Sample records for behavior charge transport

  1. Transport of elliptic intense charged -particle beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J. (Jing), 1978-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport theory of high-intensity elliptic charged-particle beams is presented. In particular, the halo formation and beam loss problem associated with the high space charge and small-aperture structure is addressed, ...

  2. Transport in Charged Colloids Driven by Thermoelectricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alois Würger

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermal diffusion coefficient DT of a charged colloid in a temperature gradient, and find that it is to a large extent determined by the thermoelectric response of the electrolyte solution. The thermally induced salinity gradient leads in general to a strong increase with temperature. The difference of the heat of transport of coions and counterions gives rise to a thermoelectric field that drives the colloid to the cold or to the warm, depending on the sign of its charge. Our results provide an explanation for recent experimental findings on thermophoresis in colloidal suspensions.

  3. Nanoscale Charge Transport in Excitonic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkat Bommisetty, South Dakota State University

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such effort can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well defined electronic structures.

  4. Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic Semiconductor Graphene, a two dimensional semi-metal made of sp 2 hybridized carbon, is an outstanding material...

  5. Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic Semiconductor Friday, January 30, 2015 Graphene, a two dimensional semi-metal made of sp2 hybridized carbon, is...

  6. Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport Print Layered transition metal oxides are the focus of intense research efforts because they might clarify the...

  7. Aspects of charge recombination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Difley, Seth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, aspects of charge reconbination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices are presented. These devices show promise relative to traditional inorganic semiconductors. We show ...

  8. Surface-Plasmon Assisted Exciton and Charge Carrier Transport...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface-Plasmon Assisted Exciton and Charge Carrier Transport in One Dimensional Nanostructures February 21, 2013 at 3pm36-428 Andrei Piryatinski Physics of Condensed Matter and...

  9. CHARACTERIZING COUPLED CHARGE TRANSPORT WITH MULTISCALE MOLECULAR DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, Jessica

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final progress report for Award DE-SC0004920, entitled 'Characterizing coupled charge transport with multi scale molecular dynamics'. The technical abstract will be provided in the uploaded report.

  10. Transport in charged colloids driven by thermoelectricity Alois Wrger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . There is no complete description for the underlying physical forces, and even the sign of the thermophoretic mobility negative thermophoretic mobility has been reported for charged latex spheres in a bu¤ered so- lution. Like any linear transport coe¢ cient in a viscous uid, the thermophoretic mobility DT has

  11. Surface-Charge-Governed Ion Transport in Nanofluidic Channels Derek Stein, Maarten Kruithof, and Cees Dekker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Surface-Charge-Governed Ion Transport in Nanofluidic Channels Derek Stein, Maarten Kruithof the role of surface charge in governing conductance at low salt concentrations. Nanofluidic channels [Fig

  12. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV demonstrations. One such previous study was a PHEV demonstration conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). AVTA's PHEV demonstration involved over 250 vehicles in the United States, Canada, and Finland. This paper summarizes driving and charging behavior observed in that demonstration, including the distribution of distance driven between charging events, charging frequency, and resulting proportion of operation charge depleting mode. Charging demand relative to time of day and day of the week will also be shown. Conclusions from the PHEV demonstration will be given which highlight the need for expanded analysis in The EV Project. For example, the AVTA PHEV demonstration showed that in the absence of controlled charging by the vehicle owner or electric utility, the majority of vehicles were charged in the evening hours, coincident with typical utility peak demand. Given this baseline, The EV Project will demonstrate the effects of consumer charge control and grid-side charge management on electricity demand. This paper will outline further analyses which will be performed by eTec and INL to documenting driving and charging behavior of vehicles operated in a infrastructure-rich environment.

  13. Electricity Demand of PHEVs Operated by Private Households and Commercial Fleets: Effects of Driving and Charging Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Matthew Shirk; Ken Kurani; Casey Quinn; Jamie Davies

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automotive and energy researchers have made considerable efforts to predict the impact of plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) charging on the electrical grid. This work has been done primarily through computer modeling and simulation. The US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), in partnership with the University of California at Davis’s Institute for Transportation Stuides, have been collecting data from a diverse fleet of PHEVs. The AVTA is conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. This work provides the opportunity to quantify the petroleum displacement potential of early PHEV models, and also observe, rather than simulate, the charging behavior of vehicle users. This paper presents actual charging behavior and the resulting electricity demand from these PHEVs operating in undirected, real-world conditions. Charging patterns are examined for both commercial-use and personal-use vehicles. Underlying reasons for charging behavior in both groups are also presented.

  14. Ratchet transport for a chain of interacting charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. I. Denisov; E. S. Denisova; P. Hänggi

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study analytically and numerically the overdamped, deterministic dynamics of a chain of {\\it charged}, interacting particles driven by a longitudinal alternating electric field and additionally interacting with a smooth ratchet potential. We derive the equations of motion, analyze the general properties of their solutions and find the drift criterion for chain motion. For ratchet potentials of the form of a double-sine and a phase-modulated sine it is demonstrated that both, a so-called integer and fractional transport of the chain can occur. Explicit results for the directed chain transport for these two classes of ratchet potentials are presented.

  15. Charge transport properties of CdMnTe radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim K.; Rafiel, R.; Boardman, M.; Reinhard, I.; Sarbutt, A.; Watt, G.; Watt, C.; Uxa, S.; Prokopovich, D.A.; Belas, E.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; James, R.B.

    2012-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth, fabrication and characterization of indium-doped cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe)radiation detectors have been described. Alpha-particle spectroscopy measurements and time resolved current transient measurements have yielded an average charge collection efficiency approaching 100 %. Spatially resolved charge collection efficiency maps have been produced for a range of detector bias voltages. Inhomogeneities in the charge transport of the CdMnTe crystals have been associated with chains of tellurium inclusions within the detector bulk. Further, it has been shown that the role of tellurium inclusions in degrading chargecollection is reduced with increasing values of bias voltage. The electron transit time was determined from time of flight measurements. From the dependence of drift velocity on applied electric field the electron mobility was found to be n = (718 55) cm2/Vs at room temperature.

  16. Vehicle remote charge-all electric transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a pollution-free transportation system that utilizes technology from the defense industry combines two industries in a commercial venture. In conjunction with the abatement of pollution that an all-electric transportation system would realize, the defense industry is looking for a commercial market for the technology that it has developed over the years. This new transportation system will accomplish both these goals. To date, the most reliable electric source has been overhead tethered lines or on-ground tracks in public transportation. But these greatly reduce the convenience of route changes and are at the mercy of small traffic pattern changes which can cause traffic tie-ups. The ideal electric bus would have a completely mobile energy source, such as a battery pack. But the limited range of a battery powered vehicle has diminished its use to only specific cases. In private vehicles also, the limited range of zero-pollution battery power has reduced the desirability of all-electric transportation. The electric transportation system proposed here will eliminate these problems. Buses will be sent out on their routes with convenient in-route charging. There will be minimum route changes to accommodate vehicle recharging. The buses will have full mobility and can avoid any traffic tie-ups. The charging of these on-board electrical energy storage systems will take place via a wireless power transmission network that will be established along the roadside on existing power line (telephone) poles or new stand-alone poles that would be in conjunction with the existing poles. Radio frequency (RF) wavelengths such as a microwave or a millimeterwave system or optical frequencies (OF), a laser based system, are wireless energy transmission systems. Utilizing this means to establish a nationwide transportation system will take a technology that has been defense based and use it in a commercial application.

  17. Charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers: A theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Haijian; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Gengzhao; Shi, Lin; Fan, Yingmin; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: kxu2006@sinano.ac.cn; Wang, Jianfeng; Ren, Guoqiang [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Suzhou Nanowin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene has been proposed as a material for semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Understanding the charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers will be crucial for future applications. Here, we report a theoretical model to describe the transport mechanisms at the interface of graphene and semiconductors based on conventional semiconductor Schottky theory and a floating Fermi level of graphene. The contact barrier heights can be estimated through this model and be close to the values obtained from the experiments, which are lower than those of the metal/semiconductor contacts. A detailed analysis reveals that the barrier heights are as the function of the interface separations and dielectric constants, and are influenced by the interfacial states of semiconductors. Our calculations show how this behavior of lowering barrier heights arises from the Fermi level shift of graphene induced by the charge transfer owing to the unique linear electronic structure.

  18. Mass Transport Investigated with the Electrochemical and Electrogravimetric Impedance Techniques. 3. Complex Charge Transport in PPy/PSS Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwak, Juhyoun

    Mass Transport Investigated with the Electrochemical and Electrogravimetric Impedance Techniques. 3. Complex Charge Transport in PPy/PSS Films Haesik Yang and Juhyoun Kwak* Department of Chemistry, Korea AdVember 24, 1997 For the first time, the complex charge transport mechanism for polypyrrole

  19. Charge Transport and Glassy Dynamics in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangoro, Joshua R [ORNL; Kremer, Friedrich [University of Leipzig

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit unique features such as low melting points, low vapor pressures, wide liquidus temperature ranges, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical windows. As a result, they show promise for use in variety of applications: as reaction media, in batteries and supercapacitors, in solar and fuel cells, for electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors, for protein extraction and crystallization, and many others. Because of the ease with which they can be supercooled, ionic liquids offer new opportunities to investigate long-standing questions regarding the nature of the dynamic glass transition and its possible link to charge transport. Despite the significant steps achieved from experimental and theoretical studies, no generally accepted quantitative theory of dynamic glass transition to date has been capable of reproducing all the experimentally observed features. In this Account, we discuss recent studies of the interplay between charge transport and glassy dynamics in ionic liquids as investigated by a combination of several experimental techniques including broadband dielectric spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Based on EinsteinSmoluchowski relations, we use dielectric spectra of ionic liquids to determine diffusion coefficients in quantitative agreement with independent pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, but spanning a broader range of more than 10 orders of magnitude. This approach provides a novel opportunity to determine the electrical mobility and effective number density of charge carriers as well as their types of thermal activation from the measured dc conductivity separately. We also unravel the origin of the remarkable universality of charge transport in different classes of glass-forming ionic liquids.

  20. Charge transport in micas: The kinetics of FeII/III electron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transport in micas: The kinetics of FeIIIII electron transfer in the octahedral sheet. Charge transport in micas: The kinetics of FeIIIII electron transfer in the octahedral...

  1. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 219 (2002) 7377 Protein charge transport in gas phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheu, Sheh-Yi

    temperature limit, the rotational energy can be transferred with very high efficiency and hence one obtainsInternational Journal of Mass Spectrometry 219 (2002) 73­77 Protein charge transport in gas phase high charge transport efficiency. (Int J Mass Spectrom 219 (2002) 73­77) © 2002 Elsevier Science B

  2. Transport mechanisms and experimental evidence of positively charged dust particles in an argon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.A.; Hareland, W.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Collins, S.M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that dense particle clouds often reside within the steady-state plasma; however, particle transport in the critical post-plasma period has not yet been fully explored. To better understand and characterize particle behavior, charge and transport properties of dust particles in an argon plasma, contained within a Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) reference cell, were studied in the steady-state and post-plasma regimes of a 500 mTorr, 25 W argon discharge. Using separate water chillers to control independently the temperatures of the upper and lower electrodes, various temperature gradients were imposed on the plasma and thermophoretic transport of the particle clouds observed for both steady and decaying discharges. Next, using a pulsed rf power supply and a tuned Langmuir probe, the decay times of electrons and ions were measured in the afterglow. Finally, utilizing high-speed video in concert with 10 mW He-Ne laser light, post-plasma particle trajectories were observed for various electric fields and electrode temperatures. Results were then compared to calculations from a net force model that included gravity, the electric field, fluid flow, ion drag, and thermophoresis. It was found that temperature gradients greater than {approximately} 10 C/cm significantly altered particle cloud configurations in steady plasmas, and provided a strong transport mechanism in the afterglow. Electrically, the measured ion density decay time was approximately equal to that of the electrons, consistent with ambipolar diffusion.

  3. Critical Behavior of the Thermoelectric Transport Properties in Amorphous Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemnitz, Technische Universität

    Critical Behavior of the Thermoelectric Transport Properties in Amorphous Systems near the Metal., London SW7 2BZ, U.K. Abstract The scaling behavior of the thermoelectric trans- port properties;, the thermoelectric power S, the thermal conductivity K and the Lorenz number L0 obey scaling. The scaling description

  4. The Influence of Morphology on the Charge Transport in Two-Phase Disordered Organic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristiano F. Woellner; Leonardo D. Machado; Pedro A. S. Autreto; Jose A. Freire; Douglas S. Galvao

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we use a three-dimensional Pauli master equation to investigate the charge carrier mobility of a two-phase system, which can mimic donor-acceptor and amorphous- crystalline bulk heterojunctions. Our approach can be separated into two parts: the morphology generation and the charge transport modeling in the generated blend. The morphology part is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of binary mixtures (donor/acceptor). The second part is carried out by numerically solving the steady-state Pauli master equation. By taking the energetic disorder of each phase, their energy offset and domain morphology into consideration, we show that the carrier mobility can have a significant different behavior when compared to a one-phase system. When the energy offset is non-zero, we show that the mobility electric field dependence switches from negative to positive at a threshold field proportional to the energy offset. Additionally, the influence of morphology, through the domain size and the interfacial roughness parameters, on the transport was also investigated.

  5. Controllable spin-charge transport in strained graphene nanoribbon devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diniz, Ginetom S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Guassi, Marcos R. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Qu, Fanyao [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically investigate the spin-charge transport in two-terminal device of graphene nanoribbons in the presence of a uniform uniaxial strain, spin-orbit coupling, exchange field, and smooth staggered potential. We show that the direction of applied strain can efficiently tune strain-strength induced oscillation of band-gap of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR). It is also found that electronic conductance in both AGNR and zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) oscillates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling akin to the Datta-Das field effect transistor. Two distinct strain response regimes of electronic conductance as function of spin-orbit couplings magnitude are found. In the regime of small strain, conductance of ZGNR presents stronger strain dependence along the longitudinal direction of strain. Whereas for high values of strain shows larger effect for the transversal direction. Furthermore, the local density of states shows that depending on the smoothness of the staggered potential, the edge states of AGNR can either emerge or be suppressed. These emerging states can be determined experimentally by either spatially scanning tunneling microscope or by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Our findings open up new paradigms of manipulation and control of strained graphene based nanostructure for application on novel topological quantum devices.

  6. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spädtke, Peter, E-mail: p.spaedtke@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)] [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation.

  7. Quasi-Ohmic Single Molecule Charge Transport through Highly Conjugated meso-to-meso Ethyne-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    S-1 Quasi-Ohmic Single Molecule Charge Transport through Highly Conjugated meso-to-meso Ethyne, subjected to three freeze-pump-thaw- degas cycles, was added to the reaction tube. After the reaction

  8. Comparison of quantization of charge transport in periodic and open pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gian Michele Graf; Gregorio Ortelli

    2007-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare the charges transported in two systems, a spatially periodic and an open quantum pump, both depending periodically and adiabatically on time. The charge transported in a cycle was computed by Thouless, respectively by Buttiker et al. in the two cases. We show that the results agree in the limit where the two physical situations become the same, i.e., that of a large open pump.

  9. Parametrization of extended Gaussian disorder models from microscopic charge transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    -size effects at small charge densities, the data is fitted to the uncorrelated and correlated extended Gaussian to compound synthesis. 1 Introduction The optimization of organic photovoltaic cells,1,2 light emitting diodes,3 and field effect tran- sistors4 requires the improvement of the charge-carrier mobility, µ

  10. BEV Charging Behavior Observed in The EV Project for 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brion D. Bennett

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet will be issued quarterly to report on the number of Nissan Leafs vehicle usage, charging locations, and charging completeness as part of the EV Project. It will be posted on the INL/AVTA and ECOtality websites and will be accessible by the general public. The raw data that is used to create the report is considered proprietary/OUO and NDA protected, but the information in this report is NOT proprietary nor NDA protected.

  11. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  12. Charge Transport through Organized Organic Assemblies in Confined Geometries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuckman, Amanda Eileen

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    is the calculated non-space charge limited conductance. This photogated device is an early example of an all- organic molecular electronic. Reproduced from ref. [45] with permission of the copyright holders... for the progression of smaller and faster devices being able to replicate the invaluable techniques to scale down the feature size with little or no modification to their methods. ____________ This dissertation follows the style of the Journal...

  13. Charge Transport through Organized Organic Assemblies in Confined Geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuckman, Amanda Eileen

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    of Advisory Committee: Dr. James D. Batteas Organic molecules such as porphyrins and alkanethiols are currently being investigated for applications such as sensors, light-emitting diodes and single electron transistors. Porphyrins are stable, highly..., molecules have shown their potential for applications such as information storage, charge separation, single electron transistors, current routers and gates and continue to be designed for use in solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, sensors...

  14. Charge carrier transport mechanisms in perovskite CdTiO{sub 3} fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imran, Z.; Rafiq, M. A., E-mail: aftab@cantab.net; Hasan, M. M. [Micro and Nano Devices Group, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad, 45650 (Pakistan)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical transport properties of electrospun cadmium titanate (CdTiO{sub 3}) fibers have been investigated using ac and dc measurements. Air annealing of as spun fibers at 1000?°C yielded the single phase perovskite fibers having diameter ?600 nm - 800 nm. Both the ac and dc electrical measurements were carried out at temperatures from 200 K – 420 K. The complex impedance plane plots revealed a single semicircular arc which indicates the interfacial effect due to grain boundaries of fibers. The dielectric properties obey the Maxwell-Wagner theory of interfacial polarization. In dc transport study at low voltages, data show Ohmic like behavior followed by space charge limited current (SCLC) with traps at higher voltages at all temperatures (200 K – 420 K). Trap density in our fibers system is N{sub t} = 6.27 × 10{sup 17} /cm{sup 3}. Conduction mechanism in the sample is governed by 3-D variable range hopping (VRH) from 200 K – 300 K. The localized density of states were found to be N(E{sub F}) = 5.51 × 10{sup 21} eV{sup ?1} cm{sup ?3} at 2 V. Other VRH parameters such as hopping distance (R{sub hop}) and hopping energy (W{sub hop}) were also calculated. In the high temperature range of 320 K – 420 K, conductivity follows the Arrhenius law. The activation energy found at 2 V is 0.10 eV. Temperature dependent and higher values of dielectric constant make the perovskite CdTiO{sub 3} fibers efficient material for capacitive energy storage devices.

  15. Space Charge Compensation in the Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport Line with Negative Hydrogen Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valerio-Lizarraga, C; Leon-Monzon, I; Lettry, J; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Tranport (LEBT) using the package IBSimu1, which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H- beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  16. Polymer Nanofibers and Nanotubes: Charge Transport and Device Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrey N. Aleshin

    2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A critical analysis of recent advances in synthesis and electrical characterization of nanofibers and nanotubes made of different conjugated polymers is presented. The applicability of various theoretical models is considered in order to explain results on transport in conducting polymer nanofibers and nanotubes. The relationship between these results and the one-dimensional (1D) nature of the conjugated polymers is discussed in light of theories for tunneling in 1D conductors (e.g. Luttinger liquid, Wigner crystal). The prospects for nanoelectronic applications of polymer fibers and tubes as wires, nanoscale field-effect transistors (nanoFETs), and in other applications are analyzed.

  17. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng, E-mail: smeng@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ?15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  18. Charge transport in mixed CdSe and CdTe colloidal nanocrystal films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bawendi, Moungi G.

    We report the influence of trap states on charge transport through films of mixed CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) between lateral electrodes, through layered films of CdTe and CdSe NCs in a layered geometry, and through ...

  19. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A., E-mail: cristhian.alfonso.valerio.lizarraga@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)] [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico)] [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico); Midttun, Øystein [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup ?} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  20. Charge Transport Limitations in Self-Assembled TiO2 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Ullrich

    Charge Transport Limitations in Self-Assembled TiO2 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Storage; Energy and Charge Transport The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) has attracted wide- spread. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, United Kingdom *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Solid-state dye-sensitized

  1. Charge Transport Properties in TiO2 Network with Different Particle Sizes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    the large improvement in performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) achieved in 1991, mesoporousCharge Transport Properties in TiO2 Network with Different Particle Sizes for Dye Sensitized Solar sensitized solar cells, nanoparticle size, impedance, charge transport properties INTRODUCTION Since

  2. Mesoscale Phase-Field Modeling of Charge Transport in Nanocomposite Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sushko, Maria L.

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A phase-field model is developed to investigate the influence of microstructure, thermodynamic and kinetic properties, and charging conditions on charged particle transport in nanocomposite electrodes. Two sets of field variables are used to describe the microstructure. One is comprised of the order parameters describing size, orientation and spatial distributions of nanoparticles, and the other is comprised of the concentrations of mobile species. A porous nanoparticle microstructure filled with electrolyte is taken as a model system to test the phase-field model. Inhomogeneous and anisotropic dielectric constants and mobilities of charged particles, and stresses associated with lattice deformation due to Li-ion insertion/extraction are considered in the model. Iteration methods are used to find the elastic and electric fields in an elastically and electrically inhomogeneous medium. The results demonstrate that the model is capable of predicting charge separation associated with the formation of a double layer at the electrochemical interface between solid and electrolyte, and the effect of microstructure, inhomogeneous and anisotropic thermodynamic and kinetic properties, charge rates, and stresses on voltage versus current density and capacity during charging and discharging.

  3. PATH: a lumped-element beam-transport simulation program with space charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, J.A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PATH is a group of computer programs for simulating charged-particle beam-transport systems. It was developed for evaluating the effects of some aberrations without a time-consuming integration of trajectories through the system. The beam-transport portion of PATH is derived from the well-known program, DECAY TURTLE. PATH contains all features available in DECAY TURTLE (including the input format) plus additional features such as a more flexible random-ray generator, longitudinal phase space, some additional beamline elements, and space-charge routines. One of the programs also provides a simulation of an Alvarez linear accelerator. The programs, originally written for a CDC 7600 computer system, also are available on a VAX-VMS system. All of the programs are interactive with input prompting for ease of use.

  4. Effect of conformations on charge transport in a thin elastic tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Radha

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of conformations on charge transport in a thin elastic tube. Using the Kirchhoff model for a tube with any given Poisson ratio, cross-sectional shape and intrinsic twist, we obtain a class of exact solutions for its conformation. The tube's torsion is found in terms of its intrinsic twist and its Poisson ratio, while its curvature satisfies a nonlinear differential equation which supports exact {\\it periodic} solutions in the form of Jacobi elliptic functions, which we call {\\it conformon lattice} solutions. These solutions typically describe conformations with loops. Each solution induces a corresponding quantum effective {\\it periodic} potential in the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for an electron in the tube. The wave function describes the delocalization of the electron along the central axis of the tube. We discuss some possible applications of this novel mechanism of charge transport.

  5. Effect of conformations on charge transport in a thin elastic tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radha Balakrishnan; Rossen Dandoloff

    2008-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of conformations on charge transport in a thin elastic tube. Using the Kirchhoff model for a tube with any given Poisson ratio, cross-sectional shape and intrinsic twist, we obtain a class of exact solutions for its conformation. The tube's torsion is found in terms of its intrinsic twist and its Poisson ratio, while its curvature satisfies a nonlinear differential equation which supports exact {\\it periodic} solutions in the form of Jacobi elliptic functions, which we call {\\it conformon lattice} solutions. These solutions typically describe conformations with loops. Each solution induces a corresponding quantum effective {\\it periodic} potential in the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for an electron in the tube. The wave function describes the delocalization of the electron along the central axis of the tube. We discuss some possible applications of this novel mechanism of charge transport.

  6. Mean carrier transport properties and charge collection dynamics of single-crystal, natural type IIa diamonds from ion-induced conductivity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, S.S.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion-induced conductivity has been used to investigate the detector characteristics of diamond detectors. Both integrated-charge, and time-resolved current measurements were performed to examine the mean carrier transport properties of diamond and the dynamics of charge collection under highly-localized and high-density excitation conditions. The integrated-charge measurements were conducted with a standard pulse-counting system with {sup 241}Am radioactivity as the excitation source for the detectors. The time-resolved current measurements were performed using a 70 GHz random sampling oscilloscope with the detectors incorporated into high-speed microstrip transmission lines and the excitation source for these measurements was an ion beam of either 5-MeV He{sup +} or 10-MeV Si{sup 3+}. The detectors used in both experiments can be described as metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) devices where a volume of the detector material is sandwiched between two metal plates. A charge collection model was developed to interpret the integrated-charge measurements which enabled estimation of the energy required to produce an electron-hole pair ({epsilon}{sub di}) and the mean carrier transport properties in diamond, such as carrier mobility and lifetime, and the behavior of the electrical contacts to diamond.

  7. Quasi-Ohmic Single Molecule Charge Transport through Highly Conjugated meso-to-meso Ethyne-Bridged Porphyrin Wires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    ),24-29 including oligophenyleneimines (OPIs),7 butadiyne-bridged multi(porphyrin) systems,15(tetrathiafulvalene-pyromellitic- diimide-imine)s.27 Frisbie et al. have chronicled a change in charge transport mechanism in OPIs from

  8. Homogenization of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations for Ion Transport in Charged Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Schmuck; Martin Z. Bazant

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations are derived for macroscopic ion transport in charged porous media under periodic fluid flow by an asymptotic multi-scale expansion with drift. The microscopic setting is a two-component periodic composite consisting of a dilute electrolyte continuum (described by standard PNP equations) and a continuous dielectric matrix, which is impermeable to the ions and carries a given surface charge. Four new features arise in the upscaled equations: (i) the effective ionic diffusivities and mobilities become tensors, related to the microstructure; (ii) the effective permittivity is also a tensor, depending on the electrolyte/matrix permittivity ratio and the ratio of the Debye screening length to the macroscopic length of the porous medium; (iii) the microscopic fluidic convection is replaced by a diffusion-dispersion correction in the effective diffusion tensor; and (iv) the surface charge per volume appears as a continuous "background charge density", as in classical membrane models. The coefficient tensors in the upscaled PNP equations can be calculated from periodic reference cell problems. For an insulating solid matrix, all gradients are corrected by the same tensor, and the Einstein relation holds at the macroscopic scale, which is not generally the case for a polarizable matrix, unless the permittivity and electric field are suitably defined. In the limit of thin double layers, Poisson's equation is replaced by macroscopic electroneutrality (balancing ionic and surface charges). The general form of the macroscopic PNP equations may also hold for concentrated solution theories, based on the local-density and mean-field approximations. These results have broad applicability to ion transport in porous electrodes, separators, membranes, ion-exchange resins, soils, porous rocks, and biological tissues.

  9. Generalized space-charge limited current and virtual cathode behaviors in one-dimensional drift space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhanfeng; Liu, Guozhi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China) [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-13, Xi'an 710024 (China); Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua; Sun, Jun [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-13, Xi'an 710024 (China)] [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-13, Xi'an 710024 (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the space-charge limited current (SLC) and virtual cathode behaviors in one-dimensional grounded drift space. A simple general analytical solution and an approximate solution for the planar diode are given. Through a semi-analytical method, a general solution for SLC in one-dimensional drift space is obtained. The behaviors of virtual cathode in the drift space, including dominant frequency, electron transit time, position, and transmitted current, are yielded analytically. The relationship between the frequency of the virtual cathode oscillation and the injected current presented may explain previously reported numerical works. Results are significant in facilitating estimations and further analytical studies.

  10. Methods for two-dimensional charged-particle transport in collisionless plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forslund, D.W.; Brackbill, J.U.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for modeling multi-dimensional charged particle transport in self-consistent electric and magnetic fields is presented. An implicit formulation of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations removes the usual restrictions on time and mesh spacing so that low frequency and large scale-length plasma phenomena can be studied. The improvement over previous explicit methods is literally orders of magnitude. As developed in a new code VENUS, we describe the algorithm and its stability and accuracy properties. This method allows one to bridge the enormous gap between the high frequency short scale-length collective plasma phenomena and the slow time scales and large-scale lengths of hydrodynamic processes. It should result in a significant improvement of phenomenological models of transport in existing hydrodynamics codes. Applications are given that include the discovery of the important role of self-generated magnetic fields in the convective transport of electron energy in laser irradiated plasmas. The transport, which occurs in the magnetized collisionless plasma corona, carries energy large distances from the laser deposition region in agreement with a wide variety of experimental data on apparent inhibited electron transport and fast ion loss.

  11. Chiral vortical wave and induced flavor charge transport in a rotating quark-gluon plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show the existence of a new gapless collective excitation in a rotating fluid system with chiral fermions, named as the Chiral Vortical Wave (CVW). The CVW has its microscopic origin at the quantum anomaly and macroscopically arises from interplay between vector and axial charge fluctuations induced by vortical effects. The wave equation is obtained both from hydrodynamic current equations and from chiral kinetic theory and its solutions show nontrivial CVW-induced charge transport from different initial conditions. Using the rotating quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions as a concrete example, we show the formation of induced flavor quadrupole in QGP and estimate the elliptic flow splitting effect for Lambda baryons that may be experimentally measured.

