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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Systematic characterization of degas-driven flow for poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Degas-driven flow is a novel phenomenon used to propel fluids in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices without requiring any external power. This method takes advantage of the inherently high porosity and air solubility of PDMS by removing air molecules from the bulk PDMS before initiating the flow. The dynamics of degas-driven flow are dependent on the channel and device geometries and are highly sensitive to temporal parameters. These dependencies have not been fully characterized, hindering broad use of degas-driven flow as a microfluidic pumping mechanism. Here, we characterize, for the first time, the effect of various parameters on the dynamics of degas-driven flow, including channel geometry, PDMS thickness, PDMS exposure area, vacuum degassing time, and idle time at atmospheric pressure before loading. We investigate the effect of these parameters on flow velocity as well as channel fill time for the degas-driven flow process. Using our devices, we achieved reproducible flow with a standard deviation of less than 8% for flow velocity, as well as maximum flow rates of up to 3 nL/s and mean flow rates of approximately 1-1.5 nL/s. Parameters such as channel surface area and PDMS chip exposure area were found to have negligible impact on degas-driven flow dynamics, whereas channel cross-sectional area, degas time, PDMS thickness, and idle time were found to have a larger impact. In addition, we develop a physical model that can predict mean flow velocities within 6% of experimental values and can be used as a tool for future design of PDMS-based microfluidic devices that utilize degas-driven flow.

Lee, Luke P.; Liang, David Y.; Tentori, Augusto M.; Dimov, Ivan K. [Universidad de Valparaiso (Chile)

2011-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

2

OAK GROVE C OAL D EGAS CEDAR COVE COAL D EGAS BLU E CREEK COAL DEGAS  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 20024.9513BOE Reserve

3

Contrib. Plasma Phys. vol (year) num, p-p Coupling of Parallelized DEGAS 2 and UEDGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS 2[1] and the UEDGE[2] fluid plasma transport code builds upon of the neutral densities, ion particle source, and electron energy source to within 5%. Each run consists of 80 statistical errors ( 50%) that result from the rapid momentum and energy exchanges between neutrals and ions

Karney, Charles

4

Pontotoc Co. Greene Co. Hale Co. OAK GROVE C OAL D EGAS CEDAR COVE COAL DEGAS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006Photovoltaic TheoryPlantElectrodes.Polytechnic Institute of New

5

Summary of Degas II performance at the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve Big Hill site.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crude oil stored at the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) requires mitigation procedures to maintain oil vapor pressure within program delivery standards. Crude oil degasification is one effective method for lowering crude oil vapor pressure, and was implemented at the Big Hill SPR site from 2004-2006. Performance monitoring during and after degasification revealed a range of outcomes for caverns that had similar inventory and geometry. This report analyzed data from SPR degasification and developed a simple degas mixing (SDM) model to assist in the analysis. Cavern-scale oil mixing during degassing and existing oil heterogeneity in the caverns were identified as likely causes for the range of behaviors seen. Apparent cavern mixing patterns ranged from near complete mixing to near plug flow, with more mixing leading to less efficient degassing due to degassed oil re-entering the plant before 100% of the cavern oil volume was processed. The report suggests that the new cavern bubble point and vapor pressure regain rate after degassing be based on direct in-cavern measurements after degassing as opposed to using the plant outlet stream properties as a starting point, which understates starting bubble point and overstates vapor pressure regain. Several means to estimate the cavern bubble point after degas in the absence of direct measurement are presented and discussed.

Rudeen, David K. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Contrib. Plasma Phys. 40 (2000) 3-4, 221-226 Coupling of Parallelized DEGAS 2 and UEDGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS 2 [1] and the UEDGE [2] fluid plasma transport code builds upon of the neutral densities, ion particle source, and electron energy source to within 5%. Each run consists of 80 statistical errors ( 50%) that result from the rapid momentum and energy exchanges between neutrals and ions

Karney, Charles

7

Reversal bending fatigue testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

8

Microhole Tubing Bending Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

Oglesby, Ken

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Microhole Tubing Bending Report  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

Oglesby, Ken

10

Louisiana Nuclear Profile - River Bend  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

River Bend" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...

11

This is the user's manual for DEGAS 2 -A Monte Carlo code for the study of neutral atom and molecular transport in confined plasmas. It is intended to cover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The theory of neutral particle kinetics[1] treats the transport of mass, momen- tum, and energy in a plasma;Monte Carlo neutral transport codes can build on the techniques developed for neutron transportAbstract This is the user's manual for DEGAS 2 - A Monte Carlo code for the study of neutral atom

Karney, Charles

12

Passive, achromatic, nearly isochronous bending system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A particle beam bending system having a geometry that applies active bending only beyond the chord of the orbit for any momentum component. Using this bending configuration, all momentum components emerge dispersed in position only; all trajectories are parallel by construction. Combining a pair of such bends with reflective symmetry produces a bend cell that is, by construction, achromatic to all orders. By the particular choice of 45.degree. individual bends, a pair of such achromats can be used as the basis of a 180.degree. recirculation arc. Other rational fractions of a full 180.degree. bend serve equally well (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.90.degree./bend.times.1 cell /arc; 2 bends/cell.times.30.degree./bend.times.3 cells/arc, etc), as do combinations of multiple bending numerologies (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.22.5.degree./bend.times.2 cells+2 bends/cell.times.45.degree./bend.times.1 cell). By the choice of entry pole face rotation of the first magnet and exit pole face rotation of the second magnet (with a value to be determined from the particular beam stability requirements imposed by the choice of bending angle and beam properties to be used in any particular application), desirable focusing properties can be introduced and beam stability can be insured.

Douglas, David R.; Yunn, Byung C.

2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

13

Fired heater for coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Coal pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Method for uniformly bending conduits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a method for bending metal tubing through various radii while maintaining uniform cross section of the tubing. The present invention is practical by filling the tubing to a sufficient level with water, freezing the water to ice and bending the ice-filled tubing in a cooled die to the desired radius. The use of the ice as a filler material provides uniform cross-sectional bends of the tubing and upon removal of the ice provides an uncontaminated interior of the tubing which will enable it to be used in its intended application without encountering residual contaminants in the tubing due to the presence of the filler material.

Dekanich, S.J.

1984-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

16

Compaction managed mirror bend achromat  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for controlling the momentum compaction in a beam of charged particles. The method includes a compaction-managed mirror bend achromat (CMMBA) that provides a beamline design that retains the large momentum acceptance of a conventional mirror bend achromat. The CMMBA also provides the ability to tailor the system momentum compaction spectrum as desired for specific applications. The CMMBA enables magnetostatic management of the longitudinal phase space in Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) thereby alleviating the need for harmonic linearization of the RF waveform.

Douglas, David (Yorktown, VA)

2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

17

Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams. [DOE patent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face is given. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

Gregg, D.W.

1980-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

19

alternating bending load: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

bend angle Physics Websites Summary: mercury water flow through a bend pipe into the air environment Medium Reynolds Number Inner DiameterSimulation for pipes with changing bend...

20

Equilibria for anisotropic bending energies Bennett Palmer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's investigation of the Chladni plates in the nineteenth century. More recently, the bending energy has been

Palmer, Bennett

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Bending Energy of Rods and Plates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

descriptors DUH HFFHQWULFLW\\ VSKHULFLW\\ 3$ SHULPHWHU VTXDUHG GLYLGHG E\\ WLPHV area) and bending energy185 Chapter 9 Bending Energy of Rods and Plates Integrated curvature and bending energy of a closed curvature/energy values over a chain-code description of the contour (as in binary length estimators). We

van Vliet, Lucas J.

22

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

23

Coal industry annual 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers the technical progress achieved from July 01, 1997 to September 30, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental procedures and test data for recovery of fine coal from coal fines streams generated at a commercial coal preparation plant are described. Two coal fines streams, namely Sieve Bend Effluent and Cyclone Overflow were investigated. The test results showed that ash was reduced by more than 50% at combustible matter recovery levels exceeding 95%.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Microsoft Word - Kokanee Bend CX.docx  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Manager - KEWM-4 Proposed Action: Kokanee Bend South Conservation Easement funding Fish and Wildlife Project No. and Contract No.: 2008-800-00, BPA-006863 Categorical...

26

Gravitational Bending of Light with Frequency Shifts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-static gravitational fields generally introduce frequency shifts when bending light. In this paper, I discuss the frequency shifts induced in the bending of light by moving masses. As examples, I treat the recently discovered high-velocity pulsar PSR 2224+65 and a typical Einstein ring.

P. D. Morley

1993-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Coal preparation: The essential clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter is a brief introduction to a broad topic which has many highly specialized areas. The aim is to summarize the essential elements of coal preparation and illustrate its important role in facilitating the clean use of coal. Conventional coal preparation is the essential first step in ensuring the economic and environmentally acceptable use of coal. The aim of coal preparation is to produce saleable products of consistent, specified quality which satisfy customer requirements while optimizing the utilization of the coal resource. Coal preparation covers all aspects of preparing coal for the market. It includes size reduction, blending and homogenization and, most importantly, the process of physical beneficiation or washing, which involves separation of undesirable mineral matter from the coal substance itself. Coal preparation can be performed at different levels of sophistication and cost. The degree of coal preparation required is decided by considering the quality of the raw coal, transport costs and, in particular, the coal quality specified by the consumer. However, the cost of coal beneficiation rises rapidly with the complexity of the process and some coal is lost with the waste matter because of process inefficiencies, therefore each situation requires individual study to determine the optimum coal preparation strategy. The necessary expertise is available within APEC countries such as Australia. Coals destined for iron making are almost always highly beneficiated. Physical beneficiation is mostly confined to the higher rank, hard coals, but all other aspects of coal preparation can be applied to subbituminous and lignitic coals to improve their utilization. Also, there are some interesting developments aimed specifically at reducing the water content of lower rank coals.

Cain, D.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

EA-1880: Big Bend to Witten Transmission Line Project, South...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

880: Big Bend to Witten Transmission Line Project, South Dakota EA-1880: Big Bend to Witten Transmission Line Project, South Dakota Summary The USDA Rural Utilities Service, with...

30

Coal industry annual 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Coal industry annual 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

34

Parallel interacting edge cracks under pure bending  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Once the applicability of the Williams' equations, have been proved or disproved, the power of the singularity represented by the first term of equation 1. 1 and the polynomial expansion can be truncated in order to extract information... of Williams' approach for the case of cracked bodies under pure bending is demonstrated. Four point bending load is applied on specimens with either a vertical or a slant crack giving Mode I or Mixed Mode I ? II respectively. The existence...

Moran, Ivan

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Clean coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Coal industry annual 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

37

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Coal combustion science  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Coal Mining (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

40

Coal systems analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This collection of papers provides an introduction to the concept of coal systems analysis and contains examples of how coal systems analysis can be used to understand, characterize, and evaluate coal and coal gas resources. Chapter are: Coal systems analysis: A new approach to the understanding of coal formation, coal quality and environmental considerations, and coal as a source rock for hydrocarbons by Peter D. Warwick. Appalachian coal assessment: Defining the coal systems of the Appalachian Basin by Robert C. Milici. Subtle structural influences on coal thickness and distribution: Examples from the Lower Broas-Stockton coal (Middle Pennsylvanian), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA by Stephen F. Greb, Cortland F. Eble, and J.C. Hower. Palynology in coal systems analysis The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments by Douglas J. Nichols. A comparison of late Paleocene and late Eocene lignite depositional systems using palynology, upper Wilcox and upper Jackson Groups, east-central Texas by Jennifer M.K. O'Keefe, Recep H. Sancay, Anne L. Raymond, and Thomas E. Yancey. New insights on the hydrocarbon system of the Fruitland Formation coal beds, northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA by W.C. Riese, William L. Pelzmann, and Glen T. Snyder.

Warwick, P.D. (ed.)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transportation component of coal price should also increase;investment. Coal costs and prices are functions of a numberto forecast coal demand, supply, and prices from now to

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

Wrathall, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Coal data: A reference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

Not Available

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

46

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

47

Update: pipes of different half bend angles Feb. 21, 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Update: pipes of different half bend angles Feb. 21, 2013 Yan Zhan 1 #12;Outline · Mercury Supply Pipe · Re-mesh for Pipes without weld of different half bend angles · Turbulence Intensity At Pipe Exits · Discussion on Bend Effects and Nozzle Effects 2 #12;Mercury Supply Pipe 3 Item 2 Item 3 Whole

McDonald, Kirk

48

Coal Combustion Science  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, materials left after combustion of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean-coal technology combustors and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. This paper describes various coal combustion products produced (FGD) products from pulverized coal and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. Over 70% of the CCPs

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

50

Elasticity of Twist-Bend Nematic Phases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ground state of twist-bend nematic liquid crystals is a heliconical molecular arrangement in which the nematic director precesses uniformly about an axis, making a fixed angle with it. Both precession senses are allowed in the ground state of these phases. When one of the two \\emph{helicities} is prescribed, a single helical nematic phase emerges. A quadratic elastic theory is proposed here for each of these phases which features the same elastic constants as the classical theory of the nematic phase, requiring all of them to be positive. To describe the helix axis, it introduces an extra director field which becomes redundant for ordinary nematics. Putting together helical nematics with opposite helicities, we reconstruct a twist-bend nematic, for which the quadratic elastic energies of the two helical variants are combined in a non-convex energy.

Epifanio G. Virga

2014-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

51

Regional Service Planning for the Coastal Bend  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was submitted prior to September 15 th (Attachment 2). 3 The Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) was enacted August 10, 2005, as Public Law 109-59. SAFETEA-LU which authorizes the Federal... for medical purposes, averaging 10 to 15 persons per trip vehicle trip, trips from Beeville into Corpus Christi for workforce participants and students at Coastal Bend College. Rural Economic Assistance League: REAL is located in Alice and provides...

Coastal Bend Council of Governments

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Coal gasification apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Autothermal coal gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Test data from the Ruhrchemie/Ruhrkohle Texaco coal gasification demonstration plant at Oberhausen are reported. (5 refs.)

Konkol. W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal Prices..AEO 2007 forecast for coal prices for PRB coal. Transmissionregimes. Sensitivity to Coal Prices Figure 9 is similar to

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Coal recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Bio-coal briquette  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some of the developing nations aim to earn foreign currency by exporting oil and/or gas and to increase the domestic consumption of coal to ensure a secure energy supply. Therefore, it is very important to promote effective coal utilization in these nations. Currently, these countries experience problems associated with coal use for household cooking and household industries. For household cooking, coal creates too much smoke and smells unpleasant. In addition, illegally obtained firewood is almost free in local agricultural regions. Coal is also used in household industries; however, simple stoker boilers are inefficient, since unburned coal particles tend to drop through screens during the combustion process. The bio-coal briquette, on the other hand, is an effective and efficient fuel, since it utilizes coal, which is to be used extensively in households and in small and medium-scale industry sectors in some coal-producing countries, as a primary fuel and bamboos (agricultural waste) as a secondary fuel. In addition, the use of bio-coal briquettes will greatly help reduce unburned coal content.

Honda, Hiroshi

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

58

Coal: the new black  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Chemical comminution of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the present research is to study the chemical reactivity of a mixture of methyl alcohol and aqueous sodium hydroxide solution in the temperature range 298 to 363 K, and a caustic concentration of 0 to 10 wt. %, on an Iowa bituminous coal. The sample studied was collected from coal zone 4, equivalent to most historical references to Laddsdale coal. The coals in this zone are typical high-sulfur, high-ash middle Pennsylvania Cherokee group coals. The apparent rank is high-volatile C bituminous coal. The relatively high content of sulfur and 23 other elements in these coals is related to near neutral (6-8) pH conditions in the depositional and early diagenetic environments, and to postdepositional sphalerite/calcite/pyrite/kaolinite/barite mineralization.

Mamaghani, A.H.; Beddow, J.K.; Vetter, A.F.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Bending behavior of general unsymmetric laminates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ities are limited to moderate rotations, e? and e?, about the shell coordinate axes. Thus ~ the mid-surface strain-displacement equat1ons are (Novozhilov 1956) 2 = e +pe?, 2 xe = ee + Qe23 , Ese = ese + e?eza (47) where the m1d-surface engineer 1ng... . Jones (Member) Donald A. Maxwel (Head of Department) May I987 ABSTRACT Bending Behavior of General Unsymmetric Lam1nates. (May 1987) Kent Thomas Danielson, B. S. , University of Nebraska-Lincoln Cha1rman of Advisory Committee: Dr. John T. Tielk1...

Danielson, Kent Thomas

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Council (NCC), 2006, “Coal: America’s Energy Future”, VolumeAssessments to Inform Energy Policy, “Coal: Research andOF RAIL TRANSPORTATION OF COAL The Federal Energy Regulatory

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF RAIL TRANSPORTATION OF COAL The Federal Energy RegulatoryPlants Due to Coal Shortages”, Federal Energy RegulatoryCouncil (NCC), 2006, “Coal: America’s Energy Future”, Volume

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of total electricity generation is because coal plants haveplants come to play an important role in the electricity generationplants will be built in the years around 2020, thereby increasing coal’s share of electricity generation

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Credit Extra Fuel Oil Coal to gasifier Na cost· Na processoiL Replace res. with coal as gasifier feed. 543 ton/day @$

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Coal Mining Tax Credit (Arkansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Coal Mining Tax Credit provides an income or insurance premium tax credit of $2.00 per ton of coal mined, produced or extracted on each ton of coal mined in Arkansas in a tax year. An...

