obtained by comparing the deformed shapes between the 90{sup o} and 0{sup o} positions. The slope errors resulting from comparison between the deformed vs. undeformed shape were as high as {approx}2 mrad, depending on the location of the mirror facet on the collector. The slope errors resulting from a change in orientation of the trough from the 90{sup o} position to the 0{sup o} position with gravity loading were as high as {approx}3 mrad, depending on the location of the facet.

  13. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortright, J.; Rice, M.; Hussain, Z.; Padmore, H.; Adamson, A.; Huff, W.; Young, A.; Moler, E.; Kellar, S.; Ynzunza, R.; Palomares, F.; Daimon, H.; Tober, E.; Fadley, C. [Center for X-Ray Optics, Advanced Light Source, Chemical Sciences Division, Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Center for X-Ray Optics, Advanced Light Source, Chemical Sciences Division, Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); [Physics Department, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); [Department of Material Physics, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Using multilayer linear polarizers, we have characterized the polarization state of radiation from bend-magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source as a function of vertical opening angle at photon energies of 367 and 722 eV. Both a fine slit and a coarse semi-aperture were stepped across the beam to accept different portions of the vertical radiation fan. Polarimetry yields the degree of linear polarization directly and the degree of circular polarization indirectly assuming an immeasurably small amount of unpolarized radiation based on the close agreement of the theoretical and experimental results for linear polarization. The results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations, with departures from theory resulting from uncertainty in the effective aperture of the measured beam. The narrow 0.037-mrad aperture on the orbit plane transmits a beam whose degree of linear polarization exceeds 0.99 at these energies. The wide semi-aperture blocking the beam from above and below transmits a beam with a maximum figure of merit, given by the square root of flux times the degree of circular polarization, when the aperture edge is on the orbit plane thus blocking only half of the total available flux. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Bending Frustration of Lipid-Water Mesophases Based on Cubic Minimal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. S. Schwarz; G. Gompper

    2001-02-26

    Inverse bicontinuous cubic phases are ubiquitous in lipid-water mixtures and consist of a lipid bilayer forming a cubic minimal surface, thereby dividing space into two cubic networks of water channels. For small hydrocarbon chain lengths, the monolayers can be modeled as parallel surfaces to a minimal midsurface. The bending energy of the cubic phases is determined by the distribution of Gaussian curvature over the minimal midsurfaces which we calculate for seven different structures (G, D, P, I-WP, C(P), S and F-RD). We show that the free-energy densities of the structures G, D and P are considerably lower than those of the other investigated structures due to their narrow distribution of Gaussian curvature. The Bonnet transformation between G, D, and P implies that these phases coexist along a triple line, which also includes an excess water phase. Our model includes thermal membrane undulations. Our qualitative predictions remain unchanged when higher order terms in the curvature energy are included. Calculated phase diagrams agree well with the experimental results for 2:1 lauric acid/dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine and water.

  15. Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContracting Oversight CommitteeandEnergy Dry and

  16. Twist-bend heliconical chiral nematic liquid crystal phase of an achiral rigid bent-core mesogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong Chen; Michi Nakata; Renfan Shao; Michael R. Tuchband; Min Shuai; Ute Baumeister; Wolfgang Weissflog; David M. Walba; Matthew A. Glaser; Joseph E. Maclennan; Noel A. Clark

    2013-08-16

    The chiral, heliconical (twist-bend) nematic ground state is reported in an achiral, rigid, bent-core mesogen (UD68). Similar to the nematic twist-bend (NTB) phase observed in bent molecular dimers, the NTB phase of UD68 forms macroscopic, smectic-like focal-conic textures and exhibits nanoscale, periodic modulation with no associated modulation of the electron density, i.e., without a detectable lamellar x-ray reflection peak. The NTB helical pitch is pTB ~ 14 nm. When an electric field is applied normal to the helix axis, a weak electroclinic effect is observed, revealing 50 um-scale left- and right-handed domains in a chiral conglomerate.

  17. Note: Rigid holder to host and bend a crystal for multiple volume reflection of a particle beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carassiti, V.; Melchiorri, M.

    2010-06-15

    A holder to lodge and bend a silicon crystal to excite multivolume reflection of a high-energy particle beam has been designed and fabricated. A mechanically robust and stable structure fastens a crystal at best condition for experiments. The holder has allowed the observation of 12-time repeated volume reflection with very high efficiency. We detail the most important features behind the construction of the holder together with the characterization of the crystal being bent by the holder.

  18. RISO-M-2438 Dry deposition and resuspension of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO RISO-M-2438 2 S Dry deposition and resuspension of particulate matter in city environments N 1984 få #12;RISØ-M-2438 DRY DEPOSITION AND RESUSPENSION OF PARITUCLATE NATTER IN CITY ENVIRONMENTS N.O. Jensen Abstract. The report describes, mostly in qualitative terms, the deposition and resuspension

  19. STREAMLINING THE SUPPLY CHAIN: GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONSAND DRY MATTER LOSSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    supply chains · Dry matter, lost energy and quality changes · Focusing on: · Wood chip storage and greenhouse gas emissions from wood chip storage? · Cap layer forms on outside · Mouldy and very dampSTREAMLINING THE SUPPLY CHAIN: GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONSAND DRY MATTER LOSSES FROM WOOD CHIP STACKS

  20. Energy conservation by partial recirculation of peanut drying air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, J.H.

    1983-06-01

    Conventional, recirculating, and intermittent type peanut dryers were compared in a three-year study. Comparisons indicate that partial recirculation of peanut drying air may reduce energy consumption per unit of water removed by approximately 25% while also reducing required drying time and maintaining high quality.

  1. Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivtsov, Anton M.

    Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model Anton M. Krivtsov a of percussive drilling assuming a dry friction mechanism to explain the experimentally observed drop in pene in drilling research is a fall of pene- tration rate for higher static loads. This is known both

  2. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leaman, D.; Irwin, B.

    1989-10-01

    Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.

  3. Strain rate and inertial effects on impact loaded single-edge notch bend specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas, P.M.; Dodds, R.H. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Many problems in fracture mechanics of ductile metals involve surface breaking defects located in structures subjected to impact or blast. When the severity of impact loads is sufficient to produce large inelastic deformations, the assessment of crack-tip conditions must include the effects of plasticity, strain rate and inertia. This work examines the interaction of impact loading, inelastic material deformation and rate sensitivity with the goal of improving the interpretation of ductile fracture toughness values measured under dynamic loading. The authors focus on shallow and deeply notched bend test specimens, SE(B)s, employed routinely to measure the static fracture toughness of a material. A thorough understanding of the test specimen`s dynamic behavior is a prerequisite to the application of measured fracture properties in structural applications. Three-dimensional, nonlinear dynamic analyses are performed for SE(B) fracture specimens subjected to impact loading. Loading rates obtained in conventional drop tower tests are applied in the analyses. An explicit time integration procedure coupled with an efficient (one-point) element integration scheme is employed to compute the dynamic response of the specimen. Strain-rate sensitivity is introduced via a new, efficient implementation of the Bodner-Partom viscoplastic constitutive model. Material properties for A533B steel are used in the analyses. Static analyses of the SE(B) specimens provide baseline responses for assessment of inertial effects. Similarly, dynamic analyses using a strain-rate insensitive material provide reference responses for the assessment of strain rate effects. Strains at key locations on the specimens and the support reactions are extracted from the analyses to assess the accuracy of static formulas commonly used to estimate applied J values. Inertial effects on the applied J are quantified by examining the acceleration component of J evaluated through a domain integral procedure.

  4. Calculation of the transverse kicks generated by the bends of a hollow electron lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-03-25

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam in high-energy accelerators. They were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for abort-gap clearing, beam-beam compensation, and halo scraping. A beam-beam compensation scheme based upon electron lenses is currently being implemented in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This work is in support of a conceptual design of hollow electron beam scraper for the Large Hadron Collider. It also applies to the implementation of nonlinear integrable optics with electron lenses in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator at Fermilab. We consider the axial asymmetries of the electron beam caused by the bends that are used to inject electrons into the interaction region and to extract them. A distribution of electron macroparticles is deposited on a discrete grid enclosed in a conducting pipe. The electrostatic potential and electric fields are calculated using numerical Poisson solvers. The kicks experienced by the circulating beam are estimated by integrating the electric fields over straight trajectories. These kicks are also provided in the form of interpolated analytical symplectic maps for numerical tracking simulations, which are needed to estimate the effects of the electron lens imperfections on proton lifetimes, emittance growth, and dynamic aperture. We outline a general procedure to calculate the magnitude of the transverse proton kicks, which can then be generalized, if needed, to include further refinements such as the space-charge evolution of the electron beam, magnetic fields generated by the electron current, and longitudinal proton dynamics.

  5. A FULLY DRY SELFA FULLY DRY SELF--ASSEMBLY PROCESS WITHASSEMBLY PROCESS WITH PROPER INPROPER IN--PLANE ORIENTATIONPLANE ORIENTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A FULLY DRY SELFA FULLY DRY SELF--ASSEMBLY PROCESS WITHASSEMBLY PROCESS WITH PROPER INPROPER IN consumption byimprove the performance and reduce the power consumption by eliminating long horizontal wiring strategy with parallel self--assembly isassembly is necessary for high throughput.necessary for high

  6. Structural Sensitivity of Dry Storage Canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Karri, Naveen K.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-09-27

    This LS-DYNA modeling study evaluated a generic used nuclear fuel vertical dry storage cask system under tip-over, handling drop, and seismic load cases to determine the sensitivity of the canister containment boundary to these loads. The goal was to quantify the expected failure margins to gain insight into what material changes over the extended long-term storage lifetime could have the most influence on the security of the containment boundary. It was determined that the tip-over case offers a strong challenge to the containment boundary, and identifies one significant material knowledge gap, the behavior of welded stainless steel joints under high-strain-rate conditions. High strain rates are expected to increase the material’s effective yield strength and ultimate strength, and may decrease its ductility. Determining and accounting for this behavior could potentially reverse the model prediction of a containment boundary failure at the canister lid weld. It must be emphasized that this predicted containment failure is an artifact of the generic system modeled. Vendor specific designs analyze for cask tip-over and these analyses are reviewed and approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Another location of sensitivity of the containment boundary is the weld between the base plate and the canister shell. Peak stresses at this location predict plastic strains through the whole thickness of the welded material. This makes the base plate weld an important location for material study. This location is also susceptible to high strain rates, and accurately accounting for the material behavior under these conditions could have a significant effect on the predicted performance of the containment boundary. The handling drop case was largely benign to the containment boundary, with just localized plastic strains predicted on the outer surfaces of wall sections. It would take unusual changes in the handling drop scenario to harm the containment boundary, such as raising the drop height or changing the impact angle. The seismic load case was derived from the August 23, 2011 earthquake that affected the North Anna power station. The source of the data was a monitoring station near Charlottesville, Virginia, so the ground motion is not an exact match. Stresses on the containment boundary were so low, even from a fatigue standpoint, that the seismic load case is generally not a concern. Based on this study, it is recommended that high strain rate testing of welded stainless steel test samples be pursued to define the currently unknown material behavior. Additional modeling is recommended to evaluate specific dry storage cask system designs subjected to tip-over loads using a high level of model detail. Additional modeling of the canister interior components (basket, fuel assemblies, etc.) is also recommended, to evaluate the feasibility of fuel retrievability after a tip-over incident. Finally, additional modeling to determine how much degradation a system could undergo and still maintain the integrity of the confinement barrier should be performed.

  7. Thermal Analysis of a Dry Storage Concept for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1,936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project is conducted under the assumption that the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event that vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. The Capsule Advisory Panel (CAP) was created by the Project Manager for the Hanford Site Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP). The purpose of the CAP is to provide specific technical input to the CDSP; to identify design requirements; to ensure design requirements for the project are conservative and defensible; to identify and resolve emerging, critical technical issues, as requested; and to support technical reviews performed by regulatory organizations, as requested. The CAP will develop supporting and summary documents that can be used as part of the technical and safety bases for the CDSP. The purpose of capsule dry storage thermal analysis is to: (1) Summarize the pertinent thermal design requirements sent to vendors, (2) Summarize and address the assumptions that underlie those design requirements, (3) Demonstrate that an acceptable design exists that satisfies the requirements, (4) Identify key design features and phenomena that promote or impede design success, (5) Support other CAP analyses such as corrosion and integrity evaluations, and (6) Support the assessment of proposed designs. It is not the purpose of this report to optimize or fully analyze variations of postulated acceptable designs. The present evaluation will indicate the impact of various possible design features, but not systematically pursue design improvements obtainable through analysis refinements and/or relaxation of conservatisms. However, possible design improvements will be summarized for future application. All assumptions and related design features, while appropriate for conceptual designs, must be technically justified for the final design. The pertinent thermal design requirements and underlying assumptions are summarized in Section 1.3. The majority of the thermal analyses, as described in Sections 4.2 and 4.3, focus on an acceptable conceptual design arrived at by refinement of a preliminary but unacceptable design. The results of the subject thermal analyses, as presented in Section 4.0, satisfy items 3 and 4 above.

