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Sample records for belgium bulgaria czech

  1. Ecofys-Country Fact Sheets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, European Union,...

  2. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | April 22, 2015: ICARUS...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  3. Press Pass - Press Release - The CMS Tracking Detector's Midnight...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden,...

  4. Press Pass - Press Release - The CMS Tracking Detector's Midnight...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  5. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  6. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | July 19, 2013: Discovery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,...

  7. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | June 3, 2015: U.S. joins...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,...

  8. Press Pass - Press Releases - March 30, 2010 - Physics Begins...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  9. Press Pass - Press Release - U.S. scientists join in "cosmic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  10. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    states are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak...

  11. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | April 5, 2015: U.S. scientists...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,...

  12. Press Pass - Press Release - LHC First Beam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  13. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,...

  14. Press Pass - Press Release - CDF B_s

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  15. Press Pass - Press Release - LHC Restart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  16. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | LHC experiments eliminate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,...

  17. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | May 13, 2015: Two Large...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,...

  18. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | March 19, 2014: International...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    states are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,...

  19. Suntechnics Belgium | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Belgium Place: Belgium Sector: Solar Product: Belgian manufacturer and installer of solar thermal heating systems. Also sells and installs PV panels and heat pumps....

  20. Belgium | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Belgium Joint Statement by President Obama and Prime Minister Elio Di Rupo of Belgium on the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit See a fact sheet here. The White HouseOffice of the Press Secretary Belgium and the United States of America are pleased to announce that they have jointly completed the removal of a significant amount of excess highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium from Belgium. At

  1. Office Director, Department of Energy, Sophia, Bulgaria | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Director, Department of Energy, Sophia, Bulgaria | National Nuclear Security ... Office Director, Department of Energy, Sophia, Bulgaria Riaz Awan Riaz Awan Role: Office ...

  2. Bulgaria: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Bulgaria Population 7,364,570 GDP 57,596,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.83 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BG 3-letter ISO code BGR Numeric ISO...

  3. El Insta Czech sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Insta Czech sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: El Insta Czech sro Place: Hruovany u Brna, Czech Republic Zip: 664 62 Product: Czech electrical installations company...

  4. Czech Sun sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: Czech Sun sro Place: Bzenec, Czech Republic Zip: 696 81 Product: Czech project developer currently operating one 0.7MW PV plant in the Czech...

  5. Brussels, Belgium: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sustainable Energy Ventures References http:www.geonames.org2800866brussels.html Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBrussels,Belgium&oldid266529...

  6. Belgium

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    that required the joint team to develop a new glovebox facility for plutonium packaging, to train and certify personnel in specialized packaging operations, to validate...

  7. Belgium: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the existing buildings in Belgium, the potential roof surface that can be used to install solar panel equals around 250 km.Wind EnergyOver the last decade, onshore wind capacity...

  8. Premier Power Plaan Czech JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plaan Czech JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Premier Power & Plaan Czech JV Place: Czech Republic Sector: Solar Product: Czech-based company that is developing 19MW of solar PV...

  9. Belgium's Red Electrical Devils Win $1 Million for Innovative Inverter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Administration Highly Enriched Uranium and Plutonium Removals March 24, 2014 Belgium has been a global leader in nonproliferation, working with the United States since 2006 to minimize highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium inventories in Belgium through the return of a significant amount of HEU and plutonium to the United States. At the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit, the United States and Belgium announced the successful removal of all excess fresh HEU and plutonium from

  10. Belgium Highly Enriched Uranium and Plutonium Removals | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Highly Enriched Uranium and Plutonium Removals March 24, 2014 Belgium has been a global leader in nonproliferation, working with the United States since 2006 to minimize highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium inventories in Belgium through the return of a significant amount of HEU and plutonium to the United States. At the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit, the United States and Belgium announced the successful removal of all excess fresh HEU and plutonium from

  11. Plaan Czech s r o | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plaan Czech s r o Jump to: navigation, search Name: Plaan Czech s.r.o. Place: Kromeriz, Czech Republic Zip: 767 01 Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar Product: An electrical design and...

  12. Passive solar systems performance under conditions in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, A.B.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1989-12-01

    This paper presents energy performance of 12 passive solar systems for three climatically different zones of Bulgaria. The results are compared with a base-case residential house that has a design typical for these areas. The different passive solar systems are compared on the basis of the percentage of solar savings and the yield, which is the annual net benefit of adding the passive solar system. The analyses are provided based on monthly meteorological data, and the method used for calculations is the Solar Load Ratio. Recommendations for Bulgarian conditions are given. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Czech...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Czech Republic) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EWIS European wind integration study Country Czech Republic Coordinates 49.817493, 15.472962 Loading map......

  14. Belgium Nuclear Security Summit: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration Nuclear Security Summit: Fact Sheet March 27, 2012 As one of the leaders in nuclear technology development, Belgium's nuclear program has covered all aspects of nuclear fuel cycle including reprocessing and operated a reprocessing plant between 1966 and 1974. Belgium signed the NPT in 1975 as a non-weapons state, but has retained a leading nuclear technology research center and derives over 50% of its energy from nuclear power using 7 power reactors. SCK-CEN is one of the

  15. Approach of Czech regulatory body to LBB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tendera, P.

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany, NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWBFL model 213) and Tomelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW - WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufacturers. The objective of the Czech LBB program is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of there NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety Facilities too. For both Dukovany and Tomelin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASMF CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quote} and consist of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  16. Approach for Czech regulatory body to LBB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tendera, P.

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWER model 213) and Temelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW-WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufactures. The objective for the Czech LBB programme is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of these NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety facilities, too. For both Dukovany and Temolin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASME, CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No. 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quotes} and consists of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  17. United States and Czech Republic Establish a Joint Civil Nuclear

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooperation Center in Prague | Department of Energy Czech Republic Establish a Joint Civil Nuclear Cooperation Center in Prague United States and Czech Republic Establish a Joint Civil Nuclear Cooperation Center in Prague June 12, 2013 - 12:17pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 PRAGUE, Czech Republic - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently joined with the U.S. Embassy in Prague and the Czech Republic's Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports to sign an agreement that

  18. United States and Czech Republic Join Together to Announce Bilateral

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Energy Research and Development Efforts | Department of Energy Czech Republic Join Together to Announce Bilateral Nuclear Energy Research and Development Efforts United States and Czech Republic Join Together to Announce Bilateral Nuclear Energy Research and Development Efforts September 29, 2011 - 10:08am Addthis PRAGUE, Czech Republic - The U.S. Department of Energy recently joined with the Řež Nuclear Research Institute, the U.S. Embassy in Prague, Texas A&M and the Czech

  19. United States and Czech Republic Join Together to Announce Bilateral

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cooperation Center in Prague | Department of Energy Czech Republic Establish a Joint Civil Nuclear Cooperation Center in Prague United States and Czech Republic Establish a Joint Civil Nuclear Cooperation Center in Prague June 12, 2013 - 12:17pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 PRAGUE, Czech Republic - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently joined with the U.S. Embassy in Prague and the Czech Republic's Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports to sign an agreement that

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - GNEP PARTNERS CANDIDATE PARTNERS AND OBSERVERS.PPT

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    GNEP Partners and Observers GNEP Partners (As of September 16, 2007) 1. Australia 2. Bulgaria 3. China 4. France 5. Ghana 6. Hungary 7. Japan 8. Jordan 9. Kazakhstan 10. Lithuania 11. Poland 12. Romania 13. Russia 14. Slovenia 15. Ukraine 16. United States GNEP Observers 1. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 2. Generation IV International Forum (GIF) 3. Euratom Attending Candidate Partner and Observer Countries 1. Argentina 2. Belgium 3. Brazil 4. Canada 5. Czech 6. Egypt 7. Finland 8.

  1. Advancing our Nuclear Collaboration with the Czech Republic | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy our Nuclear Collaboration with the Czech Republic Advancing our Nuclear Collaboration with the Czech Republic September 28, 2011 - 5:36pm Addthis President Obama addresses a crowd in Hradcany Square on April 5, 2009, touching on issues from green energy to nuclear treaties. Daniel B. Poneman Daniel B. Poneman Former Deputy Secretary of Energy This week, I joined with the Řež Nuclear Research Institute, the U.S. Embassy in Prague, Texas A&M and the Czech Nuclear Education Network

  2. United States and Czech Republic Join Together to Announce Bilateral...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the civil-nuclear field is a state of the art partnership for the 21st century, one that ... "The Czech Republic has a long standing history of research and development in this field ...

  3. United States and Czech Republic Establish a Joint Civil Nuclear...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    June 12, 2013 - 12:17pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 PRAGUE, Czech Republic - ... Republic led by the U.S. Department of Commerce, both countries joined together to sign ...

  4. Safety Assessment for the Kozloduy National Disposal Facility in Bulgaria - 13507

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biurrun, E.; Haverkamp, B.; Lazaro, A.; Miralles, A.; Stefanova, I.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the early decommissioning of four Water-Water Energy Reactors (WWER) 440-V230 reactors at the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) near the city of Kozloduy in Bulgaria, large amounts of low and intermediate radioactive waste will arise much earlier than initially scheduled. In or-der to manage the radioactive waste from the early decommissioning, Bulgaria has intensified its efforts to provide a near surface disposal facility at Radiana with the required capacity. To this end, a project was launched and assigned in international competition to a German-Spanish consortium to provide the complete technical planning including the preparation of the Intermediate Safety Assessment Report. Preliminary results of operational and long-term safety show compliance with the Bulgarian regulatory requirements. The long-term calculations carried out for the Radiana site are also a good example of how analysis of safety assessment results can be used for iterative improvements of the assessment by pointing out uncertainties and areas of future investigations to reduce such uncertainties in regard to the potential radiological impact. The computer model used to estimate the long-term evolution of the future repository at Radiana predicted a maximum total annual dose for members of the critical group, which is carried to approximately 80 % by C-14 for a specific ingestion pathway. Based on this result and the outcome of the sensitivity analysis, existing uncertainties were evaluated and areas for reasonable future investigations to reduce these uncertainties were identified. (authors)

  5. Energy Department Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech Republic for Advanced Reactor Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy recently joined with the U.S. Embassy in Prague and the Czech Republic’s Ministry of Industry and Trade to complete the transfer of 75 kilograms of fluoride salt from the Department’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory to the Czech Nuclear Research Institute Řež.

  6. Proposals in for Czech firms; cooperation likely with eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-02-10

    Two Western groups - Shell and a consortium made up of Agip, Conoco, and Total - have offered to buy the refining operations of Chemopetrol Litvinov and Kaucuk Kralupy, both in the Czech republic. Meanwhile, Amoco, Neste, and PCD are looking at the possibility of acquiring some of the plastics plants at Litvinov. Amoco is interested in the polypropylene operations, Neste in polyethylene, and PCD in both. The two Czech firms are included in the second wave of privatization, which will begin in midyear. So far, there have been no offers for the 80,000-m.t./year polystyrene and 60,000-m.t./year styrene butadiene rubber operations belonging to Kralupy, although Atochem representatives recently visited the plants. Litvinov is carrying out revamping operations at its core unit, a 12-year-old, 450,000-m.t./year ethylene plant. The plant, currently running at 400,000 m.t./year, supplies downstream plants, Neratovice, and sells on the export markets. An existing ethylene pipeline between Litvinov and Bohlen in eastern Germany, which used to supply an average 100,000 m.t./year of ethylene to Bohen in exchange for naphtha, is virtually unused. One proposal involves reactivating this exchange to secure ethylene feedstock for plants in eastern Germany. According to some sources, a preliminary decision has been made to shut down the 100,000-m.t./year ethylene plant at Leuna and possibly to expand the Bohlen cracker by 100,000 m.t./year, to 400,000 m.t./year by the late 1990s.

  7. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  8. Status of U.S. Nuclear Outages - U.S. Energy Information Administratio...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  9. International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  10. Eia.gov BETA - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  11. Additional requirements for leak-before-break application to primary coolant piping in Belgium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roussel, G.

    1997-04-01

    Leak-Before-Break (LBB) technology has not been applied in the first design of the seven Pressurized Water Reactors the Belgian utility is currently operating. The design basis of these plants required to consider the dynamic effects associated with the ruptures to be postulated in the high energy piping. The application of the LBB technology to the existing plants has been recently approved by the Belgian Safety Authorities but with a limitation to the primary coolant loop. LBB analysis has been initiated for the Doel 3 and Tihange 2 plants to allow the withdrawal of some of the reactor coolant pump snubbers at both plants and not reinstall some of the restraints after steam generator replacement at Doel 3. LBB analysis was also found beneficial to demonstrate the acceptability of the primary components and piping to the new conditions resulting from power uprating and stretch-out operation. LBB analysis has been subsequently performed on the primary coolant loop of the Tihange I plant and is currently being performed for the Doel 4 plant. Application of the LBB to the primary coolant loop is based in Belgium on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. However the Belgian Safety Authorities required some additional analyses and put some restrictions on the benefits of the LBB analysis to maintain the global safety of the plant at a sufficient level. This paper develops the main steps of the safety evaluation performed by the Belgian Safety Authorities for accepting the application of the LBB technology to existing plants and summarizes the requirements asked for in addition to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission rules.

  12. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-07

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the 'cave factor' 1.5. The value of 'cave factor' which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free {sup 218}Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin of 'radon pockets' with very high radon concentration, and enable study of the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave. Most of the results show the equilibrium factor around F = 0.2-0.7 and the unattached fraction around 2%-30%. One of the most important question remains: how accurately was the unattached fraction measured? Part of this project was to verify the influence of etched track detector position in the cave.

  13. Overview of large scale experiments performed within the LBB project in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadecka, P.; Lauerova, D.

    1997-04-01

    During several recent years NRI Rez has been performing the LBB analyses of safety significant primary circuit pipings of NPPs in Czech and Slovak Republics. The analyses covered the NPPs with reactors WWER 440 Type 230 and 213 and WWER 1000 Type 320. Within the relevant LBB projects undertaken with the aim to prove the fulfilling of the requirements of LBB, a series of large scale experiments were performed. The goal of these experiments was to verify the properties of the components selected, and to prove the quality and/or conservatism of assessments used in the LBB-analyses. In this poster, a brief overview of experiments performed in Czech Republic under guidance of NRI Rez is presented.

  14. A study of mining-induced seismicity in Czech mines with longwall coal exploitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holub, K.

    2007-01-15

    A review is performed for the data of local and regional seismographical networks installed in mines of the Ostrava-Karvina Coal Basin (Czech Republic), where underground anthracite mining is carried out and dynamic events occur in the form of rockbursts. The seismological and seismoacoustic observations data obtained in panels that are in limiting state are analyzed. This aggregate information is a basic for determining hazardous zones and assigning rockburst prevention measures.

  15. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite task 3.6. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    Major reforms in the Czech energy sector have been initiated to reverse 40 years of central planning, subsidized energy pricing, unchecked pollution from coal-fired plants, concerns over nuclear safety and fuel cycle management, and dependence on the former U.S.S.R. for oil, gas, and nuclear fuel processing. Prices for electricity, heat, and natural gas paid by industry are close to western levels, but subsidized prices for households are as much as 40% lower and below economic cost. State control of major energy enterprises is being reduced by moving toward government-regulated, investor-owned companies to raise needed capital, but with a strategic stake retained by the state. Foreign firms will participate in privatization, but they are not expected to acquire a controlling interest in Czech energy companies. Economic conditions in the Czech Republic are now improving after the disruptions caused by restructuring since 1989 and separation of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republics in January 1993. The downturn in the economy after 1989 was concentrated in energy-intensive heavy industry, and recovery is paced by consumer trade, services, light industry and construction. Energy use in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) has declined, but it is still significantly higher than in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. The GDP increased by 2% in 1994 after dropping 22% between 1989 and 1993. A positive balance of payments has been achieved, with foreign investment offsetting a small trade deficit. The government`s external debt is only 4% of GDP. This report studies the application of lignite resources within the newly formulated energy policies of the republic, in light of a move toward privatization and stronger air pollution regulations. Lignite has represented the major energy source for the country.

  16. Management of Spent and Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in the Czech Republic - 12124

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podlaha, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Czech Republic is a country with a well-developed peaceful utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. Sealed Radioactive Sources (further also SRS) are broadly used in many areas in the Czech Republic, e.g. in research, industry, medicine, education, agriculture, etc. Legislation in the field of ionizing radiation source utilization has been fully harmonized with European Community legislation. SRS utilization demands a proper system which must ensure the safe use of SRS, including the management of disused (spent) and orphaned SRS. In the Czech Republic, a comprehensive system of SRS management has been established that is comparable with systems in other developed countries. The system covers both legal and institutional aspects. The Central Register of Ionizing Radiation Sources is an important part of the system. It is a tracking system that covers all activities related to SRS, from their production or import to the end of their use (recycling or disposal). Many spent SRS are recycled and can be used for other purposes after inspection, repacking or reprocessing. When the disused SRS are not intended for further use, they are managed as radioactive waste (RAW). The system of SRS management also ensures the suitable resolution of situations connected with improper SRS handling (in the case of orphaned sources, accidents, etc.). (author)

  17. Cost comparison between private and public collection of residual household waste: Multiple case studies in the Flemish region of Belgium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, R.; Buysse, J.; Gellynck, X.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal is to compare collection costs for residual household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have clustered all municipalities in order to find mutual comparable pairs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each pair consists of one private and one public operating waste collection program. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All cases show that private service has lower costs than public service. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipalities were contacted to identify the deeper causes for the waste management program. - Abstract: The rising pressure in terms of cost efficiency on public services pushes governments to transfer part of those services to the private sector. A trend towards more privatizing can be noticed in the collection of municipal household waste. This paper reports the findings of a research project aiming to compare the cost between the service of private and public collection of residual household waste. Multiple case studies of municipalities about the Flemish region of Belgium were conducted. Data concerning the year 2009 were gathered through in-depth interviews in 2010. In total 12 municipalities were investigated, divided into three mutual comparable pairs with a weekly and three mutual comparable pairs with a fortnightly residual waste collection. The results give a rough indication that in all cases the cost of private service is lower than public service in the collection of household waste. Albeit that there is an interest in establishing whether there are differences in the costs and service levels between public and private waste collection services, there are clear difficulties in establishing comparisons that can be made without having to rely on a large number of assumptions and corrections. However, given the cost difference, it remains the responsibility of the municipalities to decide upon the service they offer their citizens, regardless the cost efficiency: public or private.

  18. Agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade for Cooperation in Civilian Nuclear Energy Research & Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE-MOIT R&D agreement establishes a legal framework for comprehensive cooperation between the U.S. DOE and the Czech MOIT on civilian nuclear energy R&D.

  19. U.S. and Iceland Sign Bilateral Agreement to Develop Clean Geothermal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Nations represented in this week's events include Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Netherlands, ...

  20. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Netherlands, Norway,...

  1. Press Pass - Press Release - LHC First Beam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Netherlands, Norway,...

  2. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [June 21, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-06-21

    This report contains information concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: Canada, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Argentina, Brazil, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Soviet Union, Belgium, France, Turkey, and the United Kingdom.

  3. 105(scaled land 215%)7-22-05

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cntrl African Rep. Chad Chile China Colombia Dem. Rep. Congo Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark ...

  4. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. COMMISSIONING AND START-UP TESTS OF ALPHA-CONTAMINATED SOLID WASTE SORTING, CEMENTING, AND INTERIM STORAGE FACILITIES AT BELGOPROCESS (BELGIUM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLIBERT, R.C.; NUYT, G.; LAMOTTE, G.; RENARD, CL.; DE GOEYSE, A.; GOETSCHALCKX, R.; GHYS, B.

    2003-02-27

    The alpha-contaminated solid waste generated in Belgium results from past activities in the fuel cycle (R & D +Reprocessing and MOX fabrication pilot plants) and present operation of BELGONUCLEAIRE's MOX fuel fabrication plant. After the main steps in the management of alpha-contaminated solid waste were established, BELGONUCLEAIRE, with the backing of BELGOPROCESS and ONDRAF/NIRAS, started the design and construction of the T & C and interim-storage facilities for this alpha waste. The accumulated solid alpha radwaste containing a mixture of combustible and non-combustible material will be sorted. After sorting, both the accumulated and recently-generated non-combustible alpha waste will be embedded in a cement matrix. The erection of the sorting and cementing units which include glove-boxes and the interim storage building for conditioned packages was completed at BELGOPROCESS, at the beginning of year 2002. Start-up operations for both facilities have been performed. Operating tests of the sorting and cementing units were completed in July 2002 and inactive operation campaigns were started in August 2002. The results of the tests and inactive campaigns are given. Overall testing of the storage building supervised by the Safety Authorities was successfully performed at the end of 202 after completion of the operating tests on the equipment. The present paper summarizes the main information collected during the tests and campaigns, some of which has led to modifications of the equipment originally installed.

  6. 1993 International conference on nuclear waste management and environmental remediation, Prague, Czech Republic, September 5--11, 1993. Combined foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slate, S.C.; Allen, R.E.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the trip was to attend the 1993 International Conference on Nuclear Waste Management and Environmental Remediation. The principal objective of this conference was to facilitate a truly international exchange of information on the management of nuclear wastes as well as contaminated facilities and sites emanating from nuclear operations. The conference was sponsored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Czech and Slovak Mechanical Engineering Societies, and the Czech and Slovak Nuclear Societies in cooperation with the Commission of the European Communities, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the OECD Nuclear Agency. The conference was cosponsored by the American Nuclear Society, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, the Canadian Nuclear Society, the (former USSR) Nuclear Society, and the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. This was the fourth in a series of biennial conferences, which started in Hong Kong, in 1987. This report summarizes shared aspects of the trip; however, each traveler`s observations and recommendations are reported separately.