69

Illinois Coal Revival Program (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Illinois Coal Revival Program is a grants program providing partial funding to assist with the development of new, coal-fueled electric generation capacity and coal gasification or IGCC units...

70

COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

Wrathall, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

US coal market softens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operators table some near term expansion plans, meanwhile long-term fundamentals look strong. This is one of the findings of the Coal Age Forecast 2007 survey of readers predictions on production and consumption of coal and attitudes in the coal industry. 50% of respondents expected product levels in 2007 to be higher than in 2006 and 50% described the attitude in the coal industry to be more optimistic in 2007 than in 2006. Most expenditure is anticipated on going on new equipment but levels of expenditure will be less than in 2006. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Coal Gasification Systems Solicitations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low Cost Coal Conversion to High Hydrogen Syngas; FE0023577 Alstom's Limestone Chemical Looping Gasification Process for High Hydrogen Syngas Generation; FE0023497 OTM-Enhanced...

73

Coal extraction process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sub-divided coal is extracted under non-thermally destructive conditions with a solvent liquid containing a compound having the general formula:

Hammack, R. W.; Sears, J. T.; Stiller, A. H.

1981-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

74

Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

75

Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Kentucky Administrative Regulation Title 405 chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18 and 20 establish the laws governing coal mining in the state.

76

Coal Development (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This section provides for the development of newly-discovered coal veins in the state, and county aid for such development.

77

Clean coal technology applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

{open_quotes}Coal is a stratified rock formed of the more or less altered remains of plants (together with associated mineral matter) which flourished in past ages{hor_ellipsis} The problem of the origin and maturing of coal is complicated by the fact that every coal contains, in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, variable proportions of nitrogen and sulfur which are combined in unknown ways in the organic molecules...{close_quotes}. The challenge with coal has always been the management of its mineral matter, sulfur and nitrogen contents during use. The carbon content of fuels, including coal, is a more recent concern. With clean coal technologies, there are opportunities for ensuring the sustained use of coal for a very long time. The clean coal technologies of today are already capable of reducing, if not eliminating, harmful emissions. The technologies of the future will allow coal to be burned with greatly reduced emissions, thus eliminating the necessity to treat them after they occur.

Bharucha, N.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Clean coal technologies market potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

Drazga, B. (ed.)

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

82

Structure-borne sound Flexural wave (bending wave)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Structure-borne sound · Flexural wave (bending wave) »One dimensional (beam) +(/x)dx +(/x)dx = (/x) (/x)dx=(2/x2)dx Mz +(Mz/x)dx Mz vy Fy Fy +(Fy/x)dx Structure-borne sound · Bending wave ­ flexural wave #12;2 Structure-borne sound · Two obliquely propagating waves + - + + - + - Structure

Berlin,Technische Universität

83

Computing Optimal Waveguide Bends with Constant and Ya Yan Lu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as polarization rotators [2]. A basic problem facing a bend is the power loss related to the open nature to excite the radiating waves. To keep the power loss at an acceptable level, the size of a conventional with minimal power loss. Previ- ous efforts have mostly been concentrated on circular bends or concatenation

Lu, Ya Yan

84

Method for coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

Wiser, Wendell H. (Kaysville, UT); Oblad, Alex G. (Salt Lake City, UT); Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

State coal profiles, January 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

Not Available

1994-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

86

Coal in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Minchener, A.J. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Coal market momentum converts skeptics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

Conditioner for flotation of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for recovering coal is described which comprises the steps of floating coal in an aqueous frothing medium containing an amount of a condensation product of an alkanolamine and naphthenic acid sufficient to increase the recovery of coal as compared to the recovery of coal in an identical process using none of the condensation product.

Nimerick, K.H.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

89

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

90

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

Wright, C.H.

1986-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

92

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation systems. Coal energy density could be increasedfuel reserves were coal by energy content; 19% were oil, andConsumption, 2007 coal/primary energy consumption Source: BP

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

19 3.4. Coking coal for iron & steels FOB export value for coking coal was relatively stables FOB export value for coking coal significantly increased

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12 2.6. International coal prices and18 International coal prices and trade In parallel with the2001, domestic Chinese coal prices moved from stable levels

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operatingfarms with advanced coal generation facilities and operatingin the stand-alone coal generation option (IGCC+CCS plant)

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

services. Power generation Coal increasingly dominates28 Thermal coal electricity generation efficiency alsostudy examines four coal-thermal generation technology types

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other...

98

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic29 Figure 9. Sensitivity to Coal

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of deploying advanced coal power in the Chinese context,”12 2.6. International coal prices and12 III. Chinese Coal

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Aqueous coal slurry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Coal markets squeeze producers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

Ryan, M.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Clean Coal Research  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE's clean coal R&D is focused on developing and demonstrating advanced power generation and carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies for existing facilities and new fossil-fueled...

103

Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A public utility may not use clean coal technology at a new or existing electric generating facility without first applying for and obtaining from the Utility Regulatory Commission a certificate...

104

Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

these provisions are assumed to result in 1 gigawatt of advanced coal-fired capacity with carbon capture and sequestration by 2017. Subtitle B which extends the phaseout of...

105

Coal Market Module This  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

together, are assumed to result in about 1 gigawatt of advanced coal-fired capacity with carbon capture and sequestration by 2017. EIEA was passed in October 2008 as part of the...

106

Quarterly coal report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

Young, P.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Aqueous coal slurry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Method for coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

111

Coal science for the clean use of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal will need to be retained as a major source of energy in the next century. It will need to be used more effectively and more cleanly. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to introduce new technology supported by a local community of science and technology. Only in this way can the full benefits of international advances in coal utilization be fully achieved. It is important that full advantage be taken of the advances that have been achieved in laboratory techniques and in the better understanding of fundamental coal science. This paper reviews available technologies in power generation, industrial process heat, coal combustion, coal gasification, and coal analytical procedures.

Harrison, J.S. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

Theory of bending waves with applications to disk galaxies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theory of bending waves is surveyed which provides an explanation for the required amplification of the warp in the Milky Way. It also provides for self-generated warps in isolated external galaxies. The shape of observed warps and partly their existence in isolated galaxies are indicative of substantial spheroidal components. The theory also provides a plausible explanation for the bending of the inner disk (<2 kpc) of the Milky Way.

Mark, J.W.K.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

COAL LOGISTICS. Tracking U.S. Coal Exports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

COAL LOGISTICS has the capability to track coal from a U. S. mine or mining area to a foreign consumer`s receiving dock. The system contains substantial quantities of information about the types of coal available in different U. S. coalfields, present and potential inland transportation routes to tidewater piers, and shipping routes to and port capabilities in Italy, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. It is designed to facilitate comparisons of coal quality and price at several stages of the export process, including delivered prices at a wide range of destinations. COAL LOGISTICS can be used to examine coal quality within or between any of 18 U. S. coalfields, including three in Alaska, or to compare alternative routes and associated service prices between coal-producing regions and ports-of-exit. It may be used to explore the possibilities of different ship sizes, marine routes, and foreign receiving terminals for coal exports. The system contains three types of information: records of coal quality, domestic coal transportation options, and descriptions of marine shipment routes. COAL LOGISTICS contains over 3100 proximate analyses of U. S. steam coals, usually supplemented by data for ash softening temperature and Hardgrove grindability; over 1100 proximate analyses for coals with metallurgical potential, usually including free swelling index values; 87 domestic coal transportation options: rail, barge, truck, and multi-mode routes that connect 18 coal regions with 15 U. S. ports and two Canadian terminals; and data on 22 Italian receiving ports for thermal and metallurgical coal and 24 coal receiving ports along the Asian Pacific Rim. An auxiliary program, CLINDEX, is included which is used to index the database files.

Sall, G.W. [US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

114

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/this operational mode, the gasifiers and other parts of the

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

application of new clean coal technologies with near zeroapplication of new clean coal technologies with near zero

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of coal sulfur K-T gasification process SRC I process U. S.flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingProduction via K-T Gasification" © CEP Aug. 78. Feed

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Composition and properties of coals from the Yurty coal occurrence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coals from the Yurty coal occurrence were studied. It was found that the samples were brown non-coking coals with low sulfur contents (to 1%) and high yields of volatile substances. The high heat value of coals was 20.6-27.7 MJ/kg. The humic acid content varied from 5.45 to 77.62%. The mineral matter mainly consisted of kaolinite, a-quartz, and microcline. The concentration of toxic elements did not reach hazardous values.

N.G. Vyazova; L.N. Belonogova; V.P. Latyshev; E.A. Pisar'kova [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russia). Research Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

Coal combustion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is a review of one of America's premier coal gasification installations. The caterpillar coal gasification facility located in York, Pennsylvania is an award winning facility. The plant was recognized as the 'pace setter plant of the year...

Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Cells, Turbines, and Carbon Capture & Sequestration #12;Production Goal for Hydrogen from Coal Central Separation System PSA Membrane Membrane Carbon Sequestration Yes (87%) Yes (100%) Yes (100%) Hydrogen

122

The world price of coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A significant increase in the seaborne trade for coal over the past twenty years has unified formerly separate coal markets into a world market in which prices move in tandem. Due to its large domestic market, the United ...

Ellerman, A. Denny

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Low-rank coal research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Surface Coal Mining Regulations are a combination of permitting requirements and environmental regulations that limit how, where and when coal can be mined. It protects lands that are under...

125

Montana Coal Mining Code (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Labor and Industry is authorized to adopt rules pertaining to safety standards for all coal mines in the state. The Code requires coal mine operators to make an accurate map or...

126

2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

NONE

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

The Asia-Pacific coal technology conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Asia-Pacific coal technology conference was held in Honolulu, Hawaii, November 14--16, 1989. Topics discussed included the following: Expanded Horizons for US Coal Technology and Coal Trade; Future Coal-Fired Generation and Capacity Requirements of the Philippines; Taiwan Presentation; Korean Presentation; Hong Kong Future Coal Requirements; Indonesian Presentation; Electric Power System in Thailand; Coal in Malaysia -- A Position Paper; The US and Asia: Pacific Partners in Coal and Coal Technology; US Coal Production and Export; US Clean Coal Technologies; Developments in Coal Transport and Utilization; Alternative/Innovative Transport; Electricity Generation in Asia and the Pacific: Power Sector Demand for Coal, Oil and Natural Gas; Role of Clean Coal Technology in the Energy Future of the World; Global Climate Change: A Fossil Energy Perspective; Speaker: The Role of Coal in Meeting Hawaii's Power Needs; and Workshops on Critical Issues Associated with Coal Usage. Individual topics are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Sustainable development with clean coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

NONE

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Ashing properties of coal blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fusion properties of sulfur materials present in coals were investigated. The treatment of the samples of eleven different coals is described. Thermal treatment of low temperature ashing (LTA) concentrates of eight of the coals was performed, and raw and wash ashing curves were examined to determine what quantitative correlations, if any, exist between ashing parameters and rank of coal. The actual form of the function which describes the ashing curve is derived.

Biggs, D.L.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Pyrolysis of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

Babu, Suresh P. (Willow Springs, IL); Bair, Wilford G. (Morton Grove, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Healy Clean Coal Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

None

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Call for Proposals Date of Issue: July 29, 2013 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of Clean Coal Utilization. The format may be a conference or workshop, or a seminar given by a leading

Subramanian, Venkat

133

PNNL Coal Gasification Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

134

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

135

Fluorine in coal and coal by-products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluorine occurs in awe amounts in most coals. It is typically associated with minerals of the apatite group, principally fluorapatite and clays, and with fluorite, tourmaline, topaz, amphiboles and micas. The average fluorine content of US coal is, according to the tabulation of Swanson, 74 {mu}g/g. In the United States, the lowest average fluorine concentration of 30 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Eastern Kentucky and the highest average value of 160 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Wyoming and New Mexico. The concentration range of fluorine in European coals is similar to that found in the US while the average fluorine content of Australian coals ranges from 15 to 500 {mu}g/g. We have determined the fluorine content in coal and fly ash standards by proton-induced gamma ray emission analysis (PIGE).

Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

136

apec coal flow: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

137

alkaline coal ash: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

138

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

1986-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

139

Biochemical transformation of coals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

140

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Sunder, Swaminathan (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Catalytic coal hydroliquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal in a hydrogen donor solvent in the presence of hydrogen and a co-catalyst combination of iron and a Group VI or Group VIII non-ferrous metal or compounds of the catalysts.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

Robert Finkelman

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

143

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Coal mine methane global review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

NONE

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

EIS-0473: W.A. Parish Post-Combustion CO2 Capture and Sequestration Project (PCCS), Fort Bend County, TX  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide financial assistance for a project proposed by NRG Energy, Inc (NRG). DOE selected NRG’s proposed W.A. Parish Post-Combustion CO2 Capture and Sequestration Project for a financial assistance award through a competitive process under the Clean Coal Power Initiative Program. NRG would design, construct and operate a commercial-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) capture facility at its existing W.A. Parish Generating Station in Fort Bend County, Texas; deliver the CO2 via a new pipeline to the existing West Ranch oil field in Jackson County, Texas, for use in enhanced oil recovery operations; and demonstrate monitoring techniques to verify the permanence of geologic CO2 storage.

146

Underground Coal Thermal Treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?˘ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?˘ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?˘ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?˘ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

147

Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's University Coal Research Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE has selected eight new projects to further advanced coal research under the University Coal Research Program. The selected projects will improve coal conversion and use and will help propel technologies for future advanced coal power systems.

148

Moist caustic leaching of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Western Coal/Great Lakes Alternative export-coal conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This conference dealt with using the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway as an alternative to the East and Gulf Coasts for the exporting of coal to Europe and the potential for a piece of the European market for the subbituminous coals of Montana and Wyoming. The topics discussed included: government policies on coal exports; the coal reserves of Montana; cost of rail transport from Western mines to Lake Superior; the planning, design, and operation of the Superior Midwest Energy Terminal at Superior, Wisconsin; direct transfer of coal from self-unloading lakers to large ocean vessels; concept of total transportation from mines to users; disadvantage of a nine month season on the Great Lakes; costs of maritime transport of coal through the Great Lakes to Europe; facilities at the ice-free, deep water port at Sept Iles; the use of Western coals from an environmental and economic viewpoint; the properties of Western coal and factors affecting its use; the feasibility of a slurry pipeline from the Powder River Basin to Lake Superior; a systems analysis of the complete hydraulic transport of coal from the mine to users in Europe; the performance of the COJA mill-burner for the combustion of superfine coal; demand for steam coal in Western Europe; and the effect the New Source Performance Standards will have on the production and use of Western coal. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers for the Energy Data Base (EDB); 17 will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and 11 in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (CKK)

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Autothermal coal gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents test results of a pilot plant study of coal gasification system based on the process developed by Texaco. This process has been improved by the project partners Ruhrchenie A.G. and Ruhrkohle A.C. in West Germany and tested in a demonstration plant that operated for more than 10,000 hours, converting over 50,000 tons of coal into gas. The aim was to develop a process that would be sufficiently flexible when used at the commercial level to incorporate all of the advantages inherent in the diverse processes of the 'first generation' - fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained bed processes - but would be free of the disadvantages of these processes. Extensive test results are tabulated and evaluated. Forecast for future development is included. 5 refs.

Konkol, W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Coal Bed Methane Primer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

154

Coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarreisVolcanicPower Address:Climatic SolarInformationCoal

155

The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and condensation heat transfer in tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient of condensing refrigerant R-12 was studied experimentally. Flow patterns in glass return bends of 1/2 to 1 in. radius and 0.315 ...

Traviss, Donald P.

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Zero emission coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objectives of this proposed research are to refine further the inverse liquid chromatography technique for the study of surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals in water, to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals by inverse liquid chromatography, and to evaluate floatability of various treated coals in conjunction with surface properties of coals. Alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, heptanol, 1-hexadecanol, 2-methyl-pentanol, 4-methyl-2-penthanol (methylisobutyl carbinol), n-octanol, s-octanol, and cyclohexanol as probe compounds are utilized to evaluate hydrophilicity of coals and coal minerals. N-alkanes such as hexane, heptane and octane, and stearic acid are employed as probe compounds to evaluate hydrophobicity of coals and coal minerals. Aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene as probe compounds are used to examine aromaticity of coal surface. Aromatic acids such as o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, phenol and B-naphthol are used to detect aromatic acidic sites of coal surface. Hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and aromaticity of surfaces for either raw coals or treated coals in water are relatively determined by evaluating both equilibrium physical/chemical adsorption and dynamic adsorption of probe compounds on various raw coals and treated coals to compare affinities of coals for water.

