National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for bed solar thermal

  1. Thermal performance of packed-bed solar air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S.P.; Saini, J.S.; Varma, H.K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the enhancement of thermal performance of solar iar heater having its duct packed with blackened wire-screen matrices. Tests were conducted to cover wide range of influencing parameters including geometry of wire screens, mass flow rates and input solar energy fluxes under actual outdoor conditions. Effect of these parameters on the thermal performance has been investigated and results have been compared with those of plane (flat-plate) collectors. These tests provide useful data for rating wire-screen matrices packed-bed collectors based on thermal performance. It is observed that the performance of plane collector improves appreciably by packing its duct with blackened wire-screen matrices and this improvement is a strong function of bed and operating parameters.

  2. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  3. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility HomeNational Solar Thermal Test Facility Permalink Pratt Whitney Rocketdyne Testing Concentrating Solar Power, EC, Energy, Facilities, ...

  4. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility HomeNational Solar Thermal Test Facility Permalink High-Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production Center for ...

  5. Development of a concentrating solar power system using fluidized-bed technology for thermal energy conversion and solid particles for thermal energy storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Z.; Mehos, M.; Glatzmaier, G.; Sakadjian, B. B.

    2015-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is an effective way to convert solar energy into electricity with an economic energy-storage capability for grid-scale, dispatchable renewable power generation. However, CSP plants need to reduce costs to be competitive with other power generation methods. Two ways to reduce CSP cost are to increase solar-to-electric efficiency by supporting a high-efficiency power conversion system, and to use low-cost materials in the system. The current nitrate-based molten-salt systems have limited potential for cost reduction and improved power-conversion efficiency with high operating temperatures. Even with significant improvements in operating performance, these systems face challenges in satisfying the costmore » and performance targets. This paper introduces a novel CSP system with high-temperature capability that can be integrated into a high-efficiency CSP plant and that meets the low-cost, high-performance CSP targets. Unlike a conventional salt-based CSP plant, this design uses gas/solid, two-phase flow as the heat-transfer fluid (HTF); separated solid particles as storage media; and stable, inexpensive materials for the high-temperature receiver and energy storage containment. We highlight the economic and performance benefits of this innovative CSP system design, which has thermal energy storage capability for base-load power generation.« less

  6. Development of a concentrating solar power system using fluidized-bed technology for thermal energy conversion and solid particles for thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Z.; Mehos, M.; Glatzmaier, G.; Sakadjian, B. B.

    2015-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is an effective way to convert solar energy into electricity with an economic energy-storage capability for grid-scale, dispatchable renewable power generation. However, CSP plants need to reduce costs to be competitive with other power generation methods. Two ways to reduce CSP cost are to increase solar-to-electric efficiency by supporting a high-efficiency power conversion system, and to use low-cost materials in the system. The current nitrate-based molten-salt systems have limited potential for cost reduction and improved power-conversion efficiency with high operating temperatures. Even with significant improvements in operating performance, these systems face challenges in satisfying the cost and performance targets. This paper introduces a novel CSP system with high-temperature capability that can be integrated into a high-efficiency CSP plant and that meets the low-cost, high-performance CSP targets. Unlike a conventional salt-based CSP plant, this design uses gas/solid, two-phase flow as the heat-transfer fluid (HTF); separated solid particles as storage media; and stable, inexpensive materials for the high-temperature receiver and energy storage containment. We highlight the economic and performance benefits of this innovative CSP system design, which has thermal energy storage capability for base-load power generation.

  7. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4 Average thermal performance rating of solar thermal collectors by type shipped in 2009 ... Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey." ...

  8. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  9. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers National Solar Thermal Test Facility HomeTag:National Solar Thermal Test Facility Permalink Air Force Research Laboratory Testing ...