  7. Successful Completion of the Largest Shipment of Russian Research Reactor High-Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Czech Republic to Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky; Jeff Chamberlin

    2008-07-01

    On December 8, 2007, the largest shipment of high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel was successfully made from a Russian-designed nuclear research reactor in the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. This accomplishment is the culmination of years of planning, negotiations, and hard work. The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together on the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program in support of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. In February 2003, RRRFR Program representatives met with the Nuclear Research Institute in Re, Czech Republic, and discussed the return of their high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. Nearly 5 years later, the shipment was made. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, coordination, and cooperation required to make this important international shipment.

  8. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolealov, Markta; Beneov, Libue; Zvodsk, Anita

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: The character of household waste in the three different types of households were assesed. The quantity, density and composition of household waste were determined. The physicochemical characteristics were determined. The changing character of household waste during past 10 years was described. The potential of energy recovery of household waste in Czech republic was assesed. - Abstract: The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in rural households. Because knowledge about the properties of household waste, as well as its physicochemical characteristics, is very important not only for future waste management, but also for the prediction of the behaviour and influence of the waste on the environment as the country continues to streamline its legislation to the European Unions solid waste mandates, the results of these studies were employed by the Czech Ministry of Environment to optimise the national waste management strategy.

  9. Belgium | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure...

  10. The impact of size distribution assumptions in a bulk one-moment microphysics scheme on simulated surface precipitation and storm dynamics during a low-topped supercell case in Belgium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Weverberg, K.; VanLipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbe, L.

    2011-04-01

    In this research the impact of modifying the size distribution assumptions of the precipitating hydrometeors in a bulk one-moment microphysics scheme on simulated surface precipitation and storm dynamics has been explored for long-lived low-topped supercells in Belgium. It was shown that weighting the largest precipitating ice species of the microphysics scheme to small graupel results in an increase of surface precipitation because of counteracting effects. On the one hand, the precipitation formation process slowed down, resulting in lower precipitation efficiency. On the other hand, latent heat release associated with freezing favored more intense storms. In contrast to previous studies finding decreased surface precipitation when graupel was present in the microphysics parameterization, storms were rather shallow in the authors simulations. This left little time for graupel sublimation. The impact of size distribution assumptions of snow was found to be small, but more realistic size distribution assumptions of rain led to the strongest effect on surface precipitation. Cold pools shrunk because of weaker rain evaporation at the cold pool boundaries, leading to a decreased surface rain area.

  11. Preparation of the Second Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from the Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu Rez (UJV Rez), a.s., Czech Republic to the Russian Federation for Reprocessing - 13478

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trtilek, Radek; Podlaha, Josef [UJV Rez, a. s., Hlavni 130, 25068 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)] [UJV Rez, a. s., Hlavni 130, 25068 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01

    After more than 50 years of operation of the LVR-15 research reactor operated by the UJV Rez, a. s. (formerly Nuclear Research Institute - NRI), a large amount of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of Russian origin has been accumulated. In 2005 UJV Rez, a. s. jointed the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) program under the United States (US) - Russian Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and started the process of SNF shipment from the LVR-15 research reactor back to the Russian Federation (RF). In 2007 the first shipment of SNF was realized. In 2011, preparation of the second shipment of spent fuel from the Czech Republic started. The experience obtained from the first shipment will be widely used, but some differences must be taken into the account. The second shipment will be realized in 2013 and will conclude the return transport of all, both fresh and spent, high-enriched nuclear fuel from the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. After the shipment is completed, there will be only low-enriched nuclear fuel on the territory of the Czech Republic, containing maximum of 20% of U-235, which is the conventionally recognized limit between the low- and high-enriched nuclear materials. The experience (technical, organizational, administrative, logistic) obtained from the each SNF shipment as from the Czech Republic as from other countries using the Russian type research reactors are evaluated and projected onto preparation of next shipment of high enriched nuclear fuel back to the Russian Federation. The results shown all shipments provided by the UJV Rez, a. s. in the frame of the GTRI Program have been performed successfully and safely. It is expected the experience and results will be applied to preparation and completing of the Chinese Miniature Neutron Source Reactors (MNSR) Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation in the near future. (authors)

  12. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  13. FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

  14. Stump the Scientist Question Form | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Please Help Us Stump the Scientist Ask Your Question *Required fields Name* Email* School/Company* Twitter Handle Country* Select Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad

  15. Belgium Highly Enriched Uranium and Plutonium Removals | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    This Site Budget IG Web Policy Privacy No Fear Act Accessibility FOIA Sitemap Federal Government The White House DOE.gov USA.gov Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA...

  16. TWENTIES (Smart Grid Project) (Brussels, Belgium) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    share of renewables in its energy mix by 2020 and beyond, while keeping its present reliability. References "EU Smart Grid Projects Map" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.org...

  17. Belgium east loop active network management (Smart Grid Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cancel Submit Categories: Smart Grid Projects Smart Grid Projects in Europe Smart Grid Projects - Grid Automation Distribution Smart Grid Projects - Grid Automation Transmission...

  18. EUDEEP (Smart Grid Project) (Belgium) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    technical and nontechnical barriers that prevent a massive deployment of distributed energy resources (DER) in Europe. In partnership with manufacturers, research organizations,...

  19. Czech Republic: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA Natural Gas Reserves 3,072,000,000 Cubic Meters (cu m) 92 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves 15,000,000 Barrels (bbl) 86 2010 CIA World Factbook Energy Maps featuring...

  20. Industry turns its attention south

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marhefka, D.

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Significant foreign investment continues to elude Russia`s oil and gas industry, so the Caspian nations of Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan are picking up the slack, welcoming the flow of foreign capital to their energy projects. Separate evaluations are given for Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Moldova, Tajikstan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia.

  1. US Removes Last Remaining HEU from Czech Republic, Sets Nonproliferati...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    never acquire a nuclear weapon, and our work ... into low enriched uranium (LEU) for use in power reactors. ... NNSA maintains and enhances the safety, security, ...

  2. "Note: All Others includes Canada, Czech Republic, Federal Republic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Photovoltaic module import shipments by country, 2013" "(peak kilowatts)" ... Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments

  3. NNSA helps train first responders in Czech Republic | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Wendy Pemberton, a scientist from the Nevada National Security Site, recently served as a key trainer for a chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) first responder ...

  4. EUDEEP (Smart Grid Project) (Czech Republic) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    technical and nontechnical barriers that prevent a massive deployment of distributed energy resources (DER) in Europe. In partnership with manufacturers, research organizations,...

  5. DLC+VIT4IP (Smart Grid Project) (Belgium) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    applications. These shall include the existing power distribution network for novel services in smart electricity distribution networks such as demand side management,...

  6. Foreign Travel Report - West Germany and Belgium - September 9 - September 13, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F.

    2001-05-17

    This report discusses visitation of the PAMELA plant which provided an opportunity to observe the operation and design of this European waste solidification facility. The aim of the workshop was to exchange expertise relative to the safe vitrification of HLLW in order to determine which areas were technologically solved and which areas required further study.

  7. Elektra Holding | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Elektra Holding Place: Sofia, Bulgaria Sector: Biomass, Hydro, Solar, Wind energy Product: A company owned by a group of Spanish families operating in Bulgaria,...

  8. Nvision.Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    solar power plants in Bulgaria and currently has operations in Bulgaria, Kenya and Pakistan Phone number +442081448366 Website http:www.nvision.energy Coordinates...

  9. Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... X. Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine) EIAARI World Shale Gas and Shale Oil Resource Assessment May 17, 2013 X-1 X. EASTERN EUROPE (BULGARIA, ROMANIA, UKRAINE) SUMMARY ...

  10. Trip report: European Communities 1989 International Conference on Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations, Brussels, Belgium, October 24-27, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The European community is conducting research on the decommissioning of nuclear installations. The prime objective is to develop effective techniques to ensure the protection of man and his environment against the potential hazards of nuclear installations that have been shut down. The results of the 1979--1983 research program were presented in a conference held in Luxembourg. This program was primarily concerned with decommissioning nuclear power plants. The 1984--1988 program was extended to all types of nuclear installations. Fuel fabrication, enrichment and reprocessing plants, and research and development facilities having fulfilled their useful purposes are also awaiting decommissioning. This Program has produced numerous scientific and technical achievements. Great progress has in particular been achieved in the reduction of metal waste arising from decommissioning, due to advances in areas such as the development of aggressive decontamination procedures and of techniques for melting and recycling low-level radioactive waste metal.

  11. Solar Projects Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Beany, Czech Republic Zip: 25241 Product: Czech developing company planning to build 14MW of PV by 2010 in the Czech republic. References: Solar Projects & Services1...

  12. Energeo sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energeo sro Place: Prague 3, Czech Republic Zip: 130 00 Sector: Solar Product: Czech - French company developing solar PV projects in the Czech Republic. References: Energeo sro1...

  13. Agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Czech...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R&D Agreement More Documents & Publications US-Brazil Memoradum of Understanding Senior Delegation Officials From All GNEP Participants ScannedJointDeclaration(English).pdf...

  14. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K. Ivanova Department of Meteorology Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania and Institute of Electronics Bulgarian Academy Sciences Sofia, Bulgaria...

  15. Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Switzerland, Albania, Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, New Zealand, China, Philippines,...

  16. IPIRG-2 task 1 - pipe system experiments with circumferential cracks in straight-pipe locations. Final report, September 1991--November 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Marschall, C.; Rudland, D.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results from Task 1 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The IPIRG-2 program is an international group program managed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) and funded by a consortium of organizations from 15 nations including: Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Lithuania, Republic of China, Slovak Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The objective of the program was to build on the results of the IPIRG-1 and other related programs by extending the state-of-the-art in pipe fracture technology through the development of data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of nuclear power plant piping systems that contain defects. The IPIRG-2 program included five main tasks: Task 1 - Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds Task 2 - Fracture of Flawed Fittings Task 3 - Cyclic and Dynamic Load Effects on Fracture Toughness Task 4 - Resolution of Issues From IPIRG-1 and Related Programs Task 5 - Information Exchange Seminars and Workshops, and Program Management. The scope of this report is to present the results from the experiments and analyses associated with Task 1 (Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds). The rationale and objectives of this task are discussed after a brief review of experimental data which existed after the IPIRG-1 program.

  17. Enfinity Management BVBA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Management BVBA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Enfinity Management BVBA Place: Ghent, Belgium Zip: 9051 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Belgium-based financial engineer in...

  18. Fact #716: February 27, 2012 Diesels are more than Half of New...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In Belgium, Norway, France and Spain more than 70% of the new car market in 2011 were ... western Europe (Belgium, Norway, France, Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, Germany, and ...

  19. Futech BvBa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Leuven, Belgium Zip: 3001 Product: Belgium-based project development and distribution company. Coordinates: 50.879385, 4.70367 Show Map Loading map......

  20. Blue Planet Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Planet Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Blue Planet Solar Place: Antwerp, Belgium Zip: B-2060 Sector: Services, Solar Product: Belgium-based firm that offers installation,...

  1. Jura Energie | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Cerneux-Veusil, Belgium Zip: 2345 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Wind and solar project developer and system integrator. Active in Belgium, France and Switzerland....

  2. Balta Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Balta Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Balta Group Place: Sint Baafs Vijve, Belgium Zip: 8710 Product: Belgium-based manufacturer of broadloom carpets, rugs and laminate...

  3. Electrawinds N V | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electrawinds N V Jump to: navigation, search Name: Electrawinds N.V. Place: Oostende, Belgium Zip: 8400 Sector: Wind energy Product: A Belgium-based producer, retailer and...

  4. L Contact sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: L-Contact sro Place: Praha 4, Czech Republic Zip: 140 00 Product: Czech developer of PV projects in the Czech Republic. References: L-Contact...

  5. JAROS 07 sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    JAROS 07 sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: JAROS 07 sro Place: Znojmo, Czech Republic Zip: 671 81 Product: Czech developer operating a 0.8MW PV plant in the Czech Republic....

  6. FVE BS sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FVE BS sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: FVE BS sro Place: Letohrad, Czech Republic Zip: 561 51 Product: Czech PV developer operating a 1.6MW PV plant in the Czech Republic....

  7. Garnet VRX sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    VRX sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: Garnet VRX sro Place: esk Budjovice, Czech Republic Zip: 371 36 Product: Czech developer operating a 1.5MW PV plant in the Czech...

  8. Ring Energy sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ring Energy sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ring Energy sro Place: Most, Czech Republic Zip: 434 01 Product: Czech developer operating a 2.1MW PV plant in the Czech Republic....

  9. BZK PLUS sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BZK PLUS sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: BZK PLUS sro Place: okr. P-sek, Czech Republic Product: Czech company operating a 1.2MW PV plant in the Czech Republic, although...

  10. Photovoltaic as | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as Jump to: navigation, search Name: Photovoltaic as Place: Zl-n, Czech Republic Zip: 760 01 Product: Czech developer operating a 1.4MW plant in the Czech Republic. Coordinates:...

  11. CE Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Czech Republic Zip: 686 01 Product: Czech PV system integrator primarily building plants for Energy 21 in the Czech Republic. References: CE Solar1 This article is a stub....

  12. Prosolar sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Prosolar sro Place: Suchdol nad Odrou, Czech Republic Zip: 742 01 Product: PV installations provider in Czech Republic. References: Prosolar sro1 This article is a stub....

  13. Velarde students score in RoboRAVE International at first try

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Competitors came from as far away as China and the Czech Republic June 1, 2015 Dylan ... and visiting competitors from China, Colombia, the Czech Republic and Mexico. ...

  14. Apros Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Apros Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Apros Solar Place: Prague 2, Czech Republic Zip: 120 00 Product: Czech developer of PV projects. References: Apros Solar1 This...

  15. Heliostar sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heliostar sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: Heliostar sro Place: Brno, Czech Republic Zip: 618 00 Sector: Solar Product: Czech manufacturer of solar PV and thermal collectors...

  16. ELGEN Solar SRO | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ELGEN Solar SRO Jump to: navigation, search Name: ELGEN Solar SRO Place: Hodonin, Czech Republic Zip: 695 01 Product: Czech PV project developer cooperating with Solawatt AG....

  17. Soleg CZ | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Soleg CZ Jump to: navigation, search Name: Soleg CZ Place: Czech Republic Zip: 30100 Product: Czech project developer and PV products reseller. References: Soleg CZ1 This article...

  18. Stand by Europe | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    by Europe Jump to: navigation, search Name: Stand-by Europe Place: Czech Republic Product: Czech project development and distribution company References: Stand-by Europe1 This...

  19. Themis AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Themis AS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Themis AS Place: Ronov pod Radhotm, Czech Republic Zip: 756 61 Sector: Solar Product: Czech manufacturer of wire saw, squaring...

  20. BSC Solar Sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BSC Solar Sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: BSC Solar Sro Place: Greslove Myto, Czech Republic Zip: 67156 Product: Czech Republic-based developer of PV projects. References:...

  1. Ekosolaris as | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ekosolaris as Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ekosolaris as Place: Krom-, Czech Republic Zip: 767 01 Product: Czech manufacturer of passive and PV modules. References:...

  2. Profit Energy sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Profit Energy sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: Profit Energy sro Place: Prague, Czech Republic Sector: Solar Product: Czech solar project developer currenlty planning for 4 PV...

  3. Lumen as | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lumen as Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lumen as Place: esk Budjovice, Czech Republic Zip: 370 10 Sector: Solar Product: Czech system integrator for solar plants....

  4. Korowatt | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korowatt Jump to: navigation, search Name: Korowatt Place: Buanovice, Czech Republic Zip: 384 22 Sector: Solar Product: Czech Republic-based solar project developer - owns and...

  5. Aray Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aray Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aray Solar Place: Praha 1, Czech Republic Zip: 11000 Product: PV project developer with activities across Europe based in the Czech...

  6. Sluneta sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sluneta sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sluneta sro Place: DUBANY, Czech Republic Zip: 696 03 Sector: Services Product: Czech project developer providing installation and...

  7. Profistav Litomysl | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Profistav Litomysl Jump to: navigation, search Name: Profistav Litomysl Place: Litomyl, Czech Republic Zip: 570 01 Product: Czech PV developer and system integrator for large...

  8. Regulus sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Prague 4, Czech Republic Zip: 143 00 Sector: Solar Product: Czech manufacturer of passive solar modules and related heating systems. References: Regulus sro1 This article is a...

  9. Administrator Highlights NNSA Role in Implementing Prague Agenda...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Press Releases Administrator Highlights NNSA Role in Implementing Prague Agenda During Visit to the Czech Republic June 18, 2010 PRAGUE - During a visit to the Czech Republic ...

  10. Klement AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Klement AS Place: ehlovice, Czech Republic Zip: 40313 Sector: Solar Product: Czech construction company active in building solar plants. References: Klement AS1 This...

  11. HIC Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: HIC & Services Place: Prague 10, Czech Republic Zip: CZ - 108 00 Product: Czech chemical company which is developing a method for physical purification of upgraded...

  12. Renoenergie | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Czech Republic Sector: Hydro, Wind energy Product: Czech developer of PV, wind and small hydro projects. Coordinates: 43.35675, -71.030319 Show Map Loading map......

  13. American Way Solar AWS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: American Way Solar (AWS) Place: Plzen, Czech Republic Sector: Solar Product: Czech subsidiary of US PV panel manufacturer, American Way Solar (AWS)....

  14. Romania: Brand-New Engineering Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Nicolae Zamfir; Madalina Budu

    2011-01-01

    The HEU spent nuclear fuel transport from Romania was a pilot project in the framework of the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), being the first fully certified spent nuclear fuel shipment by air. The successful implementation of the Romanian shipment also brought various new technology in the program, further used by other participating countries. Until 2009, the RRRFR program repatriated to the Russian Federation HEU spent nuclear fuel of Russian origin from many countries, like Uzbekistan, Czech Republic, Latvia, Hungary, Kazakhstan and Bulgaria. The means of transport used were various; from specialized TK-5 train for the carriage of Russian TUK-19 transport casks, to platform trains for 20 ft freight ISO containers carrying Czech Skoda VPVR/M casks; from river barge on the Danube, to vessel on the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. Initially, in 2005, the transport plan of the HEU spent nuclear fuel from the National Institute for R&D in Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Engineering 'Horia Hulubei' in Magurele, Romania considered a similar scheme, using the specialized TK-5 train transiting Ukraine to the destination point in the Russian Federation, or, as an alternative, using the means and route of the spent nuclear fuel periodically shipped from the Bulgarian nuclear power plant Kosloduy (by barge on the Danube, and by train through Ukraine to the Russian Federation). Due to impossibility to reach an agreement in due time with the transit country, in February 2007 the US, Russian and Romanian project partners decided to adopt the air shipment of the spent nuclear fuel as prime option, eliminating the need for agreements with any transit countries. By this time the spent nuclear fuel inspections were completed, proving the compliance of the burn-up parameters with the international requirements for air shipments of radioactive materials. The short air route avoiding overflying of any other countries except the country of origin and the country of destination also contributed to the decision making in this issue. The efficient project management and cooperation between the three countries (Russia, Romania and USA) made possible, after two and a half years of preparation work, for the first fully certified spent nuclear fuel air shipment to take place on 29th of June 2009, from Romanian airport 'Henri Coanda' to the Russian airport 'Koltsovo' near Yekaterinburg. One day before that, after a record period of 3 weeks of preparation, another HEU cargo was shipped by air from Romanian Institute for Nuclear Research in Pitesti to Russia, containing fresh pellets and therefore making Romania the third HEU-free country in the RRRFR program.

  15. Strategic planning -- task 7.1. Topical report, February 1994--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The nations of East Central Europe regained their political and economic freedom in 1989, ending nearly a half century of centrally planned economies under the hegemony of the former Soviet Union (FSU). These nations are now emerging from economic conditions marked by price distortions and a focus on heavy industry, isolation from world markets, and a lack of occupational health and environmental safeguards. Economic recovery, environmental restoration, and political stability, as well as eventual entrance into the European Community (EC), require a reordering of policies and priorities, including those bearing on energy and the environment. This report, prepared as a background document for the Second International Conference on Energy and Environment to be held in Prague in November 1994, is composed of a summary table and supporting text and is intended to provide a concise review of issues related to energy and the environment for the Czech and Slovak Republics, Hungary, Poland, and Bulgaria. Organized by subject and country, Table 1 contains country profiles (Row A), information on the economy (Row B), primary energy consumption, environmental priorities, energy resources, production, and utilization (Rows C, D, F, G, H, and 1), electrical generation and transmission (Rows J and K), district heating (Row L), briquettes (Row M), and environmental regulations (Row N). Pertinent policy goals, issues, and trends are noted. The reports is based largely on a review of documents published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as well as selected sources obtained from the countries of the region. Reference citations are keyed to information presented in Table 1.