Kwon, K.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Transporting export coal from Appalachia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This publication is part of a series titled Market Guide for Steam Coal Exports from Appalachia. It focuses on the transportation link in the steam-coal supply chain, enabling producers to further assess their transportation options and their ability to compete in the export-coal marketplace. Transportation alternatives and handling procedures are discussed, and information is provided on the costs associated with each element in the transportation network.

Not Available

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Volatile coal prices reflect supply, demand uncertainties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal mine owners and investors say that supply and demand are now finally in balance. But coal consumers find that both spot tonnage and new contract coal come at a much higher price.

Ryan, M.

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of natural gas, along with the coal reserve base of 326s Fossil Fuel Reserve Base, 2007 Oil Natural Gas Coal 233ensured reserves”) of coal, oil and natural gas published in

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal electricity generation efficiency also varies by plantplants. The unit water requirement of coal-fired electricity generationelectricity generation is comparatively low in China due to the prevalence of small, outdated coal-fired power plants.

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

NONE

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Commercializing the H-Coal Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) has observed a decided swing in interest in commercial coal liquefaction. Project owners can select one of two paths for commercial coal liquefaction using H-Coal technology. The quantum strategy involves the construction of a...

DeVaux, G. R.; Dutkiewicz, B.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Coal Bed Methane Protection Act establishes a long-term coal bed methane protection account and a coal bed methane protection program for the purpose of compensating private landowners and...

167

Process for electrochemically gasifying coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

1985-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

168

Coal Mine Safety Act (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act is the primary legislation pertaining to coal mine safety in Virginia. It contains information on safety rules, safety standards and required certifications for mine workers, prohibited...

169

MS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

what about costs? Th e mining, transportation, electricity generation, and pollution-control costs associated with using coal are increasing, but both natural gas and oil are...

170

POWER SUPPLIES FOR THE BENDING MAGNETS OF THE BEP AND VEPP-2000 STORAGE RING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

POWER SUPPLIES FOR THE BENDING MAGNETS OF THE BEP AND VEPP-2000 STORAGE RING K.M. Gorchakov, S new complex VEPP-2000. The two new power supply for bending magnet was built for BEP and VEPP-2000 storage ring. POWER SUPPLY FOR THE BENDING MAGNETS OF THE BEP Below are the parameters of the supply (the

Kozak, Victor R.

171

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, DOE. LBNL 275-E Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid:Renewable Energy Laboratory), and Ryan Wiser ( LBNL). i Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid:

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

s 2006 total primary energy consumption, compared to 24Coal Dependence of Primary Energy Consumption, 2007coal/primary energy consumption Source: BP Statistical

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Arkansas Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Act (Arkansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Arkansas Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Act authorizes the state to develop, adopt, issue and amend rules and regulations pertaining to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. These...

174

Utility Generation and Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute establishes the state's support and incentives for the development of new energy production and generating facilities implementing advanced clean coal technology, such as coal...

175

The recovery of purified coal from solution.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A new process is being developed to produce graphite from prime coking coal. Coal is dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF), on addition of sodium hydroxide. The… (more)

Botha, Mary Alliles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

raising transportation oil demand. Growing internationalcoal by wire could reduce oil demand by stemming coal roadEastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Big Bend Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarre Biomass FacilityOregon: EnergyBiofuelsBig Bend Electric

178

COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Bending-induced Symmetry Breaking of Lithiation in Germanium Nanowires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions, regulating these biological and physiochemical processes. The coupled effect is particularly evident in electrochemical lithiation/delithiation cycling of high-capacity electrodes, such as silicon (Si), where on one hand lithiation-generated stress mediates lithiation kinetics, and on the other electrochemical reaction rate regulates stress generation and mechanical failure of the electrodes. Here we report for the first time the evidence on the controlled lithiation in germanium nanowires (GeNWs) through external bending. Contrary to the symmetric core-shell lithiation in free-standing GeNWs, we show bending GeNWs breaks the lithiation symmetry, speeding up lithaition at the tensile side while slowing down at the compressive side of the GeNWs. The bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in GeNWs is further corroborated by chemomechanical modeling. In the light of the coupled effect between lithiation kinetics and mechanical stress in the electrochemical cycling, our findings shed light on strain/stress engineering of durable high-rate electrodes and energy harvesting through mechanical motion.

Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Perea, Daniel E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Coal: Energy for the future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Consensus Coal Production Forecast for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the consensus forecast produced in 2006, primarily from the decreased demand as a result of the current nationalConsensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 2009-2030 Prepared for the West Virginia Summary 1 Recent Developments 2 Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 10 Risks

Mohaghegh, Shahab

182

Commercialization of clean coal technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

Bharucha, N. [Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra (Australia)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

183

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed NewcatalystNeutron scatteringDelawareTexasMissouri NuclearTennesseeWashington- Coal

184

Coal | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User Group and Userof aChristinaCliffPublication Revision PolicyCoal

185

Coal combustion products (CCPs  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth DayFuelsDepartmentPolicyClean, EEREClosureHighforCoal

186

Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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187

Annual Coal Report 2013  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOil and Natural Gas AEO2015EnergyAnnual Coal

188

Annual Coal Distribution Report  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYear Jan Feb MarAlternative0of

189

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22, 20131Detailed0

190

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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191

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S. Energy

192

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S. Energy0

193

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S. Energy01

194

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.

195

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.1 U.S.

196

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.1 U.S.1

197

By Coal Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.1 U.S.12

198

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.1 U.S.120

199

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.1

200

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.10 U.S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.10 U.S.0

202

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.10 U.S.01

203

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.10

204

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.101 U.S.

205

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.101 U.S.1

206

By Coal Origin State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.101

207

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q 2009

208

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q 20093Q 2009

209

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q 20093Q

210

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q 20093Q4Q

211

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomicper8,170Thousand2.442 3.028 3.803 3.971Feet)06Coal

212

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousand Cubic Feet) OmanThousand36,610.05 KeroseneCoal Glossary

213

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousand Cubic Feet) OmanThousand36,610.05 KeroseneCoal

214

Coal Supply Region  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Qc. Real12

215

EIA - Coal Distribution  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data03. U.S. uraniumFormsAnnual

216

By Coal Destination State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 566 8021 1 2 22008662 564CubicAnnual Coal

217

Strategic Center for Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutron Scattering4American'!Stores Catalogof SVO ResearchCoal

218

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Costs References . . Coal-Electric Generation Technologyon coal preparation, coal-electric generation and emissionson coal preparation, coal-electric generation and emissions

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

Heckmann, H. [Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Coal pile leachate treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The steam plant located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was converted from oil- to coal-fired boilers. In the process, a diked, 1.6-ha coal storage yard was constructed. The purpose of this report is to describe the treatment system designed to neutralize the estimated 18,000 m/sup 3/ of acidic runoff that will be produced each year. A literature review and laboratory treatability study were conducted which identified two treatment systems that will be employed to neutralize the acidic runoff. The first, a manually operated system, will be constructed at a cost of $200,000 and will operate for an interim period of four years. This system will provide for leachate neutralization until a more automated system can be brought on-line. The second, a fully automated system, is described and will be constructed at an estimated cost of $650,000. This automated runoff treatment system will ensure that drainage from the storage yard meets current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Standards for pH and total suspended solids, as well as future standards, which are likely to include several metals along with selected trace elements.

Davis, E C; Kimmitt, R R

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

Doyle, F.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Healy, Francis E. (Massapequa, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

2011 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference Pittsburgh, PA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sequestration in Unmineable Coal with Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery: The Marshall County Project James E conducted in Marshall County, West Virginia, USA, to evaluate enhanced coal bed methane recovery enhanced coal bed methane (CBM) pilot test in Marshall County, West Virginia. This pilot test was developed

Mohaghegh, Shahab

225

Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane Dariusz Strapo´c,1, Maria Mastalerz,2 Katherine, biodegradation Abstract Microbial methane accumulations have been discovered in multiple coal- bearing basins low-maturity coals with predominantly microbial methane gas or uplifted coals containing older

Macalady, Jenn

226

Formation and retention of methane in coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

1985-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

228

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologiesCarbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005 environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

229

Commercialization of coal to liquids technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After an overview of the coal market, technologies for producing liquids from coal are outlined. Commercialisation of coal-to-liquid fuels, the economics of coal-to-liquids development and the role of the government are discussed. Profiles of 8 key players and the profiles of 14 projects are finally given. 17 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Clean coal technologies: A business report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Coal: the cornerstone of America's energy future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April 2005, US Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman asked the National Coal Council to develop a 'report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring our domestic coal resources to meet the nation's future energy needs'. The Council has responded with eight specific recommendations for developing and implementing advanced coal processing and combustion technologies to satisfy our unquenchable thirst for energy. These are: Use coal-to-liquids technologies to produce 2.6 million barrels/day; Use coal-to-natural gas technologies to produce 4 trillion ft{sup 3}/yr; Build 100 GW of clean coal plants by 2025; Produce ethanol from coal; Develop coal-to-hydrogen technologies; Use CO{sub 2} to enhance recovery of oil and coal-bed methane; Increase the capacity of US coal mines and railroads; and Invest in technology development and implementation. 1 ref.; 4 figs.; 1 tab.

Beck, R.A. [National Coal Council (United Kingdom)

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Coal cutting research slashes dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US Bureau of Mines' research projects aimed at the reduction of coal dust during coal cutting operations are described. These include an investigation of the effects of conical bit wear on respirable dust generation, energy and cutting forces; the determination of the best conical bit mount condition to increase life by enhancing bit rotation; a comparison between chisel- and conical-type cutters. In order to establish a suitable homogeneous reference material for cutting experiments, a synthetic coal with a plaster base is being developed.

Roepke, W.W.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Coal Mining on Pitching Seams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 1915* App r ov e d: Department of Mining Engineering* COAL MUTING ON PITCHING SEAMS A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OP THE SCHOOL OP ENGINEERING OF THE UNIVERSITY OP KANSAS for THE DEGREE OF ENGINEER OF MINES BY GEORGE MACMILLAN BROWN 1915... PREFACE In the following dissertation on the subject of "Coal Mining in Pitching Beams" the writer desires to describe more particularly those methods of mining peculiar to coal mines in Oklahoma, with which he has been more or less familiar during...

Brown, George MacMillan

1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

Not Available

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Coal conversion siting on coal mined lands: water quality issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The siting of new technology coal conversion facilities on land disturbed by coal mining results in both environmental benefits and unique water quality issues. Proximity to mining reduces transportation requirements and restores disrupted land to productive use. Uncertainties may exist, however, in both understanding the existing site environment and assessing the impact of the new technology. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently assessing the water-related impacts of proposed coal conversion facilities located in areas disturbed by surface and underground coal mining. Past mining practices, leaving highly permeable and unstable fill, may affect the design and quality of data from monitoring programs. Current mining and dewatering, or past underground mining may alter groundwater or surface water flow patterns or affect solid waste disposal stability. Potential acid-forming material influences the siting of waste disposal areas and the design of grading operations. These and other problems are considered in relation to the uncertainties and potentially unique problems inherent in developing new technologies.

Triegel, E.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

NONE

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Reversible Bending Fatigue Testing on Zry-4 Surrogate Rods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Testing high-burnup spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presents many challenges in areas such as specimen preparation, specimen installation, mechanical loading, load control, measurements, data acquisition, and specimen disposal because these tasks are complicated by the radioactivity of the test specimens. Research and comparison studies conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) resulted in a new concept in 2010 for a U-frame testing setup on which to perform hot-cell reversible bending fatigue testing. Subsequently, the three-dimensional finite element analysis and the engineering design of components were completed. In 2013 the ORNL team finalized the upgrade of the U-frame testing setup and the integration of the U-frame setup into a Bose dual linear motor test bench to develop a cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT). A final check was conducted on the CIRFT test system in August 2013, and the CIRFT was installed in the hot cell in September 2013 to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The fatigue responses of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding and the role of pellet pellet and pellet clad interactions are critical to SNF vibration integrity, but such data are not available due to the unavailability of an effective testing system. While the deployment of the developed CIRFT test system in a hot cell will provide the opportunity to generate the data, the use of a surrogate rod has proven quite effective in identifying the underlying deformation mechanism of an SNF composite rod under an equivalent loading condition. This paper presents the experimental results of using surrogate rods under CIRFT reversible cyclic loading. Specifically, monotonic and cyclic bending tests were conducted on surrogate rods made of a Zry-4 tube and alumina pellet inserts, both with and without an epoxy bond.

Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Coal gasification vessel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts: Connectors, bends anddeveloping flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In ventilation duct flow the turbulent flow profile is commonly disturbed or not fully developed and these conditions are likely to influence particle deposition to duct surfaces. Particle deposition rates at eight S-connectors, in two 90{sup o} duct bends and in two ducts where the turbulent flow profile was not fully developed were measured in a laboratory duct system with both galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle diameters of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition of particles with nominal diameters of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m was measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces. Deposition at S-connectors, in bends and in straight ducts with developing turbulence was often greater than deposition in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence for equal particle sizes, air speeds and duct surface orientations. Deposition rates at all locations were found to increase with an increase in particle size or air speed. High deposition rates at S-connectors resulted from impaction and these rates were nearly independent of the orientation of the S-connector. Deposition rates in the two 90{sup o} bends differed by more than an order of magnitude in some cases, probably because of the difference in turbulence conditions at the bend inlets. In straight steel ducts where the turbulent flow profile was developing, the deposition enhancement relative to fully developed turbulence generally increased with air speed and decreased with downstream distance from the duct inlet. This enhancement was greater at the duct ceiling and wall than at the duct floor. In insulated ducts, deposition enhancement was less pronounced overall than in steel ducts. Trends that were observed in steel ducts were present, but weaker, in insulated ducts.

Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

MHK Projects/Greenville Bend Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpIncMAK Technologies Jump to:BW2Greenville Bend Project < MHK

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

MHK Projects/Hickman Bend Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpIncMAK Technologies Jump to:BW2Greenville Bend ProjectHannibal

242

MHK Projects/Island 14 Bend | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpIncMAK Technologies Jump to:BW2Greenville BendHopeIjsselmeerIsland 14

243

MHK Projects/Kempe Bend Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpIncMAK Technologies Jump to:BW2GreenvilleKempe Bend Project < MHK

244

MHK Projects/Kenner Bend Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpIncMAK Technologies Jump to:BW2GreenvilleKempe Bend Project

245

MHK Projects/Remy Bend Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpIncMAKGalway Bay IE < MHK Project City Tunica0,LA ProjectRemy Bend

246

MHK Projects/St Rose Bend | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpIncMAKGalway Bay IE < MHK ProjectRose Bend < MHK Projects Jump

247

Bessemer Bend, Wyoming: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: Energy ResourcesJersey: EnergyBerthoud, Colorado: EnergyBessemer Bend, Wyoming:

248

Post Oak Bend City, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth'sOklahoma/GeothermalOrangePeru:Job Corp JumpWind Turbine Jump to:PositiveBend

249

Big Bend Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarre Biomass FacilityOregon: EnergyBiofuelsBig Bend ElectricHot

250

COMBUSTION OF COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION BURNER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TABLE 1. Pittsburgh seam coal properties, Grosshandler (content of the Pittsburgh seam coal. As the ash layer beginsfrom Pittsburgh seam pulverized coal, screened through a 35

Chin, W.K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Recovery Act: Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Recovery Act: Clean Coal Power Initiative Recovery Act: Clean Coal Power Initiative A report detailling the Clean Coal Power initiative funded under the American Recovery and...

252

MULTIPHASE REACTOR MODELING FOR ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYZED COAL LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ix Introduction. A. Coal Liquefaction Overview B.L ZnCl 2-catalyzed Coal Liquefaction . . . . . . . . . • ,Results. . . • . ZnC1 2/MeOH Coal liquefaction Process

Joyce, Peter James

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Southern Coal finds value in the met market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Justice family launches a new coal company (Southern Coal Corp.) to serve metallurgical and steam coal markets. 1 tab., 3 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the ninth quarter, electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were done to characterize the morphology and composition of the surface of as-received coal, oxidized coal and coal pyrite. In addition, electrokinetic tests were done on Upper Freeport coal pyrite.

Doyle, F.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

An Overview of Coal based  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Overview of Coal based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology September 2005. LFEE 2005-002 WP #12;#12;Table of Contents 1 Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC.......................................................................... 17 2.1 Gasification

256

Process for low mercury coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Grimes, R. William (Laramie, WY); Tweed, Robert E. (Laramie, WY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Process for low mercury coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

258

Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

Robert Wilson

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

259

Surface Coal Mining Law (Missouri)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This law aims to provide for the regulation of coal mining in order to minimize or prevent its adverse effects, protect the environment to the extent possible, protect landowner rights, and...

