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1

Accelerated Weathering of Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 16, 2007 ... Accelerated Weathering of Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation Material Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions by E.M. Pierce ...

2

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer System. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) More Documents & Publications Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) SRS Tank 48H Waste Treatment Project Technology Readiness Assessment

3

Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) Na-Al-Si (NAS) Waste Form Qualification C.M. Jantzen and E.M. Pierce November 18, 2010 2 Participating...

4

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Technology Overview  

Coal added as reductant and for energy • What happens inside the reformer? Water evaporates Nitrates reduced to nitrogen gas

5

INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

Kevin Whitty

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

Kevin Whitty

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

7

FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) PRODUCT: MONOLITH FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION  

SciTech Connect

The most important requirement for Hanford's low activity waste (LAW) form for shallow land disposal is the chemical durability of the product. A secondary, but still essential specification, is the compressive strength of the material with regards to the strength of the material under shallow land disposal conditions, e.g. the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations, because the term ''near-surface disposal'' indicates disposal in the uppermost portion, or approximately the top 30 meters, of the earth's surface. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) mineral waste form for LAW is granular in nature because it is formed by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). As a granular product it has been shown to be as durable as Hanford's LAW glass during testing with ASTM C-1285-02 known as the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and with the Single Pass Flow Through Test (SPFT). Hanford Envelope A and Envelope C simulants both performed well during PCT and SPFT testing and during subsequent performance assessment modeling. This is partially due to the high aluminosilicate content of the mineral product which provides a natural aluminosilicate buffering mechanism that inhibits leaching and is known to occur in naturally occurring aluminosilicate mineral analogs. In order for the TTT Na-Al-Si (NAS) granular mineral product to meet the compressive strength requirements (ASTM C39) for a Hanford waste form, the granular product needs to be made into a monolith or disposed of in High Integrity Containers (HIC's). Additionally, the Hanford intruder scenario for disposal in the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) trench is mitigated as there is reduced intruder exposure when a waste form is in a monolithic form. During the preliminary testing of a monolith binder for TTT's FBSR mineral product, four parameters were monitored: (1) waste loading (not optimized for each waste form tested); (2) density; (3) compressive strength; and (4) durability must not be compromised--binding agent should not react with the NAS product and binding agent should not create an unfavorable pH environment that may cause accelerated leaching. It is the goal of the present study to survey cementitious waste forms based on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Ceramicrete, and hydroceramic binders by correlating waste loading, density and compressive strength and then determine if these binders affect the product performance in terms of the PCT response. This will be done by making a one-to-one comparison of the PCT response measured on granular NAS mineral product (mixed bed and fines products) with the PCT response of the monolithed NAS product in the different binders. Future studies may include, refining the above binders, and examining other binders. It is likely that binders formed from kaolin would be most compatible with the chemistry of the THOR{reg_sign} mineral waste form which is made by steam reforming of kaolin and sodium rich wastes. The economics of production on a large scale have yet to be investigated for any of the binders tested.

Jantzen, C

2006-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

8

DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) WASTE FORMS  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium aqueous radioactive wastes. The addition of clay and a catalyst as co-reactants converts high sodium aqueous low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford and Idaho DOE sites to a granular ''mineralized'' waste form that may be made into a monolith form if necessary. Simulant Hanford and Idaho high sodium wastes were processed in a pilot scale FBSR at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The durability of the FBSR waste form products was tested in order to compare the measured durability to previous FBSR waste form testing on Hanford Envelope C waste forms that were made by THOR Treatment Technologies (TTT) and to compare the FBSR durability to vitreous LAW waste forms, specifically the Hanford low activity waste (LAW) glass known as the Low-activity Reference Material (LRM). The durability of the FBSR waste form is comparable to that of the LRM glass for the test responses studied.

Jantzen, C

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

9

FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING FOR TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE  

SciTech Connect

This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of fluidized bed steam reforming and its possible application to treat and immobilize Hanford low-activity waste.

HEWITT WM

2011-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

10

Steam reformer with catalytic combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

Voecks, Gerald E. (La Crescenta, CA)

1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

11

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) WITH HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTES  

SciTech Connect

Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Bannochie, C.; Daniel, G.; Nash, C.; Cozzi, A.; Herman, C.

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

12

Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) With Hanford Low Activity Wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750?C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Burket, P. R.; Bannochie, C. J.; Daniel, W. G.; Nash, C. A.; Cozzi, A. D.; Herman, C. C.

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

13

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of INEEL SBW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology  

SciTech Connect

Sodium bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many studies have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. DOE desired further experimental data, with regard to steam reforming technology, to make informed decisions concerning selection of treatment technology for SBW. Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was performed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel September 27 through October 1, 2004. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, and located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Personnel from Science Applications International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, operated the pilot plant. The pilot scale test was terminated as planned after achieving a total of 100 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation. About 230 kg of SBW surrogate were processed that resulted in about 88 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 62%. The process achieved about a 90% turnover of the starting bed. Samples of mineralized solid product materials were analyzed for chemical/physical properties. Results of product performance testing conducted by SRNL will be reported separately by SRNL.

Arlin L. Olson; Nicholas R. Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of Hanford LAW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a highly efficient cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2–5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.7 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved essentially complete bed turnover within approximately 40 hours. Samples of mineralized solid product materials were analyzed for chemical/physical properties. SRNL will report separately the results of product performance testing that were accomplished.

Olson, Arlin L.; Nicholas R Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

LWO-SPT-2007-00249 LWO-SPT-2007-00249 Rev. 1 Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) For Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) November, 2007 Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) LWO-SPT-2007-00249 Rev. 1 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared by Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy under Contract No. DEA-AC09-96SR18500 and is an account of work performed under that contract. Neither the United States Department of Energy, nor WSRC, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, or product or process

16

Radionuclide and contaminant immobilization in the fluidized bed steam reforming waste products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process and resulting waste form. The first section of the chapter gives an overview of the potential need for FBSR processing in nuclear waste remediation followed by an overview of the engineering involved in the process itself. This is followed by a description of waste form production at a chemical level followed by a section describing different process streams that have undergone the FBSR process. The third section describes the resulting mineral product in terms of phases that are present and the ability of the waste form to encapsulate hazardous and radioactive wastes from several sources. Following this description is a presentation of the physical properties of the granular and monolith waste form product including and contaminant release mechanisms. The last section gives a brief summary of this chapter and includes a section on the strengths associated with this waste form and the needs for additional data and remaining questions yet to be answered. The reader is directed elsewhere for more information on other waste forms such as Cast Stone (Lockrem, 2005), Ceramicrete (Singh et al., 1997, Wagh et al., 1999) and geopolymers (Kyritsis et al., 2009; Russell et al., 2006).

Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brown, Christopher F.; Jantzen, Carol; Pierce, Eric M.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

2006-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

18

FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO4, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) Na-Al-Si (NAS) Waste Form Qualification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) Na-Al-Si (NAS) Waste Form Qualification C.M. Jantzen and E.M. Pierce November 18, 2010 2 Participating Organizations 3 Incentive and Objectives FBSR sodium-aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form has been identified as a promising supplemental treatment technology for Hanford LAW Objectives: Reduce the risk associated with implementing the FBSR NAS waste form as a supplemental treatment technology for Hanford LAW Conduct test with actual tank wastes Use the best science to fill key data gaps Linking previous and new results together 4 Outline FBSR NAS waste form processing scales FBSR NAS waste form data/key assumptions FBSR NAS key data gaps FBSR NAS testing program 5 FBSR NAS Waste Form Processing

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Preparation and initial characterization of fluidized bed steam reforming pure-phase standards  

SciTech Connect

Hanford is investigating the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process for their Low Activity Waste. The FBSR process offers a low-temperature continuous method by which liquid waste can be processed with the addition of clay into a sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is mainly comprised of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Anions such as perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup -}), pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}), and iodine (I{sup -}) are expected to replace sulfate in the nosean structure and/or chloride in the sodalite mineral structure (atomically bonded inside the aluminosilicate cages that these mineral structures possess). In the FBSR waste form, each of these phases can exist in a variety of solid solutions that differ from the idealized forms observed in single crystals in nature. The lack of understanding of the durability of these stoichiometric or idealized mineral phases complicates the ability to deconvolute the durability of the mixed phase FBSR product since it is a combination of different NAS phases. To better understand the behavior, fabrication and testing of the individual phases of the FBSR product is required. Analytical Development (AD) of the Science and Technology directorate of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to prepare the series of phase-pure standards, consisting of nepheline, nosean, and Cl, Re, and I sodalite. Once prepared, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to confirm the products were phase pure. These standards are being used for subsequent characterization studies consisting of the following: single-pass flow-through (SPFT) testing, development of thermodynamic data, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) calibration curves. In addition to the above mentioned phase-pure standards, AD was tasked with fabricating a mixed Tc-Re sodalite.

Missimer, D. M.; Rutherford, R. L.

2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

22

Single Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) Test Results of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Forms used for LAW Immobilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One such immobilization technology being considered is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) tests at various flow rates have been conducted with the granular products fabricated using these two methods. Results show that the materials exhibit a relatively low forward dissolution rate on the order of 10-3 g/(m2d) with the material made in the laboratory giving slightly higher values.

Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Benjamin D.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Strandquist, Sara C.; Dage, DeNomy C.; Brown, Christopher F.

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

23

DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER WASTE FORMS FOR SODIUM BEARING WASTE AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) processing of Sodium Bearing Waste simulants was performed in December 2006 by THOR{sup sm} Treatment Technologies LLC (TTT) The testing was performed at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) pilot plant facilities in Golden, CO. FBSR products from these pilot tests on simulated waste representative of the SBW at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) were subsequently transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization and leach testing. Four as-received Denitration and Mineralization Reformer (DMR) granular/powder samples and four High Temperature Filter (HTF) powder samples were received by SRNL. FBSR DMR samples had been taken from the ''active'' bed, while the HTF samples were the fines collected as carryover from the DMR. The process operated at high fluidizing velocities during the mineralization test such that nearly all of the product collected was from the HTF. Active bed samples were collected from the DMR to monitor bed particle size distribution. Characterization of these crystalline powder samples shows that they are primarily Al, Na and Si, with > 1 wt% Ca, Fe and K. The DMR samples contained less than 1 wt% carbon and the HTF samples ranged from 13 to 26 wt% carbon. X-ray diffraction analyses show that the DMR samples contained significant quantities of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} startup bed. The DMR samples became progressively lower in starting bed alumina with major Na/Al/Si crystalline phases (nepheline and sodium aluminosilicate) present as cumulative bed turnover occurred but 100% bed turnover was not achieved. The HTF samples also contained these major crystalline phases. Durability testing of the DMR and HTF samples using the ASTM C1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT) 7-day leach test at 90 C was performed along with several reference glass samples. Comparison of the normalized leach rates for the various DMR and HTF components was made with the reference glasses and the Low Activity Waste (LAW) specification for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Vitrification Plant (WTP). Normalized releases from the DMR and HTF samples were all less than 1 g/m{sup 2}. For comparison, normalized release from the High-Level Waste (HLW) benchmark Environmental Assessment (EA) glass for Si, Li, Na and B ranges from 2 to 8 g/m{sup 2}. The normalized release specification for LAW glass for the Hanford WTP is 2 g/m{sup 2}. The Toxicity Characteristic Leach Test (TCLP) was performed on DMR and HTF as received samples and the tests showed that these products meet the criteria for the EPA RCRA Universal Treatment Standards for all of the constituents contained in the starting simulants such as Cr, Pb and Hg (RCRA characteristically hazardous metals) and Ni and Zn (RCRA metals required for listed wastes).

Crawford, C; Carol Jantzen, C

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

24

Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) Na-Al-Si (NAS) Waste Form ...  

Clay/Coal Superheated Steam (pyrolizes organics and catalyzes mineralization) CO2, N2, H2O CRR HVAC HTF PBF Feed Tank Sand Filter or Stack DISPOSAL ...

25

Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—THOR® Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product in a Geopolymer Matrix  

SciTech Connect

Screening tests are being conducted to evaluate waste forms for immobilizing secondary liquid wastes from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Plans are underway to add a stabilization treatment unit to the Effluent Treatment Facility to provide the needed capacity for treating these wastes from WTP. The current baseline is to use a Cast Stone cementitious waste form to solidify the wastes. Through a literature survey, DuraLith alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer, fluidized-bed steam reformation (FBSR) granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix, and a Ceramicrete phosphate-bonded ceramic were identified both as candidate waste forms and alternatives to the baseline. These waste forms have been shown to meet waste disposal acceptance criteria, including compressive strength and universal treatment standards for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (as measured by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP]). Thus, these non-cementitious waste forms should also be acceptable for land disposal. Information is needed on all four waste forms with respect to their capability to minimize the release of technetium. Technetium is a radionuclide predicted to be in the secondary liquid wastes in small quantities, but the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) risk assessment analyses show that technetium, even at low mass, produces the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater.

Pires, Richard P.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.

2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

26

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING WITH ACUTAL HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTES VERIFYING FBSR AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the cleanup mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is one of the supplementary treatments being considered. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and other secondary wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates/nitrites, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, and/or radio-nuclides like I-129 and Tc-99. Radioactive testing of Savannah River LAW (Tank 50) shimmed to resemble Hanford LAW and actual Hanford LAW (SX-105 and AN-103) have produced a ceramic (mineral) waste form which is the same as the non-radioactive waste simulants tested at the engineering scale. The radioactive testing demonstrated that the FBSR process can retain the volatile radioactive components that cannot be contained at vitrification temperatures. The radioactive and nonradioactive mineral waste forms that were produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process are shown to be as durable as LAW glass.

Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Bannochie, C.; Daniel, G.; Nash, C.; Cozzi, A.; Herman, C.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

27

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of I-125/129 and Tc-99 to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Ninety six grams of radioactive product were made for testing. The second campaign commenced using SRS LAW chemically trimmed to look like Hanford's LAW. Six hundred grams of radioactive product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

28

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

29

Fast fluidized bed steam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

Bryers, Richard W. (Flemington, NJ); Taylor, Thomas E. (Bergenfield, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS MADE FROM HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE (TANK FARM BLEND) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMATION (FBSR)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at 6 (the Hanford IDF criteria for Na) in the first few hours. The granular and monolithic waste forms also pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for all Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) components at the Universal Treatment Standards (UTS). Two identical Benchscale Steam Reformers (BSR) were designed and constructed at SRNL, one to treat non-radioactive simulants and the other to treat actual radioactive wastes. The results from the non-radioactive BSR were used to determine the parameters needed to operate the radioactive BSR in order to confirm the findings of non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale and engineering scale tests and to qualify an FBSR LAW waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced using SRS LAW from Tank 50 chemically trimmed to look like Hanford’s blended LAW known as the Rassat simulant as this simulant composition had been tested in the non-radioactive BSR, the non-radioactive pilot scale FBSR at the Science Applications International Corporation-Science and Technology Applications Research (SAIC-STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID and in the TTT Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD) at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) in Denver, CO. This provided a “tie back” between radioactive BSR testing and non-radioactive BSR, pilot scale, and engineering scale testing. Approximately six hundred grams of non-radioactive and radioactive BSR product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests performed in 2004 at SAIC-STAR and the engineering scale test performed in 2008 at HRI with the Rassat simulant. The same mineral phases and off-gas species were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular ESTD and BSR products (radioactive and non-radioactive) were analyzed for to

Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

31

Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Heat Transfer Limitations in Hydrogen Production Via Steam Reformation: The Effect of Reactor Geometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ratio Parameters in Steam-Reforming Hydrogen productionan Insufficient Parameter in the Steam-Reforming Process,”Impurities on the Methanol Steam-Reforming Process for Fuel

Vernon, David R.; Davieau, David D.; Dudgeon, Bryce A.; Erickson, Paul A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS MADE FROM HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE (TANK FARM BLEND) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMATION (FBSR)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is amorphous, macro-encapsulates the granules, and the monoliths pass ANSI/ANS 16.1 and ASTM C1308 durability testing with Re achieving a Leach Index (LI) of 9 (the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, IDF, criteria for Tc-99) after a few days and Na achieving an LI of >6 (the Hanford IDF criteria for Na) in the first few hours. The granular and monolithic waste forms also pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for all Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) components at the Universal Treatment Standards (UTS). Two identical Benchscale Steam Reformers (BSR) were designed and constructed at SRNL, one to treat non-radioactive simulants and the other to treat actual radioactive wastes. The results from the non-radioactive BSR were used to determine the parameters needed to operate the radioactive BSR in order to confirm the findings of non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale and engineering scale tests and to qualify an FBSR LAW waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced using SRS LAW from Tank 50 chemically trimmed to look like Hanford’s blended LAW known as the Rassat simulant as this simulant composition had been tested in the non-radioactive BSR, the non-radioactive pilot scale FBSR at the Science Applications International Corporation-Science and Technology Applications Research (SAIC-STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID and in the TTT Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD) at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) in Denver, CO. This provided a “tie back” between radioactive BSR testing and non-radioactive BSR, pilot scale, and engineering scale testing. Approximately six hundred grams of non-radioactive and radioactive BSR product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests performed in 2004 at SAIC-STAR and the engineering scale test performed in 2008 at HRI with the Rassat simulant. The same mineral phases and off-gas species were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular ESTD and BSR products (radioactive and non-radioactive) were analyzed for to

Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

34

DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR THE BENCH STEAM REFORMER TEST  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing. The type, quantity and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluid bed steam reformer (FBSR). A determination of the adequacy of the FBSR process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the FBSR process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used to test the FBSR process. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the testing criteria.

BANNING DL

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

35

Simulation of terrace wall methane-steam reforming reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Terrace wall arrangement is one of the most common arrangements for methane-steam reforming reactor furnaces. In this work, a mathematical model of heat transfer in terrace wall furnaces has been developed. The model has been coupled with a reliable ... Keywords: heat transfer modeling, methane-steam reforming, reformer simulation, terrace wall furnace

J. S. Soltan Mohammadzadeh; A. Zamaniyan

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Thermodynamic and Experimental Study on the Steam Reforming ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For improving hydrogen yield, a new system for steam reforming of bio-oil with site ... Kinetic Modeling Study of Oxy-methane Combustion at Ordinary Pressure.

37

Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

38

A Methanol Steam Reforming Micro Reactor for Proton Exchange Membrane Micro Fuel Cell System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The heat, mass and momentum transfer from a fuel reforming packed bed to a surrounding silicon wafer has been simulated. Modeling showed quantitatively reasonable agreement with experimental data for fuel conversion efficiency, hydrogen production rate, outlet methanol mole fraction and outlet steam mole fraction. The variation in fuel conversion efficiency with the micro reformer thermal isolation can be used to optimize fuel-processing conditions for micro PEM fuel cells.

Park, H G; Piggott, W T; Chung, J; Morse, J D; Havstad, M; Grigoropoulos, C P; Greif, R; Benett, W; Sopchak, D; Upadhye, R

2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

39

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS MADE FROM HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE (TANK SX-105, TANK AN-103, AND AZ-101/102) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMATION (FBSR)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is a robust technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes. Applications have been tested at the pilot scale for the high sodium, sulfate, halide, organic and nitrate wastes at the Hanford site, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Due to the moderate processing temperatures, halides, sulfates, and technetium are retained in mineral phases of the feldspathoid family (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite, etc). The feldspathoid minerals bind the contaminants such as Tc-99 in cage (sodalite, nosean) or ring (nepheline) structures to surrounding aluminosilicate tetrahedra in the feldspathoid structures. The granular FBSR mineral waste form that is produced has a comparable durability to LAW glass based on the short term PCT testing in this study, the INL studies, SPFT and PUF testing from previous studies as given in the columns in Table 1-3 that represent the various durability tests. Monolithing of the granular product was shown to be feasible in a separate study. Macro-encapsulating the granular product provides a decrease in leaching compared to the FBSR granular product when the geopolymer is correctly formulated.

Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Hall, H.; Miller, D.; Missimer, D.; Nash, C.; Williams, F.

2013-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

40

Compatibility of selected ceramics with steam-methane reformer environments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conventional steam reforming of methane to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) hasa conversion efficiency of about 85%. Replacement of metal tubes in the reformer with ceramic tubes offers the potential for operation at temperatures high enough to increase the efficiency to 98-99%. However, the two candidate ceramic materials being given strongest consideration, sintered alpha Si carbide and Si carbide particulate-strengthened alumina, have been shown to react with components of the reformer environment. Extent of degradation as a function of steam partial pressure and exposure time has been studied, and results suggest limits under which these structural ceramics can be used in advanced steam-methane reformers.

Keiser, J.R.; Howell, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Williams, J.J.; Rosenberg, R.A. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen from the steam methane reformer can be fed back toas feedstock for a steam methane reformer (SMR), which is aa downstream steam methane reformer (as will be described

Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

43

TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Microchannel Process Technology for Compact Methane Steam Reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of microchannel reaction engineering and applications to compact chemical reactors has expanded rapidly both academically and industrially in recent years. Velocys{reg_sign}, a spin-out company from Battelle Memorial Institute, is commercializing microchannel process technology for large-scale chemical processing. Hydrogen production at industrial rates in compact Velocys hardware is made possible through increases in both heat and mass transfer rates for highly active and novel catalysts. In one example, a microchannel methane steam reforming reactor is presented with integrated catalytic partial oxidation of methane prior to catalytic combustion with low excess air (25%) to generate the required energy for undothermic methane steam reforming in adjacent channels. Heat transfer rates from the exothermic reactions exceed 18 W/cm{sup 2} of interplanar heat transfer surface area and exceed 65 W/cm{sup 3} of total reaction volume for a methane steam reforming contact time near 4 milliseconds. The process intensity of the Velocys methane steam reformer well exceeds that of conventional steam reformers, which have a typical volumetric heat flux below 1 W/cm{sup 3}. The integration of multiple unit operations and improvements in process intensification result in significant capital and operating cost savings for commercial applications.

Tonkovich, A L.; Perry, Steve; Wang, Yong; Qiu, Dongming; LaPlante, Timothy J.; Rogers, William A.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

2004-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Performance comparison between partial oxidation and methane steam reforming processes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) micro combined heat and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance comparison between partial oxidation and methane steam reforming processes for solid recirculation are used along with steam methane reforming. Further Steam Methane Reforming process produces Cell fueled by natural gas with two different types of pre-reforming systems, namely Steam Reforming

Liso, Vincenzo

47

Combined Steam Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas under Electrical Discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combined Steam Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas under Electrical production from simultaneous steam reforming and partial oxidation of methane using an ac corona discharge and steam reforming has a benefit in terms of balancing the heat load. Methane conversions can be achieved

Mallinson, Richard

48

Catalysts for hydrogen production by steam reforming of dimethyl ether (DME)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is expected as one of clean fuels. We have been studying on DME steam reforming for hydrogen production. Copper alumina catalysts prepared by a sol-gel method produced large quantities of H2 with DME steam reforming. The reason was ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

None

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS ON ACTUAL DOE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE 9138  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR); a processing unit for demonstrating steam reforming technology on actual radioactive waste [1]. It describes the operating conditions of the unit used for processing a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 48H waste. Finally, it compares the results from processing the actual waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in a large pilot scale unit, the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR), operated at Hazen Research Inc. in Golden, CO. The purpose of this work was to prove that the actual waste reacted in the same manner as the simulant waste in order to validate the work performed in the pilot scale unit which could only use simulant waste.

Burket, P

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

51

Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment  

SciTech Connect

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control.

Nicholas R. Soelberg; Doug Marshall; Dean Taylor; Steven Bates

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Fixed-bed reforming with mid-cycle catalyst addition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fixed-bed catalytic reforming process is described in which on-stream operation is begun with the catalyst retention volume in the first reactor less than 99% full and additional catalyst is added to said reactor while on-stream.

Houston, R.J.; McCoy, C.S.

1981-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

53

Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

NONE

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The radioactive Tank 48H DMR product was primarily made up of soluble carbonates. The three most abundant species were thermonatrite, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O], sodium carbonate, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}], and trona, [Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O] the same as the ESTD FBSR. (6) Insoluble solids analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) did not detect insoluble carbonate species. However, they still may be present at levels below 2 wt%, the sensitivity of the XRD methodology. Insoluble solids XRD characterization indicated that various Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn phases are present. These crystalline phases are associated with the insoluble sludge components of Tank 48H slurry and impurities in the Erwin coal ash. The percent insoluble solids, which mainly consist of un-burnt coal and coal ash, in the products were 4 to 11 wt% for the radioactive runs. (7) The Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sub total} REDOX measurements ranged from 0.58 to 1 for the three radioactive Bench-scale tests. REDOX measurements > 0.5 showed a reducing atmosphere was maintained in the DMR indicating that pyrolysis was occurring. (8) Greater than 90% of the radioactivity was captured in the product for all three runs. (9) The collective results from the FBSR simulant tests and the BSR simulant tests indicate that the same chemistry occurs in the two reactors. (10) The collective results from the BSR simulant runs and the BSR radioactive waste runs indicates that the same chemistry occurs in the simulant as in the real waste. The FBSR technology has been proven to destroy the organics and nitrates in the Tank 48H waste and form the anticipated solid carbonate phases as expected.

Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

2008-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

55

THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

56

THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Modular pebble-bed reactor reforming plant design for process heat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a preliminary design study of a Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor System Reforming (MPB-R) Plant. The system uses one pressure vessel for the reactor and a second pressure vessel for the components, i.e., reformer, steam generator and coolant circulator. The two vessels are connected by coaxial pipes in an arrangement known as the side-by-side (SBS). The goal of the study is to gain an understanding of this particular system and to identify any technical issues that must be resolved for its application to a modular reformer plant. The basic conditions for the MPB-R were selected in common with those of the current study of the MRS-R in-line prismatic fuel concept, specifically, the module core power of 250 MWt, average core power density of 4.1 w/cc, low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel with a /sup 235/U content of 20% homogeneously mixed with thorium, and a target burnup of 80,000 MWD/MT. Study results include the pebble-bed core neutronics and thermal-hydraulic calculations. Core characteristics for both the once-through-then-out (OTTO) and recirculation of fuel sphere refueling schemes were developed. The plant heat balance was calculated with 55% of core power allotted to the reformer.