  16. Summary of the contractor information exchange meeting for improving the safety of Soviet-Designed Nuclear Power Plants, February 19, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes a meeting held on February 19, 1997, in Washington, D.C. The meeting was held primarily to exchange information among the contractors involved in the U.S. Department of Energy`s efforts to improve the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Previous meetings have been held on December 5-6, 1995, and May 22, 1996. The meetings are sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and coordinated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The U.S. Department of Energy works with countries to increase the level of safety at 63 Soviet-designed nuclear reactors operating in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine. The work is implemented largely by commercial companies and individuals who provide technologies and services to the countries with Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Attending the meeting were 71 representatives of commercial contractors, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of State, national laboratories, and other federal agencies. The presentations and discussions that occurred during the exchange are summarized in this report. While this report captures the general presentation and discussion points covered at the meeting, it is not a verbatim, inclusive record. To make the report useful, information presented at the meeting has been expanded to clarify issues, respond to attendees` requests, or place discussion points in a broader programmatic context. Appendixes A through F contain the meeting agenda, list of attendees, copies of presentation visuals and handouts, the Strategy Document discussed at the meeting, and a summary of attendees` post-meeting evaluation comments. As with past information exchanges, the participants found this meeting valuable and useful. In response to the participant`s requests, a fourth information exchange will be held later in 1997.

  17. [Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal]: Task 7.1, Strategic planning. Topical report, February 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The nations of East Central Europe regained their political and economic freedom in 1989, ending nearly a half century of centrally planned economies under the hegemony of the former Soviet Union (FSU). These nations are now emerging from economic conditions marked by price distortions and a focus on heavy industry, isolation from world markets, and a lack of occupational health and environmental safeguards. Economic recovery, environmental restoration, and political stability, as well as eventual entrance into the European Community (EC), require a reordering of policies and priorities, including those bearing on energy and the environment. This report, prepared as a background document for the Second International Conference on Energy and Environment to be held in Prague in November 1994, is composed of a summary table (Table 1) and supporting text and is intended to provide a concise review of issues related to energy and the environment for the Czech and Slovak Republics, Hungary, Poland, and Bulgaria. Organized by subject and country, Table 1 contains country profiles (Row A), information on the economy (Row B), primary energy consumption, environmental priorities, energy resources, production, and utilization (Rows C, D, F, G, H, and I), electrical generation and transmission (Rows J and K), district heating (Row L), briquettes (Row M), and environmental regulations (Row N). Pertinent policy goals, issues, and trends are noted. The reports is based largely on a review of documents published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as well as selected sources obtained from the countries of the region. Reference citations are keyed to information presented in Table 1.

  18. Dei Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Bulgaria Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Bulgarian utility engaged in renewable energy project development. References: Dei Energy1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  19. GNEP Ministerial Attendees

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Bulgaria to the United Nations China Chen Deming, Vice Chairman, National Development and Reform Commission France Alain ...

  20. Nobesol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nobesol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nobesol Place: Paterna, Spain Zip: 46980 Product: PV project developer headquartered in Spain with activities in Bulgaria. Coordinates:...

  1. Energy Solutions S A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solutions S.A. Place: PERNIK, Bulgaria Zip: 2304 Sector: Solar Product: produces photovoltaic modules using mono- and poly-crystalline Si solar cells. Crystalline Si...

  2. Krass Capital Group AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Krass Capital Group AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Krass Capital Group AG Place: Grfelfing, Bulgaria Zip: 82166 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Grafelfing-based firm...

  3. Zlatia M | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zlatia M Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zlatia M Place: Bulgaria Sector: Solar Product: Bulgarian company which has stated an interest to develop solar projects. References:...

  4. U.S. Department of Energy Welcomes the United Kingdom as 21st...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Australia, Bulgaria, Ghana, Hungary, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and the Ukraine. "The UK shares in the vision of improved non-proliferation ...

  5. ORISE: Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Other countries with above-average stay rates include Iran, Romania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. Thailand, Jordan, Brazil, South Africa, Chile, New Zealand and Indonesia all have the ...

  6. Apex Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Apex Solar Place: Sofia, Bulgaria Zip: 1616 Sector: Solar Product: Bulgarian PV and solar thermal project developer and installer. References: Apex Solar1 This article is a...

  7. U.S. Department of Energy to Host Regional Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Confirmed speakers include Turkey's Energy Minister Taner Yildiz; Georgia's Minister of Energy Alexander Khetaguri; Bulgaria's Minister of Economy, Energy and Tourism Traycho ...

  8. Hydroenergy Company Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydroenergy Company Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydroenergy Company Ltd Place: 2700 Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria Sector: Hydro, Renewable Energy, Solar Product: Invests in,...

  9. 97fall.pgm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Challenges in Its Nuclear Future 9 Recent ... Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, ... of actinides from civilian nuclear power generation. ...

  10. Joint Statement by President Obama and Prime Minister Elio Di Rupo of

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Belgium on the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit | National Nuclear Security Administration President Obama and Prime Minister Elio Di Rupo of Belgium on the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit March 24, 2014 See a fact sheet here. The White House Office of the Press Secretary Belgium and the United States of America are pleased to announce that they have jointly completed the removal of a significant amount of excess highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium from Belgium. At the 2012

  11. Stresni Burza S R O | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stresni Burza S R O Jump to: navigation, search Name: Stresni Burza S.R.O. Place: Breclav, Czech Republic Zip: 690 02 Product: Czech Republic based firm that runs a web-based...

  12. Habus sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Habus sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: Habus sro Place: tk, Czech Republic Zip: 411 45 Sector: Services Product: Czech resort park operating a 0.5MW PV plant and...

  13. Fotovoltaika sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: Fotovoltaika sro Place: st- nad Orlic-, Czech Republic Zip: 561 13 Product: Czech developer operating a 0.8MW PV plant in the...

  14. Bully Real Estate AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Real Estate AS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bully Real Estate AS Place: Praha 2, Czech Republic Zip: 120 00 Product: Czech Republic-based company going ahead as a...

  15. Ray On | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    On Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ray On Place: ehlovice, Czech Republic Zip: 403 13 Product: Czech developer of PV projects. References: Ray On1 This article is a stub. You...

  16. Scatec Solar S R O Formerly Signo Solar S R O | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar S R O Formerly Signo Solar S R O Jump to: navigation, search Name: Scatec Solar S.R.O. (Formerly Signo Solar S.R.O.) Place: Prague, Czech Republic Zip: 160 00 Product: Czech...

  17. ELMARCO s r o | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ELMARCO s r o Jump to: navigation, search Name: ELMARCO s r. o. Place: Liberec, Czech Republic Zip: 460 10 Sector: Buildings Product: String representation "A leading Czech ... y...

  18. Energy 21 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: Czech devloper operating several PV plants in the Czech Republic with aims to invest in other CEE countries. Coordinates: 50.079083, 14.43323 Show Map Loading map......

  19. Solar Plants Blazek sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plants Blazek sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Plants Blazek sro Place: Kladno 4, Czech Republic Zip: 272 04 Product: Czech family controlled company operating a 0.75MW...

  20. T O Green Europe | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    O Green Europe Jump to: navigation, search Name: T-O Green Europe Place: Czech Republic Sector: Biomass, Solar, Wind energy Product: Czech-based JV company established by Theolia...

  1. Solar Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Republic Zip: 10100 Product: Czech PV developer and investor seeking partnership for its 200MW PV porfolio in the Czech Republic. References: Solar Global1 This article is a...

  2. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in reducing environments Opportunities for international collaboration France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Korea, Japan, China, Czech Republic, Canada, Finland, UK ......

  3. Microsoft Word - cmpd publications.docx

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... from using 1-4 particles per cell to using several hundred. ... Location: Natl Palace Culture, Sofia, BULGARIA Date: JUN ... The authors present techniques to map DNS computations to ...

  4. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,104 - 1,104 Bulgaria 82 - 82 Egypt 518 - 518 Italy 115 - 115 Netherlands 56 83 139 Spain 412 84 496 Turkey 581 - 581 United Kingdom 654 - 654 Kentucky 2,130 - 2,130 Canada 920...

  5. file://C:\\Documents%20and%20Settings\\ICR\\My%20Documents\\Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Bulgaria 75 - 75 Egypt 363 - 363 Germany 71 - 71 Italy 61 - 61 Netherlands 219 - 219 Spain 415 - 415 Turkey 362 - 362 United Kingdom 282 - 282 Kentucky 1,404 - 1,404 Canada 433...

  6. JPRS report: Arms control, [April 28, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-04-28

    This report contains information concerning arms control of the following countries: (1) China, (2) Japan, (3) Bulgaria, (4) Czechoslovakia, (5) German Democratic Republic, (6) Poland, (7) Soviet Union, (8) Austria, (9) Federal Republic of Germany, and (10) United Kingdom.

  7. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-03-28

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Honduras; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Syria; (6) Soviet Union; and (7) France, Germany, Turkey.

  8. JPRS report: Arms control, [August 18, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-08-18

    This report contains information concerning arms control of the following countries: (1) Bulgaria, (2) Intrabloc, (3) German Democratic Republic, (4) Turkey, (5) Poland, (6) Soviet Union, and (7) Federal Republic of Germany.

  9. JPRS report: Arms control, [December 22, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-12-22

    This report contains information concerning arms control of the following countries: (1) Hungary, (2) Yugoslavia, (3) Bulgaria, (4) Czechoslovakia, (5) German Democratic Republic, (6) Poland, (7) Soviet Union, (8) Austria, (9) Federal Republic of Germany, and (10) India.

  10. McCup | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: McCup Place: Sofia, Bulgaria Zip: 1680 Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: String representation "McCUP is an inv ... Energy Society." is too...

  11. Solar Hold | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hold Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar-Hold Place: Sofia, Bulgaria Sector: Solar Product: Bulgarian solar project developer; as of September 2007, seeking permit for 10x5MW...

  12. Stay Rates of Foreign Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... China, India, Iran, Romania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia have stay rates that are well above ... 52 49 47 47 44 France 83 67 65 62 56 54 Romania 142 90 90 88 88 85 Spain 68 50 41 39 35 ...

  13. Kaolin AD | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kaolin AD Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kaolin AD Place: Senovo, Bulgaria Zip: 7038 Sector: Solar Product: Kaolin is Europe's fourth largest producer of silica sands and owns a...

  14. Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B. Van Waeyenberge (Ghent University, Belgium), K.W. Chou, H. Stoll, M. Curcic, G. Schutz (Max Planck Institute for Metals Research, Germany), T. Tyliszczak (ALS), G....

  15. ZEN International Production and Trade bvba | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Lille, Belgium Zip: 2275 Sector: Solar Product: Produces integrated solar thermal water heating equipment, including collectors and water storage tanks, for distribution by...

  16. Fact #643: October 4, 2010 Four Cylinder Engine Installations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Eire, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. ...

  17. Fact #751: October 29, 2012 Plug-in Car Sales Higher in the U...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Western Europe data consists of the following 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, ...

  18. Soltech | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Soltech Place: Hoegaarden, Belgium Zip: B-3320 Product: Soltech, a spin-off of IMEC, assembles and commercialises PV modules (stand alone or grid-connected)...

  19. 25 People x 4 Days + 1 Manual = Team Belgium’s E-Cube

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    No, it's not an Ikea manual; it's the instructions for how to construct Team Belgium's "E-Cube" home for the 2011 Solar Decathlon.

  20. NV Bekaert SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NV Bekaert SA Place: Kortrijk, Belgium Zip: B-8500 Product: Belgian metal and metal coating company; develops components to improve the functionality of PEMFC and provider of...

  1. Energy Supplier Obligations and White Certificate Schemes: Comparative...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ways different European Union (EU) member states, including the United Kingdom, Italy, France, Denmark and Belgium, have implemented energy supplier obligations and white...

  2. Sandia Energy - SNL-ESSC (Sandia National Laboratories - Extreme...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana...

  3. Report of the Nuclear Reactor Technology Subcommittee

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nuclear Reactor Technology Subcommittee November 18, 2014 Nuclear power competitiveness in ... test reactors worldwide (e.g., JHR in France, MYRRHA in Belgium and MBIR in Russia). ...

  4. Warehouse De Pauw | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Warehouse De Pauw Place: Belgium Product: String representation "Warehouse De Pa ... ic and Romania." is too long. References: Warehouse De Pauw1 This article is a...

  5. ICOS Vision Systems NV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ICOS Vision Systems NV Jump to: navigation, search Name: ICOS Vision Systems NV Place: Leuvan, Belgium Zip: 3001 Product: Provides inspection products for the manufacturing...

  6. Manhattan Project: Solvay Physics Conference

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Solvay Physics Conference, held in Brussels, Belgium, October 22-29, 1933. Attendees included two future key Manhattan Project scientists (Fermi and Lawrence), the future head ...

  7. UPDATED ADVISORY: Clean Energy Ministerial Photo Now at 11:15...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    invited from Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, the European Commission, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Norway, China, the Republic of Korea,...

  8. Impact of Advanced Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty Associated with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ASME 15th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management held September 8-12, 2013 in Brussels, Belgium.; Related Information:...

  9. Photovoltech NV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Photovoltech NV Place: Tienen, Belgium Zip: 3300 Product: Manufactures PV cells. Coordinates: 50.809673, 4.930054 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  10. Vesuvius Group SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vesuvius Group SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vesuvius Group SA Place: Brussels, Belgium Zip: 1950 Sector: Solar Product: Belgian manufacturer of industrial equipment such as...

  11. International Association of Public Transport | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: International Association of Public Transport Address: Rue Sainte-Marie 6 (Quai des Charbonnages) Place: Brussels, Belgium Zip: B-1080 Sector: Vehicles Year...

  12. 3E | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    E Jump to: navigation, search Name: 3E Place: Brussels, Belgium Sector: Buildings, Hydro, Services, Solar, Wind energy Product: Provides engineering and consultancy services in the...

  13. European Commission Joint Research Centre | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Centre Address: 1049 Brussels Place: Brussels, Belgium Year Founded: 1957 Website: ec.europa.eudgsjrcindex.cfm Coordinates: 50.8509279, 4.3601162 Show Map Loading map......

  14. European Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    European Commission Name: European Commission Place: Brussels, Belgium Website: ec.europa.euindexen.htm Coordinates: 50.8503396, 4.3517103 Show Map Loading map......

  15. Ceratec | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: B 7782 Product: Belgium-based system integrating company with activities in electro engineering and construction of PV projects. Coordinates: 50.72842, 2.87918 Show...

  16. Ikaros Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ikaros Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ikaros Solar Place: Lier, Belgium Zip: BE 2500 Product: Belgian PV system installer, which distributes products and also sometimes...

  17. International Energy Agency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    storage materials, hydrogen production from wind energy, and hydrogen from steam reformation. ... Participating countries include Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, ...

  18. European Wind Energy Association | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Association Jump to: navigation, search Logo: European Wind Energy Association Name: European Wind Energy Association Address: Rue d'Arlon 80 B-1040 Place: Brussels, Belgium...

  19. Action Plan for Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Union Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Policiesdeployment programs Resource Type Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:eur-lex.europa.eusmart Country Belgium,...

  20. Belgium’s Ghent University Prepares their E-Cube for Solar Decathlon 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Ghent University 2011 Solar Decathlon Team -- aka Team Belgium -- is a unique two-story home that could very well be an international star at the competition due to the Belgium team’s innovative, ultra-efficient, passive home design.

  1. Eneloka sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 110 00 Product: Consulting a developing company mainly for household PV installations in the Czech Republic Coordinates: 50.079083, 14.43323 Show Map Loading map......

  2. WorldWide Science.org

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Australia Bangladesh Benin Botswana Brazil Burkina Faso Cameroon Canada Chile China Colombia Congo Cote d'lvoire Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Egypt Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia ...

  3. Fitcraft Production sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Republic Zip: 74101 Sector: Solar Product: Czech manufacturer of silicon wafers, PV c-Si modules and solar street lights. References: Fitcraft Production sro1 This article is...

  4. Solartec Sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sro Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solartec Sro Place: Ronov pod Radhotm, Czech Republic Zip: 756 61 Product: Manufactures monocrystalline PV cells and modules....

  5. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research funding: European Regional Development Fund, Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES)....

  6. Nobility Solar Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Projects Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nobility Solar Projects Place: Brno, Czech Republic Zip: 602 00 Sector: Solar Product: A solar equipment distributer and...

  7. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Estonia Finland France French Guiana Gabon Georgia, Republic ...

  8. Total Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rica Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djbouti Dominica Dominican Republic Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Eritrea Estonia Falkland Islands Fiji Finland France ...

  9. Total All Countries Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djbouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands Fiji Finland France ...

  10. U.S. Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Estonia Finland France French Guiana Gabon Georgia, Republic ...

  11. DOE and NRCan Agreement to Enhance Collaboration in Civilian...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Implementing Agreement for Collaboration in the Area of International Nuclear ... and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade for Cooperation in Civilian Nuclear Energy ...

  12. --No Title--

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Faroe...

  13. "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2012, 4:15pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection", Dr. Bryan Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State...

  14. WWS_LorrieC157L_0915

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cameroon Canada Chile China Colombia Congo Cote d'lvoire Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Egypt Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Germany Ghana Greece Honduras India Indonesia...

  15. Photon Energy AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 120 00 Sector: Solar Product: Czech-based developer of greenfield and rooftop photovoltaic solar power installations. Coordinates: 50.079083, 14.43323 Show Map Loading...

  16. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... States) USDOE Office of Environmental Management Science Program (United States) USDOE ... Yuichi ; Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 ...

  17. Analytical Approaches Towards Understanding Structure-Property...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: MODEST 2012, Prauge, Czech Republic, Sep 02 - Sep 07, 2012 Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National ...

  18. Antaris Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Antaris Solar Place: Waldaschaff, Germany Zip: D-63857 Product: German project developer operating a 1.25MW PV plant in the Czech Republic. References:...

  19. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: --...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Bowen, W. Don (W. Don Bowen) - Marine Fish Division, Bedford Institute of ... Czech Republic, Institute of Hydrobiology, Fish Ecology Unit Birmingham, University of - ...

  20. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Bowen, W. Don (W. Don Bowen) - Marine Fish Division, Bedford Institute of ... Czech Republic, Institute of Hydrobiology, Fish Ecology Unit Bristol, University of - ...

  1. Fact #575: June 15, 2009 Diesel Car Sales in Europe Still Over 50% in 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than half of all cars sold in Western Europe since 2006 are fueled by diesel. The overall share of diesel sales, however, declined slightly from 2007 to 2008. Belgium, France, and the United...

  2. Fact #702: November 21, 2011 Consumer Preferences on Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    17% 9% 17% 21% 36% 100% Turkey 16% 12% 18% 24% 30% 100% Italy 15% 16% 19% 25% 25% 100% Spain 14% 13% 15% 20% 38% 100% Korea 13% 16% 23% 24% 24% 100% Belgium 12% 19% 17% 23% 29% ...

  3. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [March 23, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-03-23

    This report contains information concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: Canada, Hong Kong, Japan, Brazil, India, Pakistan, Soviet Union, Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, and United Kingdom.

  4. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1 Table 5.6 Petroleum Exports by Country of Destination, Selected Years, 1960-2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Belgium 1 Brazil Canada France Italy Japan Mexico Nether- lands ...

  5. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thought to be necessary to accomplish this. At the ALS, a team of researchers from Germany, Belgium, and the U.S. has used time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy...

  6. Resume 11-25-94

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... J. Ranville CONTINUING EDUCATION (1992-2013): 2012 Perkin ... SCK.CEM, Mol, Belgium Feb. 20-22, 2006 2005 MATLAB ... GA Visual MODFLOW: First Fully-Integrated Package ...

  7. Fact #716: February 27, 2012 Diesels are more than Half of New Cars Sold in Western Europe

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2011, nearly 52% of all new cars sold in Western Europe were diesel. In Belgium, Norway, France and Spain more than 70% of the new car market in 2011 were diesels. The market penetration of...

  8. Notices

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    1999. See Antidumping Duty Orders; Certain Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 67 FR 27756 (May 21, 1999). ...

  9. Mark Nutt | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2013, Brussels Belgium. M. Nutt, P. Swift, J. Birkholzer, W. Boyle, T. Gunter, N. Larson, R. MacKinnon, K. McMahon, K. Sorenson, Overview of the United States Department of...

  10. Office Of International Affairs Expert Listing 2/25/14 Organization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... IA-32 European & Asian Pacific Affairs Belgium Nick Sherman 3903 Nick.Sherman@hq.doe.gov Samuel Browne 8724 IA-32 European & Asian Pacific Affairs Bhutan Nick Sherman 3903 ...

  11. GreenFever | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a sustainable energy company, with a primary focus on the development of large power plants in Belgium. References: GreenFever1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  12. WDP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: A Belgium warehouse real estate company, who develops a 10MW PV portfolio on its own properties. Coordinates: 50.95068, 4.30911 Show Map Loading map......

  13. Global Wind Energy Council | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Council Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Global Wind Energy Council Name: Global Wind Energy Council Address: Wind Power House Rue d'Arlon 80 Place: Brussels, Belgium Phone...

  14. Dow Corning Europe S A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corning Europe S A Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dow Corning Europe S.A. Place: Seneffe, Belgium Zip: 7180 Product: Seneffe is the headquarters for Dow Corning's operations in...

  15. JPRS report proliferation issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-11-18

    This report contains foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, including delivery systems and the transfer of weapons relevant technologies. The following locations are included: (1) China; (2) Indonesia; (3) Bulgaria; (4) Brazil, Cuba; (5) Egypt, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; and (7) France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Norway.