  10. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2 Solar thermal collector shipments by type, quantity, revenue, and average price, 2008 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  11. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1 Distribution of domestic solar thermal collector shipments (thousand square feet) 2008 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  12. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by type, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  13. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Shipments of solar thermal collectors ranked by origin and destination, 2009 Origin Top ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  14. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by source, 2000 - 2009 Imports Domestically ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  15. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by disposition, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  16. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7 Percent of solar thermal collector shipments by the 10 largest companies, 2000 - 2009 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  17. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5 Shipments of complete solar thermal collector systems, 2008 and 2009 Shipment ... Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

  18. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 Import shipments of solar thermal collectors by country, 2008 and 2009 (square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  19. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7 Import shipments of solar thermal collectors by type, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  20. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  1. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers National Solar Thermal Test Facility Home/Tag:National Solar Thermal Test Facility Illuminated receiver on top of tower Permalink Gallery High-Temperature Falling Particle Receiver Reaches New Limits Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, Renewable Energy, Solar, SunShot High-Temperature Falling Particle Receiver Reaches New Limits At its National Solar Thermal Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories

  2. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers National Solar Thermal Test Facility HomeTag:National Solar Thermal Test Facility Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a ...

  3. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9 Companies involved in solar thermal collector related activities by type, 2008 and 2009 ... 26 32 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal

  4. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 Employment in the solar thermal collector industry, 2000 - 2009 2000 284 2001 256 2002 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal

  5. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This ...

  6. Solar thermal power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  7. Solar Thermal Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Electric Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Solar Thermal Electric Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSolarThermalEl...

  8. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6 Number of companies expecting to introduce new solar new solar thermal collector products in 2010 Low-Temperature Collectors 4 Medium-Temperature Collectors 16 High-Temperature ...

  9. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power/Energy Conversion Efficiency/Solar Energy/Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)/National Solar Thermal Test Facility National Solar Thermal Test Facility admin 2016-04-14T21:34:04+00:00 Operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) is the only test facility of this type in the United States. The NSTTF's primary goal is to provide experimental engineering data for the design, construction, and

  10. Overview of solar thermal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The solar-thermal overview section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  11. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biesinger, K; Cuppett, D; Dyer, D

    2012-01-30

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with Kalwall building panels. An added feature of the Kalwall system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  12. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  13. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    U.S. Total 74 88 Percent of Total Sales Revenue Number of Companies Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers ...

  14. Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar Watch a recording of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Andy Walker's Nov. 30, 2010, presentation about passive solar building design, and solar thermal space heating technologies and applications. It's one in a series of Webinars to support state and local projects funded by Sustainable Energy Resources for

  15. Solar Thermal Energy Technology; (USA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, L.E.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Solar Thermal Energy Technology (STT) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for the advancement of solar thermal systems as a significant energy source. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in STT and other citations to information on solar thermal energy date back to 1974.

  16. Solar Thermal Success Stories - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Success Stories 1 Success Stories Category Title and Abstract Company Laboratories Date Solar Thermal NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future for Solar Energy Huge ...

  17. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities - Energy Information...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Solar Thermal Manufacturing Activities Release Date: December 2010 | Next Release Date: ... Year: (PDF) 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 1993 Go Overview Total shipments26 of solar ...

  18. Sandia Energy - National Solar Thermal Testing Facility Beam...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Testing Facility Beam Profiling Home Renewable Energy News Concentrating Solar Power Solar National Solar Thermal Testing Facility Beam Profiling Previous...

  19. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems You ...

  20. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas ...

  1. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  2. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F.

    1981-09-01

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  3. Solar wind thermal electron distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gosling, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Solar wind thermal electron distributions exhibit distinctive trends which suggest Coulomb collisions and geometric expansion in the interplanetary magnetic field play keys roles in electron transport. We introduce a simple numerical model incorporating these mechanisms, discuss the ramifications of model results, and assess the validity of the model in terms of ISEE-3 and Ulysses observations. Although the model duplicates the shape of the electron distributions, and explains certain other observational features, observed gradients in total electron temperature indicate the importance of additional heating mechanisms. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Request for Information: Operation of Regional Test Center Test Bed Located at SolarTAC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Solicitation Title:  Request for Information: Operation of Regional Test Center Test Bed Located at SolarTAC

  5. Pv-Thermal Solar Power Assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ansley, Jeffrey H.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2001-10-02

    A flexible solar power assembly includes a flexible photovoltaic device attached to a flexible thermal solar collector. The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners.