260

Coal Mining Reclamation (North Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Reclamation Division of the Public Service Commission is tasked with administering the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation. Specific regulations can be found in article 69-05.2 of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

262

New developments in coal briquetting technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Briquetting of coal has been with us for well over a century. In the earliest applications of coal briquetting, less valuable fine coal was agglomerated into briquettes using a wide variety of binders, including coal tar, pitch and asphalt. Eventually, roll briquetters came into more widespread use, permitting the process to become a continuous one. Coal briquetting went out of favor during the 1950s in most of the industrialized world. The major reason for this decline in use was the discovery that the coal gas distillates used for binders were harmful to human health. Also, the abundance of cheap petroleum made coal briquettes a less attractive alternative as an industrial or domestic fuel. The re-emergence of coal as a primary industrial fuel and also its increased prominence as a fuel for thermal electric power stations led to a large increase in the annual volume of coal being mined worldwide. Coal preparation technology steadily improved over the years with the general exception of fine coal preparation. The processes available for treating this size range were considerably more expensive per unit mass of coal treated than coarse coal processes. Also, costly dewatering equipment was required after cleaning to remove surface moisture. Even with dewatering, the high surface area per unit mass of fine coal versus coarse coal resulted in high moisture contents. Therefore, little incentive existed to improve the performance of fine coal processes since this would only increase the amount of wet coal fines which would have to be dealt with. With such an ever-increasing volume of coal fines being created each year, there emerged an interest in recovering this valuable product. Several schemes were developed to recover coal fines discarded in abandoned tailings impoundments by previous operations.

Tucker, P.V. [Kilborn Inc., Ontario (Canada); Bosworth, G.B. [Kilborn Engineering Pacific Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kalb, G.W. [KKS Systems Inc., Wheeling, WV (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

263

Streamline coal slurry letdown valve  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

1983-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

264

Geology in coal resource utilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Peters, D.C. (ed.)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Status of the American alligator and potential resource management problems at the Brazos Bend State Park  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

25 4 Alligator populations in Brazos Bend State Park's lakes by size-class distribution 27 5 Significant difference between day mal night counts 35 6 Comparisons of the distribution of day, and night counts by months 38 7 Tukey's studentized... alligators at Brazos Bend State Park 52 6 Concentric kilometer radius of user-public to Brazos Bend and Huntsville State Park 60 ZNTRODVCTION Taking time out for recreational activities, is a prominent pastime in our fast-paced world. Great distances...

Onadeko, Samuel Akinyele

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

266

Oxy-coal Combustion Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?˘ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?˘ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?˘ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?˘ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?˘ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?˘ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Could Gila Bend, Arizona, Become the Solar Capital of the World?  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Serving approximately 9,000 homes with clean renewable energy, the Paloma and Cotton Center solar plants highlight the rapidly rising solar corridor in Gila Bend, Arizona.

268

A Superconducting Bending Magnet System for a Compact Synchrotron Light Source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Garren, "Optimization of Superconducting Bending Magnets foral, "Development of a Superconducting Compact Storage Ringsdesigns M. A Green, "Superconducting Dipole Magnets for

Green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-symmetric bending moment Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sample search results for: anti-symmetric bending moment Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Mechanical Engineering Department WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE Summary: and moments Shear...

270

Coal-tire co-liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co-liquefaction of ground coal and tire rubber was studied at 400{degrees}C both with and without catalyst. Two different tire samples were used. In the non-catalytic runs, the conversion of coal increased with the addition of tire and the increase was dependent on tire/coal ratio and hydrogen pressure. Using a ferric sulfide-based catalyst, the coal conversion increased with an increase in the catalyst loading. However, the increase was more pronounced at loadings of around 0.5 wt%. The addition of tire to coal in the catalytic runs was not particularly beneficial, especially, when the tire/coal ratio was above 1.

Sharma, R.K.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Liu, Zhenyu; Stiller, A.H. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

Coal Transportation Issues (released in AEO2007)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Most of the coal delivered to U.S. consumers is transported by railroads, which accounted for 64% of total domestic coal shipments in 2004. Trucks transported approximately 12% of the coal consumed in the United States in 2004, mainly in short hauls from mines in the East to nearby coal-fired electricity and industrial plants. A number of minemouth power plants in the West also use trucks to haul coal from adjacent mining operations. Other significant modes of coal transportation in 2004 included conveyor belt and slurry pipeline (12%) and water transport on inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and tidewater areas (9%).

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

Steve Colt

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Coal combustion by wet oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

1980-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ash from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje Coal Field, Serbia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical compositions and trace element contents (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, B, Hg, Sr, Se, Be, Ba, Mn, Th, V, U) in coal and coal ash samples from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje coal field in Serbia were studied. The coal from this field belongs to lignite. This high volatility coal has high moisture and low S contents, moderate ash yield, and high calorific value. The coal ash is abundant in alumosilicates. Many trace elements such as Ni > Cd > Cr > B > As > Cu > Co > Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal and Ni > Cr > As > B > Cu > Co = Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal ash are enriched in comparison with Clarke concentrations.

Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.; Rajakovic, L.J. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Repowering with clean coal technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Repowering with clean coal technology can offer significant advantages, including lower heat rates and production costs, environmental compliance, incremental capacity increases, and life extension of existing facilities. Significant savings of capital costs can result by refurbishing and reusing existing sites and infrastructure relative to a greenfield siting approach. This paper summarizes some key results of a study performed by Parsons Power Group, Inc., under a contract with DOE/METC, which investigates many of the promising advanced power generation technologies in a repowering application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical and economic results of applying each of a menu of Clean Coal Technologies in a repowering of a hypothetical representative fossil fueled power station. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal is used as the fuel for most of the cases evaluated herein, as well as serving as the fuel for the original unrepowered station. The steam turbine-generator, condenser, and circulating water system are refurbished and reused in this study, as is most of the existing site infrastructure such as transmission lines, railroad, coal yard and coal handling equipment, etc. The technologies evaluated in this study consisted of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, several varieties of pressurized fluid bed combustors, several types of gasifiers, a refueling with a process derived fuel, and, for reference, a natural gas fired combustion turbine-combined cycle.

Freier, M.D. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Buchanan, T.L.; DeLallo, M.L.; Goldstein, H.N. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Clean Coal Program Research Activities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

277

EFFECT OF COAL DUST ONEFFECT OF COAL DUST ON RAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTHRAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Triaxial TestsTests Direct Shear TestsDirect Shear Tests Clean and Coal Dust Fouled Ballast BehaviorClean1 EFFECT OF COAL DUST ONEFFECT OF COAL DUST ON RAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTHRAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTH for Laboratory StudyFouling Mechanism / Need for Laboratory Study Mechanical Properties of Coal Dust

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

278

Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production@nmsu.edu #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth i Disclaimer This report States Government or any agency thereof. #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic

Johnson, Eric E.

279

SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter PH SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES By M assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

280

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Clean Coal Incentive Tax Credit (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Clean Coal Incentive Tax Credit provides for a property tax credit for new clean coal facilities constructed at a cost exceeding $150 million and used for the purposes of generating electricity....

285

Integrated Coal Gasification Power Plant Credit (Kansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Integrated Coal Gasification Power Plant Credit states that an income taxpayer that makes a qualified investment in a new integrated coal gasification power plant or in the expansion of an existing...

286

Ohio Coal Research and Development Program (Ohio)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Ohio Coal Development Office invests in the development and implementation of technologies that can use Ohio's vast reserves of coal in an economical, environmentally sound manner. Projects are...

287

February 21 -22, 2014 Coast Coal Harbour  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

February 21 - 22, 2014 Coast Coal Harbour 1180 W Hastings St Vancouver, BC Healthy Mothers contact by phone: +1 604-822- 7708 or by e-mail: melissa.ipce@ubc.ca. Location The Coast Coal Harbour

Handy, Todd C.

288

DAMAGE MECHANISMS OF ULTRAHIGH STRENGTH STEELS IN BENDING APPLICATION TO A TRIP STEEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 DAMAGE MECHANISMS OF ULTRAHIGH STRENGTH STEELS IN BENDING APPLICATION TO A TRIP STEEL D. Rèche 1, the present study aims at understanding damage mechanisms involved in bending of Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSSs). It focuses on a TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP)-aided steel. This work is based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

Damping of bending waves in truss beams by electrical transmission lines with PZT actuators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Damping of bending waves in truss beams by electrical transmission lines with PZT actuators F. dell of the truss beam with an electrical transmission line by a line distribution of PZT actuators. It has been-order transmission line, and that such a line is not suitable to damp bending waves. In the present paper, we propose

Boyer, Edmond

290

POWER SUPPLIES FOR THE BENDING MAGNETS OF THE BEP AND VEPP-2000 STORAGE RING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

POWER SUPPLIES FOR THE BENDING MAGNETS OF THE BEP AND VEPP-2000 STORAGE RING S.S. Vasichev, V of the collider. The beam energy change lead to the necessity to develop new power supplies for the main field for the supplies and design of the power part has been revised completely. POWER SUPPLY FOR THE BENDING MAGNETS

Kozak, Victor R.

291

Predicting the ultimate bending capacity of concrete beams from the ``relaxation ratio'' analysis of AE signals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on ``testing'' the real structure rather than trying to model it. Experiments on reinforced concrete (RC) beamsPredicting the ultimate bending capacity of concrete beams from the ``relaxation ratio'' analysis the unloading and loading phases of a cycle test and it showed a clear correlation with the bending failure load

292

Transformation optofluidics for large-angle light bending and tuning{{ L. K. Chin,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transformation optofluidics for large-angle light bending and tuning{{ Y. Yang,*a L. K. Chin,a J. M DOI: 10.1039/c2lc40442g Transformation optics is a new art of light bending by designing materials with spatially variable parameters for developing wave-manipulation devices. Here, we introduce a transformation

Zheludev, Nikolay

293

Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu [Xiamen University, Xiamen (China). China Center for Energy Economics Research (CCEER)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Cokemaking from coals of Kuzbas and Donbas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper discusses features of Donetsk and Kuznetsk coals, the export capability of Ukraine coking industry, the selection of coal blends involving coals from different basins, and practical recommendations and techno-economic considerations. It is concluded that by raising the share of low-sulfur Kuznetsk coal in the blend to 50%, coke produced will meet all the requirements of European and American consumers.

Umansky, R.Z. [Resourcecomplect, Donetsk (Ukraine); Kovalev, E.T.; Drozdnik, I.D. [UKHIN, Kharkov (Ukraine)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

National Coal celebrates its fifth anniversary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth and activities of the National Coal Corp since its formation in 2003 are described. 5 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Coal cutting research slashes dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal-Cutting Technology Group at the Bureau of Mine's Twin Cities Research Center is investigating ways to reduce primary dust generated by coal cutting. The progression of research within the program is from fundamental laboratory research, to fundamental field research, to field concept verification. Then the Bureau recommends warranted changes and/or prototype development to industry. Currently the Cutting Technology Group has several projects in each phase of research. The Bureau's current fundamental studies of bit characteristics are directed to determining the effects of conical bit wear on primary respirable dust generation, energy, and cutting forces; establishing best conical bit mount condition to increase life by enhancing bit rotation; and comparing chisel-type cutters to conical-type cutters. Additionally, to establish a suitable homogeneous reference material for cutting experiments, a synthetic coal with a plaster base is being developed.

Roepke, W.W.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Coal cutting research slashes dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal-Cutting Technology Group at the Bureau of Mines Twin Cities (MN) Research Center is investigating ways to reduce primary dust generated by coal cutting. The progression of research within the program is from fundamental laboratory research, to fundamental field research, to field concept verification. Then the Bureau recommends warranted changes and/or prototype development to industry. Currently the group has several projects in each phase of research. The Bureau's current fundamental studies of bit characteristics are directed toward determining the effects of conical bit wear on primary respirable dust generation, energy, and cutting forces; establishing best conical bit mount condition to increase life by enhancing bit rotation; and comparing chisel-type cutters to conical-type cutters. Additionally, to establish a suitable homogeneous reference material for cutting experiments, a synthetic coal with a plaster base is being developed.

Roepke, W.W.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

4th Annual Clean Coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings he emphasis of the Fourth Clean Coal Technology Conference wm the marketability of clean coal projects both domestically and abroad. The success rate of clean coal projects in the U.S. for coalfired electricity generation is a beacon to foreign governments that are working toward effectively using advanced NO, and SO2 technology to substantially reduce flue-gas emissions for a cleaner environment. There is a continuing dialogue between U.S. Government, North American private industry, and the electricity producing governmental ministries and the private sector abroad. The international community was well represented at this conference. The Administration is determined to move promising, near-term technologies from the public to the private sector a ~ well a8 into the international marketplace.

Ferriter John P

299

TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Lignite Research Council, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO combustion systems, and new power generation x plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1998 through 30 September 1998. During this period distribution of all three Phase II coals was completed. Standard analyses for the whole coal samples were also completed. Mössbauer analysis of all project coals and fractions received to date has been completed in order to obtain details of the iron mineralogy. The analyses of arsenic XAFS data for two of the project coals and for some high arsenic coals have been completed. Duplicate splits of the Ohio 5,6,7 and North Dakota lignite samples were taken through all four steps of the selective leaching procedure. Leaching analysis of the Wyodak coal has recently commenced. Preparation of polished coal/epoxy pellets for probe/SEM studies is underway. Some exploratory mercury LIII XAFS work was carried out during August at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the new synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL. Further analysis of small-scale combustion experiments conducted at PSI in Phase I was completed this quarter. The results of these experiments for the first time suggest almost complete vaporization of certain trace elements (Se, Zn) from coal combustion in the flame zone, in accordance with theoretical equilibrium predictions. Other elements (As, Sb, Cr) appeared considerably less volatile and may react with constituents in the bulk ash at combustion temperatures. The combustion section of the University of Arizona's Downflow Combustor was completely rebuilt. The University of Utah worked on setting up EPA Method 26A to give the capability to measure chlorine in flue gas. The chlorine kinetic calculations performed as part of the Phase I program were found to have an error in the initial conditions. Therefore, the calculations were re-done this quarter with the correct starting conditions. Development of a quasi-empirical emissions model based on reported emissions of particulate matter from field measurements was continued this quarter. As a first step in developing the ToPEM, we developed a sub-model that calculates the evaporation of major elements (Na, K, Fe, Si, Al, Ca and Mg) from both inherent and extraneous minerals of coal. During this quarter, this sub-model was included into EMAF, which formed the ToPEM. Experimental data from the Phase I program were used to test and modify the sub-model and the ToPEM.

A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

300

Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with China's economy in its current mode of growth. Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on its current growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Broadening awareness of the environmental costs of coal mining, transport, and combustion is raising the pressure on Chinese policy makers to find alternative energy sources. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China is short of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport. Transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transport oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 mt by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets. The looming coal gap threatens to derail China's growth path, possibly undermining political, economic, and social stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages will have regional and global effects. Regarding China's role as a global manufacturing center, a domestic coal gap will increase prices and constrain growth. Within the Asia-Pacific region, China's coal gap is likely to bring about increased competition with other coal-importing countries including Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India. As with petroleum, China may respond with a government-supported 'going-out' strategy of resource acquisition and vertical integration. Given its population and growing resource constraints, China may favor energy security, competitiveness, and local environmental protection over global climate change mitigation. The possibility of a large coal gap suggests that Chinese and international policy makers should maximize institutional and financial support

Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Measurement of turbulent flow upstream and downstream of a circular pipe bend  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We measured velocity distribution in cross sections of a fully developed turbulent pipe flow upstream and downstream of a 90 degree sign bend by synchronizing two sets of a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Unsteady undulation of Dean vortices formed downstream from the bend was characterized by the azimuthal position of the stagnation point found on the inner and outer sides of the bend. Linear stochastic estimation was applied to capture the upstream flow field conditioned by the azimuthal location of the stagnation point downstream from the bend. When the inner-side stagnation point stayed below (above) the symmetry plane, the conditional streamwise velocity upstream from the bend exhibited high-speed streaks extended in a quasi-streamwise direction on the outer side of the curvature above (below) the symmetry plane.

Sakakibara, Jun; Machida, Nobuteru [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Energy, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Isotope effect in normal-to-local transition of acetylene bending modes  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The normal-to-local transition for the bending modes of acetylene is considered a prelude to its isomerization to vinylidene. Here, such a transition in fully deuterated acetylene is investigated using a full-dimensional quantum model. It is found that the local benders emerge at much lower energies and bending quantum numbers than in the hydrogen isotopomer HCCH. This is accompanied by a transition to a second kind of bending mode called counter-rotator, again at lower energies and quantum numbers than in HCCH. These transitions are also investigated using bifurcation analysis of two empirical spectroscopic fitting Hamiltonians for pure bending modes, which helps to understand the origin of the transitions semiclassically as branchings or bifurcations out of the trans and normal bend modes when the latter become dynamically unstable. The results of the quantum model and the empirical bifurcation analysis are in very good agreement.