  12. Mode-selective vibrational control of charge transport in $?$-conjugated molecular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artem A. Bakulin; Robert Lovrin?i?; Yu Xi; Oleg Selig; Huib J. Bakker; Yves L. A. Rezus; Pabitra K. Nayak; Alexandr Fonari; Veaceslav Coropceanu; Jean-Luc Brédas; David Cahen

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The soft character of organic materials leads to strong coupling between molecular nuclear and electronic dynamics. This coupling opens the way to control charge transport in organic electronic devices by inducing molecular vibrational motions. However, despite encouraging theoretical predictions, experimental realization of such control has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate experimentally that photoconductivity in a model organic optoelectronic device can be controlled by the selective excitation of molecular vibrations. Using an ultrafast infrared laser source to create a coherent superposition of vibrational motions in a pentacene/C60 photoresistor, we observe that excitation of certain modes in the 1500-1700 cm$^{-1}$ region leads to photocurrent enhancement. Excited vibrations affect predominantly trapped carriers. The effect depends on the nature of the vibration and its mode-specific character can be well described by the vibrational modulation of intermolecular electronic couplings. Vibrational control thus presents a new tool for studying electron-phonon coupling and charge dynamics in (bio)molecular materials.

  13. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  14. A Generalized Boltzmann Fokker-Planck Method for Coupled Charged Particle Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prinja, Anil K

    2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to develop and investigate the performance of reduced-physics formulations of high energy charged particle (electrons, protons and heavier ions) transport that are computationally more efficient than not only analog Monte Carlo methods but also the established condensed history Monte Carlo technique. Charged particles interact with matter by Coulomb collisions with target nuclei and electrons, by bremsstrahlung radiation loss and by nuclear reactions such as spallation and fission. Of these, inelastic electronic collisions and elastic nuclear collisions are the dominant cause of energy-loss straggling and angular deflection or range straggling of a primary particle. These collisions are characterized by extremely short mean free paths (sub-microns) and highly peaked, near-singular differential cross sections about forward directions and zero energy loss, with the situation for protons and heavier ions more extreme than for electrons. For this reason, analog or truephysics single-event Monte Carlo simulation, while possible in principle, is computationally prohibitive for routine calculation of charged particle interaction phenomena.

  15. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: Nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Wang, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Chemistry, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Populations of states give the probabilities of individual states and therefore quantify the population landscape. Both curl flux and coherence depend on steady state population landscape. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in the regime of small tunneling while reduced by the coherence in the regime of large tunneling, due to the non-monotonic relationship between the coherence and tunneling. This is in contrast to the previously found linear relationship. For the systems coupled to bosonic (photonic and phononic) reservoirs the flux is significantly promoted at large voltage while for fermionic (electronic) reservoirs the flux reaches a saturation after a significant enhancement at large voltage due to the Pauli exclusion principle. In view of the system as a quantum heat engine, we studied the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and established the analytical connections of curl quantum flux to the transport quantities such as energy (charge) transfer efficiency, chemical reaction efficiency, energy dissipation, heat and electric currents observed in the experiments. We observed a perfect transfer efficiency in chemical reactions at high voltage (chemical potential difference). Our theoretical predicted behavior of the electric current with respect to the voltage is in good agreements with the recent experiments on electron transfer in single molecules.

  16. Local charge transport properties of hydrazine reduced monolayer graphene oxide sheets prepared under pressure condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryuzaki, Sou, E-mail: ryuzaki.soh.341@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Meyer, Jakob A. S.; Petersen, Søren; Nørgaard, Kasper; Hassenkam, Tue; Laursen, Bo W. [Nano-Science Center and Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetparken 5, 2100 Københaven Ø (Denmark)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge transport properties of chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets prepared by treatment with hydrazine were examined using conductive atomic force microscopy. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of monolayer RGO sheets prepared under atmospheric pressure followed an exponentially increase due to 2D variable-range hopping conduction through small graphene domains in an RGO sheet containing defect regions of residual sp{sup 3} carbon clusters bonded to oxygen groups, whereas RGO sheets prepared in a closed container under moderate pressure showed linear I-V characteristics with a conductivity of 267.2?537.5?S/m. It was found that the chemical reduction under pressure results in larger graphene domains (sp{sup 2} networks) in the RGO sheets when compared to that prepared under atmospheric pressure, indicating that the present reduction of GO sheets under the pressure is one of the effective methods to make well-reduced GO sheets.

  17. Single charge sensing and transport in double quantum dots fabricated from commercially grown Si/SiGe heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payette, C; Koppinen, P J; Dovzhenko, Y; Sturm, J C; Petta, J R

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform quantum Hall measurements on three types of commercially available modulation doped Si/SiGe heterostructures to determine their suitability for depletion gate defined quantum dot devices. By adjusting the growth parameters, we are able to achieve electron gases with charge densities 1-3 X 10^{11}/cm^2 and mobilities in excess of 100,000 cm^2/Vs. Double quantum dot devices fabricated on these heterostructures show clear evidence of single charge transitions as measured in dc transport and charge sensing and exhibit electron temperatures of 100 mK in the single quantum dot regime.

  18. Single charge sensing and transport in double quantum dots fabricated from commercially grown Si/SiGe heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Payette; K. Wang; P. J. Koppinen; Y. Dovzhenko; J. C. Sturm; J. R. Petta

    2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform quantum Hall measurements on three types of commercially available modulation doped Si/SiGe heterostructures to determine their suitability for depletion gate defined quantum dot devices. By adjusting the growth parameters, we are able to achieve electron gases with charge densities 1-3 X 10^{11}/cm^2 and mobilities in excess of 100,000 cm^2/Vs. Double quantum dot devices fabricated on these heterostructures show clear evidence of single charge transitions as measured in dc transport and charge sensing and exhibit electron temperatures of 100 mK in the single quantum dot regime.

  19. A Transportation Network Efficiency Measure that Captures Flows, Behavior,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Guire, and Winsten (1956), that electric power generation and distribution networks can be reformulated and solved Transportation Network Equilibrium Reformulation of Electric Power Supply Chain Networks Electric Power Supply with Applications to Network Component Importance Identification and Vulnerability Anna NagurneyAnna Nagurney Qiang

  20. NEI Workshop, Nice, September 24-26, 2006Peter Peumans (ppeumans@stanford.edu) Energy and Charge Transport on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 NEI Workshop, Nice, September 24-26, 2006Peter Peumans (ppeumans@stanford.edu) Energy and Charge Transport on the Nanoscale in Organic and Organic- Metallic Composite Solar Cells Peter Peumans Department@stanford.edu) Acknowledgements Students Shanbin Zhao Mukul Agrawal Jung-Yong Lee Postdoc Shigeo Fujimori Stanford Prof. Mark

  1. Dynamics of charge transport and recombination in ZnO nanorod array dye-sensitized solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dynamics of charge transport and recombination in ZnO nanorod array dye-sensitized solar cells Alex nanoparticles. Introduction Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) comprise an increasingly attractive alternative photovoltaic technology.1,2 These photo- electrochemical cells use molecular dyes to sensitize high-area, wide

  2. A Transportation Network EfficiencyA Transportation Network Efficiency Measure that Captures Flows, Behavior,Measure that Captures Flows, Behavior,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    ), that electric power generation and distribution networks can be reformulated and solved as transportation and VulnerabilityVulnerability University of California, Berkeley, #12;Funding for our research has been provided Memorial Fund - University of Massachusetts at Amherst #12;Network VulnerabilityNetwork Vulnerability

  3. Low temperature charge transport and microwave absorption of carbon coated iron nanoparticles–polymer composite films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, V., E-mail: vishnu@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Carbon coated Fe nanoparticle–PVC composite films were prepared by solution casting method. ? A low electrical percolation threshold of 2.2 was achieved. ? The low temperature electrical conductivity follows variable range hopping type conduction. ? An EMI shielding of 18 dB was achieved in 200 micron thick film. -- Abstract: In this paper, the low temperature electrical conductivity and microwave absorption properties of carbon coated iron nanoparticles–polyvinyl chloride composite films are investigated for different filler fractions. The filler particles are prepared by the pyrolysis of ferrocene at 980 °C and embedded in polyvinyl chloride matrix. The high resolution transmission electron micrographs of the filler material have shown a 5 nm thin layer graphitic carbon covering over iron particles. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the composite film changes by 10 orders of magnitude with the increase of filler concentration. A percolation threshold of 2.2 and an electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency (EMI SE) of ?18.6 dB in 26.5–40 GHz range are observed for 50 wt% loading. The charge transport follows three dimensional variable range hopping conduction.

  4. Collective thermoelectrophoresis of charged colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arghya Majee; Alois Würger

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally driven colloidal transport is, to a large extent, due to the thermoelectric or Seebeck effect of the charged solution.We show that, contrary to the generally adopted single-particle picture, the transport coefficient depends on the colloidal concentration. For solutions that are dilute in the hydrodynamic sense, collective effects may significantly affect the thermophoretic mobility. Our results provide an explanation for recent experimental observations on polyelectrolytes and charged particles and suggest that for charged colloids collective behavior is the rule rather than the exception.

  5. Critical behavior of charged Gauss-Bonnet AdS black holes in the grand canonical ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, De-Cheng; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermodynamics in the grand canonical ensemble of D-dimensional charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes in the extended phase space. We find that the usual small-large black hole phase transition, which exhibits analogy with the Van de Waals liquid-gas system holds in five-dimensional spherical charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes when its potential is fixed within the range $0Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes, there is no such phase transition. In the limiting case, Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS black holes, with vanishing Gauss-Bonnet parameter, there is no critical behavior in the grand canonical ensemble. This result holds independent of the spacetime dimensions and topologies. We also examine the behavior of physical quantities in the vicinity of the critical point in the five-dimensional spherical charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes.

  6. Critical behavior of charged Gauss-Bonnet AdS black holes in the grand canonical ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De-Cheng Zou; Yunqi Liu; Bin Wang

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermodynamics in the grand canonical ensemble of D-dimensional charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes in the extended phase space. We find that the usual small-large black hole phase transition, which exhibits analogy with the Van de Waals liquid-gas system holds in five-dimensional spherical charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes when its potential is fixed within the range $0Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes, there is no such phase transition. In the limiting case, Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS black holes, with vanishing Gauss-Bonnet parameter, there is no critical behavior in the grand canonical ensemble. This result holds independent of the spacetime dimensions and topologies. We also examine the behavior of physical quantities in the vicinity of the critical point in the five-dimensional spherical charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes.

  7. Resonant charge-exchange involving excited helium atoms and reactive transport of local thermodynamic equilibrium helium plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosarim, A. V.; Smirnov, B. M. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Laricchiuta, A. [CNR IMIP Bari, Bari (Italy); Capitelli, M. [CNR IMIP Bari, Bari (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, Bari (Italy)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The cross sections for charge-exchange and charge-transfer processes are evaluated for collisions of helium ions with parent-atoms in ground and excited states, with the principal quantum number n= 1-5, in the collision energy range from thermal up to 10 eV. Corresponding diffusion-type collision integrals are derived, and the role of 'abnormal' transport of electronically excited states on the reactive thermal conductivity of equilibrium helium plasma, at atmospheric pressure, estimated in the frame of a simplified approach.

  8. Space-Charge Limits on the Transport of Ion Beams in a Long Alternating Gradient System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiefenback, M.G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    term stability of the transport of cold, high-current beams,beam. The cold-beam ideal case for this transport is called

  9. The Ising model and critical behavior of transport in binary composite N. B. Murphy and K. M. Golden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    nanotube composites,37 and sea ice.26,27 A key feature of these materials is the critical dependenceThe Ising model and critical behavior of transport in binary composite media N. B. Murphy and K. M) The Ising model and critical behavior of transport in binary composite media N. B. Murphy and K. M. Golden

  10. Charge transport through bio-molecular wires in a solvent: Bridging molecular dynamics and model Hamiltonian approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Gutierrez; R. Caetano; P. B. Woiczikowski; T. Kubar; M. Elstner; G. Cuniberti

    2009-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a hybrid method based on a combination of quantum/classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and a mod el Hamiltonian approach to describe charge transport through bio-molecular wires with variable lengths in presence o f a solvent. The core of our approach consists in a mapping of the bio-molecular electronic structure, as obtained f rom density-functional based tight-binding calculations of molecular structures along MD trajectories, onto a low di mensional model Hamiltonian including the coupling to a dissipative bosonic environment. The latter encodes fluctuat ion effects arising from the solvent and from the molecular conformational dynamics. We apply this approach to the c ase of pG-pC and pA-pT DNA oligomers as paradigmatic cases and show that the DNA conformational fluctuations are essential in determining and supporting charge transport.

  11. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 468 (1999) 104109 Mass transport behavior of polypyrrole and poly(N-methylpyrrole)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwak, Juhyoun

    Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 468 (1999) 104­109 Mass transport behavior of polypyrrole The mass transport mechanism of polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(N-methylpyrrole) (PMPy) films in an acetonitrile) technique. Cations as well as anions take part in ion transport during the redox reaction of PPy films

  12. Effect of ion mass and charge state on transport of vacuum ARC plasmas through a biased magnetic filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byon, Eungsun; Kim, Jong-Kuk; Kwon, Sik-Chol; Anders, Andre

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of ion mass and charge state on plasma transport through a 90{sup o}-curved magnetic filter is experimentally investigated using a pulsed cathodic arc source. Graphite, copper, and tungsten were selected as test materials. The filter was a bent copper coil biased via the voltage drop across a low-ohm, ''self-bias'' resistor. Ion transport is accomplished via a guiding electric field, whose potential forms a ''trough'' shaped by the magnetic guiding field of the filter coil. Evaluation was done by measuring the filtered ion current and determination of the particle system coefficient, which can be defined as the ratio of filter ion current, divided by the mean ion charge state, to the arc current. It was found that the ion current and particle system coefficient decreased as the mass-to-charge ratio of ions increased. This result can be qualitatively interpreted by a very simply model of ion transport that is based on compensation of the centrifugal force by the electric force associated with the guiding potential trough.

  13. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging Behaviors - Experiences from Six Smart Grid Investment Grant Projects

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010Salt | Department of EnergyBehaviors: Experiences

  14. Neptunium Transport Behavior in the Vicinity of Underground Nuclear Tests at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, P; Tinnacher, R M; Zavarin, M; Williams, R W; Kersting, A B

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We used short lived {sup 239}Np as a yield tracer and state of the art magnetic sector ICP-MS to measure ultra low levels of {sup 237}Np in a number of 'hot wells' at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The results indicate that {sup 237}Np concentrations at the Almendro, Cambric, Dalhart, Cheshire and Chancellor sites, are in the range of 3 x 10{sup -5} to 7 x 10{sup -2} pCi/L and well below the MCL for alpha emitting radionuclides (15 pCi/L) (EPA, 2009). Thus, while Np transport is believed to occur at the NNSS, activities are expected to be well below the regulatory limits for alpha-emitting radionuclides. We also compared {sup 237}Np concentration data to other radionuclides, including tritium, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and plutonium, to evaluate the relative {sup 237}Np transport behavior. Based on isotope ratios relative to published unclassified Radiologic Source Terms (Bowen et al., 1999) and taking into consideration radionuclide distribution between melt glass, rubble and groundwater (IAEA, 1998), {sup 237}Np appears to be substantially less mobile than tritium and other non-sorbing radionuclides, as expected. However, this analysis also suggests that {sup 237}Np mobility is surprisingly similar to that of plutonium. The similar transport behavior of Np and Pu can be explained by one of two possibilities: (1) Np(IV) and Pu(IV) oxidation states dominate under mildly reducing NNSS groundwater conditions resulting in similar transport behavior or (2) apparent Np transport is the result of transport of its parent {sup 241}Pu and {sup 241}Am isotopes and subsequent decay to {sup 237}Np. Finally, measured {sup 237}Np concentrations were compared to recent Hydrologic Source Term (HST) models. The 237Np data collected from three wells in Frenchman Flat (RNM-1, RNM-2S, and UE-5n) are in good agreement with recent HST transport model predictions (Carle et al., 2005). The agreement provides confidence in the results of the predictive model. The comparison to Cheshire HST model predictions (Pawloski et al, 2001) is somewhat ambiguous due to the low concentration resolution of the particle transport model.

  15. Workplace Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project at Six Work Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Rohrbaugh; John Smart

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at six workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  16. Analysis of the Behavior of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations with Renewable Generations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Vincent

    initial policy. Simulation results confirm the convergence of the game between EVCSs. The results also assumed that EVs are charged only at home. However, considering that conventional internal combustion engine vehicles refuel at gas stations, EVs might also be charged at other facilities which provide

  17. Space-Charge Limits on the Transport of Ion Beams in a Long Alternating Gradient System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiefenback, M.G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    35j. The output voltage droops in time as the charge on thethe ion gun apertures. Any droop in beam energy re­ sults in0.6 msec (0.15% per /zsec droop) is coupled to the various

  18. Charge transport through a SET with a mechanically oscillating island N. M. Chtchelkatchev,1, 2, 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruder, Christoph

    the deviation of the island from its equilibrium position. (b) Equivalent circuit of the device on the mechanical displacement, thus, the vibrations of the island may influence the transport properties. Harmonic oscillations of the island and thermal vibrations change the transport characteristics in different ways

  19. Femtosecond x-rays link melting of charge density wave correlations and light-enhanced coherent transport in YBa?Cu?O?.?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Forst, M. [Max-Planck Inst. for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Hamburg (Germany); Hill, J. P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Frano, A. [Max-Planck Inst. for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin Fur Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany); Kaiser, S. [Max-Planck Inst. for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Hamburg (Germany); Mankowsky, R. [Max-Planck Inst. for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Hamburg (Germany); Hunt, C. R. [Max-Planck Inst. for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Turner, J. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dakovski, G. L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Minitti, M. P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Robinson, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Loew, T. [Max-Planck Inst. for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Le Tacon, M. [Max-Planck Inst. for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Keimer, B. [Max-Planck Inst. for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Cavalleri, A. [Max-Planck Inst. for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Dhesi, S. S. [Diamond Light Source, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use femtosecond resonant soft x-ray diffraction to measure the optically stimulated ultrafast changes of charge density wave correlations in underdoped YBa?Cu?O?.?. We find that when coherent interlayer transport is enhanced by optical excitation of the apical oxygen distortions, at least 50% of the in-plane charge density wave order is melted. These results indicate that charge ordering and superconductivity may be competing up to the charge ordering transition temperature, with the latter becoming a hidden phase that is accessible only by nonlinear phonon excitation.

  20. Modification of space charge transport in nanocrystalline cerium oxide by heterogeneous doping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litzelman, Scott J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the search for new materials for energy conversion and storage technologies such as solid oxide fuel cells, nano-ionic materials have become increasingly relevant because unique physical and transport properties that ...

  1. An improved Monte Carlo study of coherent scattering effects of low energy charged particle transport in Percus-Yevick liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tattersall, W J; Boyle, G J; White, R D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We generalize a simple Monte Carlo (MC) model for dilute gases to consider the transport behavior of positrons and electrons in Percus-Yevick model liquids under highly non-equilibrium conditions, accounting rigorously for coherent scattering processes. The procedure extends an existing technique [Wojcik and Tachiya, Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 3--4 (1992)], using the static structure factor to account for the altered anisotropy of coherent scattering in structured material. We identify the effects of the approximation used in the original method, and develop a modified method that does not require that approximation. We also present an enhanced MC technique that has been designed to improve the accuracy and flexibility of simulations in spatially-varying electric fields. All of the results are found to be in excellent agreement with an independent multi-term Boltzmann equation solution, providing benchmarks for future transport models in liquids and structured systems.

  2. 'Taking Charge': Kansans Save $2.3M in Challenge to Change Their Energy Behavior

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How did the Climate and Energy Project (CEP), a small environmental organization that has received Recovery Act funding, achieve $2.3 million in savings annually for Kansans? Learn more about the Take Charge Challenge, a 9-month competition in which residents across 16 communities competed against each other to save the most energy and money.

  3. Adaptive Algorithm for Charged and Uncharged Particle Transport. Student : D. J. Koeze

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    of solving the neutron transport equation. This equation tells us how neutrons behave in a absorbing and scattering medium. We can apply this equation in many fields, like in the design process of a nuclear power plant and in the research of materials with neutron beams. In a reactor core it is important to have

  4. Description of the Nonlinear and Collective Behavior of Charged-Particle Beams by means of a Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedele, Renato [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita Federico II, Napoli Complesso Universitario di M.S. Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); INFN, Napoli Complesso Universitario di M.S. Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Jovanovic, Dusan [Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 57, Yu-11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charged-particle beams are employed for a number of scientific and technological applications. The conventional description of their collective behavior is usually given in terms of the Vlasov equation. In the last 15 years some alternative descriptions have been developed in terms of a nonlinear Schroedinger equation governing the collective dynamics of the beam while interacting with the surrounding medium. This approach gives new insights, providing an alternative 'key of reading' of the charged-particle beam dynamics, and have been applied to a number of physical problems concerning conventional particle accelerating machines as well as plasma-based accelerator schemes. Remarkably, it is based on a mathematical formalism fully similar to those used for the propagation of e.m. radiation beams in nonlinear media a well as the nonlinear dynamics of the Bose-Einsten condensates.In this paper, a presentation of some significant nonlinear collective effects of a charged-particle beam in particle accelerators, that have been recently investigated in the framework of the above Schroedinger-like descriptions, is given.

  5. Electrostatics and radioactive aerosol behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clement, C.F.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive aerosols differ from their nonradioactive counterparts by their ability to charge themselves by emitting charged particles during the radioactive decay process. Evidence that electrostatics, including this charging process, can affect the transport of the aerosols was summarized previously. Charge distributions and the mean charge for a monodisperse radioactive aerosol have been considered in detail. The principal results of theory to calculate charge distributions on a aerosol with a size distribution, changes to Brownian coagulation rates for an aerosol in a reactor containment, and possible changes to aerosol deposition resulting from the charging will be presented. The main purpose of the work has been to improve calculations of aerosol behavior in reactor containments, but behavior in less ionizing environments will be affected more strongly, and some problems remain to be solved in performing reliable calculations.

  6. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  7. Influence of plasma loss area on transport of charged particles through a transverse magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, B. K.; Chakraborty, M. [Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Tepesia, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma transport in a double plasma device from the source region to the target region through a physical window comprising of electrically grounded magnet channels (filled with permanent magnet bars) for transverse magnetic field (TMF) and a pair of stainless steel (SS) plates is studied and presented in this manuscript. The study has relevance in negative ion source research and development where both TMF created by magnet channels and bias plate are used. The experiment is performed in two stages. In the first stage, a TMF is introduced between the two regions along with the SS plates, and corresponding plasma parameter data in the two regions are recorded by changing the distance between the TMF channels. In the second stage, the TMF is withdrawn from the system, and corresponding data are taken by changing the separation between the SS plates. The experimental results are then compared with a theoretical model. In the presence of TMF, where electrons are magnetized and ions are un-magnetized, it is observed that plasma transport perpendicular to the TMF is dominated by the ambipolar diffusion of ions. In the absence of TMF, plasma is un-magnetized, and plasma transport through the SS window aperture is almost independent of open area of the SS window.

  8. Mechanical and charge transport properties of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au (111) surface: The Role of Molecular Tilt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulleregan, Alice; Qi, Yabing; Ratera, Imma; Park, Jeong Y.; Ashby, Paul D.; Quek, Su Ying; Neaton, J. B.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2007-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between charge transport and mechanical properties of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAM) on Au(111) films has been investigated using an atomic force microscope with a conductive tip. Molecular tilts induced by the pressure applied by the tip cause stepwise increases in film conductivity. A decay constant {beta} = 0.57 {+-} 0.03 {angstrom}{sup -1} was found for the current passing through the film as a function of tip-substrate separation due to this molecular tilt. This is significantly smaller than the value of {approx} 1 {angstrom}{sup -1} found when the separation is changed by changing the length of the alkanethiol molecules. Calculations indicate that for isolated dithiol molecules S-bonded to hollow sites, the junction conductance does not vary significantly as a function of molecular tilt. The impact of S-Au bonding on SAM conductance is discussed.

  9. A photodiode-based neutral particle bolometer for characterizing charge-exchanged fast-ion behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clary, R.; Smirnov, A.; Dettrick, S.; Knapp, K.; Korepanov, S.; Ruskov, E. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y. [University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutral particle bolometer (NPB) has been designed and implemented on Tri Alpha Energy's C-2 device in order to spatially and temporally resolve the charge-exchange losses of fast-ion populations originating from neutral beam injection into field-reversed configuration plasmas. This instrument employs a silicon photodiode as the detection device with an integrated tungsten filter coating to reduce sensitivity to light radiation. Here we discuss the technical aspects and calibration of the NPB, and report typical NPB measurement results of wall recycling effects on fast-ion losses.

  10. EV Everywhere Consumer/Charging Workshop: Target-Setting Framework and Consumer Behavior

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol.6: RecordJune 20,inConsumer/Charging Workshop:

  11. Thermal influence on charge carrier transport in solar cells based on GaAs PN junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osses-Márquez, Juan; Calderón-Muñoz, Williams R., E-mail: wicalder@ing.uchile.cl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron and hole one-dimensional transport in a solar cell based on a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) PN junction and its dependency with electron and lattice temperatures are studied here. Electrons and heat transport are treated on an equal footing, and a cell operating at high temperatures using concentrators is considered. The equations of a two-temperature hydrodynamic model are written in terms of asymptotic expansions for the dependent variables with the electron Reynolds number as a perturbation parameter. The dependency of the electron and hole densities through the junction with the temperature is analyzed solving the steady-state model at low Reynolds numbers. Lattice temperature distribution throughout the device is obtained considering the change of kinetic energy of electrons due to interactions with the lattice and heat absorbed from sunlight. In terms of performance, higher values of power output are obtained with low lattice temperature and hot energy carriers. This modeling contributes to improve the design of heat exchange devices and thermal management strategies in photovoltaic technologies.

  12. Effects of bulk charged impurities on the bulk and surface transport in three-dimensional topological insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, B.; Chen, T.; Shklovskii, B. I., E-mail: shklovsk@physics.spa.umn.edu [University of Minnesota, Fine Theoretical Physics Institute (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), the physics of doped semiconductors exists literally side-by-side with the physics of ultrarelativistic Dirac fermions. This unusual pairing creates a novel playground for studying the interplay between disorder and electronic transport. In this mini-review, we focus on the disorder caused by the three-dimensionally distributed charged impurities that are ubiquitous in TIs, and we outline the effects it has on both the bulk and surface transport in TIs. We present self-consistent theories for Coulomb screening both in the bulk and at the surface, discuss the magnitude of the disorder potential in each case, and present results for the conductivity. In the bulk, where the band gap leads to thermally activated transport, we show how disorder leads to a smaller-than-expected activation energy that gives way to variable-range hopping at low temperatures. We confirm this enhanced conductivity with numerical simulations that also allow us to explore different degrees of impurity compensation. For the surface, where the TI has gapless Dirac modes, we present a theory of disorder and screening of deep impurities, and we calculate the corresponding zero-temperature conductivity. We also comment on the growth of the disorder potential in passing from the surface of the TI into the bulk. Finally, we discuss how the presence of a gap at the Dirac point, introduced by some source of time-reversal symmetry breaking, affects the disorder potential at the surface and the mid-gap density of states.

  13. Efficiency of Charge Transport in a Polypeptide Chain: The Isolated System Sheh-Yi Sheu, E. W. Schlag,*, Dah-Yen Yang, and H. L. Selzle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheu, Sheh-Yi

    new single site molecular dynamics calculations to determine the time development of initialVersitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, D-85748 Garching, Germany, and Institute of Atomic and Molecular Science energization at an excitation site moving to a terminus. For this we find the efficiency of charge transport

  14. Received 10 May 2013 | Accepted 10 Oct 2013 | Published 8 Nov 2013 Probing single-to multi-cell level charge transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -cell level charge transport in Geobacter sulfurreducens DL-1 Xiaocheng Jiang1,*, Jinsong Hu2,*, Emily R energy into electricity, represent a potentially sustainable energy technology for the future. Here we report the single-bacterium level current measurements of Geobacter sulfurreducens DL-1 to elucidate

  15. Transition to superdiffusive behavior in intracellular actin-based transport mediated by molecular motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Bruno; V. Levi; M. Brunstein; M. A. Despósito

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Intracellular transport of large cargoes, such as organelles, vesicles or large proteins, is a complex dynamical process that involves the interplay of ATP-consuming molecular motors, cytoskeleton filaments and the viscoelastic cytoplasm. The displacements of particles or probes in the cell cytoplasm as a function of time are characterized by different (anomalous) diffusion regimes. We investigate here the motion of pigment organelles (melanosomes) driven by myosin-V motors in \\emph{Xenopus laevis} melanocytes using a high spatio-temporal resolution tracking technique. By analyzing the mean square displacement (MSD) of the obtained trajectories as a function of the time lag, we show that the melanosomes display a transition between subdiffusive to superdiffusive behavior. A stochastic theoretical model is introduced to generalize the interpretation of our data. Starting from a generalized Langevin equation that explicitly considers the collective action of the molecular motors we derive an analytical expression for the MSD as a function of the time lag, which also takes into account the experimental noise. By fitting our model to the experimental data we were able to discriminate the exponents that characterize the passive and active contributions to melanosome dynamics. The model also estimates the "global" motor forces correctly. In this sense, our model gives a quantitative description of active transport in living cells with a reduced number of parameters.

  16. Understanding sensitization behavior of lead selenide photoconductive detectors by charge separation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Lihua, E-mail: lihua.zhao@ou.edu, E-mail: shi@ou.edu; Qiu, Jijun; Weng, Binbin; Chang, Caleb; Yuan, Zijian; Shi, Zhisheng, E-mail: lihua.zhao@ou.edu, E-mail: shi@ou.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a charge separation model in this work to explain the mechanism of enhanced photoconductivity of polycrystalline lead salt photoconductors. Our results show that this model could clarify the heuristic fabrication processes of such lead salt detectors that were not well understood and often considered mysterious for nearly a century. The improved lifetime and performance of the device, e.g., responsivity, are attributed to the spatial separation of holes and electrons, hence less possibility of carrier recombination. This model shows that in addition to crystal quality the size of crystallites, the depth of outer conversion layer, and doping concentration could all affect detector performance. The simulation results agree well with experimental results and thus offer a very useful tool for further improvement of lead salt detectors. The model was developed with lead salt family of photoconductors in mind, but may well be applicable to a wider class of semiconducting films.