Lutz, D.E.; Cowan, C.L.; Davis, C.R.; El Sheikh, K.A.; Hui, M.M.; Lipps, A.J.; Wu, T.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Microchannel steam-methane reforming under constant and variable surface temperature distributions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Steam-methane reforming is a well understood industrial process used for generating hydrogen and synthesis gas. The reaction is generally carried out with residence times on… (more)

[No author

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

A Mixed-Dimensionality Modeling Approach for Interaction of Heterogeneous Steam Reforming Reactions and Heat Transfer.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydrogen is most often produced on an industrial scale by catalytic steam methane reforming, an equilibrium-limited, highly endothermic process requiring the substantial addition of heat… (more)

Valensa, Jeroen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and energy balance, different types of fuel reforming including steam reforming, autothermal reforming technologies. Steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming are the three major fuel of an activated carbon bed. Prior to enter the SOFC stack, the fuel is pre-reformed (methane is partially

Liso, Vincenzo

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Pressure Steam Reforming of High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids S. Ahmed, S. Lee, D. Papadias, and R. Kumar November 6, 2007 Laurel, MD Research sponsored by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Rationale and objective Rationale „ Steam reforming of liquid fuels at high pressures can reduce hydrogen compression costs - Much less energy is needed to pressurize liquids (fuel and water) than compressing gases (reformate or H 2 ) „ High pressure reforming is advantageous for subsequent separations and hydrogen purification Objective „ Develop a reformer design that takes advantage of the savings in compression cost in the steam reforming bio-derived liquid fuels - Metric:

62

Dynamic response of steam-reformed, methanol-fueled, polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analytical models were developed for the dynamic response of steam-reformed, methanol-fueled, polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for transportation applications. Focus is on heat transfer effects likely to limit rapid response of PEFC systems. Depending on the thermal mass, the heat exchangers and steam reformer can have time constants on the order of several seconds to many minutes. On the other hand, the characteristic time constants associated with pressure/density disturbances arising from flow rate fluctuations are on the order of milliseconds. In vehicular applications, the response time of the turbomachinery, which is determined by rotational inertia, can be on the order of seconds or less. Dynamic reformer model was used to examine methanol conversion efficiency and thermal performance during a cold start. Response times are determined to achieve 50-100% of the steady-state methanol conversion for two catalyst tube diameters. Thermal performance is considered in terms of the approach to steady-state temperature, possibility of catalyst overheating, and penalty in system efficiency incurred during startup time. For the complete reference PEFC system, various turn-down scenarios were simulated by varying the relative rates of change of fuel cell loading and system flows. Depending on relative rates of cell loading changes to flow rate changes, overheating of the catalyst can occur due to excess heat transfer in the reformer preheater; this can be controlled by an additional water quench between catalyst bed and preheater, but only if the flow rate change is sufficiently fast relative to load changes.

Geyer, H.K.; Ahluwalia, R.K.; Kumar, R.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

Nicholas R. Soelberg

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

EFFECT OF H2 PRODUCED THROUGH STEAM-METHANE REFORMING ON CHP PLANT EFFICIENCY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 EFFECT OF H2 PRODUCED THROUGH STEAM-METHANE REFORMING ON CHP PLANT EFFICIENCY O. Le Corre1 , C@emn.fr ABSTRACT In-situ hydrogen production is carried out by a catalytic reformer kit set up into exhaust gases-thermal reforming process is achieved. Hydrogen production is mainly dependent on O2 content in exhaust gases

65

Catalysis Letters 59 (1999) 9394 93 Stepwise methane steam reforming: a route to CO-free hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalysis Letters 59 (1999) 93­94 93 Stepwise methane steam reforming: a route to CO-free hydrogen-free hydrogen. Keywords: methane decomposition, Ni/zirconia, steam gasification In order to utilize hydrogen of impurities, particularly carbon monoxide. Steam reforming, partial oxidation and au- tothermal reforming [1

Goodman, Wayne

66

Steam Reforming, 6-in. Bench-Scale Design and Testing Project -- Technical and Functional Requirements Description  

SciTech Connect

Feasibility studies and technology development work are currently being performed on several processes to treat radioactive liquids and solids currently stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), located within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies and development work will be used to select a treatment process for treatment of the radioactive liquids and solids to meet treatment milestones of the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One process under consideration for treating the radioactive liquids and solids, specifically Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) and tank heel solids, is fluid bed steam reforming (FBSR). To support both feasibility and development studies a bench-scale FBSR is being designed and constructed. This report presents the technical and functional requirements, experimental objectives, process flow sheets, and equipment specifications for the bench-scale FBSR.

Losinski, Sylvester John; Marshall, Douglas William

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Evaluation of dissociated and steam-reformed methanol as automotive engine fuels  

SciTech Connect

Dissociated and steam reformed methanol were evaluated as automotive engine fuels. Advantages and disadvantages in using methanol in the reformed rather than liquid state are discussed. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted with a four cylinder, 2.3 liter, spark ignition automotive engine to determine performance and emission characteristics operating on simulated dissociated and steam reformed methanol (2H/sub 2/ + CO and 3H/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/ respectively), and liquid methanol. Results are presented for engine performance and emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, at various throttle settings and engine speeds. Operation on dissociated and steam reformed methanol was characterized by flashback (violent propagation of a flame into the intake manifold) which limited operation to lower power output than was obtainable using liquid methanol. It was concluded that: an automobile could not be operated solely on dissociated or steam reformed methanol over the entire required power range - a supplementary fuel system or power source would be necessary to attain higher powers; the use of reformed methanol, compared to liquid methanol, may result in a small improvement in thermal efficiency in the low power range; dissociated methanol is a better fuel than steam reformed methanol for use in a spark ignition engine; and use of dissociated or steam reformed methanol may result in lower exhaust emissions compared to liquid methanol. 36 references, 27 figures, 3 tables.

Lalk, T.R.; McCall, D.M.; McCanlies, J.M.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project  

SciTech Connect

The patented THOR{sup R} steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) as the technology of choice for treatment of about one million gallons of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium. The steam reforming process will convert the SBW into dry, solid, carbonate and aluminate minerals supporting a preferred path for disposal as remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) will design, build, and operate an Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that will comprise an integrated THOR{sup R} process system that will utilize dual fluidized bed steam reformers (FBSR) for treatment of the SBW. Design of the IWTU is nearing completion. The IWTU will be constructed at INTEC, immediately east of the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF), with planned fabrication and construction to start in early 2007 upon receipt of needed permits and completion of design and engineering. This paper provides a project and process overview of the IWTU and discusses the design and construction status. IWTU equipment and facility designs and bases will be presented. (authors)

Landman, W.; Roesener, S. [CH2M WG Idaho, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mason, B.; Wolf, K.; Amaria, N. [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC, Aiken, SC (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Numerical simulation of micro/mini-channel based methane-steam reformer.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Numerical modeling of methane-steam reforming is performed in a micro/mini-channel with heat input through catalytic channel walls. The low-Mach number, variable density Navier-Stokes equations together… (more)

[No author

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Computational heterogeneous catalysis applied to steam methane reforming over nickel and nickel/silver catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction is the primary industrial means for producing hydrogen gas. As such, it is a critical support process for applications including petrochemical processing and ammonia synthesis. ...

Blaylock, Donnie Wayne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Steam Reforming on Transition-metal Carbides from Density-functional Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A screening study of the steam reforming reaction on clean and oxygen covered early transition-metal carbides surfaces is performed by means of density-functional theory calculations. It is found that carbides provide a wide spectrum of reactivities, from too reactive via suitable to too inert. Several molybdenum-based systems are identified as possible steam reforming catalysts. The findings suggest that carbides provide a playground for reactivity tuning, comparable to the one for pure metals.

Vojvodic, Aleksandra

2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

72

Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR Inventors: Joseph M .a steam hydro-gasification reactor (SHR) the carbonaceous0012] Fluidized bed reactors are well known and used in a

Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

A flexible computer software package for industrial steam reformers and methanators based on rigorous heterogeneous mathematical models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An advanced software package for industrial steam reformers based upon heterogeneous models for the catalyst tube is developed and successfully checked against a number of top-fired and side-fired industrial reformers. The package is further developed ...

F. M. Alhabdan; M. A. Abashar; S. S. E. Elnashaie

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Steam reforming as a method to treat Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes a Sandia program that included partnerships with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Synthetica Technologies, Inc. to design and test a steam reforming system for treating Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes. The benefits of steam reforming the wastes include the resolution of tank safety issues and improved radionuclide separations. Steam reforming destroys organic materials by first gasifying, then reacting them with high temperature steam. Tests indicate that up to 99% of the organics could be removed from the UST wastes by steam exposure. In addition, it was shown that nitrates in the wastes could be destroyed by steam exposure if they were first distributed as a thin layer on a surface. High purity alumina and nickel alloys were shown to be good candidates for materials to be used in the severe environment associated with steam reforming the highly alkaline, high nitrate content wastes. Work was performed on designing, building, and demonstrating components of a 0.5 gallon per minute (gpm) system suitable for radioactive waste treatment. Scale-up of the unit to 20 gpm was also considered and is feasible. Finally, process demonstrations conducted on non-radioactive waste surrogates were carried out, including a successful demonstration of the technology at the 0.1 gpm scale.

Miller, J.E.; Kuehne, P.B. [eds.] [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

A novel technique for on-line coke gasification during propane steam reforming using forced CO2 cycling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Steam reforming is an important source of synthesis gas production that is used by major petrochemical processes such as ammonia, methanol and the Fisher-Tropsch process.… (more)

Alenazey, Feraih Sheradh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Steam reforming on transition-metal carbides from density-functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A screening study of the steam reforming reaction (CH_4 + H_2O -> CO + 3H_2) on early transition-metal carbides (TMC's) is performed by means of density-functional theory calculations. The set of considered surfaces includes the alpha-Mo_2C(100) surfaces, the low-index (111) and (100) surfaces of TiC, VC, and delta-MoC, and the oxygenated alpha-Mo_2C(100) and TMC(111) surfaces. It is found that carbides provide a wide spectrum of reactivities towards the steam reforming reaction, from too reactive via suitable to too inert. The reactivity is discussed in terms of the electronic structure of the clean surfaces. Two surfaces, the delta-MoC(100) and the oxygen passivated alpha-Mo_2C(100) surfaces, are identified as promising steam reforming catalysts. These findings suggest that carbides provide a playground for reactivity tuning, comparable to the one for pure metals.

Vojvodic, Aleksandra

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel of choice due its current limited availability, toxicity and corrosiveness. While methanol steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds has been extensively studied, the steam reforming of DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2CO{sub 2} + 6H{sub 2}, has had limited research effort. DME is the simplest ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) and is a gas at ambient conditions. DME has physical properties similar to those of LPG fuels (i.e. propane and butane), resulting in similar storage and handling considerations. DME is currently used as an aerosol propellant and has been considercd as a diesel substitute due to the reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions. DME is also being considered as a substitute for LPG fuels, which is used extensively in Asia as a fuel for heating and cooking, and naptha, which is used for power generation. The potential advantages of both methanol and DME include low reforming temperature, decreased fuel proccssor startup energy, environmentally benign, visible flame, high heating value, and ease of storage and transportation. In addition, DME has the added advantages of low toxicity and being non-corrosive. Consequently, DME may be an ideal candidate for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for both automotive and portable power applications. The steam reforming of DME has been demonstrated to occur through a pair of reactions in series, where the first reaction is DME hydration followed by MeOH steam reforming to produce a hydrogen rich stream.

Semelsberger, T. A. (Troy A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorne Woods, IL); Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell is described capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

Young, J.E.; Fraioli, A.V.

1983-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

80

Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium-Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project  

SciTech Connect

The patented THOR{sup R} steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as the technology of choice for treatment of about one million gallons of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site 1. SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium. The steam reforming process will convert the SBW into dry, solid, carbonate and aluminate minerals supporting a preferred path for disposal as remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) will design, build, and operate an Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that will comprise an integrated THOR{sup R} process system that will utilize dual fluidized bed steam reformers (FBSR) for treatment of the SBW. The IWTU is being constructed at INTEC, immediately east of the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF). Detailed design of the IWTU has been completed and DOE has approved the CD-3 detailed design. The State of Idaho has approved the RCRA and construction air permits. Construction of the IWTU started in April 2007 with civil and foundation work. This paper provides a project and process overview of the IWTU and discusses the design and construction status. IWTU equipment and facility designs and bases will be presented. (authors)

Landman, W.; Roesener, S. [CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bradley Mason, J.; Bourgeois, T.; Amaria, N. [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC, Aiken, SC (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts Hua Song Lingzhi Zhang Umit S. Ozkan* November 6 th , 2007 Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Group Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 *Ozkan.1@osu.edu Biomass to Hydrogen (Environmentally Friendly) Plant cultivation Plant cultivation Saccharification Saccharification / / Fermentation Fermentation Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion Residues of Residues of agroindustries agroindustries and cultivations and cultivations Municipal Solid Waste Municipal Solid Waste (organic fraction) (organic fraction) Distillation Distillation Reformation of ethanol

82

CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.

DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

83

CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101/102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-10-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FB SR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-S.2.1-20 1 0-00 1, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, 'Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.'

DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

84

Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences. LCA is a systematic analytical method that helps identify and evaluate the environmental impacts of a specific process or competing processes.

Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.

2000-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

85

Methanol synthesis gas from catalytic steam reforming of wood  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were successful in developing catalyst systems and operating conditions for generation of a methanol synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Some methane remained in the gas mixture. Wood was reacted with steam at a steam-to-wood weight ratio of about 0.9 and a temperature of 750/sup 0/C (1380/sup 0/F) in the presence of several catalysts. Results are presented for two different catalyst systems.

Mudge, L.K.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Weber, S.L.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Process and apparatus for the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of hydrocarbon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the steam reforming of hydrocarbon, particularly methane, under elevated temperature and pressure to produce hydrogen, a feed of steam and hydrocarbon is fed into a first reaction volume containing essentially only reforming catalyst to partially reform the feed. The balance of the feed and the reaction products of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are then fed into a second reaction volume containing a mixture of catalyst and adsorbent which removes the carbon dioxide from the reaction zone as it is formed. The process is conducted in a cycle which includes these reactions followed by countercurrent depressurization and purge of the adsorbent to regenerate it and repressurization of the reaction volumes preparatory to repeating the reaction-sorption phase of the cycle.

Sircar, Shivaji (Wescosville, PA); Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond (Fogelsville, PA); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Steam Reforming and Autothermal Reforming for Fuel Cell Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With the increasing demand for fuel cell applications in transportation, the performance of reformers using gasoline or diesel as the fuel needs to be optimized.… (more)

Shi, Liming

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

T.A. Semelsberger

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

MINERALIZING, STEAM REFORMING TREATMENT OF HANFORD LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE (a.k.a. INEEL/EXT-05-02526)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2–5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.4 hours of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved essentially complete bed turnover within approximately 40 hours. Samples of mineralized solid product materials were analyzed for chemical/physical properties. SRNL will report separately the results of product performance testing that were accomplished.

A. L. Olson; N. R. Soelberg; D. W. Marshall; G. L. Anderson

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of Mg-Al mixed oxide supported nickel catalysts for the steam reforming of ethanol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The conversion of ethanol to hydrogen or syngas can be achieved by reacting ethanol with water via steam reforming, CH3CH2OH + (1-x)H2O = (4-x)H2 +… (more)

Coleman, Luke James Ivor

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Influence of Ceria and Nickel Addition to Alumina-Supported Rhodium Catalyst for Propane Steam Reforming at Low Temperatures.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work aims to develop a fundamental understanding of the catalyst composition-structure-activity relationships for propane steam reforming over supported Rh catalysts. The work investigates the… (more)

Li, Yan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

A Comparative Study between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of Ethanol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rh and Co-based catalyst performance was compared for steam reforming of ethanol under conditions suitable for industrial hydrogen production. The reaction conditions were varied to elucidate the differences in reaction pathways on both catalysts. On Co/ZnO, CH4 is a secondary product formed through the methanation reaction, while it is produced directly by ethanol decomposition on Rh. The difference in the reaction mechanism is shown to favor Co-based catalysts for selective hydrogen production under elevated system pressures (up to 15 bar) of industrial importance. The carbon deposition rate was also studied, and we show that Co is more prone to coking and catalyst failure. However, the Co/ZnO catalyst can be regenerated, by mild oxidation, despite the high carbon deposition rate. We conclude that Co/ZnO is a more suitable catalyst system for steam reforming of ethanol due to the low methane selectivity, low cost and possibility of regeneration with mild oxidation.

Karim, Ayman M.; Su, Yu; Sun, Junming; Yang, Cheng; Strohm, James J.; King, David L.; Wang, Yong

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Effect of reformer conditions on catalytic reforming of biomass-gasification tars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parametric tests on catalytic reforming of tars produced in biomass gasification are performed using a bench-scale, fluid-bed catalytic reformer containing a commercial nickel-based catalyst. The product gas composition and yield vary with reformer temperature, space time, and steam: biomass ratio. Under certain catalytic tar reforming conditions, the gas yield increases by 70%; 97% of the tars are cracked into gases; and benzene and naphthalene, the predominant tar species, are virtually eliminated from the product gas.

Kinoshita, C.M.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at INL for ICP  

SciTech Connect

The patented THOR® steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected as the technology of choice for treatment of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP). SBW is an acidic tank waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at INL. It consists primarily of waste from decontamination activities and laboratory wastes. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid, alkali and aluminum nitrates, with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium and strontium. The THOR® steam reforming process will convert the SBW tank waste feed into a dry, solid, granular product. The THOR® technology was selected to treat SBW, in part, because it can provide flexible disposal options to accommodate the final disposition path selected for SBW. THOR® can produce a final end-product that will meet anticipated requirements for disposal as Remote-Handled TRU (RH-TRU) waste; and, with modifications, THOR® can also produce a final endproduct that could be qualified for disposal as High Level Waste (HLW). SBW treatment will be take place within the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), a new facility that will be located at the INTEC. This paper provides an overview of the THOR® process chemistry and process equipment being designed for the IWTU.

J. Bradley Mason; Kevin Ryan; Scott Roesener; Michael Cowen; Duane Schmoker; Pat Bacala; Bill Landman

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Air and steam coal partial gasification in an atmospheric fluidized bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the mixture of air and steam as gasification medium, three different rank coal partial gasification studies were carried out in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized bed with the various operating parameters. The effects of air/coal (Fa/Fc) ratio, steam/coal (Fs/Fc) ratio, bed temperature, and coal rank on the fuel gas compositions and the high heating value (HHV) were reported in this paper. The results show that there is an optimal Fa/Fc ratio and Fs/Fc ratio for coal partial gasification. A rise of bed temperature favors the semigasification reaction of coal, but the concentrations of carbon monoxide and methane and the HHV decrease with the rise of bed temperature, except hydrogen. In addition, the gas HHVs are between 2.2 and 3.4 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The gas yield and carbon conversion increase with Fa/Fc ratio, Fs/Fc ratio, and bed temperature, while they decrease with the rise of the rank of coal. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Hongcang Zhou; Baosheng Jing; Zhaoping Zhong; Yaji Huang; Rui Xiao [Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing (China). Department of Environmental Science & Engineering

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Feasibility Analysis of Steam Reforming of Biodiesel by-product Glycerol to Make Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crude glycerol is the major byproduct from biodiesel industry. In general, for every 100 pounds of biodiesel produced, approximately 10 pounds of crude glycerol are produced as a by-product. As the biodiesel industry rapidly expands in the U.S., the market is being flooded with this low quality waste glycerol. Due to its high impurities, it is expensive to purify and use in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. Biodiesel producers should seek an alternative method which is economically and environmentally friendly. This research contains reforming process to covert waste glycerol from a biodiesel industry into sellable hydrogen. This process consists of 850oC reformer, 350oC and 210oC shift reactors for water gas shift reaction, flash tanks, and a separator. It is considered to be the least expensive method. At 850oC and 1 atm pressure, glycerol reacts with superheated steam to produce gaseous mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane. Reformer is a batch process where only 68% of waste glycerol is converted into gaseous mixture. The excess glycerol is recycled back as a feedstock. Water gas shift (WGS) reaction, further convert carbon monoxide into hydrogen and carbon dioxide which is further subjected to separation process to isolate hydrogen from CO2 and any other impurities. The final product stream consists of 68% of hydrogen, and 27% of CO2 based on molar flow rate.

Joshi, Manoj

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

97

Catalytic Steam Reforming of Gasifier Tars: On-Line Monitoring of Tars with a Transportable Molecular-Beam Mass Spectrometer; Milestone Completion Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method for evaluating catalytic tar decomposition in real time is presented. The effectiveness of two catalysts are compared. A key technical and economic barrier to commercialization of biomass gasification technologies is the removal of tars that are unavoidably formed in this thermochemical process. Tars contain fuel value; however, they are problematic in gas engines (both reciprocating and turbine) because they condense in the fuel delivery system, forming deposits that negatively affect operation and efficiency. These tars also combust with high luminosity, potentially forming soot particles. The conventional technology for tar removal is wet scrubbing. Although this approach has shown some success, there are significant equipment and operating costs associated with it. In order to prevent the generation of toxic wastewater, the tars must be separated and either disposed as hazardous waste or, preferably, combusted in the gasification plant. A conceptually better approach is catalytic steam reforming of the tars to hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO), effectively increasing the gasification efficiency and eliminating the problems mentioned above. In FY2000, Battelle Columbus Laboratories attempted to demonstrate integrated gasification-gas turbine operation using catalytic steam reforming of tars. NREL participated in those tests using the transportable molecular-beam mass spectrometer (TMBMS) to monitor the catalytic reactor's performance on-line [10]. Unfortunately, the pilot plant tests encountered operational problems that prevented conclusive determination of the efficacy of the selected catalyst (Battelle's DN34). In FY2001, NREL performed on-site tar steam reforming tests using a slip-stream of hot pyrolysis gas from the Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU), which was directed to a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor system designed expressly for this purpose. Supporting this effort, the TMBMS was employed to provide on-line analysis of the tar conversion. The gas composition changes were monitored by two identical gas chromatographs (GCs), and modified method 5 sampling was performed to obtain gravimetric conversion data. The combination of these analytical techniques provided definitive catalyst performance data, as well as linkage to previous and on-going work elsewhere. Two catalysts were tested: nickel (Ni) on potassium promoted alumina (Sued-Chemie C11-NK), used commercially for naphtha steam reforming, and alumina (Battelle's DN34) claimed to be effective for gasifier tar decomposition. In addition, sand was tested as an inert reference material.

Carpenter, D.; Ratcliff, M.; Dayton, D.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

DESIGN AND FEASIBILITY STUDY OF A PEBBLE BED REACTOR-STEAM POWER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

Originally issued as S and P 1963A, Parts I and II. A design and feasibility study of a pebble bed reactorsteam power plant is presented, The reactor design which evolved from this study is a 125 Mwe heliumcooled two-region thermal breeder, operating on the uranium-thorium cycle, in which all core structural materials are graphite. Fuel is in the form of unclad spherical elements of graphite, containing fissile and fertile material. The primary loop consists of the reactor plus three steam generators and blowers in parallel. Nuclear characteristics, costs, etc., are given. (W.D.M.)

1958-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Thermodynamic investigation into steam-methane reforming and the synthesis of methane from carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

In this study the stream-methane equilibrium reaction was investigated by considering both methane synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide and by considering steam-methane reforming from methane and steam. A FORTRAN computer program was written to carry out all the calculations over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and initial compositions. The products of each process as a function of pressure, temperature, and starting ratio of reactant gases were calculated, as well as the heats involved. In both processes the minimum ratios above which no carbon precipitates were determined as a function of temperature and pressure were given.

Wu, L.H.; Lietzke, M.H.

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Mathematical modelling of diffusion-reaction, and solution algorithm for complex reaction networks in porous catalyst pellets-steam reforming of natural gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three models of different degrees of rigor are developed for diffusion and reaction in porous catalyst pellets for the industrially important multicomponents' system with a multiple reversible reaction for the steam reforming of natural gas. The more ...

M. E. Abashar; S. S. Elnashaie

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Steam Reforming Solidification of Cesium and Strontium Separations Product from Advanced Aqueous Processing of Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative program is conducting research on aqueous separations processes for the nuclear fuel cycle. This research includes development of solvent extraction processes for the separation of cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions to reduce the short-term decay heat load. The cesium/strontium strip solution from candidate separation processes will require treatment and solidification for managed storage. Steam reforming is currently being investigated for stabilization of these streams because it can potentially destroy the nitrates and organics present in these aqueous, nitrate-bearing solutions, while converting the cesium and strontium into leach-resistant aluminosilicate minerals, such as pollucite. These ongoing experimental studies are being conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of steam reforming for this application.

Julia L. Tripp; T. G. Garn; R. D. Boardman; J. D. Law

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste  

SciTech Connect

A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M.

2002-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste  

SciTech Connect

A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: 1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; 2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and 3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Wood, Richard Arthur; Barnes, Charles Marshall

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R&D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill.

Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

2002-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

107

Syn-Gas Production from Catalytic Steam Gasification of Municipal Solid Wastes in a Combined Fixed Bed Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic steam gasi?cation of municipal solid wastes (MSW) for syn-gas production was experimentally investigated in a combined fixed bed reactor using the newly developed tri-metallic catalyst. A series of experiments have been performed to explore ... Keywords: Biomass gasification, municipal solid wastes, catalyst, hydrogen production, energy recovery

Jianfen Li; Jianjun Liu; Shiyan Liao; Xiaorong Zhou; Rong Yan

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Pyrolysis/Steam Reforming Technology for Treatment of TRU Orphan Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Certain transuranic (TRU) waste streams within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex cannot be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) because they do not meet the shipping requirements of the TRUPACT-II or the disposal requirements of the Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) in the WIPP RCRA Part B Permit. These waste streams, referred to as orphan wastes, cannot be shipped or disposed of because they contain one or more prohibited items, such as liquids, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen gas, corrosive acids or bases, reactive metals, or high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), etc. The patented, non-incineration, pyrolysis and steam reforming processes marketed by THOR Treatment Technologies LLC removes all of these prohibited items from drums of TRU waste and produces a dry, inert, inorganic waste material that meets the existing TRUPACT-II requirements for shipping, as well as the existing WAP requirements for disposal of TRU waste at WIPP. THOR Treatment Technologies is a joint venture formed in June 2002 by Studsvik, Inc. (Studsvik) and Westinghouse Government Environmental Services Company LLC (WGES) to further develop and deploy Studsvik's patented THORSM technology within the DOE and Department of Defense (DoD) markets. The THORSM treatment process is a commercially proven system that has treated over 100,000 cu. ft. of nuclear waste from commercial power plants since 1999. Some of this waste has had contact dose rates of up to 400 R/hr. A distinguishing characteristic of the THORSM process for TRU waste treatment is the ability to treat drums of waste without removing the waste contents from the drum. This feature greatly minimizes criticality and contamination issues for processing of plutonium-containing wastes. The novel features described herein are protected by issued and pending patents.

Mason, J. B.; McKibbin, J.; Schmoker, D.; Bacala, P.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

109

NiW and NiRu Bimetallic Catalysts for Ethylene Steam Reforming: Alternative Mechanisms for Sulfur Resistance  

SciTech Connect

Previous investigations of Ni-based catalysts for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons have indicated that the addition of a second metal can reduce the effects of sulfur poisoning. Two systems that have previously shown promise for such applications, NiW and NiRu, are considered here for the steam reforming of ethylene, a key component of biomass derived tars. Monometallic and bimetallic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Ni and W catalysts were employed for ethylene steam reforming in the presence and absence of sulfur. The NiW catalysts were less active than Ni in the absence of sulfur, but were more active in the presence of 50 ppm H{sub 2}S. The mechanism for the W-induced improvements in sulfur resistance appears to be different from that for Ru in NiRu. To probe reasons for the sulfur resistance of NiRu, the adsorption of S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} on several bimetallic NiRu alloy surfaces ranging from 11 to 33 % Ru was studied using density functional theory (DFT). The DFT studies reveal that sulfur adsorption is generally favored on hollow sites containing Ru. Ethylene preferentially adsorbs atop the Ru atom in all the NiRu (111) alloys investigated. By comparing trends across the various bimetallic models considered, sulfur adsorption was observed to be correlated with the density of occupied states near the Fermi level while C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption was correlated with the number of unoccupied states in the d-band. The diverging mechanisms for S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption allow for bimetallic surfaces such as NiRu that enhance ethylene binding without accompanying increases in sulfur binding energy. In contrast, bimetallics such as NiSn and NiW appear to decrease the affinity of the surface for both the reagent and the poison.