Ma, Jianyi [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, (United States); Xu, Dingguo [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, (United States) and Sichuan Univ. (China); Guo, Hua [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, (United States); Tyng, Vivian [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Kellman, Michael E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

303

Energy Center Center for Coal Technology Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Center Center for Coal Technology Research http://www.purdue.edu/dp/energy/CCTR/ Consumption Production Gasification Power Plants Coking Liquid Fuels Environment Oxyfuels Byproducts Legislation, 500 Central Drive West Lafayette, IN 47907-2022 #12;INDIANA COAL REPORT 2009 Center for Coal

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

304

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

306

Energy Systems Engineering 1 Clean Coal Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Systems Engineering 1 Clean Coal Technologies Presentation at BARC 4th December 2007 #12/kWh) 0.14 0.03 0.6 #12;Energy Systems Engineering 9 Status of Advanced Coal Technologies Types of advanced coal technologies Supercritical Pulverised Combustion Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion (CFBC

Banerjee, Rangan

307

Pelletization of fine coals. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

Sastry, K.V.S.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

Coal mine directory: United States and Canada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The directory gives a state-by-state listing of all US and Canadian coal producers. It contains contact information as well as the type of mine, production statistics, coal composition, transportation methods etc. A statistical section provides general information about the US coal industry, preparation plants, and longwall mining operations.

NONE

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Katzer #12;CHARGE TO THE ALTF PANEL · Evaluate technologies for converting biomass and coal to liquid for liquid fuels produced from coal or biomass. · Evaluate environmental, economic, policy, and social

310

Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Miller, K.J.; Wen, Wu-Wey

1988-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

311

Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow.

Miller, Kenneth J. (Floreffe, PA); Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Conventional coal preparation in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Processing of bituminous and anthracite coal is widely practiced in the United States and, as mentioned earlier, about 80 percent of the production of these coals is processed as clean coal in preparation plants. Subbituminous coal is not widely processed, primarily because these low rank raw coals are low in sulfur (0.5 to 1.0 percent) and relatively low in ash (8 to 15 percent). They are also relatively low in heat content due to their high inherent moisture. Lignite coals, to the best of the authors{close_quote} knowledge, are not presently being processed in Conventional Coal Preparation plants. This is due to their unstable nature and putting them in water in a coal preparation plant is likely to cause severe degradation in particle size and add to their already high inherent moisture content. The following are the benefits of clean coal processing: produces a uniform product which can be utilized more efficiently; produces a higher quality product which results in higher efficiency at the power station or the steel mill; reduces sulfur dioxide and other adverse stack emissions during coal firing which is a very important environmental consideration; reduces ash or slag handling costs by the user; reduces shipping costs; and reduces handling and storage costs. Processing any stable raw coal in a coal preparation plant will always produce a higher grade product which is a more efficient and a more environmentally acceptable fuel for use at power stations, steel mills, home heating or industrial boilers.

Beck, M.K.; Taylor, B.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

Consensus Coal Production And Price Forecast For  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consensus Coal Production And Price Forecast For West Virginia: 2011 Update Prepared for the West December 2011 © Copyright 2011 WVU Research Corporation #12;#12;W.Va. Consensus Coal Forecast Update 2011 i Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 Recent Developments 3 Consensus Coal Production And Price Forecast

Mohaghegh, Shahab

314

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

Dai, Pengcheng

315

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

Weimer, Robert F. (Allentown, PA); Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Passive gust load alleviation through bend-twist coupling of composite beams on typical commercial airplane wings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of bend-twist coupling on typical commercial airplane wings are evaluated. An analytical formulation of the orthotropic box beam bending stiffness matrix is derived by combining Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and ...

Gauthier Perron, Sébastien

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

also be affected by higher coal prices. II "Current Factorscoal production capacities and coal prices. Coal Production27, Fig. 1, p. 2). Coal prices have had the characteristic

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

advanced coal-combustion technology: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

320

advanced coal-combustion technologies: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Potential applications of microscopy for steam coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical microscopy has been an extremely useful tool for many industrial sectors in the past. This paper introduces some of the potential applications of using coal and fly ash carbon microscopy for the combustion process and steam coal industry. Coal and fly ash carbon microscopic classification criteria are described. Plant sample data are presented which demonstrate that these techniques can be useful for coal selection and for problem solving in the coal-fired power plant environment. Practical recommendations for further study are proposed.

DeVanney, K.F.; Clarkson, R.J.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Process for selective grinding of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

Venkatachari, Mukund K. (San Francisco, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

Garg, D.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

325

Coke from coal and petroleum  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

Wynne, Jr., Francis E. (Allison Park, PA); Lopez, Jaime (Pittsburgh, PA); Zaborowsky, Edward J. (Harwick, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Coal-fired diesel generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Assessment of coal bed gas prospects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal bed gas is an often overlooked source of clean, methane-rich, H{sub 2}S-free natural gas. The economic development of coal bed gas requires a knowledge of coal gas reservoir characteristics and certain necessary departures from conventional evaluation, drilling, completion, and production practices. In many ways coal seam reservoirs are truly unconventional. Most coals sufficient rank have generated large volumes of gas that may be retained depth in varying amounts through adsorption. Coal gas production can take place only when the reservoir pressure is reduced sufficiently to allow the gas to desorb. Gas flow to the well bore takes place through a hierarchy of natural fractures, not the relatively impermeable coal matrix. Economic production is dependent upon critical factors intrinsic to the reservoir, including coal petrology, gas content, internal formation stratigraphy, fracture distribution, hydrogeology, in situ stress conditions, initial reservoir pressure and pressure regime, and the presence or absence of a {open_quote}free{close_quotes} gas saturation. Further, the coal bed reservoir is readily subject to formation damage through improper drilling, completion, or production techniques. This presentation will review the data types critical to the assessment of any coal seam gas prospect, suggest an outline method for screening such prospects, and point out some possible pitfalls to be considered in any coal bed gas development project.

Moore, T.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

329

Coal: America's energy future. Volume I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman requested the National Coal Council in April 2005 a report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring the USA's domestic coal resources to meet the nations' future energy needs. This resultant report addresses the Secretary's request in the context of the President's focus, with eight findings and recommendations that would use technology to leverage the USA's extensive coal assets and reduce dependence on imported energy. Volume I outlines these findings and recommendations. Volume II provides technical data and case histories to support the findings and recommendations. Chapter headings of Volume I are: Coal-to-Liquids to Produce 2.6 MMbbl/d; Coal-to-Natural Gas to Produce 4.0 Tcf Per Year; Coal-to-Clean Electricity; Coal to Produce Ethanol; Coal-to-Hydrogen; Enhanced Oil and Gas (Coalbed Methane); Recovery as Carbon Management Strategies; Delineate U.S. Coal Reserves and Transportation Constraints as Part of an Effort to Maximize U.S. Coal Production; and Penn State Study, 'Economic Benefits of Coal Conversion Investments'.

NONE

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

Quarterly Coal Report, July--September 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the second quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. Additional historical data can also be found in the following EIA publications : Annual Energy Review 1993 (DOE/EIA-0384(93)), Monthly Energy Review (DOE/EIA-0035), and Coal Data: A Reference (DOE/EIA-0064(90)). The historical data in this report are collected by the EIA in three quarterly coal surveys (coal consumption at manufacturing plants, coal distribution, and coal consumption at coke plants), one annual coal production survey, and two monthly surveys of electric utilities. All data shown for 1993 and previous years are final. Data for 1994 are preliminary.

Not Available

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Role of coal in the world and Asia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the changing role of coal in the world and in Asia. Particular attention is given to the rapidly growing demand for coal in electricity generation, the importance of China as a producer and consumer of coal, and the growing environmental challenge to coal. Attention is given to the increasing importance of low sulfur coal and Clean Coal Technologies in reducing the environmental impacts of coal burning.

Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Directory of coal production ownership, 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ownership patterns in the coal industry are highly complex. Many producers are diversified into other lines of activity. The pattern and extent of this diversification has varied through time. In the past, steel and nonferrous metals companies had major coal industry involvement. This is still true today. However, other types of enterprises have entered the industry de novo or through merger. Those of greatest significance in recent times have involved petroleum and particularly public utility companies. This report attempts to identify, as accurately as possible, production ownership patterns in the coal industry. The audience for this Directory is anyone who is interested in accurately tracing the ownership of coal companies to parent companies, or who is concerned about the structure of ownership in the US coal industry. This audience includes coal industry specialists, coal industry policy analysts, economists, financial analysts, and members of the investment community.

Thompson, B.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Comparison of the Phenomena of Light Refraction and Gravitational Bending  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The properties of light in the presence of electromagnetic and gravitational fields are compared. Once one takes account of the fact that clock rates vary with distance from a massive object, it is argued that in an absolute sense light frequencies remain constant in both interactions. It is also pointed out that the criterion used by Einstein for the angle of curvature of light rays passing close to the sun is not their actual trajectory but rather Huygens' Principle. The latter only requires that the speed of light vary with distance from a gravitational source in order to produce a measurable effect. As a result, the observed displacement of star images during solar eclipses can be explained on the basis of a rotation of the wave front of light without assuming that individual photons are actually deflected by the sun. A calculation reported by Schiff in 1960 based on the assumption that light travels in a straight line for all local observers obtains the same closed expression for the angle of displacement of star images as in Einstein's original work, in support of this interpretation. Since light is believed to follow a straight-line trajectory within any given homogeneous transparent medium, it is argued that light refraction and gravitational bending have more in common than is generally realized.

Robert J. Buenker

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

334

Multisolvent successive extractive refining of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A selected group of commercial solvents, namely, anthracene oil (AO), ethylenediamine (EDA), and liquid paraffin (LP), were used for successive extraction of Assam coal. Hot AO provided a wide range of mixed solvents that dissociate chemically and interact favorably with dissociated and undissociated coal macromolecules (like dissolves like). This resulted in the enhancement of the EDA extractability of the AO-pretreated residual coal. EDA is a good swelling solvent and results in physical dissociation of coal molecules. The residual coal obtained after EDA extraction was subjected to extraction with LP, an H-donor, high-boiling (330--360 C) solvent. LP thermally dissociates coal macromolecules and interacts with the coal at its plastic stage at the free radical pockets. The mechanism and molecular dynamics of the multisolvent successive extraction of Assam coal using AO-EDA-LP solvents are discussed. In early attempts, successive extractions did not modify the extraction yield in the single solvent showing the maximum extraction. However, the AO-EDA-LP extraction resulted in the extraction of 70% coal, more than for any of the individual solvents used. Therefore, AO-EDA-LP extraction of coal affords a process yielding a superclean, high-heating value fuel from coal under milder conditions. Several uses of superclean coal have been recommended. Present studies have revealed a new concept concerning the structure of coal having 30% polyaromatic condensed entangled rings and 70% triaromatic-heterocyclic-naphthenic-aliphatic structure. The insolubility of coal is due to the polyfunctional-heterocyclic-condensed structure having a polyaromatic core with intermacromolecular entanglements.

Sharma, D.K.; Singh, S.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Hydrothermally treated coals for pulverized coal injection. Technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is investigating the suitability of hydrothermally dried low-rank coals for pulverized fuel injection into blast furnaces in order to reduce coke consumption. Coal samples from the Beluga coal field and Usibelli Coal Mine, Alaska, are being used for the study. Crushed coal samples were hydrothermally treated at three temperatures, 275, 300 and 325{degrees}C, for residence times ranging from 10 to 120 minutes. Products have been characterized to determine their suitability for pulverized coal injection. Characterization includes proximate and ultimate analyses, vitrinite reflectance, TGA reactivity and thermochemical modeling. A literature survey has been conducted.

Walsh, D.E.; Rao, P.D.; Ogunsola, O.; Lin, H.K.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Environmental data energy technology characterizations: coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the activities leading to the conversion of coal to electricity. Specifically, the activities consist of coal mining and beneficiation, coal transport, electric power generation, and power transmission. To enhance the usefulness of the material presented, resource requirements, energy products, and residuals for each activity area are normalized in terms of 10/sup 12/ Btus of energy produced. Thus, the total effect of producing electricity from coal can be determined by combining the residuals associated with the appropriate activity areas. Emissions from the coal cycle are highly dependent upon the type of coal consumed as well as the control technology assigned to the activity area. Each area is assumed to be equipped with currently available control technologies that meet environmental regulations. The conventional boiler, for example, has an electrostatic precipitator and a flue gas desulfurization scrubber. While this results in the removal of most of the particulate matter and sulfur dioxide in the flue gas stream, it creates other new environmental residuals -- solid waste, sludge, and ash. There are many different types of mined coal. For informational purposes, two types from two major producing regions, the East and the West, are characterized here. The eastern coal is typical of the Northern Appalachian coal district with a high sulfur and heat content. The western coal, from the Powder River Basin, has much less sulfur, but also has a substantially lower heating value.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Upgrading low-rank coals using the liquids from coal (LFC) process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three unmistakable trends characterize national and international coal markets today that help to explain coal`s continuing and, in some cases, increasing share of the world`s energy mix: the downward trend in coal prices is primarily influenced by an excess of increasing supply relative to increasing demand. Associated with this trend are the availability of capital to expand coal supplies when prices become firm and the role of coal exports in international trade, especially for developing nations; the global trend toward reducing the transportation cost component relative to the market, preserves or enhances the producer`s profit margins in the face of lower prices. The strong influence of transportation costs is due to the geographic relationships between coal producers and coal users. The trend toward upgrading low grade coals, including subbituminous and lignite coals, that have favorable environmental characteristics, such as low sulfur, compensates in some measure for decreasing coal prices and helps to reduce transportation costs. The upgrading of low grade coal includes a variety of precombustion clean coal technologies, such as deep coal cleaning. Also included in this grouping are the coal drying and mild pyrolysis (or mild gasification) technologies that remove most of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter, including organic sulfur, while producing two or more saleable coproducts with considerable added value. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) process falls into this category. In the following sections, the LFC process is described and the coproducts of the mild pyrolysis are characterized. Since the process can be applied widely to low rank coals all around the world, the characteristics of coproducts from three different regions around the Pacific Rim-the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, the Beluga Field in Alaska near the Cook Inlet, and the Bukit Asam region in south Sumatra, Indonesia - are compared.

Nickell, R.E.; Hoften, S.A. van

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

338

Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

Quigley, David R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

Quigley, David R.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Measurements of emittance growth through the achromatic bend at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of emittance growth in a high peak current beam as it passes through an achromatic double bend are summarized. Experiments were performed using the ATF at Brookhaven National Laboratory by X.J. Wang and D. Kehne as a collaboration resulting from the proposal attached at the end of the document. The ATF consists off an RF gun (1 MeV), two sections of linac (40-75 MeV), a diagnostic section immediately following the linac, a 20{degree} bend magnet, a variable aperture slit at a high dispersion point, 5 quadrupoles, then another 20{degree} bend followed by another diagnostic section. The TRANSPORT deck describing the region from the end of the linac to the end of the diagnostic line following the achromatic bends is attached to the end of this document. Printouts of the control screens are also attached.

Wang, X.J.; Kehne, D.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Energy losses in thermally cycled optical fibers constrained in small bend radii  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High energy laser pulses were fired into a 365?m diameter fiber optic cable constrained in small radii of curvature bends, resulting in a catastrophic failure. Q-switched laser pulses from a flashlamp pumped, Nd:YAG laser were injected into the cables, and the spatial intensity profile at the exit face of the fiber was observed using an infrared camera. The transmission of the radiation through the tight radii resulted in an asymmetric intensity profile with one half of the fiber core having a higher peak-to-average energy distribution. Prior to testing, the cables were thermally conditioned while constrained in the small radii of curvature bends. Single-bend, double-bend, and U-shaped eometries were tested to characterize various cable routing scenarios.

Guild, Eric; Morelli, Gregg

2012-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

342

Black Rocks, Brown Clouds and the Borderlands: Air Quality and the Making of the Big Bend  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

including choking pollution in Mexico City. They dismissedpollution issues in the Big Bend region of the Texas-Mexicopollution in the park probably originated not only from northern Mexico

Donez, Francisco

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Microsoft Word - CX-NorthBendWoodPoles_FY13_WEB.docx  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

North Bend District Wood Pole Replacement Projects PP&A Project No.: 2658 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Location:...

344

Bending Elasticity of Anti-Parallel b-Sheets Seungho Choe and Sean X. Sun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fluctuations of the structure at room temperature. By matching the probability distributions of elastic strainsBending Elasticity of Anti-Parallel b-Sheets Seungho Choe and Sean X. Sun Department of Mechanical

Sun, Sean

345

Rheological properties of water-coal slurries based on brown coal in the presence of sodium lignosulfonates and alkali  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of the oxidized surface of brown coal on the structural and rheological properties of water-coal slurries was found. The kinetics of structure formation processes in water-coal slurries based on as-received and oxidized brown coal was studied. The effect of lignosulfonate and alkali additives on the samples of brown coal was considered.

D.P. Savitskii; A.S. Makarov; V.A. Zavgorodnii [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Dumanskii Institute of Colloid and Water Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Reintroduction of Native FishReintroduction of Native Fish Species to Coal CreekSpecies to Coal Creek  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Reintroduction of Native FishReintroduction of Native Fish Species to Coal CreekSpecies to Coal Control and Reclamation ActSurface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977of 1977 Coal Creek Watershed Foundation (2000)Coal Creek Watershed Foundation (2000) BackgroundBackground Fish populations in Coal Creek

Gray, Matthew

347

Seismic mapping of alluvial fans and sub-fan bedrock in Big Bend National Park, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Layered Models Anomalous Time-Distance Plots Error Analysis Geologic Interpretations of Results CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES ~ APPENDIX VITA 7 8 10 11 16 16 18 23 29 32 32 45 47 50 52 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Ground...-water resource investigation study area Big Bend National Park, Texas 2 Location of seismic surveys within the Big Bend study area 3 Comparison of seismic surveys to driller's logs 12 4 Hypothetical three-layer case with dipping layers 20 5 Representative...