  8. Nanoparticle preparation of Mefenamic acid by electrospray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolkepali, Nurul Karimah, E-mail: fitrah@salam.uitm.edu.my; Bakar, Noor Fitrah Abu, E-mail: fitrah@salam.uitm.edu.my; Anuar, Nornizar [Faculty Of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Naim, M. Nazli [Food and Process Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Bakar, Mohd Rushdi Abu [Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O Box 141, 25710, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2014-02-24

    Nanoparticles preparation of Mefenamic acid (MA) by using an electrospray drying method was conducted in this study. Electrospray drying is a process that uses electrostatic force to disperse a conductive liquid stream into fine charged droplets through the coulomb fission of charges in the liquid and finally dry into fine particles. Electrospray drying modes operation usually in Taylor cone jet, and it was formed by controlling applied voltage and liquid flow rate. A conductive liquid (2.77–8.55?Scm{sup ?1}) which is MA solution was prepared by using acetone with concentration 0.041 and 0.055 M before pumping at a flow rate of 3–6ml/h. By applying the applied voltage at 1.3–1.5 kV, Taylor cone jet mode was formed prior to the electrospray. During electrospray drying process, solvent evaporation from the droplet was occurring that leads to coulomb disruption and may generate to nanoparticles. The dried nanoparticles were collected on a grounded substrate that was placed at varying distance from the electrospray. MA particle with size range of 100–400 nm were produced by electrospray drying process. Characterization of particles by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) show that particles formed into polymorph I.

  9. Production of low-fat tortilla chips using alternative methods of drying before frying 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lujan Acosta, Francisco Javier

    1996-01-01

    . The effect of different drying conditions on the drying rate, texture, shrinkage profile and microstructure was analyzed. The results indicated that I drying rate was mostly affected by the air temperature, texture was crispier at higher air temperatures...

  10. The River Runs Dry: Examining Water Shortages in the Yellow River Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zusman, Eric

    2000-01-01

    in Transition Zusman/The River Runs Dry Wang Liurong.YRCC’sin Transition Zusman/The River Runs Dry not just importantin Transition Zusman/The River Runs Dry emerging market

  11. Technical and economical considerations of new DRI melting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Shuzo; Tokuda, Koji; Sammt, F.; Gray, R.

    1997-12-31

    The new DRI melting process can effectively and economically produce high quality molten iron. This process utilizes hot charging of DRI directly from a reduction furnace into a dedicated new melting furnace. The molten iron from this DRI premelter can be charged into a steelmaking furnace, such as an electric arc furnace (EAF), where the molten iron, together with other iron sources, can be processed to produce steel. Alternatively the molten iron can be pigged or granulated for off-site merchant sales. Comprehensive research and development of the new process has been conducted including operational process simulation, melting tests using FASTMET DRI, slag technology development, and refractory corrosion testing. This paper describes the process concept, its operational characteristics and further applications of the process.

  12. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 2. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruppacher, H.R.; Semonin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N.

    1983-01-01

    Volume 2 of these proceedings contains papers on dry deposition and resuspension of airborne pollutants. Items within the scope of EDB have been entered separately into the data base. (ACR)

  13. Supply chain management in the dry bulk shipping industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Bryan E. (Bryan Edward)

    2006-01-01

    This paper is intended to show the importance of supply chain management in the dry-bulk shipping industry. A hypothetical company, the Texas Grain and Bakery Corporation, was created. The values and calculations used are ...

  14. Disneyland’s Dry Cleaning Gets an Energy Efficient Upgrade

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As the provider of laundry and dry cleaning services for Disneyland Resort’s costumes and hospitality supply items, L&N Costume and Linen Service knows a little something about both quantity and quality.

  15. Drilling Complete on Australian Hot Dry Rock Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The first commercial attempt to create a commercial geothermal power plant using hot dry rock technology reached a crucial milestone on January 22, when a production well successfully reached its target depth.

  16. Mathematical modeling of impingement drying of corn tortillas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, Louise Marie

    2000-01-01

    was driven according to Fourier's Law of conduction. Boundary conditions for drying in both air and superheated steam were developed for incorporation into the model. Convective heat transfer accounted for heat flow into the product at the surface. When...

  17. Dry scrubber reduces SO sub 2 in calciner flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.W. (Refining Consulting Services, Englewood, CO (US)); Roderick, D. (Western Slope Refining Co., Fruita, CO (US)); Nastri, A. (NATEC Resources Inc., Dallas, TX (US))

    1991-02-18

    This paper discusses the installation of a dry sulfur dioxide scrubber for an existing petroleum coke calciner at its Fruita, Colo., refinery. The dry scrubbing process was developed by the power industry to help cope with the acid rain problem. It is the first application of the process in an oil refinery. The process could also remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a fluid catalytic cracker, fluid coker, or other refinery sources.

  18. Retail Shelf-life Characteristics of Dry-aged Beef 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulbrich, Carson

    2010-07-14

    SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by CARSON JOSEPH ULBRICH RETAIL SHELF-LIFE CHARACTERISTICS OF DRY-AGED BEEF Approved by: Research Advisors: Jeffrey W. Savell Davey B. Griffin Associate Dean for Undergraduate Research: Robert C. Webb... ULBRICH iii ABSTRACT Retail Shelf-Life Characteristics of Dry-Aged Beef. (April 2010) Carson Joseph Ulbrich Department of Animal Science Texas A&M University Research Advisors: Drs. Jeffrey W. Savell and Davey B. Griffin Department...

  19. GEOLOGY O F THE NORTHERN PCIRT O F DRY MOUNTAXN,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seamons, Kent E.

    GEOLOGY O F THE NORTHERN PCIRT O F DRY MOUNTAXN, SOUTHERN UASCSTCH H Q - W T A X H E i i - UT&H #12;BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY RESEARCH STUDIES Geology Seri,es Vol. 3 No. 2 April, 1956 GEOLOGY OF THE NORTHERN Department of Gedogy Provo, Utah #12;GEOLOGY OF THE NORTHERN PART OF DRY MOUNTAIN, SOUTHERN WASATCH M O U N

  20. Small drains, big problems: The impact of dry weather runoff on shoreline water quality at enclosed beaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    fecal pollution during dry weather Research and Education (R. Characterizing Dry Weather Runo?, Sediment Resuspension,Problems: The Impact of Dry Weather Runo? on Shoreline Water

  1. A double crystal monochromator using tangentially bend crystals in combination with toroidal mirror focusing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Jun, Thompson,A.C.; Padmore,H.A.

    2000-02-24

    In collaboration with the Chemistry Department at the University of California at Berkeley, the ALS is building a beamline for structural determination in materials chemistry. The system will be used for single crystal x-ray diffraction on crystals that are too small or disordered for examination on laboratory systems, and typically will be used for crystals in the 5 - 20 micron regime. As some of the materials being designed are of the size of small proteins, phasing using direct methods is problematic, and so use of multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion techniques will be employed in many cases. The production of new compounds has been revolutionized in recent years with the development of combinatorial synthesis techniques, and a major b2048 to further advances in this field is access to rapid measurement of structural parameters. The specification of the beamline follows from these points. It must have a small focal spot to match closely the size of the crystals, high resolution for MAD techniques, and a high flux in the small focus. The strategy for satisfying these constraints is to us a system which is compact and which uses the minimum number of components. This is done in this case by using a pseudo channel cut crystal monochromator with tangentially bent crystals, in combination with a 1:1 focusing toroidal mirror. The toroidal mirror at 1:1 magnification has only very small aberrations, and from a 220 (h) by 25 (v) [micro] m FWHM source, an image of 220 by 45 [micro]m FWHM should be produced for a 3 mrad horizontal aperture for a full vertical aperture. This has already been achieved on an existing beamline. The crystal monochromator uses tangentially bent crystals in a concave - convex configuration to achieve matching of Bragg angles to the divergent source, while maintaining zero focusing power. A useful feature of this arrangement is that while there is an optimum crystal curvature for each energy that gives the expected Darwin width limited resolution, fixing the curvature gives approximately ideal resolution over typically 2 keV for the ALS bending magnet source. A further simplification is that the whole optical system will be inside the shield wall, with only a small pipe emerging from the shield wall to feed a standard commercial diffraction system. This means that the mirror will be at only 6.5 m from the source. This means that the toroidal mirror can be as short as 300 mm while collecting most of the vertical radiation fan. In addition, as the required tangential slope error is related to the angular size of the source, putting the mirror close reduces the slope error requirements substantially. These aspects together should result in a simple, low cost and very high performance system for small crystal, small molecule cr2048llography.

  2. Effects of toughness anisotropy and combined tension, torsion, and bending loads on fracture behavior of ferritic nuclear pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan, R.; Marshall, C.; Ghadiali, N.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This paper summarizes work on angled through-wall-crack initiation and combined loading effects on ferritic nuclear pipe performed as part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s research program entitled {open_quotes}Short Cracks In Piping an Piping Welds{close_quotes}. The reader is referred to Reference 1 for details of the experiments and analyses conducted as part of this program. The major impetus for this work stemmed from the observation that initially circumferentially oriented cracks in carbon steel pipes exhibited a high tendency to grow at a different angle when the cracked pipes were subjected to bending or bending plus pressure loads. This failure mode was little understood, and the effect of angled crack grown from an initially circumferential crack raised questions about how cracks in a piping system subjected to combined loading with torsional stresses would behave. There were three major efforts undertaken in this study. The first involved a literature review to assess the causes of toughness anisotropy in ferritic pipes and to develop strength and toughness data as a function of angle from the circumferential plane. The second effort was an attempt to develop a screening criterion based on toughness anisotropy and to compare this screening criterion with experimental pipe fracture data. The third and more significant effort involved finite element analyses to examine why cracks grow at an angle and what is the effect of combined loads with torsional stresses on a circumferentially cracked pipe. These three efforts are summarized.

  3. Intracellular Water Exchange for Measuring the Dry Mass, Water Mass and Changes in Chemical Composition of Living Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cermak, Nathan

    We present a method for direct non-optical quantification of dry mass, dry density and water mass of single living cells in suspension. Dry mass and dry density are obtained simultaneously by measuring a cell’s buoyant ...

  4. Refraction-Based Alternative Explanation for: Bending of Light Near a Star, Gravitational Red/Blue Shift and Black-Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. C. Gupta; Anirudh Pradhan; Sushant Gupta

    2010-04-09

    Many of the general-relativity-tests such as bending of light near a star and gravitational red/blue shift are explained without general-relativity & without Newtonian-approach. The authors first cast doubts on both, the Newtonian and the relativistic approach; and proposes a novel alternative-explanation. The new alternative explanation is based on refraction-phenomenon of optics. Estimation of results, with new approach, are in agreement with known values. Though physics is different, but it is argued that general-relativity based gravitational-bending and refraction-based bending have more in common than is generally realized. Also discussed are black-hole and gravitational-lensing in the new perspective of refraction. The new refraction-based theory makes a few new predictions and also suggests a few tests..

  5. Refraction-Based Alternative Explanation for: Bending of Light Near a Star, Gravitational Red/Blue Shift and Black-Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. C. Gupta; Anirudh Pradhan; Sushant Gupta

    2015-10-22

    In this research-paper, many of the general-relativity-tests such as bending of light near a star and gravitational red/blue shift are explained without general-relativity & even without Newtonian-approach. The authors first raise questions on the validity of both, the Newtonian and the relativistic approach; and then propose a novel alternative-explanation. The new alternative explanation is based on refraction-phenomenon of optics. Estimation of results with new approach are in agreement with known values. Though physics is different, but it is argued that general-relativity based gravitational-bending and refraction based bending have more in common than is generally realized. Also discussed are black-hole and gravitational-lensing in the new perspective of refraction. The new refraction-based theory makes a few new predictions and also suggests a few tests.

  6. Hot dry rock energy: Hot dry rock geothermal development program. Progress report. Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, J.; Brown, M. [eds.

    1995-03-01

    Extended flow testing at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test facility concluded in Fiscal Year 1993 with the completion of Phase 2 of the long-term flow test (LTFT) program. As is reported in detail in this report, the second phase of the LTFT, although only 55 days in duration, confirmed in every way the encouraging test results of the 112-day Phase I LTFT carried out in Fiscal Year 1992. Interim flow testing was conducted early in FY 1993 during the period between the two LTFT segments. In addition, two brief tests involving operation of the reservoir on a cyclic schedule were run at the end of the Phase 2 LTFT. These interim and cyclic tests provided an opportunity to conduct evaluations and field demonstrations of several reservoir engineering concepts that can now be applied to significantly increase the productivity of HDR systems. The Fenton Hill HDR test facility was shut down and brought into standby status during the last part of FY 1993. Unfortunately, the world`s largest, deepest, and most productive HDR reservoir has gone essentially unused since that time.

  7. Dry matter content in silage maize; assessment of the role of growth and water loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Agronomie Dry matter content in silage maize; assessment of the role of growth and water loss JF variations in total dry matter content (MSt) as a function of growth in dry weight and loss of water by plant, as ripening proceeds. Beyond 25% dry matter content the major part of MSt increase was due to loss of water

  8. The Effects of Ionizing Irradiation on Liquid, Dried, and Absorbed DNA Extracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effects of Ionizing Irradiation on Liquid, Dried, and Absorbed DNA Extracts With and Without from FBI and national public health experts, began irradiating mail to kill potentially present anthrax Formation in Irradiated Tubes High dose X ray Low dose X ray pH indicator wet dry D-BM wet dry D-BM wet dry

  9. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 {open_quotes}Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask{close_quotes} contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed.