Rangan, M.; Yung, M. M.; Medlin, J. W.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the process, using a steam hydro-gasification reactor (simultaneously in the presence of both hydrogen and steam toundergo steam pyrolysis and hydro-gasification in a single

Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tank 14 is fed by a water pump 16 to a steam generator 18.hydrogen is fed to the steam generator 18, which can be fromthe output from the steam generator 18 is fed through line

Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Heat Transfer Limitations in Hydrogen Production Via Steam Reformation: The Effect of Reactor Geometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen production Reactors, M.S. Thesis, University ofREFORMATION: THE EFFECT OF REACTOR GEOMETRY David, R. ,have been manifest with reactors of different geometries. In

Vernon, David R.; Davieau, David D.; Dudgeon, Bryce A.; Erickson, Paul A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Development of Steam Reforming for the Solidification of the Cesium and Stronitum Separations Product from Advanced Aqueous Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Steam reforming is one option currently being investigated for stabilization of the cesium/strontium strip products from spent fuel reprocessing solvent extraction processes because it can potentially destroy the nitrates and organics present in these aqueous, nitrate-bearing solutions, while converting the cesium and strontium into leach resistant aluminosilicate minerals, such as pollucite. To produce pollucite and other mineral analogs of the alkaline metals, the feeds must be mixed with aluminosilicate compounds and thermally sintered or calcined to activate solid-state crystal formation. Scoping tests completed indicated that the cesium/strontium in these organic and acid solutions can be converted into aluminosilicate materials using steam reforming.

Julia L. Tripp; T. Garn; R. Boardman; J. Law

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project  

SciTech Connect

The patented THOR{sup R} steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected as the technology of choice for treatment of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP). SBW is an acidic tank waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at INL. It consists primarily of waste from decontamination activities and laboratory wastes. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid, alkali and aluminum nitrates, with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium and strontium. The THOR{sup R} steam reforming process will convert the SBW tank waste feed into a dry, solid, granular product. The THOR{sup R} technology was selected to treat SBW, in part, because it can provide flexible disposal options to accommodate the final disposition path selected for SBW. THOR{sup R} can produce a final end-product that will meet anticipated requirements for disposal as Remote-Handled TRU (RH-TRU) waste; and, with modifications, THOR{sup R} can also produce a final end-product that could be qualified for disposal as High Level Waste (HLW). SBW treatment will be take place within the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), a new facility that will be located at the INTEC. This paper provides an overview of the THOR{sup R} process chemistry and process equipment being designed for the IWTU. (authors)

Mason, J.B.; Wolf, K.; Ryan, K.; Roesener, S.; Cowen, M.; Schmoker, D.; Bacala, P. [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC, 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Landman, B. [CH2M WG Idaho, LLC, P. O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Minimizing the formation of coke and methane on Co nanoparticles in steam reforming of biomass-derived oxygenates  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental understanding and control of chemical transformations are essential to the development of technically feasible and economically viable catalytic processes for efficient conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Using an integrated experimental and theoretical approach, we report high hydrogen selectivity and catalyst durability of acetone steam reforming (ASR) on inert carbon supported Co nanoparticles. The observed catalytic performance is further elucidated on the basis of comprehensive first-principles calculations. Instead of being considered as an undesired intermediate prone for catalyst deactivation during bioethanol steam reforming (ESR), acetone is suggested as a key and desired intermediate in proposed two-stage ESR process that leads to high hydrogen selectivity and low methane formation on Co-based catalysts. The significance of the present work also sheds a light on controlling the chemical transformations of key intermediates in biomass conversion such as ketones. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, and the Laboratory directed research and development (LDRD) project of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Computing time was granted by the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). The EMSL is a U.S. DOE national scientific user facility located at PNNL, and sponsored by the U.S. DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

Sun, Junming; Mei, Donghai; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Fixed bed testing of durable, steam resistant zinc oxide containing sorbents  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy is currently developing Integrated Gasification combined Cycle (IGCC) systems for electrical power generation. It has been predicted that IGCC plants with hot gas cleanup will be superior to conventional pulverized coal-fired power plants in overall plant efficiency and environmental performance. Development of a suitable regenerable sorbent is a major barrier issue in the hot gas cleanup program for IGCC systems. This has been a challenging problem during the last 20 years, since many of the sorbents developed in the program could not retain their reactivity and physical integrity during repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration reactions. Two promising sorbents and (METC6), which were capable of sustaining their reactivity and physical integrity during repeated sulfidation/regeneration cycles, have been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) during the past year. These sorbents were tested (sulfided) both in low-pressure (260 kPa/37.7 psia) and high-pressure (1034 kPa/150 psia) fixed-bed reactors at 538{degrees}C (1000{degrees}F) with simulated KRW coal gas. High-pressure testing was continued for 20 cycles with steam regeneration. There were no appreciable changes in sulfidation capacity of the sorbents during the 20-cycle testing. The crush strength of the sorbent actually improved after 20 cycles and there were no indications of spalling or any other physical deterioration of the sorbents. In testing to date, these sorbents exhibit better overall sulfur capture performance than the conventional sorbents.

Siriwardane, R.V.; Grimm, U.; Poston, J. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Monaco, S.J. [EG& G dTechnical Services of West Virginia, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

Synthesis and characterization of 1D ceria nanomaterials for CO oxidation and steam reforming of methanol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Novel one-dimensional (1D) ceria nanostructure has been investigated as a promising and practical approach for the reforming of methanol reaction. Size and shape of the ceria nanomaterials are directly involved with the catalytic activities. Several ...

Sujan Chowdhury; Kuen-Song Lin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Heat Transfer Limitations in Hydrogen Production Via Steam Reformation: The Effect of Reactor Geometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ohsawa, Katsuyuki, “Heat Transfer Enhancement in Methanolsin the Catalyst Bed”, Heat Transfer-Asian Research, Vol.CA FUELCELL2006-97109 HEAT TRANSFER LIMITATIONS IN HYDROGEN

Vernon, David R.; Davieau, David D.; Dudgeon, Bryce A.; Erickson, Paul A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Investigation of hydrodynamics of a dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasifier using a cold model: The effect of fluidising agent on gasification performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigation of hydrodynamics of a dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasifier using a cold model) biomass steam gasifiers are able to produce gas with low tar and high hydrogen contents and have shown a promising potential for converting the biomass to hydrogen-rich syngas. The DFB gasifier system

Hickman, Mark

120

Effect of Nickel Microstructure on Methane Steam-Reforming Activity of Ni-YSZ Cermet Anode Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The activity of nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cermet anodes for the steam reforming of methane has been investigated in the absence of electrochemical effects. The cermet was prepared by co-milling and sintering NiO and 5YSZ powders at 1375oC in air. During the high temperature sintering step, NiO dissolved into the YSZ particles to form a solid NiO-YSZ solution. During the subsequent catalyst reduction step, Ni exolved from the YSZ. As a result, many small Ni particles on the order of 10-20 nm formed at the surface of the YSZ. These small particles contribute significantly to the overall reforming activity, along with the large bulk Ni particles within the Ni-YSZ cermet. We have observed high initial activity that decreases by as much as an order of magnitude with time on stream, until the anode catalyst reaches a stable steady state activity. The time to reach this stable activity is a function of the reaction conditions and feed gas composition. Higher temperature, hydrogen partial pressure, and space velocity all accelerated the deactivation rate at a constant steam-to-carbon ratio of 3. Initial and lined out activities and average turnover frequencies were obtained for both Ni-YSZ and bulk Ni, based on a rate expression that is first order in methane and zero order in steam. Comparative tests at 750oC show high initial activity on a per-Ni site basis with both materials, but these turnover rates decline over a period of a few hours. Following lineout, there appears to be a negligible effect of Ni particle size on turnover rate. These results indicate the presence of structure sensitivity for methane reforming, but only with freshly calcined and reduced catalysts that may contain highly coordinatively unsaturated sites. There is an apparent structure insensitivity with aged catalysts where Ni particle sizes are generally 50 nm and greater. Under reaction conditions that employ high space velocities and low methane conversions, the water-gas-shift reaction does not establish thermodynamic equilibrium.

King, David L.; Strohm, James J.; Wang, Xianqin; Roh, Hyun-Seog; Wang, Chong M.; Chin, Ya-Huei; Wang, Yong; Lin, Yuehe; Rozmiarek, Robert T.; Singh, Prabhakar

2008-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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121

Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

Parent, Yves O. (Golden, CO); Magrini, Kim (Golden, CO); Landin, Steven M. (Conifer, CO); Ritland, Marcus A. (Palm Beach Shores, FL)

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

122

Fixed Bed Counter Current Gasification of Mesquite and Juniper Biomass Using Air-steam as Oxidizer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal gasification of biomass is being considered as one of the most promising technologies for converting biomass into gaseous fuel. Here we present results of gasification, using an adiabatic bed gasifier with air, steam as gasification medium, of mesquite and juniper. From Thermo-gravimetric analyses the pre-exponential factor (B) and activation energy of fuels for pyrolysis were obtained using single reaction models (SRM) and parallel reaction model (PRM). The single reaction model including convention Arrhenius (SRM-CA) and maximum volatile release rate model (SRM-MVR). The parallel reaction model fits the experimental data very well, followed by MVR. The CA model the least accurate model. The activation energies obtained from PRM are around 161,000 kJ/kmol and 158,000 kJ/kmol for juniper and mesquite fuels, respectively. And, the activation energies obtained from MVR are around100,000 kJ/kmol and 85,000 kJ/kmol for juniper and mesquite fuels, respectively. The effects of equivalence ratio (ER), particle size, and moisture content on the temperature profile, gas composition, tar yield, and higher heating value (HHV) were investigated. For air gasification, when moisture increased from 6% to 12% and ER decreased from 4.2 to 2.7, the mole composition of the dry product gas for mesquite varied as follow: 18-30% CO, 2-5% H2, 1-1.5% CH4, 0.4-0.6% C2H6, 52-64% N2, and 10-12% CO2. The tar yield shows peak value (150 g/Nm^3) with change in moisture content between 6-24%. The tar collected from the gasification process included light tar and heavy tar. The main composition of the light tar was moisture. The chemical properties of heavy tar were determined. For air-steam gasification, H2 rich mixture gas was produced. The HHV of the mesquite gas increased first when S: F ratio increased from 0.15 to 0.3 and when the S: F ratio increased to 0.45, HHV of the gas decreased. Mesquite was blended with the Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) coal with ratio of 90:10 and 80:20 in order to increase the Tpeak and HHV. It was found that the Tpeak increased with the increase of PRB coal weight percentage (0% to 20%).

Chen, Wei 1981-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection Data Package—Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site in southeast Washington State has 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes stored in 177 underground tanks (ORP 2010). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), through its contractors, is constructing the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to convert the radioactive and hazardous wastes into stable glass waste forms for disposal. Within the WTP, the pretreatment facility will receive the retrieved waste from the tank farms and separate it into two treated process streams. These waste streams will be vitrified, and the resulting waste canisters will be sent to offsite (high-level waste [HLW]) and onsite (immobilized low-activity waste [ILAW]) repositories. As part of the pretreatment and ILAW processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed of in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has initiated secondary waste form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is developing data packages to support that down-selection. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilizing and solidifying the liquid secondary wastes. At the Hanford Site, the FBSR process is being evaluated as a supplemental technology for treating and immobilizing Hanford LAW radioactive tank waste and for treating secondary wastes from the WTP pretreatment and LAW vitrification processes.

Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Strachan, Denis M.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pires, Richard P.

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

124

Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Self-Sustained Hydro- Gasification." [0011] In aprocess, using a steam hydro-gasification reactor (SHR) thepyrolysis and hydro-gasification in a single step. This

Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER TREATABILITY STUDIES  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluidized bed steam reformer. A determination of the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used in a bench scale tests. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the shipping requirements and for comparison to the bench scale reformer (BSR) test sample selection requirements.

BANNING DL

2011-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

127

Computational Modeling of Combined Steam Pyrolysis and Hydrogasification of Ethanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is fed to the steam methane reformer from which we getis fed into the steam methane reformer where it is convertedis produced in the steam methane reformer. Fischer-Tropsch

Singh, S; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Process to Accomplish Autothermal or Steam Reforming Via a Reciprocating Compression Device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas from a variety of hydrocarbons. The apparatus (device) consists of a semi-batch, non-constant volume reactor to generate a synthesis gas. While the apparatus feeds mixtures of air, steam, and hydrocarbons into a cylinder where work is performed on the fluid by a piston to adiabatically raise its temperature without heat transfer from an external source.

Lyons, David K.; James, Robert; Berry, David A.; Gardern, Todd

2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

129

EFFECT OF H2 PRODUCED THROUGH STEAM-METHANE REFORMING ON CHP PLANT EFFICIENCY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In-situ hydrogen production is carried out by a catalytic reformer kit set up into exhaust gases for a CHP plant based on spark ignition engine running under lean conditions. An overall auto-thermal reforming process is achieved. Hydrogen production is mainly dependent on O2 content in exhaust gases. Experiments are conducted at constant speed at 2 air/fuel ratios and 4 additional natural gas flow rates. H2 content varies in the range 6 % to 10 % in vol. H2 content effect is analyzed with respect to performance and emissions. Comparing with EGR shows an increasing of electrical efficiency of 1 % whilst heat recovery decreases by 1%. NO and HC decrease by 18 % and 12%, but CO increases by 14%, respectively. The results show that: (i) graphite joints were destroyed under effect of H2 and high temperature; (ii) a cold spot appeared in the RGR line, and condensation has as consequence a carbon deposit; and (iii) no back-fire or knock occurred.

O. Le Corre; C. Rahmouni; K. Saikaly; I. Dincer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOROF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR F Iis fed into a hydro-gasifier reactor. One such process was

Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OPERATION OF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BEDMaterial Using Self-Sustained Hydro- Gasification." [0011]the process, using a steam hydro-gasification reactor (SHR)

Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions  

SciTech Connect

The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

Steam Reforming Technology Demonstration for Conversion of DOE Sodium-Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory into a Leach-Resistant Alkali Aluminosilicate Waste Form  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The patented THOR{sup R} fluidized-bed steam reforming (FBSR) technology was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) in the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), currently under construction at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site.1 SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. The SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid, and alkali and aluminum nitrates, along with many other inorganic compounds, including substantial levels of radionuclides. As part of the implementation of the THOR{sup R} process at INTEC, an engineering-scale technology demonstration (ESTD) was conducted using a specially designed pilot plant located at Hazen Research, Inc. in Golden Colorado. This ESTD confirmed the efficacy of the THOR{sup R} FBSR process to convert the SBW into a granular carbonate-based waste form suitable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE authorized, as a risk reduction measure, the performance of an additional ESTD to demonstrate the production of an insoluble mineralized product, in the event that an alternate disposition path is required. The additional ESTD was conducted at the Hazen Research facility using the THOR{sup R} process and the same SBW simulant employed previously. An alkali aluminosilicate mineral product was produced that exhibited excellent leach resistance and chemical durability. The demonstration established general system operating parameters for a full-scale facility; provided process off-gas data that confirmed operation within regulatory limits; determined that the mineralized product exhibits superior leach resistance and durability, compared to Environmental Assessment (EA) and Low-activity Reference Material (LRM) glasses, as indicated by the Product Consistency Test (PCT); ascertained that Cs and Re (a surrogate for Tc) were non-volatile and were retained in the mineral product; and showed that heavy metals were converted into mineral forms that were not leachable, as determined by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. (authors)

Ryan, K.; Bradley Mason, J.; Evans, B.; Vora, V. [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC, Aiken, SC (United States); Olson, A. [CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst - Energy ...  

A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and ...

135

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

syngas in the Steam Methane Reformer (SMR) for syntheticabove 280?C. Steam methane reformer and heat recovery (AreaRecovery DSRP Steam Methane Reformer ZnO Sulfur polisher;

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Computational Model For Transient And Steady State Analysis Of A 1-dimensional Auto-thermal Reformer.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Kim, Daejong This study presents a 1-dimensional mathematical model of steam reformer to be used with high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Steam reforming… (more)

Honavara-Prasad, Srikanth

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Biomass to hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil or its fractions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and reforming of the pyroligneous oils are being studied as a strategy for producing hydrogen. A process of this nature has the potential to be cost competitive with conventional means of producing hydrogen. The authors propose a regionalized system of hydrogen production, where small- and medium-sized pyrolysis units (catalytic reforming of model compounds to hydrogen using Ni-based catalysts have achieved essentially complete conversion to H{sub 2}. Existing data on the catalytic reforming of oxygenates have been studied to guide catalyst selection. A process diagram for the pyrolysis and reforming operations is discussed, as are initial production cost estimates. A window of opportunity clearly exists if the bio-oil is first refined to yield valuable oxygenates so that only a residual fraction is used for hydrogen production.

Wang, D.; Czernik, S.; Montane, D.; Mann, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Chornet, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)]|[Univ. de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Diesel Reforming for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This objective of this project was to develop technology suitable for onboard reforming of diesel. The approach was to examine catalytic partial oxidation and steam reforming.

Borup, R.; Parkinson, W. J.; Inbody, M.; Brosha, E.L.; Guidry, D.R.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

139

Final Report for "Investigation of reaction networks and active sites in bio-ethanol steam reforming over Co-based catalysts" with all publications attached.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This was a university-based research project in support of distributed reforming production technologies for hydrogen. Our objective was to examine the steam reforming of bio-ethanol and other related bio-derived liquids over non-precious metal catalyst systems to enable small-scale distributed hydrogen production technologies from renewable sources. The study targeted development of a catalytic system that does not rely on precious metals and that can be active in the 350-550 C temperature range, with high selectivity and high stability. To this end, we adopted a multi-prong research strategy, that included catalyst formulation and synthesis, detailed catalyst characterization, reaction kinetics and reaction engineering, molecular modeling and economic analysis studies. Our approach was an iterative one, where the knowledge gained in one aspect of the study was utilized to modify and fine-tune catalyst development. The research addressed many fundamental and inter-related phenomena involved in the catalytic steam reforming of ethanol that may not be readily studied in an industrial development setting. The outcome of the project was a catalytic system that was able to meet the DOE targets in hydrogen production, with high H{sub 2} yield, high selectivity and stability that could perform efficiently in the 350-550 C temperature range. In addition, we were able to answer many fundamental questions about the catalytic systems that could easily be translated to other catalytic systems. The study resulted in 14 refereed journal articles, with one more in preparation. The results were also shared broadly at many different national and international forums such as conferences of the American Chemical Society, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, North American Catalysis Society, International Congress on Catalysis and International Conference on Catalysis for Renewable Sources. There were 30 presentations given at various national and international meetings. The P.I. was also invited to give 11 lectures on the findings from this study at many universities and research centers in the USA and other countries. The knowledge base acquired through this study is expected to bring industry closer to designing catalytic systems that can be tailored for the specific hydrogen production applications, especially for distributed hydrogen production strategies.

Umit S. Ozkan

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

Fixed Bed Countercurrent Low Temperature Gasification of Dairy Biomass and Coal-Dairy Biomass Blends Using Air-Steam as Oxidizer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concentrated animal feeding operations such as cattle feedlots and dairies produce a large amount of manure, cattle biomass (CB), which may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. However, the concentrated production of low quality CB at these feeding operations serves as a good feedstock for in situ gasification for syngas (CO and H2) production and subsequent use in power generation. A small scale (10 kW) countercurrent fixed bed gasifier was rebuilt to perform gasification studies under quasisteady state conditions using dairy biomass (DB) as feedstock and various air-steam mixtures as oxidizing sources. A DB-ash (from DB) blend and a DB-Wyoming coal blend were also studied for comparison purposes. In addition, chlorinated char was also produced via pure pyrolysis of DB using N2 and N2-steam gas mixtures. The chlorinated char is useful for enhanced capture of Hg in ESP of coal fired boilers. Two main parameters were investigated in the gasification studies with air-steam mixtures. One was the equivalence ratio ER (the ratio of stochiometric air to actual air) and the second was the steam to fuel ratio (S:F). Prior to the experimental studies, atom conservation with i) limited product species and ii) equilibrium modeling studies with a large number of product species were performed on the gasification of DB to determine suitable range of operating conditions (ER and S:F ratio). Results on bed temperature profile, gas composition (CO, CO2, H2, CH4, C2H6, and N2), gross heating value (HHV), and energy conversion efficiency (ECE) are presented. Both modeling and experimental results show that gasification under increased ER and S:F ratios tend to produce rich mixtures in H2 and CO2 but poor in CO. Increased ER produces gases with higher HHV but decreases the ECE due to higher tar and char production. Gasification of DB under the operating conditions 1.59less than0.8 yielded gas mixtures with compositions as given below: CO (4.77 - 11.73 %), H2 (13.48 - 25.45%), CO2 (11-25.2%), CH4 (0.43-1.73 %), and C2H6 (0.2- 0.69%). In general, the bed temperature profiles had peaks that ranged between 519 and 1032 degrees C for DB gasification.

Gordillo Ariza, Gerardo

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) steam reforming C2H5OH + H2O Ã? 2CO + 4H2 6) Water gas shift 7) Methanation 8) Coking from CH4 (methane Ethanol Reforming Options Gas Phase Liquid Phase Virent Steam Partial Oxidation Reforming GE (SCPO) decomposition C2H5OH Ã? CH4 + CO + H2 steam reforming CH4 + 2H2O Ã? 4H2 + CO2 3) C2H5OH dehydrogenation

142

Integrated autothermal reactor concepts for oxidative coupling and reforming of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3 Oxidative coupling and steam reforming of methane . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.4 This thesis of methane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.4 Only steam reforming of methane#12;Integrated autothermal reactor concepts for oxidative coupling and reforming of methane #12

Twente, Universiteit

143

Modeling of Pressurized Electrochemistry and Steam-Methane Reforming in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and the Effects on Thermal and Electrical Stack Performance  

SciTech Connect

Summarizes work done to extend the electrochemical performance and methane reforming submodels to include the effects of pressurization and to demonstrate this new modeling capability by simulating large stacks operating on methane-rich fuel under pressurized and non-pressurized conditions. Pressurized operation boosts electrochemical performance, alters the kinetics of methane reforming, and effects the equilibrium composition of methane fuels. This work developed constitutive submodels that couple the electrochemistry, reforming, and pressurization to yield an increased capability of the modeling tool for prediction of SOFC stack performance.

Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Analysis of Chemically Reacting Gas Flow and Heat Transfer in Methane Reforming Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents simulation and analysis of gas flow and heat transfer affected by chemical reactions relating to steam reforming of methane in a compact reformer. The reformer conditions such as the combined thermal boundary conditions on solid walls, ...

Guogang Yang; Danting Yue; Xinrong Lv; Jinliang Yuan

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Catalytic Reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Don Little's Catalytic Reforming deals exclusively with reforming. With the increasing need for unleaded gasoline, the importance of this volume has escalated since it combines various related aspects of reforming technology into a single publication. For those with no practical knowledge of catalytic reforming, the chemical reactions, flow schemes and how the cat reformer fits into the overall refinery process will be of interest. Contents include: Catalytic reforming in refinery processing: How catalytic reformers work - chemical reactions; Process design; The catalyst, process variables and unit operation; Commercial processes; BTX operation; Feed preparation; naphtha hydrotreating and catalytic reforming; Index.

Little, D.M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Heat Exchange in a Fluidized Bed Calcination Reactor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Sorption Enhanced Steam Methane Reforming (SE-SMR) is a novel way of reforming natural gas to high purity hydrogen gas with in-situ CO2 capture by… (more)

Simonsen, Bjørn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Hydrogen production by fluid-bed retorting of oil shale. [Shale oil/partial oxidation; steam-oxygen gasifier; CO/sub 2/ acceptor gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The oil produced from retorting of oil shales requires hydrogen treatment to improve its characteristics and make it suitable for refining into marketable products. Hydrogen requirements can be met by partial oxidation of a fraction of the shale oil produced or by direct processing of oil shale in a fluid bed. This report examines the economics and engineering feasibility of using fluid bed systems to produce hydrogen. Fluid bed processing of oil shale to produce hydrogen might be technically and economically competitive with a more conventional shale retorting/partial oxidation method. A major development program would be required to demonstrate the feasibility of the fluid bed approach.

Barnes, J.W.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

" "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," "  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.3;" 3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," " " "," " ," " "NAICS Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Establishments(b)","Establishments with Any Cogeneration Technology in Use(c)","In Use(d)","Not in Use","Don't Know","In Use(d)","Not in Use","Don't Know","In Use(d)","Not in Use","Don't Know","In Use(d)","Not in Use","Don't Know","In Use(d)","Not in Use","Don't Know"

149

Process for purifying geothermal steam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

Li, Charles T. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Partial oxidation reforming of methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methanol is an attractive fuel for fuel cell-powered vehicles because it has a fairly high energy density, can be pumped into the tank of a vehicle mush like gasoline, and is relatively easy to reform. For on-board reforming, the reformer must be compact and lightweight, and have rapid start-up and good dynamic response. Steam reforming reactors with the tube-and-shell geometry that was used on the prototype fuel cell-powered buses are heat transfer limited. To reach their normal operating temperature, these types of reactors need 45 minutes from ambient temperature start-up. The dynamic response is poor due to temperature control problems. To overcome the limitations of steam reforming, ANL explored the partial oxidation concept used in the petroleum industry to process crude oils. In contrast to the endothermic steam reforming reaction, partial oxidations is exothermic. Fuel and air are passed together over a catalyst or reacted thermally, yielding a hydrogen-rich gas. Since the operating temperature of such a reactor can be controlled by the oxygen-to- methanol ratio, the rates of reaction are not heat transfer limited. Start-up and transient response should be rapid, and the mass and volume are expected to be small by comparison.

Krumpelt, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S.P Chan, J. M Norbeck, Steam hydrogasification of coal-woodet al. , Sulfur-deactivated steam reforming of gasifiedPark, S.P. Singh, J.M. Norbeck, Steam hydrogasification of

Luo, Qian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Performance of Ni-Fe/gadolinium-doped CeO{sub2} anode supported tubular solid oxide fuel cells using steam reforming of methane  

SciTech Connect

Iron nanoparticles (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were added to NiO/gadolinium-doped CeO{sub 2} (GDC) anode supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) for the direct methane-water fuel operation. The cell was co-sintered at 1400 C, and the anode porosity is 31.8%. The main size corresponding to peak volume is around 1.5 {mu}m. When steam and methane directly fed to the cell, the power density is about 0.57 W cm{sup -2} at 650 C. It is the familiar performance for H{sub 2} operation (4 times of flow rate) with same fuel utilization. Compare with the testing temperature of 600 and 650 C, there is almost no carbon fiber deposition at 700 C with steam/methane (S/C) of 5. At the same time, fuel operation of high value of S/C (=3.3) resulted in fiber-like deposition and degradation of power performance based on loading test results.