  17. Energy, Charge, and Spin Transport in Molecules and Self-Assembled Nanostructures Inspired by Photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasielewski, Michael R. (NWU)

    2008-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron transfer in biological molecules provides both insight and inspiration for developing chemical systems having similar functionality. Photosynthesis is an example of an integrated system in which light harvesting, photoinduced charge separation, and catalysis combine to carry out two thermodynamically demanding processes, the oxidation of water and the reduction of carbon dioxide. The development of artificial photosynthetic systems for solar energy conversion requires a fundamental understanding of electron-transfer reactions between organic molecules. Since these reactions most often involve single-electron transfers, the spin dynamics of photogenerated radical ion pairs provide important information on how the rates and efficiencies of these reactions depend on molecular structure. Given this knowledge, the design and synthesis of large integrated structures to carry out artificial photosynthesis is moving forward. An important approach to achieving this goal is the development of small, functional building blocks, having a minimum number of covalent bonds, which also have the appropriate molecular recognition sites to facilitate self-assembly into a complete, functional artificial photosynthetic system.

  18. Charge-carrier transport and recombination in heteroepitaxial CdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuciauskas, Darius, E-mail: Darius.Kuciauskas@nrel.gov; Farrell, Stuart; Dippo, Pat; Moseley, John; Moutinho, Helio; Li, Jian V.; Allende Motz, A. M.; Kanevce, Ana; Zaunbrecher, Katherine; Gessert, Timothy A.; Levi, Dean H.; Metzger, Wyatt K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401-3305 (United States); Colegrove, Eric; Sivananthan, S. [Microphysics Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze charge-carrier dynamics using time-resolved spectroscopy and varying epitaxial CdTe thickness in undoped heteroepitaxial CdTe/ZnTe/Si. By employing one-photon and nonlinear two-photon excitation, we assess surface, interface, and bulk recombination. Two-photon excitation with a focused laser beam enables characterization of recombination velocity at the buried epilayer/substrate interface, 17.5??m from the sample surface. Measurements with a focused two-photon excitation beam also indicate a fast diffusion component, from which we estimate an electron mobility of 650?cm{sup 2} (Vs){sup ?1} and diffusion coefficient D of 17?cm{sup 2}?s{sup ?1}. We find limiting recombination at the epitaxial film surface (surface recombination velocity S{sub surface}?=?(2.8?±?0.3)?×?10{sup 5?}cm?s{sup ?1}) and at the heteroepitaxial interface (interface recombination velocity S{sub interface}?=?(4.8?±?0.5)?×?10{sup 5?}cm?s{sup ?1}). The results demonstrate that reducing surface and interface recombination velocity is critical for photovoltaic solar cells and electronic devices that employ epitaxial CdTe.

  19. Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Home Agenda Awards Exhibitors Lodging Posters Registration Transportation Workshops Contact Us User Meeting Archives Users' Executive Committee Getting to Berkeley...

  20. Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Print Home Agenda Awards Exhibitors Lodging Posters Registration Transportation Workshops Contact Us User Meeting Archives Users' Executive Committee Getting to...

  1. The impact of disorder on charge transport in three dimensional quantum dot resonant tunneling structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puthen-Veettil, B., E-mail: b.puthen-veettil@unsw.edu.au; Patterson, R.; König, D.; Conibeer, G.; Green, M. A. [Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics, UNSW, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient iso-entropic energy filtering of electronic waves can be realized through nanostructures with three dimensional confinement, such as quantum dot resonant tunneling structures. Large-area deployment of such structures is useful for energy selective contacts but such configuration is susceptible to structural disorders. In this work, the transport properties of quantum-dot-based wide-area resonant tunneling structures, subject to realistic disorder mechanisms, are studied. Positional variations of the quantum dots are shown to reduce the resonant transmission peaks while size variations in the device are shown to reduce as well as broaden the peaks. Increased quantum dot size distribution also results in a peak shift to lower energy which is attributed to large dots dominating transmission. A decrease in barrier thickness reduces the relative peak height while the overall transmission increases dramatically due to lower “series resistance.” While any shift away from ideality can be intuitively expected to reduce the resonance peak, quantification allows better understanding of the tolerances required for fabricating structures based on resonant tunneling phenomena/.

  2. ICES CM 2004/J:10/P:24 The influence of mixing processes and behavior on larval transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North, Elizabeth W.

    and mortality estimates in a stratified wind- and tidally-forced system E. W. North1 , R. R. Hood1 , L. Zhong1, a stratified wind- and tidally-forced estuary. We conducted two sets of model scenarios that focused on 1 of stage-specific larval behaviors on transport is important for accurate estimates of mortality rates from

  3. Improvement of charged particles transport across a transverse magnetic filter field by electrostatic trapping of magnetized electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, B. K., E-mail: bdyt.ds@rediffmail.com; Hazarika, P.; Chakraborty, M. [Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Tepesia-782402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M., E-mail: mainak@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar-382025, Gujarat (India)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study on the transport of charged particles across a magnetic filter field has been carried out in a double plasma device (DPD) and presented in this manuscript. The DPD is virtually divided into two parts viz. source and target regions by a transverse magnetic field (TMF) which is constructed by inserting strontium ferrite magnets into two stainless steel rectangular tubes. Plasma electrons are magnetized but ions are unmagnetized inside the TMF region. Negative voltages are applied to the TMF tubes in order to reduce the loss of electrons towards them. Plasma is produced in the source region by filament discharge method and allowed to flow towards the target region through this negatively biased TMF. It is observed that in the target region, plasma density can be increased and electron temperature decreased with the help of negatively biased TMF. This observation is beneficial for negative ion source development. Plasma diffusion across the negatively biased TMF follows Bohm or anomalous diffusion process when negative bias voltage is very less. At higher negative bias, diffusion coefficient starts deviating from the Bohm diffusion value, associated with enhanced plasma flow in the target region.

  4. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  5. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winklehner, D.; Leitner, D., E-mail: leitnerd@nscl.msu.edu; Cole, D.; Machicoane, G.; Tobos, L. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)] [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations.

  6. Analysis of carrier transport and carrier trapping in organic diodes with polyimide-6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene double-layer by charge modulation spectroscopy and optical second harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Eunju, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Nanosensor and Biotechnology, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Taguchi, Dai, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the carrier transport and carrier trapping in indium tin oxide/polyimide (PI)/6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene)/Au diodes by using charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS) and time-resolved electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (TR-EFISHG) measurements. TR-EFISHG directly probes the spatial carrier behaviors in the diodes, and CMS is useful in explaining the carrier motion with respect to energy. The results clearly indicate that the injected carriers move across TIPS-pentacene thorough the molecular energy states of TIPS-pentacene and accumulate at the PI/TIPS-pentacene interface. However, some carriers are trapped in the PI layers. These findings take into account the capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the diodes.

  7. Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vinson, Steve

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation in ancient Egypt entailed the use of boats2007 Land transport in Roman Egypt: A study of economics andDieter 1991 Building in Egypt: Pharaonic stone masonry. New

  8. Prediction of failure behavior of a welded pressure vessel containing flaws during a hydrogen-charged burst test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhuyan, G.S. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada); Sperling, E.J. [Amoco Corp., Naperville, IL (United States); Shen, G. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Metals Technology Labs.; Yin, H. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Farmers Branch, TX (United States); Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An industry-government collaborative program was carried out with an aim to promoting the acceptance of fracture mechanics based fitness-for-service assessment methodology for a service-damaged pressure vessel. A collaborative round robin exercise was carried out to predict the fracture behavior of a vessel containing hydrogen damage, fabrication related lack-of-fusion defects, an artificially induced fatigue crack and a localized thinned area. The fracture assessment procedures used include the US ASME Material Property Council`s PREFIS Program based on the British Standard (BS) Published Document (PD) 6493, ASME Section XI and The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) R6 approach; The welding Institute (TWI) CRACKWISE program (based on BS PD6493 Level 2 approach), a variant of the R6 approach, J-tearing instability approaches, various J-estimation schemes, LEFM approach and simplified stress analysis. Assessments were compared with the results obtained from a hydrogen charged burst test of the vessel. Predictions, based on the J-tearing approach, compared well with the actual burst test results. Actual burst pressure was about five times the operating pressure.

  9. Prediction of failure behavior of a welded pressure vessel containing flaws during a hydrogen-charged burst test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhuyan, G.S. [Powertech Labs Inc., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada); Sperling, E.J. [BP-Amoco, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Shen, G. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Metals Technology Labs.; Yin, H. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States); Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An industry-government collaborative program was carried out with an aim to promoting the acceptance of fracture mechanics-based fitness-for-service assessment methodology for a service-damaged pressure vessel. A collaborative round robin exercise was carried out to predict the fracture behavior of a vessel containing hydrogen damage, fabrication-related lack-of-fusion defects, an artificially induced fatigue crack, and a localized thinned area. The fracture assessment procedures used include the US ASME Material Property Council`s PREFIS Program based on the British Standard (BS) Published Document (PD) 6493, ASME Section XI and The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) R6 approach, The Welding Institute (TWI) CRACKWISE program (based on BS PD6493 Level 2 approach), a variant of the R6 approach, J-tearing instability approaches, various J-estimation schemes, LEFM approach, and simplified stress analysis. Assessments were compared with the results obtained from a hydrogen-charged burst test of the vessel. Predictions, based on the J-tearing approach, compared well with the actual burst test results. Actual burst pressure was about five times the operating pressure.

  10. Electrochemical characterization of surface-bound redox polymers derived from 1,1'-bis(((3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)amino)carbonyl)cobaltocenium: charge transport, anion binding, and use in photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, R.A.; Mallouk, T.E.; Daube, K.A.; Wrighton, M.S.

    1985-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the behavior of electrode-bound redox material derived from the hydrolysis of the -Si(OEt)/sub 3/ groups of 1,1'-bis(((3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)amino)carbonyl)cobaltocenium (I). Surfaces of the conventional electrodes SnO/sub 2/ and Pt derivatized with I have a reversible electrochemical response in H/sub 2/O/electrolyte; the E/sup 0/' is pH independent at -0.62 V vs. SCE. The photoelectrochemical behavior of p-type Si photocathodes derivatized with I reveals that the photoreduction of the cobaltocenium derivative can be effected at an electrode potential approx. 500 mV more positive than on metallic electrodes, consistent with the known behavior of p-type Si photocathodes. When polymer from I is deposited on p-type Si and subsequently coated with a small amount of Rh or Pd (approx. 10/sup -7/ mol/cm/sup 2/), the photoelectrochemical generation of H/sub 2/ is possible with 632.8-nm (approx. 15 mW/cm/sup 2/) radiation and efficiencies in the vicinity of 2%. The polymer derived from I is more optically transparent and more durable at negative potentials than redox polymers derived from vilogen monomers. Potential-step measurements and steady-state-current measurements for mediated redox processes show that the charge-transport rate for the polymer derived from I is about the same as for polymers from viologen monomers. 32 references, 8 figures.

  11. Charge transport in zirconium doped anatase nanowires dye-sensitized solar cells: Trade-off between lattice strain and photovoltaic parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archana, P. S.; Gupta, Arunava [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, 250 Hackberry Lane, Shelby hall, Tuscaloosa 35401 Alabama (United States); Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Jose, Rajan, E-mail: rjose@ump.edu.my [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Kuantan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Zirconium (Zr) is doped up to 5 at.?% in anatase TiO{sub 2} nanowires by electrospinning and used as working electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Variations observed in the photovoltaic parameters were correlated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, open circuit voltage decay, and X-ray diffraction measurements. Results show that homovalent substitution of Zr in TiO{sub 2} increased the chemical capacitance and electron diffusion coefficient which in turn decreased charge transport resistance and charge transit time. However, lattice strain due to size mismatch between the Zr{sup 4+} and Ti{sup 4+} ions decreased open circuit voltage and fill factor thereby setting a trade-off between doping concentration and photovoltaic properties.

  12. Novel chemical pathways and charge-transport dynamics of electrodes modified with electropolymerized layers of (Co(v-terpy)/sub 2/)/sup 2 +/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guadalupe, A.R.; Usifer, D.A.; Potts, K.T.; Hurrell, H.C.; Mogstad, A.E.; Abruna, H.D.

    1988-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Electropolymerized films of (Co(v-terpy)/sub 2/)/sup 2 +/ (v-terpy is 4'-vinyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridinyl) exhibit reactivity patterns, especially with regard to ligand exchange, that differ significantly from those exhibited by (Co(terpy)/sub 2/)/sup 2 +/ in solution. These differences are attributed to the physically constrained environment present in the polymer film. The charge-transport properties follow the model of Dahms and Ruff and the predicted concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient. These electropolymerized films are also active in the electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide.

  13. Occurrence, Fate and Transport Behaviors of Pesticides on Urban Impervious Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Weiying

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was collected in amber glass bottles and the samples werecollected in the amber glass bottles were transported to theto drain into a glass sample bottle secured in the ground.

  14. The Quantified Traveler: Using personal travel data to promote sustainable transport behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a goal to reduce my carbon footprint. I value the bene?ts toof their transportation carbon footprint, and that (b) thea goal to reduce their carbon footprint, a clear summary of

  15. Low-temperature study of array of dopant atoms on transport behaviors in silicon junctionless nanowire transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hao; Han, Weihua, E-mail: weihua@semi.ac.cn; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yanbo; Yang, Fuhua [Engineering Research Center for Semiconductor Integration Technology, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate temperature-dependent quantum transport characteristics in silicon junctionless nanowire transistor fabricated on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate by the femtosecond laser lithography. Clear drain-current oscillations originated from dopant-induced quantum dots are observed in the initial stage of the conduction for the silicon nanowire channel at low temperatures. Arrhenius plot of the conductance indicates the transition temperature of 30?K from variable-range hopping to nearest-neighbor hopping, which can be well explained under Mott formalism. The transition of electron hopping behavior is the interplay result between the thermal activation and the Coulomb interaction.

  16. TRENDS (Transport and Retention of Nuclides in Dominant Sequences): A code for modeling iodine behavior in containment during severe accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.; Daish, S.R.; Shockley, W.E.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate aim of a description of iodine behavior in severe LWR accidents is a time-dependent accounting of iodine species released into containment and to the environment. Factors involved in the behavior of iodine can be conveniently divided into four general categories: (1) initial release into containment, (2) interaction of iodine species in containment not directly involving water pools, (3) interaction of iodine species in, or with, water pools, and (4) interaction with special systems such as ice condensers or gas treatment systems. To fill the large gaps in knowledge and to provide a means for assaying the iodine source term, this program has proceeded along two paths: (1) Experimental studies of the chemical behavior of iodine under containment conditions. (2) Development of TRENDS (Transport and Retention of Nuclides in Dominant Sequences), a computer code for modeling the behavior of iodine in containment and its release from containment. The main body of this report consists of a description of TRENDS. These two parts to the program are complementary in that models within TRENDS use data that were produced in the experimental program; therefore, these models are supported by experimental evidence that was obtained under conditions expected in severe accidents. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Discrete particle transport in porous media : discrete observations of physical mechanisms influencing particle behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Joon Sik, 1973-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An understanding of how discrete particles in the micron to submicron range behave in porous media is important to a number of environmental problems. Discrete particle behavior in the interior of a porous medium is complex ...

  18. Determination of Dose From Light Charged Ions Relevant to Hadron Therapy Using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport System (PHITS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butkus, Michael Patrick

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    .................................................................. 10 Quality Factor for Charged Particles .............................................. 13 Effects of Dose Fractionation ......................................................... 15 Fragmentation and Scattering... for Various Ion Beams ...................................................... 33 15 Dose Percentage Rates for Various Ion Beams in a Tumor and in Different Regions of a Body Relative to the Tumor .............................. 36 16 Quality Factors...

  19. Experimental Verification of the Behavioral Foundation of Bacterial Transport Parameters Using Microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    Microfluidics Tanvir Ahmed and Roman Stocker Ralph M. Parsons Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental microfluidic experiments to quantify population-scale transport parameters (chemotactic sensitivity x0 of this upscaling process have not been verified experimentally. We designed a microfluidic capillary assay

  20. Phase transitions of hairy black holes in massive gravity and thermodynamic behavior of charged AdS black holes in an extended phase space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behrouz Mirza; Zeinab Sherkatghanad

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of static and spherically symmetric hairy black holes in massive gravity. In this case, the black hole is surrounded in a spherical cavity with a fixed temperature on the surface. It is observed that these black holes have a phase transition similar to the liquid-gas phase transition of a Van der Waals fluid. Also, by treating the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ as a thermodynamic pressure $P$, we study the thermodynamic behavior of charged anti-de Sitter black holes in an ensemble with a pressure of $P$ and an electric potential $\\Phi$ as the natural variables. A second order phase transition is observed to take place for all the values of the electric potential $\\Phi$.

  1. Electron Transport Behavior on Gate Length Scaling in Sub-50 nm GaAs Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jaeheon [Department of Electronic Engineering, Kangnam University, 111 Gugal-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-city, Gyeonggi-do, Korea 446-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Short channel GaAs Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFETs) have been fabricated with gate length to 20 nm, in order to examine the characteristics of sub-50 nm MESFET scaling. Here the rise in the measured transconductance is mainly attributed to electron velocity overshoot. For gate lengths below 40 nm, however, the transconductance drops suddenly. The behavior of velocity overshoot and its degradation is investigated and simulated by using a transport model based on the retarded Langevin equation (RLE). This indicates the existence of a minimum acceleration length needed for the carriers to reach the overshoot velocity. The argument shows that the source resistance must be included as an internal element, or appropriate boundary condition, of relative importance in any model where the gate length is comparable to the inelastic mean free path of the carriers.

  2. Scaling patterns for the suppression of charged hadron yields in Pb+Pb collisions at Root_s = 2.76 TeV: Constraints on transport coefficients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy A. Lacey; N. N. Ajitanand; J. M. Alexander; J. Jia; A. Taranenko

    2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Suppression measurements for charged hadrons are used to investigate the path length (L) and transverse momentum (p_T) dependent jet quenching patterns of the hot and dense QCD medium produced in Pb+Pb collisions at Root_s =2.76 TeV at the LHC. The observed scaling patterns, which are similar to those observed for Au+Au collisions at Root_s = 0.20 TeV at RHIC, show the trends predicted for jet-medium interactions dominated by radiative energy loss. They also allow a simple estimate of the transport coefficient $\\hat{q}$, which suggests that the medium produced in LHC collisions is somewhat less opaque than that produced at RHIC, if the same parton-medium coupling strength is assumed. The higher temperature produced in LHC collisions could reduce the parton-medium coupling strength to give identical values for $\\hat{q}$ in LHC and RHIC collisions.

  3. Decoherence and Energy Relaxation in the Quantum-Classical Dynamics for Charge Transport in Organic Semiconducting Crystals: an Instantaneous Decoherence Correction Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Si, Wei

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore an instantaneous decoherence correction (IDC) approach for the decoherence and energy relaxation in the quantum-classical dynamics of charge transport in organic semiconducting crystals. These effects, originating from environmental fluctuations, are essential ingredients of the carrier dynamics. The IDC is carried out by measurement-like operations in the adiabatic representation. While decoherence is inherent in the IDC, energy relaxation is taken into account by considering the detailed balance through the introduction of energy-dependent reweighing factors, which could be either Boltzmann (IDC-BM) or Miller-Abrahams (IDC-MA) type. For a non-diagonal electron-phonon coupling model, it is shown that the IDC tends to enhance diffusion while energy relaxation weakens this enhancement. As expected, both the IDC-BM and IDC-MA achieve a near-equilibrium distribution at finite temperatures in the diffusion process, while the Ehrenfest dynamics renders system tending to infinite temperature limit. The r...

  4. Charge detection in semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLean, Kenneth (Kenneth MacLean, III)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis nanometer scale charge sensors are used to study charge transport in two solid state systems: Lateral GaAs quantum dots and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). In both of these experiments we use ...

  5. Charge Storage Behavior of Nanowire Transistors Functionalized with Bis(terpyridine)-Fe(II) Molecules: Dependence on Molecular Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    wafer with patterned source/drain electrodes.9 The devices exhibit typical n-type FET behavior.5 molecules/nm2 for molecule 1, 2, and 3, respectively.11 A negative voltage pulse on the silicon back gate. These processes can be monitored by I-Vg curves that show the drain current (I) as a function of gate voltage (Vg

  6. Conductivity behavior of very thin gold films ruptured by mass transport in photosensitive polymer film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linde, Felix; Sekhar Yadavalli, Nataraja; Santer, Svetlana [Department of Experimental Physics, Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)] [Department of Experimental Physics, Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on conductivity behavior of very thin gold layer deposited on a photosensitive polymer film. Under irradiation with light interference pattern, the azobenzene containing photosensitive polymer film undergoes deformation at which topography follows a distribution of intensity, resulting in the formation of a surface relief grating. This process is accompanied by a change in the shape of the polymer surface from flat to sinusoidal together with a corresponding increase in surface area. The gold layer placed above deforms along with the polymer and ruptures at a strain of 4%. The rupturing is spatially well defined, occurring at the topographic maxima and minima resulting in periodic cracks across the whole irradiated area. We have shown that this periodic micro-rupturing of a thin metal film has no significant impact on the electrical conductivity of the films. We suggest a model to explain this phenomenon and support this by additional experiments where the conductivity is measured in a process when a single nanoscopic scratch is formed with an AFM tip. Our results indicate that in flexible electronic materials consisting of a polymer support and an integrated metal circuit, nano- and micro cracks do not alter significantly the behavior of the conductivity unless the metal is disrupted completely.

  7. All optical method for investigation of spin and charge transport in semiconductors: Combination of spatially and time-resolved luminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadiz, F.; Paget, D.; Grebenkov, D.; Korb, J. P.; Rowe, A. C. H. [Physique de la matière condensée, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Barate, P.; Amand, T. [Université de Toulouse, INSA-CNRS-UPS, 31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Arscott, S.; Peytavit, E. [Institut d'Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), University of Lille, CNRS, Avenue Poincaré, Cité Scientifique, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach is demonstrated for investigating charge and spin diffusion as well as surface and bulk recombination in unpassivated doped semiconductors. This approach consists in using two complementary, conceptually related, techniques, which are time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and spatially resolved microluminescence (?PL) and is applied here to p{sup +} GaAs. Analysis of the sole TRPL signal is limited by the finite risetime. On the other hand, it is shown that joint TRPL and ?PL can be used to determine the diffusion constant, the bulk recombination time, and the spin relaxation time. As an illustration, the temperature variation of these quantities is investigated for p{sup +} GaAs.

  8. Heteroepitaxial growth of GaN/Si (111) junctions in ammonia-free atmosphere: Charge transport, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saron, K. M. A.; Hashim, M. R. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Allam, Nageh K. [Energy Materials Laboratory (EML), Department of Physics, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835 (Egypt)

    2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the catalyst-free growth of gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures on n-Si (111) substrates using physical vapor deposition via thermal evaporation of GaN powder at 1150 Degree-Sign C in the absence of NH{sub 3} gas. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis indicate that the growth rate of GaN nanostructures varies with deposition time. Photoluminescence spectra showed the suppression of the UV emission and the enhancement of the visible band emission with increasing the deposition time. The fabricated GaN nanostructures exhibited p-type behavior at the GaN/Si interface, which can be related to the diffusion of Ga into the Si substrate. The obtained lowest reflection and highest transmittance over a wide wavelength range (450-750 nm) indicate the high quality of the fabricated GaN films. Hall-effect measurements showed that all fabricated films have p-type behavior with decreasing electron concentration from 10{sup 21} to 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} and increasing the electron mobility from 50 to 225 cm{sup 2}/V s with increasing the growth time. The fabricated solar cell based on the 1 h-deposited GaN nanostructures on n-Si (111) substrate showed a well-defined rectifying behavior with a rectification ratio larger than 8.32 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} in dark. Upon illumination (30 mW/cm{sup 2}), the 1 h-deposited heterojunction solar cell device showed a conversion efficiency of 5.78%. The growth of GaN in the absence of NH{sub 3} gas has strong effect on the morphological, optical, and electrical properties and consequently on the efficiency of the solar cell devices made of such layers.

  9. International aeronautical user charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odoni, Amedeo R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: 1.1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION Very few issues relating to the international air transportation industry are today as divisive as those pertaining to user charges imposed at international airports and enroute ...

  10. Solid particle transport behavior and the effect of aerosol mass loading on performance of a slit virtual impactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Satyanarayanan

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Transport of solid particles in a slit virtual impactor has been analyzed using visualization techniques. Particle trajectories were observed using laser-induced fluorescence of monodisperse particles seeded in the virtual impactor flow...

  11. Solid particle transport behavior and the effect of aerosol mass loading on performance of a slit virtual impactor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Satyanarayanan

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Transport of solid particles in a slit virtual impactor has been analyzed using visualization techniques. Particle trajectories were observed using laser-induced fluorescence of monodisperse particles seeded in the virtual ...

  12. Charged Amino Acids (R83, E567, D617, E625, R669, and K678) of CusA Are Required for Metal Ion Transport in the Cus Efflux System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Chih-Chia; Long, Feng; Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Reddy Bolla, Jani; Do, Sylvia V.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Yu, Edward W. (Cornell); (Iowa State)

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Gram-negative bacteria expel various toxic chemicals via tripartite efflux pumps belonging to the resistance-nodulation-cell division superfamily. These pumps span both the inner and outer membranes of the cell. The three components of these tripartite systems are an inner-membrane, substrate-binding transporter (or pump); a periplasmic membrane fusion protein (or adaptor); and an outer-membrane-anchored channel. These three efflux proteins interact in the periplasmic space to form the three-part complexes. We previously presented the crystal structures of both the inner-membrane transporter CusA and membrane fusion protein CusB of the CusCBA tripartite efflux system from Escherichia coli. We also described the co-crystal structure of the CusBA adaptor-transporter, revealing that the trimeric CusA efflux pump assembles with six CusB protein molecules to form the complex CusB{sub 6}-CusA{sub 3}. We here report three different conformers of the crystal structures of CusBA-Cu(I), suggesting a mechanism on how Cu(I) binding initiates a sequence of conformational transitions in the transport cycle. Genetic analysis and transport assays indicate that charged residues, in addition to the methionine pairs and clusters, are essential for extruding metal ions out of the cell.

  13. Synthesis and charge-transport properties of polymers derived from the oxidation of 1-hydro-1'-(6-(pyrrol-1-yl)hexyl)-4,4'-bipyridium Bis(hexafluorophosphate) and demonstration of pH-sensitive microelectrochemical transistor derived from the redox properties of a conventional redox center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, C.F.; Wrighton, M.S.

    1988-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the synthesis and electrochemical properties of redox polymers, having a polypyrrole backbone and viologen subunits, derived from oxidative electropolymerization of 1-methyl-1'-(6-(pyrrol-1-yl)hexyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium (P-V-Me/sup 2 +/) and 1-hydro-1'-(6-(pyrrol-1-yl)hexyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium (P-V-H/sup 2 +/). Closely spaced (approx. 1.5 ..mu..M) Au microelectrode arrays (approx. 2.5 ..mu..m wide /times/ 50 ..mu..m long /times/ 0.1 ..mu..m high) modified with the polymers can be used to study aspects of the charge-transport behavior of the viologen redox system. Poly(P-V-Me/sup 2 +/) have been used to investigate the characteristics of microelectrochemical transistors based on a viologen redox center and a similar redox center, protonated, monoquaternized bipyridinium, which is pH dependent. The interesting properties from poly(P-V-Me/sup 2 +/) and poly(P-V-H/sup 2 +/) stem from behavior of the pendant viologen redox centers. The device based on poly(P-V-Me/sup 2 +/) has a narrow region (approx. 200 mV) of gate voltage, V/sub G/, where the source-drain current, I/sub D/, is nonzero and has a sharp, pH-independent peak in the I/sub D/-V/sub G/ plot at approx. 0.53 V versus SCE associated with the reversible, one-electron reduction of viologen. This result is consistent with electron self-exchange between redox centers being the mechanism for charge transport. The device based on poly(P-V-H/sup 2 +/) shows a pH-dependent I/sub D/ at fixed V/sub G/, as expected from the electrochemical behavior from reversible protonation of the terminal N of the bipyridinium group of poly(P-V-H/sup 2 +/). The microelectrochemical transistor based on poly(P-V-H/sup 2 +/) illustrates the design of chemically sensitive, molecule-based devices using conventional redox materials.

  14. Pipeline charging of coke ovens with a preheated charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpov, A.V.; Khadzhioglo, A.V.; Kuznichenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work to test a pipeline charging method was conducted at the Konetsk Coke Works (a PK-2K coke oven system with a single gas main, oven width 407 mm, height 4300 mm, effective column 20.0 cm/sub 3/). This method consists of transporting the heated coal charge to the ovens through a pipe by means of steam. the charge is transported by high pressure chamber groups, and loaded by means of systems equipped with devices for separation, withdrawal and treatment of the spent steam. The principal goal of the present investigation was to test technical advances in the emission-free charging of preheated charges. The problem was, first, to create a reliable technology for separation of the steam from the charge immediately before loading it into the oven and, second, to provide a total elimination of emissions, thereby protecting the environment against toxic substances.