  16. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [June 1, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-06-01

    This report contains information concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China, (2) Japan, (3) East Europe; Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Poland, Hungary, (5) Brazil, (6) Near East and South Asia; India, Israel, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia (7) Soviet Union, and (8) Federal Republic of Germany.

  17. JPRS report: Arms control, [July 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-07-15

    This report contains information concerning arms control of the following countries: (1) China, (2) Australia, (3) North Korea, (4) South Korea, (5) New Zealand, (6) Bulgaria, (7) Czechoslovakia, (8) Hungary, (9) Poland, (10) Iran, (11) Soviet Union, (12) France, and (13) Germany.

  18. Generation IV International Forum Updates Technology Roadmap and Builds

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Future Collaboration | Department of Energy Updates Technology Roadmap and Builds Future Collaboration Generation IV International Forum Updates Technology Roadmap and Builds Future Collaboration December 31, 2013 - 12:14pm Addthis GIF Policy Group Meeting in Brussels, Belgium, November 2013 GIF Policy Group Meeting in Brussels, Belgium, November 2013 Deputy Assistant Secretary Kelly Deputy Assistant Secretary Kelly Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Reactor Technologies The Generation

  19. G-Team | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    G-Team Jump to: navigation, search Logo: G-Team a.s. Name: G-Team a.s. Address: Vochov 50 Place: Plzen Country: Czech Republic Zip: 330 23 Sector: Renewable Energy Product:...

  20. ECOfinance Group s r o | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ECOfinance Group s r o Jump to: navigation, search Name: ECOfinance Group s.r.o. Place: Prostjov, Czech Republic Zip: 796 01 Sector: Biomass, Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy...

  1. Solar Energy Technologies Program Office of Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... (Direct Current Surface Barrier Discharge) developed by a group at the R&D Center for Low-Cost Plasma and Nanotechnology Surface Modifications (CEPLANT) in the Czech Republic. ...

  2. Sunnywatt CZ | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Republic Zip: 196 00 Product: Czech based developer specializing on residential PV installations. References: Sunnywatt CZ1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  3. HiTech Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    HiTech Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: HiTech Solar Place: Uherske Hradiste, Czech Republic Zip: 686 01 Sector: Solar Product: HiTech Solar is a PV equiptment distributor...

  4. Z Group Steel Holding Zelezarny Veseli | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Z Group Steel Holding Zelezarny Veseli Jump to: navigation, search Name: Z-Group Steel Holding - Zelezarny Veseli Place: Veseli nad Moravou, Czech Republic Zip: 698 12 Sector: Wind...

  5. Kolin Town Council | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kolin Town Council Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kolin Town Council Place: Kolin 1, Czech Republic Zip: 280 12 Product: Kolin Town Council may develop a large PV plant in its...

  6. Higgs results from the Tevatron Run II (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Czech.J.Phys.55:B65-B72,2005; Conference: Prepared for Conference on Physics at LHC, Vienna, Austria, 13-17 Jul 2004 Research Org: Fermi National ...

  7. REN Power CZ | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind energy Product: Czech-based developer of renewable energy projects with primary focus on PV and wind plants. Coordinates: 50.51479, 13.63789 Show Map Loading map......

  8. Solar Systems sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Republic Zip: 180 00 Product: Czech leading developer for residential and utility PV plants. References: Solar Systems sro1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  9. AgriKomp GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: D-91732 Product: A major German and international group specializing in biogas plants. Subdidiaries France, Italy, Czech Rep, Poland References: agriKomp GmbH1 This...

  10. CEZ AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: Electricity producer; also operates a considerable part of Czech renewable energy sources. References: CEZ AS1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  11. Haneco sro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    sro Place: Zru-Senec, Czech Republic Zip: 330 08 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Wood processing company active in renewable energy sector currently operating 0.6MW PV plant...

  12. Christina Martos Hilton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hilton already had performed in Russian, Latin, Czech and Hebrew, and she studied Italian for nearly two hours every morning, with quite a bit of French and German sprinkled...

  13. "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection", Dr. Bryan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State of the Economy | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 9, 2012, 4:15pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection", Dr. Bryan Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State of the Economy Presentation: Office presentation icon Presentation Abstract: PDF icon Abstract Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protectio Colloquium Committee: The Princeton

  14. Development of models for exchange of electronic documents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glavev, Victor

    2014-11-18

    The report presents a model for exchange of electronic documents between different government administrations. It defines electronic messages that are transmitted between them and the way that messages should be processed by software systems. The proposed approach is sufficiently general and allows use of the best applicable information technologies such as data presentation structures and communication protocols. Within the study, a simple implementation of the model is implemented and deployed in various government administrations in Republic of Bulgaria.

  15. FY16 Events

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Events CSES FY16 Events High quality, cutting-edge science in the areas of astrophysics, space physics, solid planetary geoscience, and climate science. Past events 2015 Conferences, Symposiums DATE/TIME EVENT LOCATION DETAILS September 12-16, 2016 3rd International Symposium on Recent Observations and Simulations of the Sun-Earth System (ISROSES-III) Symposium poster (pdf) Golden Sands, Bulgaria The purpose of the Symposium is to improve present understanding of the complex, multi-scale,

  16. SREL Reprint #3284

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Hot-Water-Soluble Organic Compounds Related to Hydrophobicity in Sandy Soils Irena D. Atanassova1,2, Stefan H. Doerr3, and Gary L. Mills2 1N. Poushkarov Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnology and Plant Protection, 7 Shosse Bankya, Sofia 1080, Bulgaria 2Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, The University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802, USA 3Institute of Environmental Sustainability, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK Abstract: Soil water repellency (WR) reduces mineralization

  17. U.S. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Imports

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Argentina 2006-2006 Belgium 2012-2012 Brazil 498 209 492 223 2004-2015 Canada 7 4 6 5 3 3 2004-2016 China 2006-2006 Congo (Brazzaville) 2006-2006 Costa Rica 2004-2013 El Salvador ...

  18. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [August 18, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1987-08-18

    This report contains information concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) Australia, (2) China, (3) Canada, (4) Hong Kong, (5) Japan, (6) Yugoslavia, (7) Argentina, (8) Brazil, (9) Egypt, (10) India, (11) Pakistan, (12) Soviet Union, (13) Belgium, (14) Finland, (15) France, and (16) Turkey.

  19. [pic] EERE Web Site Statistics - Lose Your Excuse

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... |38.|Israel|9|0%| |39.|Belgium|8|0%| |40.|Switzerland|8|0%| |41.|Portugal|8|0%| |42.|Uruguay|7|0%| |43.|Taiwan|7|0%| |44.|Russian Federation|7|0%| |45.|Romania|6|0%| ...

  20. EM Contributes Expertise to Comprehensive Resource on Managing Nuclear Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – EM officials wrote a chapter of a recently published book, Managing Nuclear Projects – A Comprehensive Management Resource, which covers a range of areas with emphasis on process, requirements and lessons learned. Authors from France, Germany, Argentina, Belgium, Finland, Austria, and the U.S. contributed to the book.

  1. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    His Excellency, Czech Ambassador Petr Gandalovič, Ambassador of the Czech Republic And Mrs. Pavlina Gandalovičova Jess Gehin Oak Ridge National Laboratory CASL-U-2014-0102-000 CASL-U-2014-0102-000 The Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors Dr. Jess C. Gehin June 13, 2014 CASL-U-2014-0102-000 2 * A Different Approach - "Multi-disciplinary, highly collaborative teams ideally working under one roof to solve priority technology challenges" - Steven Chu -

  2. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  3. AUTI.-IoR(s,: S. A. Colgate, Jean Audouze, and William A. Fowler

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AUTI.-IoR(s,: S. A. Colgate, Jean Audouze, and William A. Fowler SUBMITTED TO: 15th International C o s m i c Ray Conference P l o v d i v , Bulgaria - August 13-26, 1977 \ . NOTICE lhis report WPE prepared as an ac=xmnt of work sponsored by the United Stater Government. Neither the United States nor the United Stater Energy Rcwvch and Cevelopment Administration, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, rubmntracton o r thdr employees, makes any wmanty. ex;res or implied, o r

  4. Fact #899: November 16, 2015 World Production of Cars and Trucks...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    World Production of Cars, 1983-2013 (thousands) Year China Japan Germany U.S. Brazil India Russia Mexico France Spain Czech Republic Other 1983 6 7,152 3,878 6,782 748 45 1,316 207 ...

  5. Analysis of safety precautions for coal and gas outburst-hazardous strata

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudecek, V.

    2008-09-15

    The author analyses coal and gas outbursts and generalizes the available data on the approaches to solving the problematics of these gas-dynamic events in the framework of Czech Republic Grant 'Estimate of the Safety Precautions for Coal and Gas Outburst Hazardous Strata'.

  6. Summary report of first and foreign high-level waste repository concepts; Technical report, working draft 001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanke, P.M.

    1987-11-04

    Reference repository concepts designs adopted by domestic and foreign waste disposal programs are reviewed. Designs fall into three basic categories: deep borehole from the surface; disposal in boreholes drilled from underground excavations; and disposal in horizontal tunnels or drifts. The repository concepts developed in Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, Canada, France, Japan, United Kingdom, Belgium, Italy, Holland, Denmark, West Germany and the United States are described. 140 refs., 315 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Equations Governing Space-Time Variability of Liquid Water Path in Stratus Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Equations Governing Space-Time Variability of Liquid Water Path in Stratus Clouds K. Ivanova Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington M. Ausloos University of Liège B-4000 Liège, Belgium Abstract We present a method on how to derive an underlying mathematical (statistical or model free) equation for a liquid water path (LWP) signal directly from empirical data. The evolution of the probability density

  8. Summary of non-US national and international fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, K.M.; Kelman, J.A.

    1982-08-01

    Brief program overviews of fuel cycle, spent fuel, and waste management activities in the following countries are provided: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, German Federal Republic, India, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, USSR, and the United Kingdom. International nonproliferation activities, multilateral agreements and projects, and the international agencies specifically involved in the nuclear fuel cycle are also described.

  9. United States and International Partners Initial ITER Agreement |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy International Partners Initial ITER Agreement United States and International Partners Initial ITER Agreement May 24, 2006 - 10:48am Addthis Paves the Way for Large-Scale, Clean Fusion Energy Project BRUSSELS, BELGIUM - Representing the United States, Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, Director of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science, joined counterparts from China, the European Union, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the Russian Federation today to

  10. International fuel cycle and waste management technology exchange activities sponsored by the United States Department of Energy: FY 1982 evaluation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.

    1983-02-01

    In FY 1982, DOE and DOE contractor personnel attended 40 international symposia and conferences on fuel reprocessing and waste management subjects. The treatment of high-level waste was the topic most often covered in the visits, with geologic disposal and general waste management also being covered in numerous visits. Topics discussed less frequently inlcude TRU/LLW treatment, airborne waste treatment, D and D, spent fuel handling, and transportation. The benefits accuring to the US from technology exchange activities with other countries are both tangible, e.g., design of equipment, and intangible, e.g., improved foreign relations. New concepts initiated in other countries, particularly those with sizable nuclear programs, are beginning to appear in US efforts in growing numbers. The spent fuel dry storage concept originating in the FRG is being considered at numerous sites. Similarly, the German handling and draining concepts for the joule-heated ceramic melter used to vitrify wastes are being incorporated in US designs. Other foreigh technologies applicable in the US include the slagging incinerator (Belgium), the SYNROC waste form (Australia), the decontamination experience gained in decommissioning the Eurochemic reprocessing plant (Belgium), the engineered surface storage of low- and intermediate-level waste (Belgium, FRG, France), the air-cooled storage of vitrified high-level waste (France, UK), waste packaging (Canada, FRG, Sweden), disposal in salt (FRG), disposal in granite (Canada, Sweden), and sea dumping (UK, Belgium, The Netherlands, Switzerland). These technologies did not necessarily originated or have been tried in the US but for various reasons are now being applied and extended in other countries. This growing nuclear technological base in other countires reduces the number of technology avenues the US need follow to develop a solid nuclear power program.

  11. East Coast (PADD 1) Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Import Area: East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Bosnia

  12. Program for Numerical Simulation of Beam Losses due to Interaction with Residual Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamysheva, G.; Skripka, G.

    2010-01-05

    Program for estimation of the beam losses of light ions due to interaction with the residual gas has been written. The loss of beam intensity is determined by the cross sections for loss processes respecting different ion energies and depends on the pressure of the residual gas. The beam losses due to interaction with the residual gas by the example of C400 cyclotron (IBA, Belgium) were done.

  13. Bruno Van Wonterghem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bruno Van Wonterghem Bruno Van Wonterghem Operations Manager National Ignition Facility Dr. Bruno Van Wonterghem became commissioning manager of NIF in 2001 and operations manager in 2008. He earned his Ph.D. in chemical physics at the University of Leuven in Belgium in 1987. He has extensive experience in developing laser systems for plasma research in academia through work at the University of California, Irvine; the Max Planck Institute; and LLNL. He was manager of Beamlet Installation and

  14. NNSA Contributes to International Efforts to Further Strengthen Detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of Nuclear Explosions | National Nuclear Security Administration Contributes to International Efforts to Further Strengthen Detection of Nuclear Explosions Friday, May 15, 2015 - 3:22pm Participants at the fifth Workshop on Signatures of Medical and Industrial Isotope Production (WOSMIP) in Brussels, Belgium Every day, thousands of patients worldwide undergo medical tests, diagnostics, and treatments that use radioactive materials. These vital materials, such as molybdeum-99 (Mo-99), must be

  15. Today in Energy - Browse by Tag List - U.S. Energy Information

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Administration (EIA) Browse by Tag List Tag List | Tag Cloud 2011 Briefs 2012 Briefs 2013 Briefs AEO2011 (Annual Energy Outlook 2011) AEO2012 (Annual Energy Outlook 2012) AEO2013 (Annual Energy Outlook 2013) AEO2014 (Annual Energy Outlook 2014) AEO2015 (Annual Energy Outlook 2015) Africa age of generators series Alaska alternative fuel vehicle alternative transportation fuel animation appliance appliance standards Arkansas Australia Bakken barge Barnett baseload capacity Belgium biofuels

  16. Assessing Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared Cloud Analyzer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared Cloud Analyzer I. Genkova and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington T. Besnard ATMOS SARL Le Mans, France D. Gillotay Institute d'Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique Brussels, Belgium Introduction In the effort to resolve uncertainties about global climate change, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (www.arm.gov) is improving the treatment of cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks in general

  17. Application of the LBB concept to nuclear power plants with WWER 440 and WWER 1000 reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zdarek, J.; Pecinka, L.

    1997-04-01

    Leak-before-break (LBB) analysis of WWER type reactors in the Czech and Sloval Republics is summarized in this paper. Legislative bases, required procedures, and validation and verification of procedures are discussed. A list of significant issues identified during the application of LBB analysis is presented. The results of statistical evaluation of crack length characteristics are presented and compared for the WWER 440 Type 230 and 213 reactors and for the WWER 1000 Type 302, 320 and 338 reactors.

  18. Secretary Bodman Meets with Regional Energy Ministers in Hungary |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Regional Energy Ministers in Hungary Secretary Bodman Meets with Regional Energy Ministers in Hungary March 17, 2006 - 3:44pm Addthis Emphasizes U.S. Support for Central European Energy Security BUDAPEST, HUNGARY - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today participated in a regional energy meeting with ministers from Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Austria, Croatia and Romania. During the meeting, Secretary Bodman and the ministers discussed the importance of

  19. Jeff Horner

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Horner Jeff Horner Jeff Horner Project Engineer Advanced Photon Technologies NIF & Photon Science Jeffrey B. Horner is the project engineer for the High Repetition Rate Advanced Petawatt Laser System (HAPLS), now under construction at LLNL for delivery to the European Extreme Light Infrastructure Facility in the Czech Republic. HAPLS will be the world's highest average power petawatt laser system, capable of delivering energetic femtosecond laser pulses with 1015 watts of peak power at 10-Hz

  20. Microsoft Word - Motivation, Design, Deployment and Evolution of OSCARS - Johnston.v1.4.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TERENA Networking Conference 16 - 19 May, 2011 Prague, Czech Republic Motivation, Design, Deployment and Evolution of a Guaranteed Bandwidth Network Service William E. Johnston, Chin Guok, Evangelos Chaniotakis ESnet and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California, U.S.A Paper type Technical paper Abstract Much of modern science is dependent on high performance distributed computing and data handling. This distributed infrastructure, in turn, depends on high speed networks and

  1. Moving Toward a Peaceful Nuclear Future | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Moving Toward a Peaceful Nuclear Future Moving Toward a Peaceful Nuclear Future July 10, 2013 - 10:50am Addthis President Barack Obama delivers his first major speech stating a commitment to seek the peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons in front of thousands in Prague, Czech Republic, April 5, 2009. | Official White House Photo by Pete Souza President Barack Obama delivers his first major speech stating a commitment to seek the peace and security of a world without nuclear

  2. Mr

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Moving Toward a Peaceful Nuclear Future Moving Toward a Peaceful Nuclear Future July 10, 2013 - 10:50am Addthis President Barack Obama delivers his first major speech stating a commitment to seek the peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons in front of thousands in Prague, Czech Republic, April 5, 2009. | Official White House Photo by Pete Souza President Barack Obama delivers his first major speech stating a commitment to seek the peace and security of a world without nuclear

  3. Antonya Sanders-Promoting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Antonya Sanders-Promoting nanoscience integration through outreach March 17, 2014 Promoting nanoscience integration through outreach Although raised in Los Alamos, Antonya Sanders knows what it is like to be a foreigner. The daughter of a Czech immigrant, Sanders lived in England and traveled the world to find ways to help others, including aiding Bosnian refugees. She lived on the Pacific island of Kiribati, where she was a Peace Corps' volunteer and teacher for three years, living in a thatch

  4. SYNCHEM feasibility report: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Several Czech and US companies have entered into a development agreement for the purposes of determining the technical and economic feasibility and overall financeability of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) regional energy facility to be located adjacent to the Chemopetrol refinery in Litvinov, Czech Republic. The Project would use a feedstock comprised of coal supplied by Doly a upravny Komorany s.p. (DUK) coal mining company and mined from the Most/Litvinov area together with high sulfur residual oils from the Chemopetrol refinery. When gasified together with oxygen from an Air Products air separation plant, and based on an average yearly consumption of 2,100K metric tons per year of coal (as delivered) and 630K tonnes per year of oil, approximately 11 million normal cubic meters per day of syngas will be produced. At its current projected design capacity, when combusted in two General Electric advanced technology Frame 9FA gas turbines, the Project will produce approximately 690MW of electric power; 250 metric tons/hour of steam for process; and 135 thermal equivalent MW of district heat. The Feasibility Phase efforts described in this report indicate the real possibility for a successful and profitable IGCC Project for the Czech Republic. It is therefore incumbent upon all the Project Participants to review and evaluate the information contained herein such that a go/no-go decision can be reached by early next year.

  5. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and central Eurasia. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Volume III, Minerals Yearbook -- International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, the volume has been presented as six reports. The report presents the Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia. The report incorporates location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section previously incorporated in the authors' Minerals Perspectives Series quinquennial regional books, which are being discontinued. This section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 45 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (EC); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Malta; the 11 Eastern European economies in transition (Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia); and the countries of Central Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 2009 Top 10 Destinations of U.S. Photovoltaic Cell and Module Export Shipments, by Country Peak Percent of Country U.S. Exports Germany Italy France Canada Belgium Spain China India South Korea Australia Total U.S. Exports Note(s): Source(s): 8,368 1% 681,427 100% Total U.S. exports of photovoltaic cells and modules increased by 47% from 2008 to 2009. EIA, Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Manufacturing Activities, Dec. 2010, Table 3.14. 18,297 3% 14,806 2% 12,581 2% 43,458 6% 27,247 4% 23,460 3%

  7. Developments advance subsea pipelaying, inspection, repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-15

    Recent advances in laying, inspecting, and repairing pipelines are helping to cut both costs and time. A new dredging system that employs jets to clear a subsea trench for pipelay received trials off Belgium last spring. Also, within the last year, projects in the Middle East and North Sea employed technologies that promise to make inspecting the surface of a subsea pipeline in difficult terrain easier, less time consuming, and therefore less costly. Plus, subsea repair of damaged pipelines may take less time with a new ``stabbable`` pipe connector. The paper describes jet dredging, inspection advance, support software, the North Sea site, and pipeline repair.

  8. Title:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A uttwr(s): submined to: NUCLEAR DATA FOR RADIOTHERAPY: PRESENTATION OF A NEW ICRU REPORT AND IAEA INITIATIVES M. B. Chadwick, T-2, MS-B283, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box D.T.L. Jones, National Accelerator Centre, Faure, South Africa H . H . Barschall, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA R.S. Caswell, National Jnstitute of Standards and Technology, P.M. DeLuca Jr., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA J-P Meulders, Universite Catholique de Louvain, lowain-la-Neuve, Belgium

  9. EERE Success Story-NREL Partners with Google in Little Box Challenge |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Partners with Google in Little Box Challenge EERE Success Story-NREL Partners with Google in Little Box Challenge March 21, 2016 - 12:40pm Addthis Photo Courtesy | CET+Power Photo Courtesy | CET+Power Last month, Google and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) announced Belgium's Red Electrical Devils (a team from CE+T Power) as the winner of the Little Box Challenge, a competition to invent smaller, more efficient inverters that connect solar

  10. Determination of the branching ratio for the {sup 209}Bi (n, {gamma}) {sup 210}Bi reaction from 500 eV to 20 keV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borella, A.; Berthomieux, E.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Gunsing, F.; Marrone, S.; Martinez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. M.; Milazzo, P. M.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.; Terlizzi, R.; Wynants, R.