  10. Linear Extrusion 400 Tons/Day Dry Solids Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Sprouse; David Matthews

    2008-04-30

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept that uses rocket engine experience to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to current state-of-the-art systems. The PWR gasifier concept uses a compact and highly efficient (>50%) dry solids pump that has excellent availability (>99.5%). PWR is currently developing this dry solids pump under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement. The conceptual design on two dry solids pumps were completed under this agreement and one pump concept was selected for preliminary design. A preliminary design review (PDR) of the selected pump was presented on September 20, 2007 to PWR management and numerous technical specialists. Feedback from the PDR review team has been factored into the design and a Delta-PDR was held on April 9, 2008.

  11. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  12. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  13. Saving for dry days: Aquifer storage and recovery may help 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    | pg. 2 Saving for dry days Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 3 Aquifer storage and recovery may help With reoccurring droughts and growing population, Texas will always be looking for better ways to save or use water. Some water suppliers... in Texas are turning to aquifer storage and recovery. During the dry summer of 2008, the San Antonio Water System (SAWS) had enough assets in its ?bank? (of water) to make with- drawals to meet the needs of its customers. The water bank is the utility...

  14. Dried Citrus Pulp in Beef Cattle Fattening Rations. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, J. M. (John McKInley)

    1942-01-01

    EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR College Station, Texas BULLETIS NO. 613 JULY 1949 DRIED CITRUS PULP IN BEEF CATTLE FATTENING RATIONS J. H. JONES, R. A. HALL E. 31. NEAL, J. H. JONES Division of Range Animal Husbandry AGRICULTrRAL ,QND... MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President I rr+y-.-' -d - ." bg[j~~;Eura1 fJ,' , . ,* ,.. - '" re: SRt3$~;-P~~s" '+;+ [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] When dried citrus plp was fed to replace 25 percent of the daily al- lowance of ear...

  15. Nevada Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,Decade Year-03.823,172Year Jan Feb Mar Apr-348,719 -17,009DryDry

  16. EIS-0473: W.A. Parish Post-Combustion CO2 Capture and Sequestration Project (PCCS), Fort Bend County, TX

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide financial assistance for a project proposed by NRG Energy, Inc (NRG). DOE selected NRG’s proposed W.A. Parish Post-Combustion CO2 Capture and Sequestration Project for a financial assistance award through a competitive process under the Clean Coal Power Initiative Program. NRG would design, construct and operate a commercial-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) capture facility at its existing W.A. Parish Generating Station in Fort Bend County, Texas; deliver the CO2 via a new pipeline to the existing West Ranch oil field in Jackson County, Texas, for use in enhanced oil recovery operations; and demonstrate monitoring techniques to verify the permanence of geologic CO2 storage.

  17. An exact solution for the history-dependent material and delamination behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Todd O

    2009-01-01

    The exact solution for the history-dependent behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending is presented. The solution represents the extension of Pagano's solution to consider arbitrary types of constitutive behaviors for the individual lamina as well as arbitrary types of cohesive zones models for delamination behavior. Examples of the possible types of material behavior are plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, and damaging. Examples of possible CZMs that can be considered are linear, nonlinear hardening, as well as nonlinear with softening. The resulting solution is intended as a benchmark solution for considering the predictive capabilities of different plate theories. Initial results are presented for several types of history-dependent material behaviors. It is shown that the plate response in the presence of history-dependent behaviors can differ dramatically from the elastic response. These results have strong implications for what constitutes an appropriate plate theory for modeling such behaviors.

  18. SEM in situ MiniCantilever Beam Bending of U-10Mo/Zr/Al Fuel Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mook, William; Baldwin, Jon K.; Martinez, Ricardo M.; Mara, Nathan A.

    2014-06-16

    In this work, the fracture behavior of Al/Zr and Zr/dU-10Mo interfaces was measured via the minicantilever bend technique. The energy dissipation rates were found to be approximately 3.7-5 mj/mm2 and 5.9 mj/mm2 for each interface, respectively. It was found that in order to test the Zr/U-10Mo interface, location of the hinge of the cantilever was a key parameter. While this test could be adapted to hot cell use through careful alignment fixturing and measurement of crack lengths with an optical microscope (as opposed to SEM, which was used here out of convenience), machining of the cantilevers via MiniMill in such a way as to locate the interfaces at the cantilever hinge, as well as proper placement of a femtosecond laser notch will continue to be key challenges in a hot cell environment.

  19. Radiation budget changes with dry forest clearing in temperate Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    Radiation budget changes with dry forest clearing in temperate Argentina J A V I E R H O U S P A N, Argentina, Catedra de Climatologia Agricola, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios, Oro Verde, Argentina Abstract Land cover changes may affect climate and the energy balance

  20. Concurrent multiscale computational modeling for dense dry granular materials interfacing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regueiro, Richard A.

    of interfacial mechanics between granular soil and tire, tool, or penetrometer, while properly representing far computational modeling of interfacial mechanics between granular materials and deformable solid bodies, agricultural grains (in silo flows), dry soils (sand, silt, gravel), and lunar and martian regolith (soil found

  1. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    1999-10-20

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR.

  2. Pattern formation in drying drops Robert D. Deegan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deegan, Robert

    , Chicago, Illinois 60637 Received 24 November 1998 Ring formation in an evaporating sessile dropPattern formation in drying drops Robert D. Deegan* James Franck Institute, 5640 South Ellis Avenue. Here I show that the drop itself can generate one of the essential conditions for ring formation

  3. Optimization and neural modelling of pulse combustors for drying applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zbicinski, I.; Smucerowicz, I.; Strumillo, C.; Kasznia, J.; Stawczyk, J.; Murlikiewicz, K. [Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland). Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering

    1999-03-01

    Results of investigations of a valved pulse combustor to choose optimal geometry, which covered measurements of the flow rates of air and fuel, pressure oscillations, including pressure amplitude and frequency and flue gas composition are presented in the paper. Experimental studies comparing the operation of the pulse combustor coupled with a drying chamber and working separately are described. It was found that coupling of the pulse combustor with a drying chamber had no significant effect on the pulse combustion process. Smoother runs of pressure oscillations in the combustion chamber, lower noise level and slightly higher NO{sub x} emission were observed. The velocity flow field inside the drying chamber was measured by LDA technique. Results confirmed a complex character of pulsating flow in the chamber. A large experimental data set obtained from measurements enabled developing a neural model of pulse combustion process. Artificial neural networks were trained to predict amplitudes and frequencies of pressure oscillations, temperatures in the combustion chamber and emission of toxic substances. An excellent mapping performance of the developed neural models was obtained. Due to complex character of the pulse combustion process, the application of artificial neural networks seems to be the best way to predict inlet parameters of drying agent produced by the pulse combustor.

  4. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 1. Precipitation scavenging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruppacher, H.R.; Semonin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    These two volumes contain papers prepared for and presented at the Fourth International Conference on Precipitation Scavenging, Dry Deposition, and Resuspension (the Chamberlain Meeting) held during 29 November to 3 December, 1982 in Santa Monica, California. Papers presented are abstracted separately.

  5. WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY -VANCOUVER Analysis of Hand Drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , electricity is both inexpensive and low in CO2 output. One dry releases .406 g CO2 at a cost of $.00116 to a zero footprint reality. Carbon dioxide is considered a greenhouse gas. Reduction in CO2 creation is a key metric for LEED certifications and is environmentally beneficial. CO2 has been shown to affect our

  6. Photocatalytic properties of titania pillared clays by different drying methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Z.; Zhu, H.Y.; Lu, G.Q.; Greenfield, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Photocatalysts based on titania pillared clays (TiO{sub 2} PILCs) have been prepared through a sol-gel method. Different drying methods, air drying (AD), air drying after ethanol extraction (EAD), and supercritical drying (SCD) have been employed and found to have significant effects on the photocatalytic efficiency of the resultant catalysts for the oxidation of phenol in water. Titania pillared clay (TiO{sub 2} PILC) obtained by SCD has the highest external and micropore surface area, largest amount and smallest crystallite size of anatase, and exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, silica titania pillared clay (SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} PILC) after SCD, titania coated TiO{sub 2} PILC (SCD) and SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} PILC (SCD) were synthesized to study the key factors controlling the photocatalytic activity. It is concluded that the dispersion of nanometer-sized anatase on the surface of the PILC particles and the suspensibility of the particles are the most important factors for high photocatalytic efficiency.

  7. TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR DRY BULK TERMINALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR DRY BULK TERMINALS IN THE LOWER FRASER BASIN DOE FRAP 1996-19 Prepared for: Enviromnent Canada Environmental Protection Fraser Pollution Abatement North's report was fùnded by Environment Canada under the Fraser River Action Plan through its Fraser Pollution

  8. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  9. Sediment transport by dry ravel Emmanuel J. Gabet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabet, Emmanuel "Manny"

    Sediment transport by dry ravel Emmanuel J. Gabet Department of Geological Sciences, University, bouncing, and sliding of individual particles down a slope and is a dominant hillslope sediment transport of sediment wedges that have accumulated behind vegetation. On a daily basis, particles may be mobilized

  10. Evaluation of the Technical Basis for Extended Dry Storage and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .NWTRB.GOV ii #12;Extended Dry Storage and Transportation of Used Nuclear Fuel U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Storage and Transportation of Used Nuclear Fuel -- Executive Summary Introduction The U.S. Nuclear Waste nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report was prepared to inform DOE and Congress about

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS. Twin- screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally balanced amounts of fish meal, fish oil, whole wheat flour, corn gluten meal, and vitamin and mineral premixes

  12. Anionic Salt Programs for Close-Up Dry Cows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    1998-12-17

    Dairy farmers can improve long-term milk production by having a well-managed program for dry cows during the last 3 weeks before calving. This publication explains how an anionic salt program can help control subclinical hypocalcemia and "droopy cow...

  13. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  14. L.J. van Vliet and P.W. Verbeek, Curvature and bending energy in digitized 2D and 3D images, in: SCIA'93, Proc. Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, Tromso, Norway, 1993, 1403-1410.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    L.J. van Vliet and P.W. Verbeek, Curvature and bending energy in digitized 2D and 3D images, in-1410. Curvature and Bending Energy in Digitized 2D and 3D Images Lucas J. van Vliet and Piet W. Verbeek Pattern. In this paper we estimate object curvature directly from a properly sampled gray- scale image using 2D isotropic

  15. L.J. van Vliet and P.W. Verbeek, Curvature and bending energy in digitized 2D and 3D images, in: SCIA'93, Proc. 8 th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, Tromso, Norway, 1993, 14031410.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    L.J. van Vliet and P.W. Verbeek, Curvature and bending energy in digitized 2D and 3D images, in­1410. Curvature and Bending Energy in Digitized 2D and 3D Images Lucas J. van Vliet and Piet W. Verbeek Pattern. In this paper we estimate object curvature directly from a properly sampled gray­ scale image using 2D isotropic

  16. Direct observation of the effective bending moduli of a fluid membrane: Free-energy cost due to the reference-plane deformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshihiro Nishiyama

    2003-07-10

    Effective bending moduli of a fluid membrane are investigated by means of the transfer-matrix method developed in our preceding paper. This method allows us to survey various statistical measures for the partition sum. The role of the statistical measures is arousing much attention, since Pinnow and Helfrich claimed that under a suitable statistical measure, that is, the local mean curvature, the fluid membranes are stiffened, rather than softened, by thermal undulations. In this paper, we propose an efficient method to observe the effective bending moduli directly: We subjected a fluid membrane to a curved reference plane, and from the free-energy cost due to the reference-plane deformations, we read off the effective bending moduli. Accepting the mean-curvature measure, we found that the effective bending rigidity gains even in the case of very flexible membrane (small bare rigidity); it has been rather controversial that for such non-perturbative regime, the analytical prediction does apply. We also incorporate the Gaussian-curvature modulus, and calculated its effective rigidity. Thereby, we found that the effective Gaussian-curvature modulus stays almost scale-invariant. All these features are contrasted with the results under the normal-displacement measure.

  17. Some considerations in simulation of superheated steam drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, S. [New Zealand Forest Research Inst., Rotorua (New Zealand). Wood Processing Div.

    1997-05-01

    A mathematical model for high-temperature drying of softwood lumber with moist air has been modified and extended to simulate wood drying with superheated steam. In the simulation, differences between the two types of drying are considered, these include: external heat and mass transfer processes and calculation of equilibrium moisture content. The external mass transfer coefficient in the superheated steam drying was found to be much higher than that in the moist air drying, however, the heat transfer coefficients for these two cases were of the same order. The predicted drying curves and wood temperatures from the superheated steam drying model were compared with experimental data and there was close agreement. Further studies will apply the model to development of commercial drying schedules for wood drying with superheated steam.

  18. Food Saving in Texas: Drying, Brining, Canning, Curing. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Cornelia

    1917-01-01

    , Home-made Hot Water Canner. A V E R A G E COMPOSITION OF FRESH A N D DRIED FRUITS. (From U. S. D. A . Bulletin 293 . ) FRESH FRUITS. K I N D Water Protein Ether Extract Zarbohydrates A s h Calories Per L b . Apples 84.-6 0.4 0.5 14.2 0.3 290 Figs.... BERRIES—can, bottled juice, jelly, preserves and jam. QUINCES—preserve and marmalade, jelly. CHERRIES—can, preserve. APRICOTS—dry, can, preserve and marmalade. MELON RINDS—preserve. W I N T E R G A R D E N S A N D HOT BEDS. Collards Green Onions...