  15. Effects of density and water availability on the behavior, physiology, and weight loss of slaughter horses during transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iacono, Christa Marie

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    high, medium, and low density (5000, 4000, and 3000 kg per compartment, respectively) groups of slaughter horses. A total of six shipments containing 23 to 30 horses per shipment were transported in June and July of 2004 for 18 to 20 h. Horses were a...

  16. Space charge modeling in electron-beam irradiated polyethylene: Fitting model and experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Roy, S.; Laurent, C.; Teyssedre, G. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Baudoin, F.; Griseri, V. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical model for describing charge accumulation in electron-beam irradiated low density polyethylene has been put forward recently. It encompasses the generation of positive and negative charges due to impinging electrons and their transport in the insulation. However, the model was not optimized to fit all the data available regarding space charge dynamics obtained using up-to-date pulsed electro-acoustic techniques. In the present approach, model outputs are compared with experimental space charge distribution obtained during irradiation and post-irradiation, the irradiated samples being in short circuit conditions or with the irradiated surface at a floating potential. A unique set of parameters have been used for all the simulations, and it encompasses the transport parameters already optimized for charge transport in polyethylene under an external electric field. The model evolution in itself consists in describing the recombination between positive and negative charges according to the Langevin formula, which is physically more accurate than the previous description and has the advantage of reducing the number of adjustable parameters of the model. This also provides a better description of the experimental behavior underlining the importance of recombination processes in irradiated materials.

  17. Quantum Chemical Analysis of Electronic Structure and n-and p-Type Charge Transport in Perfluoroarene-Modified Oligothiophene Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medvedeva, Julia E.

    in Perfluoroarene-Modified Oligothiophene Semiconductors Sharon E. Koh, Bernard Delley, Julia E. Medvedeva isomeric fluoroarene-oligothiophene-based semiconductors. Three oligothiophene systems varying planarity plays a crucial role in the transport properties of these semiconductors. Our calculations

  18. Fluctuation bounds on charge and heat diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavel Kovtun

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study thermal fluctuation corrections to charge and heat conductivity in systems with locally conserved energy and charge, but without locally conserved momentum. Thermal fluctuations may naturally lead to a lower bound on diffusion constants for thermoelectric transport, and need to be taken into account when discussing potential bounds on transport coefficients.

  19. Net-baryon-, net-proton-, and net-charge kurtosis in heavy-ion collisions within a relativistic transport approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marlene Nahrgang; Tim Schuster; Michael Mitrovski; Reinhard Stock; Marcus Bleicher

    2012-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the potential of net-baryon, net-proton and net-charge kurtosis measurements to investigate the properties of hot and dense matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Contrary to calculations in a grand canonical ensemble we explicitly take into account exact electric and baryon charge conservation on an event-by-event basis. This drastically limits the width of baryon fluctuations. A simple model to account for this is to assume a grand-canonical distribution with a sharp cut-off at the tails. We present baseline predictions of the energy dependence of the net-baryon, net-proton and net-charge kurtosis for central ($b\\leq 2.75$ fm) Pb+Pb/Au+Au collisions from $E_{lab}=2A$ GeV to $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV from the UrQMD model. While the net-charge kurtosis is compatible with values around zero, the net-baryon number decreases to large negative values with decreasing beam energy. The net-proton kurtosis becomes only slightly negative for low $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$.

  20. The thermoelectric properties of molecular junctions can now be investigated with scanning tunnelling microscopy. Such experiments provide insights into charge transport in single

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    The thermoelectric properties of molecular junctions can now be investigated with scanning . They used a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) to investigate thermoelectricity -- the voltage generated that thermoelectric measurements by STM provide a solution to this problem MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS Charges feel the heat

  1. Growth of GaN on Si(111): Surfaces and crystallinity of the epifilms and the transport behavior of GaN/Si heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zhongjie; Xie Maohai [Physics Department, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Zhang Lixia; He Hongtao; Wang Jiannong [Physics Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Growths of GaN on Si(111) - (7 x 7) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) have been studied. Optimal conditions of MBE and the effect of a low-temperature (LT) buffer are followed. It is found that irrespective of the growth conditions and the growth strategies (direct versus two-step growth), a thin amorphous-like interface layer always forms. For smooth surfaces and better crystallinity of the epifilms, a LT-buffer preceding the high-temperature deposition is helpful, and the grown GaN films are of nitrogen-polar. Transport measurements of the heterojunctions of GaN on heavily p- and n-doped Si reveal ohmic behavior, whereas that of n-GaN on lightly doped n{sup -}-Si substrate shows rectifying characteristics.

  2. Non-contact, non-destructive, quantitative probing of interfacial trap sites for charge carrier transport at semiconductor-insulator boundary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Wookjin; Miyakai, Tomoyo; Sakurai, Tsuneaki; Saeki, Akinori [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Yokoyama, Masaaki [Kaneka Fundamental Technology Research Alliance Laboratories, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Seki, Shu, E-mail: seki@chem.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Kaneka Fundamental Technology Research Alliance Laboratories, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The density of traps at semiconductor–insulator interfaces was successfully estimated using microwave dielectric loss spectroscopy with model thin-film organic field-effect transistors. The non-contact, non-destructive analysis technique is referred to as field-induced time-resolved microwave conductivity (FI-TRMC) at interfaces. Kinetic traces of FI-TRMC transients clearly distinguished the mobile charge carriers at the interfaces from the immobile charges trapped at defects, allowing both the mobility of charge carriers and the number density of trap sites to be determined at the semiconductor-insulator interfaces. The number density of defects at the interface between evaporated pentacene on a poly(methylmethacrylate) insulating layer was determined to be 10{sup 12?}cm{sup ?2}, and the hole mobility was up to 6.5?cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1} after filling the defects with trapped carriers. The FI-TRMC at interfaces technique has the potential to provide rapid screening for the assessment of interfacial electronic states in a variety of semiconductor devices.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Sorption Behavior in Confined Coal Cores for Enhanced Coalbed Methane and CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jikich, S.A.; McLendon, T.R.; Seshadri, K.S.; Irdi, G.A.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of sorption isotherms and transport properties of CO2 in coal cores are important for designing enhanced coalbed methane/CO2 sequestration field projects. Sorption isotherms measured in the lab can provide the upper limit on the amount of CO2 that might be sorbed in these projects. Because sequestration sites will most likely be in unmineable coals, many of the coals will be deep and under considerable lithostatic and hydrostatic pressures. These lithostatic pressures may significantly reduce the sorption capacities and/or transport rates. Consequently, we have studied apparent sorption and diffusion in a coal core under confining pressure. A core from the important bituminous coal Pittsburgh #8 was kept under a constant, three-dimensional external stress; the sample was scanned by X-ray computer tomography (CT) before, then while it sorbed, CO2. Increases in sample density due to sorption were calculated from the CT images. Moreover, density distributions for small volume elements inside the core were calculated and analyzed. Qualitatively, the computerized tomography showed that gas sorption advanced at different rates in different regions of the core, and that diffusion and sorption progressed slowly. The amounts of CO2 sorbed were plotted vs. position (at fixed times) and vs. time (for various locations in the sample). The resulting sorption isotherms were compared to isotherms obtained from powdered coal from the same Pittsburgh #8 extended sample. The results showed that for this single coal at specified times, the apparent sorption isotherms were dependent on position of the volume element in the core and the distance from the CO2 source. Also, the calculated isotherms showed that less CO2 was sorbed than by a powdered (and unconfined) sample of the coal. Changes in density distributions during the experiment were also observed. After desorption, the density distribution of calculated volume elements differed from the initial distribution, suggesting hysteresis and a possible rearrangement of coal structure due to CO2 sorption.

  4. Combined Charge Carrier Transport and Photoelectrochemical Characterization of BiVO4 Single Crystals: Intrinsic Behavior of a Complex Metal Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rettie, Alexander J.; Lee, Heung Chan; Marshall, Luke G.; Lin, Jung-Fu; Capen, Cigdem; Lindemuth, Jeffrey; McCloy, John S.; Zhou, Jianshi; Bard, Allen J.; Mullins, C. Buddie

    2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT: Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a promising photoelectrode material for the oxidation of water, but fundamental studies of this material are lacking. To address this, we report electrical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of BiVO4 single crystals (undoped, 0.6% Mo and 0.3% W:BiVO4) grown using the floating zone technique. We demonstrate that a small polaron hopping conduction mechanism dominates from 250-400 K, transitioning to a variable range hopping mechanism at lower temperatures. An anisotropy ratio of ~3 was observed along the c-axis, attributed to the layered structure of BiVO4. Measurements of the AC field Hall effect yielded an electron mobility of ~0.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 for Mo and W:BiVO4 at 300 K. By application of the Gärtner model, a hole diffusion length of ~140 nm was estimated. As a result of low carrier mobility, attempts to measure the DC Hall effect were unsuccessful. Analyses of the Raman spectra showed that Mo and W substituted for V and acted as donor impurities. Mott-Schottky analysis of electrodes with the (001) face exposed yielded a flat band potential of 0.03-0.08 V vs. RHE, while incident photon conversion efficiency tests showed that the dark coloration of the doped single crystals did not result in additional photocurrent. Comparison of these intrinsic properties to other metal oxides for PEC applications gives valuable insight into this material as a photoanode.

  5. Induced-charge electrokinetics at large voltages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilic, Mustafa Sabri

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The classical transport theory cannot explain the experimental behavior of electrochemical systems in the extreme operating conditions required by modern microfluidics devices. Some experimental puzzles include strange ...

  6. Thermophoresis of charged colloidal particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Fayolle; T. Bickel; A. Würger

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally induced particle flow in a charged colloidal suspension is studied in a fluid-mechanical approach. The force density acting on the charged boundary layer is derived in detail. From Stokes' equation with no-slip boundary conditions at the particle surface, we obtain the particle drift velocity and the thermophoretic transport coefficients. The results are discussed in view of previous work and available experimental data.

  7. Piston-assisted charge pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaur, D; Mourokh, L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine charge transport through a system of three sites connected in series in the situation when an oscillating charged piston modulates the energy of the middle site. We show that with an appropriate set of parameters, charge can be transferred against an applied voltage. In this scenario, when the oscillating piston shifts away from the middle site, the energy of the site decreases and it is populated by a charge transferred from the lower energy site. On the other hand, when the piston returns to close proximity, the energy of the middle site increases and it is depopulated by the higher energy site. Thus through this process, the charge is pumped against the potential gradient. Our results can explain the process of proton pumping in one of the mitochondrial enzymes, Complex I. Moreover, this mechanism can be used for electron pumping in semiconductor nanostructures.

  8. Non-contact Nondestructive Probing of Charge Carrier Conductivity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transport processes at interfaces is one of the most important subjects in organic electronics. Charge carriers are injected or extracted through metalsemiconductor...

  9. Effect of dimerization on dynamics of spin-charge separation in Pariser-Parr-Pople model: A time-dependent density matrix renormalization group study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tirthankar Dutta; S. Ramasesha

    2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of static electron-phonon coupling, on real-time dynamics of spin and charge transport in $\\pi$-conjugated polyene chains. The polyene chain is modeled by the Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian with dimerized nearest-neighbor parameter $t_{0}(1+\\delta)$ for short bonds and $t_{0}(1-\\delta)$ for long bonds, and long-range electron-electron interactions. We follow the time evolution of the spin and charge using time-dependent density matrix renormalization group technique, when a hole is injected at one end of the chain in its ground state. We find that spin and charge dynamics followed through spin and charge velocities, depend both on chain length and extent of dimerization, $\\delta$. Analysis of the results requires focusing on physical quantities such as average spin and charge polarizations, particularly in the large dimerization limit. In the dimerization range 0.0 $\\le$ $\\delta$ $\\le$ 0.15, spin-charge dynamics is found to have a well defined behavior, with spin-charge separation (measured as the ratio of charge velocity to spin velocity) as well as, the total amount of charge and spin transported in a given time, along the chain, decreasing as dimerization increases. However, in the range 0.3 $\\le$ $\\delta$ $\\le$ 0.5, it is observed that the dynamics of spin and charge transport becomes complicated. It is observed that for large $\\delta$ values, spin-charge separation is suppressed and the injected hole fails to travel the entire length of the chain.

  10. Charged particle rapidity distributions at relativistic energies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, ZW; Pal, S.; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Ba; Zhang, B.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a multiphase transport model (AMPT), which includes both initial partonic and final hadronic interactions, we study the rapidity distributions of charged particles such as protons, antiprotons, pions, and kaons in heavy ion collisions at RHIC...

  11. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomyDr.Energy University Managing Increased Charging

  12. AirTAP BriefingsA publication of the AirTAP program of the Center for Transportation Studies at the University of Minnesota Setting rates and charges can be one of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    at the University of Minnesota Setting rates and charges can be one of the most challenging tasks an airport services, and rates and charges can fluctu- ate depending on the types of services that are offered. Finally, if rates and charges are set too high at an airport, pilots can easily relocate their aircraft

  13. The Charging-Scheduling Problem for Electric Vehicle Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Charging-Scheduling Problem for Electric Vehicle Networks Ming Zhu, Xiao-Yang Liu, Linghe Kong}@sjtu.edu.cn Abstract--Electric vehicle (EV) is a promising transportation with plenty of advantages, e.g., low carbon method to reduce the total charging time for EVs. We study the Electric Vehicle Charging-Scheduling (EVCS

  14. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    guidelines used by one Workplace Charging Challenge partner to keep their program running safe and successfully. Sample Workplace Charging Policy More Documents & Publications...

  15. Combined Charge Carrier Transport and Photoelectrochemical Characteriz...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    valuable insight into this material as a photoanode. Citation: Rettie AJ, HC Lee, LG Marshall, JF Lin, C Capen, J Lindemuth, JS McCloy, J Zhou, AJ Bard, and CB...

  16. Social change and cycling as a form of sustainable transportation : the behavior-policy interaction in a medium-sized developing city

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teich, Tegin L. (Tegin Leigh)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In developing countries, growth frequently parallels increasing motorization rates, and visions of mobility are often centered on the private automobile as the most flexible form of personal transportation and a symbol of ...

  17. Simulation of household in-home and transportation energy use : an integrated behavioral model for estimating energy consumption at the neighborhood scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Feifei, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Household in-home activities and out-of-home transportation are two major sources of urban energy consumption. In light of China's rapid urbanization and income growth, changing lifestyles and consumer patterns - evident ...

  18. Randomly charged polymers in porous environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Blavatska; C. von Ferber

    2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the conformational properties of charged polymers in a solvent in the presence of structural obstacles correlated according to a power law $\\sim x^{-a}$. We work within the continuous representation of a model of linear chain considered as a random sequence of charges $q_i=\\pm q_0$. Such a model captures the properties of polyampholytes -- heteropolymers comprising both positively and negatively charged monomers. We apply the direct polymer renormalization scheme and analyze the scaling behavior of charged polymers up to the first order of an $\\epsilon=6-d$, $\\delta=4-a$-expansion.

  19. Effect of dimerization on dynamics of spin-charge separation in Pariser-Parr-Pople model: A time-dependent DMRG study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Tirthankar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of static electron-phonon coupling, on real-time dynamics of spin and charge transport in $\\pi$-conjugated polyene chains. The polyene chain is modeled by the Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian with dimerized nearest-neighbor parameter $t_{0}(1+\\delta)$ for short bonds and $t_{0}(1-\\delta)$ for long bonds, and long-range electron-electron interactions. We follow the time evolution of the spin and charge using time-dependent DMRG technique, when a hole is injected at one end of the chain in its ground state. We find that spin and charge dynamics followed through spin and charge velocities, depend both on chain length and extent of dimerization, $\\delta$. Analysis of the results requires focusing on physical quantities such as average spin and charge polarizations, particularly in the large dimerization limit. In the dimerization range 0.0 $\\le$ $\\delta$ $\\le$ 0.15, spin-charge dynamics is found to have a well defined behavior, with spin-charge separation (measured as the ratio of charge v...

  20. Recovery Act – Transportation Electrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gogineni, Kumar

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ChargePoint America demonstrated the viability, economic and environmental benefits of an electric vehicle-charging infrastructure. Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in electric vehicles (PHEVs) arrived in late 2010, there was a substantial lack of infrastructure to support these vehicles. ChargePoint America deployed charging infrastructure in ten (10) metropolitan regions in coordination with vehicle deliveries targeting those same regions by our OEM partners: General Motors, Nissan, Fisker Automotive, Ford, smart USA, and BMW. The metropolitan regions include Central Texas (Austin/San Antonio), Bellevue/Redmond (WA), Southern Michigan, Los Angeles area (CA), New York Metro (NY), Central Florida (Orlando/Tampa), Sacramento (CA), San Francisco/San Jose (CA), Washington DC and Boston (MA). ChargePoint America installed more than 4,600 Level 2 (220v) SAE J1772™ UL listed networked charging ports in home, public and commercial locations to support approximately 2000 program vehicles. ChargePoint collected data to analyze how individuals, businesses and local governments used their vehicles. Understanding driver charging behavior patterns will provide the DoE with critical information as EV adoption increases in the United States.

  1. SciTech Connect: Atomistic mechanisms of rapid energy transport...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (fuels), solid state lighting, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, optics, synthesis (novel materials), synthesis (self-assembly), synthesis (scalable...

  2. The Value of Flexibility in Robust Location-Transportation Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Christensen, Tue R. L., Kim Allan Andersen, Andreas Klose. 2013. Solving the single-sink, fixed-charge, multiple-choice transportation problem by dynamic ...

  3. Identifying key controls on the behavior of an acidic-U(VI) plume in the Savannah River Site using reactive transport modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    National Lab., 1 Cyclotron Road Mail Stop 90R1116, Berkeley, CA 94720-8126, United States b Savannah RiverIdentifying key controls on the behavior of an acidic-U(VI) plume in the Savannah River Site using National Lab., Bldg. 773-42A, Aiken, SC 29808, United States a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Article

  4. altered charge selectivity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    QD layer was more. In this study we show that p- and n-type inorganic charge transport thin films can be system- atically selected 5 Electrokinetic Instability near...

  5. Local Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Local Transportation. Transportation from the Airport to Hotel. There are two types of taxi companies that operate at the airport: special and regular taxis (

  6. Greening Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Goal 2: Greening Transportation LANL supports and encourages employees to reduce their personal greenhouse gas emissions by offering various commuting and work...

  7. Chamber transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OLSON,CRAIG L.

    2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  8. Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.

  9. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode Jun Liu,Modeling of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power SourcesBehavior of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources

  10. Now Available: Lakeland Electric SGIG Consumer Behavior Study...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Charging Behaviors - Experiences from Six SGIG Projects (December 2014) Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers...

  11. SGIG Report Now Available: Experiences from the Consumer Behavior...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Customer Charging Behaviors - Experiences from Six SGIG Projects (December 2014) Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and...

  12. Charge regulation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  13. Behavior of the Diamond Difference and Low-Order Nodal Numerical Transport Methods in the Thick Diffusion Limit for Slab Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill DF

    2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to investigate the thick diffusion limit of various spatial discretizations of the one-dimensional, steady-state, monoenergetic, discrete ordinates neutron transport equation. This work specifically addresses the two lowest order nodal methods, AHOT-N0 and AHOT-N1, as well as reconsiders the asymptotic limit of the Diamond Difference method. The asymptotic analyses of the AHOT-N0 and AHOT-N1 nodal methods show that AHOT-N0 does not possess the thick diffusion limit for cell edge or cell average fluxes except under very limiting conditions, which is to be expected considering the AHOT-N0 method limits to the Step method in the thick diffusion limit. The AHOT-N1 method, which uses a linear in-cell representation of the flux, was shown to possess the thick diffusion limit for both cell average and cell edge fluxes. The thick diffusion limit of the DD method, including the boundary conditions, was derived entirely in terms of cell average scalar fluxes. It was shown that, for vacuum boundaries, only when {sigma}{sub t}, h, and Q are constant and {sigma}{sub a} = 0 is the asymptotic limit of the DD method close to the finite-differenced diffusion equation in the system interior, and that the boundary conditions between the systems will only agree in the absence of an external source. For a homogeneous medium an effective diffusion coefficient was shown to be present, which was responsible for causing numeric diffusion in certain cases. A technique was presented to correct the numeric diffusion in the interior by altering certain problem parameters. Numerical errors introduced by the boundary conditions and material interfaces were also explored for a two-region problem using the Diamond Difference method. A discrete diffusion solution which exactly solves the one-dimensional diffusion equation in a homogeneous region with constant cross sections and a uniform external source was also developed and shown to be equal to the finite-differenced diffusion discretization for c = 1 in the system interior, where again the boundary conditions again only agree in the absence of an external source. It was also shown that for c < 1 the exact discrete diffusion solution is written in terms of hyperbolic functions, with expressions which limit to the exact solution for the c = 1 case as c {yields} 1. Finally, a transport discretization is developed which reproduces the exact S2 solution for the case of a purely scattering homogeneous region with vacuum boundary conditions, and an extension to the discretization for the case of c < 1 is found by considering a Taylor series expansion of the exact answer centered at c = 0.

  14. Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    miles across all available vehicles, not only the one being studied. Find out where the "other" gasoline/needs, Important destinations, HOV usage · Home and work charging infrastructure · Electricity prices · Purchase · Charging behavior · Location · Time · Frequency · Power · Level · Efficiency · Gasoline operation · MPG

  15. Mesoscopic modeling of multi-physicochemical transport phenomena in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Qinjin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Moran [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lichtner, Peter C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present our recent progress on mesoscopic modeling of multi-physicochemical transport phenomena in porous media based on the lattice Boltzmann method. Simulation examples include injection of CO{sub 2} saturated brine into a limestone rock, two-phase behavior and flooding phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and electroosmosis in homogeneously charged porous media. It is shown that the lattice Boltzmann method can account for multiple, coupled physicochemical processes in these systems and can shed some light on the underlying physics occuning at the fundamental scale. Therefore, it can be a potential powerful numerical tool to analyze multi-physicochemical processes in various energy, earth, and environmental systems.

  16. Electrically charged pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. D. Alloy; D. P. Menezes

    2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    n the present work we investigate one possible variation on the usual electrically neutral pulsars: the inclusion of electric charge. We study the effect of electric charge in pulsars assuming that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. All calculations were performed for zero temperature and fixed entropy equations of state.

  17. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Ching-Yen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Multiplexed Electric Vehicle Charging”, US20130154561A1,Chynoweth, ”Intelligent Electric Vehicle Charging System”,of RFID Mesh Network for Electric Vehicle Smart Charging

  18. Electrostatic charging of lunar dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walch, Bob [Department of Physics, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado 80639 (United States); Horanyi, Mihaly [LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0392 (United States); Robertson, Scott [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0391 (United States)

    1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient dust clouds suspended above the lunar surface were indicated by the horizon glow observed by the Surveyor spacecrafts and the Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite Experiment (Apollo 17), for example. The theoretical models cannot fully explain these observations, but they all suggest that electrostatic charging of the lunar surface due to exposure to the solar wind plasma and UV radiation could result in levitation, transport and ejection of small grains. We report on our experimental studies of the electrostatic charging properties of an Apollo-17 soil sample and two lunar simulants MLS-1 and JSC-1. We have measured their charge after exposing individual grains to a beam of fast electrons with energies in the range of 20{<=}E{<=}90 eV. Our measurements indicate that the secondary electron emission yield of the Apollo-17 sample is intermediate between MLS-1 and JSC-1, closer to that of MLS-1. We will also discuss our plans to develop a laboratory lunar surface model, where time dependent illumination and plasma bombardment will closely emulate the conditions on the surface of the Moon.

  19. Environment Assisted Quantum Transport in Organic Molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vattay, Gabor

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the new discoveries in quantum biology is the role of Environment Assisted Quantum Transport (ENAQT) in excitonic transport processes. In disordered quantum systems transport is most efficient when the environment just destroys quantum interferences responsible for localization, but the coupling does not drive the system to fully classical thermal diffusion yet. This poised realm between the pure quantum and the semi-classical domains has not been considered in other biological transport processes, such as charge transport through organic molecules. Binding in receptor-ligand complexes is assumed to be static as electrons are assumed to be not able to cross the ligand molecule. We show that ENAQT makes cross ligand transport possible and efficient between certain atoms opening the way for the reorganization of the charge distribution on the receptor when the ligand molecule docks. This new effect can potentially change our understanding how receptors work. We demonstrate room temperature ENAQT on the c...

  20. Transport, Aharonov-Bohm, and Topological Effects in Graphene Molecular Junctions and Graphene Nanorings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constantine Yannouleas; Igor Romanovsky; Uzi Landman

    2015-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The unique ultra-relativistic, massless, nature of electron states in two-dimensional extended graphene sheets, brought about by the honeycomb lattice arrangement of carbon atoms in two-dimensions, provides ingress to explorations of fundamental physical phenomena in graphene nanostructures. Here we explore the emergence of new behavior of electrons in atomically precise segmented graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and graphene rings with the use of tight-binding calculations, non-equilibrium Green's function transport theory, and a newly developed Dirac continuum model that absorbs the valence-to-conductance energy gaps as position-dependent masses, including topological-in-origin mass-barriers at the contacts between segments. Through transport investigations in variable-width segmented GNRs with armchair, zigzag, and mixed edge terminations we uncover development of new Fabry-Perot-like interference patterns in segmented GNRs, a crossover from the ultra-relativistic massless regime, characteristic of extended graphene systems, to a massive relativistic behavior in narrow armchair GNRs, and the emergence of nonrelativistic behavior in zigzag-terminated GNRs. Evaluation of the electronic states in a polygonal graphene nanoring under the influence of an applied magnetic field in the Aharonov-Bohm regime, and their analysis with the use of a relativistic quantum-field theoretical model, unveils development of a topological-in-origin zero-energy soliton state and charge fractionization. These results provide a unifying framework for analysis of electronic states, coherent transport phenomena, and the interpretation of forthcoming experiments in segmented graphene nanoribbons and polygonal rings.

  1. General Groves takes charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    takes charge Colonel James C. Marshall, head of the DSM project (Development of Substitute Materials), did not make much headway, yet he did accomplish some things that lasted....

  2. Nano watermill driven by the revolving charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Nie, Xuechuan; Wu, Fengmin; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hangjun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a novel nanoscale watermill for unidirectional transport of water molecules through a curved single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In this nanoscale system, a revolving charge is introduced to drive water chain confined inside the SWNT, which is served as nano waterwheel and nano engine. A resonance-like phenomenon is found that the revolving frequency of the charge plays a key role in pumping water chain. The water flux across the SWNT increases with respect to the revolving frequency of the external charge and reaches the maximum when the frequency is 4 THz. Correspondingly, the number of the hydrogen bonds of water chain inside the SWNT decreases dramatically with the frequency ranging from 4 THz to 25 THz. The mechanism behind the resonant phenomenon has been investigated systematically. Our findings are helpful for designing nanoscale fluidic devices and energy converters.

  3. Acclimation of Holstein Calves to Transit Stress: The Integration of Endocrine, Immune, and Behavior Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Amber

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Little is known about the adaptation of livestock to repeated transport. This study determined how repeated transport affected calf feed intake, plasma cortisol (CORT), post-transport behavior, and the expression of immune-related genes. Thirty...

  4. Charge regulation in ionic solutions: thermal fluctuations and Kirkwood-Schumaker interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natasa Adzic; Rudolf Podgornik

    2014-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the behavior of two macroions with dissociable charge groups, regulated by local variables such as pH and electrostatic potential, immersed in a mono-valent salt solution, considering cases where the net charge can either change sign or remain of the same sign depending on these local parameters. The charge regulation, in both cases, is described with the proper free energy function for each of the macroions, while the coupling between the charges is evaluated on the approximate Debye-H\\"uckel level. The charge correlation functions and the ensuing charge fluctuation forces are calculated analytically and numerically. Strong attraction between like-charged macroions is found close to the point of zero charge, specifically due to asymmetric, anticorrelated charge fluctuations of the macroion charges. The general theory is then implemented for a system of two protein-like macroions, generalizing the form and magnitude of the Kirkwood-Schumaker interaction.

  5. Electrically charged compact stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subharthi Ray; Manuel Malheiro; Jose' P. S. Lemos; Vilson T. Zanchin

    2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We review here the classical argument used to justify the electrical neutrality of stars and show that if the pressure and density of the matter and gravitational field inside the star are large, then a charge and a strong electric field can be present. For a neutron star with high pressure (~ 10^{33} to 10^{35} dynes /cm^2) and strong gravitational field (~ 10^{14} cm/s^2), these conditions are satisfied. The hydrostatic equation which arises from general relativity, is modified considerably to meet the requirements of the inclusion of the charge. In order to see any appreciable effect on the phenomenology of the neutron stars, the charge and the electrical fields have to be huge (~ 10^{21} Volts/cm). These stars are not however stable from the viewpoint that each charged particle is unbound to the uncharged particles, and thus the system collapses one step further to a charged black hole

  6. Charging Black Saturn?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenda Chng; Robert Mann; Eugen Radu; Cristian Stelea

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordstrom solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we could find present either a conical singularity or a naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

  7. Gas-solid transport in a 0. 0508 m pipe at various inclinations with and without electrostatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myler, C.A.; Zaltash, A.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport of solid particles by air through a 0.0508 m pipe was studied in vertical, horizontal, and 45/sup 0/ orientations. Through control of the air humidity, the effects of electrostatic charging was observed. Pressure drop and particle velocities were measured. Particles used included 79 ..mu..m, 125 ..mu..m, and 450 ..mu..m glass beads and 128 ..mu..m Plexiglas beads. Analysis of particle velocity, pressure drop fluctuation, electrostatic pressure drop, choking and saltation was performed. Visual observations of the flow patterns and behavior were made. A linear stability analysis for the three orientations was performed.