Liang, B.; Suzuki, T.; Hamamoto, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Sumi, H.; Fujishiro, Y.; Ingram, B. J.; Carter, J. D. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Steam purity in PWRs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Impurities enter the secondary loop of the PWR through both makeup water from lake or well and cooling-water leaks in the condenser. These impurities can be carried to the steam generator, where they cause corrosion deposits to form. Corrosion products in steam are swept further through the system and become concentrated at the point in the low-pressure turbine where steam begins to condense. Several plants have effectively reduced impurities, and therefore corrosion, by installing a demineralizer for the makeup water, a resin-bed system to clean condensed steam from the condenser, and a deaerator to remove oxygen from the water and so lower the risk of system metal oxidation. 5 references, 1 figure.

Hopkinson, J.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Controlling Activity and Stability of Ni-YSZ Catalysts for On-Anode Reforming  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purposes of the project are to develop an effective Ni-YSZ-based anode for on-anode reforming of methane and natural gas and develop methods to control endothermic steam reforming activity.

King, D.L.; Wang, Y.; Chin, Y-H.; Lin, Y.; Roh, H-S.; Rozmiarek, B.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

155

Fluidized bed heat exchanger utilizing angularly extending heat exchange tubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the fluidized bed and a series of tubes connected at one end to the steam drum. A portion of the tubes are connected to a water drum and in the path of the air and the gaseous products of combustion exiting from the bed. Another portion of the tubes pass through the bed and extend at an angle to the upper surface of the bed.

Talmud, Fred M. (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Garcia-Mallol, Juan-Antonio (Morristown, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Internal dust recirculation system for a fluidized bed heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided in a heat exchange relation to the bed and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the bed and a tube bank extending between the steam drum and a water drum. The tube bank is located in the path of the effluent gases exiting from the bed and a baffle system is provided to separate the solid particulate matter from the effluent gases. The particulate matter is collected and injected back into the fluidized bed.

Gamble, Robert L. (Wayne, NJ); Garcia-Mallol, Juan A. (Morristown, NJ)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

158

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

Viscovich, Paul W. (Longwood, FL); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Applications of solar reforming technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Circulating Moving Bed Combustion Proof-of-concept  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

combustor, the solids are fluidized and transferred through standpipes to a moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE). There, an energy cycle working fluid, such as steam or compressed...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The Effect of Oxygen to Methane Ratio on the Methane-wet Air Autothermal Reforming and Carbon Deposition in the Micro-chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considering the problems of catalyst carbon deposition and reforming endothermic reaction in micro-reforming chamber, coupled methane catalyst partial oxidation and steam methane reforming can make the micro-reforming system auto-supply heat and inhibit ... Keywords: micro-chamber, autothermal reforming, carbon deposition, oxygen to methane ratio

Ran Jingyu; Tu Weifeng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Steam Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"STEAM QUALITY has been generally defined as the amount of moisture/vapor (or lack thereof) contained within steam produced from some form of boiler. It has long been used as the standard term for the measurement of ""wet or dry"" steam and as a means of measuring enthalpy. Totally dry steam is said to be ""saturated"" steam. It is sometimes defined as the ""dryness faction"". The term in its historical denotation refers to a physical attribute of the steam. That attribute being ""what is the percentage water vapor content of the steam"" as compared to the amount of steam. Dry saturated steam is steam which carries no water vapor with it and is defined as having a quality of 1.00 (100%). Since water vapor is always present at the interface between the water level and the steam in a boiler, some water vapor will always tend to pass through the system with the steam. Hence, a continuing problem. If steam does carry water vapor past the separators it will tend to coalesce as a liquid, and in doing so it also will carry boiler chemicals with it."

Johnston, W.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

FM12 & rus Steam - Steam Users' Forums  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

STORE COMMUNITY ABOUT SUPPORT Steam Users' Forums > Steam Game Discussions > D - G > Football Manager series

164

Fuel Reformation: Microchannel Reactor Design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel processing is used to extract hydrogen from conventional vehicle fuel and allow fuel cell powered vehicles to use the existing petroleum fuel infrastructure. Kilowatt scale micro-channel steam reforming, water-gas shift and preferential oxida-tion reactors have been developed capable of achieving DOE required system performance metrics. Use of a microchannel design effectively supplies heat to the highly endothermic steam reforming reactor to maintain high conversions, controls the temperature profile for the exothermic water gas shift reactor, which optimizes the overall reaction conversion, and removes heat to prevent the unwanted hydrogen oxidation in the prefer-ential oxidation reactor. The reactors combined with micro-channel heat exchangers, when scaled to a full sized 50 kWe automotive system, will be less than 21 L in volume and 52 kg in weight.

Brooks, Kriston P.; Davis, James M.; Fischer, Christopher M.; King, David L.; Pederson, Larry R.; Rawlings, Gregg C.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Whyatt, Greg A.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Multizone catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbon feed in two sequential catalyst zones. It comprises: an initial catalyst zone which is a fixed-bed system and contains an initial catalytic composite comprising a platinum component, a germanium component, a refractory inorganic oxide, and a halogen component; and a terminal catalyst zone which is a moving-bed system with associated continuous catalyst regeneration and contains a terminal catalytic composite having the essential absence of germanium and comprising a platinum component, a refractory inorganic oxide, a halogen component, and catalytically effective amounts of a metal promoter selected from one or more of the rhenium, tin, indium, rhodium, ruthenium, cobalt, nickel, and iridium.

Moser, M.; Lawson, R.J.; Wang, L.; Parulekar, V.; Peer, R.L.; Hamlin, C.R.

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

New process model proves accurate in tests on catalytic reformer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mathematical model has been devised to represent the process that takes place in a fixed-bed, tubular, adiabatic catalytic reforming reactor. Since its development, the model has been applied to the simulation of a commercial semiregenerative reformer. The development of mass and energy balances for this reformer led to a model that predicts both concentration and temperature profiles along the reactor. A comparison of the model's results with experimental data illustrates its accuracy at predicting product profiles. Simple steps show how the model can be applied to simulate any fixed-bed catalytic reformer.

Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J. (Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico))

1994-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

167

Catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains at least one reformable organic compound. The process consists of contacting the feedstock under suitable reforming conditions with a catalyst composition selected from the group consisting of a catalyst. The catalyst essentially consists of zinc oxide and a spinel structure alumina. Another catalyst consists essentially of a physical mixture of zinc titanate and a spinel structure alumina in the presence of sufficient added hydrogen to substantially prevent the formation of coke. Insufficient zinc is present in the catalyst composition for the formation of a bulk zinc aluminate.

Aldag, A.W. Jr.

1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

168

Hydrogen Production via a High-Efficiency Low-Temperature Reformer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel cells are promoted by the US government as a viable alternative for clean and efficient energy generation. It is anticipated that the fuel cell market will rise if the key technical barriers can be overcome. One of them is certainly fuel processing and purification. Existing fuel reforming processes are energy intensive, extremely complicated and capital intensive; these disadvantages handicap the scale-down of existing reforming process, targeting distributed or on-board/stationary hydrogen production applications. Our project involves the bench-scale demonstration of a high-efficiency low-temperature steam reforming process. Hydrogen production can be operated at 350 to 400ºC with our invention, as opposed to >800ºC of existing reforming. In addition, our proposed process improves the start-up deficiency of conventional reforming due to its low temperature operation. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the invented process concept via a bench scale unit and verify mathematical simulation for future process optimization study. Under this project, we have performed the experimental work to determine the adsorption isotherm, reaction kinetics, and membrane permeances required to perform the process simulation based upon the mathematical model developed by us. A ceramic membrane coated with palladium thin film fabricated by us was employed in this study. The adsorption isotherm for a selected hydrotalcite adsorbent was determined experimentally. Further, the capacity loss under cyclic adsorption/desorption was confirmed to be negligible. Finally a commercial steam reforming catalyst was used to produce the reaction kinetic parameters required for the proposed operating condition. With these input parameters, a mathematical simulation was performed to predict the performance of the invented process. According to our simulation, our invented hybrid process can deliver 35 to 55% methane conversion, in comparison with the 12 and 18-21% conversion of the packed bed and an adsorptive reactor respectively. In addition CO contamination with energy savings and ~50% capital savings over conventional reforming for fuel cell applications. The pollution abatement potential associated with the implementation of fuel cells, including the elimination of nitrogen oxides and CO, and the reduction in volatile organics and CO2, can thus be realized with the implementation of this invented process. The projected total market size for equipment sale for the proposed process in US is $1.5 billion annually.

Paul KT Liu; Theo T. Tsotsis

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

169

Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The dual fluidized bed reactor is a recirculating system in which one half of the unit operates as a steam pyrolysis device for biomass. The pyrolysis occurs by introducing biomass and steam to a hot fluidized bed of inert material such as coarse sand. Syngas is produced during the pyrolysis and exits the top of the reactor with the steam. A crossover arm, fed by gravity, moves sand and char from the pyrolyzer to the second fluidized bed. This sand bed uses blown air to combust the char. The exit stream from this side of the reactor is carbon dioxide, water and ash. There is a second gravity fed crossover arm to return sand to the pyrolysis side. The recirculating action of the sand and the char is the key to the operation of the dual fluidized bed reactor. The objective of the project was to design and construct a dual fluidized bed prototype reactor from literature information and in discussion with established experts in the field. That would be appropriate in scale and operation to measure the relative performance of the gasification of biomass and low ranked coals to produce a high quality synthesis gas with no dilution from nitrogen or combustion products.

None

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

170

Steam Pricing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam is used in many plants to furnish both heat and mechanical energy. It is typically produced in several fired boilers which may operate at different pressures and with different efficiencies. It is then distributed throughout the plant to the various users in steam distribution systems, each one operating at a different pressure and temperature. This paper examines various ways to cost steam and discusses the importance of proper costing. Specifically it addresses three types of steam costs; Marginal Costs, Project Evaluation Costs and Financial Costs.

Jones, K. C.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Steam purity in PWRs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reports that 2 EPRI studies of PWRs prove that impure steam triggers decay of turbine metals. Reveals that EPRI is attempting to improve steam monitoring and analysis, which are key steps on the way to deciding the most cost-effective degree of steam purity, and to upgrade demineralizing systems, which can then reliably maintain that degree of purity. Points out that 90% of all cracks in turbine disks have occurred at the dry-to-wet transition zone, dubbed the Wilson line. Explains that because even very clean water contains traces of chemical impurities with concentrations in the parts-per-billion range, Crystal River-3's secondary loop was designed with even more purification capability; a deaerator to remove oxygen and prevent oxidation of system metals, and full-flow resin beds to demineralize 100% of the secondary-loop water from the condenser. Concludes that focusing attention on steam and water chemistry can ward off cracking and sludge problems caused by corrosion.

Hopkinson, J.; Passell, T.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

Misage, Robert (Manchester, CT); Scheffler, Glenn W. (Tolland, CT); Setzer, Herbert J. (Ellington, CT); Margiott, Paul R. (Manchester, CT); Parenti, Jr., Edmund K. (Manchester, CT)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Liquid fuel reformer development.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At Argonne National Laboratory we are developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to a clean hydrogen feed for a fuel cell. The process incorporates a partial oxidation/steam reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. We have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, low-sulfur diesel fuel, and a regular diesel fuel. We achieved complete conversion of the feed to products. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 800 C. For the two diesel fuels, higher temperatures, >850 C, were required to approach similar levels of hydrogen in the product stream. At 800 C, hydrogen yield of the low sulfur diesel was 32%, while that of the regular diesel was 52%. Residual products in both cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, ethylene, and methane.

Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Pereira, C.; Wilkenhoener, R.

1999-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

174

CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48H RADIOACTIVEWASTE SAMPLE USING FLUIDIZED BED STEAMREFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANICDESTRUCTION  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble fractions of the product solids. Radioanalytical measurements were performed on the Tank 48H feed material and on the dissolved products in order to estimate retention of Cs-137 in the process. All aspects of prior crucible scale testing with simulant Tank 48H slurry were demonstrated to be repeatable with the actual radioactive feed. Tetraphenylborate destruction was shown to be >99% and the final solid product is sodium carbonate crystalline material. Less than 10 wt% of the final solid products are insoluble components comprised of Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn containing sludge components and Ti from monosodium titanate present in Tank 48H. REDOX measurements on the radioactive solid products indicate a reducing atmosphere with extremely low oxygen fugacity--evidence that the sealed crucible tests performed in the presence of a reductant (sugar) under constant argon purge were successful in duplicating the pyrolysis reactions occurring with the Tank 48H feed. Soluble anion measurements confirm that using sugar as reductant at 1X stoichiometry was successful in destroying nitrate/nitrite in the Tank 48H feed. Radioanalytical measurements indicate that {approx}75% of the starting Cs-137 is retained in the solid product. No attempts were made to analyze/measure other potential Cs-137 in the process, i.e., as possible volatile components on the inner surface of the alumina crucible/lid or as offgas escaping the sealed crucible. The collective results from these crucible scale tests on radioactive material are in good agreement with simulant testing. Crucible scale processing has been shown to duplicate the complex reactions of an actual fluidized bed steam reformer. Thus this current testing should provide a high degree of confidence that upcoming bench-scale steam reforming with radioactive Tank 48H slurry will be successful in tetraphenylborate destruction and production of sodium carbonate product.

Crawford, C

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield SteamThomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Plant Operator Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert Tedesco Steam Plant Operator James Bradley

Raina, Ramesh

176

Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons in a Novel Hydrogen-Selective Membrane-Based Fuel Processor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work, asymmetric dense Pd/porous stainless steel composite membranes were fabricated by depositing palladium on the outer surface of the tubular support. The electroless plating method combined with an osmotic pressure field was used to deposit the palladium film. Surface morphology and microstructure of the composite membranes were characterized by SEM and EDX. The SEM and EDX analyses revealed strong adhesion of the plated pure palladium film on the substrate and dense coalescence of the Pd film. Membranes were further characterized by conducting permeability experiments with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium gases at temperatures from 325 to 450 C and transmembrane pressure differences from 5 to 45 psi. The permeation results showed that the fabricated membranes have both high hydrogen permeability and selectivity. For example, the hydrogen permeability for a composite membrane with a 20 {micro}m Pd film was 3.02 x 10{sup -5} moles/m{sup 2}.s.Pa{sup 0.765} at 450 C. Hydrogen/nitrogen selectivity for this composite membrane was 1000 at 450 C with a transmembrane pressure difference of 14.7 psi. Steam reforming of methane is one of the most important chemical processes in hydrogen and syngas production. To investigate the usefulness of palladium-based composite membranes in membrane-reactor configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen, steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift was studied. The steam reforming of methane using a packed-bed inert membrane tubular reactor (PBIMTR) was simulated. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model with parallel flow configuration was developed for steam reforming of methane. The shell volume was taken as the feed and sweep gas was fed to the inside of the membrane tube. Radial diffusion was taken into account for concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system and then solved by finite difference method with appropriate boundary and initial conditions. An iterative scheme was used to obtain a converged solution. Membrane reactor performance was compared to that in a traditional non-membrane packed-bed reactor (PBR). Their performances were also compared with thermodynamic equilibrium values achievable in a conventional non-membrane reactor. Numerical results of the models show that the methane conversions in the PBIMTR are always higher than that in the PBR, as well as thermodynamic equilibrium conversions. For instance, at a reaction pressure of 6 atm, a temperature of 650 C, a space velocity of 900/16.0 SCCM/gm{sub cat}, a steam to methane molar feed ratio of 3.0, a sweep ratio of 0.15, the conversion in the membrane reactor is about 86.5%, while the conversion in the non-membrane reactor is about 50.8%. The corresponding equilibrium conversion is about 56.4%. The effects on the degree of conversion and hydrogen yield were analyzed for different parameters such as temperature, reactor pressure, feed and sweep flow rate, feed molar ratio, and space time. From the analysis of the model results, it is obvious that the membrane reactor operation can be optimized for conversion or yield through the choice of proper operating and design parameters. Comparisons with available literature data for both membrane and non-membrane reactors showed a good agreement.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

177

An in-bed tube bank for a fluidized-bed combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fluidized-bed combustors have long been used to facilitate the combustion of low-quality fuels and more recently as a means for the clean burning of coal. In a fluidized-bed combustor fuel is fed into a bed of reactive or inert particulate material while air is injected into the bed and passed up through the bed, causing the bed material to act like a turbulent fluid. Where the combustor is utilized for steam generating one or more boiler tubes are positioned so as to span the bed while submerged in the bed, and as fuel is burned within the bed water is injected into the boiler tubes and heated, thereby generating steam. An in-bed tube bank is described for a fluidized bed combustor. The tube bank of the present invention comprises one or more fluid communicating boiler tubes which define a plurality of selectively spaced boiler tube sections. The tube sections are substantially parallel to one another and aligned in a common plane. The tube bank further comprises support members for joining adjacent tube sections, the support members engaging and extending along a selected length of the tube sections and spanning the preselected space there between 4 figs.

Hemenway, L.F. Jr.

1989-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

178

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Distributed Ethanol Reforming  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids Bio-derived liquid fuels can be produced from renewable agricultural products, such as wood chips. Background Bio-derived renewable fuels are attractive for their high energy density and ease of transport. One scenario for a sustainable hydrogen economy considers that these bio-derived liquid fuels will be produced at plants close to the biomass resource, and then transported to distributed hydrogen production centers (e.g., hydrogen refueling stations), where the fuels will be reformed via the steam reforming process, similar to the current centralized production of hydrogen by the steam reforming of natural gas. Hydrogen produced by reforming these fuels must first be purified and compressed to appropriate storage and dispensing pressures. Compressing

179

Steam-flooding  

SciTech Connect

Steam-flooding has become an established recovery technique within the last 20 years. This overview discusses its evolution, methods for selecting and designing steam-floods, constraints, and possible improvements. The term steam-flooding is used here in a general sense. The discussion includes steam soak (cyclic steam injection) and steam drive.

Matthews, C.S.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Hydrogen Production via a High-Efficiency Low-Temperature Reformer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells are promoted by the US government as a viable alternative for clean and efficient energy generation. It is anticipated that the fuel cell market will rise if the key technical barriers can be overcome. One of them is certainly fuel processing and purification. Existing fuel reforming processes are energy intensive, extremely complicated and capital intensive; these disadvantages handicap the scale-down of existing reforming process, targeting distributed or on-board/stationary hydrogen production applications. Our project involves the bench-scale demonstration of a high-efficiency low-temperature steam reforming process. Hydrogen production can be operated at 350 to 400ºC with our invention, as opposed to >800ºC of existing reforming. In addition, our proposed process improves the start-up deficiency of conventional reforming due to its low temperature operation. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the invented process concept via a bench scale unit and verify mathematical simulation for future process optimization study. Under this project, we have performed the experimental work to determine the adsorption isotherm, reaction kinetics, and membrane permeances required to perform the process simulation based upon the mathematical model developed by us. A ceramic membrane coated with palladium thin film fabricated by us was employed in this study. The adsorption isotherm for a selected hydrotalcite adsorbent was determined experimentally. Further, the capacity loss under cyclic adsorption/desorption was confirmed to be negligible. Finally a commercial steam reforming catalyst was used to produce the reaction kinetic parameters required for the proposed operating condition. With these input parameters, a mathematical simulation was performed to predict the performance of the invented process. According to our simulation, our invented hybrid process can deliver 35 to 55% methane conversion, in comparison with the 12 and 18-21% conversion of the packed bed and an adsorptive reactor respectively. In addition CO contamination with <10 to 120 ppm is predicted for the invented process depending upon the cycle time for the PSA type operation. In comparison, the adsorption reactor can also deliver a similar CO contaminant at the low end; however, its high end reaches as high as 300 ppm based upon the simulation of our proposed operating condition. Our experimental results for the packed bed and the membrane reactor deliver 12 and 18% conversion at 400°C, approaching the conversion by the mathematical simulation. Due to the time constraint, the experimental study on the conversion of the invented process has not been complete. However, our in-house study using a similar process concept for the water gas shift reaction has demonstrated the reliability of our mathematical simulation for the invented process. In summary, we are confident that the invented process can deliver efficiently high purity hydrogen at a low temperature (~400°C). According to our projection, the invented process can further achieve 5% energy savings and ~50% capital savings over conventional reforming for fuel cell applications. The pollution abatement potential associated with the implementation of fuel cells, including the elimination of nitrogen oxides and CO, and the reduction in volatile organics and CO2, can thus be realized with the implementation of this invented process. The projected total market size for equipment sale for the proposed process in US is $1.5 billion annually.

Paul KT Liu; Theo T. Tsotsis

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Steam-channel-expanding steam form drive  

SciTech Connect

In a viscous oil reservoir in which the stratification of the rock permeability is insufficient to confine steam within the most permeable strata, oil can be produced by forming and expanding a steam channel through which steam is flowed and oil is produced. Steam is injected and fluid is produced at rates causing a steam channel to be extended between locations that are horizontally separated. A foam-forming mixture of steam, noncondensable gas and surfactant is then injected into the steam channel to provide foam and a relatively high pressure gradient within the channel, without plugging the channel. A flow of steam-containing fluid through the steam channel is continued in a manner such that the magnitudes of the pressure gradient, the rate of oil production, and the rate of steam channel expansion exceed those which could be provided by steam alone. 10 claims, 6 figures.

Dilgren, R.E.; Hirasaki, G.J.; Hill, H.J.; Whitten, D.G.

1978-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

182

Method of removing cesium from steam  

SciTech Connect

Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

Carson, Jr., Neill J. (Clarendon Hills, IL); Noland, Robert A. (Oak Park, IL); Ruther, Westly E. (Skokie, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

The Research and Application of AGC in Circulating Fluidized Bed Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB) powerunit with its energy-saving and environmental protection hasbroad application prospects, but the problem of CFB unitautomatic control has not been solved satisfied, so automaticgeneration control (AGC) ... Keywords: CFB, AGC, power, main steam pressure, main steam temperature, bed temperature

Xin Xiaogang, Zhou Peng, Yang Chunxia, Guo Xiaohong, Wang Biao, Wang Yijun, Yu Jinglong

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Fluidized Bed Combustion of Solid Fuels: Design Practices and Field Experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although pulverized coal (PC) combustion generally continues to be the technology of choice for utility-scale steam-electric plants, fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) offers a number of advantages to power producers, most notably the ability to burn fuels not suited for PC combustion. This report updates experience with current FBC designs, focusing on circulating fluidized bed (CFB) steam generators.

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

185

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

size gasification for syngas, substitute natural gas, andfor Biomass-Derived Syngas. NREL/ TP-510-34929. Golden, CO:either converted into syngas in the Steam Methane Reformer (

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

Adriaan van Heiningen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

187

Novel Catalytic Fuel Reforming Using Micro-Technology with Advanced Separations Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the combustion of membrane raffinate for the production of clean hydrogen by steam reforming natural gas primary fuel sources from existing production and distribution networks ­ i.e. natural gas, gasoline gas -- optimize catalyst composition and evaluate reforming conditions. · Hydrogen purification using

188

Combining steam-methane reforming, water-gas shift, and CO{sub 2} removal in a single-step process for hydrogen production. Final report for period March 15, 1997 - December 14, 2000  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the research project was to determine the feasibility of a simpler, more energy-efficient process for the production of 95+% H{sub 2} from natural gas, and to collect sufficient experimental data on the effect of reaction parameters to guide additional larger-scale process development. The overall objectives were accomplished. 95+% H{sub 2} was produced in a single reaction step by adding a calcium-based CO{sub 2} acceptor to standard Ni-based reforming catalyst. The spent acceptor was successfully regenerated and used in a number of reaction steps with only moderate loss in activity as the number of cycles increased. Sufficient experimental data were collected to guide further larger-scale experimental work designed to investigate the economic feasibility of the process.

Alejandro Lopez Ortiz; Bhaskar Balasubramanian; Douglas P. Harrison

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Quick-start catalyzed methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The catalytic methanol partial oxidation reformer described in this paper offers all the necessary attributes for use in transportation fuel cell systems. The bench-scale prototype methanol reformer developed at Argonne is a cylindrical reactor loaded with copper zinc oxide catalyst. Liquid methanol, along with a small amount of water, is injected as a fine spray into a flowing air stream, past an igniter onto the catalyst bed where the partial oxidation reaction takes place.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supervisor (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator RichardThomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Redfield Steam Plant Operator SU Steam Station/Chilled Water Plant Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert

McConnell, Terry

191

Steam System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most plant steam systems are complex systems. Usually the fuel required to produce the steam represents a major expense for manufacturing facilities. By properly operating and maintaining the steam system and making minor improvements, significant savings can be realized.

Aegerter, R. A.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion for Power Production from Biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) technologyincluding smaller bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) as well as circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor unitsprovides robust combustion with high thermal inertia. This means that AFBC units can successfully respond to variations in ash content, calorific value, and moisture content commonly encountered in burning biomass fuels. This report describes AFBC technology and its deployment for generating steam for power plants using a wide variety of biomass fu...

2010-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

193

SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As director of Oregon's Industrial Assessment Center, I have encountered many industrial steam systems during plant visits. We analyze steam systems and make recommendations to improve system efficiency. In nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a 0.4-year payback. 75% of those recommendations have been implemented for $1.1 million annual savings with 0.3-year payback. Recently I have developed a tool to facilitate the process. SteamMaster is based on an Excel spreadsheet with a Visual Basic interface to simplify system modeling and analysis. SteamMaster has many features and capabilities, including energy and cost savings calculations for five steam recommendations. This presentation will demonstrate SteamMaster software applied to one or more industrial steam systems. Software will be made available on a national web site at no cost.

Wheeler, G.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Sulfate Volatilization in Simulated Nuclear Waste Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radioactive Demonstrations of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes · Radionuclide Behavior and Geochemistry in Boom

195

(NaAlSiO4) – Malinkoite (NaBSiO4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radioactive Demonstrations of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes · Radionuclide Behavior and Geochemistry in Boom

196

Utilizing Oxygen Uptake to Predict Lifetimes of Elastomeric O-rings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radioactive Demonstrations of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes · Radionuclide Behavior and Geochemistry in Boom

197

Radionuclide Behavior and Geochemistry in Boom Clay after ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radioactive Demonstrations of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes · Radionuclide Behavior and Geochemistry in Boom  ...

198

Epsilon Metal Waste Form Development for Fission Products in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radioactive Demonstrations of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes · Radionuclide Behavior and Geochemistry in Boom  ...

199

Multiscale Modeling for Predicting Long-Term Behavior of Glass ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radioactive Demonstrations of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes · Radionuclide Behavior and Geochemistry in Boom  ...