  19. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, Janda K. G. (Edgewood, NM); Jellison, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Staley, David J. (Los Lunas, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A system for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs.

  20. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Jellison, J.L.; Staley, D.J.

    1995-04-25

    A system is disclosed for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs. 1 fig.

  1. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY)

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  2. Independent Panel Evaluation of Dry Sludge PISA Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    1999-10-20

    Dr. Kirk Yeager and Mr. Marvin Banks from Energetic Material Research and Technology Center (EMRTC) evaluated the Savannah River Site (SRS) efforts in the Dry Sludge program. They evaluated four program areas: energetic material formation, stability, initiation, and propagation. The panel evaluation included a site visit (July 13, 1999 and July 14, 1999) as well as a review of various reports and presentations by researchers involved in the program.

  3. 7-forming, superconducting filaments through bicomponent dry spinning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuominen, Olli P. (Ogden, UT); Morgan, Carol W. (Asheville, NC); Burlone, Dominick A. (Asheville, NC); Blankenship, Keith V. (Asheville, NC)

    2001-01-01

    Fibers which contain potentially superconducting material are dry spun by the steps of preparing a suspension of potentially superconducting powder in a thickened solvent; preparing a solution of fiber-forming polymer; supplying the suspension and the solution to a spinning apparatus; in the spinning apparatus, arranging the solution and the suspension in a bicomponent arrangement; extruding the arranged solution and suspension from a spinneret as a bicomponent filament; and removing the solvent from the filament.

  4. Drum drying of black liquor using superheated steam impinging jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiravi, A.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Kubes, G.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    A novel drum dryer for black liquor utilizing multiple impinging jets of superheated steam was designed and built to evaluate the performance characteristics and effects of various operating parameters thereon. Appropriate ranges of parameters such as steam jet temperature and velocity were examined experimentally to quantify the optimal operating conditions for the formation of black liquor film on the drum surface as well as the drying kinetics.

  5. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  6. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fins, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fins are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized material then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal.

  7. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1984-08-16

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fines, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fines are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized materials then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal. 2 figs.

  8. Safe Advantage on Dry Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em S.Paulo, Brazilian Navy Technological Center, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to present the advantages of dry cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (cooling water pools) for SNF. When the nuclear fuel is removed from the core reactor, it is moved to a storage unit and it wait for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside water pools within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. After some period of time in pools, SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing facilities, or still, wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet facilities, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. Interim storage, up to 20 years ago, was exclusively wet and if the nuclear facility had to be decommissioned another storage solution had to be found. At the present time, after a preliminary cooling of the SNF elements inside the water pool, the elements can be stored in dry facilities. This kind of storage does not need complex radiation monitoring and it is safer then wet one. Casks, either concrete or metallic, are safer, especially on occurrence of earthquakes, like that occurred at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, in Japan on July 16, 2007. (authors)

  9. Hot-dry-rock energy: review of environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Banion, K.

    1981-10-13

    The potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the production of energy contained in hot dry rock (HDR) is surveyed here. In general, careful siting and timing and routine control measures should be adequate to prevent significant environmental harm; sites of particular ecological or visual and recreational value, however, may require more extensive (and more expensive) precautions such as using multiwell pads to reduce land disturbance and dry or wet and dry cooling towers to reduce or eliminate the consumptive use of water. The most important uncertainty among the environmental concerns is the seismic response of HDR formations to short-duration fluid injections at pressures above fracture thresholds; continued monitoring at HDR development sites is necessary. The direct socioeconomic impacts of HDR development should be relatively minor, owing to its capital-intensive nature. Of greater potential importance are the indirect jobs resulting from such development, which could cause significant demographic (and thus fiscal and social) impacts in sparsely populated regions. However, such indirect growth is not expected to begin until a large, stable HDR industry is established in a region, and thus its impacts are expected to be permanent rather than transient.

  10. The effect of drying on the heating value of biomass fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Pablo Gregorio

    1994-01-01

    There has been some speculation as to whether or not biomass fuels (such as feedlot manure) may lose volatile matter during the drying process. Since current standards state that heating value analysis may be performed before or after drying...

  11. Nonlinear Model-Based Control of Thin-Film Drying for Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    shrinkage during drying. A critical parameter to describe the highly nonlinear dynamics of the thin of four steps: preparation of the formulation solution, casting the solution as a thin layer that is dried

  12. Failure and Degradation Modes of PV Modules in a Hot Dry Climate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Failure and Degradation Modes of PV Modules in a Hot Dry Climate: Results After 12 to 26 Years of Field Exposure Failure and Degradation Modes of PV Modules in a Hot Dry Climate:...

  13. Test Plan for the Boiling Water Reactor Dry Cask Simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, Samuel; Lindgren, Eric R.

    2015-11-01

    The thermal performance of commercial nuclear spent fuel dry storage casks are evaluated through detailed numerical analysis . These modeling efforts are completed by the vendor to demonstrate performance and regulatory compliance. The calculations are then independently verified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Carefully measured data sets generated from testing of full sized casks or smaller cask analogs are widely recognized as vital for validating these models. Recent advances in dry storage cask designs have significantly increased the maximum thermal load allowed in a cask in part by increasing the efficiency of internal conduction pathways and by increasing the internal convection through greater canister helium pressure. These same vertical, canistered cask systems rely on ventilation between the canister and the overpack to convect heat away from the canister to the environment for both above and below-ground configurations. While several testing programs have been previously conducted, these earlier validation attempts did not capture the effects of elevated helium pressures or accurately portray the external convection of above-ground and below-ground canistered dry cask systems. The purpose of the investigation described in this report is to produce a data set that can be used to test the validity of the assumptions associated with the calculations presently used to determine steady-state cladding temperatures in modern vertical, canistered dry cask systems. The BWR cask simulator (BCS) has been designed in detail for both the above-ground and below-ground venting configurations. The pressure vessel representing the canister has been designed, fabricated, and pressure tested for a maximum allowable pressure (MAWP) rating of 24 bar at 400 deg C. An existing electrically heated but otherwise prototypic BWR Incoloy-clad test assembly is being deployed inside of a representative storage basket and cylindrical pressure vessel that represents the canister. The symmetric single assembly geometry with well-controlled boundary conditions simplifies interpretation of results. Various configurations of outer concentric ducting will be used to mimic conditions for above and below-ground storage configurations of vertical, dry cask systems with canisters. Radial and axial temperature profiles will be measured for a wide range of decay power and helium cask pressures. Of particular interest is the evaluation of the effect of increased helium pressure on allowable heat load and the effect of simulated wind on a simplified below ground vent configuration. While incorporating the best available information, this test plan is subject to changes due to improved understanding from modeling or from as-built deviations to designs. As-built conditions and actual procedures will be documented in the final test report.

  14. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  15. Effect of stainless steel weld overlay cladding on the structural integrity of flawed steel plates in bending. Series 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corwin, W.R.; Robinson, G.C.; Nanstad, R.K.; Merkle, J.G.; Berggren, R.G.; Goodwin, G.M.; Swain, R.L.; Owings, T.D.

    1985-04-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Stainless Steel Cladding Evaluations were undertaken to study the interaction of stainless steel cladding on the inside surface of a reactor pressure vessel with flaws initiating and propagating in base metal. With the more recent focus of safety studies on overcooling type transients, for which the behavior of small flaws is important, stainless steel cladding may have a key role in controlling the propagation and/or arrest of propagating flaws. A complicating factor in understanding the role of stainless steel cladding in this setting is the scarcity of data on its fracture toughness as a function of radiation dose and the fabrication process. The initial phase of the HSST evaluations addresses this question by testing the response of 51-mm-thick flawed plates clad with single-wire, submerged-arc weld overlays of different toughness levels. The tests completed indicate that cladding of moderate toughness had a limited ability to enhance the structural arrest toughness of a beam in bending. The specimen design and fabrication techniques employed for this first completed series of tests resulted in flaw and specimen configurations that prevented adequate control of the stress state at pop-in of the hydrogen-charged electron-beam welds. As a result, analyses of the tests by two approximate techniques and by the ORMGEN-ADINA-ORVIRT finite-element programs were not completely consistent.

  16. A BEAMLINE FOR HIGH PRESSURE STUDIES AT THE ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE WITH A SUPERCONDUCTING BENDING MAGNET AS THE SOURCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, M; MacDowell, A A; Caldwell, W A; Cambie, D; Celestre, R S; Domning, E E; Duarte, R M; Gleason, A; Glossinger, J; Kelez, N; Plate, D W; Yu, T; Zaug, J M; Padmore, H A; Jeanloz, R; Alivisatos, A P; Clark, S M

    2005-04-19

    A new facility for high-pressure diffraction and spectroscopy using diamond anvil high-pressure cells has been built at the Advanced Light Source on Beamline 12.2.2. This beamline benefits from the hard X-radiation generated by a 6 Tesla superconducting bending magnet (superbend). Useful x-ray flux is available between 5 keV and 35 keV. The radiation is transferred from the superbend to the experimental enclosure by the brightness preserving optics of the beamline. These optics are comprised of: a plane parabola collimating mirror (M1), followed by a Kohzu monochromator vessel with a Si(111) crystals (E/{Delta}E {approx} 7000) and a W/B{sub 4}C multilayer (E/{Delta}E {approx} 100), and then a toroidal focusing mirror (M2) with variable focusing distance. The experimental enclosure contains an automated beam positioning system, a set of slits, ion chambers, the sample positioning goniometry and area detectors (CCD or image-plate detector). Future developments aim at the installation of a second end station dedicated for in situ laser-heating on one hand and a dedicated high-pressure single-crystal station, applying both monochromatic as well as polychromatic techniques.

  17. A Beamline for High-Pressure Studies at the Advanced Light Sourcewith a Superconducting Bending Magnet as the Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, Martin; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Cambie, Daniella; Celestre, Richard S.; Domning, Edward E.; Duarte,Robert M.; Gleason, Arianna E.; Glossinger, James M.; Kelez, Nicholas; Plate, David W.; Yu, Tony; Zaug, Joeseph M.; Padmore, Howard A.; Jeanloz,Raymond; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Clark, Simon M.

    2005-06-30

    A new facility for high-pressure diffraction and spectroscopy using diamond anvil high-pressure cells has been built at the Advanced Light Source on Beamline 12.2.2. This beamline benefits from the hard X-radiation generated by a 6 Tesla superconducting bending magnet (superbend). Useful x-ray flux is available between 5 keV and 35 keV. The radiation is transferred from the superbend to the experimental enclosure by the brightness preserving optics of the beamline. These optics are comprised of: a plane parabola collimating mirror (M1), followed by a Kohzu monochromator vessel with a Si(111) crystals (E/DE {approx}7000) and a W/B4C multilayers (E/DE {approx} 100), and then a toroidal focusing mirror (M2) with variable focusing distance. The experimental enclosure contains an automated beam positioning system, a set of slits, ion chambers, the sample positioning goniometry and area detectors (CCD or image-plate detector). Future developments aim at the installation of a second end station dedicated for in situ laser-heating on one hand and a dedicated high-pressure single-crystal station, applying both monochromatic as well as polychromatic techniques.

  18. Observation of Work Functions, Metallicity, Band Bending, Interfacial Dipoles by EUPS for Characterizing High-k/Metal Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomie, Toshihisa; Ishitsuka, Tomoaki; Ootsuka, Teruhisa; Ota, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-10

    EUPS (EUV excited photoelectron spectroscopy) is a novel photoelectron spectroscopy technique, in which a sample is excited with 4.86 nm (255 eV), 3-ns pulse EUV light emitted from a laser-produced plasma and the resulting electron spectrum is analyzed with a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer. EUPS gives information of the topmost atoms because the escape depth of photo-electrons excited by 4.86 nm light is only 0.5 nm. EUPS can evaluate band-bending because the peak density of the excitation light on the sample is extremely high, so that bent electronic bands in semiconductors can be flattened. Secondary electron spectra, from which the vacuum level of the material surface can be determined, are obtained very quickly owing to the use of a TOF analyzer, The metal gate related issues are one of the most challenging topics facing CMOS technology. This paper demonstrates EUPS as a powerful method for characterizing high-k/metal interfaces by showing data from direct observations of interfacial dipoles.

  19. Converting printed wiring product processing to aqueous processable dry film photoresist. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldammer, S.E.

    1996-07-01

    Fully aqueous processable dry film photoresists were evaluated to determine which dry film in the Federal Manufacturing and Technologies printed wiring board facility performed the best. The photoresists were chosen for their compatibility in alkaline etching, copper electroplating, and tin-lead electroplating. The processing evaluation included both single layer and double layer dry film photoresist for pattern plating.

  20. Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mudd, Simon Marius

    Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets David Jon by raindrop impacts. We use high-speed imaging of drop impacts on dry sand to describe the drop (2007), Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets, J

  1. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "B3-DryOx" furnace in TRL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "B3-DryOx" furnace in TRL. INTRODUCTION Tube "B3-Dry profile in the Center Zone; they are arranged in a master/slave configuration and the temperature profile to handle those parts PROCEDURE. 1) "ENGAGE" the machine in CORAL for TRL tube "B3-DryOx"machine, before you

  2. Experimental investigations of beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbaniec, K.; Malczewski, J. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland). Dept. of Process Equipment

    1997-10-01

    Beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure makes it possible to save energy in sugar factories. A new concept of a two-stage convective steam drier is presented. To obtain kinetic data on beet pulp drying, an experimental setup was built. Beet pulp samples were dried at steam pressure up to 4 bar and temperature up to 220 C.