Monti, Joseph

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Curvature-induced radiation of surface plasmon polaritons propagating around bends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a theoretical study of the curvature-induced radiation of surface plasmon polaritons propagating around bends at metal-dielectric interfaces. We explain qualitatively how the curvature leads to distortion of the phase front, causing the fields to radiate energy away from the metal-dielectric interface. We then quantify, both analytically and numerically, radiation losses and energy transmission efficiencies of surface plasmon polaritons propagating around bends with varying radii as well as sign of curvature.

Hasegawa, Keisuke; Noeckel, Jens U.; Deutsch, Miriam [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, 1371 East 13th Aveenue, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Coal liquefaction co-processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed V{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst is used to enhance operations at moderate reaction conditions. A three-year research program has been completed to study the feasibility of this technology. Results are discussed. 7 refs., 14 figs., 21 tabs.

Nafis, D.A.; Humbach, M.J. (UOP, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (USA)); Gatsis, J.G. (Allied-Signal, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (USA). Engineered Materials Research Center)

1988-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

350

HINDERED DIFFUSION OF COAL LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It was the purpose of the project described here to carry out careful and detailed investigations of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model porous systems under a broad range of temperature conditions. The experimental studies were to be coupled with detailed, in-depth statistical and molecular dynamics models intended to provide a fundamental understanding of the overall transport mechanisms and a more accurate concept of the asphaltene structure. The following discussion describes some of our accomplishments.

Theodore T. Tsotsis; Muhammad Sahimi; Ian A. Webster

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Catalyst for coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved catalyst for a coal liquefaction process; e.g., the H-Coal Process, for converting coal into liquid fuels, and where the conversion is carried out in an ebullated-catalyst-bed reactor wherein the coal contacts catalyst particles and is converted, in addition to liquid fuels, to gas and residual oil which includes preasphaltenes and asphaltenes. The improvement comprises a catalyst selected from the group consisting of the oxides of nickel molybdenum, cobalt molybdenum, cobalt tungsten, and nickel tungsten on a carrier of alumina, silica, or a combination of alumina and silica. The catalyst has a total pore volume of about 0.500 to about 0.900 cc/g and the pore volume comprises micropores, intermediate pores and macropores, the surface of the intermediate pores being sufficiently large to convert the preasphaltenes to asphaltenes and lighter molecules. The conversion of the asphaltenes takes place on the surface of micropores. The macropores are for metal deposition and to prevent catalyst agglomeration. The micropores have diameters between about 50 and about 200 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 50 to about 80% of the pore volume, whereas the intermediate pores have diameters between about 200 and 2000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume, and the macropores have diameters between about 2000 and about 10,000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume. The catalysts are further improved where they contain promoters. Such promoters include the oxides of vanadium, tungsten, copper, iron and barium, tin chloride, tin fluoride and rare earth metals.

Huibers, Derk T. A. (Pennington, NJ); Kang, Chia-Chen C. (Princeton, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

PNNL Coal Gasifier Transportation Logistics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides Pacific Northwest National laboratory (PNNL) craftspeople with the necessary information and suggested configurations to transport PNNL’s coal gasifier from its current location at the InEnTec facility in Richland, Washington, to PNNL’s Laboratory Support Warehouse (LSW) for short-term storage. A method of securing the gasifier equipment is provided that complies with the tie-down requirements of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s Cargo Securement Rules.

Reid, Douglas J.; Guzman, Anthony D.

2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

353

Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

Thomas Tao

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

Clean coal technology programs: program update 2006  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2006 is to provide an updated status of the DOE commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCTs). These demonstrations are performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII) and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2006 provides 1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation's energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation's most abundant energy resource - coal; 2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and 3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, with fact sheets for demonstration projects that are active, recently completed, withdrawn or ended, including status as of June 30 2006. 4 apps.

NONE

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

None

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Coal distribution, January--June 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data in this report are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275, Sections 5 and 13, as amended). This issue presents information for January through June 1991. Coal distribution data are shown (in Tables 1--34) by coal-producing Sate of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination. All data in this report were collected by the EIA on Form EIA-6, Coal Distribution Report.'' A copy of the form and the instructions for filing appear in Appendix B. All data in this report for 1991 are preliminary. Data for previous years are final. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

Not Available

1991-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

357

Method for desulfurization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS.sub.2 to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe.sub.1-x S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H.sub.2 S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents.

Kelland, David R. (Lexington, MA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Method for desulfurization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus are disclosed for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS[sub 2] to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe[sub 1[minus]x]S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H[sub 2]S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents. 2 figs.

Kelland, D.R.

1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

359

Apparatus for solar coal gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

Gregg, D.W.

1980-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

360

Coal royalty valuation: The federal perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The MMS has embarked upon an aggressive coal royalty valuation odyssey, for which there is no common law mandated statutory basis. Accordingly, any form of deference to MMS interpretations, policy pronouncements and even regulatory rulemaking is tantamount to feeding steroids to King Kong. The coal industry must be vigilant first and pro-active second. The stark issue is {open_quotes}what we will yet permit the Federal Coal Valuation Program to become?{close_quotes}

McGee, B.E. [Parcel, Mauro, Hultin & Spaanstra, Denver, CO (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Process for treating moisture laden coal fines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

Davis, Burl E. (New Kensington, PA); Henry, Raymond M. (Gibsonia, PA); Trivett, Gordon S. (South Surrey, CA); Albaugh, Edgar W. (Birmingham, AL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

NONE

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

NONE

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Stimulating Investment in Renewable Resources and Clean Coal Technology through a Carbon Tax:  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

three tax rates. The substitution of clean coal technology for standard coal, which seems promising for

Nellie Zhao; Servia Rindfleish; Jay Foley; Jelena Pesic

365

A study of the interfacial chemistry of pyrite and coal in fine coal cleaning using flotation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface oxidation, surface charge, and flotation properties have been systematically studied for coal, coal-pyrite and ore-pyrite. Electrochemical studies show that coal-pyrite exhibits much higher and more complex surface oxidation than ore-pyrite and its oxidation rate depends strongly on the carbon/coal content. Flotation studies indicate that pyrites have no self-induced floatability. Fuel oil significantly improves the floatability of coal and induces considerable flotation for coal-pyrite due to the hydrophobic interaction of fuel oil with the carbon/coal inclusions on the pyrite surface. Xanthate is a good collector for ore-pyrite but a poor collector for coal and coal-pyrite. The results from thermodynamic calculations, flotation and zeta potential measurements show that iron ions greatly affect the flotation of pyrite with xanthate and fuel oil. Various organic and inorganic chemicals have been examined for depressing coal-pyrite. It was found, for the first time, that sodium pyrophosphate is an effective depressant for coal-pyrite. Solution chemistry shows that pyrophosphate reacts with iron ions to form stable iron pyrophosphate complexes. Using pyrophosphate, the complete separation of pyrite from coal can be realized over a wide pH range at relatively low dosage.

Jiang, C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

366

ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS by Elliott Paul Barnhart ..................................................................................14 Ability of the Consortium to Produce Methane from Coal and Metabolites ................16.............................................................................................21 Coal and Methane Production

Maxwell, Bruce D.

367

advanced coal conversion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the coal plant is transmitted over the transmission lines, Phadke, Amol 2008-01-01 7 Clean Coal Technology Program Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration CiteSeer Summary:...

368

Separation of solids from coal liquefaction products using sonic waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Product streams containing solids are generated in both direct and indirect coal liquefaction processes. This project seeks to improve the effectiveness of coal liquefaction by novel application of sonic and ultrasonic energy to separation of solids from coal liquefaction streams.

Slomka, B.J.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

COMBUSTION OF COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION BURNER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

November 1976. Wilson, P.J. and Wells, J.H. , Coal, Cokeand Coal Chemicals, 108, (1950). This report was done withliThe F1uidised Combustion of Coal," Sixteenth S m osium {

Chin, W.K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Today's high coal prices: correction or crisis?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eastern spot prices for coal have risen 25% since the start of 2004, reaching their highest levels in more than 25 years. This spike represents the second time in four years that coal prices have risen to more than double their pre-2000 price levels. Years of famine (from a coal producer's point of view) have been replaced by periods of plenty, with increasing consequences for coal's customers. How long will this spike last? This article, based on studies carried out by EPRI, attempts to answer this question. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Platt, J. [EPRI (US)

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Integrated two-stage coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to an improved two-stage process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal.

Bronfenbrenner, James C. (Allentown, PA); Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

373

Coal production expansion: a selected bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The expeditious and economic transport of coal from producing regions to consuming regions is essential to any policy designed to increase the use of coal as an energy source. Obtaining an optimal coal transportation system, including terminal facilities, is significant in providing US coal to its users in the United States and abroad. Rail, barge, truck, slurry pipeline, and ship are the modes used to move coal from the producer to the user. Transportation costs represent a large percentage of the delivered price. This bibliography includes 138 selected citations on coal export, transport, and production. The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators. These citations and hundreds of additional citations on this subject are available for on-line searching and retrieval from the Technical Information Center's Energy Data Base using the DOE/RECON interactive system. Approximately 50,000 citations on coal and coal products are a part of this data base. Current additions to data base on this subject are announced monthly in Fossil Energy Update. DOE-sponsored work is also announced in Energy Research Abstracts. The citations in this publication are arranged in broad subject categories as shown in the table of contents. Five indexes are provided: Corporate, Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. Included as an appendix are some tables and figures from Energy Information Administration reports covering coal production and disposition.

Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

The Political Economy of Clean Coal .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation investigates the nature of the political economy of Clean Coal. It begins by reviewing the literature of global warming and the current usage… (more)

Wu, Hao Howard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

Botts, Thomas E. (Markham, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

delivered heating (district heating) (6%), and chemicalscoal growth. As district heating expands with urbanizationzone, coal use for district heating will depend on the

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Quarterly coal report, January--March 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents detailed quarterly data for March 1996 and historical data for 1988 through 1995 on coal production, distribution, imports and exports, prices, consumption, and stocks.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

NONE

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

200 tons (Breathing) * Carbon Monoxide 80 tons (Headache) * Multiple Hazardous Air Pollutants now regulated by EPA's Boiler MACT rules Coal-fired Boiler Replacement * Condition:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

E-Print Network 3.0 - air coal franklin Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A brief overview Mikael Hk UHDSG 2007-01-22 German coal excavator... for surface mining of brown coal 12;2 Coal basics What is coal? As most people know, coal consists of...

382

Cooperative Research Program in coal liquefaction. Technical report, May 1, 1994--October 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

383

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. [ed.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

384

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, November 1, 1991--January 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. [ed.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

International Energy Agency’s Clean Coal Centre CoalPower5Press; 2002. [25] IEA Clean Coal Centre. CoalPower5 (CD-from fossil fuels. In: IEA clean coal conference, Sardinia,

Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Table 23. Coal Receipts at Coke Plants by Census Division  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Table 23. Coal Receipts at Coke Plants by Census Division...

387

Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic components. Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic...

388

Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas Warm Cleanup...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas Warm Cleanup: Proof-of-Concept Process Demonstration of Multicontaminant Removal Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas...

389

Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: Detailed Coal Specificat...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal: Assessing the Techno- Economic Impact of Emerging Technologies Life Cycle Analysis: Existing Pulverized Coal Power Plant Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification...

390

Comparative Life-Cycle Air Emissions of Coal, Domestic Natural  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification- methanation gasification technologies that use coal to produce SNG. This National Gasification Strategy calls

Jaramillo, Paulina

391

Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

4: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown Fact 844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has...

392

New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal March 29, 2012 | Tags: Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR),...

393

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas...

394

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hoe Creek Underground Coal...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site - 045 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site (045) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location:...

395

Coal and Renewable Energy: History, Impacts, and Future in Alabama .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coal and renewable energy have differential impacts on human society. Coal is the most abundant, cheap, and yet environmentally detrimental source of energy. Renewable sources… (more)

Singh, Brajesh

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

advanced pressurized coal: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: Kumfer, ACERF Manager Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization Fly ash utilization Be a resourceADVANCED COAL & ENERGY RESEARCH...

397

advanced direct coal: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: Kumfer, ACERF Manager Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization Fly ash utilization Be a resourceADVANCED COAL & ENERGY RESEARCH...

398

advanced physical coal: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: Kumfer, ACERF Manager Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization Fly ash utilization Be a resourceADVANCED COAL & ENERGY RESEARCH...

399

ccpi-multi-product-coal | netl.doe.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Clean Coal Power Initiative Power Plant Improvement Initiative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program FutureGen Advanced Multi-Product...

400

Secretary of Energy and Rep. Chabot Highlight Clean Coal and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and Rep. Chabot Highlight Clean Coal and Hydrogen Research and Tout America's Economic Growth in Ohio Secretary of Energy and Rep. Chabot Highlight Clean Coal and Hydrogen Research...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes activities of the U.S. Clean Coal Technology Program for the time of 1985-1995. Various clean coal technologies are described.

NONE

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

advanced fine coal: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: Kumfer, ACERF Manager Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization Fly ash utilization Be a resourceADVANCED COAL & ENERGY RESEARCH...

403

FACT SHEET: Clean Coal University Research Awards and Project...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

FACT SHEET: Clean Coal University Research Awards and Project Descriptions FACT SHEET: Clean Coal University Research Awards and Project Descriptions As part of President Obama's...

404

Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency, August 2011 Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency, August 2011 This...

405

Coal: world energy security. The Clearwater clean coal conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Topics covered include: oxy-fuel (overview, demonstrations, experimental studies, burner developments, emissions, fundamental and advanced concepts); post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture; coal conversion to chemicals and fuels; advanced materials; hydrogen production from opportunity fuels; mercury abatement options for power plants; and carbon capture and storage in volume 1. Subjects covered in volume 2 include: advanced modelling; advanced concepts for emission control; gasification technology; biomass; low NOx technology; computer simulations; multi emissions control; chemical looping; and options for improving efficiency and reducing emissions.

Sakkestad, B. (ed.)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationClean Communities ofCellulosic Feedstock - EnergyCoal Fly Ash asCoaland

407

Kinetics of coal pyrolysis and devolatilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimentally based, conceptual model of the devolatilization of a HV bituminous coal is outlined in this report. This model contends that the relative dominance of a process type-chemical kinetic, heat transport, mass transport -- varies with the extent of reaction for a given set of heating conditions and coal type and with experimental conditions for a given coal type and extent of reaction. The rate of devolatilization mass loss process is dominated initially by heat transfer processes, then coupled mass transfer and chemical kinetics, and finally by chemical processes alone. However, the chemical composition of the initial tars are determined primarily by the chemical characteristics of the parent coal. Chemically controlled gas phase reactions of the initial tars and coupled mass transfer and chemically controlled reactions of heavy tars determine the bulk of the light gas yields. For a HV bituminous coal this conceptual model serves to quantify the Two-Component Hypothesis'' of volatiles evolution. The model postulates that the overall rates of coal devolatilization should vary with coal type insofar as the characteristics of the parent coal determine the potential tar yield and the chemical characteristics of the initial tars. Experimental evidence indicates chemical characteristics and yields of primary'' tars vary significantly with coal type. Consequently, the conceptual model would indicate a shift from transport to chemical dominance of rate processes with variation in coal type. Using the conceptual model, United Technologies Research Center has been able to correlate initial mass loss with a heat transfer index for a wide range of conditions for high tar yielding coals. 33 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Coal pulverizing systems for power generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pulverized coal-fired boiler for power generation is a mature technology which requires the production of fine coal for combustion. The product material particle size is smaller than 250 microns and about 70 percent smaller than 75 microns. It is no coincidence that most of the new coal technologies for combustion or gasification require a product with a similar particle size distribution for complete reaction. This particle size distribution provides coal particles which can react with oxygen in the air at local velocities and resident times in the boiler furnace to result in almost complete combustion or gasification with 1 or 2 percent carbon loss in the resulting ash. Size reduction, while being one of the most common unit operations on material is also one of the least understood, requiring a high energy input. When pulverizing coal of the particle size required there is an added complication that the product may spontaneously ignite, particularly if the process passes through a stage when an explosive or at least highly combustible mixture of fine coal and air is present. The pulverized coal system covers that portion of the power station from coal bunkers to feeders, pulverizers and delivery system to the boiler burner or gasifier injection point. The transport medium has traditionally been air and in some cases inert gases. The system has usually been lean phase with air to coal ratios in excess of 1:4:1. More recently, a few systems have been dense phase with air to coal ratios of 1:30 up to 1:100. This has the distinct advantage of reduced transport pipe diameter. The key element in the system, the coal pulverizer, will be considered first.

Sligar, J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

409

Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. Technical progress report, December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the ninth quarter, electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were done to characterize the morphology and composition of the surface of as-received coal, oxidized coal and coal pyrite. In addition, electrokinetic tests were done on Upper Freeport coal pyrite.