  8. Computational Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    ), in-vehicle computers, and computers in the transportation infrastructure are integrated ride- sharing, real-time multi-modal routing and navigation, to autonomous/assisted driving

  9. Robust transportation network design under user equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Yun

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the problem of designing a transportation network in the presence of demand uncertainty, multiple origin-destination pairs and a budget constraint for the overall construction cost, under the behavioral assumption ...

  10. Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    emissions prices? How would CO2 regulations impact coal, gas, electricity, & SO2 markets? 3. Disruptions1 Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation Networks Electrical Engineering Professor Jim Mc: · integrated fuel, electricity networks · environmental impacts · electricity commodity markets · behavior

  11. taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramani, Praveen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately owned vehicles ...

  12. Relativistic Dynamics of a Charged Particle in an Electroscalar Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. V. Podgainy; O. A. Zaimidoroga

    2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This article devoted to relativistic dynamics of a charged massive particle in an electroscalar field. It represents a continuation of paper [1] where the authors constructed a non-relativistic theory which describes transverse electromagnetic waves along with longitudinal electroscalar ones, responsible for the wave transport of the Coulomb field. A new type of relativistic force exerted by electroscalar field on an electrically charged particle and the relativistic law of superposition of electromagnetic transverse and electroscalar longitudinal fields are established. Also, a relativistically invariant form of a Lagrangian describing the interaction between an electroscalar field and massive electrically charged particle is defined.

  13. Relativistic Dynamics of a Charged Particle in an Electroscalar Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podgainy, D V

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article devoted to relativistic dynamics of a charged massive particle in an electroscalar field. It represents a continuation of paper [1] where the authors constructed a non-relativistic theory which describes transverse electromagnetic waves along with longitudinal electroscalar ones, responsible for the wave transport of the Coulomb field. A new type of relativistic force exerted by electroscalar field on an electrically charged particle and the relativistic law of superposition of electromagnetic transverse and electroscalar longitudinal fields are established. Also, a relativistically invariant form of a Lagrangian describing the interaction between an electroscalar field and massive electrically charged particle is defined.

  14. Transportation Market Distortions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litman, Todd

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Highways, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Evaluating Criticism of Transportation Costing, VictoriaFrom Here: Evaluating Transportation Diversity, Victoria

  15. Abstract adiabatic charge pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Joye; V. Brosco; F. Hekking

    2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of an abstract formula describing quantum adiabatic charge pumping in a general context. We consider closed systems characterized by a slowly varying time-dependent Hamiltonian depending on an external parameter $\\alpha$. The current operator, defined as the derivative of the Hamiltonian with respect to $\\alpha$, once integrated over some time interval, gives rise to a charge pumped through the system over that time span. We determine the first two leading terms in the adiabatic parameter of this pumped charge under the usual gap hypothesis. In particular, in case the Hamiltonian is time periodic and has discrete non-degenerate spectrum, the charge pumped over a period is given to leading order by the derivative with respect to $\\alpha$ of the corresponding dynamical and geometric phases.

  16. Electrically charged targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Ronald K. (Livermore, CA); Hunt, Angus L. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  17. electrifyingthefuture transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    electrifyingthefuture transportation The UK Government's carbon reduction strategy vehicles and the new Birmingham Science City Energy Systems Integration Laboratory (ESIL) will further enhance this work. The laboratory - unique within the UK and world leading - brings together cutting edge

  18. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  19. Diffuse-charge effects on the transient response of electrochemical cells M. van Soestbergen,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    of an electrochemical cell in response to a current step, including effects of diffuse charge or "space charge" nearDiffuse-charge effects on the transient response of electrochemical cells M. van Soestbergen,1,2 P/discharge cycle of batteries 1­5 and the startup behavior of fuel cells 6 are important topics. Time- dependent

  20. Holographic Charge Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mike Blake; Aristomenis Donos; David Tong

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reissner-Nordstrom black hole provides the prototypical description of a holographic system at finite density. We study the response of this system to the presence of a local, charged impurity. Below a critical temperature, the induced charge density, which screens the impurity, exhibits oscillations. These oscillations can be traced to the singularities in the density-density correlation function moving in the complex momentum plane. At finite temperature, the oscillations are very similar to the Friedel oscillations seen in Fermi liquids. However, at zero temperature the oscillations in the black hole background remain exponentially damped, while Friedel oscillations relax to a power-law

  1. Overview of charge symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, G.A. [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    1995-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge independence and symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature. The observations of the small charge symmetry breaking effects and the consequences of those effects are reviewed. The effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and the off shell dependence {ital q}{sup 2} of {rho}{sup 0}-{omega} mixing are stressed. We find that models which predict a strong {ital q}{sup 2} dependence of {rho}{sup 0}-{omega} mixing seem also to predict a strong {ital q}{sup 2} variation for the {rho}{sup 0}-{gamma}* matrix element, in contradiction with experiment.

  2. The Northwestern University Transportation Center presents: Sergio Jara-Diaz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    ´ behavior and value of time, time use, multi-output cost functions, public transport and optimal pricing. He Engineering Universidad de Chile Optimal Design and Pricing of Public Transport (still crazy after all), the research on the relation between optimal pricing and design of public transport services has remained

  3. Charge mobility of discotic mesophases: A multiscale quantum/classical study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kirkpatrick; V. Marcon; J. Nelson; K. Kremer; D. Andrienko

    2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A correlation is established between the molecular structure and charge mobility of discotic mesophases of hexabenzocoronene derivatives by combining electronic structure calculations, Molecular Dynamics, and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. It is demonstrated that this multiscale approach can provide an accurate ab-initio description of charge transport in organic materials.

  4. Analytical Investigations of Varying Cross Section Microstructures on Charge Transfer in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, George J.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Chiu, W. K. S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extended surface modeling concept (electrochemical fin) is applied to charge transport within the SOFC electrode microstructure using an analytical modeling approach analogous to thermal fin analysis. This model is distinct from similar approaches applied to SOFC electrode microstructure in its application of a governing equation that allows for variable cross-section geometry. The model presented is capable of replicating experimentally observed electrode behavior inclusive of sensitivity to microstructural geometry, which stands in contrast to existing models that apply governing equations analogous to a constant cross-section thermal fin equation. Insights learned from this study include: the establishment of a suite of dimensionless parameters and performance metrics that can be applied to assess electrode microstructure, the definition of microstructure-related transport regimes relevant to electrode design, and correlations that allow performance predictions for electrodes that provide cell structural support. Of particular note, the variable cross-section modeling approach motivates the definition of a sintering quality parameter that quantifies the degree of constriction within the conducting network of the electrode, a phenomenon that exerts influence over electrode polarization. One-dimensional models are presented for electrochemical fins of several cross-sectional geometries with the ultimate goal of developing a general tool that enables the prompt performance evaluation of electrode microstructures. Such a tool would facilitate SOFC microstructural design by focusing more detailed modeling efforts on the most promising microstructures.

  5. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  6. AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced...

  7. Turbulence transport with nonlocal interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linn, R.R.; Clark, T.T.; Harlow, F.H.; Turner, L.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This preliminary report describes a variety of issues in turbulence transport analysis with particular emphasis on closure procedures that are nonlocal in wave-number and/or physical space. Anomalous behavior of the transport equations for large scale parts of the turbulence spectrum are resolved by including the physical space nonlocal interactions. Direct and reverse cascade processes in wave-number space are given a much richer potential for realistic description by the nonlocal formulations. The discussion also describes issues, many still not resolved, regarding new classes of self-similar form functions.

  8. Neutron-Proton High-Energy Charge Exchange Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Yan; R. Tegen; T. Gutsche; V. E. Lyubovitskij; Amand Faessler

    2002-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The high energy proton-neutron charge exchange scattering reaction is studied in an effective hadron model for the energy range of s from 45.9 to 414.61 GeV*GeV. The main features of the observed differential cross section, the forward peak and the scaling behavior over a large energy region, are well reproduced.

  9. Quark star model with charge distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel Malaver

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we studied the behavior of relativistic objects with anisotropic matter distribution inthe presence of an electric field considering a gravitational potential Z(x) of Thirukkanesh and Ragel (2013) which depends on an adjustable parameter n. The equation of state presents a quadratic relation between the energy densityand the radial pressure. New exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell system are generated. A physical analysis of electromagnetic field indicates that is regular in the origin and well behaved. We show as a variation of the adjustable parameter n causes a modification in the charge density, the radial pressure and the mass of the stellar object.

  10. Role of collector alternating charged patches on transport of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microsphere in 2-dimensional micromodels was studied. The cylindrical silica collectors within the micromodels were coated with 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100% Fe2O3 patches. The...

  11. Charge transport in hybrid nanorod-polymer composite photovoltaic cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huynh, Wendy U.; Dittmer, Janke J.; Teclemariam, Nerayo; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Barnham, Keith W.J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    circuit diagram for a photovoltaic cell under illumination.Polymer Composite Photovoltaic Cells Wendy U. Huynh ‡ ,devices such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting-

  12. Comprehensive computer model for magnetron sputtering. II. Charged particle transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez, Francisco J., E-mail: fjimenez@ualberta.ca; Dew, Steven K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2V4 (Canada); Field, David J. [Smith and Nephew (Alberta) Inc., Fort Saskatchewan T8L 4K4 (Canada)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Discharges for magnetron sputter thin film deposition systems involve complex plasmas that are sensitively dependent on magnetic field configuration and strength, working gas species and pressure, chamber geometry, and discharge power. The authors present a numerical formulation for the general solution of these plasmas as a component of a comprehensive simulation capability for planar magnetron sputtering. This is an extensible, fully three-dimensional model supporting realistic magnetic fields and is self-consistently solvable on a desktop computer. The plasma model features a hybrid approach involving a Monte Carlo treatment of energetic electrons and ions, along with a coupled fluid model for thermalized particles. Validation against a well-known one-dimensional system is presented. Various strategies for improving numerical stability are investigated as is the sensitivity of the solution to various model and process parameters. In particular, the effect of magnetic field, argon gas pressure, and discharge power are studied.

  13. ChargePoint is Helping Electrify America's Transportation | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. Feedstock & ProductionChapter 6 --3078Met-Ocean

  14. Charging Up with the Electric Drive Transportation Association | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. Feedstock & ProductionChapter 6 --3078Met-Oceanof

  15. Charge-carrier transport in amorphous organic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limketkai, Benjie, 1982-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the first reports of efficient luminescence and absorption in organic semiconductors, organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and photovoltaics (OPVs) have attracted increasing interest. Organic semiconductors have ...

  16. Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)HydrogenRFP »summerlecturesVortices InfluenceInfluence

  17. Charge Transport within a Three-Dimensional DNA Nanostructure Framework

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of2 DOE

  18. Charge Transport Anisotropy Due to Grain Boundaries in Directionally

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of the Rotating Wall Machine by

  19. ChargePoint is Helping Electrify America's Transportation | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJuneWasteDepartmentUtilities in many statesChapter 78Desert3

  20. A General Relationship between Disorder, Aggregation, and Charge Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, AlgeriaQ1 Q2you aA Deep Diveinin

  1. Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News link to facebookInfinibandVorticesChange

  2. Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News link to

  3. Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News link toInfluence of Topological Spin Fluctuations

  4. Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News link toInfluence of Topological Spin

  5. Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News link toInfluence of Topological SpinInfluence of

  6. Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heat Annual Report, 1993Semiconductor | Stanford

  7. Texas State Planning Region 3 Report of Regional Transportation Coordination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nortex Regional Planning Commission

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the 24 regions studying public transportation in their area was charged with assessing Barriers, Constraints and Best Practices in public transportation. This Coordination Committee addressed this issue with enthusiasm, generating significant topics...DOT requirement that all vehicles be ADA compliant, Medicaid restrictions and Insurance as significant barriers to public transportation. Best practices included sharing of information regarding this project through publication in rural newspapers, inter...

  8. Transportation and its Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    40 pp. IEA, 2004c: Biofuels for Transport: An Internationalthe ACT Map scenario, transport biofuels production reachesestimates that biofuels’ share of transport fuel could

  9. General 2 charge geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marika Taylor

    2005-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Two charge BPS horizon free supergravity geometries are important in proposals for understanding black hole microstates. In this paper we construct a new class of geometries in the NS1-P system, corresponding to solitonic strings carrying fermionic as well as bosonic condensates. Such geometries are required to account for the full microscopic entropy of the NS1-P system. We then briefly discuss the properties of the corresponding geometries in the dual D1-D5 system.

  10. On the Proton charge extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Gluck

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the recent determination of the various proton charge extensions is compatible with Standard Model expectations.

  11. What kind of charging infrastructure do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document will describe the charging behavior of Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will include aggregated data from several thousand vehicles regarding time-of-day, power level, and location of charging and driving events. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  12. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of Charged Carboxyl-Terminated Dendrimers in Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubin, Paul D.

    Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of Charged Carboxyl-Terminated Dendrimers in Solutions Q. R-angle neutron scattering was used to characterize the solution behavior of charged carboxylic acid terminated- copy,16 small-angle X-ray scattering,17 and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS),18-25 have been used

  13. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar Stål

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new webpage collecting charged Higgs resources is presented.

  14. Voltage Dependent Charge Storage Modes and Capacity in Subnanometer Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui [Clemson University; Meunier, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Wu, Peng [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that charge storage in subnanometer pores follows a distinct voltage-dependent behavior. Specifically, at lower voltages, charge storage is achieved by swapping co-ions in the pore with counterions in the bulk electrolyte. As voltage increases, further charge storage is due mainly to the removal of co-ions from the pore, leading to a capacitance increase. The capacitance eventually reaches a maximum when all co-ions are expelled from the pore. At even higher electrode voltages, additional charge storage is realized by counterion insertion into the pore, accompanied by a reduction of capacitance. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are elucidated and provide useful insight for optimizing energy storage based on supercapacitors.

  15. Black hole evaporation in a noncommutative charged Vaidya model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Javed, W. [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics (Pakistan)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine a spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordstroem-like solution of this model, which leads to an exact (t - r)-dependent metric. The behavior of the temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature are investigated. The results are shown in the form of graphs. Further, we examine the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon. We find that the tunneling amplitude is modified due to noncommutativity. Also, it turns out that the black hole evaporates completely in the limits of large time and horizon radius. The effect of charge is to reduce the temperature from a maximum value to zero. We note that the final stage of black hole evaporation is a naked singularity.

  16. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Future of Sustainable Transportation This is the January 2015 issue of the Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter. Illustration of an electric vehicle Illustration of an...

  17. Experimental Economics in Transportation: A Focus on Social Influences and the Provision of Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    theory, and attitudinal variables. Further infusion into transportation could lead to significant literature, the infusion of behavioral economics into transportation has been relatively minimal. Further, the infusion has h

  18. Dynamics of Non-adiabatic Charged Cylindrical Gravitational Collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Sharif; G. Abbas

    2011-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to study the dynamics of gravitational collapse in the Misner and Sharp formalism. We take non-viscous heat conducting charged anisotropic fluid as a collapsing matter with cylindrical symmetry. The dynamical equations are derived and coupled with the transport equation for heat flux obtained from the M$\\ddot{u}$ller-Israel-Stewart causal thermodynamic theory. We discuss the role of anisotropy, electric charge and radial heat flux over the dynamics of the collapse with the help of coupled equation.

  19. Automakers and Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments from TarasaName4ServicesTribalWorkplace Charging Summit

  20. NERSC HPSS Charging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your1AllocationsNOVA Portal: Submit2014 2015Charging HPSS

  1. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  2. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid IntegrationReportTransmissionResearchNewsTransportation News

  3. Experimental and theoretical investigation of transport phenomena in nanoparticle colloids (nanofluids)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Wesley Charles, 1976-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the thermal transport behavior of nanoparticle colloids or nanofluids. The major efforts are: to determine methods to characterize a nanoparticle colloid's mass loading, chemical constituents, ...

  4. Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Poster...

  5. Asymmetric Electron Transport at Monolayer-Bilayer Heterojunctions of Epitaxial Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, An-Ping [ORNL] [ORNL; Clark, Kendal W [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Gong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); He, Guowei [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)] [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU); Feenstra, Randall [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)] [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The symmetry of the graphene honeycomb lattice is a key element determining many of graphene s unique electronic properties, such as the linear energy-momentum dispersion and the suppressed backscattering 1,2. However, line defects in large-scale epitaxial graphene films, such as grain boundaries, edges, surface steps, and changes in layer thickness, often break the sublatttice symmetry and can impact transport properties of graphene profoundly 3-6. Here we report asymmetric electron transport upon polarity reversal at individual monolayer-bilayer (ML-BL) boundaries in epitaxial graphene on SiC (0001), revealed by scanning tunneling potentiometry. A greater voltage drop is observed when the current flows from BL to ML graphene than in the reverse direction, and the difference remains nearly unchanged with increasing current. This is not a typical nonlinear conductance due to electron transmission through an asymmetric potential. Rather, it indicates the opening of a dynamic energy gap at the Fermi energy due to the Coulomb interaction between the injected nonequilibrium electron density and the pseudospin polarized Friedel oscillation charge density at the boundary. This intriguing heterojunction transport behavior opens a new avenue towards novel quantum functions such as quantum switching.

  6. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The report also examines when consumers want to recharge vehicles, and to what extent pricing and incentives can encourage consumers to charge during off-peak periods. Evaluating...

  7. Channeling problem for charged particles produced by confining environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Derbov, V. L. [Saratov State University (Russian Federation); Krassovitskiy, P. M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan); Vinitsky, S. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Channeling problem produced by confining environment that leads to resonance scattering of charged particles via quasistationary states imbedded in the continuum is examined. Nonmonotonic dependence of physical parameters on collision energy and/or confining environment due to resonance transmission and total reflection effects is confirmed that can increase the rate of recombination processes. The reduction of the model for two identical charged ions to a boundary problem is considered together with the asymptotic behavior of the solution in the vicinity of pair-collision point and the results of R-matrix calculations. Tentative estimations of the enhancement factor and the total reflection effect are discussed.

  8. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  9. Sacrificial Charge and Charge Injection! Evolution of Line Width!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Catherine E.

    . Similar structures are seen in the energy scale due to sacrificial charge. " Solar Min Solar Max increasing CTI, trailing charge and event/split thresholds Evolution of Energy Scale! · Radiation damage! Catherine Grant, Bev LaMarr, Eric Miller and Mark Bautz (MIT Kavli Institute)! Instruments and Data! · Front

  10. Gas-Solid Coexistence in Highly Charged Colloidal Suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Mohanty; B. V. R. Tata; A. Toyotama; T. Sawada

    2005-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous suspensions of highly charged polystyrene particles with different volume fractions have been investigated for structural ordering and phase behavior using static light scattering (SLS) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Under deionized conditions, suspensions of high charge density colloidal particles remained disordered whereas suspensions of relatively low charge density showed crystallization by exhibiting iridescence for the visible light. Though for unaided eye crystallized suspensions appeared homogeneous, static light scattering measurements and CLSM observations have revealed their inhomogeneous nature in the form of coexistence of voids with dense ordered regions. CLSM investigations on disordered suspensions showed their inhomogeneous nature in the form coexistence of voids with dense disordered (amorphous) regions. Our studies on highly charged colloids confirm the occurrence of gas-solid transition and are in accordance with predictions of Monte Carlo simulations using a pair-potential having a long-range attractive term [Mohanty and Tata, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2003, 264, 101]. Based on our experimental and simulation results we argue that the reported reentrant disordered state [Yamanaka et al Phys. Rev. Lett. 1998, 80, 5806 and Toyotama et al Langmuir, 2003, 19, 3236] in charged colloids observed at high charge densities is a gas-solid coexistence state.

  11. Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, J.L.; Stencel, J.M.

    1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to boilers in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

  12. PULVERIZATION INDUCED CHARGE: IN-LINE DRY COAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHN M. STENCEL

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

  13. Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Stencel

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

  14. Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Stencel

    1998-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

  15. Transporting particulate material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldred, Derek Leslie (North Hollywood, CA); Rader, Jeffrey A. (North Hollywood, CA); Saunders, Timothy W. (North Hollywood, CA)

    2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

  16. Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on fusion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duval, B. P. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    For fusion, obtaining reliable measurements of basic plasma parameters like ion and electron densities and temperatures is a primary goal. For theory, measurements are needed as a function of time and space to understand plasma transport and confinement with the ultimate goal of achieving economic nuclear fusion power. Electron profile measurements and plasma spectroscopy for the plasma ions are introduced. With the advent of Neutral Beam auxiliary plasma heating, Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy provides accurate and time resolved measurements of the ions in large volume fusion devices. In acknowledgement of Nicol Peacock's role in the development of these techniques, still at the forefront of plasma fusion research, this paper describes the evolution of this diagnostic method.

  17. Distinguishing quantum and classical transport through nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neill Lambert; Clive Emary; Yueh-Nan Chen; Franco Nori

    2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the question of how to distinguish quantum from classical transport through nanostructures. To address this issue we have derived two inequalities for temporal correlations in nonequilibrium transport in nanostructures weakly coupled to leads. The first inequality concerns local charge measurements and is of general validity; the second concerns the current flow through the device and is relevant for double quantum dots. Violation of either of these inequalities indicates that physics beyond that of a classical Markovian model is occurring in the nanostructure.

  18. Parity Breaking Transport in Lifshitz Hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Hoyos; Adiel Meyer; Yaron Oz

    2015-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the constitutive relations of first order charged hydrodynamics for theories with Lifshitz scaling and broken parity in $2+1$ and $3+1$ spacetime dimensions. In addition to the anomalous (in $3+1$) or Hall (in $2+1$) transport of relativistic hydrodynamics, there is an additional non-dissipative transport allowed by the absence of boost invariance. We analyze the non-relativistic limit and use a phenomenological model of a strange metal to argue that these effects can be measured in principle by using electromagnetic fields with non-zero gradients.

  19. Transportation Security | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Security SHARE Global Threat Reduction Initiative Transportation Security Cooperation Secure Transport Operations (STOP) Box Security of radioactive material while...

  20. Laboratory investigations of effective flow behavior in unsaturated heterogeneous sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    Laboratory investigations of effective flow behavior in unsaturated heterogeneous sands D, Lyngby Abstract. Two-dimensional unsaturated flow and transport through heterogeneous sand was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of five homogeneous

  1. Ultrafast Charge Separation and Nongeminate Electron-Hole Recombination in Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel L Smith; Alex W Chin

    2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of electron-hole separation in organic solar cells is currently hotly debated. Recent experimental work suggests that these charges can separate on extremely short timescales (<100 fs). This can be understood in terms of delocalised transport within fullerene aggregates, which is thought to emerge on short timescales before vibronic relaxation induces polaron formation. However, in the optimal heterojunction morphology, electrons and holes will often re-encounter each other before reaching the electrodes. If such charges trap and cannot separate, then device efficiency will suffer. Here we extend the theory of ultrafast charge separation to incorporate polaron formation, and find that the same delocalised transport used to explain ultrafast charge separation can account for the suppression of nongeminate recombination in the best devices.

  2. Flexible cobalt-phthalocyanine thin films with high charge carrier mobility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ajay [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS, UMR 7086, CNRS F-75013 Paris (France); Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Ashwini; Samanta, Soumen; Debnath, Anil K.; Jha, Purushottam; Prasad, Rajeshwar; Aswal, Dinesh K.; Gupta, Shiv K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Salmi, Zakaria; Nowak, Sophie; Chehimi, Mohamed M. [Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS, UMR 7086, CNRS F-75013 Paris (France)

    2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural and charge transport characteristics of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) films deposited on flexible bi-axially oriented polyethylene terephthalate (BOPET) substrates are investigated. CoPc films exhibited a preferential (200) orientation with charge carrier mobility of {approx}118 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} (at 300 K). These films exhibited a reversible resistance changes upon bending them to different radius of curvature. The charge transport in CoPc films is governed by a bias dependent crossover from ohmic (J-V) to trap-free space-charge limited conduction (J-V{sup 2}). These results demonstrate that CoPc films on flexible BOPET having high mobility and high mechanical flexibility are a potential candidate for flexible electronic devices.

  3. Charge Separation for Muon Collider Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, R.B.; Fernow; R.C.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Most schemes for six dimensional muon ionization cooling work for only one sign. It is then necessary to have charge separation prior to that cooling. Schemes of charge separation using bent solenoids are described, and their simulated performances reported. It is found that for efficient separation, it should take place at somewhat higher momenta than commonly used for the cooling. Charge separation using bent solenoids can be effective if carefully designed. Bent solenoids can generate dispersion from 'momentum drift', but can spoil emittance from 'amplitude drift'. Abrupt entry into a bent solenoid causes emittance growth, but matching using integral {lambda} lengths, or Norem's method, corrects this problem. Reverse bending removes the dispersion and reduces 'amplitude drift', but only if there is no rf until after all bending. The main problem is bunch lengthening and distortion from the long transports without rf. At 230 MeV/c, even with a higher field of 3 T, non-linearities increase the 6D emittance by 117% and give 13% loss, which is not acceptable. Raising the momentum from 230 to 300 MeV gives a 6D emittance growth of 38% and the loss 5%, which may be acceptable. Raising the momentum further to 400 MeV/c gives very good results: 6D growth of 24% and 2.5% loss. Further optimization should include the acceleration to the higher momenta prior to the separation, and the higher momentum cooling immediately after it. The longitudinal phase space prior to the separation should be rotated to minimize the total bunch lengthening.

  4. "Educating transportation professionals."

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    "Educating transportation professionals." Michael Demetsky Henry L. Kinnier Professor mjd of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 434.924.7464 Transportation Engineering & Management Research Our group works closely with the Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation and Research (VCTIR), located

  5. Thermodynamic geometry of charged rotating BTZ black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbar, M. [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); Quevedo, H. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70543, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); ICRANet, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Saifullah, K. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Sanchez, A. [Departamento de Posgrado, CIIDET, AP 752, Queretaro, QRO 76000 (Mexico); Taj, S. [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); ICRANet, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermodynamics and the thermodynamic geometries of charged rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes in (2+1)-gravity. We investigate the thermodynamics of these systems within the context of the Weinhold and Ruppeiner thermodynamic geometries and the recently developed formalism of geometrothermodynamics. Considering the behavior of the heat capacity and the Hawking temperature, we show that Weinhold and Ruppeiner geometries cannot describe completely the thermodynamics of these black holes and of their limiting case of vanishing electric charge. In contrast, the Legendre invariance imposed on the metric in geometrothermodynamics allows one to describe the charged rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and their limiting cases in a consistent and invariant manner.

  6. Shielding of a moving test charge in a quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Else, D.; Kompaneets, R.; Vladimirov, S. V. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The linearized potential of a moving test charge in a one-component fully degenerate fermion plasma is studied using the Lindhard dielectric function. The motion is found to greatly enhance the Friedel oscillations behind the charge, especially for velocities larger than half of the Fermi velocity, in which case the asymptotic behavior of their amplitude changes from 1/r{sup 3} to 1/r{sup 2.5}. In the absence of the quantum recoil (tunneling) the potential reduces to a form similar to that in a classical Maxwellian plasma, with a difference being that the plasma oscillations behind the charge at velocities larger than the Fermi velocity are not Landau damped.

  7. Capacitive charging system for high power battery charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a project to design, build, demonstrate, and document a Level 3 capacitive charging system, and it will be based on the existing PEZIC prototype capacitive coupler. The capacitive coupler will be designed to transfer power at a maximum of 600 kW, and it will transfer power by electric fields. The power electronics will transfer power at 100 kW. The coupler will be designed to function with future increases in the power electronics output power and increases in the amp/hours capacity of sealed batteries. Battery charging algorithms will be programmed into the control electronics. The finished product will be a programmable battery charging system capable of transferring 100 kW via a capacitive coupler. The coupler will have a low power loss of less than 25 watts when transferring 240 kW (400 amps). This system will increase the energy efficiency of high power battery charging, and it will enhance mobility by reducing coupler failures. The system will be completely documented. An important deliverable of this project is information. The information will be distributed to the Army`s TACOM-TARDEC`s Advanced Concept Group, and it will be distributed to commercial organizations by the Society of Automotive Engineers. The information will be valuable for product research, development, and specification. The capacitive charging system produced in this project will be of commercial value for future electric vehicles. The coupler will be designed to rapid charge batteries that have a capacity of several thousand amp/hours at hundreds of volts. The charging system built here will rapid charge batteries with several hundred amp/hours capacity, depending on the charging voltage.

  8. Dynamical Studies of Charged Di-Block Copolymer in Different Dielectric Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Kumar, Rajeev [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brownian Dynamics simulations are carried out to understand the effect of temperature and dielectric constant of the medium on microphase separation of charged-neutral diblock copolymer systems. For different dielectric media, we focus on the effect of temperature on the morphology and dynamics of model charged diblock copolymers. In this study we examine in detail a system with a partially charged block copolymer consisting of 75% neutral blocks and 25% of charged blocks with 50% degree of ionization. Our investigations show that due to the presence of strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions, the block copolymermorphologies are rather different than those of their neutral counterpart at low dielectric constant, however at high dielectric constant the neutral diblock behaviors are observed. This article highlights the effect of dielectric constant of two different media on different thermodynamic and dynamic quantities. At low dielectric constant, the morphologies are a direct outcome of the ion-counterion multiplet formation. At high dielectric constant, these charged diblocks behavior resembles that of neutral and weakly charged polymers with sustainable long-range order. Similar behavior has been observed in chain swelling, albeit with small changes in swelling ratio for large changes in polarity of the medium. The results of our simulations agree with recent experimental results and are consistent with recent theoretical predictions of counterion adsorption on flexible polyelectrolytes.