  3. A nonparametric wet/dry spell model for resampling daily precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    A nonparametric wet/dry spell model for resampling daily precipitation Upmanu Lall Department precipitation at a site. The model considers alternating sequences of wet and dry days in a given season, wet spell length, precipitation amount, and wet spell length given prior to dry spell length

  4. Tetrahedral Symmetry for Methane The infrared spectrum of methane shows two absorptions: a bend at 1306 cm-1 and a stretch at 3019 cm-1. Demonstrate that a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioux, Frank

    Tetrahedral Symmetry for Methane The infrared spectrum of methane shows two absorptions: a bend symmetry for methane is consistent with this spectroscopic data. Also predict how many Raman active modes methane should have. E C3 C2 S4 A1 : x2 + y2 + z2 A2 C Td 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1

  5. Viability of Existing INL Facilities for Dry Storage Cask Handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randy Bohachek; Charles Park; Bruce Wallace; Phil Winston; Steve Marschman

    2013-04-01

    This report evaluates existing capabilities at the INL to determine if a practical and cost effective method could be developed for opening and handling full-sized dry storage casks. The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603, Irradiated Spent Fuel Storage Facility, provides the infrastructure to support handling and examining casks and their contents. Based on a reasonable set of assumptions, it is possible to receive, open, inspect, remove samples, close, and reseal large bolted-lid dry storage casks at the INL. The capability can also be used to open and inspect casks that were last examined at the TAN Hot Shop over ten years ago. The Castor V/21 and REA-2023 casks can provide additional confirmatory information regarding the extended performance of low-burnup (<45 GWD/MTU) used nuclear fuel. Once a dry storage cask is opened inside CPP-603, used fuel retrieved from the cask can be packaged in a shipping cask, and sent to a laboratory for testing. Testing at the INL’s Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) can occur starting with shipment of samples from CPP-603 over an on-site road, avoiding the need to use public highways. This reduces cost and reduces the risk to the public. The full suite of characterization methods needed to establish the condition of the fuel exists and MFC. Many other testing capabilities also exist at MFC, but when those capabilities are not adequate, samples can be prepared and shipped to other laboratories for testing. This report discusses how the casks would be handled, what work needs to be done to ready the facilities/capabilities, and what the work will cost.

  6. Viability of Existing INL Facilities for Dry Storage Cask Handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohachek, Randy; Wallace, Bruce; Winston, Phil; Marschman, Steve

    2013-04-30

    This report evaluates existing capabilities at the INL to determine if a practical and cost effective method could be developed for opening and handling full-sized dry storage casks. The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603, Irradiated Spent Fuel Storage Facility, provides the infrastructure to support handling and examining casks and their contents. Based on a reasonable set of assumptions, it is possible to receive, open, inspect, remove samples, close, and reseal large bolted-lid dry storage casks at the INL. The capability can also be used to open and inspect casks that were last examined at the TAN Hot Shop over ten years ago. The Castor V/21 and REA-2023 casks can provide additional confirmatory information regarding the extended performance of low-burnup (<45 GWD/MTU) used nuclear fuel. Once a dry storage cask is opened inside CPP-603, used fuel retrieved from the cask can be packaged in a shipping cask, and sent to a laboratory for testing. Testing at the INL’s Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) can occur starting with shipment of samples from CPP-603 over an on-site road, avoiding the need to use public highways. This reduces cost and reduces the risk to the public. The full suite of characterization methods needed to establish the condition of the fuel exists and MFC. Many other testing capabilities also exist at MFC, but when those capabilities are not adequate, samples can be prepared and shipped to other laboratories for testing. This report discusses how the casks would be handled, what work needs to be done to ready the facilities/capabilities, and what the work will cost.

  7. Demonstrating the Safety of Long-Term Dry Storage - 13468

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCullum, Rod; Brookmire, Tom; Kessler, John; Leblang, Suzanne; Levin, Adam; Martin, Zita; Nesbit, Steve; Nichol, Marc; Pickens, Terry

    2013-07-01

    Commercial nuclear plants in the United States were originally designed with the expectation that used nuclear fuel would be moved directly from the reactor pools and transported off site for either reprocessing or direct geologic disposal. However, Federal programs intended to meet this expectation were never able to develop the capability to remove used fuel from reactor sites - and these programs remain stalled to this day. Therefore, in the 1980's, with reactor pools reaching capacity limits, industry began developing dry cask storage technology to provide for additional on-site storage. Use of this technology has expanded significantly since then, and has today become a standard part of plant operations at most US nuclear sites. As this expansion was underway, Federal programs remained stalled, and it became evident that dry cask systems would be in use longer than originally envisioned. In response to this challenge, a strong technical basis supporting the long term dry storage safety has been developed. However, this is not a static situation. The technical basis must be able to address future challenges. Industry is responding to one such challenge - the increasing prevalence of high burnup (HBU) used fuel and the need to provide long term storage assurance for these fuels equivalent to that which has existed for lower burnup fuels over the past 25 years. This response includes a confirmatory demonstration program designed to address the aging characteristics of HBU fuel and set a precedent for a learning approach to aging management that will have broad applicability across the used fuel storage landscape. (authors)

  8. Meat Alternate Cookery: Eggs, Nuts, Soybeans, Dried Beans and Peas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeten, Mary K.

    1980-01-01

    are listed on the back cover. Eggs serve as a meat alternate as they are good sources of animal protein, minerals and vitamins . Nuts, including peanuts, are rich in fat as well as protein. Peanuts are especially good sources of B vitamins . Nuts.... Eggs are used in meat dishes, as a leavening agent, and to thicken sauces. Nuts and peanut butter make good snacks and are used as an ingredient in main dishes, soups, salads, cooked veg etables, breads and desserts. Dried beans and whole peas...

  9. The Drying Rates of Raw Paint Oils: A Comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brock, Frank Peterson

    1913-01-01

    . The results of some of the more important investiga­ tions upon the drying phenomena of linseed and chinawood oils are given below. i HISTORICAL Lippert has found that raw lin­ seed oil, when spread in thin films upon sheet iron, " increases in weight... until after this point was reached. 4 Orloff found that linseed oil increases in weight 15-16 percent with initial setting up at 12% when the oil is spread out into films, weighing 0.1 to 0.15 grams over an area of 108 square centimeters...

  10. Nevada Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996) in155Decade Year-0(Dollars perDry Natural Gas

  11. Louisiana - North Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential Consumers (Number of33 2,297Feet) Dry Natural Gas

  12. Louisiana - South Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential Consumers (Number of33 2,297Feet) Dry(Million(Billion

  13. Alaska--Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade2,948 2,724 2,570Month PreviousDry Production (Million

  14. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade2,948 2,724perSales (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry

  15. Property:Dry Mass (kg) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to: navigation, search Property NameDefinition JumpShoreDoes ThisDry Mass (kg)

  16. Property:Dry Mass(kg) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to: navigation, search Property NameDefinition JumpShoreDoes ThisDry Mass

  17. Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table272/S The NationalData Series: Proved Reserves

  18. Natural Gas Dry, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO),7F e

  19. Nevada Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,Decade Year-03.823,172Year Jan Feb Mar Apr-348,719 -17,009Dry

  20. U.S. Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of the NationalSales (Million Barrels) U.S. CrudeDry Natural

  1. Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0

  2. Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade

  3. Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

  4. Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)New

  5. Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)NewIncreases

  6. Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

  7. VOLUME 82, NUMBER 22 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 31 MAY 1999 Bending and Base-Stacking Interactions in Double-Stranded DNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yang

    is proposed by taking into account the structural properties of realistic dsDNA. Bending energy of the sugar and un- winding instability of DNA. We suggest that the present model, after some revisions, will also

  8. Long-term elemental dry deposition fluxes measured around Lake Michigan with an automated dry deposition sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahin, U. Yi, S.M.; Paode, R.D.; Holsen, T.M.

    2000-05-15

    Long-term measurements of mass and elemental dry deposition (MG, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, and Pb) were made with an automated dry deposition sampler (Eagle II) containing knife-edge surrogate surfaces during the Lake Michigan Mass Balance/Mass Budget Study. Measurements were made over a roughly 700-day period in Chicago, IL; in South Haven and Sleeping Bear Dunes, MI; and over Lake Michigan on the 68th Street drinking water intake cribs from December 1993 to October 1995. Average mass fluxes in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 65, 10, 3.6, and 12 mg m{sup {minus}2} day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Primarily crustal elemental fluxes were significantly smaller than the mass fluxes but higher than primarily anthropogenic elemental fluxes. For example, the average elemental flux of Al in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 1.0, 0.34, 0.074, and 0.34 mg m{sup {minus}2}day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The average Pb fluxes in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 0.038, 0.023, 0.035, and 0.032 mg m{sup {minus}2}day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The measured fluxes at the various sites were used to calculate the dry deposition loadings to the lake. These estimated fluxes were highest for Mg and lowest for Cd.

  9. Operation of dry-cleaned and agglomerated precompaction system (DAPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Shigemi; Okanishi, Kazuya; Kikuchi, Akio; Yamamura, Yuichi

    1997-12-31

    In order to reduce the manufacturing cost of coke, it is necessary to reduce mainly (1) the material cost and (2) operating cost. Both of these costs can be reduced by lowering the moisture of charging coal. Because dust generation increases with decreasing moisture of charging coal, however, the lower limit of charging coal moisture in the existing coke-oven equipment was about 5%, which yielded good results in coal moisture control (CMC) equipment. Nippon Steel has furthered the development of techniques for lowering the moisture of charging coal as far as possible in the existing coke ovens and has recently succeeded in developing a dry-cleaned and agglomerated precompaction system (DAPS) and incorporating this system in commercial production equipment. In this system, a coal preparation process is undertaken that involves separating coal fines, which cause dust generation, from dried charging coal and agglomerating them. The equipment incorporating this system was installed in the No. 3 and No. 4 coke batteries at Oita Works and brought into full-scale operation in September 1992. The equipment has since been operating smoothly.

  10. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  11. Dry compliant seal for phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J. (South Greensburg, PA); Woodle, Boyd M. (N. Huntingdon Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A dry compliant overlapping seal for a phosphoric acid fuel cell preformed f non-compliant Teflon to make an anode seal frame that encircles an anode assembly, a cathode seal frame that encircles a cathode assembly and a compliant seal frame made of expanded Teflon, generally encircling a matrix assembly. Each frame has a thickness selected to accommodate various tolerances of the fuel cell elements and are either bonded to one of the other frames or to a bipolar or end plate. One of the non-compliant frames is wider than the other frames forming an overlap of the matrix over the wider seal frame, which cooperates with electrolyte permeating the matrix to form a wet seal within the fuel cell that prevents process gases from intermixing at the periphery of the fuel cell and a dry seal surrounding the cell to keep electrolyte from the periphery thereof. The frames may be made in one piece, in L-shaped portions or in strips and have an outer perimeter which registers with the outer perimeter of bipolar or end plates to form surfaces upon which flanges of pan shaped, gas manifolds can be sealed.

  12. Allometric estimation of earthworm ash-free dry mass from diameters and lengths of select megascolecid and lumbricid species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Scott

    Allometric estimation of earthworm ash-free dry mass from diameters and lengths of select Enchytraeid a b s t r a c t We present novel length to ash-free dry mass and preclitellar diameter to ash. 1999). Dry mass, or ash-free dry mass (AFDM), provides a measure of biomass that is not influenced

  13. Controlled waste-oil biodegradation at existing drying beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hary, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Facility to determine if sludge drying beds at a sewage treatment plant could be used as controlled waste oil biodegradation plots has been completed. A greenhouse-like enclosure would be constructed over three 9.1 meter by 21.3 meter beds to allow for year-round use, and any waste oil runoff would be collected by existing leachate piping. It has been determined that this proposed facility could dispose of existing radioactive waste oil generation (7200 liters/year) from the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP); however, it would be inadequate to handle radioactive waste oils from the new Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) as well. The study reviewed nuclear criticality constraints, biodegradation technology, and the capital cost for an enclosed biodegradation facility.

  14. Tenderness, flavor, and yield assessments of dry-aged beef 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laster, Megan Ann

    2009-05-15

    Dry aged 48 7.0 6.9 6.8 7.3 7.3 6.6 6.6 2.3 Wet aged 48 7.0 6.9 6.9 7.5 7.5 6.8 6.7 2.3 P > F 0.6520 0.7649 0.6197 0.0727 0.0945 0.2706 0.4252 0.4734 Aging period g 14 d 24 6.8 6.9 6.8 7.2 7.2 6.6 6.5 2.4 21 d 24 7.2 7.1 6.9 7.4 7.4 6...

  15. Dry film lubricant for difficult drawing applications of galvanized steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakano, Shigeru; Sakane, Tadashi; Hirose, Yozou . Iron and Steel Research Lab.); Matsuda, Naomichi; Onodera, Show . Oleo Chemicals Research Lab.)