Doyle, F.M.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

410

Coal quality and estimated coal resources in the proposed Colville Mining District, central North Slope, Alaska  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed Colville Mining District (CMD) encompasses 27,340 mi{sup 2} (70,800 km{sup 2}) in the central part of the North Slope. Known coal deposits within the proposed district range from Mississippian to Tertiary in age. Available information indicates that neither Mississippian and Tertiary coals in the CMD constitute a significant resource because they are excessively deep, thin, or high in ash content; however, considerable amount of low-sulfur Cretaceous coal is present. The paper briefly describes the geology and quality of these coal reserves. Difficult conditions will restrict mining of these coals in the near future.

Stricker, G.D. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Clough, J.G. [Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

411

Liquefaction of calcium-containing subbituminous coals and coals of lower rank  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the treatment of a calcium-containing subbituminous coal and coals of lower rank to form insoluble, thermally stable calcium salts which remain within the solids portions of the residue on liquefaction of the coal, thereby suppressing the formation scale, made up largely of calcium carbonate deposits, e.g., vaterite, which normally forms within the coal liquefaction reactor (i.e., coal liquefaction zone), e.g., on reactor surfaces, lines, auxiliary equipment and the like. A solution of a compound or salt characterized by the formula MX, where M is a Group IA metal of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X is an anion which is capable of forming water-insoluble, thermally stable calcium compounds, is maintained in contact with a particulate coal feed sufficient to impregnate said salt or compound into the pores of the coal. On separation of the impregnated particulate coal from the solution, the coal can be liquefied in a coal liquefaction reactor (reaction zone) at coal liquefaction conditions without significant formation of vaterite or other forms of calcium carbonate on reactor surfaces, auxiliary equipment and the like; and the Group IA metal which remains within the liquefaction bottoms catalyzes the reaction when the liquefaction bottoms are subjected to a gasification reaction.

Gorbaty, Martin L. (Sanwood, NJ); Taunton, John W. (Seabrook, TX)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Simultaneous combustion of waste plastics with coal for pulverized coal injection application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A bench-scale study was conducted to investigate the effect of simultaneous cofiring of waste plastic with coal on the combustion behavior of coals for PCI (pulverized coal injection) application in a blast furnace. Two Australian coals, premixed with low- and high-density polyethylene, were combusted in a drop tube furnace at 1473 K under a range of combustion conditions. In all the tested conditions, most of the coal blends including up to 30% plastic indicated similar or marginally higher combustion efficiency compared to those of the constituent coals even though plastics were not completely combusted. In a size range up to 600 {mu}m, the combustion efficiency of coal and polyethylene blends was found be independent of the particle size of plastic used. Both linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) are shown to display similar influence on the combustion efficiency of coal blends. The effect of plastic appeared to display greater improvement on the combustion efficiency of low volatile coal compared to that of a high volatile coal blend. The study further suggested that the effect of oxygen levels of the injected air in improving the combustion efficiency of a coal-plastic blend could be more effective under fuel rich conditions. The study demonstrates that waste plastic can be successfully coinjected with PCI without having any adverse effect on the combustion efficiency particularly under the tested conditions. 22 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Sushil Gupta; Veena Sahajwalla; Jacob Wood [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development, School of Materials Science and Engineering

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Studies on design of a process for organo-refining of coal to obtain super clean coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organo-refining of coal results in refining the coal to obtain super clean coal and residual coal. Super clean coal may be used to obtain value added chemicals, products, and cleaner fuels from coal. In the present work, studies on the design of a semicontinuous process for organo-refining of one ton of coal have been made. The results are reported. This is only a cursory attempt for the design, and further studies may be required for designing this process for use in the development of a scaled-up process of organo-refining of coal.

Sharma, C.S.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Evaluation of coal minerals and metal residues as coal-liquefaction catalysts. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The catalytic activity of various minerals, metallic wastes, and transition metals was investigated in the liquefaction of various coals. The effects of coal type, process variables, coal cleaning, catalyst addition mode, solvent quality, and solvent modification on coal conversion and oil production were also studied. Coal conversion and oil production improved significantly by the addition of pyrite, reduced pyrite, speculite, red mud, flue dust, zinc sulfide, and various transition metal compounds. Impregnation and molecular dispersion of iron gave higher oil production than particulate incorporation of iron. However, the mode of molybdenum addition was inconsequential. Oil production increased considerably both by adding a stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and pyrite and by simultaneous impregnation of coal with iron and molybdenum. Hydrogenation activity of disposable catalysts decreased sharply in the presence of nitrogen compounds. The removal of heteroatoms from process solvent improved thermal as well as catalytic coal liquefaction. The improvement in oil production was very dramatic with a catalyst.

Garg, D.; Givens, E. N.; Schweighardt, F. K.; Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.; Huang, W. J.; Shridharani, K.; Clinton, J. H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Small boiler uses waste coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA)

1984-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

417

Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Kang, Dohee (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Neutron based elemental characterization of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An elemental characterization system based on a 14 MeV neutron generator is described. The results of sulfur content measurement in coal with a precision acceptable to the coal industry are presented. The preliminary results of measuring carbon, oxygen, and sodium are shown.

Dep, L.; Vourvopoulos, G. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

1984-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

420

Controlling Energy Costs with Coal Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; it is usually regarded as the most controllable. Fluidized bed combustion technology allows industrial steam users to use low-grade coals that are outside of mainstream coal markets, are abundant, and are very inexpensive, being one-quarter to one...

Sadowski, R. S.; von Hippel, C. S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Novel supports for coal liquefaction catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research is divided into three parts: (1) Evaluation of Alkaline-Earth-Promoted CoMo/Alumina Catalysts in a Bench Scale Hydrotreater, (2) Development of a Novel Catalytic Coal Liquefaction Microreactor (CCLM) Unit, and (3) Evaluation of Novel Catalyst Preparations for Direct Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Haynes, H.W. Jr.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Accelerating the deployment of cleaner coal plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dearth of commercial operating experience for advanced coal-fired facilities is forcing their early adopters and builders to use long development cycles and pay high costs for unique engineering design studies. A broad-based industry collaborative effort fostered by EPRI to address this issue (CoalFleet for Tomorrow) is beginning to show results. 3 figs.

Parkes, J.; Holt, N.; Phillips, J.

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Coal development plans in southeast Asia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author reviews coal production and consumption over recent years in Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines. Projections of coal supply and demand for these countries to 1995 are also shown. Over-ambitious plans have been announced during the past 5 years, which have mostly been revised downwards. An attempt is made to provide realistic figures.

Lootens, D.J.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

427

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

428

Process for preparing a stabilized coal-water slurry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for preparing a stabilized coal particle suspension which includes the steps of providing an aqueous media substantially free of coal oxidizing constituents, reducing, in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, the particle size of the coal to be suspended to a size sufficiently small to permit suspension thereof in the aqueous media and admixing the coal of reduced particle size with the aqueous media to release into the aqueous media coal stabilizing constituents indigenous to and carried by the reduced coal particles in order to form a stabilized coal particle suspension. The coal stabilizing constituents are effective in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to maintain the coal particle suspension at essentially a neutral or alkaline pH. The coal is ground in a nonoxidizing atmosphere such as an inert gaseous atmosphere to reduce the coal to a sufficient particle size and is admixed with an aqueous media that has been purged of oxygen and acid-forming gases. 2 figs.

Givens, E.N.; Kang, D.

1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

429

Process for preparing a stabilized coal-water slurry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for preparing a stabilized coal particle suspension which includes the steps of providing an aqueous media substantially free of coal oxidizing constituents, reducing, in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, the particle size of the coal to be suspended to a size sufficiently small to permit suspension thereof in the aqueous media and admixing the coal of reduced particle size with the aqueous media to release into the aqueous media coal stabilizing constituents indigenous to and carried by the reduced coal particles in order to form a stabilized coal particle suspension. The coal stabilizing constituents are effective in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to maintain the coal particle suspension at essentially a neutral or alkaline pH. The coal is ground in a nonoxidizing atmosphere such as an inert gaseous atmosphere to reduce the coal to a sufficient particle size and is admixed with an aqueous media that has been purged of oxygen and acid-forming gases.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Kang, Doohee (Macungie, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

431

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1988-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

432

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

The Coal Transportation Rate Database  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2perSep-14Base22,667The Basics ofThe Coal

434

Coal Supply Basin Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q 20093Q4QReal

435

Coal Supply Basin Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q

436

Coal Supply Basin Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Qc. Real

437

U.S. Coal Reserves  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26, 2008Product:7.1EnergyU O P J‹Coal

438

Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael Schaal Director, Oil and10:InformationSteam Coal Import

439

Method for producing catalysis from coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere.

Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Method for producing catalysts from coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geologic Coal Formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BP Corporation North America, Inc. (BP) currently operates a nitrogen enhanced recovery project for coal bed methane at the Tiffany Field in the San Juan Basin, Colorado. The project is the largest and most significant of its kind wherein gas is injected into a coal seam to recover methane by competitive adsorption and stripping. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and BP both recognize that this process also holds significant promise for the sequestration of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, while economically enhancing the recovery of methane from coal. BP proposes to conduct a CO2 injection pilot at the tiffany Field to assess CO2 sequestration potential in coal. For its part the INEEL will analyze information from this pilot with the intent to define the Co2 sequestration capacity of coal and its ultimate role in ameliorating the adverse effects of global warming on the nation and the world.

None

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

442

Health effects of coal technologies: research needs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

Not Available

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Competitive interstate taxation of western coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the potential market power of western states in setting coal severance taxes. An attempt to determine the emphasis placed by the western states on the development of their coal resources is also made. Three market structures are analyzed. One involves a western regional cartel, setting taxes collectively. The other cases are noncooperative tax equilibria with Montana and Wyoming competing against each other. We study the effects on these equilibria of changes in each region's relative emphasis on development of coal resources vs tax revenue. The welfare impacts of these tax setting policies are also addressed. The analysis is based on an activity analysis of US coal markets. The results show that the taxes associated with the noncooperative competitive tax equilibria are close to present tax levels. Additionally, we conclude that western states currently are quite efficient extractors of economic rent from coal produced within their boundaries, in terms of welfare loss per dollar of tax revenue collected. 2 figures.

Kolstad, C.D.; Wolak, F.A. Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

NONE

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

8-oxoguainine enhances bending of DNA that favors binding of glycosylases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out on the DNA oligonucleotide GGGAACAACTAG:CTAGTTGTTCCC in its native form and with guanine in the central G19:C6 base pair replaced by 8-oxoguanine (8oxoG). A box of explicit water molecules was used for solvation and Na+ counterions were added to neutralize the system. The direction and magnitude of global bending were assessed by a technique used previously to analyze simulations of DNA containing a thymine dimer. The presence of 8oxoG did not greatly affect the magnitude of DNA bending; however, bending into the major groove was significantly more probable when 8oxoG replaced G19. Crystal structures of glycosylases bound to damaged-DNA substrates consistently show a sharp bend into the major groove at the damage site. We conclude that changes in bending dynamics that assist the formation of this kink are a part of the mechanism by which glycosylases of the base excision repair pathway recognize the presence of 8oxoG in DNA.

John H. Miller

2003-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

446

Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

Zhou, P.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

Zhou, P.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Improving pulverized coal plant performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major deliverable of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emissions Boiler Systems`` (LEBS) is the design of a large, in this case 400 MWe, commercial generating unit (CGU) which will meet the Project objectives. The overall objective of the LEBS Project is to dramatically improve environmental performance of future pulverized coal fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. The DOE specified the use of near-term technologies, i.e., advanced technologies that partially developed, to reduce NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions to be substantially less than current NSPS limits. In addition, air toxics must be in compliance and waste must be reduced and made more disposable. The design being developed by the ABB Team is projected to meet all the contract objectives and to reduce emission of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulates to one-fifth to one-tenth NSPS limits while increasing net station efficiency significantly and reducing the cost of electricity. This design and future work are described in the paper.

Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M.; Mirolli, M. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Wesnor, J.D. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., New York, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

449

COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

Darren D. Schmidt

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

The application of boundary layer removal to a 90 degree bend used as a flow turing device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Attached to Nozzle; High Velocity 30 Efficiency vs Percent Flow Removed; Bend. Attached to Nozzle; Low Velocity 31 Efficiency vs Percent Flow Removed; Bend Attached to 1. 5 Foot Duct; High Velocity 32 Efficiency vs Percent Flow Removed; Bend Attached... to 1. 5 Foot Duct; Low Velocity 33 Static Pressure vs Angle of Bend 37 38 40 41 A C K N 0 W L E D G E M E N T S The author wishes to express his appreciation to Profes- sor Alfred E. Cronk for his advice and patience; and to his wife, Annabelle...

Smith, Edward Harrison

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

Present coal potential of Turkey and coal usage in electricity generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Total coal reserve (hard coal + lignite) in the world is 984 billion tons. While hard coal constitutes 52% of the total reserve, lignite constitutes 48% of it. Turkey has only 0.1% of world hard coal reserve and 1.5% of world lignite reserves. Turkey has 9th order in lignite reserve, 8th order in lignite production, and 12th order in total coal (hard coal and lignite) consumption. While hard coal production meets only 13% of its consumption, lignite production meets lignite consumption in Turkey. Sixty-five percent of produced hard coal and 78% of produced lignite are used for electricity generation. Lignites are generally used for electricity generation due to their low quality. As of 2003, total installed capacity of Turkey was 35,587 MW, 19% (6,774 MW) of which is produced from coal-based thermal power plants. Recently, use of natural gas in electricity generation has increased. While the share of coal in electricity generation was about 50% for 1986, it is replaced by natural gas today.

Yilmaz, A.O. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Coal liquefaction process utilizing coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coal hydrogenation and liquefaction process in which particulate coal feed is pressurized to an intermediate pressure of at least 500 psig and slurried with CO.sub.2 liquid to provide a flowable coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream, which is further pressurized to at least 1000 psig and fed into a catalytic reactor. The coal particle size is 50-375 mesh (U.S. Sieve Series) and provides 50-80 W % coal in the coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream. Catalytic reaction conditions are maintained at 650.degree.-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure and coal feed rate of 10-100 lb coal/hr ft.sup.3 reactor volume to produce hydrocarbon gas and liquid products. The hydrogen and CO.sub.2 are recovered from the reactor effluent gaseous fraction, hydrogen is recycled to the catalytic reactor, and CO.sub.2 is liquefied and recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, two catalytic reaction stages close coupled together in series relation can be used. The process advantageously minimizes the recycle and processing of excess hydrocarbon liquid previously needed for slurrying the coal feed to the reactor(s).

Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA); McLean, Joseph B. (S. Somerville, NJ)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Development of bending characteristics for the TPX TF magnet coil cable-in-conduit conductor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conductor for the toroidal field (TF) magnet coils for the Tokamak Physics experiment (TPX) is an assembly of stranded Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor sheathed by an Incoloy 908 conduit. The coil shape, when coupled with stiffness of the cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) is such that conventional magnet winding techniques cannot be utilized. Therefore a bending and forming method will be employed in the TF coils. The cable will be reacted after bending because the reaction process hardens the conduit and also lowers the strain the cable can withstand without performance degradation. The Incoloy 908 conduit also work hardens quickly, necessitating the production of the required coil shape in one step without correction. This paper discusses the limiting processes for forming the TPX TF magnet geometry, the methods utilized in establishing the CICC bending characteristics and the methods employed to account for material springback so that a coil can be manufactured accurately and efficiently.

Grut, K.E.; Holbrook, R.L.; Hook, E.; Antaya, T.A. [Babcock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

455

Bending elasticity of a curved amphiphilic film decorated anchored copolymers: a small angle neutron scattering study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microemulsion droplets (oil in water stabilized by a surfactant film) are progressively decorated with increasing amounts of poly ethylene- oxide (PEO) chains anchored in the film by the short aliphatic chain grafted at one end of the PEO chain . The evolution of the bending elasticity of the surfactant film with increasing decoration is deduced from the evolution in size and polydispersity of the droplets as reflected by small angle neutron scattering. The optimum curvature radius decreases while the bending rigidity modulus remains practically constant. The experimental results compare well with the predictions of a model developed for the bending properties of a curved film decorated by non-adsorbing polymer chains, which takes into account, the finite curvature of the film and the free diffusion of the chains on the film.