    2006-07-01

    Energy differential neutron capture cross section measurements have been performed to determine the branching ratio for the {sup 209}Bi(n, {gamma}) reaction. The measurements were carried out at the time-of-flight facility GELINA of the IRMM in Geel (Belgium). The capture measurements were performed at a 12 m flight path using three High-Purity Germanium detectors. The experimental set-up was optimized to reduce the prompt background due to scattered neutrons. Several {gamma}-ray spectra corresponding to the {sup 209}Bi + n resonances up to 20 keV were deduced. The results of a preliminary data analysis are given in this paper. (authors)

  11. In-core and ex-core calculations of the VENUS simulated PWR benchmark experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.L.; Chowdhury, P.; Landesman, M.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The VENUS PWR engineering mockup experiment was established to simulate a beginning-of-life, generic PWR configuration at the zero-power VENUS critical facility located at CEN/SCK, Mol, Belgium. The experimental measurement program consists of (1) gamma scans to determine the core power distribution, (2) in-core and ex-core foil activations, (3) neutron spectrometer measurements, and (4) gamma heating measurements with TLD's. Analysis of the VENUS benchmark has been performed with two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport theory, using the DOT-IV code.

  12. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  13. Endovascular Management of Complex Renal Artery Aneurysms Using the Multilayer Stent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Carsten; Verrel, Frauke; Weyer, Gunther Wilhelm, Kai

    2011-06-15

    Since its approval as an innovative stent system for peripheral aneurysm management in May 2009, the Cardiatis Multilayer Stent (Cardiatis, Isnes, Belgium) has been applied in several clinical cases. The unique design of this multilayer stent decreases mean velocity and vorticity within the aneurysm sac immediate and causes thrombus to form, resulting in physiological exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation, whereas branches and collaterals sprouting from the aneurysm remain patent. Here we present a case of a complex renal artery aneurysm successfully treated with a 6 Multiplication-Sign 30-mm Cardiatis Multilayer Stent.

  14. gtri | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home gtri Joint Statement by the United States and Italy on the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit See a fact sheet here. The White HouseOffice of the Press Secretary Italy and the United States of America are pleased to announce that they have jointly completed the removal of approximately 20 kilograms of excess highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium from Italy. At the 2012... Joint Statement by President Obama and Prime Minister Elio Di Rupo of Belgium on the 2014 Nuclear Security

  15. Employee Spotlight: Monika Bittman

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monika Bittman June 2, 2014 Monika Bittman has wanted to be an artist ever since she was a little girl in Prague, Czechoslovakia, now the Czech Republic. Today Bittman applies her creative eye and attention to detail in her work as a web designer at the Laboratory and on weekends spends as much time as possible painting in her Santa Fe studio. Expressing herself artistically is a way to learn about herself and the world for Bittman. The upheavals of growing up in a Soviet-controlled country,

  16. Employee Spotlight: Monika Bittman

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monika Bittman Monika Bittman-The vitality of artistic creation Monika Bittman has wanted to be an artist ever since she was a little girl in Prague, Czechoslovakia, now the Czech Republic. Today Bittman applies her creative eye and attention to detail in her work as a web designer at the Laboratory. June 2, 2014 Monika Bittman Monika Bittman, web designer/developer "By working with thin paint on small panels, moving them around and manipulating them, I allow the properties and dynamics of

  17. Country Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country Total Percent of U.S. total China 1,461,074 34 Republic of Korea 172,379 4 Taiwan 688,311 16 All others 1,966,263 46 Total 4,288,027 100 Note: All Others includes Canada, Czech Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, Malaysia, Mexico, Philippines and Singapore Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.' Table 7 . Photovoltaic module import shipments by country, 2013 (peak kilowatts)

  18. Modelling of volatility in monetary transmission mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobešová, Anna; Klepáč, Václav; Kolman, Pavel; Bednářová, Petra

    2015-03-10

    The aim of this paper is to compare different approaches to modeling of volatility in monetary transmission mechanism. For this purpose we built time-varying parameter VAR (TVP-VAR) model with stochastic volatility and VAR-DCC-GARCH model with conditional variance. The data from three European countries are included in the analysis: the Czech Republic, Germany and Slovakia. Results show that VAR-DCC-GARCH system captures higher volatility of observed variables but main trends and detected breaks are generally identical in both approaches.

  19. Proceedings of the scientific visit on crystalline rock repository development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariner, Paul E.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Miksova, Jitka

    2013-02-01

    A scientific visit on Crystalline Rock Repository Development was held in the Czech Republic on September 24-27, 2012. The visit was hosted by the Czech Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA), co-hosted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The purpose of the visit was to promote technical information exchange between participants from countries engaged in the investigation and exploration of crystalline rock for the eventual construction of nuclear waste repositories. The visit was designed especially for participants of countries that have recently commenced (or recommenced) national repository programmes in crystalline host rock formations. Discussion topics included repository programme development, site screening and selection, site characterization, disposal concepts in crystalline host rock, regulatory frameworks, and safety assessment methodology. Interest was surveyed in establishing a %E2%80%9Cclub,%E2%80%9D the mission of which would be to identify and address the various technical challenges that confront the disposal of radioactive waste in crystalline rock environments. The idea of a second scientific visit to be held one year later in another host country received popular support. The visit concluded with a trip to the countryside south of Prague where participants were treated to a tour of the laboratory and underground facilities of the Josef Regional Underground Research Centre.

  20. Table 5.6 Petroleum Exports by Country of Destination, 1960-2011 (Thousand Barrels)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Exports by Country of Destination, 1960-2011 (Thousand Barrels) Year Belgium 1 Brazil Canada France Italy Japan Mexico Nether- lands South Korea Spain United Kingdom U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico Other Total 1960 1,128 1,547 12,622 1,591 2,184 22,681 6,428 2,057 NA NA 4,273 487 18,908 73,906 1961 1,418 1,337 8,401 1,442 1,706 21,473 4,548 1,496 NA NA 3,705 400 17,637 63,563 1962 1,182 1,649 7,714 969 1,994 19,687 4,981 1,671 NA NA 3,044 344 18,155 61,390 1963 3,191 1,335 7,987

  1. Table 7.5 Coal Exports by Country of Destination, 1960-2011 (Thousand Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Exports by Country of Destination, 1960-2011 (Thousand Short Tons) Year Canada Brazil Europe Japan Other 3 Total Belgium 1 Denmark France Germany 2 Italy Nether- lands Spain Turkey United Kingdom Other 3 Total 1960 12,843 1,067 1,116 130 794 4,566 4,899 2,837 331 NA – 2,440 17,113 5,617 1,341 37,981 1961 12,135 994 971 80 708 4,326 4,797 2,552 228 NA – 2,026 15,688 6,614 974 36,405 1962 12,302 1,327 1,289 38 851 5,056 5,978 3,320 766 NA 2 1,848 19,148 6,465 973 40,215 1963 14,557 1,161

  2. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.

    2011-06-20

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  3. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  4. DDE-MURR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; M.H. Sprenger; G.K. Housley

    2012-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (DDE-MURR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the MURR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in a 200mm channel at the Belgium Reactor 2. At the time this report was prepared the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. As such, the conceptual design effort to date is summarized herein in order to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. These demonstrate that the DDE-MURR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also exhibits several challenges for which timely resolution is recommend in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign and ultimate conversion of the MURR.

  5. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilitiesInternational Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden)Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis VlachoudisWorkshop Assistant: Graldine Jean

  6. Petroleum Coke Exports by Destination

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    163,868 182,222 184,167 191,219 197,491 195,868 1981-2015 Albania 165 220 467 267 2012-2015 Algeria 0 0 0 2001-2012 Angola 0 2001-2011 Argentina 0 412 1 1 201 3 1993-2015 Aruba 0 2014-2014 Australia 3,167 3,229 2,841 2,715 2,560 2,477 1993-2015 Austria 1995-2007 Azerbaijan 0 5 2 2010-2015 Bangladesh 0 2014-2014 Bahama Islands 0 2000-2010 Bahrain 116 713 299 563 0 1993-2014 Barbados 33 169 179 121 163 158 2007-2015 Belarus 2004-2004 Belgium 3,295 3,337 2,463 2,098 2,572 2,161 1993-2015 Belize 4 2

  7. Outage management and health physics issue, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2006-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A design with experience for the U.S., by Michael J. Wallace, Constellation Generation Group; Hope to be among the first, by Randy Hutchinson, Entergy Nuclear; Plans to file COLs in 2008, by Garry Miller, Progress Energy; Evolution of ICRP's recommendations, by Lars-Erik Holm, ICRP; European network on education and training in radiological protection, by Michele Coeck, SCK-CEN, Belgium; Outage managment: an important tool for improving nuclear power plant performance, by Thomas Mazour and Jiri Mandula, IAEA, Austria; and Plant profile: Exploring new paths to excellence, by Anne Thomas, Exelon Nuclear.

  8. Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W.

    1983-12-01

    The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  9. Use of Reinforced Lightweight Clay Aggregates for Landslide Stabilisation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herle, Vitezslav

    2008-07-08

    In spring 2006 a large landslide combined with rock fall closed a highway tunnel near Svitavy in NE part of Czech Republic and cut the main highway connecting Bohemia with Moravia regions. Stabilisation work was complicated by steep mountainous terrain and large inflow of surface and underground water. The solution was based on formation of a stabilisation fill made of reinforced free draining aggregates at the toe of the slope with overlying lightweight fill up to 10 m high reinforced with PET geogrid and steel mesh protecting soft easily degrading sandstone against weathering. Extensive monitoring made possible to compare the FEM analysis with real values. The finished work fits very well in the environment and was awarded a special prize in the 2007 transport structures contest.

  10. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najser, Jan E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  11. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal. Semi-annual report, January--June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-09-01

    Summaries of progress on the following tasks are presented: Mixed waste treatment; Hot water extraction of nonpolar organic pollutant from soils; Aqueous phase thermal oxidation wastewater treatment; Review of results from comprehensive characterization of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants; Air toxic fine particulate control; Effectiveness of sorbents for trace elements; Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NOx; Fuel utilization properties; Hot gas cleaning; PFBC; catalytic tar cracking; sulfur forms in coal; resid and bitumen desulfurization; biodesulfurization; diesel fuel desulfurization; stability issues; Sorbent carbon development; Evaluation of carbon products; Stable and supercritical chars; Briquette binders; Carbon molecular sieves; Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent; Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization; Use of coal ash in recycled plastics and composite materials; Corrosion of advanced structural materials; Joining of advanced structural materials; Resource data evaluation; and the Usti and Labem (Czech Republic) coal-upgrading program.

  12. Module greenhouse with high efficiency of transformation of solar energy, utilizing active and passive glass optical rasters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korecko, J.; Jirka, V.; Sourek, B.; Cerveny, J.

    2010-10-15

    Since the eighties of the 20th century, various types of linear glass rasters for architectural usage have been developed in the Czech Republic made by the continuous melting technology. The development was focused on two main groups of rasters - active rasters with linear Fresnel lenses in fixed installation and with movable photo-thermal and/or photo-thermal/photo-voltaic absorbers. The second group are passive rasters based on total reflection of rays on an optical prism. During the last years we have been working on their standardization, exact measuring of their optical and thermal-technical characteristics and on creation of a final product that could be applied in solar architecture. With the project supported by the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic we were able to build an experimental greenhouse using these active and passive optical glass rasters. The project followed the growing number of technical objectives. The concept of the greenhouse consisted of interdependence construction - structural design of the greenhouse with its technological equipment securing the required temperature and humidity conditions in the interior of the greenhouse. This article aims to show the merits of the proposed scheme and presents the results of the mathematical model in the TRNSYS environment through which we could predict the future energy balance carried out similar works, thus optimizing the investment and operating costs. In this article description of various technology applications for passive and active utilization of solar radiation is presented, as well as some results of short-term and long-term experiments, including evaluation of 1-year operation of the greenhouse from the energy and interior temperature viewpoints. A comparison of the calculated energy flows in the greenhouse to real measured values, for verification of the installed model is also involved. (author)

  13. Analysis of the Younger Dryas Impact Layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Revay, Zsolt; Hagstrum, Jonathon T,; Belgya, Thomas; Hee, Shane S. Que; Smith, Alan R.

    2010-02-27

    We have uncovered a thin layer of magnetic grains and microspherules, carbon spherules, and glass-like carbon at nine sites across North America, a site in Belgium, and throughout the rims of 16 Carolina Bays. It is consistent with the ejecta layer from an impact event and has been dated to 12.9 ka BP coinciding with the onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and widespread megafaunal extinctions in North America. At many locations the impact layer is directly below a black mat marking the sudden disappearance of the megafauna and Clovis people. The distribution pattern of the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) ejecta layer is consistent with an impact near the Great Lakes that deposited terrestrial-like ejecta near the impact site and unusual, titanium-rich projectile-like ejecta further away. High water content associated with the ejecta, up to 28 at. percent hydrogen (H), suggests the impact occurred over the Laurentide Ice Sheet. YDB microspherules and magnetic grains are highly enriched in TiO{sub 2}. Magnetic grains from several sites are enriched in iridium (Ir), up to 117 ppb. The TiO{sub 2}/FeO, K/Th, TiO{sub 2}/Zr, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO+MgO, CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, REE/ chondrite, FeO/MnO ratios and SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, Co, U, Th and other trace element abundances are inconsistent with all terrestrial and extraterrestrial (ET) sources except for KREEP, a lunar igneous rock rich in potassium (K), rare-earth elements (REE), phosphorus (P), and other incompatible elements including U and Th. Normal Fe, Ti, and {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U isotopic abundances were found in the magnetic grains, but {sup 234}U was enriched over equilibrium values by 50 percent in Murray Springs and by 130 percent in Belgium. 40K abundance is enriched by up to 100 percent in YDB sediments and Clovis chert artifacts. Highly vesicular carbon spherules containing nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon, charcoal and soot found in large quantities in the YDB layer are consistent with an impact followed by intense burning. Four holes in the Great Lakes, some deeper than Death Valley, are proposed as possible craters produced by the airburst breakup of a loosely aggregated projectile.

  14. Analysis of international efforts in energy research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezaiyan, A.J.; Gill, R.T.

    1995-09-01

    Research and experimental development comprise innovative and creative work undertaken systematically to increase the stock of knowledge of science, engineering, and society. This knowledge reserve is used to improve living conditions and standards, including economic growth. Research and development (R&D) expenditures are useful measures of the scale and direction of technological innovation within a country, industry, or scientific field. Administrators concerned with economic growth and performance rely on R&D statistics as one possible type of indicator of technological change. R&D statistics are an essential tool in many government programs and evaluations (OECD 1993). The objective of the analysis was to identify and evaluate R&D funding sources, levels, and trends in the energy sectors of selected industrialized countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States) and the European Union (EU). Fossil fuel technologies, particularly fuel cells and advanced gas turbines, were the focus of the analysis, whose results are presented in this report.

  15. Tracing the HIV-1 subtype B mobility in Europe: a phylogeographic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitner, Thomas; Paraskevis, D; Pybus, O; Magiorkinis, G; Hatzakis, A

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and the origin of HIV-1 subtype B, the most prevalent circulating clade among the long-term residents in Europe, have been studied extensively. However the spatial diffusion of the epidemic from the perspective of the virus has not previously been traced. In the current study we inferred the migration history of HIV-1 subtype B by way of a phylogeography of viral sequences sampled from 16 European countries and Israel. Migration events were inferred from viral phylogenies by character reconstruction using parsimony. With regard to the spatial dispersal of the HIV subtype B sequences across viral phylogenies, in most of the countries in Europe the epidemic was introduced by multiple sources and subsequently spread within local networks. Poland provides an exception where most of the infections were the result of a single point introduction. According to the significant migratory pathways, we show that there are considerable differences across Europe. Specifically, Greece, Portugal, Serbia and Spain, provide sources shedding HIV-1; Austria, Belgium and Luxembourg, on the other hand, are migratory targets, while for Denmark, Germany, Italy, Israel, Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK we inferred significant bidirectional migration. For Poland no significant migratory pathways were inferred. Subtype B phylogeographies provide a new insight about the geographical distribution of viral lineages, as well as the significant pathways of virus dispersal across Europe, suggesting that intervention strategies should also address tourists, travellers and migrants.

  16. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: A shared input DEA-model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogge, Nicky; De Jaeger, Simon

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexity in local waste management calls for more in depth efficiency analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shared-input Data Envelopment Analysis can provide solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable room for the Flemish municipalities to improve their cost efficiency. - Abstract: This paper proposed an adjusted 'shared-input' version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities' cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008.

  17. Comparison of selected foreign plans and practices for spent fuel and high-level waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Hazelton, R.F.; Bradley, D.J.

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the major parameters for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes in selected foreign countries as of December 1989 and compares them with those in the United States. The foreign countries included in this study are Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All the countries are planning for disposal of spent fuel and/or high-level wastes in deep geologic repositories. Most countries (except Canada and Sweden) plan to reprocess their spent fuel and vitrify the resultant high-level liquid wastes; in comparison, the US plans direct disposal of spent fuel. The US is planning to use a container for spent fuel as the primary engineered barrier. The US has the most developed repository concept and has one of the earliest scheduled repository startup dates. The repository environment presently being considered in the US is unique, being located in tuff above the water table. The US also has the most prescriptive regulations and performance requirements for the repository system and its components. 135 refs., 8 tabs.

  18. New Brunswick Laboratory. Progress report, October 1995--September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    Fiscal year (FY) 1996 was a very good year for New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), whose major sponsor is the Office of Safeguards and Security (NN-51) in the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, Office of Security Affairs. Several projects pertinent to the NBL mission were completed, and NBL`s interactions with partners and customers were encouraging. Among the partners with which NBL interacted in this report period were the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), NN-51. Environmental Program Group of the DOE Chicago Operations Office, International Safeguards Project Office, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Ukraine Working Group, Fissile Materials Assurance Working Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) in Belgium, Brazilian/Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, and other DOE facilities and laboratories. NBL staff publications, participation in safeguards assistance and other nuclear programs, development of new reference materials, involvement in the updating and refinement of DOE documents, service in enhancing the science education of others, and other related activities enhanced NBL`s status among DOE laboratories and facilities. Noteworthy are the facts that NBL`s small inventory of nuclear materials is accurately accounted for, and, as in past years, its materials and human resources were used in peaceful nuclear activities worldwide.

  19. The role of precipitation size distributions in km-scale NWP simulations of intense precipitation: Evaluation of cloud properties and surface precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanWeverberg K.; Vogelmann A.; vanLipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbec, L.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of simulated cloud properties and surface precipitation to assumptions regarding the size distributions of the precipitating hydrometeors in a one-moment bulk microphysics scheme. Three sensitivity experiments were applied to two composites of 15 convective and 15 frontal stratiform intense precipitation events observed in a coastal midlatitude region (Belgium), which were evaluated against satellite-retrieved cloud properties and radar-rain-gauge derived surface precipitation. It is found that the cloud optical thickness distribution was well captured by all experiments, although a significant underestimation of cloudiness occurred in the convective composite. The cloud-top-pressure distribution was improved most by more realistic snow size distributions (including a temperature-dependent intercept parameter and non-spherical snow for the calculation of the slope parameter), due to increased snow depositional growth at high altitudes. Surface precipitation was far less sensitive to whether graupel or hail was chosen as the rimed ice species, as compared to previous idealized experiments. This smaller difference in sensitivity could be explained by the stronger updraught velocities and higher freezing levels in the idealized experiments compared to typical coastal midlatitude environmental conditions.

  20. DDE-MURR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; M.H. Sprenger; G.K. Housley

    2013-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (DDE-MURR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the MURR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in a 200mm channel at the Belgium Reactor 2 (BR2). Revision 0 of this report was prepared at the end of government fiscal year 2012 when most of the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. Hence, the conceptual design efforts were summarized to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. Revision 1 of this report was prepared at the end of fiscal year 2013 in order to include results from a neutronic study performed by BR2, to incorporate further details that had been achieved in the engineering sketches of the irradiation devices, and to provide an update of the DDE-MURR campaign in relation to program objectives and opportunities for its eventual irradiation. These updates were purposed to bring the DDE-MURR conceptual design to level of maturity similar to that of the other two DDE efforts (DDE-MITR and DDE-NBSR). This report demonstrates that the DDE-MURR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also puts forth several recommendations in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign.

  1. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamers, Patrick; Jacobson, Jacob; Mohammad, Roni; Wright, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‘bioeconomy’ has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  2. Biogas end-use in the European community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constant, M.; Naveau, H.; Nyns, E.J. ); Ferrero, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    In Europe over the past few years the generation of biogas for energy and environmental purposes has been gaining in importance. Industrial wastewaters, cattle manure, sewage sludges, urban wastes, crop residues, algae and aquatic biomass are all typical of the materials being utilized. In contrast to the extensive inventory of biomethanation processes which has been carried out within the EEC, until recently a detailed, up-to-date investigation of the end-sues of biogas had not been undertaken. To supply the necessary information, the Commission of the European Communities and the Belgian Science Policy Office jointly entrusted a study to the Unit of Bioengineering at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium. This book is record of the study and has the following key features: it gives a broad overview of the ongoing use of biogas in Europe; it summarizes available data on storage, purification and engines using biogas; it draws several conclusions concerning the technical and economic viability of the processes; it discusses the problems of using biogas; and it outlines recommendations and future R and D and demonstration projects in the field.