    1993-09-01

    Press formability of metals sheets is considered to depend on surface lubricity, press forming condition and mechanical properties of the metal sheets. In Zn and Zn-alloy plated steel sheets with heavy coatings, surface lubricity is the most important property. This is because the low melting temperature and low hardness of the plated layer occasionally cause microscopic galling through deformation at the beads of dies which may, consequently, result in sheet breakage. Press formability of Zn and Zn-alloy plated steel sheets with heavy coating weight has been improved by the use of a high viscosity lubricant oil and a Fe-Zn alloy flash-plating on galvannealed steel. However, the use of high viscosity lubricant oils created problems with oil staining and removal before painting. An alloy flash plating results in appreciably higher production costs. This article describes the characteristics of a thin film dry lubricant, Super S-coat, as a new countermeasure, which will overcome these problems.

  16. Composition/bandgap selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Dishman, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition and direct bandgap Eg.sub.1 in the presence of a second semiconductor material of a different composition and direct bandgap Eg.sub.2, wherein Eg.sub.2 >Eg.sub.1, said second semiconductor material substantially not being etched during said method, comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux and to the same gaseous etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said photons being of an energy greater than Eg.sub.1 but less than Eg.sub.2, whereby said first semiconductor material is photochemically etched and said second material is substantially not etched.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  18. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Ali, M. K. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Ruslan, M. H. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Muthuvalu, M. S. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Wong, J. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Sulaiman, J. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my; Yasir, S. Md. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my

    2014-06-19

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m{sup 2} and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  19. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  20. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. ); Haefner, R. . Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  1. Data on production and use of DRI: World and U. S. [Direct Reduced Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, H.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will present data on the production and use direct-reduced iron (DRI) worldwide, focusing primarily on its use in the United States. The author is indebted to the Midrex Corporation for the data on world production of DRI. The U.S. data is his own and he will explain later how it was collected. He uses the term DRI to include all forms of direct-reduced iron, whether briquettes, pellets or lump.

  2. The U.S. Dry-Mill Ethanol Industry: Biobased Products and Bioenergy Initiative Success Stories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-28

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the history of ethanol production in the United States and describes innovations in dry-mill ethanol production.

  3. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates Hoeschele, Marc [National

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates Hoeschele, Marc National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chitwood, Rick National Renewable Energy...

  4. The dynamic shape factor of sodium chloride nanoparticles as regulated by drying rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z.; Lewis, E.; King, S. M.; Freney, E.; Rosenoern, T.; Smith, M.; Chen, Q.; Kuwata, M.; Poschl, U.; Wang, W.; Buseck, P. R.; Martin, S. T.

    2010-09-01

    The influence of drying rate on the dynamic shape factor {chi} of NaCl particles was investigated. The drying rate at the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of 45% was controlled in a laminar flow tube and varied from 5.5 {+-} 0.9 to 101 {+-} 3 RH s{sup -1} at ERH, where RH represents one percent unit of relative humidity. Dry particles having mobility diameters of 23-84 nm were studied, corresponding to aqueous particles of 37-129 nm at the RH (57%) prior to drying. At each mobility diameter and drying rate, the critical supersaturation of cloud-condensation activation was also measured. The mobility diameter and the critical supersaturation were combined in an analysis to determine the value of {chi}. The measured values varied from 1.02 to 1.26. For fixed particle diameter the {chi} value decreased with increasing drying rate. For fixed drying rate, a maximum occurred in {chi} between 35- and 40-nm dry mobility diameter, with a lower {chi} for both smaller and larger particles. The results of this study, in conjunction with the introduced apparatus for obtaining quantified drying rates, can allow the continued development of a more detailed understanding of the morphology of submicron salt particles, with the potential for the follow-on development of quantitative modeling of evaporation and crystal growth at these dimensions.

  5. Geometry for web microwave heating or drying to a desired profile in a waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Habeger, Jr., Charles C.; Patterson, Timothy F.; Ahrens, Frederick W.

    2005-11-15

    A microwave heater and/or dryer has a nonlinear or curvilinear relative slot profile geometry. In one embodiment, the microwave dryer has at least one adjustable field modifier making it possible to change the geometry of the heater or dryer when drying different webs. In another embodiment, the microwave dryer provides more uniform drying of a web when the field modifier is adjusted in response to a sensed condition of the web. Finally, a method of microwave heating and/or drying a web achieves a uniform heating and/or drying profile.

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Drying Process for Lower Manufacturing Cost of Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Lambda Technologies at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced drying process...

  7. Building America Case Study: High Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Building...

  8. Simulation of deep-bed drying of Virginia peanuts to minimize energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulasiri, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    A deep-bed drying model simulating the drying of peanuts in a fixed bed is required for designing energy-efficient and automatically controlled dryers. A deep-red drying model consists of a thin-layer drying model to calculate the moisture release from the material and a set of mass and energy balances. An experimental setup was constructed to determine drying rates of Virginia-type peanuts under 14 different drying air conditions. Selected empirical and semi-theoretical models available for modeling thin-layer drying rates were fitted to the collected data using nonlinear regression techniques. The modified Page's model and the two-term exponential model fitted the data better than other models considered. A deep-bed drying model PEATECH based on four coupled partial differential equations consisting of four variables, air temperature, peanut temperature, air humidity, and peanut moisture content was developed. Validation of the model was accomplished by using the data collected from 36 deep-bed drying experiments conducted using three laboratory dryers during 1987, 1988, and 1989. PEATECH predicted the variables within a peanut bed with an accuracy of less than {plus minus} 6%. The energy saving potential of exhaust-air recirculation was established by conducting simulated experiments using a modified version of PEATECH.

  9. Bibliography of the geological and geophysical aspects of hot dry rock geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, G.; Sayer, S.

    1980-02-01

    This is the first issue of an annual compilation of references that are useful to the exploration, understanding and development of the hot dry rock geothermal resource.

  10. Instrumented, Shielded Test Canister System for Evaluation of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Dry Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    1999-10-21

    This document describes the development of an instrumented, shielded test canister system to store and monitor aluminum-based spent nuclear duel under dry storage conditions.

  11. Superficial Wrinkles in Stretched, Drying Gelatin Films R. Rizzieri,, L. Mahadevan,*, A. Vaziri, and A. Donald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahadevan, L.

    Superficial Wrinkles in Stretched, Drying Gelatin Films R. Rizzieri,,§ L. Mahadevan,*, A. Vaziri. In Final Form: NoVember 17, 2005 When a thin film of initially hydrated gelatin is allowed to dry from%), a periodic pattern of wrinkles appears on the surface of the gelatin along the length of the sample

  12. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL CONDITIONING ON THIN-LAYER DRYING OF ENERGY SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2012-10-01

    Cellulosic energy varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench show promise as a bioenergy feedstock, however, high moisture content at the time of harvest results in unacceptable levels of degradation when stored in aerobic conditions. To safely store sorghum biomass for extended periods in baled format, the material must be dried to inhibit microbial growth. One possible solution is allowing the material to dry under natural in-field conditions. This study examines the differences in thin-layer drying rates of intact and conditioned sorghum under laboratory-controlled temperatures and relative humidity levels (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C from 40% to 85% relative humidity), and models experimental data using the Page’s Modified equation. The results demonstrate that conditioning drastically accelerates drying times. Relative humidity had a large impact on the time required to reach a safe storage moisture content for intact material (approximately 200 hours at 30 degrees C and 40% relative humidity and 400 hours at 30 degrees C and 70% relative humidity), but little to no impact on the thin-layer drying times of conditioned material (approximately 50 hours for all humidity levels < 70% at 30 degrees C). The drying equation parameters were influenced by temperature, relative humidity, initial moisture content, and material damage, allowing drying curves to be empirically predicted. The results of this study provide valuable information applicable to the agricultural community and to future research on drying simulation and management of energy sorghum.

  13. Fabrication of activated carbon fibers/carbon aerogels composites by gelation and supercritical drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jie

    solvent such as acetone, and then exchanging with liquid CO2 and drying under CO2 supercritical conditionsFabrication of activated carbon fibers/carbon aerogels composites by gelation and supercritical a mixture of ACF and resorcinol and furfural, followed by supercritical drying of the mixture in isopropanol

  14. System interactions and energy savings in a hot dry climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, S.; Hancock, E.; Anderson, R.

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate opportunities for reducing cooling energy use in a hot dry climate, two new production houses located near Phoenix, Arizona, were studied: (1) a control home built with standard construction and (2) a prototype home with an integrated package of energy-saving features. The prototype's energy-saving features included spectrally selective windows, interior air handler location, low-loss ducts, and high efficiency air-conditioning equipment. Both houses were monitored while unoccupied for a period of several weeks during very hot weather to evaluate cooling energy sue. A comparison of short periods of detailed data showed a cooling energy use reduction of approximately 40% during peak summer conditions. Effects of the various energy-saving measures and their interactions were separated by a series of tests that focused on specific components of the overall cooling load. It is important to understand the interactions of shell measures with mechanical system measures to properly size equipment and minimize overall system costs. An experimental technique was also developed to directly measure the contribution of window solar gains to overall cooling loads.

  15. Oven rack having integral lubricious, dry porcelain surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrose, Jeffrey A; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail; Sikka, Vinod K; Qu, Jun

    2014-06-03

    A lubricious glass-coated metal cooking article capable of withstanding repeated heating and cooling between room temperature and at least 500.degree. F. without chipping or cracking the glass coating, wherein the glass coating includes about 0.1 to about 20% by weight of a homogeneously distributed dry refractory lubricant material having a particle size less than about 200 .mu.m. The lubricant material is selected from the group consisting of carbon; graphite; boron nitride; cubic boron nitride; molybdenum (FV) sulfide; molybdenum sulfide; molybdenum (IV) selenide; molybdenum selenide, tungsten (IV) sulfide; tungsten disulfide; tungsten sulfide; silicon nitride (Si.sub.3N.sub.4); TiN; TiC; TiCN; TiO.sub.2; TiAlN; CrN; SiC; diamond-like carbon; tungsten carbide (WC); zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2); zirconium oxide and 0.1 to 40 weight % aluminum oxide; alumina-zirconia; antimony; antimony oxide; antimony trioxide; and mixtures thereof.

  16. Multi-scale mechanical response of freeze-dried collagen scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Offeddu, Giovanni S.; Ashworth, Jennifer C.; Cameron, Ruth E.; Oyen, Michelle L.

    2014-11-11

    ) instantaneous modulus, (b) equilibrium modulus, (c) viscoelastic ratio. The error bars express the standard error of the mean.thickness, becomes larger than that due to bending of the membrane for thicknesses greater than 4 ?m, eventually dominating the response... walls were indented usingcollagen scaffolds fowww.elsevier.c Research Paper/locate/jmbbm The induced strain ? was varied to investigate a possible fsignificant role as well (Shapiro and Oyen, 2013). This is particularly important in the case of bone...

  17. Method for predicting dry mechanical properties from wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-08-12

    A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral data correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from a reference wood when dried and having a dry moisture content.

  18. Summary - Hot Dry Rock R&D Strategies and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennyson, George P..

    1989-03-21

    In geothermal energy technology, the hydrothermal systems rely on volcanic hot rocks being fortuitously co-located with an adequate supply of natural ground water, usually at some considerable depth within the earth. This represents essentially two accidents in the same place, and the occurrence is relatively rare. Yellowstone Park and the desert valley of southern California are the most noteworthy US. examples. Since the heat is the energy needed, if we could just get the water down to it and back. Well, that's what is being done with the hot dry rock program. A well is drilled down to where there is adequate heat in the rocks. The well is then pressurized until the rock fractures creating what amounts to a reservoir full of hot, shattered rock. Finally, a well is drilled into the reservoir and water is pumped in one well, heated by the rock, and taken out through the other well at useful temperatures and pressures. We are getting ready to run significant long-term flow tests at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock site west of Los Alamos, New Mexico. We expect the operational information to provide the data to forecast the energy life of the wells as a production facility. This kind of resource is much more common than regular geothermal resources. Robert H. Hendron described the Long Term Flow Test and reservoir studies for which the project is preparing. A shortfall of available funding has slowed preparations, delaying the start of that test. The test is planning to gather data for more definitive reservoir modeling with energy availability or reservoir lifetime of primary interest. Other interests include geochemistry and tracer studies, microseismic response, water requirements and flow impedance which relates directly to the pumping power required. Progress has been made in modeling studies, chemically reactive tracer techniques, and in improvements in acoustic or microseismic event analysis. Donald W. Brown discussed reservoir modeling as it relates to production management of the HDR well. For wells which are fracture dominated rather than matrix-permeability controlled, a knowledge of the pressure-dependent permeability of the interconnected system of natural joints (or pre-existing fractures is critical to long-term power production from the wells) through optimized pressure management. It was mentioned that a knowledge of the pressure-dependent joint permeability could aid in designing more appropriate secondary recovery strategies in petroleum reservoirs, or reinjection I procedures of geothermal reservoirs. Dr. Bruce A. Robinson discussed the development of fluid flow and transport models for simulation of HDR geothermal reservoirs. These models are also expected to provide accurate predictions of long-term behavior and help in the development of strategies for reservoir improvement and operation. Two approaches were discussed. The discrete fracture approach is based on a random fracture network subject to prescribed statistical properties of the fracture set. It is used to simulate steady state fluid flow and solute transport. The other approach used the continuum approximation. This type of model is appropriate when the reservoir consists of many interconnected fractures, as is the case at Fenton Hill.