200

Adsorbents of Titanate Nanofibers and Nanotubes for the Removal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radioactive Demonstrations of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes · Radionuclide Behavior and Geochemistry in Boom  ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Electrochemical and Thermal Properties of Rare-Earth Chlorides in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radioactive Demonstrations of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes · Radionuclide Behavior and Geochemistry in Boom  ...

202

Steam driven markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The market for steam equipment has been relatively level. Looking ahead, manufacturers anticipate steady market growth worldwide. Steam equipment manufacturers share a similar view of the market for next few years - upward. The steady upward climb is being attributed to a number of factors that will benefit steam turbine and heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) makers.

Anderson, J.L.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Method for improving the steam splits in a multiple steam injection process using multiple steam headers  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for enhancing the uniformity of steam distribution in a multiple steam injection system comprising a steam generator, a primary steam header, at least one secondary steam header, a primary steam line connecting the generator to the primary header, at lease one secondary steam line connecting the primary header to the secondary steam header, and a plurality of tertiary steam lines connecting the secondary steam header to a plurality of stem injection wells. It comprises injecting a surfactant into the primary steam line, mixing the surfactant and steam in the primary steam line sufficiently so that the surfactant and the steam enter the primary steam header as a foam, and mixing the surfactant and steam in the secondary steam lines sufficiently so that the surfactant and the steam enter the secondary steam header as a foam.

Stowe, G.R.

1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

204

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the eighth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005 and includes an entire review of the progress for year 2 of the project. This year saw progress in eight areas. These areas are: (1) steam reformer transient response, (2) steam reformer catalyst degradation, (3) steam reformer degradation tests using bluff bodies, (4) optimization of bluff bodies for steam reformation, (5) heat transfer enhancement, (6) autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (7) autothermal catalyst degradation, and (8) autothermal reformation with bluff bodies. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

205

Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits include the ability to identify areas of performance degradation during a turbine outage. Repair priorities can then be set in accordance with quantitative results from the steam path audit. As a result of optimized repair decisions, turbine efficiency increases, emissions decrease, and maintenance expenses decrease. These benefits can be achieved by using a computer program Encotech, Inc. developed for the utility industry to perform steam path audits. With the increased emphasis on industrial turbine efficiency, and as a result of the experience with the Destec Operating Company, Encotech is adapting the computer program to respond to the needs of the industrial steam turbine community. This paper describes the results of using the STPE computer program to conduct a steam path audit at Destec Energy's Lyondell Cogeneration power plant.

Mitchell, D. R.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Process for catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved catalytic reforming process is disclosed wherein hydrogen and light hydrocarbons generated in the catalytic reaction zone are passed to a hydrogen production/purification zone and and reacted and processed therein to produce substantially pure hydrogen. A portion of the hydrogen is then admixed with the charge stock to the catalytic reforming zone to provide the hydrogen requirements of the catalytic reforming reaction zone.

James, R. B. Jr.

1984-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

207

Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression  

SciTech Connect

In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg{sub evap} to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

DiBella, F.A. [TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression  

SciTech Connect

In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg[sub evap] to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

DiBella, F.A. (TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Systemic Reform Bibliography  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(5) support local initiatives and model sites; (6) align state policy; (7) reform higher education and teacher preparation; and (8) mobilize public and professional...

210

Plasma—Methane Reformation  

INL thermal plasma methane reformation process produces hydrogen and elemental carbon from natural gas and other hydrocarbons, such as natural gas or ...

211

Catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A catalytic reforming process is disclosed in which substantially all of the heat requirements of the product stabilizer column is supplied by multiple indirect heat exchange.

Peters, K.D.

1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

212

Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

213

Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

High performance steam development  

SciTech Connect

DOE has launched a program to make a step change in power plant to 1500 F steam, since the highest possible performance gains can be achieved in a 1500 F steam system when using a topping turbine in a back pressure steam turbine for cogeneration. A 500-hour proof-of-concept steam generator test module was designed, fabricated, and successfully tested. It has four once-through steam generator circuits. The complete HPSS (high performance steam system) was tested above 1500 F and 1500 psig for over 102 hours at full power.

Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

Proceedings: Condensate Polishing and Water Purification in the Steam Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document contains the proceedings of an EPRI-sponsored workshop on Condensate Polishing and Water Purification in the Steam Cycle held on May 20-22, 1996 in San Antonio, TX. The goal of the workshop was to present some of the research results and operational experiences that can help utility personnel optimize their operating programs to meet increased production and economic demands. The workshop addressed deep bed and powdered bed resin issues, as well as experience with filtration for iron remova...

1996-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

216

Steam Generator Management Program: Steam Generator Progress Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since 1985, EPRI has published the Steam Generator Progress Report (SGPR), which provides historical information on worldwide steam generator activities.

2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

217

Security and Suitability Process Reform  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Security and Suitability Process Reform December 2008 Provided by the Joint Security and Suitability Reform Team EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

218

Downhole steam quality measurement  

SciTech Connect

An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Muir, James F. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., J. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Steam Digest 2001  

SciTech Connect

Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Downhole steam quality measurement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Steam Champions in Manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Traditionally, industrial steam system management has focused on operations and maintenance. Competitive pressures, technology evolution, and increasingly complex regulations provide additional management challenges. The practice of operating a steam system demands the managerial expertise of a "Steam Champion," which will be described in this paper. Briefly, the steam champion is a facility professional who embodies the skills, leadership, and vision needed to maximize the effectiveness of a plant's steam system. Perhaps more importantly, the steam champion's definitive role is that of liaison between the manufacturer's boardroom and the plant floor. As such, the champion is able to translate the functional impacts of steam optimization into equivalent corporate rewards, such as increased profitability, reliability, workplace safety, and other benefits. The prerequisites for becoming a true steam champion will include engineering, business, and management skills.

Russell, C.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Steam Digest 2001  

SciTech Connect

Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Steam Turbine Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system can increase energy efficiency, reduce air emissions and qualify the equipment for a Capital Cost tax Allowance. As a result, such a system benefits the stakeholders, the society and the environment. This paper describes briefly the types of steam turbine classified by their conditions of exhaust and review quickly the fundamentals related to steam and steam turbine. Then the authors will analyze a typical steam turbine co-generation system and give examples to illustrate the benefits of the System.

Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Copyright reform step zero  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

'A reasonable person might well think it's a fool's errand to contemplate a [copyright] reform project of any sort.' The US Copyright Act of 1976 and its subsequent amendments is contained in over 200 pages of incomprehensible, sometimes inconsistent, ... Keywords: US copyright law, administrative law, copyright reform, institutional frameworks

Terry Hart

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A catalytic reforming process is disclosed wherein the reboiler heat requirements of the stabilizer column are supplied by means of indirect heat exchange with hot combustion gases in the reforming reactants fired heater convection heating section. Heat in excess of the reboiler requirements is passed to the stabilizer column with control being effected by removal of excess heat from the column.

James, R.B. Jr.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

226

Autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based fuel processor, method for improving catalyst function in autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based processors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a fuel processor comprising a linear flow structure having an upstream portion and a downstream portion; a first catalyst supported at the upstream portion; and a second catalyst supported at the downstream portion, wherein the first catalyst is in fluid communication with the second catalyst. Also provided is a method for reforming fuel, the method comprising contacting the fuel to an oxidation catalyst so as to partially oxidize the fuel and generate heat; warming incoming fuel with the heat while simultaneously warming a reforming catalyst with the heat; and reacting the partially oxidized fuel with steam using the reforming catalyst.

Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Lee, Sheldon H. D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

227

Steam Trap Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effective application of steam traps encompasses three primary areas which are the selection and sizing, the installation, and the monitoring of the steam trapping system. Proper application of steam traps will improve production rates, product quality, and reduce energy and maintenance costs.

Murphy, J. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Steam System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refinery and chemical plant steam systems are complex and the fuel required to produce the steam represents a major expense. The incremental cost for generating a 1,000 lb./hr. of steam is typically $45,000 - $60,000/year. Most plants have numerous low/

Aegerter, R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

State of Fluidized Bed Combustion Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new combustion technology has been developed in the last decade that permits the burning of low quality coal, lignite and other fuels, while maintaining stack emissions within State and Federal EPA limits. Low quality fuels can be burned directly in fluidized beds while taking advantage of low furnace temperatures and chemical activity within the bed to limit SO2 and NOx emissions, thereby eliminating the need for stack gas scrubbing equipment. The excellent heat transfer characteristics of the fluidized beds also result in a reduction of total heat transfer surface requirements, thus reducing the size and cost of steam generators. Tests on beds operating at pressures of one to ten atmospheres, at temperatures as high as 1600oF, and with gas velocities in the vicinity of four to twelve feet per second, have proven the concept. Early history of this technology is traced, and the progress that has been made in the development of fluidized bed combustion boilers, as well as work currently underway, in the United States and overseas, is reviewed. Details on the fluidized bed boiler installations at Alexandria, Virginia (5,000 lbs/hr), Georgetown University (100,000 lbs/hr), and Rivesville, West Virginia (300,000 Ibs/hr) are presented, and test results are discussed. Potential application of fluidized bed boilers in industrial plants using lignite and lignite refuse is examined. The impact of proposed new DOE and EPA regulations on solid fuels burning is also examined.

Pope, M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this DOE Cooperative Agreement is to conduct a cost-shared clean coal technology project to demonstrate the feasibility of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology and to evaluate economic, environmental, and operational benefits of CFB steam generators on a utility scale. At the conclusion of the Phase 2 program, testing related to satisfying these objectives was completed. Data analysis and reporting are scheduled for completion by October 1991. (VC)

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Steam trap monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

Ryan, M.J.

1987-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

233

Steam turbine control  

SciTech Connect

In a power plant which includes a steam turbine with main control valves for admitting steam into the steam turbine and a steam bypass with bypass control valves for diverting steam around the steam turbine directly into a condenser, it is necessary to coordinate the operation of the respective valves so that the steam turbine can be started, brought up to speed, synchronized with a generator and then loaded as smoothly and efficiently as possible. The present invention provides for such operation and, in addition, allows for the transfer of power plant operation from the so-called turbine following mode to the boiler following mode through the use of the sliding pressure concept. The invention described is particularly applicable to combined cycle power plants.

Priluck, D.M.; Wagner, J.B.

1982-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

234

Catalytic reforming methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

235

Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development Task 8.3 - autothermal fuel reformer (ATR). Topical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Autothermal fuel reforming (ATR) consists of reacting a hydrocarbon fuel such as natural gas or diesel with steam to produce a hydrogen-rich {open_quotes}reformed{close_quotes} fuel. This work has been designed to investigate the fuel reformation and the product gas combustion under gas turbine conditions. The hydrogen-rich gas has a high flammability with a wide range of combustion stability. Being lighter and more reactive than methane, the hydrogen-rich gas mixes readily with air and can be burned at low fuel/air ratios producing inherently low emissions. The reformed fuel also has a low ignition temperature which makes low temperature catalytic combustion possible. ATR can be designed for use with a variety of alternative fuels including heavy crudes, biomass and coal-derived fuels. When the steam required for fuel reforming is raised by using energy from the gas turbine exhaust, cycle efficiency is improved because of the steam and fuel chemically recuperating. Reformation of natural gas or diesel fuels to a homogeneous hydrogen-rich fuel has been demonstrated. Performance tests on screening various reforming catalysts and operating conditions were conducted on a batch-tube reactor. Producing over 70 percent of hydrogen (on a dry basis) in the product stream was obtained using natural gas as a feedstock. Hydrogen concentration is seen to increase with temperature but less rapidly above 1300{degrees}F. The percent reforming increases as the steam to carbon ratio is increased. Two basic groups of reforming catalysts, nickel - and platinum-basis, have been tested for the reforming activity.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Producing Clean Syngas via Catalytic Reforming for Fuels Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermochemical biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals can be achieved through gasification to syngas. The biomass derived raw syngas contains the building blocks of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as well as impurities such as tars, light hydrocarbons, and hydrogen sulfide. These impurities must be removed prior to fuel synthesis. We used catalytic reforming to convert tars and hydrocarbons to additional syngas, which increases biomass carbon utilization. In this work, nickel based, fluidizable tar reforming catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for tar and methane reforming performance with oak and model syngas in two types of pilot scale fluidized reactors (recirculating and recirculating regenerating). Because hydrogen sulfide (present in raw syngas and added to model syngas) reacts with the active nickel surface, regeneration with steam and hydrogen was required. Pre and post catalyst characterization showed changes specific to the syngas type used. Results of this work will be discussed in the context of selecting the best process for pilot scale demonstration.

Magrini, K. A.; Parent, Y.; Jablonski, W.; Yung, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Nanocomposite catalysts for soot combustion and propane steam reforming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A nanocomposite system, CuO-Ag/CeO 2, has been successfully developed to complete carbon black combustion by 400*C. This novel catalyst has excellent potential for application in the emission control of soot particulates ...

He, Hong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at high pressures yields more methane, less hydrogen at thermodynamic equilibrium Coke formation tendency increases with increasing pressures Coking tendency can be...

239

Multizone naphtha reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a catalytic reforming process for conversion of a naphtha hydrocarbon at reforming conditions having at least two segregated catalyst zones. The improvement comprises contacting the hydrocarbon in a first zone with a first catalyst comprising tin and at least one platinum group metal deposited on a solid catalyst support followed by contacting in a second zone with a second catalyst comprising at least one metal selected from the group consisting of platinum group metals deposited on a solid catalyst support.

Fleming, B.

1987-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

240

Modeling of On-Cell Reforming Reaction for Planar SOFC Stacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack is known to suffer thermal problem from high stack temperature during operation to generate high current. On-Cell Reforming (OCR) phenomenon is often used to reduce stack temperature by an endothermic reaction of steam-methane reforming process. RIST conducted single-cell experiment to validate modeling tool to simulate OCR performance including temperature measurement. 2D modeling is used to check reforming rate during OCR using temperature measurement data, and 3D modeling is used to check overall thermal performance including furnace boundary conditions.

Yang, Choongmo; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Hwang, Soon Cheol; Kim, Dohyung; Lai, Canhai; Koeppel, Brian J.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Steam generator support system  

SciTech Connect

A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Steam turbine plant  

SciTech Connect

A system for regulating the rate of closing of the turbine intake valve of a steam turbine plant is disclosed. A steam turbine is supplied from a steam generator through a turbine intake valve. A branch line conducts the steam to a bypass valve which is normally closed. In the event of conditions making it necessary to close the turbine intake valve rapidly, a regulator is provided to control the rate of closing of the turbine intake valve and the opening of the bypass valve so that the pressure conditions in the steam generator do not exceed the limits established by the manufacturer. Pressure measuring instruments are placed in the system to sense the pressure immediately upstream from the turbine intake valve and the bypass valve as well as the initial steam supply pressure. These pressure signals are transmitted to a computer which produces a control signal in accordance with predetermined conditions.

Skala, K.

1981-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

243

Steam generator support system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

Moldenhauer, J.E.

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

244

Flash Steam Recovery Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the goals of Vulcan's cost reduction effort is to reduce energy consumption in production facilities through energy optimization. As part of this program, the chloromethanes production unit, which produces a wide variety of chlorinated organic compounds, was targeted for improvement. This unit uses a portion of the high-pressure steam available from the plant's cogeneration facility. Continuous expansions within the unit had exceeded the optimum design capacity of the unit's steam/condensate recovery system, resulting in condensate flash steam losses to the atmosphere. Using computer simulation models and pinch analysis techniques, the Operational Excellence Group (Six Sigma) was able to identify a project to recover the flash steam losses as a supplemental low-pressure steam supply. The project was designed and implemented at no capital cost using existing instrumentation and controls. On an annualized basis steam usage per ton of product fell by about three percent. Absolute savings were about 15,800 million Btu.

Bronhold, C. J.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the tenth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2006. This quarter saw progress in six areas. These areas are: (1) The effect of catalyst dimension on steam reforming, (2) Transient characteristics of autothermal reforming, (3) Rich and lean autothermal reformation startup, (4) Autothermal reformation degradation with coal derived methanol, (5) Reformate purification system, and (6) Fuel cell system integration. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Liquid fuel reformer development: Autothermal reforming of Diesel fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to clean hydrogen feeds for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The process incorporates an autothermal reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. The authors have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, certified low-sulfur grade 1 diesel, and a standard grade 2 diesel. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 850 C, while maximum hydrogen product yields for the two diesel fuels were near 50%. Residual products in all cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, and methane. Further studies with grade 1 diesel showed improved conversion as the water:fuel ratio was increased from 1 to 2 at 850 C. Soot formation was reduced when the oxygen:carbon ratio was maintained at 1 at 850 C. There were no significant changes in hydrogen yield as the space velocity and the oxygen:fuel ratio were varied. Tests with a microchannel monolithic catalyst yielded similar or improved hydrogen levels at higher space velocities than with extruded pellets in a packed bed.

Pereira, C.; Bae, J-M.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

247

Steam Generator Management Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 24th EPRI Steam Generator NDE Workshop took place in San Diego, California, July 1113, 2005. It covered one full day and two half days of presentations. Attendees included representatives from domestic and overseas nuclear utilities, nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) vendors, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) service and equipment organizations, research laboratories, and regulatory bodies. This annual workshop serves as a forum for NDE specialists to gather and discuss current steam generator NDE iss...

2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

248

IFP solutions for revamping catalytic reforming units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The decision-making process for the refiner considering a revamp of a catalytic reforming unit comprises many factors. These may be grouped in two broad areas: technical and economic. This paper presents the results of a study performed by IFP that illustrates catalytic reforming unit revamp options. Three IFP processes are described and operating conditions, expected yields, and economic data are presented. The following options are discussed: base case Conventional, fixed-bed, semi-regenerative catalytic reformer; Case 1--revamp using IFP Dualforming technology; Case 2--revamp using IFP Dualforming Plus technology; and Case 3--revamp to IFP Octanizing technology. The study illustrates various options for the refiner to balance unit performance improvements with equipment, site, and economic constraints. The study was performed assuming design feedrate of 98.2 tons/hour (20,000 BPSD) in all cases. Because of the increased need for octane in many refineries, the study assumed that operating severity was set at a design value of 100 research octane number clear (RON). In all of the cases in this study, it was assumed that the existing recycle compressor was reused. Operating pressure differences between the cases is discussed separately. Also, in all cases, a booster compressor was included in order to return export hydrogen pressure to that of the conventional unit.

Gendler, J.L. [HRI, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Domergue, B.; Mank, L. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Downhole steam injector  

SciTech Connect

An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Steam Turbine Developments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...O. Jonas, Corrosion of Steam Turbines, Corrosion: Environments and Industries, Vol 13C, ASM Handbook, ASM International, 2006, p 469â??476...

251

Steam and Condensate Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the late 60's and early 70's oil was plentiful and steam was relatively inexpensive. The switch to low sulphur fuel oil and the oil embargo suddenly changed the picture. The cost of steam rose from about $0.50 per 1,000# to $3.00 or more. Many see costs of $5.00 per 1,000# by 1980. These tremendous increases have caused steam systems, steam traps and condensate systems to become a major factor in overall plant efficiency and profit.

Yates, W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Steam and Condensate Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the late 60's and early 70's oil was plentiful and steam was relatively inexpensive. The switch to low sulphur fuel oil and the oil embargo suddenly changed the picture. The cost of steam rose from $0.50 per 1,000# to today's cost of $4.00 or more. Many see costs of $6.00/$7.00 in the near future. These tremendous increases have caused steam systems, steam traps and condensate systems to become a major factor in overall plant efficiency and profit.

Yates, W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Boiler steam engine with steam recovery and recompression  

SciTech Connect

A boiler type of steam engine is described which uses a conventional boiler with an external combustion chamber which heats water in a pressure chamber to produce steam. A mixing chamber is used to mix the steam from the boiler with recovered recompressed steam. Steam from the mixing chamber actuates a piston in a cylinder, thereafter the steam going to a reservoir in a heat exchanger where recovered steam is held and heated by exhaust gases from the combustion chamber. Recovered steam is then recompressed while being held saturated by a spray of water. Recovered steam from a steam accumulator is then used again in the mixing chamber. Thus, the steam is prevented from condensing and is recovered to be used again. The heat of the recovered steam is saved by this process.

Vincent, O.W.

1980-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

254

Steam in Distribution and Use: Steam Quality Redefined  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam quality is an important measurement in steam generation. It's a measurement of steam to moisture ratio. In use, steam quality takes on a different meaning- steam which maximizes energy transfer. To do this, the steam must be clean, dry, of desired pressure and free of air and non-condensible gases. Objectives in these areas should be set and an action plan implemented. Typical objectives could be to specify steam pressure delivery of maximum pressure and to use steam at the lowest pressure possible. Steam velocity ranges and maximum system pressure drops should be set. Cleaning steam and protecting control devices is an important means of maintaining quality. Draining condensate and venting air and other gases preserves the steam quality at the point of use. Poor pressure control yields poor operation and efficiency. Dirty steam causes valve leaks and maintenance problems. Improper drainage and venting can cause premature corrosion and poor heat transfer.

Deacon, W. T.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Steam in Distribution and Use: Steam Quality Redefined  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Steam quality is an important measurement in steam generation. It's a measurement of steam to moisture ratio. In use, steam quality takes on a different meaning - steam which maximizes energy transfer. To do this, the steam must be clean, dry, of desired pressure and free of air and non-condensable gases. Objectives in these areas should be set and an action plan implemented. Typical objectives could be to specify steam pressure delivery of maximum pressure and to use steam at the lowest pressure possible. Steam velocity ranges and maximum system pressure drops should be set. Cleaning steam and protecting control devices is an important means of maintaining quality. Draining condensate and venting air and other gases preserves the steam quality at the point of use. Poor pressure control yields poor operation and efficiency. Dirty steam causes valve leaks and maintenance problems. Improper drainage and venting can cause premature corrosion and poor heat transfer."

Deacon, W.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product.

Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Industrial Technologies Div.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

97e Intermediate Temperature Catalytic Reforming of Bio-Oil for Distributed Hydrogen Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the world's energy demands rapidly increasing, it is necessary to look to sources other than fossil fuels, preferably those that minimize greenhouse emissions. One such renewable source of energy is biomass, which has the added advantage of being a near-term source of hydrogen. While there are several potential routes to produce hydrogen from biomass thermally, given the near-term technical barriers to hydrogen storage and delivery, distributed technologies such that hydrogen is produced at or near the point of use are attractive. One such route is to first produce bio-oil via fast pyrolysis of biomass close to its source to create a higher energy-density product, then ship this bio-oil to its point of use where it can be reformed to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This route is especially well suited for smaller-scale reforming plants located at hydrogen distribution sites such as filling stations. There is also the potential for automated operation of the conversion system. A system has been developed for volatilizing bio-oil with manageable carbon deposits using ultrasonic atomization and by modifying bio-oil properties, such as viscosity, by blending or reacting bio-oil with methanol. Non-catalytic partial oxidation of bio-oil is then used to achieve significant conversion to CO with minimal aromatic hydrocarbon formation by keeping the temperature at 650 C or less and oxygen levels low. The non-catalytic reactions occur primarily in the gas phase. However, some nonvolatile components of bio-oil present as aerosols may react heterogeneously. The product gas is passed over a packed bed of precious metal catalyst where further reforming as well as water gas shift reactions are accomplished completing the conversion to hydrogen. The approach described above requires significantly lower catalyst loadings than conventional catalytic steam reforming due to the significant conversion in the non-catalytic step. The goal is to reform and selectively oxidize the bio-oil and catalyze the water gas shift reaction without catalyzing methanation or oxidation of CO and H{sub 2}, thus attaining equilibrium levels of H{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2} at the exit of the catalyst bed. Experimental Bio-oil (mixed with varied amounts of methanol to reduce the viscosity and homogenize the bio-oil) or selected bio-oil components are introduced at a measured flow rate through the top of a vertical quartz reactor which is heated using a five zone furnace. The ultrasonic nozzle used to feed the reactants allows the bio-oil to flow down the center of the reactor at a low, steady flow rate. Additionally, the fine mist created by the nozzle allows for intimate mixing with oxygen and efficient heat transfer, providing optimal conditions to achieve high conversion at relatively low temperatures in the non-catalytic step thus reducing the required catalyst loading. Generation of the fine mist is especially important for providing good contact between non-volatile bio-oil components and oxygen. Oxygen and helium are also delivered at the top of the reactor via mass flow meters with the amount of oxygen being varied to maximize the yields of H{sub 2} and CO and the amount of helium being adjusted such that the gas phase residence time in the hot zone is {approx}0.3 and {approx}0.45 s for bio-oil and methanol experiments, respectively. A catalyst bed can be located at the bottom of the reactor tube. To date, catalyst screening experiments have used Engelhard noble metal catalysts. The catalysts used for these experiments were 0.5 % rhodium, ruthenium, platinum, and palladium (all supported on alumina). Experiments were performed using pure alumina as well. Both the catalyst type and the effect of oxygen and steam on the residual hydrocarbons and accumulated carbon containing particulates were investigated. The residence time before the catalyst is varied to determine the importance of the non-catalytic step and its potential effect on the required catalyst loading. Non-catalytic experiments (primarily homogeneous cracking) use a bed of quartz p

Marda, J. R.; Dean, A. M.; Czernik, S.; Evans, R. J.; French, R.; Ratcliff, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

STEAM GENERATOR FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The steam generator described for use in reactor powergenerating systems employs a series of concentric tubes providing annular passage of steam and water and includes a unique arrangement for separating the steam from the water. (AEC)

Kinyon, B.W.; Whitman, G.D.

1963-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

259

Coal-Fired Fluidized Bed Combustion Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The availability of an environmentally acceptable multifuel technology, such as fluidized bed combustion, has encouraged many steam producers/ users to investigate switching from oil or gas to coal. Changes in federal regulations encouraging cogeneration have further enhanced the economic incentives for primary fuel switching. However, this addition of cogeneration to the fuel conversion analysis considerably complicates the investigation. A system design for cogeneration of steam and electricity at a nominal 40,000 pound per hour capacity utilizing fluidized bed combustion is described. The basic system incorporates silo storage of coal, ash, and limestone with dense phase conveying. The system generates power utilizing either a backpressure turbine or a condensing turbine with steam extraction. Three case studies performed for specific end users are presented. The interaction among plant steam requirements, rate purchase structure, and electrical energy buy back rate is discussed. How these factors interact determine the final design and the choice of fuels is illustrated. Because the decision to switch fuel, as well as to cogenerate, is usually economically motivated, an in-depth understanding of the steam/electrical needs and interactions is critical. How these considerations are integrated in the system and the effect they have on the monetary returns are discussed. Electric rate agreements vary significantly from one state to another. Therefore, the examples selected are intended to provide, insight into this variability. For example, one rate structure encourages solid fuel cogeneration. The second is a block structure with low sell back rates making cogeneration difficult to justify. How these rate schedules affected the recommended design illustrates that the system selection is very important.