  3. Spent Fuel Reprocessing: More Value for Money Spent in a Geological Repository?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, P.; Vinoche, R.; Devezeaux, J-G.; Bailly, F.

    2003-02-25

    Today, each utility or country operating nuclear power plants can select between two long-term spent fuel management policies: either, spent fuel is considered as waste to dispose of through direct disposal or, spent fuel is considered a resource of valuable material through reprocessing-recycling. Reading and listening to what is said in the nuclear community, we understand that most people consider that the choice of policy is, actually, a choice among two technical paths to handle spent fuel: direct disposal versus reprocessing. This very simple situation has been recently challenged by analysis coming from countries where both policies are on survey. For example, ONDRAF of Belgium published an interesting study showing that, economically speaking for final disposal, it is worth treating spent fuel rather than dispose of it as a whole, even if there is no possibility to recycle the valuable part of it. So, the question is raised: is there such a one-to-one link between long term spent fuel management political option and industrial option? The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the potential advantages and drawbacks of spent fuel treatment as an implementation of the policy that considers spent fuel as waste to dispose of. Based on technical considerations and industrial experience, we will study qualitatively, and quantitatively when possible, the different answers proposed by treatment to the main concerns of spent-fuel-as-a-whole geological disposal.

  4. Chernobyl bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  5. International agreement report: Assessment study of RELAP-5 MOD-2 Cycle 36. 01 based on the DOEL-2 Steam Generator Tube Rupture incident of June 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubbe, E J

    1986-10-01

    This report presents a code assessment study based on a real plant transient that occurred at the DOEL 2 power plant in Belgium on June 25th 1979. DOEL 2 is a two-loop WESTINGHOUSE PWR plant of 392 MWe. A steam generator tube rupture occurred at the end of a heat-up phase which initiated a plant transient which required substantial operator involvement and presented many plant phenomena which are of interest for code assessment. While real plant transients are of special importance for code validation because of the elimination of code scaling uncertainties, they introduce however some uncertainties related to the specifications of the exact initial and boundary conditions which must be reconstructed from available on-line plant recordings and on-line computer diagnostics. Best estimate data have been reconstructed for an assessment study by means of the code RELAP5/MOD2/CYCLE 36.01. Because of inherent uncertainties in the plant data, the assessment work is focussed on phenomena whereby the comparison between plant data and computer data is based more on trends than on absolute values. Such approach is able to uncover basic code weaknesses and strengths which can contribute to a better understanding of the code potential.

  6. The success of cogeneration in Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunschofsky, H.

    1998-10-01

    The European engineers take a different approach to designing cogeneration plants. Instead of building large gas turbines or combined cycle plants whose main target is to produce electricity and then trying to utilize as much heat as possible, European engineers target the replacement of the base heat supply of certain, small scale entities. By focusing on the annual heat demand graph, the basic layout for maximum utilization is determined. If a plant can use all or a majority of the electricity, the by-product, produced in this combined process, the perfect requirements are a given. Today cogeneration is one of the prime technologies available to achieve two valuable goals: efficient usage of limited resources and air pollution reduction. In every major European country there is a non-profit organization promoting the usage of cogeneration and acting as a platform for the various interests involved. These national institutions are members of Cogen Europe, a non-profit organization based in Brussels, Belgium, whose main focus is to promote cogeneration to a multinational level.

  7. Comparison of personal radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in different urban areas across Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, Wout; University of Basel ; Thuroczy, Gyoergy; French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks , Verneuil en Halatte ; Gajsek, Peter; Trcek, Tomaz; Bolte, John; Vermeeren, Guenter; University of Basel ; Juhasz, Peter; Finta, Viktoria

    2010-10-15

    Background: Only limited data are available on personal radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in everyday life. Several European countries performed measurement studies in this area of research. However, a comparison between countries regarding typical exposure levels is lacking. Objectives: To compare for the first time mean exposure levels and contributions of different sources in specific environments between different European countries. Methods: In five countries (Belgium, Switzerland, Slovenia, Hungary, and the Netherlands), measurement studies were performed using the same personal exposure meters. The pooled data were analyzed using the robust regression on order statistics (ROS) method in order to allow for data below the detection limit. Mean exposure levels were compared between different microenvironments such as homes, public transports, or outdoor. Results: Exposure levels were of the same order of magnitude in all countries and well below the international exposure limits. In all countries except for the Netherlands, the highest total exposure was measured in transport vehicles (trains, car, and busses), mainly due to radiation from mobile phone handsets (up to 97%). Exposure levels were in general lower in private houses or flats than in offices and outdoors. At home, contributions from various sources were quite different between countries. Conclusions: Highest total personal RF-EMF exposure was measured inside transport vehicles and was well below international exposure limits. This is mainly due to mobile phone handsets. Mobile telecommunication can be considered to be the main contribution to total RF-EMF exposure in all microenvironments.

  8. NMR Computational Studies of Solid Acidity/Fundamental Studies of Catalysis by Solid Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Haw

    2008-06-28

    This project focused on catalysis by zeolites and the synergy of spectroscopic characterization and theoretical modeling. In collaboration with the Waroquier group in Belgium we used state-of-the-art quantum chemical simulations on a supramolecular model of both the HZSM-5 zeolite and the co-catalytic hydrocarbon pool species and calculated a full catalytic cycle (including all rate constants) for methanol-to-olefin (MTO) catalysis involving a hydrocarbon pool species. This work not only represents the most robust computational analysis of a successful MTO route to date, but it also succeeds in tying together the many experimental clues. That work was featured on the cover of Angewandte Chemie. More recently we elucidated several unsuspected roles for formaldehyde in methanol to olefin catalysis. Formaldehyde proves to be a key species responsible for both the growth of the catalytically active hydrocarbon pool and its inevitable aging into deactivated polycyclic aromatic species. The apparent inevitability of formaldehyde formation at high temperatures, in particular in contact with active metal or metal oxide surfaces, may put some fundamental limitations on the economic potential of conversion of methanol to olefins.

  9. Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R.; Dixon, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

  10. Transition properties from the Hermitian formulation of the coupled cluster polarization propagator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucholska, Aleksandra M. Modrzejewski, Marcin; Moszynski, Robert

    2014-09-28

    Theory of one-electron transition density matrices has been formulated within the time-independent coupled cluster method for the polarization propagator [R. Moszynski, P. S. ?uchowski, and B. Jeziorski, Coll. Czech. Chem. Commun. 70, 1109 (2005)]. Working expressions have been obtained and implemented with the coupled cluster method limited to single, double, and linear triple excitations (CC3). Selected dipole and quadrupole transition probabilities of the alkali earth atoms, computed with the new transition density matrices are compared to the experimental data. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found. The results obtained with the new approach are of the same quality as the results obtained with the linear response coupled cluster theory. The one-electron density matrices for the ground state in the CC3 approximation have also been implemented. The dipole moments for a few representative diatomic molecules have been computed with several variants of the new approach, and the results are discussed to choose the approximation with the best balance between the accuracy and computational efficiency.

  11. Development of fluoride reprocessing technologies devoted to molten-salt reactor systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhlir, Jan; Marecek, Martin; Tulackova, Radka; Chuchvalcova Bimova, Karolina

    2007-07-01

    Main fuel processing and reprocessing technologies proposed for Molten Salt Reactor fuel cycle are pyrochemical or pyrometallurgical, majority of them are fluoride technologies. It is based on the fact that Molten Salt Reactor fuel is in the chemical form of molten fluorides and the reprocessing technology is needed to be an 'on-line' process. The corresponding pyrochemical separation processes proposed for MSR fuel processing and reprocessing are mainly fluoride volatilization processes, molten salt / liquid metal extraction processes, electrochemical separation processes from the molten salt media and gas extraction from the molten salt medium. Techniques based on fluoride volatilization and on electrochemical separation from fluoride molten salt media are under development in the Czech Republic. Whereas the Fluoride Volatility Method is proposed to be the main 'Front-end' technology of the MSR used as the actinide burner (transmuter), the electro-separation methods should be dedicated to the 'on-line' reprocessing of the circulating MSR fuel and should be used as for MSR incinerating transuranium fuel as for MSR working within the {sup 232}Th - {sup 233}U fuel cycle. (authors)

  12. QER- Comment of Allegra Schecter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To members of the QER Task Force: Thank you for taking time to address energy concerns for our region. It is time for renewable energy sources to be taken seriously in this country. Other countries, such as Germany, have successfully converted a majority of their energy needs to renewables. If they can do it in Germany (with Berlin much further north then northernmost Maine) we can do it here. The following article on the German electricity market, which now has an enormous amount of solar and wind capacity, indicates 60% of the entire country's electricity demand was met by renewables... and it's not even Summer yet. http://www.renewablesinternational.net/baseload-takes-a-beating-over-wee... "Wholesale prices fell so low that a number of baseload plants were simply shut down for the entire weekend. Still, day-ahead prices were close to zero yesterday. Solar and wind are not only making conventional power unprofitable in Germany, but also in neighboring France and Switzerland – and the Czech Republic says that low wholesale prices are the reason why it has stepped away from a new nuclear project." We do not need more fossil fuel infrastructure. We do not need to add more methane, from drilling for natural gas, into an already overloaded global atmosphere. Climate change is here. There is no more time to waste. Thank you. Allegra Schecter

  13. INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY IDENTIFICATION, DEVELOPMENT, DEMONSTRATION, DEPLOYMENT AND EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy C. Herndon

    2001-02-28

    Cooperative Agreement (DE-FC21-95EW55101) between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Florida State University's Institute for International Cooperative Environmental Research (IICER) was designed to facilitate a number of joint programmatic goals of both the DOE and the IICER related to international technology identification, development, demonstration and deployment using a variety of mechanisms to accomplish these goals. These mechanisms included: laboratory and field research; technology demonstrations; international training and technical exchanges; data collection, synthesis and evaluation; the conduct of conferences, symposia and high-level meetings; and other appropriate and effective approaches. The DOE utilized the expertise and facilities of the IICER at Florida State University to accomplish its goals related to this cooperative agreement. The IICER has unique and demonstrated capabilities that have been utilized to conduct the tasks for this cooperative agreement. The IICER conducted activities related to technology identification, development, evaluation, demonstration and deployment through its joint centers which link the capabilities at Florida State University with collaborating academic and leading research institutions in the major countries of Central and Eastern Europe (e.g., Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland) and Russia. The activities and accomplishments for this five-year cooperative agreement are summarized in this Final Technical Report.

  14. Calix 2007:9th International Conference on Calixarene Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffery Davis

    2011-09-09

    The DOE funds helped support an International Conference, Calix 2007, whose focus was on Supramolecular Chemistry. The conference was held at the University of Maryland from August 6-9, 2007 (Figure 1). The conference website is at www.chem.umd.edu/Conferences/Calix2007. This biannual conference had previously been held in the Czech Republic (2005), Canada (2003), Netherlands (2001), Australia (1999), Italy (1997), USA (Fort Worth, 1995) Japan (1993) and Germany (1991). Calixarenes are cup-shaped compounds that are a major part of Supramolecular Chemistry, for which Cram, Lehn and Pederson were awarded a Nobel Prize 20 years ago. Calixarene chemistry has expanded greatly in the last 2 decades, as these compounds are used in synthetic and mechanistic chemistry, separations science, materials science, nanoscience and biological chemistry. The organizing committee was quite happy that Calix 2007 encompassed the broad scope and interdisciplinary nature of the field. Our goal was to bring together leading scientists interested in calixarenes, molecular recognition, nanoscience and supramolecular chemistry. We believe that new research directions and collaborations resulted from an exchange of ideas between conferees. This grant from the DOE was crucial toward achieving that goal, as the funds helped cover some of the registration and accommodations costs for the speakers.

  15. Trace Elements in Hair from Tanzanian Children: Effect of Dietary Factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Spyrou, Nicholas M.

    2009-04-19

    Trace elements in certain amounts are essential for childrens' health, because they are present in tissues participating in metabolic reactions of organisms. Deficiency of the essential elements may result in malnutrition, impaired body immunity, and poor resistance to disease. These conditions might be enhanced against a background of additional adverse environmental factors such as toxic elements. The analysis of elements in childrens' hair will give information on the deficiency of essential elements and excess of toxic elements in relation to their diet. In this study, 141 hair samples from children (girls and boys) living in two regions of Tanzanian mainland (Dar es Salaam and Moshi) and the island of Zanzibar have been analysed for trace elements in relation to food consumption habits. The analysis was carried out using long and short irradiation instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of the Nuclear Physics Institute at Rez, Czech Republic. Arithmetic and geometric means with their respective standard deviations are presented for 19 elements. Subgroups were formed according to age, gender, and geographic regions from which the samples were collected. Differences in concentrations for the groups and with other childhood populations were explored and discussed.

  16. Preliminary business plan: Plzen district heating system upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    The district heating system of the City of Plzen, Czech Republic, needs to have physical upgrades to replace aging equipment and to comply with upcoming environmental regulations. Also, its ownership and management are being changed as a result of privatization. As majority owner, the City has the primary goal of ensuring that the heating needs of its customers are met as reliably and cost-effectively as possible. This preliminary business plan is part of the detailed analysis (5 reports in all) done to assist the City in deciding the issues. Preparation included investigation of ownership, management, and technology alternatives; estimation of market value of assets and investment requirements; and forecasting of future cash flow. The district heating system consists of the Central Plzen cogeneration plant, two interconnected heating plants [one supplying both hot water and steam], three satellite heating plants, and cooperative agreements with three industrial facilities generating steam and hot water. Most of the plants are coal-fired, with some peaking units fired by fuel oil.

  17. Identification of concrete deteriorating minerals by polarizing and scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregerova, Miroslava; Vsiansky, Dalibor

    2009-07-15

    The deterioration of concrete represents one of the most serious problems of civil engineering worldwide. Besides other processes, deterioration of concrete consists of sulfate attack and carbonation. Sulfate attack results in the formation of gypsum, ettringite and thaumasite in hardened concrete. Products of sulfate attack may cause a loss of material strength and a risk of collapse of the concrete constructions. The authors focused especially on the microscopical research of sulfate attack. Concrete samples were taken from the Charles Bridge in Prague, Czech Republic. A succession of degrading mineral formation was suggested. Microscope methods represent a new approach to solving the deterioration problems. They enable evaluation of the state of concrete constructions and in cooperation with hydro-geochemistry, mathematics and statistics permit prediction of the durability of a structure. Considering the number of concrete constructions and their age, research of concrete deterioration has an increasing importance. The results obtained can also be useful for future construction, because they identify the risk factors associated with formation of minerals known to degrade structures.

  18. A very small and super strong zebra pattern burst at the beginning of a solar flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Baolin; Tan, Chengming; Zhang, Yin; Huang, Jing; Yan, Yihua; Mszrosov, Hana; Karlick, Marian

    2014-08-01

    Microwave emission with spectral zebra pattern structures (ZPs) is frequently observed in solar flares and the Crab pulsar. The previous observations show that ZP is a structure only overlapped on the underlying broadband continuum with slight increments and decrements. This work reports an unusually strong ZP burst occurring at the beginning of a solar flare observed simultaneously by two radio telescopes located in China and the Czech Republic and by the EUV telescope on board NASA's satellite Solar Dynamics Observatory on 2013 April 11. It is a very short and super strong explosion whose intensity exceeds several times that of the underlying flaring broadband continuum emission, lasting for just 18 s. EUV images show that the flare starts from several small flare bursting points (FBPs). There is a sudden EUV flash with extra enhancement in one of these FBPs during the ZP burst. Analysis indicates that the ZP burst accompanying an EUV flash is an unusual explosion revealing a strong coherent process with rapid particle acceleration, violent energy release, and fast plasma heating simultaneously in a small region with a short duration just at the beginning of the flare.

  19. Determination of the Relative Amount of Fluorine in Uranium Oxyfluoride Particles using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Optical Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kips, R; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D; Amonette, J; Wang, Z; Johnson, T; Gerlach, D; Olsen, K B

    2009-05-29

    Both nuclear forensics and environmental sampling depend upon laboratory analysis of nuclear material that has often been exposed to the environment after it has been produced. It is therefore important to understand how those environmental conditions might have changed the chemical composition of the material over time, particularly for chemically sensitive compounds. In the specific case of uranium enrichment facilities, uranium-bearing particles stem from small releases of uranium hexafluoride, a highly reactive gas that hydrolyzes upon contact with moisture from the air to form uranium oxyfluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) particles. The uranium isotopic composition of those particles is used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify whether a facility is compliant with its declarations. The present study, however, aims to demonstrate how knowledge of time-dependent changes in chemical composition, particle morphology and molecular structure can contribute to an even more reliable interpretation of the analytical results. We prepared a set of uranium oxyfluoride particles at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, European Commission, Belgium) and followed changes in their composition, morphology and structure with time to see if we could use these properties to place boundaries on the particle exposure time in the environment. Because the rate of change is affected by exposure to UV-light, humidity levels and elevated temperatures, the samples were subjected to varying conditions of those three parameters. The NanoSIMS at LLNL was found to be the optimal tool to measure the relative amount of fluorine in individual uranium oxyfluoride particles. At PNNL, cryogenic laser-induced time-resolved U(VI) fluorescence microspectroscopy (CLIFS) was used to monitor changes in the molecular structure.

  20. TH-C-BRD-05: Reducing Proton Beam Range Uncertainty with Patient-Specific CT HU to RSP Calibrations Based On Single-Detector Proton Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolan, P; Sharp, G; Testa, M; Lu, H-M; Bentefour, E; Royle, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Beam range uncertainty in proton treatment comes primarily from converting the patient's X-ray CT (xCT) dataset to relative stopping power (RSP). Current practices use a single curve for this conversion, produced by a stoichiometric calibration based on tissue composition data for average, healthy, adult humans, but not for the individual in question. Proton radiographs produce water-equivalent path length (WEPL) maps, dependent on the RSP of tissues within the specific patient. This work investigates the use of such WEPL maps to optimize patient-specific calibration curves for reducing beam range uncertainty. Methods: The optimization procedure works on the principle of minimizing the difference between the known WEPL map, obtained from a proton radiograph, and a digitally-reconstructed WEPL map (DRWM) through an RSP dataset, by altering the calibration curve that is used to convert the xCT into an RSP dataset. DRWMs were produced with Plastimatch, an in-house developed software, and an optimization procedure was implemented in Matlab. Tests were made on a range of systems including simulated datasets with computed WEPL maps and phantoms (anthropomorphic and real biological tissue) with WEPL maps measured by single detector proton radiography. Results: For the simulated datasets, the optimizer showed excellent results. It was able to either completely eradicate or significantly reduce the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) in the WEPL for the homogeneous phantoms (to zero for individual materials or from 1.5% to 0.2% for the simultaneous optimization of multiple materials). For the heterogeneous phantom the RMSE was reduced from 1.9% to 0.3%. Conclusion: An optimization procedure has been designed to produce patient-specific calibration curves. Test results on a range of systems with different complexities and sizes have been promising for accurate beam range control in patients. This project was funded equally by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (UK) and Ion Beam Applications (Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium)

  1. Evaluation of moist processes during intense precipitation in km-scale NWP models using remote sensing and in-situ data: Impact of microphysics size distribution assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanWeverberg, K.; vanLipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbe, L.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of moist processes and surface precipitation during three extreme precipitation events over Belgium to the representation of rain, snow and hail size distributions in a bulk one-moment microphysics parameterisation scheme. Sensitivities included the use of empirically derived relations to calculate the slope parameter and diagnose the intercept parameter of the exponential snow and rain size distributions and sensitivities to the treatment of hail/graupel. A detailed evaluation of the experiments against various high temporal resolution and spatially distributed observational data was performed to understand how moist processes responded to the implemented size distribution modifications. Net vapor consumption by microphysical processes was found to be unaffected by snow or rain size distribution modifications, while it was reduced replacing formulations for hail by those typical for graupel, mainly due to intense sublimation of graupel. Cloud optical thickness was overestimated in all experiments and all cases, likely due to overestimated snow amounts. The overestimation slightly deteriorated by modifying the rain and snow size distributions due to increased snow depositional growth, while it was reduced by including graupel. The latter was mainly due to enhanced cloud water collection by graupel and reduced snow depositional growth. Radar reflectivity and cloud optical thickness could only be realistically represented by inclusion of graupel during a stratiform case, while hail was found indispensable to simulate the vertical reflectivity profile and the surface precipitation structure. Precipitation amount was not much altered by any of the modifications made and the general overestimation was only decreased slightly during a supercell convective case.

  2. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, Lotte; Buczynska, Anna; Walgraeve, Christophe; Delcloo, Andy; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester ; Van Grieken, Rene; Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Backer, Hugo; Nemery, Benoit; Nawrot, Tim S.; Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek

    2012-08-15

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 {mu}m) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 {mu}m) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 {mu}g/m Superscript-Three in 24-h mean outdoor PM{sub 2.5} was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM{sub 2.5} were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  3. Wireless Transmission of Monitoring Data out of an Underground Repository: Results of Field Demonstrations Performed at the HADES Underground Laboratory - 13589

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, T.J.; Rosca-Bocancea, E.; Hart, J.