  19. Hot dry rock geothermal energy. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This second EPRI workshop on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy, held in May 1994, focused on the status of worldwide HDR research and development and used that status review as the starting point for discussions of what could and should be done next: by U.S. federal government, by U.S. industry, by U.S. state governments, and by international organizations or through international agreements. The papers presented and the discussion that took place indicate that there is a community of researchers and industrial partners that could join forces, with government support, to begin a new effort on hot dry rock geothermal development. This new heat mining effort would start with site selection and confirmatory studies, done concurrently. The confirmatory studies would test past evaluations against the most current results (from the U.S. site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, and from the two sites in Japan, the one in Russia, and the two in western Europe) and the best models of relevant physical and economic aspects. Site selection would be done in the light of the confirmatory studies and would be influenced by the need to find a site where success is probable and which is representative enough of other sites so that its success would imply good prospects for success at numerous other sites. The test of success would be circulation between a pair of wells, or more wells, in a way that confirmed, with the help of flow modeling, that a multi-well system would yield temperatures, flows and lifetimes that support economically feasible power generation. The flow modeling would have to have previously achieved its own confirmation from relevant data taken from both heat mining and conventional hydrothermal geothermal experience. There may be very relevant experience from the enhancement of ''hot wet rock'' sites, i.e., sites where hydrothermal reservoirs lack, or have come to lack, enough natural water or steam and are helped by water injected cold and produced hot. The new site would have to be selected in parallel with the confirmatory studies because it would have to be modeled as part of the studies and because its similarity to other candidate sites must be known well enough to assure that results at the selected site are relevant to many others. Also, the industry partners in the joint effort at the new site must be part of the confirmatory studies, because they must be convinced of the economic feasibility. This meeting may have brought together the core of people who can make such a joint effort take place. EPRI sponsored the organization of this meeting in order to provide utilities with an update on the prospects for power generation via heat mining. Although the emerging rules for electric utilities competing in power generation make it very unlikely that the rate-payers of any one utility (or small group of utilities) can pay the differential to support this new heat mining research and development effort, the community represented at this meeting may be able to make the case for national or international support of a new heat mining effort, based on the potential size and economics of this resource as a benefit for the nation as a whole and as a contribution to reduced emissions of fossil CO{sub 2} worldwide.

  20. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

  1. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 2; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    This guidebook is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates.

  2. soluble fish proteins obtained by enzymatic treatment of fresh fish offals dried according to the Hatmaker or Spray methods. Six artificial milks were made by dry pelleting of either cow skim-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    to the Hatmaker or Spray methods. Six artificial milks were made by dry pelleting of either cow skim- milk powder

  3. Design of a dry sump lubrication system for a Honda® CBR 600 F4i engine for Formula SAE applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farkhondeh, Ehsan

    2006-01-01

    A dry sump lubrication system for a Formula SAE race car was designed and manufactured in order to gain the various advantages this type of system affords. A dry sump system stores oil in an external tank and pumps it ...

  4. Uniaxial Freezing, Freeze-Drying, and Anodization for Aligned Pore Structure in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Marc A.

    Uniaxial Freezing, Freeze-Drying, and Anodization for Aligned Pore Structure in Dye to create the micro- and nanostructures are uniaxial freezing, freeze-drying, and anodization or etching

  5. Doping suppression and mobility enhancement of graphene transistors fabricated using an adhesion promoting dry transfer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheol Shin, Woo; Hun Mun, Jeong; Yong Kim, Taek; Choi, Sung-Yool; Jin Cho, Byung, E-mail: bjcho@kaist.edu, E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Taeshik; Kim, Taek-Soo, E-mail: bjcho@kaist.edu, E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-09

    We present the facile dry transfer of graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on copper film to a functional device substrate. High quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to oxidized silicon substrate was achieved by exploiting the beneficial features of a poly(4-vinylphenol) adhesive layer involving a strong adhesion energy to graphene and negligible influence on the electronic and structural properties of graphene. The graphene field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the dry transfer process exhibit excellent electrical performance in terms of high FET mobility and low intrinsic doping level, which proves the feasibility of our approach in graphene-based nanoelectronics.

  6. Energy analysis on use of air and superheated steam as drying media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarnawski, W.Z.; Mitera, J.; Borowski, P.; Klepaczka, A. [Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland). Inst. of Papermaking and Paper Machines

    1996-10-01

    The physical properties of air and superheated steam were analyzed in a range of temperatures applied in paper and paperboard drying processes. On the basis of tests carried out on a pilot stand the values of energy indices for air and steam drying processes are compared. With the drying media temperature as T{sub M} = 300 C, nozzle velocity {nu} = 60 m/s and using the Huang and Mujumdar model as well as relationships given by Chance a comparative analysis of the results has been carried out. Variation of several indices in the range of temperatures 100--600 C and various nozzle velocities was studied.

  7. Fractionation studies on the unidentified growth factor(s) in distillers dried solubles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dannenburg, Warren Nathaniel

    1955-01-01

    "rltrr ro?v toJ oy itunler urr- . r. roan i ')1, in wn'ch aport it;~ ue. on tr, ited t. iuu whole liver anu dried bre er= yeast ai ?cured to oe . ", o~d s . urces oi tai- l'aCtOr Wnile dried Wiiej, di tiller= dried ~ui Oie-, nid ter. ontat. on s... c: ?ein . ilu . ~@i allan , irotein u' tne, rotein - dice; ? iid . o?cd that it le?t two i'ctur- . . ere required bg tiie cuici. &or og, . imum?io, t i . . )ne factor . ; suyfilied bg liver z ictiun= iii uriod oie, ers yea. . t, while t?= ot...

  8. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008Wellhead PriceConsumption by9"Coalbed MethaneDryDryDry NaturalCrude Oil +

  9. Time-resolved measurement of photon emission during fast crack propagation in three-point bending fracture of silica glass and soda lime glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiota, Tadashi, E-mail: tshiota@ceram.titech.ac.jp; Sato, Yoshitaka; Yasuda, Kouichi [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S7-13 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)] [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S7-13 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-03-10

    Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of photon emission (PE) and fast crack propagation upon bending fracture were conducted in silica glass and soda lime glass. Observation of fracture surfaces revealed that macroscopic crack propagation behavior was similar between the silica glass and soda lime glass when fracture loads for these specimens were comparable and cracks propagated without branching. However, a large difference in the PE characteristics was found between the two glasses. In silica glass, PE (645–655?nm) was observed during the entire crack propagation process, whereas intense PE (430–490?nm and 500–600?nm) was observed during the initial stages of propagation. In contrast, only weak PE was detected in soda lime glass. These results show that there is a large difference in the atomic processes involved in fast crack propagation between these glasses, and that PE can be used to study brittle fracture on the atomic scale.

  10. Noncontacting laser photocarrier radiometric depth profilometry of harmonically modulated band bending in the space-charge layer at doped SiO{sub 2}-Si interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandelis, Andreas; Batista, Jerias; Gibkes, Juergen; Pawlak, Michael; Pelzl, Josef [Institute fuer Experimentalphysik III, Festkoerperspekroskopie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum D-44801, Germany and Center for Advanced Diffusion-Wave Technologies, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G8 (Canada); Center for Advanced Diffusion-Wave Technologies, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G8 (Canada); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik III, Festkoerperspekroskopie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum D-44801 (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik III, Festkoerperspekroskopie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum D-44801, Germany and Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5/7, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik III, Festkoerperspekroskopie, Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Bochum D-44801 (Germany)

    2005-04-15

    Laser infrared photocarrier radiometry (PCR) was used with a harmonically modulated low-power laser pump and a superposed dc superband-gap optical bias (a secondary laser beam) to control and monitor the space-charge-layer (SCL) width in oxidized p-Si-SiO{sub 2} and n-Si-SiO{sub 2} interfaces (wafers) exhibiting charged interface-state related band bending. Applying the theory of PCR-SCL dynamics [A. Mandelis, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083508 (2005)] to the experiments yielded various transport parameters of the samples as well as depth profiles of the SCL exhibiting complete ( p-type Si) or partial (n-type Si) band flattening, to a degree controlled by widely different minority-carrier capture cross section at each interface. The uncompensated charge density at the interface was also calculated from the theory.

  11. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow and density of fluid in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German (Idaho Falls, ID); Boucher, Timothy J. (Helena, MT)

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  12. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow and density of fluid in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1998-10-27

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  13. Adapting Dry Cask Storage for Aging at a Geologic Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Sanders; D. Kimball

    2005-08-02

    A Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Aging System is a crucial part of operations at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository in the United States. Incoming commercial SNF that does not meet thermal limits for emplacement will be aged on outdoor pads. U.S. Department of Energy SNF will also be managed using the Aging System. Proposed site-specific designs for the Aging System are closely based upon designs for existing dry cask storage (DCS) systems. This paper evaluates the applicability of existing DCS systems for use in the SNF Aging System at Yucca Mountain. The most important difference between existing DCS facilities and the Yucca Mountain facility is the required capacity. Existing DCS facilities typically have less than 50 casks. The current design for the aging pad at Yucca Mountain calls for a capacity of over 2,000 casks (20,000 MTHM) [1]. This unprecedented number of casks poses some unique problems. The response of DCS systems to off-normal and accident conditions needs to be re-evaluated for multiple storage casks. Dose calculations become more complicated, since doses from multiple or very long arrays of casks can dramatically increase the total boundary dose. For occupational doses, the geometry of the cask arrays and the order of loading casks must be carefully considered in order to meet ALARA goals during cask retrieval. Due to the large area of the aging pad, skyshine must also be included when calculating public and worker doses. The expected length of aging will also necessitate some design adjustments. Under 10 CFR 72.236, DCS systems are initially certified for a period of 20 years [2]. Although the Yucca Mountain facility is not intended to be a storage facility under 10 CFR 72, the operational life of the SNF Aging System is 50 years [1]. Any cask system selected for use in aging will have to be qualified to this design lifetime. These considerations are examined, and a summary is provided of the adaptations that must be made in order to use DCS technologies successfully at a geologic repository.

  14. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamrock, Steven J.

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20���ºC to 120���ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20���ºC to 120���ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA�¢����s comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20���ºC to 120���ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA�¢����s, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year R&D Plan. In the course of this four-year program we developed a new PEM with improved proton conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical stability. We incorporated this new membrane into MEAs and evaluated performance and durability.

  15. March 8, 2001 A. R. Raffray, et al., Assessment of Carbon and Tungsten Dry Chamber Walls under IFE Energy Depositions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    March 8, 2001 A. R. Raffray, et al., Assessment of Carbon and Tungsten Dry Chamber Walls under IFE March 8-9, 2001 #12;March 8, 2001 A. R. Raffray, et al., Assessment of Carbon and Tungsten Dry Chamber on analysis ­ Remaining issues #12;March 8, 2001 A. R. Raffray, et al., Assessment of Carbon and Tungsten Dry

  16. Phytologia (May 2013) 95(2)132 Chemosystematics of Juniperus: Effects of leaf drying on the essential oil composition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Robert P.

    on the essential oil composition of Juniperus pinchotii, changes during the first 48 hours of drying Robert P-45º C for up to 48 hrs. The oils were distilled and analyzed from fresh leaves and those dried for 4h h of drying (as the leaves became brittle), which explains the previous report of changes in oils

  17. Progress Letter Report on Bending Fatigue Test System Development for Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study (Out-of-cell fatigue testing development - Task 2.4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Cox, Thomas S [ORNL; Baldwin, Charles A [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    Vibration integrity of high burn-up spent nuclear fuel in transportation remains to be a critical component of US nuclear waste management system. The structural evaluation of package for spent fuel transportation eventually will need to see if the content or spent fuel is in a subcritical condition. However, a system for testing and characterizing such spent fuel is still lacking mainly due to the complication involved with dealing radioactive specimens in a hot cell environment. Apparently, the current state-of-the-art in spent fuel research and development is quite far away from the delivery of reliable mechanical property data for the assessment of spent fuels in the transport package evaluation. Under the sponsorship of US NRC, ORNL has taken the challenge in developing a robust testing system for spent fuel in hot cell. An extensive literature survey was carried out and unique requirements of such testing system were identified. The U-frame setup has come to the top among various designs examined for reverse bending fatigue test of spent fuel rod. The U-frame has many features that deserve mentioned here: Easy to install spent fuel rod in test; Less linkages than in conventional bending test setup such as three-point or four-point bending; Target the failure mode relevant to the fracture of spent fuel rod in transportation by focusing on pure bending; The continuous calibrations and modifications resulted in the third generation (3G) U-frame testing setup. Rigid arms are split along the LBB axis at rod sample ends. For each arm, this results in a large arm body and an end piece. Mating halves of bushings were modified into two V-shaped surfaces on which linear roller bearings (LRB) are embedded. The rod specimen is installed into the test fixture through opening and closing slide end-pieces. The 3G apparently has addressed major issues of setup identified in the previous stage and been proven to be eligible to be further pursued in this project. On the other hand, the purchase of universal testing machine or Bose dual LM2 TB was completed and the testing system was delivered to ORNL in August 2012. The preliminary confirmation of the system and on-site training were given by Bose field engineer and regional manager on 8/1-8/2/2012. The calibration of Bose testing system has been performed by ORNL because the integration of ORNL setup into the Bose TestBench occurred after the installation. Major challenge with this process arose from two aspects: 1) the load control involves two load cells, and 2) U-frame setup itself is a non-standard specimen. ORNL has been able to implement the load control through Cycle Indirect along with pinning the U-frame setup. Two meetings with ORNL hot-cell group (November 2012 and January 2013) were held to discuss the potential issues with both epoxy mounting of rigid sleeve and U-frame setup. Many suggestions were provided to make the procedure friendlier to the manipulator in hot cell. Addressing of these suggestions resulted in another cycle of modifications of both vise mold and setup. The initial meeting with ORNL I&C group occurred in November 2012 with regard to the Bose cable modification and design of central panel to integrate the cables and wires. The first round of cable modification and central panel fabrication was completed in February 2012. The testing with the modified cables exhibited substantial noises and the testing system was not shown to be stable. It was believed the cross talk was responsible to the noise, and a central panel with a better grounding and shielding was highly recommended. The central panel has been re-designed and fabricated in March 2013. In the subsequent period, the ORNL made substantial effort to debug the noises with the load cell channel, and to resolve the noises and nonlinearity with RDP LVDTs related to the integration of RDP LVDTs to Bose system. At the same time, ORNL has completed the verification tests of Bose test system, including cycle tests under reversal bending in load control, bending tests under monotonic load, and cycle test

  18. Tropical dry-forest mammals of Palo Verde: Ecology and conservation in a changing landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoner, Kathryn E.; Timm, Robert M.