Thunem, C.; Smith, N.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the fourth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of July 1-Sept 30, 2004 along with a recap of progress from the start of the project on Oct 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2004. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule. This year saw progress in several areas. These areas are: (1) External and internal evaluation of coal based methanol and a fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design set up and initial testing of three laboratory scale steam reformers, (3) Design, set up and initial testing of a laboratory scale autothermal reactor, (4) Hydrogen generation from coal-derived methanol using steam reformation, (5) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (6) Initial catalyst degradation studies with steam reformation and coal based methanol, and (7) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Steam generator designs  

SciTech Connect

A combined cycle is any one of combinations of gas turbines, steam generators or heat recovery equipment, and steam turbines assembled for the reduction in plant cost or improvement of cycle efficiency in the utility power generation process. The variety of combined cycles discussed for the possibilities for industrial applications include gas turbine plus unfired steam generator; gas turbine plus supplementary fired steam generator; gas turbine plus furnace-fired steam generator; and supercharged furnace-fired system generator plus gas turbine. These units are large enough to meet the demands for the utility applications and with the advent of economical coal gasification processes to provide clean fuel, the combined-cycle applications are solicited. (MCW)

Clayton, W.H.; Singer, J.G.

1973-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a catalytic reforming process which comprises contacting a naphtha range feed with a low acidity extrudate comprising an intermediate and/or a large pore acidic zeolite bound with a low acidity refractory oxide under reforming conditions to provide a reaction product of increased aromatic content, the extrudate having been prepared with at least an extrusion-facilitating amount of a low acidity refractory oxide in colloidal form and containing at least one metal species selected from the platinum group metals.

Absil, R.P.; Huss, A. Jr.; McHale, W.D.; Partridge, R.D.

1989-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

263

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diagram of CERTS Microgrid Test Bed Figure 3. Tecogen PrimeCERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed. (California EnergyFigure 1. CERTS Microgrid Test Bed at American Electric

ETO, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

State of Industrial Fluidized Bed Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new combustion technique has been developed in the last decade that permits the burning of low quality coal, lignite and other fuels, while maintaining stack emissions within State and Federal limits. Low quality fuels can be burned directly in fluidized beds while taking advantage of low furnace temperatures am chemical activity within the bed to limit S02 am NOx emissions, thereby eliminating the need for stack gas scrubbing equipment. The excellent heat transfer characteristics of the fluidized beds also result in a reduction of total heat transfer surface requirements, thus reducing the size and cost of steam generators. Recent tests on commercial units have proven the concept. This paper reviews the progress that has been trade in the development of fluidized bed combustion boilers, as well as work currently under way in the United States and overseas. Details on the installation at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., am at other locations are presented, am operational results are discussed. Potential application of fluidized bed boilers in industrial plants using lignite and lignite refuse is also examined.

Mesko, J. E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

Cengarle, María Victoria

266

Steam trap monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Steam generator replacement overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since nuclear power began to be widely used for commercial purposes in the 1960s, unit operators have experienced a variety of problems with major components. Although many of the problems have diminished considerably, those associated with pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators persist. Steam generator problems rank second, behind refueling outages, as the most significant contributor to lost electricity generation. As of December 31, 1995, 38 steam generators had been replaced in 13 of the 72 operating PWRs, and three units had been shut down prematurely, due primarily (or partially) to degradation of their steam generators: Portland General Electric`s Trojan unit, located in Prescott, OR, in 1992; Southern California Edison`s San Onofre 1, located in San Clemente, CA, in 1992; and Sacramento Municipal Utility District`s Rancho Seco unit in 1989. In the coming years, operators of PWRs in the US with degraded steam generators will have to decide whether to make annual repairs (with eventual derating likely), replace the generators or shut the plants down prematurely. To understand the issues and decisions utility managers face, this article examines problems encountered at steam generators over the past few decades and identifies some of the remedies that utility operators and the nuclear community have employed, including operational changes, maintenance, repairs and steam generator replacement.

Chernoff, H. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Wade, K.C. [USDOE Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Waste Steam Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An examination has been made of the recovery of waste steam by three techniques: direct heat exchange to process, mechanical compression, and thermocompression. Near atmospheric steam sources were considered, but the techniques developed are equally applicable to other sources of steam. The interaction of the recovery system with the plant's steam/power system has been included. Typical operating economics have been prepared. It was found that the profitability of most recovery schemes is generally dependent on the techniques used, the existing steam/power system, and the relative costs of steam and power. However, there will always be site-specific factors to consider. It is shown that direct heat exchange and thermocompression will always yield an energy profit when interacting with PRVs in the powerhouse. A set of typical comparisons between the three recovery techniques, interacting with various powerhouse and plant steam system configurations, is presented. A brief outline of the analysis techniques needed to prepare the comparison is also shown. Only operating costs are examined; capital costs are so size - and site-specific as to be impossible to generalize. The operating cost savings may be used to give an indication of investment potential.

Kleinfeld, J. M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Ukraine Steam Partnership  

SciTech Connect

The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

Gurvinder Singh

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Steam deflector assembly for a steam injected gas turbine engine  

SciTech Connect

A steam injected gas turbine engine is described having a combustor, a casing for the combustor and an annular manifold comprising a part of the casing, the annular manifold having an exterior port formed therein and a plurality of holes formed in the manifold leading to the interior of the combustor, the improvement comprising a steam carrying line connected to the port and a steam deflector means for protecting the casing from direct impingement by the steam from the steam line and for distributing the steam about the annular manifold, the steam deflector means being mounted adjacent the port and within the manifold.

Holt, G.A. III.

1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

Methanol reformers for fuel cell powered vehicles: Some design considerations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells are being developed for use in automotive propulsion systems as alternatives for the internal combustion engine in buses, vans, passenger cars. The two most important operational requirements for a stand-alone fuel cell power system for a vehicle are the ability to start up quickly and the ability to supply the necessary power on demand for the dynamically fluctuating load. Methanol is a likely fuel for use in fuel cells for transportation applications. It is a commodity chemical that is manufactured from coal, natural gas, and other feedstocks. For use in a fuel cell, however, the methanol must first be converted (reformed) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture. The desired features for a methanol reformer include rapid start-up, good dynamic response, high fuel conversion, small size and weight, simple construction and operation, and low cost. In this paper the present the design considerations that are important for developing such a reformer, namely: (1) a small catalyst bed for quick starting, small size, and low weight; (2) multiple catalysts for optimum operation of the dissociation and reforming reactions; (3) reforming by direct heat transfer partial oxidation for rapid response to fluctuating loads; and (4) thermal independence from the rest of the fuel cell system. 10 refs., 1 fig.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Steam generator tube failures  

SciTech Connect

A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Initial steam flow regulator for steam turbine start-up  

SciTech Connect

In a combined steam generator-turbine system, a drain type is provided in front of the stop valve to drain the first steam supply with the stop valve closed until the temperature of the valve and/or the temperature of the steam exceeds the temperature of saturation by a predetermined amount, and logic circuitry is provided to generate permissive signals which combine to allow successive admission of steam to the gland seal and to the steam turbine.

Martens, A.; Hobbs, M. M.

1985-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

274

Materials Performance in USC Steam  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Materials Performance in USC Steam: (1) pressure effects on steam oxidation - unique capability coming on-line; (2) hydrogen evolution - hydrogen permeability apparatus to determine where hydrogen goes during steam oxidation; and (3) NETL materials development - steam oxidation resource for NETL developed materials.

G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; N. M. Yanar

2011-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

275

CYCLIC STEAM STIMULATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CYCLIC STEAM STIMULATION ("Huff-and-Puff') (A well-stimulation method) This method is sometimes applied to heavy-oil reservoirs to boost recovery during the primary production...

276

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper will address the following. 1. Factors that determine the feasibility of reducing the plant steam operating pressure. 2. The operating advantages and disadvantages associated with the decreased steam pressure. 3. The economics of steam pressure reduction. Appropriate visual aids will be utilized as part of the discussion.

Sylva, D. M.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Evaluating Steam Trap Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data from these tests, which determined their relative efficiencies, were used in performing economic analyses to determine their equivalent uniform annual cost (EUAC). The comparison was made using a computer program written for the Apple II computer to evaluate overall steam trap economics. This program calculates the EUAC for any steam trap based on 12 input variables including capital, maintenance and steam costs, interest rate and trap life. After determinIng the EUAC, the program will perform sensitivity analyses on any of the twelve variables. (This computer program is available from the author.) This study shows that inverted bucket traps have lower EUAC's under more conditions than other types of traps. Also, this study shows that live steam loss is the heaviest contributor to the annual operating cost of any steam trap and that maintenance frequency and repair cost are also more important than a trap's first cost.

Fuller, N. Y.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

EA-1846: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

46: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration 46: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam Methane Reforming Process Gas Used for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production, Port Arthur, Texas EA-1846: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam Methane Reforming Process Gas Used for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production, Port Arthur, Texas Overview DOE completed a final environmental assessment (EA) for a project under Area I of the Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial Sources and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO2 Use . Based on the analyses in the EA DOE determined that its proposed action - awarding a grant to Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. to design and demonstrate a state-of-the-art system to concentrate carbon dioxide (CO,) from two steam

279

Multifuel reformer R D  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The on-board fuel for fuel cell powered vehicles may be one or more of hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, natural gas, propane, or other liquified petroleum gases. To use hydrogen as the fuel, suitable means of storing, and subsequently delivering, adequate quantities of the gas must be developed. For all other fuels suitable reformers must be developed to convert the fuel to hydrogen or a hydrogen-rich gas mixture at rates corresponding to the varying power demand rates of the automotive system; this is especially true for the lower temperature fuel cells, such as the polymer electrolyte fuel cell which operates at 80{degrees}C and the phosphoric acid fuel cell which operates at 190{degrees}C. This paper discusses the key design and performance characteristics of such hydrogen storage and fuel reformer systems for use in stand-alone fuel cell automotive applications.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

282

Catalytic reforming catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

283

Steam Heat: Winter Fountains in the City  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Joan Brigham Steam Heat: Winter Fountains int h e City Steam is a phenomenon of the winter city. Iteven when the surging steam temporarily blinds them. When I

Brigham, Joan

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

In situ Gas Conditioning in Fuel Reforming for Hydrogen Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications requires cost and energy efficient technologies. The Absorption Enhanced Reforming (AER), developed at ZSW with industrial partners, is aimed to simplify the process by using a high temperature in situ CO2 absorption. The in situ CO2 removal results in shifting the steam reforming reaction equilibrium towards increased hydrogen concentration (up to 95 vol%). The key part of the process is the high temperature CO2 absorbent. In this contribution results of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) investigations on natural minerals, dolomites, silicates and synthetic absorbent materials in regard of their CO2 absorption capacity and absorption/desorption cyclic stability are presented and discussed. It has been found that the inert parts of the absorbent materials have a structure stabilizing effect, leading to an improved cyclic stability of the materials.

Bandi, A.; Specht, M.; Sichler, P.; Nicoloso, N.

2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

285

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution Losses Module 1 June 29, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Distribution System Losses Module Slide 1 Steam Distribution System Losses Module The steam distribution system typically consists of main steam

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

286

Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination  

SciTech Connect

The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND ON-CELL REFORMATION MODELING FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL STACKS  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT Providing adequate and efficient cooling schemes for solid-oxide-fuel-cell (SOFC) stacks continues to be a challenge coincident with the development of larger, more powerful stacks. The endothermic steam-methane reformation reaction can provide cooling and improved system efficiency when performed directly on the electrochemically active anode. Rapid kinetics of the endothermic reaction typically causes a localized temperature depression on the anode near the fuel inlet. It is desirable to extend the endothermic effect over more of the cell area and mitigate the associated differences in temperature on the cell to alleviate subsequent thermal stresses. In this study, modeling tools validated for the prediction of fuel use, on-cell methane reforming, and the distribution of temperature within SOFC stacks, are employed to provide direction for modifying the catalytic activity of anode materials to control the methane conversion rate. Improvements in thermal management that can be achieved through on-cell reforming is predicted and discussed. Two operating scenarios are considered: one in which the methane fuel is fully pre-reformed, and another in which a substantial percentage of the methane is reformed on-cell. For the latter, a range of catalytic activity is considered and the predicted thermal effects on the cell are presented. Simulations of the cell electrochemical and thermal performance with and without on-cell reforming, including structural analyses, show a substantial decrease in thermal stresses for an on-cell reforming case with slowed methane conversion.

Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Jarboe, Daniel T.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Korolev, Alexander; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

288

The development of a 20-inch indirect fired fluidized bed gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report discusses the design, fabrication and operation of a 20'' I.D. fluidized bed gasifier producing medium Btu gas. The reactor is indirectly heated using 30 x 1-inch U-tubes inserted in the inert bed. The U-tubes are heated using flue gases produced from a propane burner system located at the bottom of the reactor. The feed material was dry wood chips fed into the bed with a 6in. auger. The reactor was fed both into the bed and at the top of the bed. The fluidizing medium was superheated steam which was superheated to 1000/degree/F. The gas produced from the reactor was passed through a cyclone for char removal and routed to the flare for combustion and disposal. The parameters measured during the experimental runs were wood feed rate, steam flow rate, steam temperatures, bed temperatures, free board temperatures, product gas temperatures, bed differential pressures, char production, gas production, gas analyses, and tar production. The parameters measured in the laboratory were moisture contents (wood and char), ash contents (wood and char), and tar content. 9 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

Flanigan, V.J.; Sitton, O.C.; Huang, W.E

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided by Fundamental Atomistics Insights  

SciTech Connect

Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a novel hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, Sn/Ni alloy as a potential carbon tolerant reforming catalyst. Sn/Ni alloy was synthesized and tested in steam reforming of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalyst is carbon-tolerant under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by a few characteristics: (a) Knowledge-based, bottom-up approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) The focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

Suljo Linic

2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

290

Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided Fundamental Atomistic Insights  

SciTech Connect

Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, various Ni alloy catalysts as potential carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. The alloy catalysts were synthesized and tested in steam reforming and partial oxidation of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalysts are much more carbon-tolerant than monometallic Ni catalysts under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by two characteristics: (a) knowledge-based, bottomup approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) the focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

Suljo Linic

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

291

Method for improving the steam splits in a multiple steam injection process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for enhancing the uniformity of steam distribution in a multiple steam injection system comprising a steam generator, a steam header, a primary steam line connecting the generator to the header, and secondary steam lines connecting the header to steam injection wells. It comprises: injecting a surfactant into the primary steam line, and mixing the surfactant and steam sufficiently so that the surfactant and the steam enter the header as a foam.

Stowe, G.R. III.

1990-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

292

Chemical Looping Reforming for H2, CO and Syngas Production  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate that the extension of CLC onto oxidants beyond air opens new, highly efficient pathways for production of ultra-pure hydrogen, activation of CO{sub 2} via reduction to CO, and are currently working on production of syngas using nanocomposite Fe-BHA. CLR hold great potential due to fuel flexibility and CO{sub 2} capture. Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is a novel clean combustion technology which offers an elegant and highly efficient route for fossil fuel combustion. In CLC, combustion of a fuel is broken down into two spatially separated steps. In the reducer, the oxygen carrier (typically a metal) supplies the stoichiometric oxygen required for fuel combustion. In the oxidizer, the oxygen-depleted carrier is then re-oxidized with air. After condensation of steam from the effluent of the reducer, a high-pressure, high-purity sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is obtained. In the present study, we apply the CLC principle to the production of high-purity H{sub 2}, CO, and syngas streams by replacing air with steam and/or CO{sub 2} as oxidant, respectively. Using H{sub 2}O as oxidant, pure hydrogen streams can be obtained. Similarly, using CO{sub 2} as oxidant, CO is obtained, thus opening an efficient route for CO{sub 2} utilization. Using steam and CO{sub 2} mixtures for carrier oxidation should thus allow production of syngas with adjustable CO:H{sub 2} ratios. Overall, these processes result in Chemical Looping Reforming (CLR), i.e. the net overall reaction is the steam and/or dry reforming of the respective fuel.

Bhavsar,Saurabh; Najera,Michelle; Solunke,Rahul; Veser,Götz

2001-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

293

Steam Generator Management Program: Steam Generator Engineering Training Course 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update provides training material that was prepared for the first of three Steam Generator Engineer Training Program courses. The Steam Generator Engineer Training Program is a comprehensive training program of the Steam Generator Management Program. The content of this course is based on an industry-developed job analysis for a steam generator engineer. The job analysis resulted in eight high-level tasks; therefore, eight training modules will be developed over a three-year period beginni...

2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

294

Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop  

SciTech Connect

The pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop was held June 5 and 6, 1979, at The Meadowlands Hilton Hotel, Secaucus, New Jersey. Eleven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The papers include reviews of the US DOE and EPRI programs in this area and papers by Swedish, West German, British and American organizations. The British papers concern the joint program of the USA, UK and FRG at Leatherhead. The key factor in several papers is the use of fluidized bed combustors, gas turbines, and steam turbines in combined-cycle power plants. One paper examines several combined-cycle alternatives. (LTN)

,

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Optical wet steam monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Optical wet steam monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

297

FEEDSTOCK-FLEXIBLE REFORMER SYSTEM (FFRS) FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL (SOFC)- QUALITY SYNGAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory funded this research collaboration effort between NextEnergy and the University of Michigan, who successfully designed, built, and tested a reformer system, which produced highquality syngas for use in SOFC and other applications, and a novel reactor system, which allowed for facile illumination of photocatalysts. Carbon and raw biomass gasification, sulfur tolerance of non-Platinum Group Metals (PGM) based (Ni/CeZrO2) reforming catalysts, photocatalysis reactions based on TiO2, and mild pyrolysis of biomass in ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at low and medium temperatures (primarily 450 to 850 C) in an attempt to retain some structural value of the starting biomass. Despite a wide range of processes and feedstock composition, a literature survey showed that, gasifier products had narrow variation in composition, a restriction used to develop operating schemes for syngas cleanup. Three distinct reaction conditions were investigated: equilibrium, autothermal reforming of hydrocarbons, and the addition of O2 and steam to match the final (C/H/O) composition. Initial results showed rapid and significant deactivation of Ni/CeZrO2 catalysts upon introduction of thiophene, but both stable and unstable performance in the presence of sulfur were obtained. The key linkage appeared to be the hydrodesulfurization activity of the Ni reforming catalysts. For feed stoichiometries where high H2 production was thermodynamically favored, stable, albeit lower, H2 and CO production were obtained; but lower thermodynamic H2 concentrations resulted in continued catalyst deactivation and eventual poisoning. High H2 levels resulted in thiophene converting to H2S and S surface desorption, leading to stable performance; low H2 levels resulted in unconverted S and loss in H2 and CO production, as well as loss in thiophene conversion. Bimetallic catalysts did not outperform Ni-only catalysts, and small Ni particles were found to have lower activities under S-free conditions, but did show less effect of S on performance, in this study. Imidazolium-based ILs, choline chloride compounds and low-melting eutectics of metal nitrates were evaluated, and it was found that, ILs have some capacity to dissolve cellulose and show thermal stability to temperatures where pyrolysis begins, have no vapor pressure, (simplifying product recoveries), and can dissolve ionic metal salts, allowing for the potential of catalytic reactions on breakdown intermediates. Clear evidence of photoactive commercial TiO2 was obtained, but in-house synthesis of photoactive TiO2 proved difficult, as did fixed-bed gasification, primarily due to the challenge of removing the condensable products from the reaction zone quickly enough to prevent additional reaction. Further investigation into additional non-PGM catalysts and ILs is recommended as a follow-up to this work.

Kelly Jezierski; Andrew Tadd; Johannes Schwank; Roland Kibler; David McLean; Mahesh Samineni; Ryan Smith; Sameer Parvathikar; Joe Mayne; Tom Westrich; Jerry Mader; F. Michael Faubert

2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

298

Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on deaerators in industrial steam systems provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Inspect and Repair Steam Traps  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Steam generator tube rupture study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

Free, Scott Thomas

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby

Thomas, Andrew

302

Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N

Thomas, Andrew

303

Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Gym Lot Corbett Lot Greenhouse Patch Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam

Thomas, Andrew

304

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the sixth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) Autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (2) Catalyst deactivation, (3) Steam reformer transient response, and (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Novel Reforming Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

306

NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

defining early what contractors should accomplish < establishing contracts ahead of time < minimizing cost while maintaining quality by * maximizing competition and use of incentives * using past performance information in awarding work * managing the NEPA process as a project This guidance provides: < model statements of work < information on contract types and incentives < direction on effective NEPA contract management by the NEPA Document Manager < a system for measuring NEPA process costs < NEPA contractor evaluation procedures < details on the DOE NEPA Web site U.S. Department of Energy, Office of NEPA Policy and Assistance, December 1996 NEPA CONTRACTING REFORM GUIDANCE Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

307

Multizone catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbon feed in two sequential catalyst zones. It comprises: a first catalyst zone contains a first catalytic composite consisting essentially of a platinum component, a germanium component, a refractory inorganic oxide, and a halogen component; and a second catalyst zone contains a second catalytic composite comprising a platinum component, a germanium component, a refractory inorganic oxide, a halogen component, and catalytically effective amounts of a metal promoter selected from rhenium, rhodium, ruthenium, cobalt, nickel, and iridium, and mixtures thereof.

Moser, M.C.; Lawson, R.J.; Antos, G.J.; Wang, L.; Parulekar, V.N.

1990-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

308

Patent Counsel - Patent Reform | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Patent Counsel - Patent Reform Patent Counsel - Patent Reform America invents Act 20112.pdf More Documents & Publications PETITION FOR ADVANCE WAIVER OF PATENT RIGHTS Office of...

309

Fuzzy control of steam turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: PID control, comparison of PID and fuzzy control, fuzzy logic control, robustness, speed control, steam turbine control

N. Kiupel; P. M. Frank; O. Bux

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Steam Turbine Performance Engineer's Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Steam Turbine Performance Engineer's Guide is meant to present the steam turbine performance engineer with the expected and important functions and responsibilities necessary to succeed in this position that are not necessarily taught in college. The instructions and recommendations in this guide, when properly executed, will improve the effectiveness of steam turbine performance engineers, positively affecting both the performance and reliability of the steam turbines under their care.

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

311

Options for Generating Steam Efficiently  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes how plant engineers can efficiently generate steam when there are steam generators and Heat Recovery Steam Generators in their plant. The process consists of understanding the performance characteristics of the various equipment as a function of load and operating them close to the maximum efficiency point.

Ganapathy, V.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

2004-05 Research Activities from the Office of the Vice President for Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cell Type" Steam Methane Reformers with Concentric Annular Catalyst Beds At small sizes, a more cost oxidation must be used. In a preferential oxidation system, the gas is passed over a catalyst bed with catalyst beds. The reformer plates are arranged in a stack. One side of each plate is coated with a steam

Ginzel, Matthew

313

STEAM GENERATOR PRELIMINARY DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual study on design of sodium-cooled reactor steam generators was conducted. Included is a detailed description of the preliminary design and analysis, based on the use of known materials and existing methods of fabrication. (See also APAE-41 Vols. I and III.) (J.R.D.)

1959-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

314

Catalytic reforming optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have previously examined correlations between catalytic reforming parameters for an L-35-6 unit at the Gor'knefteorgsintez Industrial Association. Experimental design was used to derive polynomial equations describing the correlations for each reactor. Further research on optimizing the reforming has been based on these results. They adopted the following strategy to define the best working parameters: they define a temperature that would provide the maximum target-product yield while maintaining a given working life. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons are formed by the naphthene dehydrogenation, which is endothermic, so the greater the temperature drop over the height, the more rapid the process. The temperature difference thus indicates the current catalyst activity. To increase the target-product yield, one must raise the inlet temperature and ensure the largest drop across the catalyst. They examined an algorithm with fixed inlet conditions as regards flow rate and raw material composition. This algorithm provides the basis of software for the automatic control of the L-35-6 reactor unit at the Gor'knefteorgsintez Industrial Association. The system has been checked out and put into experimental operation.

Mazina, S.G.; Rybtsov, V.V.; Priss-Titarenko, T.A.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

315

Fluidized bed calciner apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project. 1990 Annual report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this DOE Cooperative Agreement is to conduct a cost-shared clean coal technology project to demonstrate the feasibility of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology and to evaluate economic, environmental, and operational benefits of CFB steam generators on a utility scale. At the conclusion of the Phase 2 program, testing related to satisfying these objectives was completed. Data analysis and reporting are scheduled for completion by October 1991. (VC)

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Bed Surface Patchiness in Gravel-Bed Rivers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this case was a completely armored, immobile bed. Table 2.4that gravel beds are armored because equal mobil- ity

Nelson, Peter August

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diagram of CERTS Microgrid Test Bed Figure 3. Tecogen Prime2009 CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed J. ETO, Lawrenceof the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the

Eto, Joe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Line Diagram of CERTS Microgrid Test Bed Figure 3. TecogenCALGARY 2009 CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed J. ETO,The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to

Eto, Joe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Thermodynamics and Transport Phenomena in High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high temperature process heat. The overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. An overview of high temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic thermodynamics, experimental methods, heat and mass transfer phenomena, and computational fluid dynamics modeling.

James E. O'Brien

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

demands, and cogeneration. The Steam Distribution System Losses module will cover steam leaks, steam traps Analysis ­ (SSAT) Fuel selection Steam demands Cogeneration Steam Distribution System Losses - (3EDOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Welcome Module - 1 8

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

322

Recent Advances in the Capture/Sequestration of Volatile ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... would work collaboratively to solve the technical challenges and develop the ... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes.

323

Impact of Particle Agglomeration on Accumulation Rates in the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

324

Liquidus Temperature Studies for High Level Nuclear Waste Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

325

Burst, Ring and Biaxial Creep of Zircaloy Cladding – Applications to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

326

The Effect of Particle Geometry on the Dissolution Behavior of Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

327

Functionalized Nanoporous Sorbent Materials for Chemical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

328

The Effects of Lithium Nitrate on Highly Active Liquor in the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

329

Viscosity of Multicomponent Glasses as a Function of Temperature ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

330

Determining Thermal Conductivity of Simulated Feed for High Level ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

331

Thermal Degradation and Immobilisation of Spent Ion Exchange ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

332

Advanced Electrochemical Waste Forms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

333

Sodalite-Based Forms for Wastes Containing Actinides and Halides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

334

Technology Development for Nuclear Waste Stabilization II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity ... A total of 8 sludge batches have been processed through the DWPF ...

335

Adsorption of of Radioactive Iodine from Used Nuclear Fuel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

336

(FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

337

Environmental Cracking of Nickel Alloys in Bicarbonate and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

338

Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for the Immobilisation of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

339

Migration of Iodine Solidified in Ettringite into Compacted Bentonite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

340

REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) Modeling and Process Control in the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

--No Title--  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A mixed waste treatability study will be performed to test the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) technology on SRS Low Activity Waste (LAW) modified to simulate Hanford waste....