  9. Adiabatic charge pumping in open quantum systems J.E. Avron(a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adiabatic charge pumping in open quantum systems J.E. Avron(a) , A. Elgart(b) , G.M. Graf(c) , L for charge transport in quantum pumps connected to a number of external leads. It is proved that under rather the pump is given by a formula of B¨uttiker, Pr^etre, and Thomas, relating it to the frozen S

  10. Dust acoustic shock waves in two temperatures charged dusty grains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Shewy, E. K. [Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Science and Arts College in Al-Rass, Physics Department, Qassim University, Al-Rass Province (Saudi Arabia); Abdelwahed, H. G. [Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Physics Department, Alkharj University, Al-kharj (Saudi Arabia); Elmessary, M. A. [Engineering Mathematics and Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The reductive perturbation method has been used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equation and modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burger for dust acoustic shock waves in a homogeneous unmagnetized plasma having electrons, singly charged ions, hot and cold dust species with Boltzmann distributions for electrons and ions in the presence of the cold (hot) dust viscosity coefficients. The behavior of the shock waves in the dusty plasma has been investigated.

  11. Sustainability and Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2005. Integrating Sustainability into the Trans- portationTHOUGHT PIECE Sustainability and Transport by Richardof the concept of sustainability to transport planning. In

  12. Chapter 12 Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2-1 November 2012 Words in bold and acronyms are defined in Chapter 32, Glossary and Acronyms. Chapter 12 Transportation This chapter describes existing transportation resources in...

  13. Transportation | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation From modeling and simulation programs to advanced electric powertrains, engines, biofuels, lubricants, and batteries, Argonne's transportation research is vital to...

  14. Transporting Hazardous Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transporting Hazardous Materials The procedures given below apply to all materials that are considered to be hazardous by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Consult your...

  15. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  16. Transportation energy data book: edition 16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, S.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFarlin, D.N. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 16 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares U.S. transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high- occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data on environmental issues relating to transportation.

  17. Quantification of the solid-state charge mobility in a model radical polymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baradwaj, Aditya G.; Rostro, Lizbeth; Boudouris, Bryan W., E-mail: boudouris@purdue.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, 480 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Alam, Muhammad A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, 475 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We establish that an oft-used radical polymer, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) (PTMA), has a solid-state hole mobility value on the order of 10{sup ?4} cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1} in a space charge-limited device geometry. Despite being completely amorphous and lacking any ?-conjugation, these results demonstrate that the hole mobility of PTMA is comparable to many well-studied conjugated polymers [e.g., poly(3-hexylthiophene)]. Furthermore, we show that the space charge-limited charge carrier mobility of these macromolecules is only a weak function of temperature, in contrast to many thermally-activated models of charge transport in polymeric materials. This key result demonstrates that the charge transport in radical polymers is inherently different than that in semicrystalline, conjugated polymers. These results establish the mechanism of solid-state charge transport in radical polymers and provide macromolecular design principles for this emerging class of organic electronic materials.

  18. What Kind of Charging Infrastructure Do Chevrolet Volt Drivers in The EV Project Use and When Do They Use It?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document will present information describing the charging behavior of Chevrolet Volts that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will included aggregated data from more than 1,800 vehicles regarding locations, power levels, and time-of-day of charging events performed by those vehicles. This document will be published to the INL AVTA website.

  19. The Energy of Charged Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Philip Solovej

    2004-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk I will discuss some of the techniques that have been developed over the past 35 years to estimate the energy of charged matter. These techniques have been used to solve stability of (fermionic) matter in different contexts, and to control the instability of charged bosonic matter. The final goal will be to indicate how these techniques with certain improvements can be used to prove Dyson's 1967 conjecture for the energy of a charged Bose gas--the sharp $N^{7/5}$ law.

  20. Robust optimization based EV charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    I. INTRODUC TION. The new paradigm of holistic transportation and power ... and control strategies have been proposed in the literature to capture the potential ...

  1. Efficient wireless charging with gallium nitride FETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Theresa (Theresa I.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Though wireless charging is more convenient than traditional wired charging methods, it is currently less efficient. This not only wastes power but can also result in a longer charging time. Improving the efficiency of ...

  2. Transport of fluorescently labeled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated granular media at environmentally relevant concentrations of surfactants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dengjun; Su, Chuming; Liu, Chongxuan; Zhou, Dongmei

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHAP) is being used to remediate soils and aquifers contaminated with metals and radionuclides; however, the mobility of nHAP is still poorly understood in subsurface granular environments. In this study, transport and retention kinetics of alizarin red S (ARS)-labeled nHAP were investigated in water-saturated quartz sand at low concentrations of surfactants: sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS, an anionic surfactant, 0–50 mg L–1) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, a cationic surfactant, 0–5 mg L–1). Both surfactants were found to have a marked effect on the electrokinetic properties of ARS-nHAP and, consequently, on their transport and retention behaviors. Transport of nanoparticles (NPs) increased significantly with increasing SDBS concentration, largely because of enhanced colloidal stability and reduced aggregate size arising from enhanced electrostatic, osmotic, and elastic-steric repulsions between ARS-nHAP and sand grains. Conversely, transport decreased significantly in the presence of increasing CTAB concentrations due to reduced surface charge and consequential enhanced aggregation of the NPs. Osmotic and elastic-steric repulsions played only a minor role in enhancing the colloidal stability of ARS-nHAP in the presence of CTAB. Retention profiles of ARS-nHAP exhibited hyperexponential-shapes (decreasing rates of retention with increasing distance) for all conditions tested, and became more pronounced as CTAB concentration increased. The phenomenon was attributed to the aggregation and ripening of ARS-nHAP in the presence of surfactants, particularly CTAB. Overall, the present study suggests that surfactants at environmentally relevant concentrations may be an important consideration in employing nHAP for engineered in-situ remediation of certain metals and radionuclides in contaminated soils and aquifers.

  3. Carrier transport properties of nanocrystalline Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yong, E-mail: sun@ele.kyutech.ac.jp; Maeda, Yuki; Sezaimaru, Hiroki; Sakaino, Masamichi [Department of Applied Science for Integrated System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Senshuimachi, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); Kirimoto, Kenta [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kitakyushu National College of Technology, 5-20-1 shii, Kokuraminami, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985 (Japan)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical transport properties of the nanocrystalline Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80} with fcc crystal structure were characterized by measuring both temperature-dependent d.c. conductance and a.c. impedance. The results showed that the Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80} sample has characteristics of n-type semiconductor and an electron affinity larger than work function of gold metal. The Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80}/Au interface has an ohmic contact behavior and the contact resistance was very small as compared with bulk resistance of the Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80} sample. The charge carriers in the sample were thermally excited from various trapped levels and both acoustic phonon and ionic scatterings become a dominant process in different temperature regions, respectively. At temperatures below 250?K, the activation energy of the trapped carrier was estimated to be 35.5?meV, and the ionic scattering was a dominant mechanism. On the other hand, at temperatures above 350?K, the activation energy was reduced to 15.9?meV, and the acoustic phonon scattering was a dominant mechanism. In addition, a polarization effect from the charge carrier was observed at low frequencies below 2.0 MHz, and the relative intrinsic permittivity of the Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80} nanocrystalline lattice was estimated to be 4.6 at frequency of 5.0 MHz.

  4. A Graphene Quantum Dot with a Single Electron Transistor as Integrated Charge Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling-Jun Wang; Gang Cao; Tao Tu; Hai-Ou Li; Cheng Zhou; Xiao-Jie Hao; Zhan Su; Guang-Can Guo; Guo-Ping Guo; Hong-Wen Jiang

    2010-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed an etching process to fabricate a quantum dot and a nearby single electron transistor as a charge detector in a single layer graphene. The high charge sensitivity of the detector is used to probe Coulomb diamonds as well as excited spectrum in the dot, even in the regime where the current through the quantum dot is too small to be measured by conventional transport means. The graphene based quantum dot and integrated charge sensor serve as an essential building block to form a solid-state qubit in a nuclear-spin-free quantum world.

  5. Turbo-Charged Lighting Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, W. H. II

    TURBO-CHARGED LIGHTING DESIGN William H. Clark II Design Engineer O'Connell Robertson & Assoc Austin/ Texas ABSTRACT The task of the lighting designer has become very complex, involving thousands of choices for fixture types and hundreds...

  6. Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  7. Structure, Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics in Magnetite (Fe3O4) (100) Surfaces from First Principles. Structure, Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics in...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Charging...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Charging Equipment (EVSE) Testing Data Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Charging Equipment (EVSE) Testing Data Electric vehicle chargers (otherwise known as...

  9. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design Presentation given at the EV Everywhere...

  10. Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freight pipeline transportation > Airport planning and development > Airport maintenance > Bicycle and pedes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freight pipeline transportation > Airport planning and development > Airport maintenance > Bicycle and pedestrian > Ports and waterways >>> Transportation operat

  11. Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freig pipeline transportation > Airport planning and development > Airport maintenance > Bicycle and pedestr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freig pipeline transportation > Airport planning and development > Airport maintenance > Bicycle and pedestrian > Ports and waterways >>> Transportation ope

  12. Theory of DNA translocation through narrow ion channels and nanopores with charged walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao Hu; B. I. Shklovskii

    2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Translocation of a single stranded DNA through genetically engineered $\\alpha$-hemolysin channels with positively charged walls is studied. It is predicted that transport properties of such channels are dramatically different from neutral wild type $\\alpha$-hemolysin channel. We assume that the wall charges compensate the fraction $x$ of the bare charge $q_{b}$ of the DNA piece residing in the channel. Our prediction are as follows (i) At small concentration of salt the blocked ion current decreases with $x$. (ii) The effective charge $q$ of DNA piece, which is very small at $x = 0$ (neutral channel) grows with $x$ and at $x=1$ reaches $q_{b}$. (iii) The rate of DNA capture by the channel exponentially grows with $x$. Our theory is also applicable to translocation of a double stranded DNA in narrow solid state nanopores with positively charged walls.

  13. Graduate Certificate in Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Graduate Certificate in Transportation Nohad A. Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning of Engineering and Computer Science integrated transportation systems. The Graduate Certificate in Transportation their capabilities. Students in the program can choose among a wide range of relevant courses in transportation

  14. TRANSPORTATION Annual Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    2003 CENTER FOR TRANSPORTATION STUDIES Annual Report #12;Center for Transportation Studies University of Minnesota 200 Transportation and Safety Building 511 Washington Avenue S.E. Minneapolis, MN publication is a report of transportation research, education, and outreach activities for the period July

  15. Structure and magnetic behavior of transition metal based ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Sesto, Rico E [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mccleskey, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Burrell, Anthony K [ORNL; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Thompson, Joe D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Scott, Brian L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wilkes, John S [United States Air Force Academy (USAFA), Colorado; Williams, Peg [United States Air Force Academy (USAFA), Colorado

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of ionic liquids containing different paramagnetic anions have been prepared and all show paramagnetic behavior with potential applications for magnetic and electrochromic switching as well as novel magnetic transport; also, the tetraalkylphosphonium-based ionic liquids reveal anomalous magnetic behavior.

  16. Jet Charge at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Krohn; Tongyan Lin; Matthew D. Schwartz; Wouter J. Waalewijn

    2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowing the charge of the parton initiating a light-quark jet could be extremely useful both for testing aspects of the Standard Model and for characterizing potential beyond-the-Standard-Model signals. We show that despite the complications of hadronization and out-of-jet radiation such as pile-up, a weighted sum of the charges of a jet's constituents can be used at the LHC to distinguish among jets with different charges. Potential applications include measuring electroweak quantum numbers of hadronically decaying resonances or supersymmetric particles, as well as Standard Model tests, such as jet charge in dijet events or in hadronically-decaying W bosons in t-tbar events. We develop a systematically improvable method to calculate moments of these charge distributions by combining multi-hadron fragmentation functions with perturbative jet functions and pertubative evolution equations. We show that the dependence on energy and jet size for the average and width of the jet charge can be calculated despite the large experimental uncertainty on fragmentation functions. These calculations can provide a validation tool for data independent of Monte-Carlo fragmentation models.

  17. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS are the build-ing blocks of modern society. Efficient and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storici, Francesca

    TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS are the build- ing blocks of modern society. Efficient and safe movement. How- ever, transportation systems by their very nature also affect the environment through operations, construction, and maintenance of transportation facilities, and through the travel behaviors they encourage

  18. Minnesota's Transportation Economic Development (TED)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Minnesota's Transportation Economic Development (TED) Pilot Program Center for Transportation Studies Transportation Research Conference May 24-25, 2011 #12;Transportation Role in Economic Development · Carefully targeted transportation infrastructure improvements will: ­ Stimulate new economic development

  19. Introduction Transport in disordered graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Introduction Transport in disordered graphene Summary Ballistic transport in disordered graphene P, Gornyi, Mirlin Ballistic transport in disordered graphene #12;Introduction Transport in disordered graphene Summary Outline 1 Introduction Model Experimental motivation Transport in clean graphene 2

  20. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering. Organic semiconductors are emerging as viable materials for low-cost electronics and optoelectronics, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Despite extensive studies spanning many decades, a clear understanding of the nature of charge carriers in organic semiconductors is still lacking. It is generally appreciated that polaron formation and charge carrier trapping are two hallmarks associated with electrical transport in organic semiconductors; the former results from the low dielectric constants and weak intermolecular electronic overlap while the latter can be attributed to the prevalence of structural disorder. These properties have lead to the common observation of low charge carrier mobilities, e.g., in the range of 10-5 - 10-3 cm2/Vs, particularly at low carrier concentrations. However, there is also growing evidence that charge carrier mobility approaching those of inorganic semiconductors and metals can exist in some crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, tetracene and rubrene. A particularly striking example is single crystal rubrene (Figure 1), in which hole mobilities well above 10 cm2/Vs have been observed in OFETs operating at room temperature. Temperature dependent transport and spectroscopic measurements both revealed evidence of free carriers in rubrene. Outstanding questions are: what are the structural features and physical properties that make rubrene so unique? How do we establish fundamental design principles for the development of other organic semiconductors of high mobility? These questions are critically important but not comprehensive, as the nature of charge carriers is known to evolve as the carrier concentration increases, due to the presence of intrinsic disorder in organic semiconductors. Thus, a complementary question is: how does the nature of charge transport change as a function of carrier concentration?

  1. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report, measurements of the chemical and thermal expansion as a function of temperature and p{sub O2} are described.

  2. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with the results from the previous batch.

  3. Transportation energy data book: Edition 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, S.C.; Morris, M.D.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 12 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes--highway, air, water, rail, pipeline--is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  4. Transportation energy data book: Edition 13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, S.C.; Strang, S.G.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 13 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes - highway, air, water, rail, pipeline - is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  5. Transportation energy data book: Edition 13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, S.C.; Strang, S.G.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 13 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes -- highway, air, water, rail, pipeline -- is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  6. Transportation energy data book: Edition 15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, S.C.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 15 is a statistical compendium. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. Purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter I compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  7. Building model systems to understand Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in heme : spectroscopic investigation of charge transfer to axially bound diimide acceptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, Christina J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET) is an important mechanistic motif in chemistry, which allows for efficient charge transport in many biological systems. We seek to understand how the proton and electron motions are ...

  8. Phase stable RF transport system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtin, Michael T. (Los Alamos, NM); Natter, Eckard F. (San Francisco, CA); Denney, Peter M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An RF transport system delivers a phase-stable RF signal to a load, such as an RF cavity of a charged particle accelerator. A circuit generates a calibration signal at an odd multiple frequency of the RF signal where the calibration signal is superimposed with the RF signal on a common cable that connects the RF signal with the load. Signal isolating diplexers are located at both the RF signal source end and load end of the common cable to enable the calibration to be inserted and extracted from the cable signals without any affect on the RF signal. Any phase shift in the calibration signal during traverse of the common cable is then functionally related to the phase shift in the RF signal. The calibration phase shift is used to control a phase shifter for the RF signal to maintain a stable RF signal at the load.

  9. A Dynamic Algorithm for Facilitated Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taheri, Nicole; Ye, Yinyu

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) are a rapidly developing technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and change the way vehicles obtain power. PEV charging stations will most likely be available at home and at work, and occasionally be publicly available, offering flexible charging options. Ideally, each vehicle will charge during periods when electricity prices are relatively low, to minimize the cost to the consumer and maximize societal benefits. A Demand Response (DR) service for a fleet of PEVs could yield such charging schedules by regulating consumer electricity use during certain time periods, in order to meet an obligation to the market. We construct an automated DR mechanism for a fleet of PEVs that facilitates vehicle charging to ensure the demands of the vehicles and the market are met. Our dynamic algorithm depends only on the knowledge of a few hundred driving behaviors from a previous similar day, and uses a simple adjusted pricing scheme to instantly assign feasible and satisfactory c...

  10. A non-isothermal PEM fuel cell model including two water transport mechanisms in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität

    A non-isothermal PEM fuel cell model including two water transport mechanisms in the membrane K Freiburg Germany A dynamic two-phase flow model for proton exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cells and the species concentrations. In order to describe the charge transport in the fuel cell the Poisson equations

  11. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 195409 (2013) Effects of disorder and contacts on transport through graphene nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fehske, Holger

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 195409 (2013) Effects of disorder and contacts on transport through graphene; published 12 November 2013) We study the transport of charge carriers through finite graphene structures samples beyond the Dirac-cone approximation. Particularly we investigate disordered nanoribbons, normal-conductor/graphene

  12. Substrate nitridation induced modulations in transport properties of wurtzite GaN/p-Si (100) heterojunctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Krupanidhi, S. B. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore- 560012 (India); Roul, Basanta; Kumar, Mahesh [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore- 560012 (India); Central Research Laboratory, Bharat Electronics, Bangalore-560013 (India)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase pure wurtzite GaN films were grown on Si (100) substrates by introducing a silicon nitride layer followed by low temperature GaN growth as buffer layers. GaN films grown directly on Si (100) were found to be phase mixtured, containing both cubic ({beta}) and hexagonal ({alpha}) modifications. The x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy studies reveal that the significant enhancement in the structural as well as in the optical properties of GaN films grown with silicon nitride buffer layer grown at 800 deg. C when compared to the samples grown in the absence of silicon nitride buffer layer and with silicon nitride buffer layer grown at 600 deg. C. Core-level photoelectron spectroscopy of Si{sub x}N{sub y} layers reveals the sources for superior qualities of GaN epilayers grown with the high temperature substrate nitridation process. The discussion has been carried out on the typical inverted rectification behavior exhibited by n-GaN/p-Si heterojunctions. Considerable modulation in the transport mechanism was observed with the nitridation conditions. The heterojunction fabricated with the sample of substrate nitridation at high temperature exhibited superior rectifying nature with reduced trap concentrations. Lowest ideality factors ({approx}1.5) were observed in the heterojunctions grown with high temperature substrate nitridation which is attributed to the recombination tunneling at the space charge region transport mechanism at lower voltages and at higher voltages space charge limited current conduction is the dominating transport mechanism. Whereas, thermally generated carrier tunneling and recombination tunneling are the dominating transport mechanisms in the heterojunctions grown without substrate nitridation and low temperature substrate nitridation, respectively.

  13. Non-intrusive measurement of particle charge: Electrostatic dry coal cleaning. Technical progress report No. 11, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As has been previously reported, the charge measurement portion of this project has been broadened to include direct measurement techniques which yield an average particle charge per unit mass. These methods, which now include current measurements from the charging loop, an electrolytic collection solution and a Faraday cage have been employed to expand the charge measurement capabilities over those that were originally developed using the PDPA. The effects of gas velocity, humidity and temperature as well as particle size on charge was evaluated for different coals and silica. The charge accumulated on silica particles was linearly dependent on their velocity in the tribocharger for the velocities and mass loadings which were investigated. For coals, a linear increase in charge occurred over a more limited velocity range. Transport gas humidity had a much stronger effect on the charge established on silica particles than on coal particles.

  14. Secure Transportation Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, P. W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  15. Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE...

  16. Electrostatic wire stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, D.S.; Caporaso, G.J.; Briggs, R.J.

    1983-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  17. Sacrificial Charge and Charge Injection! Evolution of Line Width!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Catherine E.

    MeV). Anti-correlated with the solar cycle. Similar structures are seen in the energy scale due background" which depends on solar cycle and activity." XIS energy scale and line width as a function of cut increasing CTI, trailing charge and event/split thresholds Evolution of Energy Scale! · Radiation damage

  18. Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allman, S.L.; Chunghsuan Chen; Chen, F.C.

    1993-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

  19. Magnetic moment versus tensor charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mekhfi

    2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We express the baryon magnetic moments in terms of the baryon tensor charges, considering the quarks as relativistic interacting objects. Once tensor charges get measured accurately, the formula for the baryon magnetic moment will serve to extract precise information on the quark anomalous magnetic moment, the quark effective mass and the ratio of the quark constituent mass to the quark effective mass. The analogous formula for the baryon electric dipole moment is of no great use as it gets eventually sizable contributions from various CP- violating sources not necessary associated to the quark electric dipole moment.

  20. Transportation Infrastructure and Sustainable Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boarnet, Marlon G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Better Forecasting Tool for Transportation Decision-making,” Mineta Transportation Institute, San Jose Stateat the 2008 meeting of the Transportation Research Board and

  1. Transportation Analysis | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Analysis SHARE Transportation Analysis Transportation Analysis efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory contribute to the efficient, safe, and free movement of...

  2. Adiabatic charge pumping in open quantum systems J.E. Avron (a) , A. Elgart (b) , G.M. Graf (c) , L. Sadun (d) , K. Schnee (e)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adiabatic charge pumping in open quantum systems J.E. Avron (a) , A. Elgart (b) , G.M. Graf (c) , L for charge transport in quantum pumps connected to a number of external leads. It is proved that under rather the pump is given by a formula of Buttiker, Pr^etre, and Thomas, relating it to the frozen S

  3. Adiabatic charge pumping in open quantum systems J.E. Avron (a) , A. Elgart (b) , G.M. Graf (c) , L. Sadun (d) , K. Schnee (e)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adiabatic charge pumping in open quantum systems J.E. Avron (a) , A. Elgart (b) , G.M. Graf (c) , L for charge transport in quantum pumps connected to a number of external leads. It is proved that under rather the pump is given by a formula of BË?uttiker, Prâ??etre, and Thomas, relating it to the frozen S

  4. Transportation Investment and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    Transportation Investment and Economic Development: Has the TIED turned? David Levinson University Transportation Investments was Historically Concomitant with Land and Economic Development #12;Canals Railways Surfaced Roads Crude Oil Pipelines Gas Pipelines Telegraph 1825 1985 Proportion of Maximum Extent Growth

  5. Transportation Management Research Collection /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Todd C.

    , Peterbilt Motors, and General Electric. He was a national panel member of the American Arbitration, Noise and Environmental Pollution, Transportation Co-ordination and Consolidation, Transportation -- Docket 8613 1957 Civil Aeronautics Board ­ General passenger fare investigation -- Docket 8008 et al

  6. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials andor modal transport. Cancels DOE 1540.2 and DOE 5480.3

  7. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Canceled by DOE 460.1A

  8. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Cancels DOE O 460.1.

  9. Biofuels and Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Biofuels and Transportation Impacts and Uncertainties Some Observations of a Reformed Ethanol and Logistics Symposium 3 Topics · Why Biofuels · Ethanol Economics · Ethanol Transportation Equipment Biofuels? · National Security · Reduce Imports of oil · Peak Oil · Replace Fossil Resources

  10. Linear Motor Powered Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornton, Richard D.

    This special issue on linear-motor powered transportation covers both supporting technologies and innovative transport systems in various parts of the World, as this technology moves from the lab to commercial operations. ...

  11. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  12. Spin Transport in Semiconductor heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domnita Catalina Marinescu

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of the research performed under this grant has been the investigation of spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. The interest in these systems is motivated both by their intriguing physical properties, as the physical embodiment of a spin-polarized Fermi liquid, as well as by their potential applications as spintronics devices. In our work we have analyzed several different problems that affect the spin dynamics in single and bi-layer spin-polarized two-dimensional (2D) systems. The topics of interests ranged from the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions, to collective spin and charge density excitations and spin transport in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling. The common denominator of these subjects is the impact at the macroscopic scale of the spin-dependent electron-electron interaction, which plays a much more subtle role than in unpolarized electron systems. Our calculations of several measurable parameters, such as the excitation frequencies of magneto-plasma modes, the spin mass, and the spin transresistivity, propose realistic theoretical estimates of the opposite-spin many-body effects, in particular opposite-spin correlations, that can be directly connected with experimental measurements.

  13. Indianapolis Public Transportation Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's evaluation of Indianapolis Public Transportation Corporation's (IndyGo's) hybrid electric buses.

  14. Lubbock Metropolitan Transportation Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubbock Metropolitan Planning Organization

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    for Users (SAFETEA-LU) and its predecessors, the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991, specified the transportation systems on which certain federal funds can... in Chapter 5 ? Streets and Highways; Chapter 6 ? Public Transportation; Chapter 7 ? Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan; Chapter 8 ? Lubbock International Airport and Chapter 9 ? Railroads and Trucking. Federally funded transit projects were developed...

  15. Transportation and its Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    subsidies on fossil transport fuels, subsidies on commutingC. , 2003: Subsidies that encourage fossil fuel use in

  16. Coulomb energy of uniformly-charged spheroidal shell systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vikram Jadhao; Zhenwei Yao; Creighton K. Thomas; Monica Olvera de la Cruz

    2015-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide exact expressions for the electrostatic energy of uniformly-charged prolate and oblate spheroidal shells. We find that uniformly-charged prolate spheroids of eccentricity greater than 0.9 have lower Coulomb energy than a sphere of the same area. For the volume-constrained case, we find that a sphere has the highest Coulomb energy among all spheroidal shells. Further, we derive the change in the Coulomb energy of a uniformly-charged shell due to small, area-conserving perturbations on the spherical shape. Our perturbation calculations show that buckling-type deformations on a sphere can lower the Coulomb energy. Finally, we consider the possibility of counterion condensation on the spheroidal shell surface. We employ a Manning-Oosawa two-state model approximation to evaluate the renormalized charge and analyze the behavior of the equilibrium free energy as a function of the shell's aspect ratio for both area-constrained and volume-constrained cases. Counterion condensation is seen to favor the formation of spheroidal structures over a sphere of equal area for high values of shell volume fractions.

  17. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Transportation Planning and Land Use Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) have launched the free, web-based Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC). The TSDC (www.nrel.gov/tsdc) preserves respondent anonymity while making vital transportation data available to a broad group of users through secure, online access. The TSDC database provides free-of-charge web-based access to valuable transportation data that can be used for: Transit planning, Travel demand modeling, Homeland Security evacuation planning, Alternative fuel station planning, and Validating transportation data from other sources. The TSDC's two levels of access make composite data available with simple online registration, and allow researchers to use detailed spatial data after completing a straight forward application process.

  18. Transportation and its Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electrical energy if regenerative braking is available (seerecharged only by regenerative braking and engine charging,systems, store regenerative braking energy and to operate

  19. Northwestern University Transportation Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Northwestern University Transportation Center 2011 Business Advisory Committee NUTC #12;#12;I have the pleasure of presenting our Business Advisory Committee members--a distinguished group of transportation industry lead- ers who have partnered with the Transportation Center in advancing the state of knowledge

  20. PalladianDigest Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    PalladianDigest CONNECT. EMPOWER. GROW. Tackling Transportation Challenges Nebraska has been a vital link in the nation's transportation system since the days when carts, wagons to University of Nebraska­Lincoln research. That's fine with UNL transportation researchers, said Larry Rilett

  1. TRANSPORTATION: THE POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION: THE POTENTIAL AND THE CHALLENGE A Summary Report 2003 #12;June 2003 To the Reader This report summarizes the second James L. Oberstar Forum on Transportation Policy and Technology. Over two days, we explored the chal- lenges and opportunities in intermodal transportation, addressing

  2. Louisiana Transportation Research Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    Louisiana Transportation Research Center LTRC www.ltrc.lsu.edu 2012-13 ANNUALREPORT #12;The Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) is a research, technology transfer, and training center administered jointly by the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD) and Louisiana State

  3. Introduction to Transportation Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Introduction to Transportation Planning CMP 4710/6710 Fall 2012 3 Credit Hours Room: ARCH 229 on a Saturday night, transportation is not an objective in and of itself, but a means to carry out the functions of daily living (i.e., it's a "derived good"). As a consequence, the transportation systems we build

  4. Rural Intelligent Transportation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Rural Intelligent Transportation Systems In a technical session at the 2011 NACE conference, Dennis Foderberg of SEH Inc. discussed intelligent transportation systems (ITS) developed by SEH in collaboration with Network Transportation Technologies, Inc. These systems address the problem of crashes on low-volume roads

  5. Phonon-Assisted Ultrafast Charge Separation in a Realistic PCBM Aggregate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel L. Smith; Alex W. Chin

    2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic solar cells must separate strongly bound electron-hole pairs into free charges. This is achieved at interfaces between electron donor and acceptor organic semiconductors. The most popular electron acceptor is the fullerene derivative PCBM. Electron-hole separation has been observed on femtosecond timescales, which is incompatible with conventional Marcus theories of organic transport. In this work we show that ultrafast charge transport in PCBM arises from its broad range of electronic eigenstates, provided by the presence of three closely spaced delocalised bands near the LUMO level. Vibrational fluctuations enable rapid transitions between these bands, which drives an electron transport of $\\sim$3 nm within 100 fs. All this is demonstrated within a realistic tight binding Hamiltonian containing transfer integrals no larger than 8 meV.