Jacqueline Appell; Christian Ligoure; Gregoire Porte

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

456

Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the coal without chemical decomposition and pyrolysis converts dry coal into gas and coke [1]. The final1 Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a , Eric Blond1, b , Alain Gasser1 Forbach, France a damintode.kolani@univ-orleans.fr, b eric.blond@univ-orleans.fr Keywords: coal, drying

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

457

Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

Leeder, W.R. [Teck Corp. (Canada); Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

458

Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

459

Nel (2004), “Clean Coal Conversion Options using Fischer-Tropsch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

facilities producing these products individually. There may be good strategic reasons to use clean coal

Andre ? P. Steynberg; Herman G. Nel

460

1 INTRODUCTION Appalachian coal recovered during mining fre-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Appalachian underground coal mining (Newman 2003). Storage of coal processing waste is limited to above ground- ground room-and-pillar or longwall coal production do not allow for the separation of waste during coal. Such an analysis requires the ability to predict potential surface ground movements, both vertical (i

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Why do we keep burning coal? Richard L. Axelbaum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-made systems to convert sunlight into fuels. #12;Worldwide energy consumption Report #:DOE/EIA-0484(2008) #12 power) #12;U.S. Coal Reserves #12;US Coal Reserves Coal: 94% U.S. Energy Reserves Source: EIA US hasWhy do we keep burning coal? Should we? Richard L. Axelbaum Director, CCCU Professor Energy

Subramanian, Venkat

462

Coal - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Scheduled 2015 capacity additions mostly wind and natural gas; retirements mostly coal natural gaselectricityrenewablenucleargeneration capacitywindsolarretirementscapacity...

463

The Key Coal Producers ONLINE SUPPORTING MATERIALS to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Key Coal Producers ONLINE SUPPORTING MATERIALS to A Global Coal Production Forecast with Multi's most important coal-producing area is North-Central China. The provinces of Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Shaanxi and Shanxi together accounted for 83 percent of China's proven coal reserves in 2000, and Shanxi

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

464

PNW Coal Closure Study Resource Adequacy Advisory Committee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PNW Coal Closure Study 1 y Resource Adequacy Advisory Committee Steering Committee Meeting outage calculations)100 MW (for forced outage calculations) #12;Coal Replacement Plans 4 Coal Replacement Plans · Boardman ­ 601 MW · The 2016 PGE IRP process will include the Boardman coal plant replacement

465

Seasonal Price Change and Costs of Storing Grain Sorghum in the Coastal Bend.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or to store it in commercial I elevators for later sale. During the harvest months of -- June and July, the grain sorghum price in the Coastal E Bend usually is similar to the average Texas price, with the June price slightly above and the July price... slightly below the State price. After July the Coastal Bend " prices move away from, and above, the average Texas price. If price later in the season moves above the har- vest price by an amount that more than covers the farmer's storage costs, he...

Whitney, Howard S.; Moore, Clarence A.

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

A hydrogeological evaluation of alluvial fans in northern Big Bend National Park, Texas, using geophysical methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF THE SEISMIC AND RESISTIVITY DATA INTERPRETATIONS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES. APPENDIX. VITA. Page viii ix 9 11 11 15 16 17 17 19 24 28 35 40 46 46 48 52 52 54 55 59 92 97 100 104 106 LIST OF TABLES Table Page True seism1c... Representative four-layer case from the Big Bend Park study area 33 Frequency distribution of seismic velocities. . 34 10 Anomalous time-distance plots from the Bio Bend Park study area 37 Comparison of results from seismic sounding to driller's logs from...

Archer, Jerry Alan

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Weak economy and politics worry US coal operators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A potential decrease in demand, a new administration, and production constraints have coal operators worried about prospects for 2009. This and other interesting facts are revealed in this 2009 forecast by the journal Coal Age. Results are presented of the survey answered by 69 of the 646 executives contacted, on such questions about expected coal production, coal use, attitude in the coal industry, capital expenditure on types of equipment and productive capacity. Coal Age forecasts a 2.3% decline in coal production in 2009, down to 1.145 billion tons from 1.172 billion tons. 8 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

468

Coal: An energy bridge to the future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For years, coal drove the transportation business in this country and it may be poised for a comeback when it comes to moving people and things. A hundred years ago, steam engines burned tons of coal as they pulled trains across the country. Now researchers are looking at converting that coal to liquid fuel that would fill up our gas tanks and move our cars and trucks. The technology already exists to transform coal into a liquid fuel. In fact, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and engineers have researched forms of coal and hydrocarbon gasification on and off for more than 30 years. But oil has never sustained a high enough price to kick start a coal-to-liquid fuel industry. That may be changing now. In addition to high crude oil prices, experts agree worldwide petroleum resources won’t last forever, and hydrocarbon resources like coal may be the only resource available, at a large enough scale, to off-set oil consumption, in the near term.

Bauer, Susan J.

2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

469

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

470

Coal transformation chemistry third quarterly progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Colorado subbituminous coal was reacted with potassium and naphthalene in tetrahydrofuran. This was then alkylated with n-butyl iodide and the solubility in tetrahydrofuran was determined. The solubility was found to be less than in a corresponding reaction with Illinois No. 6 coal. The solubilization of a Colorado subbituminous coal by reacting it with potassium in liquid ammonia, followed by alkylation is discussed. The preliminary results from a reaction of Illinois No. 6 coal with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and methyl iodide are reported. Reductive acylation of coal is being studied at the present time using trifluoroacetic anhydride as a quenching reagent. /sup 19/F is a candidate for nmr studies and chemical shifts for trifluoroacetyl derivatives of phenols, thiols, and amides indicate that fluorine may be useful as a sensitive probe for reactive species in coal. The effort on donor solvent coal chemistry was directed to the role played by pericyclic reactions in the liquefaction process. The acceptors were reduced by the deuterated donors. The isotopic distribution of the reduction product indicates that free radical processes occur preferentially. Thus, the pericyclic reactions appear to be unimportant at the threshold reaction temperatures of 350 to 425/sup 0/C. The reactions of aromatic ethers with inorganic sulfide at 400/sup 0/C produces thiophenols.

Stock, Leon M.; Blain, D. A.; Handy, C. I.; Huang, C. B.; King, H. H.; Landschulz, W.; Willis, R. S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Clean and Secure Energy from Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues. The project included the following tasks: • Oxy-Coal Combustion – To ultimately produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. • High-Pressure, Entrained-Flow Coal Gasification – To ultimately provide a simulation tool for industrial entrained-flow integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gasifier with quantified uncertainty. • Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) – To develop a new carbon-capture technology for coal through CLC and to transfer this technology to industry through a numerical simulation tool with quantified uncertainty bounds. • Underground Coal Thermal Treatment – To explore the potential for creating new in-situ technologies for production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from deep coal deposits and to demonstrate this in a new laboratory-scale reactor. • Mercury Control – To understand the effect of oxy-firing on the fate of mercury. • Environmental, Legal, and Policy Issues – To address the legal and policy issues associated with carbon management strategies in order to assess the appropriate role of these technologies in our evolving national energy portfolio. • Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the Heat Flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility – To produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers.

Smith, Philip; Davies, Lincoln; Kelly, Kerry; Lighty, JoAnn; Reitze, Arnold; Silcox, Geoffrey; Uchitel, Kirsten; Wendt, Jost; Whitty, Kevin

2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

472

CO2 Sequestration in Unminable Coal with ECBMR -2010 Reprint -Proceedings 2010 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Istanbul, Turkey 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conducted in Marshall County, West Virginia, USA, to evaluate enhanced coal bed methane recovery at depths of 1200 to 1800 feet, depending on surface topography. Horizontal coal bed methane wells were. 600 ft. shallower) Pittsburgh coal seam, and these wells have been producing coal bed methane (CBM

Wilson, Thomas H.

473

Instability leading to coal bumps and nonlinear evolutionary mechanisms for a coal-pillar-and-roof system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Instability leading to coal bumps and nonlinear evolutionary mechanisms for a coal mechanisms of the mechanical system that is composed of the stiff hosts (roof and floor) and the coal pillar using catastrophe theory. It is assumed that the roof is an elastic beam and the coal pillar is a strain

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

474

Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

476

Materials performance in coal gasification pilot plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of several materials testing projects which were conducted in operating coal gasification pilot plants in the United States. These projects were designed to test potential materials of construction for commercial plants under actual operating conditions. Pilot plants included in the overall test program included the Hygas, Conoco Coal, Synthane, Bi-Gas, Peatgas (Hygas operating with peat), Battelle, U-Gas, Westinghouse (now KRW), General Electric (Gegas), and Mountain Fuel Resources plants. Test results for a large variety of alloys are discussed and conclusions regarding applicability of these materials in coal gasification environments are presented. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

Judkins, R.R.; Bradley, R.A.

1987-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

477

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally-acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national perspective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan

2002-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

478

11th International coal testing conference. Volume XI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proceedings of the 11th International Coal Conference held May 10-12, 1995 in Lexington, KY are presented. Fourteen papers were presented on various aspects of coal analysis and combustion, petrographic characterization of fly ash, trace elements in coal, microscopy of steam coals, fuel specifications, and HCl evolution during coal combustion. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

The H-Coal pilot plant and the Breckinridge Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large coal-liquefaction pilot plant is in operation at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, expanding on the H-Coal technology. The pilot plant operated very successfully during 1981, confirming research yield data on eastern bituminous coal, demonstrating operability of the process, and resulting in a significant accumulation of engineering data. Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc., and Bechtel Petroleum, Inc., are developing the Breckinridge Project, a commercial coal-liquefaction plant proposed for Breckinridge County, Kentucky, based on the H-Coal technology.

Wigglesworth, T.H.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

The directory of US coal and technology export resources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of The Directory remains focused on offering a consolidated resource to potential buyers of US coal, coal technology, and expertise. This is consistent with the US policy on coal and coal technology trade, which continues to emphasize export market strategy implementation. Within this context, DOE will continue to support the teaming'' approach to marketing; i.e., vertically integrated large project teams to include multiple industry sectors, such as coal producers, engineering and construction firms, equipment manufacturers, financing and service organizations.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bend coal degas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Clean coal. U.S.-China cooperation in energy security  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work discusses how coal fits into the strategies of the USA and China to attain energy security while avoiding adverse environmental impacts. It begins by describing China's policy choices for clean coal, before discussing the implications of a clean coal strategy for China. The U.S. choices in a coal-based strategy of energy security is then covered. Finally, a joint US-China clean coal strategy, including the technology sharing option, is discussed.

Wendt, D.

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

482

Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste and method for producing the same are disclosed, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces. 3 figs.

Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

1990-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

483

Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

Burnet, George (Ames, IA); Gokhale, Ashok J. (College Station, TX)

1990-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

484

Underground Coal Thermal Treatment Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: • Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. • Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. • CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

485

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthetic Fuel from Coal," Federal Energy Administration,Chemical Refining of Coal," Battelle Energy Program Report,reserves coal characteristics energy content sulfur ash ni

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

INTERACTION OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH A STRONG ACID AND A STRONG BASE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alkali con- alkali-soluble Seam coal over the temperaturefor the Pittsburgh Seam coal. Another important conclusionVI, Composition of Roland seam coal--ultimate analysis~ wt%,

Seth, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

A new coal-permeability model: Internal swelling stress and fracture-matrix interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas sequestration into coal seams. J Geophys Res. (2007)Reservoir engineering in coal seams: Part 1 – the physicaland movement in coal seams. SPE Reservoir engineering.

Liu, H.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Liquefaction and Gasification of Western Coals", in5272 (1976). COal Processing - Gasification, Liguefaction,or gaseous fuels, coal gasification has advanced furthest

Holten, R.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

application (coal gasification, coal combustion followed byversions of advanced gasification processes show promise ofFixed-Bed Low-Btu Coal Gasification Systems for Retrofitting

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced slagging coal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reductions... technologies such as clean coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic technologies... -firing switchgrass and coal in existing coal fired...

491

COAL LIQUEFACTION USING ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYST IN AN EXTRACTING SOLVENT MEDIUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

iv List of Tables . , I. INTRODUCTION e o Coal Chemistry B.Coal Liquefaction c.Coal Liquefaction a D. II. o Experiment Equipment Summary of

Gandhi, Shamim Ahmed

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

ANNUAL REPORT OCTOBER 1, 1979-SEPTEMBER 30, 1980 CHEMISTRY AND MORPHOLOGY OF COAL LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND MORPHOLOGY OF COAL LIQUEFACTION LA , . . ,:;. ~~Microscope Studies of Coal during Hydrogenation Taskspread evenly over the coal grains of this particular area.

Heinemann, Heinz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

A New Coal-Permeability Model: Internal Swelling Stress and Fracture–Matrix Interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L. : Adsorption-induced coal swelling and stress:acid gas sequestration into coal seams. J Geophys. Res. (fracturing on permeability of coal. Min. Sci. Technol. 3,

Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric Generation Technology Conventional Coal-Fired PowerPlants Advanced Coal-Electric Plants OperatingCharacteristics for Conventional Coal- Fired Power

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

A new coal-permeability model: Internal swelling stress and fracture-matrix interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of carbon dioxide in coal with enhanced coalbed methaneL. Adsorption-induced coal swelling and stress: Implicationsand acid gas sequestration into coal seams. J Geophys Res. (

Liu, H.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Comparative analysis of methods for determination of arsenic in coal and coal ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the comparative analysis of different methods for the preparation and analysis of arsenic content in coal and coal ash have been presented. The suggested method is coal digestion method, i.e., coal ash digestion using the mixture of acids: nitric and sulphuric in presence of vanadium-pentoxide as catalyzer. The comparative analysis of different recording techniques (AAS-GH, AAS-GF and ICP-AES) has also been presented. For arsenic recording the suggested technique is AAS-GF technique. The obtained results show that the method of high precision, high sensitivity and high reproductivity has been obtained.

Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.L.; Blagojevic, N.Z.; Rajakovic, L.V. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Characterization of feed coal and coal combustion products from power plants in Indiana and Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Geological Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with Indiana and Kentucky utilities to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCP) from three coal-fired power plants. These three plants are designated as Units K1, K2, and I1 and burn high-, moderate-, and low-sulfur coals, respectively. Over 200 samples of feed coal and CCP were analyzed by various chemical and mineralogical methods to determine mode of occurrence and distribution of trace elements in the CCP. Generally, feed coals from all 3 Units contain mostly well-crystallized kaolinite and quartz. Comparatively, Unit K1 feed coals have higher amounts of carbonates, pyrite and sphalerite. Unit K2 feed coals contain higher kaolinite and illite/muscovite when compared to Unit K1 coals. Unit I1 feed coals contain beta-form quartz and alumino-phosphates with minor amounts of calcite, micas, anatase, and zircon when compared to K1 and K2 feed coals. Mineralogy of feed coals indicate that the coal sources for Units K1 and K2 are highly variable, with Unit K1 displaying the greatest mineralogic variability; Unit I1 feed coal however, displayed little mineralogic variation supporting a single source. Similarly, element contents of Units K1 and K2 feed coals show more variability than those of Unit I1. Fly ash samples from Units K1 and K2 consist mostly of glass, mullite, quartz, and spines group minerals. Minor amounts of illite/muscovite, sulfates, hematite, and corundum are also present. Spinel group minerals identified include magnetite, franklinite, magnesioferrite, trevorite, jacobisite, and zincochromite. Scanning Electron Microscope analysis reveals that most of the spinel minerals are dendritic intergrowths within aluminum silicate glass. Unit I1 fly ash samples contain glass, quartz, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, and apatite with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, carbonates, pyroxenes, and spinels. The abundant Ca mineral phases in the Unit I1 fly ashes are attributed to the presence of carbonate, clay and phosphate minerals in the coal.

Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; O'Connor, J.T.; Brownfield, I.K.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Coal quality trends and distribution of Title III trace elements in Eastern Kentucky coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The quality characteristics of eastern Kentucky coal beds vary both spatially and stratigraphically. Average total sulfur contents are lowest, and calorific values highest, in the Big Sandy and Upper Cumberland Reserve Districts. Average coal thickness is greatest in these two districts as well. Conversely, the thinnest coal with the highest total sulfur content, and lowest calorific value, on average, occurs in the Princess and Southwest Reserve Districts. Several Title III trace elements, notably arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel, mirror this distribution (lower average concentrations in the Big Sandy and Upper Cumberland Districts, higher average concentrations in the Princess and Southwest Districts), probably because these elements are primarily associated with sulfide minerals in coal. Ash yields and total sulfur contents are observed to increase in a stratigraphically older to younger direction. Several Title III elements, notably cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium follow this trend, with average concentrations being higher in younger coals. Average chlorine concentration shows a reciprocal distribution, being more abundant in older coals. Some elements, such as arsenic, manganese, mercury, cobalt, and, to a lesser extent, phosphorus show concentration spikes in coal beds directly above, or below, major marine zones. With a few exceptions, average Title III trace element concentrations for eastern Kentucky coals are comparable with element distributions in other Appalachian coal-producing states.

Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

500

Environmental and economic challenges to coal`s future in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal accounts for approximately 75% of China`s total primary energy consumption, and is by far the largest contributor to air pollution. The highest growth sector for coal consumption is the power sector, accounting for about 36 percent of total coal consumption in 1993. Over the 1994--2010 period most new, large power plants are expected to be coal-fired. Therefore, the availability and price of coal, as well as environmental constraints will be critical to foreign investors evaluating coal and power projects in China. The purpose of this paper is to provide useful technical, economic and environmental information and analysis on coal and the power sectors of China. The target audiences are potential investors and government energy and environmental policy people. This paper suggests a number of important energy and environmental policy issues that need to be addressed in a timely fashion in order to promote adequate levels of investment in coal and power developments in China. Although this paper highlights problems faced by foreign investors in coal and power, it is important to balance these problems against the large investment opportunities developing in these sectors.

Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z