342

Steam assisted gas turbine engine  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine is disclosed which has an integral steam power system consisting of heat absorbing boilers which convert an unpressurized liquid into an expanded and heated steam by utilizing heat normally lost through component cooling systems and the exhaust system. Upon completion of the steam power cycle, the steam is condensed back to a liquid state through a condensing system located within the compressor and other functional components of the gas turbine engine. A system of high pressure air and friction seals restrict steam or liquid condensate within designed flow bounds. The gas turbine engine disclosed is designed to give improved fuel efficiency and economy for aircraft and land use applications.

Coronel, P.D.

1982-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

343

Condensate Polishing Performance Assessment: Use of Separate Bed Single Vessel Designs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI guidelines recommend the use of condensate polishing in fossil power stations to provide on-going protection against the ingress of impurities and thus minimize corrosion and deposition problems that could otherwise occur in steam/water cycles. The most commonly used types of polishing plants rely on the use of mixed beds of cation and anion exchange resins. Unfortunately, although the effectiveness of properly designed and operated mixed bed polishers is well established, their use can require a si...

2008-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

344

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed Title CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2010 Authors Lasseter, Robert H., Joseph H. Eto, Ben...

345

Steam System Balancing and Tuning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steam System Balancing and Steam System Balancing and Tuning Building America Stakeholder Meeting Austin, TX Jayne Choi, Energy Analyst, CNT Energy March 2, 2012 PARR Current collaboration with GTI as a part of the PARR Building America team - Steam Systems Balancing and Tuning Study - Heating season 2011-2012 Background In Chicago, heating is the focus of residential energy use Of the 470,000 multifamily units in the Chicago region, at least 70,000 of those are steam heated Old steam systems invariably suffer from imbalance - Tenants must use supplemental heat or open their windows to cool their apartments during the heating season Buildings are often overheated Problem Statement (CNT Energy) Steam Heating Steam heat was the best option for buildings constructed between 1900 and 1930

346

Catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Phase II. Final research report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wright-Malta gasification process is characterized by low-temperature, catalyzed steam gasification in a pressurized rotary kiln. Fresh biomass moves slowly and continuously through the kiln, where it is gradually heated to around 1200/sup 0/F in an atmosphere of 300 psi steam. During its traverse, pyrolysis and reaction of steam with the nascent char convert nearly all of the organic solids to the gaseous phase. The volatile pyrolysis products pass through the kiln co-currently with the solids and are similarly cracked and steam-reformed within the kiln to fixed gases. Heat for the gasification process is provided by sensible heat recovered from the product gas and the wood decomposition exotherm, making the process inherently very energy-efficient. This report summarizes the work done during the experimental, laboratory-scale phase of development of the W-M biomass gasification process. Two bench-scale experimental gasifiers were constructed and tested: the ''minikiln'', a batch-feed, rotating autoclave; and the ''biogasser'', a stationary, continuous-feed, tubular reactor with zone heating and auger transport. Studies were carried out in these reactors to determine the extent of conversion of biomass solids to gas, and the makeup of the product gas, over a wide range of process conditions. The process variables that were investigated included reactor pressure and temperature, catalyst type and concentration, moisture content and type of biomass feed.

Hooverman, R.H.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

High severity catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-severity catalytic reforming process is described comprising: (a) passing a mixture comprising a catalytic reforming feed stream and a recycle stream into a catalytic reforming reaction zone which is maintained at high-severity reforming conditions; (b) cooling an effluent stream comprising hydrogen and hydrocarbonaceous catalytic reforming reaction products which is withdrawn from the reaction zone; (c) passing the cooled effluent stream into a vapor-liquid separation zone and recovering therefrom a liquid stream comprising hydrocarbons and a hydrogen-rich gas stream; (d) passing the hydrogen-rich gas stream through an adsorption zone wherein the gas is contacted with a treating material which removes polycyclic aromatic compounds from the gas stream, the compounds remaining in the adsorption zone; (e) mixing a portion of the hydrogen-rich gas stream, which is the recycle stream, with the feed stream to form the charge stock mixture and withdrawing the balance of the hydrogen-rich gas stream, which is denoted as net hydrogen, from the catalytic reforming area, all of the hydrogen-rich gas stream being substantially free of polycyclic aromatic compounds; and (f) fractionating the liquid stream and recovering an overhead product comprising light hydrocarbons and a bottoms product comprising reformate.

Bennett, R.W.; Cottrell, P.R.; Gilsdorf, N.L.; Winfield, M.D.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

348

ADVANCED STEAM GENERATORS  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about climate change have encouraged significant interest in concepts for ultra-low or ''zero''-emissions power generation systems. In some proposed concepts, nitrogen is removed from the combustion air and replaced with another diluent such as carbon dioxide or steam. In this way, formation of nitrogen oxides is prevented, and the exhaust stream can be separated into concentrated CO{sub 2} and steam or water streams. The concentrated CO{sub 2} stream could then serve as input to a CO{sub 2} sequestration process or utilized in some other way. Some of these concepts are illustrated in Figure 1. This project is an investigation of one approach to ''zero'' emission power generation. Oxy-fuel combustion is used with steam as diluent in a power cycle proposed by Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) [1,2]. In oxy-fuel combustion, air separation is used to produce nearly pure oxygen for combustion. In this particular concept, the combustion temperatures are moderated by steam as a diluent. An advantage of this technique is that water in the product stream can be condensed with relative ease, leaving a pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration. Because most of the atmospheric nitrogen has been separated from the oxidant, the potential to form any NOx pollutant is very small. Trace quantities of any minor pollutants species that do form are captured with the CO{sub 2} or can be readily removed from the condensate. The result is a nearly zero-emission power plant. A sketch of the turbine system proposed by CES is shown in Figure 2. NETL is working with CES to develop a reheat combustor for this application. The reheat combustion application is unusual even among oxy-fuel combustion applications. Most often, oxy-fuel combustion is carried out with the intent of producing very high temperatures for heat transfer to a product. In the reheat case, incoming steam is mixed with the oxygen and natural gas fuel to control the temperature of the output stream to about 1480 K. A potential concern is the possibility of quenching non-equilibrium levels of CO or unburned fuel in the mixing process. Inadequate residence times in the combustor and/or slow kinetics could possibly result in unacceptably high emissions. Thus, the reheat combustor design must balance the need for minimal excess oxygen with the need to oxidize the CO. This paper will describe the progress made to date in the design, fabrication, and simulation of a reheat combustor for an advanced steam generator system, and discuss planned experimental testing to be conducted in conjunction with NASA Glenn Research Center-Plumb Brook Station.

Richards, Geo. A.; Casleton, Kent H.; Lewis, Robie E.; Rogers, William A. (U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory); Woike, Mark R.; Willis; Brian P. (NASA Glenn Research Center)

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

349

CFCC Development Program: commercial plant stacked combustor/steam generator design evaluation (Task 2. 1)  

SciTech Connect

The Coal Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) is the unique power plant concept developed under the leadership of the General Electric Company to provide a direct coal-burning gas turbine and steam turbine combined cycle power plant. The advantages of the combined cycle for higher efficiency and the potential of the pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) combustor for improvements in emissions could offer a new and attractive option to the electric utility industry after its successful development. The CFCC approach provides cooling of the fluid bed combustor through the use of steam tubes in the bed, which supply a steam turbine-generator. The partially cooled combustion gases exiting from the combustor drive a gas turbine-generator after passing through a hot-gas cleanup train. On the basis of previous studies and confirming work under this contract, General Electric continues to believe that the CFCC approach offers these important advantages over alternate approaches: higher power plant efficiency in the combustor temperature range of interest; reduced combustor/steam generator corrosion potential, due to low fluid-bed tube temperature (as contrasted to the air in tube cycle); reduced hot-gas cleanup flow rate (as contrasted with the uncooled combustor cycle); and increased gas turbine bucket life through use of corrosion resistant material protection systems.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

352

Mississippi Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Mississippi Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

353

Louisiana Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Louisiana Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

354

Geothermal Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(Redirected from Dry Steam) (Redirected from Dry Steam) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home General List of Dry Steam Plants List of Flash Steam Plants Steam Power Plants Dry Steam Power Plants Simple Dry Steam Powerplant process description - DOE EERE 2012 Dry steam plants use hydrothermal fluids that are primarily steam. The steam travels directly to a turbine, which drives a generator that produces electricity. The steam eliminates the need to burn fossil fuels to run the turbine (also eliminating the need to transport and store fuels). These plants emit only excess steam and very minor amounts of gases.[1] Dry steam power plants systems were the first type of geothermal power generation plants built (they were first used at Lardarello in Italy in 1904). Steam technology is still effective today at currently in use at The

355

CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

Zhen Fan

2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

356

dist_steam.pdf  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

District Steam Usage Form District Steam Usage Form 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 1. Timely submission of this report is mandatory under Public Law 93-275, as amended. 2. This completed questionnaire is due by 3. Data reported on this questionnaire are for the entire building identified in the label to the right. 4. Data may be submitted directly on this questionnaire or in any other format, such as a computer-generated listing, which provides the same i nformation and is conve nient for y our company. a. You may submit a single report for the entire building, or if it i s easier, a separate report for each of several accounts in the building. These will then be aggregated by the survey contractor. b. If you are concerned about your individual account information, you may c

357

Water cooled steam jet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Steam separator latch assembly  

SciTech Connect

A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Kobsa, Irvin R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Steam separator latch assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Method for using fast fluidized bed dry bottom coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbonaceous solid material such as coal is gasified in a fast fluidized bed gasification system utilizing dual fluidized beds of hot char. The coal in particulate form is introduced along with oxygen-containing gas and steam into the fast fluidized bed gasification zone of a gasifier assembly wherein the upward superficial gas velocity exceeds about 5.0 ft/sec and temperature is 1500.degree.-1850.degree. F. The resulting effluent gas and substantial char are passed through a primary cyclone separator, from which char solids are returned to the fluidized bed. Gas from the primary cyclone separator is passed to a secondary cyclone separator, from which remaining fine char solids are returned through an injection nozzle together with additional steam and oxygen-containing gas to an oxidation zone located at the bottom of the gasifier, wherein the upward gas velocity ranges from about 3-15 ft/sec and is maintained at 1600.degree.-200.degree. F. temperature. This gasification arrangement provides for increased utilization of the secondary char material to produce higher overall carbon conversion and product yields in the process.

Snell, George J. (Fords, NJ); Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Steam Condensation Induced Waterhammer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is the type of waterhammer that kills people. It's initiating mechanism is much different than the image most engineers have of what causes waterhammer-- i.e. fast moving steam picking up a slug of condensate and hurling it downstream against an elbow or a valve. Condensation Induced Waterhammer can be 100 times more powerful than this type of waterhammer. Because it does not require flowing steam, it often occurs during relatively quiescent periods when operators least expect it. It's most often initiated by opening a valve, even a drain valve to remove condensate. The overpressure from an event can easily exceed 1000 psi. This is enough pressure to fracture a cast iron valve, blow out a steam gasket, or burst an accordion type expansion joint. And, in fact, failure of each of these components in separate condensation induced waterhammer accidents has resulted in operator fatalities. Operators and engineers need to understand this type of waterhammer so they can avoid procedures which can initiate it and designs which are susceptible to it.

Kirsner, W.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Removal of H{sub2}S from geothermal steam by catalytic oxidation process: bench scale testing results. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

A process was investigated to remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub2}S) from geothermal steam. This process is an upstream steam treatment process which utilizes a catalytic oxidation reaction to convert H{sub2}S in geothermal steam to water vapor and sulfur. The process consists of passing geothermal steam, containing H{sub2}S and other noncondensible gases, through fixed beds of activated carbon catalyst. Oxygen is provided by injection of air or oxygen upstream of the catalyst beds. The treated steam, with H{sub2}S being almost completely removed, passes to steam turbines for power generation. The elemental sulfur produced deposits on the catalyst surface and is retained. The catalyst activity decreases gradually with sulfur accumulation. Sulfur removal, and catalyst regeneration, is accomplished by solvent extraction. Sulfur is recovered from solvent by evaporation/crystallization. Bench scale experimental work on this process was performed to determine its performance and limits of applicability to power generation systems employing geothermal steam. The bench scale system employed a one-inch diameter reactor, a steam supply with controlled temperature and pressure, an injection system for adding {Hsub2}S and other gases at controlled rates, and instrumentation for control and measurement of temperatures, pressures, flow rates and presssure drop. H{sub2}S and other analyses were performed by wet chemistry techniques.

Li, C.T.; Brouns, R.A.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Steam Generator Management Program: Alloy 800 Steam Generator Tubing Experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear grade (NG) Alloy 800 has been used for steam generator tubing since 1972 in over 50 nuclear power plants worldwide. The operational performance of this alloy has been very good, although some degradation modes have recently been observed. This report describes worldwide operating experience for Alloy 800 steam generator tubing along with differences in tubing material, plant design, and operating conditions that can affect tube degradation. The various types of plants with Alloy 800 steam generat...

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

364

Topping PCFB combustion plant with supercritical steam pressure  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted to develop a new type of coal fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called a second generation or topping pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustion (topping PCFB) plant, offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 46 percent (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized coal fired plants with scrubbers. The topping PCFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustor (PCFB), and the combustion of carbonizer fuel gas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2,300 F and higher. After completing pilot plant tests of a carbonizer, a PCFB, and a gas turbine topping combustor, all being developed for this new plant, the authors calculated a higher heating value efficiency of 46.2 percent for the plant. In that analysis, the plant operated with a conventional 2,400 psig steam cycle with 1,000 F superheat and reheat steam and a 2.5 inch mercury condenser back pressure. This paper identifies the efficiency gains that this plant will achieve by using supercritical pressure steam conditions.

Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); White, J. [Parsons Power Group Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Hiring Reform | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hiring Reform Hiring Reform Hiring Reform President Obama's Memorandum dated May 11, 2010, Improving the Federal Recruitment and Hiring Process, is Phase I of the Administration's comprehensive initiative to address major, long-standing impediments to recruiting and hiring the best and the brightest into the Federal civilian workforce. The Memorandum is based on issues that DOE and others brought to the attention of OPM, and it is designed to help Agencies build the workforce you need to achieve your goals. The Presidential Memorandum launches the Obama Administration's flagship personnel policy reform initiative. It builds on a nearly year-long collaboration between OPM and Agencies aimed at streamlining the hiring process and recruiting top talent, especially for mission-critical jobs.

366

Steam condensate leakage  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a multi-program research and development center owned by the United States Department of Energy and operated by the University of Chicago. The majority of the buildings on site use steam for heating and other purposes. Steam is generated from liquid water at the site`s central boiler house and distributed around the site by means of large pipes both above and below the ground. Steam comes into each building where it is converted to liquid condensate, giving off heat which can be used by the building. The condensate is then pumped back to the boiler house where it will be reheated to steam again. The process is continual but is not perfectly efficient. A substantial amount of condensate is being lost somewhere on site. The lost condensate has both economic and environmental significance. To compensate for lost condensate, makeup water must be added to the returned condensate at the boiler house. The water cost itself will become significant in the future when ANL begins purchasing Lake Michigan water. In addition to the water cost, there is also the cost of chemically treating the water to remove impurities, and there is the cost of energy required to heat the water, as it enters the boiler house 1000 F colder than the condensate return. It has been estimated that only approximately 60% of ANL`s steam is being returned as condensate, thus 40% is being wasted. This is quite costly to ANL and will become significantly more costly in the future when ANL begins purchasing water from Lake Michigan. This study locates where condensate loss is occurring and shows how much money would be saved by repairing the areas of loss. Shortly after completion of the study, one of the major areas of loss was repaired. This paper discusses the basis for the study, the areas where losses are occurring, the potential savings of repairing the losses, and a hypothesis as to where the unaccounted for loss is occurring.

Midlock, E.B.; Thuot, J.R.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Agenda for Tuesday, November 6, 2007 Location: BCS Incorporated, 8929 Stephens Road, Laurel, MD. 20723 410-997-7778 8:30 - 9:00 Continental Breakfast 9:00 DOE Targets, Tools and Technology o Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets DOE, Arlene Anderson o H2A Overview, NREL, Darlene Steward o Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Cost Analysis DTI, Brian James 10:00 Research Review o Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production Systems, H2Gen, Sandy Thomas o Integrated Short Contact Time Hydrogen Generator, GE Global Research, Wei Wei o Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming, NREL, Darlene Steward o High Pressure Steam Ethanol Reforming, ANL, Romesh Kumar

368

Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Alliance to Save Energy, a national nonprofit organization based in Washington DC, and the U.S. Department of Energy are working with energy efficiency suppliers to promote the comprehensive upgrade of industrial steam systems. Like EPA's Green Lights and DOE's Motor Challenge, the Steam Power Partnership program will encourage industrial energy consumers to retrofit their steam plants wherever profitable. The Alliance has organized a "Steam Team" of trade associations, consulting engineering firms, and energy efficiency companies to help develop this public- private initiative.

Jones, T.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Electron Beam Powder Bed Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced Materials, Processes and Applications for Additive Manufacturing : Electron Beam Powder Bed Processes Program Organizers: Andrzej ...

370

Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six  

SciTech Connect

Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make.), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries).

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

Jukkola, Walfred W. (Westport, CT); Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY); Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C. (Bethel, CT); McCoy, Daniel E. (Williamsport, PA); Fisher, Barry L. (Montgomery, PA); Saiers, Timothy L. (Williamsport, PA); Karstetter, Marlin E. (Loganton, PA)

1981-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

372

Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform By: Secretary...

373

Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oversight and Government Reform Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives...

374

Air-cooled vacuum steam condenser  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a steam powered system. It comprises: a turbine for converting steam energy into mechanical energy upon expansion of steam therein, a boiler for generating steam to be fed to the turbine, and a conduit arrangement coupling the boiler to the turbine and then recoupling the turbine exhaust to the boiler through steam condensing mechanisms.

Larinoff, M.W.

1990-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

375

Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SGP-TR-169 Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam- Water Relative Permeability Peter A. O by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. Mobile steam mass fraction was established by separate steam and water inlets or by correlating with previous results. The measured steam-water relative

Stanford University

376

Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Steam pretreatment is the reaction of coal with steam at temperatures well below those usually used for solubilization. The objective of the proposed work is to test the application of steam pretreatment to coal liquefaction. This quarter, a 300 ml stirred autoclave for liquefaction tests were specified and ordered, procedures for extraction tests were reestablished, and the synthesis of four model compounds was completed. Two of these compounds remain to be purified.

Graff, R.A.; Balogh-Nair, V.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief  

SciTech Connect

A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

Not Available

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Degradation of Steam Generator Internals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 1999 ... Regulatory Perspective on Industry's Response to Generic Letter 97-06, " Degradation of Steam Generator Internals" by S. Coffin, M. Subudhi, ...

379

Downhole steam injector. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, E.

1981-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

380

Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine induustrial plant study  

SciTech Connect

Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100[degrees]F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600[degrees]F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study  

SciTech Connect

Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood to hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide was repeatedly demonstrated in batch reactors varying in size from 50 mL to 7.6 L. The different wood sources (e.g., swamp maple, poplar, and commercial wood flour) were converted in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst and base at relatively low temperatures (e.g., 310 �������°C) at sub-critical pressures sufficient to maintain the liquid phase. Both precious metal and base metal catalysts were found to be active for the liquid phase hydrolysis and reforming of wood. Pt-based catalysts, particularly Pt-Re, were shown to be more selective toward breaking C-C bonds, resulting in a higher selectivity to hydrogen versus methane. Ni-based catalysts were found to prefer breaking C-O bonds, favoring the production of methane. The project showed that increasing the concentration of base (base to wood ratio) in the presence of Raney Ni catalysts resulted in greater selectivity toward hydrogen but at the expense of increasing the production of undesirable organic acids from the wood, lowering the amount of wood converted to gas. It was shown that by modifying Ni-based catalysts with dopants, it was possible to reduce the base concentration while maintaining the selectivity toward hydrogen and increasing wood conversion to gas versus organic acids. The final stage of the project was the construction and testing of a demonstration unit for H2 production. This continuous flow demonstration unit consisted of wood slurry and potassium carbonate feed pump systems, two reactors for hydrolysis and reforming, and a gas-liquid separation system. The technical challenges associated with unreacted wood fines and Raney Ni catalyst retention limited the demonstration unit to using a fixed bed Raney Ni catalyst form. The lower activity of the larger particle Raney Ni in turn limited the residence time and thus the wood mass flow feed rate to 50 g min-1 for a 1 wt% wood slurry. The project demonstrated continuous H2 yields with unmodified, fixed bed Raney Ni, from 63% to 100% with correspond

Sean C. Emerson; Timothy D. Davis; A. Peles; Ying She; Joshua Sheffel; Rhonda R. Willigan; Thomas H. Vanderspurt; Tianli Zhu

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

383

Influence of Reduction Pretreatment and Methane Reforming on Nickel Solubility in YSZ Grains and Nickel Sintering within Ni-YSZ SOFC Anode Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Internal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels (e.g. methane or natural gas) can improve the thermal efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) by balancing exothermic electrochemical oxidation of H2 and CO at the anode/cathode interface with endothermic steam reforming reactions on the anode1. Generally the rate of reforming is much greater than the rate of H2 and CO oxidation leading to extensive thermal gradients across the cell that can compromise the physical integrity of the cell. Therefore, methods to control reformation activity and predict thermal gradients are needed. Computational modeling is used to predict thermal gradients and fuel conversion profiles across the cell, thus accurate and predictable methane reforming kinetics are required. Significant discrepancies in activation energy, rate expressions, and rate constants for methane reforming over nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) are reported in the open literature1-4. The objective of this work is to provide clarity on factors leading to discrepancies in kinetic information reported in the literature and identify potential methods to control reforming rates over NiYSZ anodes. Effects of pretreatment and reforming on Ni microstructure and activity of NiYSZ anodes for methane reforming were examined under open-circuit conditions.

Strohm, James J.; King, David L.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Lea, Alan S.; Wang, Chong M.; Singh, Prabhakar

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Steam Generator Management Program: Assessment of Steam Generator Tube Plugs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI Steam Generator Management Program guidelines require that utilities perform integrity assessments of all steam generator (SG) components, including tube plugs. SG inspection outages should specifically include monitoring of degradation in tube hardware such as plugs. This report provides guidance for utility engineers to use in determining tube plug inspection requirements, including scope, technique, and periodicity.BackgroundGenerally, utilities perform ...

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

385

Steam generator and circulator model for the HELAP code  

SciTech Connect

An outline is presented of the work carried out in the 1974 fiscal year on the GCFBR safety research project consisting of the development of improved steam generator and circulator (steam turbine driven helium compressor) models which will eventually be inserted in the HELAP (1) code. Furthermore, a code was developed which will be used to generate steady state input for the primary and secondary sides of the steam generator. The following conclusions and suggestions for further work are made: (1) The steam-generator and circulator model are consistent with the volume and junction layout used in HELAP, (2) with minor changes these models, when incorporated in HELAP, could be used to simulate a direct cycle plant, (3) an explicit control valve model is still to be developed and would be very desirable to control the flow to the turbine during a transient (initially this flow will be controlled by using the existing check valve model); (4) the friction factor in the laminar flow region is computed inaccurately, this might cause significant errors in loss-of-flow accidents; and (5) it is felt that HELAP will still use a large amount of computer time and will thus be limited to design basis accidents without scram or loss of flow transients with and without scram. Finally it may also be used as a test bed for the development of prototype component models which would be incorporated in a more sophisticated system code, developed specifically for GCFBR's. (auth)

Ludewig, H.

1975-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Turbocompressor downhole steam-generating system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a downhole steam-generating system comprising: an air compressor; a steam generating unit, including: a combustor for combusting fuel with the compressed air from the compressor producing combustor exhaust products; and steam conversion means, in indirect heat-exchange relationship with the combustor, for converting water which is fed into the steam-conversion means into steam; a turbine which is rotated by the combustor exhaust products and steam from the steam-generating unit, the rotational motion of the turbine is mechanically coupled to the air compressor to drive the air compressor; and control bypass means associated with the steam generating unit and turbine for regulating the relative amounts of the combustor exhaust product and steam delivered to the turbine from the steam generating unit. The air compressor and turbine form an integral turbocompressor unit. The turbocompressor unit, steam-generating unit and control bypass means are located downhole during operation of the steam-generating system.

Wagner, W.R.

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

387

Geothermal Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home General List of Dry Steam Plants List of Flash Steam Plants Steam Power Plants Dry Steam Power Plants Simple Dry Steam Powerplant process description - DOE EERE 2012 Dry steam plants use hydrothermal fluids that are primarily steam. The steam travels directly to a turbine, which drives a generator that produces electricity. The steam eliminates the need to burn fossil fuels to run the turbine (also eliminating the need to transport and store fuels). These plants emit only excess steam and very minor amounts of gases.[1] Dry steam power plants systems were the first type of geothermal power generation plants built (they were first used at Lardarello in Italy in 1904). Steam technology is still effective today at currently in use at The

388

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

BestPractices Steam tip sheet regarding ways to assess steam system efficiency. To determine the effective cost of steam, use a combined heat and power simulation model that includes all the significant effects.

Papar, R. [U.S. Department of Energy (US)

2000-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

389

Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter, concentrating solar dish was modified to accommodate the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer and the integrated system was installed at the Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals test site at McClellan, CA. Several test runs were conducted without catalyst during which the ceramic heat exchanger in the Sunexus Solar Reformer reached temperatures between 1,050 F (566 C) and 2,200 F (1,204 C) during the test period. A dry reforming mixture of CO2/CH{sub 4} (2.0/1.0 molar ratio) was chosen for all of the tests on the integrated solar dish/catalytic reformer during December 2010. Initial tests were carried out to determine heat transfer from the collimated solar beam to the catalytic reactor. The catalyst was operated successfully at a steady-state temperature of 1,125 F (607 C), which was sufficient to convert 35% of the 2/1 CO2/CH{sub 4} mixture to syngas. This conversion efficiency confirmed the results from laboratory testing of this catalyst which provided comparable syngas production efficiencies (40% at 1,200 F [650 C]) with a resulting syngas composition of 20% CO, 16% H{sub 2}, 39% CO2 and 25% CH{sub 4}. As based upon the laboratory results, it is predicted that 90% of the CO2 will be converted to syngas in the solar reformer at 1,440 F (782 C) resulting in a syngas composition of 50% CO: 43% H{sub 2}: 7% CO2: 0% CH{sub 4}. Laboratory tests show that the higher catalyst operating temperature of 1,440 F (782 C) for efficient conversion of CO2 can certainly be achieved by optimizing solar reactor heat transfer, which would result in the projected 90% CO2-to-syngas conversion efficiencies. Further testing will be carried out during 2011, through other funding support, to further optimize the solar dish CO2 reformer. Additional studies carried out in support of this project and described in this report include: (1) An Assessment of Potential Contaminants in Captured CO2 from Various Industrial Processes and Their Possible Effect on Sunexus CO2 Reforming Catalysts; (2) Recommended Measurement Methods for Assessing Contaminant Levels in Captured CO2 Streams; (3) An Asse

Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The project to build a PYROFLOW circulating fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boiler at the BFGoodrich Chemical Plant at Henry, Illinois, is described. This project is being partially funded by Illinois to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing high-sulfur Illinois coal. Design production is 125,000 pounds per hour of 400 psig saturated steam. An Illinois EPA construction permit has been received, engineering design is under way, major equipment is on order, ground breaking occurred in January 1984 and planned commissioning date is late 1985. This paper describes the planned installation and the factors and analyses used to evaluate the technology and justify the project. Design of the project is summarized, including the boiler performance requirements, the PYROFLOW boiler, the coal, limestone and residue handling systems and the pollutant emission limitations.