    2013-07-01

    As part of the European 7. framework project MoDeRn, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) performed experiments in order to demonstrate the feasibility of wireless data transmission through the subsurface over large distances by low frequency magnetic fields in the framework of the geological disposal of radioactive waste. The main objective of NRG's contribution is to characterize and optimize the energy use of this technique within the specific context of post-closure monitoring of a repository. For that, measurements have been performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory (URL) located at Mol, Belgium, at 225 m depth. The experimental set-up utilizes a loop antenna for the transmitter that has been matched to the existing infrastructure of the HADES. Between 2010 and 2012 NRG carried out several experiments at the HADES URL in order to test the technical set-up and to characterize the propagation behavior of the geological medium and the local background noise pattern. Transmission channels have been identified and data transmission has been demonstrated at several frequencies, with data rates up to 10 bit/s and bit error rates <1%. A mathematical model description that includes the most relevant characteristics of the transmitter, transmission path, and receiver has been developed and applied to analyze possible options to optimize the set-up. With respect to the energy-efficiency, results so far have shown that data transmission over larger distances through the subsurface is a feasible option. To support the conclusions on the energy need per bit of transmitted data, additional experiments are foreseen. (authors)

  4. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O.

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  5. WE-D-18A-05: Construction of Realistic Liver Phantoms From Patient Images and a Commercial 3D Printer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, S; Vrieze, T; Kuhlmann, J; Yu, L; Matsumoto, J; Morris, J; McCollough, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To assess image quality and radiation dose reduction in abdominal CT imaging, physical phantoms having realistic background textures and lesions are highly desirable. The purpose of this work was to construct a liver phantom with realistic background and lesions using patient CT images and a 3D printer. Methods: Patient CT images containing liver lesions were segmented into liver tissue, contrast-enhanced vessels, and liver lesions using commercial software (Mimics, Materialise, Belgium). Stereolithography (STL) files of each segmented object were created and imported to a 3D printer (Object350 Connex, Stratasys, MN). After test scans were performed to map the eight available printing materials into CT numbers, printing materials were assigned to each object and a physical liver phantom printed. The printed phantom was scanned on a clinical CT scanner and resulting images were compared with the original patient CT images. Results: The eight available materials used to print the liver phantom had CT number ranging from 62 to 117 HU. In scans of the liver phantom, the liver lesions and veins represented in the STL files were all visible. Although the absolute value of the CT number in the background liver material (approx. 85 HU) was higher than in patients (approx. 40 HU), the difference in CT numbers between lesions and background were representative of the low contrast values needed for optimization tasks. Future work will investigate materials with contrast sufficient to emulate contrast-enhanced arteries. Conclusion: Realistic liver phantoms can be constructed from patient CT images using a commercial 3D printer. This technique may provide phantoms able to determine the effect of radiation dose reduction and noise reduction techniques on the ability to detect subtle liver lesions in the context of realistic background textures.

  6. STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE 2012 NOVEMBER 13/14 ECLIPSE WHITE-LIGHT CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Rušin, V.; Saniga, M.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Davis, A. B. E-mail: vrusin@ta3.sk; and others

    2015-02-20

    Continuing our series of observations of coronal motion and dynamics over the solar-activity cycle, we observed from sites in Queensland, Australia, during the 2012 November 13 (UT)/14 (local time) total solar eclipse. The corona took the low-ellipticity shape typical of solar maximum (flattening index ε = 0.01), a change from the composite coronal images we observed and analyzed in this journal and elsewhere for the 2006 and 2008-2010 eclipses. After crossing the northeast Australian coast, the path of totality was over the ocean, so further totality was seen only by shipborne observers. Our results include velocities of a coronal mass ejection (CME; during the 36 minutes of passage from the Queensland coast to a ship north of New Zealand, we measured 413 km s{sup –1}) and we analyze its dynamics. We discuss the shapes and positions of several types of coronal features seen on our higher-resolution composite Queensland coronal images, including many helmet streamers, very faint bright and dark loops at the bases of helmet streamers, voids, and radially oriented thin streamers. We compare our eclipse observations with models of the magnetic field, confirming the validity of the predictions, and relate the eclipse phenomenology seen with the near-simultaneous images from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO/AIA), NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, ESA/Royal Observatory of Belgium's Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) on PROBA2, and Naval Research Laboratory's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment on ESA's Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. For example, the southeastern CME is related to the solar flare whose origin we trace with a SWAP series of images.

  7. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  8. Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2012-07-15

    For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

  9. Seventeenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1992-01-31

    PREFACE The Seventeenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 29-31, 1992. There were one hundred sixteen registered participants which equaled the attendance last year. Participants were from seven foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Mexico and New Zealand. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in the papers. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Raffaele Cataldi. Dr. Cataldi gave a talk on the highlights of his geothermal career. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Cataldi. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award at the banquet. Thirty-eight papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Dr. Roland Horne opened the meeting and the key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who discussed the DOE Geothermal R. & D. Program. The talk focused on aiding long-term, cost effective private resource development. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: geochemistry, hot dry rock, injection, geysers, modeling, and reservoir mechanics. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: Sabodh Garg., Jim Lovekin, Jim Combs, Ben Barker, Marcel Lippmann, Glenn Horton, Steve Enedy, and John Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Francois Groff who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook -vii

  10. Design and Performance of Solar Decathlon 2011 High-Penetration Microgrid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, B.; Coddington, M.; Butt, R.; Solomon, S.; Wiegand, G.; Wagner, C.; Gonzalez, B.

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. The Solar Decathlon 2011 was held in Washington, D.C., from September 23 to October 2, 2011 . A high-penetration microgrid was designed, installed, and operated for the Solar Decathlon 2011 to grid-connect 19 highly energy-efficient, solar-powered competition houses to a single utility connection point. The capacity penetration of this microgrid (defined as maximum PV generation divided by maximum system load over a two-week period) was 74% based on 1-minute averaged data. Temporary, ground-laid conductors and electrical distribution equipment were installed to grid-connect the Solar Decathlon village, which included the houses as well as other electrical loads used by the event organizers. While 16 of the houses were connected to the 60 Hz microgrid, three houses from Belgium, China, and New Zealand were supplied with 50 Hz power. The design of the microgrid, including the connection of the houses powered by 50 Hz and a standby diesel generator, is discussed in this paper. In addition to the utility-supplied net energy meters at each house, a microgrid monitoring system was installed to measure and record energy consumption and PV energy production at 1-second intervals at each house. Bidirectional electronic voltage regulators were installed for groups of competition houses, which held the service voltage at each house to acceptable levels. The design and successful performance of this high-penetration microgrid is presented from the house, microgrid operator, and utility perspectives.

  11. International technology catalogue: Foreign technologies to support the environmental restoration and waste management needs of the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Jimenez, R.D.; Esparza-Baca, C.

    1995-07-01

    This document represents a summary of 27 foreign-based environmental restoration and waste management technologies that have been screened and technically evaluated for application to the cleanup problems of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex. The evaluation of these technologies was initiated in 1992 and completed in 1995 under the DOE`s International Technology Coordination Program of the Office of Technology Development. A methodology was developed for conducting a country-by-country survey of several regions of the world where specific environmental technology capabilities and market potential were investigated. The countries that were selected from a rank-ordering process for the survey included: then West Germany, the Netherlands, France, Japan, Taiwan, the Czech and Slovak Republics, and the Former Soviet Union. The notably innovative foreign technologies included in this document were screened initially from a list of several hundred, and then evaluated based on criteria that examined for level of maturity, suitability to the DOE needs, and for potential cost effective application at a DOE site. Each of the selected foreign technologies that were evaluated in this effort for DOE application were subsequently matched with site-specific environmental problem units across the DOE complex using the Technology Needs Assessment CROSSWALK Report. For ease of tracking these technologies to site problem units, and to facilitate their input into the DOE EnviroTRADE Information System, they were categorized into the following three areas: (1) characterization, monitoring and sensors, (2) waste treatment and separations, and (3) waste containment. Technical data profiles regarding these technologies include title and description, performance information, development status, key regulatory considerations, intellectual property rights, institute and contact personnel, and references.

  12. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coyle, Philip E.

    2014-05-09

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  13. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.; Pierce, B.

    1995-06-01

    Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.

  14. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in the Slovak Republic - 12100

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salzer, Peter

    2012-07-01

    After splitting-up the Czechoslovak Federation in 1993, the system of management of institutional radioactive waste, where disused sources represent its significant part, had had to build from beginning, since all corresponding activities had remained in the Czech part of the Federation. The paper presents the development of legislative and institutional framework of the disused radioactive sealed source management, development of the national inventory and development of management practices. According the Governmental decision (1994), the management of disused sealed sources and institutional radioactive waste at whole was based on maximal utilization of facilities inside nuclear facilities, particularly in the NPP A1 (shut down in the past, currently under decommissioning). This approach has been recently changing by Governmental decision (2009) to construct 'non-nuclear facility' - central storage for remained disused sealed sources collected from the places of use, where they were stored in some cases for tens of years. The approaches to siting and construction of this storage facility will be presented, as well as the current approaches to solution of the disused radioactive sources final disposal. Environmental impact assessment process in regard to the given facility/activity is slowly drawing to a close. The final statement of the Ministry of Environment can be expected in January or February 2012, probably recommending option 1 as preferred [6]. According to the Slovak legislation, the final statement has a status of recommendation for ongoing processes leading to the siting license. Very recently, in December 2012, Government of the Slovak republic decided to postpone putting the facility into operation by the end of June, 2014. (author)

  15. Recent Improvement Of The Institutional Radioactive Waste Management System In Slovenia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sueiae, S.; Fabjan, M.; Hrastar, U.; Mali, T.; Steinkuhler, C.; Lenie, K.

    2008-07-01

    The task of managing institutional radioactive waste was assigned to the Slovenian National Agency for Radwaste Management by the Governmental Decree of May 1999. This task ranges from the collection of waste at users' premises to the storage in the Central Storage Facility in (CSF) and afterwards to the planned Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW) repository. By this Decree ARAO also became the operator of the CSF. The CSF has been in operation since 1986. Recent improvements of the institutional radioactive waste management system in Slovenia are presented in this paper. ARAO has been working on the reestablishment of institutional radioactive waste management since 1999. The Agency has managed to prepare the most important documents and carry out the basic activities required by the legislation to assure a safe and environmentally acceptable management of the institutional radioactive waste. With the aim to achieve a better organized operational system, ARAO took the advantage of the European Union Transition Facility (EU TF) financing support and applied for the project named 'Improvement of the management of institutional radioactive waste in Slovenia via the design and implementation of an Information Business System'. Through a public invitation for tenders one of the Slovenian largest software company gained the contract. Two international radwaste experts from Belgium were part of their project team. The optimization of the operational system has been carried out in 2007. The project was executed in ten months and it was divided into two phases. The first phase of the project was related with the detection of weaknesses and implementation of the necessary improvements in the current ARAO operational system. With the evaluation of the existing system, possible improvements were identified. In the second phase of the project the software system Information Business System (IBS) was developed and implemented by the group of IT experts. As a software development life-cycle methodology the Waterfall methodology was used. The reason for choosing this methodology lied in its simple approach: analyze the problem, design the solution, implement the code, test the code, integrate and deploy. ARAO's institutional radioactive waste management process was improved in the way that it is more efficient, better organized, allowing traceability and availability of all documents and operational procedures within the field of institutional radioactive waste. The tailored made IBS system links all activities of the institutional radioactive waste management process: collection, transportation, takeover, acceptance, storing, treatment, radiation protection, etc. into one management system. All existing and newly designed evidences, operational procedures and other documents can be searched and viewed via secured Internet access from different locations. (authors)

  16. SU-E-J-125: Classification of CBCT Noises in Terms of Their Contribution to Proton Range Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brousmiche, S; Orban de Xivry, J; Macq, B; Seco, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the potential use of CBCT images in adaptive protontherapy by estimating the contribution of the main sources of noise and calibration errors to the proton range uncertainty. Methods: Measurements intended to highlight each particular source have been achieved by adapting either the testbench configuration, e.g. use of filtration, fan-beam collimation, beam stop arrays, phantoms and detector reset light, or the sequence of correction algorithms including water precorrection. Additional Monte-Carlo simulations have been performed to complement these measurements, especially for the beam hardening and the scatter cases. Simulations of proton beams penetration through the resulting images have then been carried out to quantify the range change due to these effects. The particular case of a brain irradiation is considered mainly because of the multiple effects that the skull bones have on the internal soft tissues. Results: On top of the range error sources is the undercorrection of scatter. Its influence has been analyzed from a comparison of fan-beam and full axial FOV acquisitions. In this case, large range errors of about 12 mm can be reached if the assumption is made that the scatter has only a constant contribution over the projection images. Even the detector lag, which a priori induces a much smaller effect, has been shown to contribute for up to 2 mm to the overall error if its correction only aims at reducing the skin artefact. This last result can partially be understood by the larger interface between tissues and bones inside the skull. Conclusion: This study has set the basis of a more systematical analysis of the effect CBCT noise on range uncertainties based on a combination of measurements, simulations and theoretical results. With our method, even more subtle effects such as the cone-beam artifact or the detector lag can be assessed. SBR and JOR are financed by iMagX, a public-private partnership between the region Wallone of Belgium and IBA under convention #1217662.

  17. A method for evaluating transport energy consumption in suburban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marique, Anne-Francoise Reiter, Sigrid

    2012-02-15

    Urban sprawl is a major issue for sustainable development. It represents a significant contribution to energy consumption of a territory especially due to transportation requirements. However, transport energy consumption is rarely taken into account when the sustainability of suburban structures is studied. In this context, the paper presents a method to estimate transport energy consumption in residential suburban areas. The study aimed, on this basis, at highlighting the most efficient strategies needed to promote awareness and to give practical hints on how to reduce transport energy consumption linked to urban sprawl in existing and future suburban neighborhoods. The method uses data collected by using empirical surveys and GIS. An application of this method is presented concerning the comparison of four suburban districts located in Belgium to demonstrate the advantages of the approach. The influence of several parameters, such as distance to work places and services, use of public transport and performance of the vehicles, are then discussed to allow a range of different development situations to be explored. The results of the case studies highlight that traveled distances, and thus a good mix between activities at the living area scale, are of primordial importance for the energy performance, whereas means of transport used is only of little impact. Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work give also significant energy savings. The method can be used when planning new areas or retrofitting existing ones, as well as promoting more sustainable lifestyles regarding transport habits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows to assess transport energy consumption in suburban areas and highlight the best strategies to reduce it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Home-to-work travels represent the most important part of calculated transport energy consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy savings can be achieved by reducing distances to travel through a good mix between activities at the local scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of transport used in only of little impact in the studied suburban neighborhoods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work can significant energy savings.

  18. Progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gills, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R.

    2007-07-01

    Belgoprocess started the industrial decommissioning of the main process building of the former EUROCHEMIC reprocessing plant in 1990, after completion of a pilot project in which two buildings were emptied and decontaminated to background levels. The remaining structures were demolished and the concrete debris was disposed of as industrial waste and green field conditions restored. The Eurochemic reprocessing plant operated from 1966 to 1974 to process fuel from power reactors and research reactors. The main building is a large concrete structure, comprising a surface area of 55,000 m{sup 2}, concrete volume 12,500 m{sup 3}, and 1,500 Mg of metal components. The building is divided into multiple cells. About 106 individual cell structures have to be dismantled, involving the removal and decontamination of equipment from each cell, the decontamination of the cell walls, ceilings and floors, the dismantling of the ventilation system. Most of the work involves hands-on operations under protective clothing tailored to each specific task. Tool automation and automatic positioning systems are successfully applied. In view of the final demolition of the main process building, the main process building is divided into three parts - each part is isolated from the others. In the middle of 2008, after the removal of the NDA-IPAN/GEA installation, the eastern part will be demolished. The paper presents a status overview of the decommissioning and decontamination activities at the main process building of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant on the nuclear site of Dessel in Belgium. The specific BELGOPROCESS approach will be highlighted, in which the decommissioning activities are carried out on an industrial scale with special emphasis on cost minimisation, the use of technology on an industrial representative scale and the specific alpha contamination of equipment and building surfaces, requiring that the decommissioning work is done with adequate protective clothing. Also specific breathing and cooling air systems have been provided to allow the operators to carry out the decommissioning tasks in acceptable working conditions. (authors)

  19. Decommissioning of the BR3 reactor: status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noynaert, L.; Verstraeten, I.

    2007-07-01

    The BR3 plant at Mol in Belgium built at the end of the fifties was the first PWR plant built outside the USA. The reactor had a small net power output (10 MWe) but comprised all the loops and features of a commercial PWR plant. The BR3 plant was operated with the main objective of testing advanced PWR fuels under irradiation conditions similar to those encountered in large commercial PWR plants. The reactor was started in 1962 and shut down in 1987 after 25 years of continuous operation. Since 1989, SCK.CEN is decommissioning the BR3 PWR research reactor. The dismantling of the metallic components including reactor pressure vessel and internals is completed and extensively reported in the literature. The dismantling of auxiliary components and the decontamination of parts of the infrastructure are now going on. The decommissioning progress is continuously monitored and costs and strategy are regularly reassessed. The first part of the paper describes the main results and lessons learned from the reassessment exercises performed in 1994, 1999, 2004 and 2007. Impacts of changes in legal framework on the decommissioning costs will be addressed. These changes concern e.g. licensing aspects, clearance levels, waste management... The middle part of the paper discusses the management of activated and/or contaminated concrete. The costing exercise performed in 1995 highlighted that the management of activated and contaminated concrete is the second main cost item after the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel and internals. Different possible solutions were studied. These are evacuation as radioactive waste with or without supercompaction, recycling this 'radioactive' grout or concrete for conditioning of radioactive waste e.g. conditioning of metallic waste. The paper will give the results of the cost-benefit analysis made to select the solution retained. The last part of the paper will discuss the end goal of the decommissioning of the BR3. In the final decommissioning plan approved by ONDRAF/NIRAS, it was mentioned that the final goal of the BR3 decommissioning will be the 'green field' unless opportunities for reuse of the BR3 site will occur during decommissioning. A strategy of partial reuse of the BR3 facility is proposed and being discussed with the main stakeholders. The paper will give the present state of the discussion. (authors)

  20. AREVA NP next generation fresh UO{sub 2} fuel assembly shipping cask: SCALE - CRISTAL comparisons lead to safety criticality confidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doucet, M.; Landrieu, M.; Montgomery, R.; O' Donnell, B.

    2007-07-01

    AREVA NP as a worldwide PWR fuel provider has to have a fleet of fresh UO{sub 2} shipping casks being agreed within a lot of countries including USA, France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, China, and South Africa - and to accommodate foreseen EPR Nuclear Power Plants fuel buildings. To reach this target the AREVA NP Fuel Sector decided to develop an up-to-date shipping cask (so called MAP project) gathering experience feedback of the today fleet and an improved safety allowing the design to comply with international regulations (NRC and IAEA) and local Safety Authorities. Based on pre design features a safety case was set up to highlight safety margins. Criticality hypothetical accidental assumptions were defined: - Preferential flooding; - Fuel rod lattice pitch expansion for full length of fuel assemblies; - Neutron absorber penalty; -... Well known computer codes, American SCALE package and French CRISTAL package, were used to check configurations reactivity and to ensure that both codes lead to coherent results. Basic spectral calculations are based on similar algorithms with specific microscopic cross sections ENDF/BV for SCALE and JEF2.2 for CRISTAL. The main differences between the two packages is on one hand SCALE's three dimensional fuel assembly geometry is described by a pin by pin model while an homogenized fuel assembly description is used by CRISTAL and on the other hand SCALE is working with either 44 or 238 neutron energy groups while CRISTAL is with a 172 neutron energy groups. Those two computer packages rely on a wide validation process helping defining uncertainties as required by regulations in force. The shipping cask with two fuel assemblies is designed to maximize fuel isolation inside a cask and with neighboring ones even for large array configuration cases. Proven industrial products are used: - Boral{sup TM} as neutron absorber; - High density polyethylene (HDPE) or Nylon as neutron moderator; - Foam as thermal and mechanical protection. The cask is designed to handle the complete AREVA NP fuel assembly types from the 14x14 to the 18x18 design with a {sup 235}U enrichment up to 5.0% enriched natural uranium (ENU) and enriched reprocessed uranium (ERU). After a brief presentation of the computer codes and the description of the shipping cask, calculation results and comparisons between SCALE and CRISTAL will be discussed. (authors)

  1. ORNL Evaluation of Electrabel Safety Cases for Doel 3 / Tihange 2: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, Bennett Richard; Dickson, Terry L.; Gorti, Sarma B.; Klasky, Hilda B.; Nanstad, Randy K.; Sokolov, Mikhail A.; Williams, Paul T.; Server, W. L.