  6. RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    intended to recover a more significant share of fixed costs solely from solar PV customer- generators rooftop solar PV development at limited to no cost to taxpayers and non-solar utility customers. StandbyPage | i RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES: REGULATORY & RATE DESIGN PATHWAYS TO DEEPER SOLAR

  7. RELIABILITY OF CAPACITOR CHARGING UNITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    experience little change while those using the electronic cutoff would drift due to ageing components and changing parameters. The first few shots using the electronic cutoff were less reliable than subsequentRELIABILITY OF CAPACITOR CHARGING UNITS Clint Sprott July 30, 1965 University of Wisconsin

  8. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, S.C.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  9. Angular neutron transport investigation in the HZETRN free-space ion and nucleon transport and shielding computer program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singleterry, R.C. Jr. [Argonne National Lab. - West, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wilson, J.W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extension of the high charge and energy (HZE) transport computer program HZETRN for angular transport of neutrons is considered. For this paper, only light ion transport, He{sup 4} and lighter, will be analyzed using a pure solar proton source. The angular transport calculator is the ANISN/PC program which is being controlled by the HZETRN program. The neutron flux values are compared for straight-ahead transport and angular transport in one dimension. The shield material is aluminum and the target material is water. The thickness of these materials is varied; however, only the largest model calculated is reported which is 50 gm/cm{sup 2} of aluminum and 100 gm/cm{sup 2} of water. The flux from the ANISN/PC calculation is about two orders of magnitude lower than the flux from HZETRN for very low energy neutrons. It is only a magnitude lower for the neutrons in the 10 to 20 MeV range in the aluminum and two orders lower in the water. The major reason for this difference is in the transport modes: straight-ahead versus angular. The angular treatment allows a longer path length than the straight-ahead approximation. Another reason is the different cross section sets used by the ANISN/PC-BUGLE-80 mode and the HZETRN mode. The next step is to investigate further the differences between the two codes and isolate the differences to just the angular versus straight-ahead transport mode. Then, create a better coupling between the angular neutron transport and the charged particle transport.

  10. Transportation YOU 2013 DC Youth Summit WTS Transportation YOU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Transportation YOU 2013 DC Youth Summit WTS Transportation YOU CTS Research Conference May 21, 2014 Lisa Rasmussen, WTS / Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc #12;Transportation YOU 2013 DC Youth SummitTransportation YOU 2013 DC Youth Summit Agenda What is Transportation YOU? Transportation YOU ­ WTS Local Chapter

  11. Interactive coastal oil spill transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thalasila, Nanda K.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and in time contaminate large areas. Knowing the behavior of an oil slick after it has been inadvirently released to the ocean surface may be of great practical value. It will permit an assessment of the potential damage to aquatic life and shoreline... Function of Time 20 Longshore Current Nomograph 31 Oil Slick Transport Vectors by Areal Extent (adapted from Keith, et al, 1977)s 32 Program Structure for Program OILSPILL Program Structure for Subroutine DATAENT 37 37 Program Structure...

  12. Center for Intermodal Transportation Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Center for Intermodal Transportation Safety and Security Panagiotis Scarlatos, Ph.D., Director Transportation Safety and Security #12;Center for Intermodal Transportation Safety and Security Partners #12 evacuations · Tracking systems for hazardous materials Center for Intermodal Transportation Safety

  13. Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City of Lakes Minneapolis Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study #12;Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City of Lakes Background: · Currently, funding

  14. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project aims to achieve quantitative and molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped organic semiconductors via in situ optical absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with time-resolved electrical measurements. During the funding period, we have made major progress in three general areas: (1) probed charge injection at the interface between a polymeric semiconductor and a polymer electrolyte dielectric and developed a thermodynamic model to quantitatively describe the transition from electrostatic to electrochemical doping; (2) developed vibrational Stark effect to probe electric field at buried organic semiconductor interfaces; (3) used displacement current measurement (DCM) to study charge transport at organic/dielectric interfaces and charge injection at metal/organic interfaces.

  15. AVTA: ChargePoint America Recovery Act Charging Infrastructure Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports describe results of data collected through the Chargepoint America project, which deployed 4,600 public and home charging stations throughout the U.S. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  16. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Effect of electrostatic field of implanted space charge in the slowing down of fast heavy nonrelativistic particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remizovich, F.S.; Rudenko, A.I.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytic solution is obtained of the transport equation for fast particles allowing for the effect of the space-charge field. We investigate the dependence of the mean free path on the irradiation time, the flux density of the moving particles as a function of depth, and also the time-dependent spatial distribution of the density of the stopped particles. The influence of space charge leakage is analyzed.

  18. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of Maryland...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to become a part of the Workplace Charging Challenge. "We are delighted to be the first health care institution in Maryland to provide charging stations for our employees, staff...

  19. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  20. Fast Methods for Bimolecular Charge Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.

    We report a Hessian-implicit optimization method to quickly solve the charge optimization problem over protein molecules: given a ligand and its complex with a receptor, determine the ligand charge distribution that minimizes ...

  1. Free form hemispherical shaped charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haselman, Jr., Leonard C. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is aspherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator. The ratio of the wall thickness from the pole to the equator varies depending on liner material and HE shape. Hemispherical shaped charges have previously been limited to spherical shapes with no variations in wall thicknesses. By redesign of the basic liner thicknesses, the jet properties of coherence, stability, and mass distribution have been significantly improved.

  2. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of

  3. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of2 DOE Review of

  4. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of2 DOE Review

  5. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of the Rotating Wall Machine by David A.1

  6. Quarks with Integer Electric Charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. LaChapelle

    2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the context of the Standard Model, quarks are placed in a $(\\mathbf{3},\\mathbf{2})\\oplus (\\mathbf{3},\\bar{\\mathbf{2}})$ matter field representation of $U_{EW}(2)$. Although the quarks carry unit intrinsic electric charge in this construction, anomaly cancellation constrains the Lagrangian in such a way that the quarks' associated currents couple to the photon with the usual 2/3 and 1/3 fractional electric charge associated with conventional quarks. The resulting model is identical to the Standard Model in the $SU_C(3)$ sector: However, in the $U_{EW}(2)$ sector it is similar but not necessarily equivalent. Off hand, the model appears to be phenomenologically equivalent to the conventional quark model in the electroweak sector for experimental conditions that preclude observation of individual constituent currents. On the other hand, it is conceivable that detailed analyses for electroweak reactions may reveal discrepancies with the Standard Model in high energy and/or large momentum transfer reactions. The possibility of quarks with integer electric charge strongly suggests the notion that leptons and quarks are merely different manifestations of the same underlying field. A speculative model is proposed in which a phase transition is assumed to occur between $SU_C(3)\\otimes U_{EM}(1)$ and $U_{EM}(1)$ regimes. This immediately; explains the equality of lepton/quark generations and lepton/hadron electric charge, relates neutrino oscillations to quark flavor mixing, reduces the free parameters of the Standard Model, and renders the issue of quark confinement moot.

  7. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  8. tt Charge asymmetry at hadron colliders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapelain, Antoine

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the current status for the measurements of the ttbar charge asymmetry at the Tevatron and LHC colliders.

  9. Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Onstott, E.I.

    1980-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

  10. INL Testing of Wireless Charging Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    investments and FOAs (Funding Opportunity Announcements) * Provide the charging, automotive, and electric utility industries with independent testing assessments and...

  11. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gal'tsov, D V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some general arguments suggest that strictly massless charge does not not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for {\\em ab initio} massless particle of zero spin. Provided $E^2\\gg eH$, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at $\\hbar \\omega=E/3$, and the average photon energy is $4E/9$. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on $E$ nor on $H$. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Our results are consistent with the view (sup...

  12. Holographic fermions in charged Gauss-Bonnet black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Pin Wu

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the properties of the Green's functions of the fermions in charged Gauss-Bonnet black hole. What we want to do is to investigate how the presence of Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant $\\alpha$ affects the dispersion relation, which is a characteristic of Fermi or non-Fermi liquid, as well as what properties such a system has, for instance, the Particle-hole (a)symmetry. One important result of this research is that we find for $q=1$, the behavior of this system is different from that of the Landau Fermi liquid and so the system can be candidates for holographic dual of generalized non-Fermi liquids. More importantly, the behavior of this system increasingly similar to that of the Landau Fermi liquid when $\\alpha$ is approaching its lower bound. Also we find that this system possesses the Particle-hole asymmetry when $q\

  13. Electric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy technologies, electric vehicles and the appurtenant charging infrastructure, is explored in detail to determine regarding system load profiles, vehicle charging strategies, electric vehicle adoption rates, and storage

  14. Optimal Decentralized Protocols for Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    into the electric power grid. EV charging increases the electricity demand, and potentially amplifies the peak1 Optimal Decentralized Protocols for Electric Vehicle Charging Lingwen Gan Ufuk Topcu Steven Low Abstract--We propose decentralized algorithms for optimally scheduling electric vehicle (EV) charging

  15. A User Programmable Battery Charging System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    to provide the convenience of rare battery replacement and extend the periods between charges. This thesis proposes a user programmable charging system that can charge a Lithium ion battery from three different input sources, i.e. a wall outlet, a universal...

  16. Electrokinesis is a microbial behavior that requires extracellular electron transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Naggar, Moh

    ,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid, a soluble electron shuttle, led to increases in motility in the entire

  17. Electrical transport behavior of nonstoichiometric magnesium-zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatak, S. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Deemed University, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur 713209, West Bengal (India)] [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Deemed University, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur 713209, West Bengal (India); Sinha, M. [Department of Physics, University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India)] [Department of Physics, University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India); Meikap, A.K., E-mail: meikapnitd@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Deemed University, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur 713209, West Bengal (India); Pradhan, S.K. [Department of Physics, University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India)] [Department of Physics, University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the direct current conductivity, alternate current conductivity and dielectric properties of nonstoichiometric magnesium-zinc ferrite below room temperature. The frequency exponent (s) of conductivity shows an anomalous temperature dependency. The magnitude of the temperature exponent (n) of dielectric permittivity strongly depends on frequency and its value decreases with increasing frequency. The grain boundary contribution is dominating over the grain contribution in conduction process and the temperature dependence of resistance due to grain and grain boundary contribution exhibits two activation regions. The ferrite shows positive alternating current magnetoconductivity. The solid state processing technique was used for the preparation of nanocrystalline ferrite powder from oxides of magnesium, zinc and iron. The X-ray diffraction methods were used in determining the structure and composition of obtained ferrite, while multimeter, impedance analyzer, liquid nitrogen cryostat and electromagnet were used in the study of conducting and dielectric properties of ferrite.

  18. Modeling Carrier Behavior in Sequential Auction Transportation Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    International Conference on Travel Behaviour Research Lucerne, 10-15. August 2003 Add, an image reflecting at the 10th International Conference on Travel Behaviour Research, Lucerne, August 2003. #12;10th

  19. 24th Annual CTS Transportation Research 2010 Travel Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ;Household Dimensions ·Geography (7) ·Lifecycle (4) ·Persons (4) ·Workers (3) ·Vehicles (3) Person Dimensions

  20. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

  1. Space Charge and Equilibrium Emittances in Damping Rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Marco; Oide, Katsunobu; Wolski, Andy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SPACE CHARGE AND EQUILIBRIUM EMITTANCES IN DAMPING RINGS ?for the pos- sible impact of space charge on the equilibriumrings. INTRODUCTION Direct space charge effects have the

  2. The high current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prost, L.R.; Baca, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Morse, E.

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density {approx} 0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (4 {micro}s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K{sup +} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor ({approx}80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low) nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  3. Advanced methods for the computation of particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragt, A.J.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group carries out research in two broad areas: the computation of charged particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods and advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Important improvements in the state of the art are believed to be possible in both of these areas. In addition, applications of these methods are made to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. The Lie algebraic method of computing and analyzing beam transport handles both linear and nonlinear beam elements. Tests show this method to be superior to the earlier matrix or numerical integration methods. It has wide application to many areas including accelerator physics, intense particle beams, ion microprobes, high resolution electron microscopy, and light optics. With regard to the area of electromagnetic fields and beam cavity interactions, work is carried out on the theory of beam breakup in single pulses. Work is also done on the analysis of the high behavior of longitudinal and transverse coupling impendances, including the examination of methods which may be used to measure these impedances. Finally, work is performed on the electromagnetic analysis of coupled cavities and on the coupling of cavities to waveguides.

  4. Quantum transport via evanescent waves in undoped graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. I. Katsnelson

    2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge carriers in graphene are chiral quasiparticles ("massless Dirac fermions"). Graphene provides therefore an amazing opportunity to study subtle quantum relativistic effects in condensed matter experiment. Here I review a theory of one of these unusual features of graphene, a "pseudodiffusive" transport in the limit of zero charge carrier concentration, which is related to existence of zero-modes of the Dirac operator and to the Zitterbewegung of unltrarelativistic particles. A conformal mapping technique is a powerful mathematical tool to study these phenomena, as demonstrated here, using the Aharonov-Bohm effect in graphene rings with Corbino geometry as an example.

  5. Radioactive Material Transportation Practices

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishes standard transportation practices for Departmental programs to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials including radioactive waste. Does not cancel other directives.

  6. Alternative Fuel Transportation Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Merit Review: EPAct State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets "Alternative Fuel Transportation Program" Dana O'Hara, DOE Ted Sears, NREL Vehicle Technologies Program June 20,...

  7. Transportation and its Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Options for Liquid Biofuels Development in Ireland. SEI, 562006: Outlook for advanced biofuels. Energy Policy, 34(17),40 pp. IEA, 2004c: Biofuels for Transport: An International

  8. Transportation Energy Futures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLuchi, Mark A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRANSPORTATION ment of Oil Shale Technology. Washing- ton,interest and investments in oil shale, ethanol, coal liquidsbiomass materials, coal, oil shale, tar sands, natural gas,

  9. Sustainable Transportation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in transportation technologies, alternative fuels, and fuel cell technologies.

  10. MSIV leakage airborne iodine transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cline, J.E. (Cline Associates Inc., Rockville, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gaseous iodine deposits on surfaces exposed to vapors. Basic chemical and physical principles predict this behavior, and several laboratory and in-plant measurements demonstrate the characteristic. An empirical model was developed that describes the deposition, resuspension, and transformation of airborne radioiodine molecular species as a stream containing these forms moves along its pathway. The model uses a data base of measured values of deposition and resuspension rates in its application and describes the conversion of the more reactive inorganic iodine species I[sub 2] to the less reactive organic species CH[sub 3]I as the iodine deposits and resuspends along the path. It also considers radioactive decay and chemical surface bonding during residence on surfaces. For the 8-day [sup 131]I, decay during the airborne portion of the transport is negligible. Verification of the model included measurement tests of long gaseous-activity sampling lines of different diameters, operated at different flow rates and stream temperatures. The model was applied to the streams at a boiling water reactor nuclear power plant to describe the transport through leaking main steam isolation valves (MSIVs), following a loss-of-coolant accident.

  11. Residual dust charges in discharge afterglow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coueedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Samarian, A. A. [GREMI - Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energetique des Milieux Ionises, CNRS/Universite d'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An on-ground measurement of dust-particle residual charges in the afterglow of a dusty plasma was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance the gravitational force. It was found that positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral dust particles coexisted for more than 1 min after the discharge was switched off. The mean residual charge for 200-nm-radius particles was measured. The dust particle mean charge is about -5e at a pressure of 1.2 mbar and about -3e at a pressure of 0.4 mbar.

  12. Charging and discharging in ion implanted dielectric films used for capacitive radio frequency microelectromechanical systems switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Gang; Chen Xuyuan [Pen-Tung Sah Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Vestfold University College, P.O. Box 2243, N-3103 Toensberg (Norway); San Haisheng [Pen-Tung Sah Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor structure was used to investigate the dielectric charging and discharging in the capacitive radio frequency microelectromechanical switches. The insulator in MIS structure is silicon nitride films (SiN), which were deposited by either low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) processes. Phosphorus or boron ions were implanted into dielectric layer in order to introduce impurity energy levels into the band gap of SiN. The relaxation processes of the injected charges in SiN were changed due to the ion implantation, which led to the change in relaxation time of the trapped charges. In our experiments, the space charges were introduced by stressing the sample electrically with dc biasing. The effects of implantation process on charge accumulation and dissipation in the dielectric are studied by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement qualitatively and quantitatively. The experimental results show that the charging and discharging behavior of the ion implanted silicon nitride films deposited by LPCVD is quite different from the one deposited by PECVD. The charge accumulation in the dielectric film can be reduced by ion implantation with proper dielectric deposition method.

  13. Squeezout phenomena and boundary layer formation of a model ionic liquid under confinement and charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Capozza; A. Vanossi; A. Benassi; E. Tosatti

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical charging of parallel plates confining a model ionic liquid down to nanoscale distances yields a variety of charge-induced changes in the structural features of the confined film. That includes even-odd switching of the structural layering and charging-induced solidification and melting, with important changes of local ordering between and within layers, and of squeezout behavior. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we explore this variety of phenomena in the simplest charged Lennard-Jones coarse-grained model including or excluding the effect a neutral tail giving an anisotropic shape to one of the model ions. Using these models and open conditions permitting the flow of ions in and out of the interplate gap, we simulate the liquid squeezout to obtain the distance dependent structure and forces between the plates during their adiabatic appraoch under load. Simulations at fixed applied force illustrate an effective electrical pumping of the ionic liquid, from a thick nearly solid film that withstands the interplate pressure for high plate charge to complete squeezout following melting near zero charge. Effective enthalpy curves obtained by integration of interplate forces versus distance show the local minima that correspond to layering, and predict the switching between one minimum and another under squeezing and charging.

  14. 2006 TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY JOINT PROGRAM IN TRANSPORTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    2006 TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY JOINT PROGRAM IN TRANSPORTATION UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 2006 Transportation Tomorrow Survey Data Presentation #12;2006 TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY JOINT PROGRAM IN TRANSPORTATION UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO City of Hamilton City of Kawartha Lakes City of Guelph City of Brantford

  15. Study of formation and convective transport of aerosols using optical diagnostic technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Tae-Kyun

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    . Part II investigates the characteristics of convective transport behavior of solid particles in virtual impactor (VI). The objective of part I is to establish correlations which offer predictions on atomized particle size of HTFs which are widely...

  16. MIT commuter common : measuring and improving the transportation footprint of an urban institution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winder, James Ira

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops a system for observing, visualizing, and understanding transportation behavior at the scale of an urban institution's entire population. In particular, the Massachusetts institute of Technology (MIT) ...

  17. Vacuum charge fractionlization re-examined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Nogami

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a model of a quantized fermion field that is based on the Dirac equation in one dimensional space and re-examine how the fermion number of the vacuum, or the vacuum charge, varies when an external potential is switched on. With this model, fractionization of the vacuum charge has been illustrated in the literature by showing that the external potential can change the vacuum charge from zero to a fractional number. Charge conservation then appears violated in this process. This is because the charge that has been examined in this context is only a part of the total charge of the vacuum. The total charge is conserved. It is not fractionalized unless the Dirac equation has a zero mode. Two other confusing aspects are discussed. One is concerned with the usage of the continuum limit and the other with the regularization of the current operator. Implications of these aspects of the vacuum problem are explored.

  18. Demand Charges | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE Facility DatabaseMichigan: Energy Resources Jump to:Delta, Ohio:Charges Jump

  19. LUNAR DUST GRAIN CHARGING BY ELECTRON IMPACT: COMPLEX ROLE OF SECONDARY ELECTRON EMISSIONS IN SPACE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; LeClair, A. C.; Spann, J. F. [NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Tankosic, D., E-mail: Mian.M.Abbas@nasa.go [USRA/NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions (SEEs). The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium, and heliospheric, interplanetary/planetary, and lunar environments. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron-/submicron-size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials. In this paper, we present experimental results on the charging of individual 0.2-13 {mu}m size dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and 17 dust samples, and spherical silica particles by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-200 eV energy range. The dust charging process by electron impact involving the SEEs discussed is found to be a complex charging phenomenon with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between the polarity and magnitude of the dust charging rates of individual small-size dust grains, and the measurements and model properties of corresponding bulk materials. A more comprehensive plan of measurements of the charging properties of individual dust grains for developing a database for realistic models of dust charging in astrophysical and lunar environments is in progress.

  20. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  1. http://tti.tamu.edu Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    http://tti.tamu.edu Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freight pipeline transportation >>> Transportation operat > Freight traffic > Commodities > Travel time > Travel demand > http

  2. INLAND PORT TRANSPORTATION EVALUATION GUIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    INLAND PORT TRANSPORTATION EVALUATION GUIDE by Robert Harrison, Center for Transportation Research Transportation Institute, The Texas A&M University System; and Jolanda Prozzi, Center for Transportation Research, The University of Texas at Austin CENTER FOR TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH Bureau of Engineering Research

  3. MAESTRAEN TRANSPORTE ESPECIALIZACINEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vásquez, Carlos

    investigaciones que permitan la comprensión de distintos componentes delsistema del transporte así como para Investigación de Operaciones y Redes de transporte Medidas y Administración del Tránsito Tecnologías de

  4. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Cancels DOE O 460.1A. Canceled by DOE O 460.1C.

  5. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The order establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of DOE, including NNSA, offsite shipments and onsite transfers of radioactive and other hazardous materials and for modal transportation. Cancels DOE O 460.1B, 5-14-10

  6. Expert systems in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, K.P.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 5 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Knowledge representation and software selection for expert-systems design; Expert-system architecture for retaining-wall design; Development of expert-systems technology in the California Department of Transportation; Development of an expert system to assist in the interactive graphic transit system design process; Expert systems development for contingency transportation planing.

  7. DECAY CONSTANTS OF CHARGED PSEUDO-SCALAR MESONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - and D+ s decays, the existence of a charged Higgs boson (or any other charged object beyond the Standard

  8. DECAY CONSTANTS OF CHARGED PSEUDO-SCALAR MESONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the existence of a charged Higgs boson (or any other charged object beyond the Standard Model) would modify

  9. Crash behavior of three dimensional thin-walled structures under combined loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Heung-Soo, 1971-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the weight efficient and crashworthy design of the structural body of a transportation system, a thorough understanding of crushing behavior of thin-walled structural members such as spot-welded sheet metal beams or ...

  10. Improving Efficiency and Equity in Transportation Finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, Michael

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fueling Transportation Finance. ” Ian W. H. Parry andFueling Transportation Finance. ” Transportation ResearchFueling Transportation Finance: A Primer on the Gas Tax •

  11. Sandia Energy - Transportation Energy Systems Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Energy Systems Analysis Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Transportation Energy Systems Analysis Transportation Energy Systems AnalysisTara...

  12. Transportation activity analysis using smartphones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Yu

    Transportation activity surveys investigate when, where and how people travel in urban areas to provide information necessary for urban transportation planning. In Singapore, the Land Transport Authority (LTA) carries out ...

  13. Theory of transport phenomena in polycrystalline lead chalcogenide films. Mobility. Nondegenerate statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atakulov, Sh. B., E-mail: atakulovsh@mail.ru; Zaynolobidinova, S. M. [Fergana State University (Uzbekistan); Nabiev, G. A., E-mail: gulamnabi@mail.ru [Fergana Polytechnical Institute (Uzbekistan); Nabiyev, M. B. [Fergana State University (Uzbekistan); Yuldashev, A. A. [Fergana Polytechnical Institute (Uzbekistan)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The mobility of nondegenerate electrons in quasi-single-crystal and polycrystalline PbTe films is experimentally investigated. The results obtained are compared with the data for bulk crystals at the same charge-carrier concentration. Under the assumption of limitation of the charge-carrier mobility by intercrystallite potential barriers, electron transport in an electric field is theoretically considered. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experiment.

  14. Fundamental Studies of Charge Migration and Delocalization Relevant to Solar Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Therien

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program aimed to understand the molecular-level principles by which complex chemical systems carry out photochemical charge separation, transport, and storage, and how these insights could impact the design of practical solar energy conversion and storage devices. Towards these goals, this program focused on: (1) carrying out fundamental mechanistic and transient dynamical studies of proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) reactions; (2) characterizing and interrogating via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic methods novel conjugated materials that feature large charge delocalization lengths; and (3) exploring excitation delocalization and migration, as well as polaron transport properties of meso-scale assemblies that are capable of segregating light-harvesting antennae, nanoscale wire-like conduction elements, and distinct oxidizing and reducing environments.

  15. Single-electron quantum dot in Si/SiGe with integrated charge sensing C. B. Simmons,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coppersmith, Susan N.

    Single-electron quantum dot in Si/SiGe with integrated charge sensing C. B. Simmons,a Madhu that are important for quantum information processing. Si/SiGe is of interest for semiconductor spin qubits and measurement of a top-gated quantum dot occupied by a single electron in a Si/SiGe heterostructure. Transport

  16. Multiphase transport model for heavy ion collisions at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zi-wei Lin; Subrata Pal; C. M. Ko; Bao-An Li; Bin Zhang

    2001-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a multiphase transport model (AMPT) with both partonic and hadronic interactions, we study the multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of charged particles such as pions, kaons and protons in central Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies. Effects due to nuclear shadowing and jet quenching on these observables are also studied. We further show preliminary results on the production of multistrange baryons from the strangeness-exchange reactions during the hadronic stage of heavy ion collisions.

  17. Study of Electron Transport and Amplification in Diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, Erik M.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As a successful completion of this award, my group has demonstrated world-leading electron gain from diamond for use in a diamond-amplified photocathode. Also, using high-resolution photoemission measurements we were able to uncover exciting new physics of the electron emission mechanisms from hydrogen terminated diamond. Our work, through the continued support of HEP, has resulted in a greater understanding of the diamond material science, including current limits, charge transport modeling, and spatial uniformity.

  18. Regional Public Coordination Transportation Plan Texoma Region #22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texoma Council of Governments

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in conjunction with TxDOT to increase public awareness of the project. As an integral part of this project, each of the 24 regions studying public transportation in their area was charged with assessing Barriers, Constraints and Best Practices in public... Sherman TAPS TAPS TAPS operates in seven (7) counties, with three (3) of the counties in the Texoma Region. TAPS services include demand response, commuter bus services and special services. Square Miles Population ?00 Rider Trips ?05 Clay 1...

  19. Why do Particle Clouds Generate Electric Charges?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Pähtz; H. J. Herrmann; T. Shinbrot

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Grains in desert sandstorms spontaneously generate strong electrical charges; likewise volcanic dust plumes produce spectacular lightning displays. Charged particle clouds also cause devastating explosions in food, drug and coal processing industries. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging in both nature and industry, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive, because it is difficult to understand how inert grains in contact with little more than other inert grains can generate the large charges observed. Here, we present a simple yet predictive explanation for the charging of granular materials in collisional flows. We argue from very basic considerations that charge transfer can be expected in collisions of identical dielectric grains in the presence of an electric field, and we confirm the model's predictions using discrete-element simulations and a tabletop granular experiment.

  20. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

  1. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Dobelbower, M. Christian (Toledo, OH)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

  2. Review of Variable Generation Integration Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Buckley, M.; Rogers, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of wind and solar generation in the United States, and the expectation of continued growth of these technologies, dictates that the future power system will be operated in a somewhat different manner because of increased variability and uncertainty. A small number of balancing authorities have attempted to determine an 'integration cost' to account for these changes to their current operating practices. Some balancing authorities directly charge wind and solar generators for integration charges, whereas others add integration charges to projected costs of wind and solar in integrated resource plans or in competitive solicitations for generation. This report reviews the balancing authorities that have calculated variable generation integration charges and broadly compares and contrasts the methodologies they used to determine their specific integration charges. The report also profiles each balancing authority and how they derived wind and solar integration charges.

  3. Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

  4. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010Salt | Department of EnergyBehaviors: Experiences from

  5. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Departmentof1-SCORECARD-09-21-11 Page 1DepartmentBehaviors: Experiences

  6. Frictional cooling of positively charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Greenwald; Allen Caldwell

    2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the focuses of research and development towards the construction of a muon collider is muon beam preparation. Simulation of frictional cooling shows that it can achieve the desired emittance reduction to produce high-luminosity muon beams. We show that for positively charged particles, charge exchange interactions necessitate significant changes to schemes previously developed for negatively charged particles. We also demonstrate that foil-based schemes are not viable for positive particles.

  7. Particle accelerator employing transient space charge potentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides an accelerator for ions and charged particles. The plasma is generated and confined in a magnetic mirror field. The electrons of the plasma are heated to high temperatures. A series of local coils are placed along the axis of the magnetic mirror field. As an ion or particle beam is directed along the axis in sequence the coils are rapidly pulsed creating a space charge to accelerate and focus the beam of ions or charged particles.

  8. Transportation Economic Assistance Program (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Transportation Economic Assistance Program provides state grants to private business and local governments to improve transportation to projects improving economic conditions and creating or...

  9. Transportation Resources | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Resources The following means of transportation are available for getting to Argonne. Airports Argonne is located within 25 miles of two major Chicago airports:...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Transportation Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    E. Coli Bacteria Engineered to Eat Switchgrass and Make Transportation Fuels On December 7, 2011, in Energy, JBEI, News, Renewable Energy, Transportation Energy A milestone has...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Transportation Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JBEI, News, News & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Systems Analysis, Transportation Energy Biofuels hold great promise for the future of transportation energy, but...