Farbstein, S. B.; Moreland, T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

High Efficiency Steam Electrolyzer  

SciTech Connect

A novel steam electrolyzer has been developed. In conventional electrolyzers, oxygen produced from electrolysis is usually released in the air stream. In their novel design, natural gas is used to replace air in order to reduce the chemical potential difference across the electrolyzer, thus minimizing the electrical consumption. The oxygen from the electrolysis is consumed in either a total oxidation or a partial oxidation reaction with natural gas. Experiments performed on single cells shown a voltage reduction as much as 1 V when compared to conventional electrolyzers. Using thin film materials and high performance cathode and anode, electrolysis could be done at temperatures as low as 700 C with electrolytic current as high as 1 A/cm{sup 2} at a voltage of 0.5 V only. The 700 C operating temperature is favorable to the total oxidation of natural gas while minimizing the need for steam that is otherwise necessary to avoid carbon deposition. A novel tubular electrolyzer stack has been developed. The system was designed to produce hydrogen at high pressures, taking advantage of the simplicity and high efficiency of the electrochemical compressors. A complete fabrication process was developed for making electrolyzer tubes with thin film coatings. A 100 W stack is being built.

Pham, A.Q.

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

392

Reduction in Unit Steam Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2001 the company's Arch-Brandenburg facility faced increased steam costs due to high natural gas prices and decreased production due to shutdown of a process. The facility was challenged to reduce unit steam consumption to minimize the effects of thes

Gombos, R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Go Steam for Green Transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Railroads are very fuel-efficient in moving freight by land. The history of rail begins with steam power, moving to eventual dieselization. Some components, advantages and disadvantages of internal combustion engines (gasoline, diesel) and external combustion ... Keywords: diesel engine, steam engine, biocoal, biofuel, computer control, internal combustion, external combustion

Paul Fred Frenger

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Operating Experience of a Coal Fired Fluidized Bed at Georgetown University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Operation of the 100,000 lb/hr capacity, coal fired fluidized bed steam generator at Georgetown University began in July 1979. This project, which was co-funded by Georgetown University and the U. S. Department of Energy, involved expansion of the heating and cooling plant with this new coal fired facility. Previously existing units at the University heating and cooling plant normally fire natural gas. The fluidized bed steam generating facility at Georgetown University is the only new coal fired facility to be built in the Washington D. C. area in many years. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate industrial and institutional application of fluidized bed combustion using high sulfur coal in an environmentally acceptable manner in a populated area. The unit has been successfully operated for over 1400 hours and in compliance with the strict emission regulations of Washington, D.C. Operation on automatic control has been achieved and only minor operating difficulties have been experienced.

Lutes, I. G.; Gamble, R. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Rivesville multicell fluidized bed boiler. Annual technical progress report. July 1978-June 1979  

SciTech Connect

Design, construction and test program of a 300,000 lb/hr steam generating capacity multicell fluidized bed boiler (MFB), as a pollution free method of burning high-sulfur or highly corrosive coals, is being carried out. The concept involves burning fuels such as coal, in a fluidized bed of limestone particles that react with the sulfur compounds formed during combustion to reduce air pollution. Nitrogen oxide emissions are also reduced at the lower combustion temperatures. The CaSO/sub 4/ produced in the furnace is discharged with the ash or regenerated to CaO for reuse in the fluidized bed. Information is presented on continued operation of the Rivesville MFB steam generating plant in a commercial mode and for determining performance and emission characteristics; studies and tests on flyash characterization and reinjection, fuel feed eductors and needles, air distributor, corrosion-erosion and sulfur capture; engineering studies to improve MFB performance and reliability.

Not Available

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Catalytic steam gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested the catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol synthesis gas. The process uses steam, indirect heat, and a catalyst to produce synthesis gas in one step in fluidized bed gasifier. Both laboratory and process development scale (nominal 1 ton/day) gasifiers were used to test two different catalyst systems: (1) supported nickel catalysts and (2) alkali carbonates doped on the bagasse. This paper presents the results of laboratory and process development unit gasification tests and includes an economic evaluation of the process. 20 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Hartford Steam Co | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Hartford Steam Co Jump to: navigation, search Name Hartford Steam Co Place Connecticut Utility Id...

398

Combustion gas turbine/steam generator plant  

SciTech Connect

A fired steam generator is described that is interconnected with a gas turbine/steam generator plant having at least one gas turbine group followed by an exhaust-gas steam generator. The exhaust-gas steam generator has a preheater and an evaporator. The inlet of the preheater is connected to a feedwater distribution line which also feeds a preheater in the fired steam generator. The outlet of the preheater is connected to the evaporator of the fired steam generator. The evaporator outlet of the exhaust-gas steam generator is connected to the input of a superheater in the fired steam generator.

Aguet, E.

1975-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

399

Steam Basics: Use Available Data to Lower Steam System Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial steam users recognize the need to reduce system cost in order to remain internationally competitive. Steam systems are a key utility that influence cost significantly, and represent a high value opportunity target. However, the quality of steam is often taken for granted, even overlooked at times. When the recent global recession challenged companies to remain profitable as a first priority, the result was that maintenance budgets were cut and long term cost reduction initiatives for steam systems set aside due to more pressing issues. One of the regrettable results of such actions is that knowledgeable personnel are re-assigned, retired, or released when necessary steam system cost reduction programs are eliminated. When the time arrives to refocus on long term cost reduction by improving the steam system, some programs may have to start from the beginning and a clear path forward may not be evident. New personnel are often tasked with steam improvements when the programs restart, and they may experience difficulty in determining the true key factors that can help reduce system cost. The urgency for lowering long term fuel use and reducing the cost of producing steam is near for each plant. Population growth and resultant global demand are inevitable, so the global economy will expand, production will increase, more fossil fuel energy will be needed, and that fuel will become scarce and more costly. Although fuel prices are low now, energy costs can be expected to trend significantly upward as global production and demand increase. Now is the time for plants to make certain that they can deliver high quality steam to process equipment at lowest system cost. There are three stages to help optimize plant steam for best performance at a low system cost; Phase 1: Manage the condensate discharge locations (where the steam traps & valves are located), Phase 2: Optimize steam-using equipment, and Phase 3: Optimize the entire steam system. This presentation will focus primarily on management of the condensate discharge locations (CDLs) and show sites how to use readily available data to more efficiently achieve goals; but will also provide insight into how the three stages interact to reduce system cost and improve process performance.

Risko, J. R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Fluid bed material transfer method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

Pinske, Jr., Edward E. (Akron, OH)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

402

Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

Rehmat, Amirali G. (Westmont, IL); Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

403

Transportation Safeguards & Security Test Bed (TSSTB) | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation Safeguards and Security Test Bed May 30, 2013 The Transportation Safeguards and Security Test Bed consists of a test-bed vehicle and a monitoringlaboratorytraining...

404

DEVELOPMENT OF A CATALYST/SORBENT FOR METHANE REFORMING  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work has led to the initial development of a very promising material that has the potential to greatly simplify hydrocarbon reforming for the production of hydrogen and to improve the overall efficiency and economics of the process. This material, which was derived from an advanced calcium-based sorbent, was composed of core-in-shell pellets such that each pellet consisted of a CaO core and an alumina-based shell. By incorporating a nickel catalyst in the shell, a combined catalyst and sorbent was prepared to facilitate the reaction of hydrocarbons with steam. It was shown that this material not only catalyzes the reactions of methane and propane with steam, it also absorbs CO{sub 2} simultaneously, and thereby separates the principal reaction products, H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the absorption of CO{sub 2} permits the water gas shift reaction to proceed much further towards completion at temperatures where otherwise it would be limited severely by thermodynamic equilibrium. Therefore, an additional water gas shift reaction step would not be required to achieve low concentrations of CO. In a laboratory test of methane reforming at 600 C and 1 atm it was possible to produce a gaseous product containing 96 mole% H{sub 2} (dry basis) while also achieving a H{sub 2} yield of 95%. Methane reforming under these conditions without CO{sub 2} absorption provided a H{sub 2} concentration of 75 mole% and yield of 82%. Similar results were achieved in a test of propane reforming at 560 C and 1 atm which produced a product containing 96 mole% H{sub 2} while CO{sub 2} was being absorbed but which contained only 69 mole% H{sub 2} while CO{sub 2} was not being absorbed. These results were achieved with an improved catalyst support that was developed by replacing a portion of the {alpha}-alumina in the original shell material with {gamma}-alumina having a much greater surface area. This replacement had the unfortunate consequence of reducing the overall compressive strength of the core-in-shell pellets. Therefore, a preliminary study of the factors that control the surface area and compressive strength of the shell material was conducted. The important factors were identified as the relative concentrations and particle size distributions of the {alpha}-alumina, {gamma}-alumina, and limestone particles plus the calcination temperature and time used for sintering the shell material. An optimization of these factors in the future could lead to the development of a material that has both the necessary mechanical strength and catalytic activity.

B.H. Shanks; T.D. Wheelock; Justinus A. Satrio; Timothy Diehl; Brigitte Vollmer

2004-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

405

Evaluate deaerator steam requirements quickly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam plant engineers frequently have to perform energy balance calculations around the deaerator to estimate the steam required to preheat and deaerate the make-up water and condensate returns. This calculation involves solving two sets of equations, one for mass and the other for energy balance. Reference to steam tables is also necessary. However, with the help of this program written in BASIC, one can arrive at the make-up water and steam requirements quickly, without referring to steam tables. This paper shows the mass and energy balance equations for the deaerator. This paper gives the program listing. An number of condensate returns can be handled. An example illustrates the use of the program.

Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (US))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy,...

407

Staged fluidized bed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

Mallon, R.G.

1983-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

408

Experimental and computational investigations of sulfur-resistant bimetallic catalysts for reforming of biomass gasification products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experimental studies of supported catalysts was used to identify H{sub 2}S-resistant biomass gasification product reforming catalysts. DFT calculations were used to search for bimetallic, nickel-based (1 1 1) surfaces with lower sulfur adsorption energies and enhanced ethylene adsorption energies. These metrics were used as predictors for H{sub 2}S resistance and activity toward steam reforming of ethylene, respectively. Relative to Ni, DFT studies found that the Ni/Sn surface alloy exhibited enhanced sulfur resistance and the Ni/Ru system exhibited an improved ethylene binding energy with a small increase in sulfur binding energy. A series of supported bimetallic nickel catalysts was prepared and screened under model ethylene reforming conditions and simulated biomass tar reforming conditions. The observed experimental trends in activity were consistent with theoretical predictions, with observed reforming activities in the order Ni/Ru > Ni > Ni/Sn. Interestingly, Ni/Ru showed a high level of resistance to sulfur poisoning compared with Ni. This sulfur resistance can be partly explained by trends in sulfur versus ethylene binding energy at different types of sites across the bimetallic surface.

Rangan, Meghana; Yung, Matthew M.; Medlin, J. William (NREL); (Colorado)

2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

409

Safety and Security Directives Reform  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reforming a "Mountain" of Policy Reforming a "Mountain" of Policy Beginning with his confirmation hearings in January 2009, Energy Secretary Steven Chu challenged the Department of Energy to take a fresh look at how we conduct business. This challenge provided the opportunity for DOE to put in place the most effective and efficient strategies to accomplish the Department's missions safely and securely. In response to the Secretary's challenge and building on the results of Deputy Secretary Poneman's Safety and Security Reform studies, the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) broadened its directives review activities during 2009. By November 2009 HSS had initiated a disciplined review of all health, safety, and security directives, which included a systematic review of the Department's safety and security regulatory model.

410

Evaluate reformer performance at a glance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic reforming is becoming increasingly important in replacing octane lost as the removal of lead from worldwide gasoline pools continues. A method has been developed that can quickly evaluate the performance of any catalytic reformer. The catalytic naphtha reforming process primarily involves three well-known reactions. These are aromatization of naphthenes, cyclization of paraffins and hydrocracking of paraffins. Hydrogen is produced in the process of aromatization and dehydrocyclization of paraffins. Reformer performance is normally evaluated with a reformate analysis (PONA) and yield of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate. This method of quick evaluation of reformer performance is based upon the main assumption that the increase in hydrocarbon moles in the process is equal to the number of C{single_bond}C bond ruptures and one mole of hydrogen is absorbed to saturate the same. This new method calculates aromatization efficiency, paraffin conversion, aromatic selectivity and finally the paraffin, naphthene and aromatic content of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate.

Nag, A. [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Gujarat (India)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Bringing electricity reform to the Philippines  

SciTech Connect

Electricity reforms will not translate to competition overnight. But reforms are inching their way forward in institutions and stakeholders of the Philippine electricity industry, through regulatory and competition frameworks, processes, and systems promulgated and implemented. (author)

Fe Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Olefins from High Yield Autothermal Reforming Process ...  

Isobutylene is used to produce fuel additives. The autothermal reforming process can produce isobutylene and requires no external energy input ...

413

Continuing Management Reform | National Nuclear Security Administratio...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Continuing Management Reform | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response...

414

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Line Diagram of CERTS Microgrid Test Bed Figure 3. TecogenRoy, N. Lewis. 2008. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed. (Energy Resources: The MicroGrid Concept. (Lawrence Berkeley

ETO, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Bed expansion crucible tests  

SciTech Connect

The Am/Cm program will vitrify the americium and curium currently stored in F-canyon. A batch flowsheet has been developed (with non-radioactive surrogate feed in place of the F-canyon solution) and tested full-scale in the 5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM) facility at TNX. During a normal process run, a small bed expansion occurs when oxygen released from reduction of cerium (IV) oxide to cerium (III) oxide is trapped in highly viscous glass. The bed expansion is characterized by a foamy layer of glass that slowly expands as the oxygen is trapped and then dissipates when the viscosity of the foam becomes low enough to allow the oxygen to escape. Severe bed expansions were noted in the 5-inch CIM when re-heating after an interlock during the calcination phase of the heat cycle, escaping the confines of the melter vessel. In order to better understand the cause of the larger than normal bed expansion and to develop mitigating techniques, a series of three crucible tests were conducted.

Stone, M.E.

2000-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

416

INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE Prepared For: California Energy REPORT (FAR) INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE CYCLES EISG AWARDEE University://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Integral Catalytic Combustion/Fuel Reforming for Gas Turbine Cycles EISG Grant # 99

417

ULTRA-SUPERCRITICAL STEAM CORROSION  

SciTech Connect

Efficiency increases in fossil energy boilers and steam turbines are being achieved by increasing the temperature and pressure at the turbine inlets well beyond the critical point of water. To allow these increases, advanced materials are needed that are able to withstand the higher temperatures and pressures in terms of strength, creep, and oxidation resistance. As part of a larger collaborative effort, the Albany Research Center (ARC) is examining the steam-side oxidation behavior for ultrasupercritical (USC) steam turbine applications. Initial tests are being done on six alloys identified as candidates for USC steam boiler applications: ferritic alloy SAVE12, austenitic alloy Super 304H, the high Cr-high Ni alloy HR6W, and the nickel-base superalloys Inconel 617, Haynes 230, and Inconel 740. Each of these alloys has very high strength for its alloy type. Three types of experiments are planned: cyclic oxidation in air plus steam at atmospheric pressure, thermogravimetric ana lysis (TGA) in steam at atmospheric pressure, and exposure tests in supercritical steam up to 650 C (1202 F) and 34.5 MPa (5000 psi). The atmospheric pressure tests, combined with supercritical exposures at 13.8, 20.7, 24.6, and 34.5 MPa (2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 psi) should allow the determination of the effect of pressure on the oxidation process.

Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Bullard, S.B.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

418

Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview William Hallett Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Université d'Ottawa - University of Ottawa #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Introduction air fuel feedproducts xbed grate Packed Bed Combustion: fairly large particles of solid fuel on a grate, air supplied

Hallett, William L.H.

419

Steam generator tube integrity program: Phase II, Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program (SGTIP) was a three phase program conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The first phase involved burst and collapse testing of typical steam generator tubing with machined defects. The second phase of the SGTIP continued the integrity testing work of Phase I, but tube specimens were degraded by chemical means rather than machining methods. The third phase of the program used a removed-from-service steam generator as a test bed for investigating the reliability and effectiveness of in-service nondestructive eddy-current inspection methods and as a source of service degraded tubes for validating the Phase I and Phase II data on tube integrity. This report describes the results of Phase II of the SGTIP. The object of this effort included burst and collapse testing of chemically defected pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing to validate empirical equations of remaining tube integrity developed during Phase I. Three types of defect geometries were investigated: stress corrosion cracking (SCC), uniform thinning and elliptical wastage. In addition, a review of the publicly available leak rate data for steam generator tubes with axial and circumferential SCC and a comparison with an analytical leak rate model is presented. Lastly, nondestructive eddy-current (EC) measurements to determine accuracy of defect depth sizing using conventional and alternate standards is described. To supplement the laboratory EC data and obtain an estimate of EC capability to detect and size SCC, a mini-round robin test utilizing several firms that routinely perform in-service inspections was conducted.

Kurtz, R.J.; Bickford, R.L.; Clark, R.A.; Morris, C.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Wheeler, K.R.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

GCFR steam generator conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) steam generators are large once-through heat exchangers with helically coiled tube bundles. In the GCFR demonstration plant, hot helium from the reactor core is passed through these units to produce superheated steam, which is used by the turbine generators to produce electrical power. The paper describes the conceptual design of the steam generator. The major components and functions of the design are addressed. The topics discussed are the configuration, operating conditions, design criteria, and the design verification and support programs.

Holm, R.A.; Elliott, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

National SCADA Test Bed | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services Cybersecurity Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity National SCADA Test Bed National SCADA Test Bed Electricity Advisory Committee Transmission Planning...

422

Steam Generator Management Program: Steam Generator Integrity Assessment Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides guidance for evaluating the condition of steam generator (SG) tubes based on nondestructive examination (NDE) or in situ pressure testing. The integrity assessments are normally performed during a reactor refueling outage. Nuclear power plant licensees who follow the guidance in this report will have satisfied the requirements for degradation assessments, condition monitoring, and operational assessment as defined in the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Steam Generator Program Guidelin...

2009-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

423

Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts  

SciTech Connect

A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

Averkina, N. V. [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Zheleznyak, I. V. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation); Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G., E-mail: orlikvg@mail.ru [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Shishkin, V. I. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Steam Generator Management Program: Steam Generator Progress Report: Revision 18  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BackgroundSince 1985, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has published the Steam Generator Progress Report (SGPR), which provides historical information on worldwide steam generator activities. This document was published once a year and distributed via hardcopy. Until 1998, the method of acquiring data for this report had been to issue annual survey forms to all PWR and pressurized heavy water reactor nuclear utilities worldwide. The information included in ...

2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

425

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

Dai, Pengcheng

426

Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

waste heat) Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural Gas Campus Electric Load SouthernCombined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Chiller Campus Heat Load Steam (recovered Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling

Rose, Michael R.

427

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation The Department of Energy (DOE) today publishes a final statement of policy on intergovernmental consultation under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. The policy reflects the guidelines and instructions that the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) provided to each agency to develop, with input from State, local, and tribal officials, an intergovernmental consultation process with regard to significant intergovernmental mandates contained in a notice of proposed rulemaking. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation More Documents & Publications TEC Working Group Topic Groups Tribal Key Documents

428

NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contracting Reform Guidance Contracting Reform Guidance NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance This documents provides guidance on NEPA contracting strategy, including: defining the work of the contractor; establishing contracts ahead of time; minimizing cost while maintaining quality. Guidance also provides: model statements of work, direction on NEPA contract management by NEPA Document Manager; a system for measuring NEPA costs and for evaluating contractor procedures; details on the DOE NEPA website. NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance More Documents & Publications NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance (December 1996) Statement of Work-National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Support Services Acquisition: Preparation and Review of Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments, Environmental Reports, and other Environmental

429

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation | Department  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation The Department of Energy (DOE) today publishes a final statement of policy on intergovernmental consultation under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. The policy reflects the guidelines and instructions that the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) provided to each agency to develop, with input from State, local, and tribal officials, an intergovernmental consultation process with regard to significant intergovernmental mandates contained in a notice of proposed rulemaking. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation More Documents & Publications TEC Working Group Topic Groups Tribal Key Documents

430

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Introduction, Steam Generation Efficiency Resource Utilization Analysis, and Steam Distribution System Losses Stack Losses Resource Utilization Analysis Steam Distribution System Losses Conclusion Quiz If youDOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Navigational Tutorial - 1 8

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

432

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

horizontal runs of steam distribution piping from a common header. Steam distribution piping is insulatedDOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Introduction Module - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Introduction Module Slide 1 - Introduction Title Page Hello, and welcome

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

433

Steam turbine for geothermal power generation  

SciTech Connect

A steam turbine comprises a casing; turbine vanes rotatably set in the casing; a plurality of partition walls which extend along radial directions from the rotation center of the turbine vanes to define a plurality of steam valve chambers in the casing; steam supply pipes respectively connected to the corresponding steam valve chambers; and regulating valves which are fitted to the respective steam supply pipes to regulate respectively the flow rate of steam streams supplied to the respective steam valve chambers. At least one partition wall for dividing the interior space of the steam turbine into adjacent steam valve chambers is provided with at least one penetrating hole for causing the steam valve chambers to communicate with each other.

Tsujimura, K.; Hadano, Y.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

434

Simplify heat recovery steam generator evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) are widely used in process and power plants, refineries and in several cogeneration/combined cycle systems. They are usually designed for a set of gas and steam conditions but often operate under different parameters due to plant constraints, steam demand, different ambient conditions (which affect the gas flow and exhaust gas temperature in a gas turbine plant), etc. As a result, the gas and steam temperature profiles in the HRSG, steam production and the steam temperature differ from the design conditions, affecting the entire plant performance and economics. Also, consultants and process engineers who are involved in evaluating the performance of the steam system as a whole, often would like to simulate the performance of an HRSG under different gas flows, inlet gas temperature and analysis, steam pressure and feed water temperature to optimize the entire steam system and select proper auxiliaries such as steam turbines, condensers, deaerators, etc.

Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (US))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Steam Field | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Field Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Steam Field Dictionary.png Steam Field: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Sanyal Temp Classification This temperature scheme was developed by Sanyal in 2005 at the request of DOE and GEA, as reported in Classification of Geothermal Systems: A Possible Scheme. Extremely Low Temperature Very Low Temperature Low Temperature Moderate Temperature High Temperature Ultra High Temperature Steam Field Steam field reservoirs are special cases where the fluid is predominantly found in a gas phase between 230°C to 240°C. "This special class of resource needs to be recognized, its uniqueness being the remarkably consistent initial temperature and pressure

436

The Elimination of Steam Traps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How would you like to have a share of $154,000,000,000 a year? According to the Department of Energy that is roughly what was spent for creating steam in 1978. Steam generation accounts for fully one half of the industrial and commercial energy dollar. That figure could be reduced by 10-20% or more by the simple elimination of steam traps. Recent engineering developments show that steam traps can be eliminated. Documented results demonstrate that the retrofitting of existing facilities to alternative methods of condensate removal is simple and economically feasible, with paybacks of less than 12 months. Advantages obtained in the first year remain consistent for several years after conversion with virtual elimination of maintenance.

Dickman, F.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Computer Optimization of Steam Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As fuel costs continued to rise sharply during the 1970' s, the staff at Exxon's Benicia Refinery realized there was a growing economic incentive to optimize the production of high pressure steam. A significant percentage of the Refinery's total energy is consumed in generating high pressure steam. Recently, a computer program was implemented to optimize high pressure steam production. The first challenge in developing the program was to provide reliable analog and digital instrumentation allowing simultaneous analog header control along with effective digital steam flow control. Once appropriate instrumentation became available, the effort focused on identifying the best approach for developing the computer control program. After screening several alternatives, it became apparent that we were dealing with an allocation problem which could be effectively handled with a linear program. The control program has performed well since it was commissioned. It has experienced a service factor of greater than 95% while reducing energy consumption of the boilers by over 500 million Btu's per day.

Todd, C. H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

The steam engine and industrialization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simon Schaffer in York Rail Museum talks to the camera about the relationship between the steam engine and industrialization and whatsteam meant; a regular supply of moving power for workshops and factories....

Dugan, David

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

439

Heat Recovery Steam Generator Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper discusses the applications of Heat Recovery Steam Generator Simulation. Consultants, plant engineers and plant developers can evaluate the steam side performance of HRSGs and arrive at the optimum system which matches the needs of the process plant, cogeneration or combined cycle plant. There is no need to design the HRSG per se and hence simulation is a valuable tool for anyone interested in evaluating the HRSG performance even before it is designed. It can also save a lot of time for specification writers as they need not guess how the steam side performance will vary with different gas/steam parameters. A few examples are given to show how simulation methods can be applied to real life problems.

Ganapathy, V.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Steam Generator Management Program: Flaw Handbook Calculator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Steam Generator Management Program: Steam Generator Degradation Specific Flaw Handbook v1.0 defines burst pressure equations for steam generator tubes with various degradation morphologies, and the EPRI Steam Generator Management Program: Steam Generator Integrity Assessment Guidelines (1019038) describes a probabilistic evaluation process which can be used to account for key input parameter uncertainties. The Flaw Handbook Calculator software is an automated Microsoft Excelspreadsheet which cal...

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed steam reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Steam turbine gland seal control system  

SciTech Connect

A high pressure steam turbine having a sealing gland where the turbine rotor penetrates the casing of the turbine. Under certain conditions the gland is sealed by an auxiliary steam supply, and under other conditions the gland is self sealed by turbine inlet steam. A control system is provided to modify the temperature of the auxiliary steam to be more compatible with the self sealing steam, so as to eliminate thermal shock to the turbine rotor.

Martin, H. F.

1985-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

442

Field Guide: Turbine Steam Path Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam path damage, particularly of blades, has long been recognized as a leading cause of steam turbine unavailability for large fossil fuel plants. Damage to steam path components by various mechanisms continues to result in significant economic impact domestically and internationally. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Report TR-108943, Turbine Steam Path Damage: Theory and Practice, Volumes 1 and 2, was prepared to compile the most recent knowledge about turbine steam path damage: identifying th...

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

443

Steam Generator Integrity Assessment Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides guidance for evaluating the condition of steam generator (SG) tubes based on nondestructive examination (NDE) or in situ pressure testing. This integrity assessment is normally performed during a reactor refueling outage. Nuclear power plant licensees who follow this document's guidelines will have satisfied their requirements for condition monitoring and operational assessment as defined in the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) initiative, Steam Generator Program Guidelines, NEI 97-06.

2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

444

Staged fluidized bed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to make additional steam for the steam turbine cycle. Thein multi-pressure-level steam turbines to produce additionalthe superheated stea