    2015-11-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed a detailed technical review of the 2015 Electrabel (EBL) Safety Cases prepared for the Belgium reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) at Doel 3 and Tihange 2 (D3/T2). The Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) in Belgium commissioned ORNL to provide a thorough assessment of the existing safety margins against cracking of the RPVs due to the presence of almost laminar flaws found in each RPV. Initial efforts focused on surveying relevant literature that provided necessary background knowledge on the issues related to the quasilaminar flaws observed in D3/T2 reactors. Next, ORNL proceeded to develop an independent quantitative assessment of the entire flaw population in the two Belgian reactors according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Criteria for Protection Against Failure, New York (1992 and 2004). That screening assessment of all EBL-characterized flaws in D3/T2 used ORNL tools, methodologies, and the ASME Code Case N-848, Alternative Characterization Rules for QuasiLaminar Flaws . Results and conclusions from the ORNL flaw acceptance assessments of D3/T2 were compared with those from the 2015 EBL Safety Cases. Specific findings of the ORNL evaluation of that part of the EBL structural integrity assessment focusing on stability of the flaw population subjected to primary design transients include the following: ORNL s analysis results were similar to those of EBL in that very few characterized flaws were found not compliant with the ASME (1992) acceptance criterion. ORNL s application of the more recent ASME Section XI (2004) produced only four noncompliant flaws, all due to LOCAs. The finding of a greater number of non-compliant flaws in the EBL screening assessment is due principally to a significantly more restrictive (conservative) criterion for flaw size acceptance used by EBL. ORNL s screening assessment results (obtained using an analysis methodology different from that of EBL) are interpreted herein as confirming the EBL screening results for D3/T2. ORNL s independent refined analysis demonstrated the EBL-characterized flaw 1660, which is non-compliant in the ORNL and EBL screening assessment, is rendered compliant when modeled as a more realistic individual quasi-laminar flaw using a 3-D XFEM analysis approach. ORNL s and EBL s refined analyses are in good agreement for the flaw 1660 close to the clad/base metal interface; ORNL is not persuaded that repeating this exercise for more than one non-compliant flaw is necessary to accept the EBL conclusions derived from the aggregate of EBL refined analysis results. ORNL General Conclusions Regarding the Structural Integrity Assessment (SIA) Conducted by EBL for D3/T2 Based on comparative evaluations of ORNL and EBL SIA analyses and on consideration of other results, ORNL is in agreement with the general conclusions reported by Electrabel in their RPV D3/T2 Technical Summary Note of April 14, 2015: More than 99 percent of flaws in D3/T2 meet the defined screening criterion, rendering them benign with respect to initiation in the event of a design transient. Refined analyses of non-compliant flaws from the screening assessment indicate that only 11 of the 16196 detected flaws have a critical reference-temperature material index (designated RTNDT) that implies the possibility of the initiation of cleavage fracture at some future time. For those 11 2 flaws, the calculated margin in RTNDT (a measure of acceptable embrittlement relative to end-ofservice-life conditions) is significant, being greater than 80 C. Fatigue crack growth is not a concern in the flaw-acceptability analyses. Primary stress re-evaluation confirms that the collapse pressure is more than 1.5 times the design pressure in the presence of defects detected in D3/T2. Sufficient conservatisms are built into the input data and into the different steps of the SIA; in some cases, those conservatisms are quantified and imply that additional margins exist in the SIA. Taken as a whole, the foregoing results and conclusions confirm the structural integrity of Doel 3 and Tihange 2 under all design transients with ample margin in the presence of the 16196 detected flaws.

  2. CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.

    2010-05-05

    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to advance nuclear science. It was this defense application that formed the basis for the commercial nuclear power industry.

  3. Master plate production for the tile calorimeter extended barrel modules.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guarino, V.J.; Hill, N.; Petereit, E.; Price, L.E.; Proudfoot, J.; Wood, K.

    1999-03-10

    Approximately 41,000 master plates (Fig. 1) are required for the Extended Barrel Hadronic Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Early in the R&D program associated with the detector, it was recognized that the fabrication of these steel laminations was a significant issue, both in terms of the cost to produce these high precision formed plates, as well as the length of time required to produce all plates for the calorimeter. Two approaches were given serious consideration: laser cutting and die stamping. The Argonne group was a strong supporter of the latter approach and in late 1995 initiated an R&D program to demonstrate the feasibility and cost effectiveness of die stamping these plates by constructing a die and stamping approximately 2000 plates for use in construction of three full size prototype modules. This was extremely successful and die stamping was selected by the group for production of these plates. When the prototype die was constructed it was matched to the calorimeter envelope at that time. This subsequently changed. However with some minor adjustments in the design envelope and a small compromise in terms of instrumented volume, it became possible to use this same die for the production of all master plates for the Tile Calorimeter. Following an extensive series of discussions and an evaluation of the performance of the stamping presses available to our collaborators in Europe, it was decided to ship the US die to CERN for use in stamping master plates for the barrel section of the calorimeter. This was done under the supervision of CERN and JINR, Dubna, and carried out at the TATRA truck plant at Koprivinice, Czech Republic. It was a great success. Approximately 41,000 plates were stamped and fully met specification. Moreover, the production time was significantly reduced by avoiding the need of constructing and then qualifying a second die for use in Europe. This also precluded small geometrical differences between the barrel and extended barrel plates (and therefore submodules) being an issue, with the result that standard submodules are fully exchangeable between the two types of module.

  4. Evaluation of Used Fuel Disposition in Clay-Bearing Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jové Colón, Carlos F.; Weck, Philippe F.; Sassani, David H.; Zheng, Liange; Rutqvist, Jonny; Steefel, Carl I.; Kim, Kunhwi; Nakagawa, Seiji; Houseworth, James; Birkholzer, Jens; Caporuscio, Florie A.; Cheshire, Michael; Rearick, Michael S.; McCarney, Mary K.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Benedicto, Ana; Kersting, Annie B.; Sutton, Mark; Jerden, James; Frey, Kurt E.; Copple, Jacqueline M.; Ebert, William

    2014-08-29

    Radioactive waste disposal in shale/argillite rock formations has been widely considered given its desirable isolation properties (low permeability), geochemically reduced conditions, anomalous groundwater pressures, and widespread geologic occurrence. Clay/shale rock formations are characterized by their high content of clay minerals such as smectites and illites where diffusive transport and chemisorption phenomena predominate. These, in addition to low permeability, are key attributes of shale to impede radionuclide mobility. Shale host-media has been comprehensively studied in international nuclear waste repository programs as part of underground research laboratories (URLs) programs in Switzerland, France, Belgium, and Japan. These investigations, in some cases a decade or more long, have produced a large but fundamental body of information spanning from site characterization data (geological, hydrogeological, geochemical, geomechanical) to controlled experiments on the engineered barrier system (EBS) (barrier clay and seals materials). Evaluation of nuclear waste disposal in shale formations in the USA was conducted in the late 70’s and mid 80’s. Most of these studies evaluated the potential for shale to host a nuclear waste repository but not at the programmatic level of URLs in international repository programs. This report covers various R&D work and capabilities relevant to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in shale/argillite media. Integration and cross-fertilization of these capabilities will be utilized in the development and implementation of the shale/argillite reference case planned for FY15. Disposal R&D activities under the UFDC in the past few years have produced state-of-the-art modeling capabilities for coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC), used fuel degradation (source term), and thermodynamic modeling and database development to evaluate generic disposal concepts. The THMC models have been developed for shale repository leveraging in large part on the information garnered in URLs and laboratory data to test and demonstrate model prediction capability and to accurately represent behavior of the EBS and the natural (barrier) system (NS). In addition, experimental work to improve our understanding of clay barrier interactions and TM couplings at high temperatures are key to evaluate thermal effects as a result of relatively high heat loads from waste and the extent of sacrificial zones in the EBS. To assess the latter, experiments and modeling approaches have provided important information on the stability and fate of barrier materials under high heat loads. This information is central to the assessment of thermal limits and the implementation of the reference case when constraining EBS properties and the repository layout (e.g., waste package and drift spacing). This report is comprised of various parts, each one describing various R&D activities applicable to shale/argillite media. For example, progress made on modeling and experimental approaches to analyze physical and chemical interactions affecting clay in the EBS, NS, and used nuclear fuel (source term) in support of R&D objectives. It also describes the development of a reference case for shale/argillite media. The accomplishments of these activities are summarized as follows: Development of a reference case for shale/argillite; Investigation of Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in EBS: FY14; Update on Experimental Activities on Buffer/Backfill Interactions at elevated Pressure and Temperature; and Thermodynamic Database Development: Evaluation Strategy, Modeling Tools, First-Principles Modeling of Clay, and Sorption Database Assessment;ANL Mixed Potential Model For Used Fuel Degradation: Application to Argillite and Crystalline Rock Environments.

  5. RERTR Fuel Developmemt and Qualification Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Wachs

    2007-01-01

    In late 2003 it became evident that U-Mo aluminum fuels under development exhibited significant fuel performance problems under the irradiation conditions required for conversion of most high-powered research reactors. Solutions to the fuel performance issue have been proposed and show promise in early testing. Based on these results, a Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program strategy has been mapped to allow generic fuel qualification to occur prior to the end of FY10 and reactor conversion to occur prior to the end of FY14. This strategy utilizes a diversity of technologies, test conditions, and test types. Scoping studies using miniature fuel plates will be completed in the time frame of 2006-2008. Irradiation of larger specimens will occur in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in the United States, the Belgian Reactor-2 (BR2) reactor in Belgium, and in the OSIRIS reactor in France in 2006-2009. These scoping irradiation tests provide a large amount of data on the performance of advanced fuel types under irradiation and allow the down selection of technology for larger scale testing during the final stages of fuel qualification. In conjunction with irradiation testing, fabrication processes must be developed and made available to commercial fabricators. The commercial fabrication infrastructure must also be upgraded to ensure a reliable low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel supply. Final qualification of fuels will occur in two phases. Phase I will obtain generic approval for use of dispersion fuels with density less than 8.5 g-U/cm3. In order to obtain this approval, a larger scale demonstration of fuel performance and fabrication technology will be necessary. Several Materials Test Reactor (MTR) plate-type fuel assemblies will be irradiated in both the High Flux Reactor (HFR) and the ATR (other options include the BR2 and Russian Research Reactor, Dmitrovgrad, Russia [MIR] reactors) in 2008-2009. Following postirradiation examination, a report detailing very-high density fuel behavior will be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Assuming acceptable fuel behavior, it is anticipated that NRC will issue a Safety Evaluation Report granting generic approval of the developed fuels based on the qualification report. It is anticipated that Phase I of fuel qualification will be completed prior to the end of FY10. Phase II of the fuel qualification requires development of fuels with density greater than 8.5 g-U/cm3. This fuel is required to convert the remaining few reactors that have been identified for conversion. The second phase of the fuel qualification effort includes both dispersion fuels with fuel particle volume loading on the order of 65 percent, and monolithic fuels. Phase II presents a larger set of technical unknowns and schedule uncertainties than phase I. The final step in the fuel qualification process involves insertion of lead test elements into the converting reactors. Each reactor that plans to convert using the developed high-density fuels will develop a reactor specific conversion plan based upon the reactor safety basis and operating requirements. For some reactors (FRM-II, High-Flux Isotope Reactor [HFIR], and RHF) conversion will be a one-step process. In addition to the U.S. fuel development effort, a Russian fuel development strategy has been developed. Contracts with Russian Federation institutes in support of fuel development for Russian are in place.

  6. Report on International Collaboration Involving the FE Heater and HG-A Tests at Mont Terri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houseworth, Jim; Rutqvist, Jonny; Asahina, Daisuke; Chen, Fei; Vilarrasa, Victor; Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens

    2013-11-06

    Nuclear waste programs outside of the US have focused on different host rock types for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Several countries, including France, Switzerland, Belgium, and Japan are exploring the possibility of waste disposal in shale and other clay-rich rock that fall within the general classification of argillaceous rock. This rock type is also of interest for the US program because the US has extensive sedimentary basins containing large deposits of argillaceous rock. LBNL, as part of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, is collaborating on some of the underground research laboratory (URL) activities at the Mont Terri URL near Saint-Ursanne, Switzerland. The Mont Terri project, which began in 1995, has developed a URL at a depth of about 300 m in a stiff clay formation called the Opalinus Clay. Our current collaboration efforts include two test modeling activities for the FE heater test and the HG-A leak-off test. This report documents results concerning our current modeling of these field tests. The overall objectives of these activities include an improved understanding of and advanced relevant modeling capabilities for EDZ evolution in clay repositories and the associated coupled processes, and to develop a technical basis for the maximum allowable temperature for a clay repository. The R&D activities documented in this report are part of the work package of natural system evaluation and tool development that directly supports the following Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) objectives: ? Develop a fundamental understanding of disposal-system performance in a range of environments for potential wastes that could arise from future nuclear-fuel-cycle alternatives through theory, simulation, testing, and experimentation. ? Develop a computational modeling capability for the performance of storage and disposal options for a range of fuel-cycle alternatives, evolving from generic models to more robust models of performance assessment. For the purpose of validating modeling capabilities for thermal-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes, we developed a suite of simulation models for the planned full-scale FE Experiment to be conducted in the Mont Terri URL, including a full three-dimensional model that will be used for direct comparison to experimental data once available. We performed for the first time a THM analysis involving the Barcelona Basic Model (BBM) in a full three-dimensional field setting for modeling the geomechanical behavior of the buffer material and its interaction with the argillaceous host rock. We have simulated a well defined benchmark that will be used for codeto- code verification against modeling results from other international modeling teams. The analysis highlights the complex coupled geomechanical behavior in the buffer and its interaction with the surrounding rock and the importance of a well characterized buffer material in terms of THM properties. A new geomechanical fracture-damage model, TOUGH-RBSN, was applied to investigate damage behavior in the ongoing HG-A test at Mont Terri URL. Two model modifications have been implemented so that the Rigid-Body-Spring-Network (RBSN) model can be used for analysis of fracturing around the HG-A microtunnel. These modifications are (1) a methodology to compute fracture generation under compressive stress conditions and (2) a method to represent anisotropic elastic and strength properties. The method for computing fracture generation under compressive load produces results that roughly follow trends expected for homogeneous and layered systems. Anisotropic properties for the bulk rock were represented in the RBSN model using layered heterogeneity and gave bulk material responses in line with expectations. These model improvements were implemented for an initial model of fracture damage at the HG-A test. While the HG-A test model results show some similarities with the test observations, differences between the model results and observations remain.

  7. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R. C.; McCarley, T. M.

    2006-05-04

    The overall goal of this project was to establish an education and training program in biobased products at Iowa State University (ISU). In particular, a graduate program in Biorenewable Resources and Technology (BRT) was to be established as a way of offering students advanced study in the use of plant- and crop-based resources in the production of biobased products. The program was to include three fundamental elements: an academic program, a research program, and industrial interactions. The academic program set out to introduce a new graduate major in Biorenewable Resources and Technology. Unlike other schools, which only offer certificates or areas of emphasis in biobased products, Iowa State University offers both M.S. and Ph.D degrees through its graduate program. Core required courses in Biorenewable Resources and Technology include a foundation course entitled Fundamentals of Biorenewable Resources (BRT 501); a seminar course entitled Biobased Products Seminar (BRT 506); a laboratory course, and a special topics laboratory course. The foundation course is a three-credit course introducing students to basic concepts in biorenewable resources and technology. The seminar course provides students with an opportunity to hear from nationally and internationally recognized leaders in the field. The laboratory requirement is a 1-credit laboratory course or a special topics laboratory/research experience (BRT 591L). As part of student recruitment, quarter-time assistantships from DOE funds were offered to supplement assistantships provided by faculty to students. Research was built around platform teams in an effort to encourage interdisciplinary research and collaborative student learning in biorenewable resources. A platform is defined as the convergence of enabling technologies into a highly integrated system for transforming a specific feedstock into desired products. The platform teams parallel the way industry conducts research and product development. Platform teams organize faculty and students for cross-disciplinary, systems-oriented research and collaborative learning. To date, nine platforms have been developed, although these will most likely be reorganized into a smaller number of broader topics. In the spring of 2004, BRT faculty initiated a regional partnership and collaborative learning program with colleagues at the University of Minnesota, Kansas State University, and South Dakota State University to develop distance education courses in biorenewable resources and technology. As a fledgling graduate program, the BRT graduate program didn’t have the breadth of resources to offer a large number of courses in biorenewables. Other schools faced a similar problem. The academic consortium as first conceived would allow students from the member schools to enroll in biorenewables courses from any of the participating schools, which would assure the necessary enrollment numbers to offer specialized course work. Since its inception, the collaborative curriculum partnership has expanded to include Louisiana State University and the University of Wisconsin. A second international curriculum development campaign was also initiated in the spring of 2004. In particular, several BRT faculty teamed with colleagues at the University of Arkansas, University of Washington, University of Gent (Belgium), National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse (France), and Technical University of Graz (Austria) to develop an EU-US exchange program in higher education and vocational education/training (entitled “Renewable Resources and Clean Technology”).

  8. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the properties (parameters) used in these models are different, which not only make inter-model comparisons difficult, but also compromise the applicability of the lessons learned from one model to another model. The establishment of a reference case would therefore be helpful to set up a baseline for model development. A generic salt repository reference case was developed in Freeze et al. (2013) and the generic argillite repository reference case is presented in this report. The definition of a reference case requires the characterization of the waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, EBS backfill, host rock, and biosphere. This report mainly documents the processes in EBS bentonite and host rock that are potentially important for performance assessment and properties that are needed to describe these processes, with brief description other components such as waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, aquifer, and biosphere. A thorough description of the generic argillite repository reference case will be given in Jové Colon et al. (2014).

  9. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F-fly ash. Some developed technologies have similar potential in the longer term. (3) Laboratory studies have been completed that indicate that much higher amounts of fly ash could be added in cement-concrete applications under some circumstances. This could significantly increase use of fly ash in cement-concrete applications. (4) A study of the long-term environmental effects of structural fills in a surface mine in Indiana was completed. This study has provided much sought after data for permitting large-volume management options in both beneficial as well as non-beneficial use settings. (5) The impact of CBRC on CCBs utilization trends is difficult to quantify. However it is fair to say that the CBRC program had a significant positive impact on increased utilization of CCBs in every region of the USA. Today, the overall utilization of CCBs is over 43%. (6) CBRC-developed knowledge base led to a large number of other projects completed with support from other sources of funding. (7) CBRC research has also had a large impact on CCBs management across the globe. Information transfer activities and visitors from leading coal producing countries such as South Africa, Australia, England, India, China, Poland, Czech Republic and Japan are truly noteworthy. (8) Overall, the CBRC has been a truly successful, cooperative research program. It has brought together researchers, industry, government, and regulators to deal with a major problem facing the USA and other coal producing countries in the world.

  10. Growth and Expansion of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project and the Newly Organized International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Satori

    2007-05-01

    Since ICNC 2003, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) has continued to expand its efforts and broaden its scope. Criticality-alarm / shielding type benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications are not only included in the scope of the project, but benchmark data are also included in the latest version of the handbook. A considerable number of improvements have been made to the searchable database, DICE and the criticality-alarm / shielding benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements have been included in the database. There were 12 countries participating on the ICSBEP in 2003. That number has increased to 18 with recent contributions of data and/or resources from Brazil, Czech Republic, Poland, India, Canada, and China. South Africa, Germany, Argentina, and Australia have been invited to participate. Since ICNC 2003, the contents of the “International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments” have increased from 350 evaluations (28,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3070 critical or subcritical configurations to 442 evaluations (over 38,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3957 critical or subcritical configurations, 23 criticality-alarm-placement / shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 20 configurations that have been categorized as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications in the 2006 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. Approximately 30 new evaluations and 250 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2007 Edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2003, a reactor physics counterpart to the ICSBEP, The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated. Beginning in 1999, the IRPhEP was conducted as a pilot activity by the by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Nuclear Science Committee (NSC). The project was endorsed as an official activity of the NSC in June of 2003. The IRPhEP is patterned after its predecessor, the ICSBEP, but focuses on other integral measurements such as buckling, spectral characteristics, reactivity effects, reactivity coefficients, kinetics measurements, reaction-rate and power distributions, nuclide compositions and other miscellaneous types of measurements in addition to the critical configuration. The two projects are closely coordinated to avoid duplication of effort and to leverage limited resources to achieve a common goal. The purpose of the IRPhEP is to provide an extensively peer reviewed set of reactor physics related integral benchmark data that can be used by reactor designers and safety analysts to validate the analytical tools used to design next generation reactors and establish the safety basis for operation of these reactors. While coordination and administration of the IRPhEP takes place at an international level, each participating country is responsible for the administration, technical direction, and priorities of the project within their respective countries. The work of the IRPhEP is documented in an OECD NEA Handbook entitled, “International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.” The first edition of this Handbook, the 2006 Edition spans over 2000 pages and contains data from 16 different experimental series that were

  11. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., those pipelines designed for in-plant transport of hydrogen for use as feedstock or fuel are not counted). Operational status and hydrogen purity levels are also factors in defining these ranges. Hydrogen pipelines in the United States are predominantly along the Gulf Coast and connect major hydrogen producers with well-established, long-term customers. These hydrogen transmission systems pall by comparison with the 180,000-mile natural gas transmission pipeline. Since 1939, Germany has had a 130-mile pipeline carrying 20,000 lb/hour of hydrogen in a 10-inch pipe at 290 psi gauge (psig). The longest hydrogen pipeline in Europe is owned by Air Liquide and extends 250 miles from Northern France to Belgium. In theory, a blend of up to 20% hydrogen in natural gas can be transported without modifying natural gas pipelines (Oney et al. 1994).