    2004-02-01

    More than 114 species of mammals originally were present in Costa Rica’s tropical dry forest, and perhaps 110 species are still found there today. Bats are the most diverse group, with more than 66 species, followed by 11 species of rodents, 7 species of marsupials, 6 species in the weasel family, 5 species of cats, 3 species in the raccoon family, 3 species of primates, 3 species of artiodactyls, 2 species of canids, 2 species of xenarthrans (edentates), 1 rabbit, and 1 tapir. Costa Rica has no endemic dry forest mammals. The species that have been extirpated from this region were either highly prized game species that have been eliminated by overhunting (white-lipped peccaries) or were specialists that either feed on specific foods or have very specific habitat requirements that have been eliminated by habitat destruction. In Costa Rica 10 of the 13 mammal species recognized as endangered and 7 of the 14 found in reduced populations are found within tropical dry forest habitat. Mammals that inhabit tropical dry forest areas must be capable of dealing with high temperatures, low precipitation in the dry season, and large fluctuations in the availability of food resources during the year. Most mammals of the dry forest can be characterized as resident generalists that shift their diets in order to utilize seasonally available food resources; as resident specialists that forage on insects, seeds, or fruit and nectar; or as migrants that occupy dry forests only seasonally and move to other habitats during periods of low food availability in their foraging area in search of food sources in other areas. Bats, some of which serve as pollinators and seed dispersers, are important components of the dry forest fauna. Some species of bats change habitats within the dry forest or migrate into and out of the dry forest seasonally. Hunting has been, and continues to be, an important threat to most large mammals in dry forest habitats. As early as 1880, large numbers of deer skins were exported from Costa Rica to Europe, the majority of which came from Guanacaste. Illegal poaching is still a serious problem in the protected areas of Guanacaste. Throughout Mesoamerica, deforestation to create pastures and, in recent years, for crop cultivation has negatively affected many populations of tropical dry forest mammals. Approximately 50% of the 250,000 ha area in the lower Tempisque Basin had been deforested by 1956 and by 1970 most of the dry forest had been converted into pastureland. The spread of introduced African grasses and seasonal fires have continued to eliminate mature dry forest in northern Costa Rica in the last decades. Contamination by pesticides from agricultural fields has become a serious threat to the mammalian fauna in the region. The use of cattle as a management tool also threatens the mammalian fauna in tropical dry forest due to their affect on the natural vegetation. Cattle were reintroduced into Parque Nacional Palo Verde in the 1980s in an attempt to control the rapidly expanding cattails in the marsh, which were eliminating habitat for aquatic birds. However, cattle have been ineffective at controlling cattails, and overgrazing of tree seedlings has hindered regeneration of the forest because cattle graze selectively on seedlings of native species. The mammals of the tropical dry forest are among the most poorly known of any of the bioclimatic life zones. Conservation measures for this endangered fauna should include expanded research, training and educational programs for park personnel, economic alternatives, and sustainable development. In addition, efforts should be made for the creation of additional protected areas with buffer zones and for the development of natural regeneration programs.... contaminación por pesticidas en los campos agrícolas se ha convertido en una seria amenaza para los mamíferos de la región. El uso de ganado como herramienta de manejo también es una amenaza para la fauna de mamíferos en el bosque tropical seco debido a su...

  19. Snow cover and precipitation impacts on dry season streamflow in the Lower Mekong Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­October) and lowest discharge at the tail end of the dry season (March­ May). The wet season flood pulse is controlled in the region, including deforestation [Costa-Cabral et al., 2008] and dam construction [Campbell, 2007

  20. Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems I. Fluid Mixing and Chemical Geothermometry Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  1. Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  2. Climate drying and associated forest decline in the lowlands of northern Guatemala during the late Holocene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Climate drying and associated forest decline in the lowlands of northern Guatemala during the late 2008 Keywords: Guatemala Holocene Lake sediments Environmental changes Tropical palaeoclimate of northern Guatemala. The question remains as to whether this vegetation change was driven exclusively

  3. How trehalose protects DNA in the dry state: a molecular dynamics simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Xuebing

    2008-10-10

    Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted on a system consisting of a decamer DNA solvated by trehalose and water (molecular ratio= 1:2), to mimic a relatively dry state for the DNA molecule. Simulations were performed ...

  4. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Cutting Forces in Dry Milling Machining Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadja, Bright Yves wilfried

    2014-04-29

    The aim in this thesis is the investigation of the cutting forces during a dry milling machining process. An experimental design was developed and the cutting forces were measured based on the cutting input parameters. The cutting forces’ signatures...

  5. Record of Decision for a Dry Storage Container System for the...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    naval spent nuclear fuel and the management of naval special case low-level radioactive waste. A dual-purpose canister system will be used for the loading, dry storage,...

  6. Operations to be Performed in the Waste Package Dry Remediation Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman E. Cole; Randy K. Elwood

    2003-10-01

    Describes planned and proposed operations for remediating damaged and/or out-of-compliance waste packages, casks, DPCs, overpacks, and containers at the Yucca Mountain Dry Transfer Facility.

  7. Spray drying and attrition behavior of iron catalysts for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carreto Vazquez, Victor Hugo

    2004-11-15

    This thesis describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating attrition resistant iron catalysts prepared by spray drying technique. These catalysts are intended for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor...

  8. Effect of residual stress on the life prediction of dry storage canisters for used nuclear fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Bradley P. (Bradley Patrick)

    2013-01-01

    Used nuclear fuel dry storage canisters will likely be tasked with holding used nuclear fuel for a period longer than originally intended. Originally designed for 20 years, the storage time will likely approach 100 years. ...

  9. Control on (234 U) in lake water: A study in the Dry Valleys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    .V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Uranium isotopes; Dry Valleys; Antarctica; Weathering; Lake chemistry 1 isotopes. The supply of 234 U is therefore limited by decay of 238 U, suggesting that the two uranium

  10. The Impacts of Dry-Storage Canister Designs on Spent Nuclear...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Disposal in the U.S. The Impacts of Dry-Storage Canister Designs on Spent Nuclear Fuel Handling, Storage, Transportation, and Disposal in the U.S. More Documents &...

  11. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-08-10

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  12. Solubility of aluminum and silica in Spodic horizons as affected by drying and freezing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonsson, M.; Berggren, D.; Gustafsson, J.P.

    1999-10-01

    The release of toxic Al{sup 3+} is one of the most serious consequences of anthropogenic soil acidification. Therefore, the mechanisms controlling Al solubility have been a topic of intense research for more than a decade. For convenience, soil samples are often dried before storage and experimental use. However, the literature offers examples of drying that results in changes in pH, solubility of organic matter, and dissolution rates of Al. In this study, the authors examined the solubility of Al and Si in fresh soil and in soil that had been dried or deep-frozen. Five Spodosol B horizon soils were subjected to batch titrations, where portions of each soil were equilibrated with solutions with varying concentrations of acid or base added. Extractions with acid oxalate and Na pyrophosphate indicated the presence of imogolite-type materials (ITM) in three of the soils. In the other two soils most secondary solid-phase Al was associated with humic substances. Deep-freezing did not significantly change pH nor the concentration of Al or Si as compared with fresh soil. Drying, on the other hand, yielded pH increases of up to 0.3 units at a given addition of acid or base, whereas Al{sup 3+} changed only slightly, implying a higher Al solubility in all of the soils. Furthermore, dissolved silica increased by up to 200% after drying, except in a soil that almost completely lacked oxalate-extractable Si. The authors suggest that drying enhanced the dissolution of ITM by disrupting soil organic matter, thus exposing formerly coated mineral surfaces. In the soil where dissolved Si did not change with drying, it has been demonstrated that Al-humus complexes controlled Al solubility. They suggest that fissures in the organic material caused by drying may have exposed formerly occluded binding sites that had a higher Al saturation than had sites at the surface of humus particles.

  13. Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pretreatment of food waste from households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murto, Marika; Björnsson, Lovisa; Rosqvist, Håkan; Bohn, Irene

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? A novel approach for biogas production from a waste fraction that today is incinerated. ? Biogas production is possible in spite of the impurities of the waste. ? Tracer studies are applied in a novel way. ? Structural material is needed to improve the flow pattern of the waste. ? We provide a solution to biological treatment for the complex waste fraction. - Abstract: At the waste handling company NSR, Helsingborg, Sweden, the food waste fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is pretreated to obtain a liquid fraction, which is used for biogas production, and a dry fraction, which is at present incinerated. This pretreatment and separation is performed to remove impurities, however also some of the organic material is removed. The possibility of realising the methane potential of the dry fraction through batch-wise dry anaerobic digestion was investigated. The anaerobic digestion technique used was a two-stage process consisting of a static leach bed reactor and a methane reactor. Treatment of the dry fraction alone and in a mixture with structural material was tested to investigate the effect on the porosity of the leach bed. A tracer experiment was carried out to investigate the liquid flow through the leach beds, and this method proved useful in demonstrating a more homogenous flow through the leach bed when structural material was added. Addition of structural material to the dry fraction was needed to achieve a functional digestion process. A methane yield of 98 m{sup 3}/ton was obtained from the dry fraction mixed with structural material after 76 days of digestion. This was in the same range as obtained in the laboratory scale biochemical methane potential test, showing that it was possible to extract the organic content in the dry fraction in this type of dry digestion system for the production of methane.

  14. High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Yin-An (Opelika, AL)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

  15. Physical stability of spray dried solid dispersions of amorphous tolfenamic acid and polyvinylpyrolidone K30

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thybo, Pia

    2006-10-25

    October 2006 Side 3 Pia Thybo The Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences Spray Drying ?Simple up-scaling. Unique ability to produce specific particle size and volatile content regardless of dryer capacity ?Continuous reliable operation. Powder... ? Controlled Release formulations ? Masking of a bad taste Polymorphism ? Solubility/dissolution GPEN October 2006 Side 7 Pia Thybo The Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences Key Elements in Spray Drying Atomization of liquid feed into a spray of droplets...

  16. Optimization of the operation of a drying heat pump using superheated steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moraitis, C.S.; Akritidis, C.B.

    1997-05-01

    A numerical solution of a model which describes the optimal operation of a novel concept of heat pump for drying applications based on the theory of minimum energy cycles is presented. The thermodynamic cycle of the drying heat pump involves vapor condensation in a Laval nozzle, removal of the liquid phase in a separator as well as compression of the working medium, which is superheated vapor.

  17. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  18. Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for 1) cleaning, developing or etching, 2) rinsing, and 3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material.

  19. OVERVIEW OF CRITERIA FOR INTERIM WET & DRY STORAGE OF RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelar, R.; Vinson, D.; Iyer, N.; Fisher, D.

    2010-11-03

    Following discharge from research reactors, spent nuclear fuel may be stored 'wet' in water pools or basins, or it may be stored 'dry' in various configurations including non-sealed or sealed containers until retrieved for ultimate disposition. Interim safe storage practices are based on avoiding degradation to the fuel that would impact functions related to safety. Recommended practices including environmental controls with technical bases, are outlined for wet storage and dry storage of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based research reactor fuel. For wet storage, water quality must be maintained to minimize corrosion degradation of aluminum fuel. For dry storage, vented canister storage of aluminum fuel readily provides a safe storage configuration. For sealed dry storage, drying must be performed so as to minimize water that would cause additional corrosion and hydrogen generation. Consideration must also be given to the potential for radiolytically-generated hydrogen from the bound water in the attendant oxyhydroxides on aluminum fuel from reactor operation for dry storage systems.

  20. Foreign experience on effects of extended dry storage on the integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of foreign experience in dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors that was carried out for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report reviews the mechanisms for degradation of spent fuel cladding and fuel materials in dry storage, identifies the status and plans of world-wide experience and applications, and documents the available information on the expected long-term integrity of the dry-stored spent fuel from actual foreign experience. Countries covered in this survey are: Argentina, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany (before reunification with the former East Germany), former German Democratic Republic (former East Germany), France, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former USSR (most of these former Republics are now in the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]). Industrial dry storage of Magnox fuels started in 1972 in the United Kingdom; Canada began industrial dry storage of CANDU fuels in 1980. The technology for safe storage is generally considered to be developed for time periods of 30 to 100 years for LWR fuel in inert gas and for some fuels in oxidizing gases at low temperatures. Because it will probably be decades before countries will have a repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes, the plans for expanded use of dry storage have increased significantly in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the near future.