  6. The DOE Solar Thermal Electric Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, T.R.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy`s Solar Thermal Electric Program is managed by the Solar thermal and biomass Power division which is part of the Office of utility Technologies. The focus of the Program is to commercialize solar electric technologies. In this regard, three major projects are currently being pursued in trough, central receiver, and dish/Stirling electric power generation. This paper describes these three projects and the activities at the National laboratories that support them.

  7. Thermophotovoltaics | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermophotovoltaics Solar Thermophotovoltaics (STPVs) are solar driven heat engines which extract electrical power from thermal radiation. The overall goal is to absorb and convert the broadband solar radiation spectrum into a narrowband thermal emission spectrum tuned to the spectral response of a photovoltaic cell (PV) [1]. STPVs are of significant interest as they have the potential to overcome the well-known Shockley-Queisser limit for single junction PV given sufficient spectral control.

  8. Project Profile: National Solar Thermal Test Facility Operations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: National Solar Thermal Test Facility Operations and Maintenance (SuNLaMP) Project Profile: National Solar Thermal Test Facility Operations and Maintenance (SuNLaMP) ...

  9. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 ...

  10. List of Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    List of Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 211 Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 211) Incentive...

  11. SunShot Podcast: Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Part...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Part II SunShot Podcast: Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Part II This SunShot Initiative podcast features Ranga Pitchumani of ...

  12. Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation This presentation ...

  13. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal &...

  14. California Solar Initiative- Solar Thermal Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Note: This program was modified by AB 2249, signed in September 2012. The bill allows for non-residential solar pool heating to qualify for incentives, and requires program administrators to...

  15. Moving bed reactor for solar thermochemical fuel production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ermanoski, Ivan

    2013-04-16

    Reactors and methods for solar thermochemical reactions are disclosed. Embodiments of reactors include at least two distinct reactor chambers between which there is at least a pressure differential. In embodiments, reactive particles are exchanged between chambers during a reaction cycle to thermally reduce the particles at first conditions and oxidize the particles at second conditions to produce chemical work from heat. In embodiments, chambers of a reactor are coupled to a heat exchanger to pre-heat the reactive particles prior to direct exposure to thermal energy with heat transferred from reduced reactive particles as the particles are oppositely conveyed between the thermal reduction chamber and the fuel production chamber. In an embodiment, particle conveyance is in part provided by an elevator which may further function as a heat exchanger.

  16. THERMAL ENHANCEMENT CARTRIDGE HEATER MODIFIED TECH MOD TRITIUM HYDRIDE BED DEVELOPMENT PART I DESIGN AND FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.

    2014-03-06

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1{sup st} generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and 3{sup rd} generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen 3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed.

  17. Made in Minnesota Solar Thermal Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beginning in 2014, the Department of Commerce is offering a Made in Minnesota Solar Thermal Rebate program, pursuant to H.F. 729 enacted in 2013. Rebates are 25% of installed costs, with a $2,500...

  18. Solar thermal power systems. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

  19. PV/thermal solar power assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ansley, Jeffrey H.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2004-01-13

    A flexible solar power assembly (2) includes a flexible photovoltaic device (16) attached to a flexible thermal solar collector (4). The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof (20, 25) or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners (23).

  20. Integrated solar thermal energy collector system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.D.

    1987-08-18

    A solar thermal collector system is described one of a class of devices which converts solar radiation into heat and transmits this heat to storage from whence it is utilized, comprising: an evacuated glass solar collector, the evacuated glass solar collector having a glass vacuum envelope, the upper portion of the glass vacuum envelope also serving as window to pass solar radiation, the evacuated glass solar collector having a multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent concentrating troughs, each trough shaped and mirror surfaced so as concentrate solar radiation in the vacuum, the mirror surface inside the vacuum and the concentration approximately ideal, the multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent troughs extending substantially over the entire length and width of the evacuated glass solar collector; a heat storage system, the heat storage system adjacent to the evacuated glass solar collector, the heat storage system having a heat storage tank which is thermally insulated, the heat storage tank containing a heat storage medium, and the heat storage system including means of removal of heat from the heat storage tank for utilization.