  12. Subsurface Flow and Transport | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    subsurface related to contaminant transport, carbon cycling, enhanced oil recovery and carbon dioxide sequestration. See a complete list of Subsurface Flow and Transport...

  13. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas have continued to make small contributions to transportation,transportation actions include electric power sector actions, eg coal to natural gas

  14. Superconnections and Parallel Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumitrescu, Florin

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This note addresses the construction of a notion of parallel transport along superpaths arising from the concept of a superconnection on a vector bundle over a manifold $M$. A superpath in $M$ is, loosely speaking, a path in $M$ together with an odd vector field in $M$ along the path. We also develop a notion of parallel transport associated with a connection (a.k.a. covariant derivative) on a vector bundle over a \\emph{supermanifold} which is a direct generalization of the classical notion of parallel transport for connections over manifolds.

  15. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

  16. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  17. Soret Motion of a Charged Spherical Colloid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seyyed Nader Rasuli; Ramin Golestanian

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermophoretic motion of a charged spherical colloidal particle and its accompanying cloud of counterions and co-ions in a temperature gradient is studied theoretically. Using the Debye-Huckel approximation, the Soret drift velocity of a weakly charged colloid is calculated analytically. For highly charged colloids, the nonlinear system of electrokinetic equations is solved numerically, and the effects of high surface potential, dielectrophoresis, and convection are examined. Our results are in good agreement with some of the recent experiments on highly charged colloids without using adjustable parameters.

  18. EV Project: Solar-Assisted Charging Demo

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    occurs at night and times during the day where PV generation is greater than EV charging load Technical Accomplishments and Progress - Peak Shaving Algorithms 17 * The most...

  19. Radiation from charges in the continuum limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ianconescu, Reuven [Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, Ramat Gan 52526 (Israel)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how a system of charges goes from a radiating state to a non radiating state when the charges distribution goes to the continuum limit. Understanding this is important from the theoretical point of view and the results of this work are applicable to particle accelerator, cyclotron and other high energy devices.

  20. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electron spin-in addition to charge-for the storage and processing of data. However, the manipulation of spin typically requires magnetic materials. While commonly found in...

  1. Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014: Employers...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the progress of the Challenge and its partners as determined through the annual partner survey. progressreportfinal.pdf More Documents & Publications Workplace Charging...

  2. Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines: British Columbia AgencyCompany Organization: Natural...

  3. Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Table Updated: March 20, 2015 FY 2016 February 2015 CRC Calculation Table (pdf) Final FY 2015 CRC Letter & Table (pdf) Note: The Cost...

  4. Charge separation by photoexcitation in seimcrystalline polymeric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge separation by photoexcitation in seimcrystalline polymeric semiconductors: An intrinsic or extrinsic mechanism? April 5, 2011 at 3pm36-428 Carlos Silva University of...

  5. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

  6. Transport band gap opening at metal–organic interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haidu, Francisc, E-mail: francisc.haidu@physik.tu-chemnitz.de; Salvan, Georgeta; Zahn, Dietrich R. T. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Smykalla, Lars; Hietschold, Michael [Solid Surfaces Analysis, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Knupfer, Martin [Electronic and Optical Properties Department, IFW Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interface formation between copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and two representative metal substrates, i.e., Au and Co, was investigated by the combination of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy. The occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals and thus the transport band gap of CuPc are highly influenced by film thickness, i.e., molecule substrate distance. Due to the image charge potential given by the metallic substrates the transport band gap of CuPc “opens” from (1.4?±?0.3) eV for 1?nm thickness to (2.2?±?0.3) eV, and saturates at this value above 10?nm CuPc thickness. The interface dipoles with values of 1.2?eV and 1.0?eV for Au and Co substrates, respectively, predominantly depend on the metal substrate work functions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements using synchrotron radiation provide detailed information on the interaction between CuPc and the two metal substrates. While charge transfer from the Au or Co substrate to the Cu metal center is present only at sub-monolayer coverages, the authors observe a net charge transfer from the molecule to the Co substrate for films in the nm range. Consequently, the Fermi level is shifted as in the case of a p-type doping of the molecule. This is, however, a competing phenomenon to the energy band shifts due to the image charge potential.

  7. Transportation 2035 Longview Metropolitan Transportation Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longview Metropolitan Planning Organization

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Owen, MPO Director Melissa Bechtold, Transportation Planner Nalora Moser, Planning Technician MPO TECHNICAL COMMITTEE Karen Owen, City of Longview Fred Marquez, TXDOT-Austin Dale Spitz, TXDOT-Tyler District Debbie Sadler, City of White... Oak Will Buskell, TXDOT-Longview Area Rea Donna Jones, TXDOT-Atlanta District Margie McAllister, TCEQ-Austin Randy Redmond, TXDOT-Tyler District John Paul Jones, Harrison County Keith Bonds, City of Longview Steve Juneau, TXDOT-Marshall...

  8. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation Secure Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid IntegrationReportTransmissionResearchNewsTransportation

  9. Electron beam diagnostic for space charge measurement of an ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Yu, Simon S.; Henestroza, Enrique; Eylon, Shmuel; Shuman, Derek B.; Ludvig, Jozsef; Bieniosek, Frank M.; Waldron, William L.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Vanecek, David L.; Hannink, Ryan; Amezcua, Monserrat

    2004-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-perturbing electron beam diagnostic system for measuring the charge distribution of an ion beam is developed for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) beam physics studies. Conventional diagnostics require temporary insertion of sensors into the beam, but such diagnostics stop the beam, or significantly alter its properties. In this diagnostic a low energy, low current electron beam is swept transversely across the ion beam; the measured electron beam deflection is used to infer the charge density profile of the ion beam. The initial application of this diagnostic is to the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), which is exploring the physics of space-charge-dominated beam focusing onto a small spot using a neutralizing plasma. Design and development of this diagnostic and performance with the NTX ion beamline is presented.

  10. Numerical studies of emittance exchange in 2-D charged-particle beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guy, F.W.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe results obtained from a two-dimensional particle-following computer code that simulates a continuous, nonrelativistic, elliptical charged-particle beam with linear continuous focusing. Emittances and focusing strengths can be different in the two transverse directions. The results can be applied, for example, for a quadrupole transport system in a smooth approximation to a real beam with unequal emittances in the two planes. The code was used to study emittance changes caused by kinetic-energy exchange between transverse directions and by shifts in charge distributions. Simulation results for space-charge-dominated beams agree well with analytic formulas. From simulation results, an empirical formula was developed for a ''partition parameter'' (the ratio of kinetic energies in the two directions) as a function of initial conditions and beamline length. Quantitative emittance changes for each transverse direction can be predicted by using this parameter. Simulation results also agree with Hofmann's generalized differential equation relating emittance and field energy.

  11. Transport properties of a meson gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Fernandez-Fraile; A. Gomez Nicola

    2007-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present recent results on a systematic method to calculate transport coefficients for a meson gas (in particular, we analyze a pion gas) at low temperatures in the context of Chiral Perturbation Theory. Our method is based on the study of Feynman diagrams with a power counting which takes into account collisions in the plasma by means of a non-zero particle width. In this way, we obtain results compatible with analysis of Kinetic Theory with just the leading order diagram. We show the behavior with temperature of electrical and thermal conductivities and shear and bulk viscosities, and we discuss the fundamental role played by unitarity. We obtain that bulk viscosity is negligible against shear viscosity near the chiral phase transition. Relations between the different transport coefficients and bounds on them based on different theoretical approximations are also discussed. We also comment on some applications to heavy-ion collisions.

  12. PBA Transportation Websites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PBA Transportation Websites presented to the DOE Systems Analysis Workshop held in Washington, D.C. July 28-29, 2004 to discuss and define role of systems analysis in DOE Hydrogen Program.

  13. Transportation and Stationary Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) is small. Previous feedback from industry has indicated that existing transportation fuel providers (oil for multiple fuel cell applications, including material handling equipment, backup power, and light- or heavy

  14. ELECTROCHEMICAL POWER FOR TRANSPORTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be generated from coal and nuclear energy in contrast to 7%in the use of coal and nuclear energy for transportation andparticularly for coal and nuclear energy utilization, would

  15. Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, T.V.

    2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations is to provide estimates of concentration and surface deposition from routine and accidental releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. This paper discusses this topic.

  16. Clean Transportation Internship Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clean Transportation Internship Description The NC Solar Center at North Carolina State University to other ongoing projects by focusing on time-sensitive tasks. While the main thrust of this internship

  17. Alternative Fuel Transportation Program

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    federal register Monday May 17, 1999 Part II Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 10 CFR Part 490 Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; P-series...

  18. Accident resistant transport container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andersen, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Cole, James K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  19. BEHAVIOR PREDICTION FOR DECISION AND CONTROL IN COGNITIVE AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    BEHAVIOR PREDICTION FOR DECISION AND CONTROL IN COGNITIVE AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS ASOK RAY*, SHASHI for decision and control in cognitive autonomous systems. The objective is to coordinate human. 1. Introduction Modern human-engineered systems (e.g. power grid, communication, transportation

  20. Spin glass behavior in FeAl2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lue, CS; Oner, Y.; Naugle, Donald G.; Ross, JH.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic and transport measurements indicate FeAl2 to be an ordered intermetallic spin glass, with canonical behavior including a susceptibility cusp at T-f = 35 K and frequency-dependent susceptibility below T-f. The field-cooled and zero...

  1. Spin glass behavior in FeAl2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lue, CS; Oner, Y.; Naugle, Donald G.; Ross, JH.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic and transport measurements indicate FeAl2 to be an ordered intermetallic spin glass, with canonical behavior including a susceptibility cusp at T-f = 35 K and frequency-dependent susceptibility below T-f. The field-cooled and zero...

  2. Photoelectrochemical and photosensing behaviors of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumder, T.; Hmar, J. J. L.; Roy, J. N.; Mondal, S. P., E-mail: suvraphy@gmail.com, E-mail: suvra.phy@nita.ac.in [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Agartala 799046 (India); Debnath, K. [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Agartala 799046 (India); Gogurla, N.; Ray, S. K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    ZnO nanorods have been grown on indium-tin-oxide coated glass substrates by a low cost chemical process. Current-voltage characteristics have been studied using ZnO nanorods as photoanode in an electrochemical cell. The flat band voltage shift and depletion width of ZnO nanorods/electrolyte interface have been estimated from Mott-Schottky (MS) characteristics. The electrochemical impedance measurements have been carried out to study the charge transport mechanism at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface under dark and white light (100 mW/cm{sup 2}) illumination. The doping concentration of nanorods has been extracted from MS plot. Photoresponse behavior of ZnO nanorods is found to be enhanced than seed layers with the incident of white light. Spectral dependent photovoltage of ZnO nanorods has been carried out using monochromatic light of wavelength 250–600?nm. The photopotential recovery time has been estimated for nanorods and seed layers. The stability of ZnO nanorods as a photoanode has been investigated.

  3. B. TRANSPORTATION, CIRCULATION AND PARKING B. TRANSPORTATION, CIRCULATION AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullins, Dyche

    B. TRANSPORTATION, CIRCULATION AND PARKING 231 B. TRANSPORTATION, CIRCULATION AND PARKING on transportation and connectivity issues common to UCSF as a whole. Please refer to Chapter 5, Plans for Existing characteristics specific to each individual UCSF site. DETERMINANTS OF THE 1996 LRDP The transportation

  4. Metropolitan Transportation Plan 2035

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyler Area Metropolitan Planning Organization

    2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Adopted by the Tyler Area MPO Policy Committee December 4, 2009 METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLAN 2035 Revised April 22, 2010 Adopted by the Tyler Area MPO Policy Committee December 4, 2009 Amended/Revised April 22, 2010 Prepared by: Bucher..., Willis, and Ratliff Corporation 1828 East Southeast Loop 323, Suite 202 Tyler, Texas 75701 903.581.7844 This Document Serves as an Update to the Tyler Area Metropolitan Transportation Plan 2030. Portions of that Document were Unchanged and Appear...

  5. Thermoelectric transport in superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinecke, T.L.; Broido, D.A.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermoelectric transport properties of superlattices have been studied using an exact solution of the Boltzmann equation. The role of heat transport along the barrier layers, of carrier tunneling through the barriers, of valley degeneracy and of the well width and energy dependences of the carrier-phonon scattering rates on the thermoelectric figure of merit are given. Calculations are given for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and for PbTe, and the results of recent experiments are discussed.

  6. Interactive Transportable Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver Irschitz; Priam Givord; Newyork Exit Newyork; Flavia Sparacino

    Transportable architecture which embeds the means to communicate with real or imaginary digital information spaces in a natural fashion offers unprecedented opportunities to make multimedia experiences available to the public almost everywhere. This installation demonstrates an example of interactive transportable architecture which incorporates unencumebered real-time body tracking and gesture recognition to explore a 3-D cityscape and a brain-like web-based information space.

  7. Campus Village Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Emmanuel

    2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Emmanuel Hernandez THE CAMPUS V ILLAGE : TRANSPORTATION Objective The Campus Village is a new community being constructed in northwest Lawrence with a intergenerational focus in mind. The site will be equipped with housing for students, athletes..., retirement community members, and families. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the city’s current transportation network and make recommendations on that network to better accommodate the needs of the new property. Specifically, the goal...

  8. Regional Transportation Coordination Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden Crescent Regional Planning Commission

    Committee for this study. ? Develop a coordination public transportation plan ? Identify resources required to develop the plan ? Provide policy guidance to lead the planning and coordination effort Golden Crescent Regional Transit 1... of Texas. This resource will be relied upon for further development of the Intermodal Transportation Terminal. ? FTA Section 5309 (Bus) Discretionary Support ? To assist in meeting the GCRPC?s capital replacement needs. This resource...

  9. Peristaltic particle transport using the Lattice Boltzmann method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connington, Kevin William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Viswanathan, Hari S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abdel-fattah, Amr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Shiyi [JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peristaltic transport refers to a class of internal fluid flows where the periodic deformation of flexible containing walls elicits a non-negligible fluid motion. It is a mechanism used to transport fluid and immersed solid particles in a tube or channel when it is ineffective or impossible to impose a favorable pressure gradient or desirous to avoid contact between the transported mixture and mechanical moving parts. Peristaltic transport occurs in many physiological situations and has myriad industrial applications. We focus our study on the peristaltic transport of a macroscopic particle in a two-dimensional channel using the lattice Boltzmann method. We systematically investigate the effect of variation of the relevant dimensionless parameters of the system on the particle transport. We find, among other results, a case where an increase in Reynolds number can actually lead to a slight increase in particle transport, and a case where, as the wall deformation increases, the motion of the particle becomes non-negative only. We examine the particle behavior when the system exhibits the peculiar phenomenon of fluid trapping. Under these circumstances, the particle may itself become trapped where it is subsequently transported at the wave speed, which is the maximum possible transport in the absence of a favorable pressure gradient. Finally, we analyze how the particle presence affects stress, pressure, and dissipation in the fluid in hopes of determining preferred working conditions for peristaltic transport of shear-sensitive particles. We find that the levels of shear stress are most hazardous near the throat of the channel. We advise that shear-sensitive particles should be transported under conditions where trapping occurs as the particle is typically situated in a region of innocuous shear stress levels.

  10. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste migration (e.g. BC Cribs and Trenches). The improved models have been also coupled with inverse models and newly-developed parameter scaling techniques to allow estimation of field-scale and effective transport parameters for the vadose zone. The development and utility of pedotransfer functions for describing fine-scale hydrogeochemical heterogeneity and for incorporating this heterogeneity into reactive transport models was explored. An approach based on grain-size statistics appears feasible and has been used to describe heterogeneity in hydraulic properties and sorption properties, such as the cation exchange capacity and the specific surface area of Hanford sediments. This work has also led to the development of inverse modeling capabilities for time-dependent, subsurface, reactive transport with transient flow fields using an automated optimization algorithm. In addition, a number of geophysical techniques investigated for their potential to provide detailed information on the subtle changes in lithology and bedding surfaces; plume delineation, leak detection. High-resolution resistivity is now being used for detecting saline plumes at several waste sites at Hanford, including tank farms. Results from the field studies and associated analysis have appeared in more than 46 publications generated over the past 4 years. These publications include test plans and status reports, in addition to numerous technical notes and peer reviewed papers.

  11. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crisp, J; Fellenz, B; Fitzgerald, J; Heikkinen, D; Ibrahim, M A.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. During Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  12. Identifying the Charge Carriers of the Quark-Gluon Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott Pratt

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge correlations in lattice gauge calculations suggest that up, down and strange charges move independently in the QGP (quark-gluon plasma), and that the density of such charges is similar to what is expected from simple thermal arguments. Here, we show how specific elements of the charge-charge correlation matrix in the QGP survive hadronization and become manifest in final-state charge-charge correlation measurements.

  13. TRANSPORTATION SERVICES VEHICLE RENTAL FEES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENVIRONMENT FEES AIR CONDITIONER SERVICE $75.00 PARTS + 10% BATTERY CHARGE $25.00 BATTERY REPLACEMENT $25

  14. Essays in behavioral economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eil, David Holding

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Essays in Behavioral Economics A dissertation submitted inDoctor of Philosophy in Economics by David Holding Eilfunction,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, 1995,

  15. Interaction and Intelligent Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mataric, Maja J.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce basic behaviors as primitives for control and learning in situated, embodied agents interacting in complex domains. We propose methods for selecting, formally specifying, algorithmically implementing, ...

  16. Transport Properties for Triangular Barriers in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abderrahim El Mouhafid; Ahmed Jellal

    2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically study the electronic transport properties of Dirac fermions through one and double triangular barriers in graphene. Using the transfer matrix method, we determine the transmission, conductance and Fano factor. They are obtained to be various parameters dependent such as well width, barrier height and barrier width. Therefore, different discussions are given and comparison with the previous significant works is done. In particular, it is shown that at Dirac point the Dirac fermions always own a minimum conductance associated with a maximum Fano factor and change their behaviors in an oscillatory way (irregularly periodical tunneling peaks) when the potential of applied voltage is increased.

  17. Algebraic charge liquids RIBHU K. KAUL1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    to this fermion as a `holon'. The holon comes in two species, carrying charges ±1 in its interaction holons with charges ±1. From the f± and aµ, we can construct a variety of observables whose correlations

  18. Charged Higgs boson searches at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Dhiman; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the latest results from searches for singly charged Higgs bosons carried out by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the LHC. Both experiments have searched for production of charged Higgs bosons in pp collisions of up to 20 (5) fb^-

  19. PRECISE CHARGE MEASUREMENT FOR LASER PLASMA ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Donahue, Rich; Rodgers, David; Smith, Alan; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Cross-calibrations of charge diagnostics are conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). Employed diagnostics are a scintillating screen, activation based measurement, and integrating current transformer. The diagnostics agreed within {+-}8 %, showing that they can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs provided they are used properly.

  20. DNA: structure, dense phases, charges, interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potsdam, Universität

    DNA: structure, dense phases, charges, interactions #12;Outline 1. DNA: structure, charges, dense phases 2. Counterion and DNA condensation 3. ES DNA-DNA interactions 4. DNA toroidal structures 5. Interactions of real DNA helices 6. DNA-DNA ES recognition 7. DNA melting in aggregates 8. Azimuthal

  1. Kinetic theory of nonlinear transport phenomena in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre for Energy Studies (CES), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to the prevalent use of the phenomenological theory of transport phenomena, a number of transport properties of complex plasmas have been evaluated by using appropriate expressions, available from the kinetic theory, which are based on Boltzmann's transfer equation; in particular, the energy dependence of the electron collision frequency has been taken into account. Following the recent trend, the number and energy balance of all the constituents of the complex plasma and the charge balance on the particles is accounted for; the Ohmic loss has also been included in the energy balance of the electrons. The charging kinetics for the complex plasma comprising of uniformly dispersed dust particles, characterized by (i) uniform size and (ii) the Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck power law of size distribution has been developed. Using appropriate expressions for the transport parameters based on the kinetic theory, the system of equations has been solved to investigate the parametric dependence of the complex plasma transport properties on the applied electric field and other plasma parameters; the results are graphically illustrated.

  2. Transportation Electrification Load Development For A Renewable Future Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Mai, T.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. A set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles was developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Market saturation scenarios of 30% and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average approx. 6 kWh per day were considered. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across four daily time slices under optimal control from the utility?s perspective. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios.

  3. Texas Transportation Poll Final report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas Transportation Poll Final report PRC 14-16-F #12;2 Texas Transportation Poll Texas A&M Transportation Institute PRC 14-16-F September 2014 Authors Chris Simek Tina Geiselbrecht #12;3 Table of Contents .......................................................................................................................... 8 Transportation Funding

  4. Transportation Systems Engineering GRADUATE STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuhang

    Transportation Systems Engineering GRADUATE STUDIES TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS are the building blocks and provides for an improved quality of life. However, transportation systems by their very nature also affect the environment through physical construction and operation of transportation facilities, and through the travel

  5. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  6. Proximity charge sensing for semiconductor detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luke, Paul N; Tindall, Craig S; Amman, Mark

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contact charge sensor includes a semiconductor detector having a first surface and an opposing second surface. The detector includes a high resistivity electrode layer on the first surface and a low resistivity electrode on the high resistivity electrode layer. A portion of the low resistivity first surface electrode is deleted to expose the high resistivity electrode layer in a portion of the area. A low resistivity electrode layer is disposed on the second surface of the semiconductor detector. A voltage applied between the first surface low resistivity electrode and the second surface low resistivity electrode causes a free charge to drift toward the first or second surface according to a polarity of the free charge and the voltage. A charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to a non-contact electrode disposed at a distance from the exposed high resistivity electrode layer outputs a signal in response to movement of free charge within the detector.

  7. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, David K. (155 Coral Way, Broomfield, CO 80020); Haverty, Thomas W. (1173 Logan, Northglenn, CO 80233); Nordin, Carl W. (7203 W. 32nd Ave., Wheatridge, CO 80033); Tyree, William H. (1977 Senda Rocosa, Boulder, CO 80303)

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  8. New charge radius relations for atomic nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. H. Sun; Y. Lu; J. P. Peng; C. Y. Liu; Y. M. Zhao

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the charge radii of neighboring atomic nuclei, independent of atomic number and charge, follow remarkably very simple relations, despite the fact that atomic nuclei are complex finite many-body systems governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. These relations can be understood within the picture of independent-particle motion and by assuming neighboring nuclei having similar pattern in the charge density distribution. A root-mean-square (rms) deviation of 0.0078 fm is obtained between the predictions in these relations and the experimental values, i.e., a comparable precision as modern experimental techniques. Such high accuracy relations are very useful to check the consistence of nuclear charge radius surface and moreover to predict unknown nuclear charge radii, while large deviations from experimental data is seen to reveal the appearance of nuclear shape transition or coexsitence.

  9. JOINT PROGRAM IN TRANSPORTATION UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    JOINT PROGRAM IN TRANSPORTATION UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 2001 TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY of Transportation, Ontario Additions in 1996 Regional Municipalities of Niagara, Waterloo Counties of Peterborough not to participate) #12;JOINT PROGRAM IN TRANSPORTATION UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 2001 TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY

  10. Director Position Center for Urban Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arslan, Hüseyin

    Director Position Center for Urban Transportation The Center for Urban Transportation Research for state policymakers, transportation agencies, transportation professionals and the public. CUTR conducts of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration and Federal Highway Administration, the Florida Department

  11. Delaware Transportation Infrastructure Forum Problem Identification Statements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    2013 Delaware Transportation Infrastructure Forum Problem Identification Statements Sponsored by The Delaware Center for Transportation and the Delaware Department of Transportation Delaware Center for Transportation Your main resource for transportation education and research Identifying Important Issues Related

  12. Electromagnetic field of a charge intersecting a cold plasma boundary in a waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekhina, Tatiana Yu.; Tyukhtin, Andrey V. [Radiophysics Department of St. Petersburg University, 1 Ulyanovskaya, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the electromagnetic field of a charge crossing a boundary between a vacuum and cold plasma in a waveguide. We obtain exact expressions for the field components and the spectral density of the transition radiation. With the steepest descent technique, we investigate the field components. We show that the electromagnetic field has a different structure in a vacuum than in cold plasma. We also develop an algorithm for the computation of the field based on a certain transformation of the integration path. The behavior of the field depending on distance and time and the spectral density depending on frequency are explored for different charge velocities. Some important physical effects are noted. A considerable increase and concentration of the field near the wave front in the plasma is observed for the case of ultrarelativistic particles. In the plasma, the mode envelopes and spectral density show zero points when the charge velocity is within certain limits.

  13. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1986-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This self-charging solar battery consists of: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing (with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof), a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, and a diode means mounted in the battery housing and comprising an anode and a cathode. The solar battery also has: a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the anode and for connecting the cathode to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means, and cap means for closing each end of the battery housing.

  14. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1987-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a flashlight employing a self-charging solar battery assembly comprising: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof, a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, the panel being mounted within the battery housing with the photo-voltaic cell means juxtapositioned to the transparent material of the battery housing such that solar rays may pass through the transparent material of the flashlight housing and the battery housing and excite the photo-voltaic cell means, a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, and a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means.

  15. Charge and spin topological insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopaev, Yu. V., E-mail: kopaev@sci.lebedev.ru; Gorbatsevich, A. A.; Belyavskii, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The topologically nontrivial states of matter-charge and spin topological insulators, which exhibit, respectively, properties of the integer quantum Hall effect and the quantum spin Hall effect-are discussed. The topological characteristics (invariant with respect to weak adiabatic changes in the Hamiltonian parameters) which lead to such states are considered. The model of a 2D hexagonal lattice having symmetries broken with respect to time reversal and spatial inversion which was proposed by Haldane and marked the beginning of unprecedented activity in the study of topologically nontrivial states is discussed. This model relates the microscopic nature of the symmetry breaking with respect to the time reversal to the occurrence of spontaneous orbital currents which circulate within a unit cell. Such currents become zero upon summation over the unit cell, but they may form spreading current states at the surface which are similar to the edge current states under the quantum Hall effect. The first model of spontaneous currents (exciton insulator model) is considered, and the possibility of implementing new topologically nontrivial states in this model is discussed.

  16. Joachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    to charge from an inexpensive AC charging station feeding power directly from the electric grid are an effective catalyst for considerably expanding fast-charging infrastructure. With AC fast-charging, high-powerJoachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles using AC Master's Thesis, September 2013 #12

  17. Transportation Electrification Load Development For a Renewable Future Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, Tony; Mai, Trieu; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrification of the transportation sector offers the opportunity to significantly reduce petroleum consumption. The transportation sector accounts for 70% of US petroleum consumption. The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. In support of a recent US Department of Energy funded activity that analyzed a future generation scenario with high renewable energy technology contributions, a set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles were developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. These load profiles with their underlying assumptions will be presented in this paper. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Two market saturation scenarios of 30% of sales and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average {approx}6 kWh per day were considered. Results were generated for 3109 counties and were consolidated to 134 Power Control Areas (PCA) for the use NREL's's regional generation planning analysis tool ReEDS. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across 4 daily time slices under optimal control from the utility perspective. No other literature has addressed the potential flexibility in energy delivery to electric vehicles in connection with a regional power generation study. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios. EVS25 Copyright.

  18. Efficient Transportation Decision Public Web Site: Bridging the Gap Between Transportation Planning and the Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roaza, Ruth

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for accomplishing transportation planning and projectprocess – the Efficient Transportation Decision Making (Process - is to make transportation decisions more quickly

  19. Current leakage relaxation and charge trapping in ultra-porous low-k materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borja, Juan; Plawsky, Joel L., E-mail: plawsky@rpi.edu; Gill, William N. [Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lu, T.-M. [Department of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Bakhru, Hassaram [University at Albany's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE), Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Time dependent dielectric failure has become a pivotal aspect of interconnect design as industry pursues integration of sub-22?nm process-technology nodes. Literature has provided key information about the role played by individual species such as electrons, holes, ions, and neutral impurity atoms. However, no mechanism has been shown to describe how such species interact and influence failure. Current leakage relaxation in low-k dielectrics was studied using bipolar field experiments to gain insight into how charge carrier flow becomes impeded by defects within the dielectric matrix. Leakage current decay was correlated to injection and trapping of electrons. We show that current relaxation upon inversion of the applied field can be described by the stretched exponential function. The kinetics of charge trapping events are consistent with a time-dependent reaction rate constant, k=k{sub 0}?(t+1){sup ??1}, where 0?charge trapping reactions in amorphous solids by W. H. Hamill and K. Funabashi, Phys. Rev. B 16, 5523–5527 (1977). We explain the relaxation process in charge trapping events by introducing a nonlinear charge trapping model. This model provides a description on the manner in which the transport of mobile defects affects the long-tail current relaxation processes in low-k films.

  20. Transient behavior of ultracapacitors and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, R.A. [Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Ulm (Germany)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several different mechanisms can be used to provide short term high power pulses from electrochemical systems. Their fundamental characteristics and applicability to the different types of transient output requirements will be discussed. When significant amounts of energy must be delivered, the most favorable materials operate by means of insertion reactions. The methods that can be employed to quantitatively evaluate the critical materials parameters will be described. Spreadsheet techniques are especially useful for modeling the transient transport behavior of components containing such materials under various boundary conditions. LaPlace transform methods can then be used to convert information about the parameters of individual components into the dynamic response of the total system.