  1. Project Profile: National Solar Thermal Test Facility | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Concentrating Solar Power » Project Profile: National Solar Thermal Test Facility Project Profile: National Solar Thermal Test Facility SNL logo The first solar receivers ever tested in the world were tested at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF). The receivers were each rated up to 5 megawatts thermal (MWt). Receivers with various working fluids have been tested here over the years, including air, water-steam, molten salt, liquid sodium, and solid particles. The NSTTF

  2. Advanced component research in the solar thermal program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.T.

    1982-08-01

    The Advanced Components Test Facility (ACTF) is a 325 kW /SUB th/ central receiver solar thermal test facility that has as its primary purpose the encouragement of research and development in the area of high temperature solar technology. Five major test programs were undertaken and completed at the ACTF in the 1980-1981 time frame. The objective of each program was to evaluate the technical viability of the concept of converting concentrated solar energy into some other useful form such as high pressure steam, hot compressed air, chemical feedstock, grid connected electrical power, etc. Each program involved the operation of a high temperature central receiver heat exchanger device at or near the facility focus. Specific test programs were undertaken to evaluate a directly heated fluidized bed solar receiver; a high pressure, single-pass-to superheat steam generator; a liquid sodium heat pipe receiver; a flash pyrolysis biomass gasifier; and a Stirling engine/electrical generator. This paper provides a description of the test facility, its capabilities, and the results of the 1980-1981 solar receiver test program.

  3. NREL Researchers Test Solar Thermal Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A prototype heliostat which could take solar technology a step into the future is being tested at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). It was developed by Science Applications International Corporations (SAIC) Golden office. The heliostat is a large tracking mirror for use in solar thermal power plants. SAIC's prototype heliostat incorporates a number of design and manufacturing modifications that could lead to significant cost reductions. The major

  4. List of Solar Thermal Electric Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    List of Solar Thermal Electric Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 562 Solar Thermal Electric Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-562)...

  5. Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a ... DE-AC36-08GO28308 Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy ...

  6. Flexible thermal cycle test equipment for concentrator solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hebert, Peter H.; Brandt, Randolph J.

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for performing thermal stress testing of photovoltaic solar cells is presented. The system and method allows rapid testing of photovoltaic solar cells under controllable thermal conditions. The system and method presents a means of rapidly applying thermal stresses to one or more photovoltaic solar cells in a consistent and repeatable manner.

  7. Value of solar thermal industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.R.; Fassbender, L.L.; Chockie, A.D.

    1986-03-01

    This study estimated the value of solar thermal-generated industrial process heat (IPH) as a function of process heat temperature. The value of solar thermal energy is equal to the cost of producing energy from conventional fuels and equipment if the energy produced from either source provides an equal level of service. This requirement put the focus of this study on defining and characterizing conventional process heat equipment and fuels. Costs (values) were estimated for 17 different design points representing different combinations of conventional technologies, temperatures, and fuels. Costs were first estimated for median or representative conditions at each design point. The cost impact of capacity factor, efficiency, fuel escalation rate, and regional fuel price differences were then evaluated by varying each of these factors within credible ranges.

  8. Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage System Basics | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage System Basics Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage System Basics August 21, 2013 - 10:33am Addthis One challenge facing the widespread use of solar energy is reduced or curtailed energy production when the sun sets or is blocked by clouds. Thermal energy storage provides a workable solution to this challenge. In a concentrating solar power (CSP) system, the sun's rays are reflected onto a receiver, which creates heat that is used to

  9. New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashima, Takumi; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Doi, Takuya ); Kamoshida, Junji ); Tani, Tatsuo ); Horigome, Takashi )

    1994-03-01

    One of the most effective methods of utilizing solar energy is to use the sunlight and solar thermal energy such as a photovoltaic-thermal panel (PV/T panel) simultaneously. From such a viewpoint, systems using various kinds of PV panels were constructed in the world. In these panels, solar cells are set up at an absorber collecting solar thermal energy. Therefore, temperature of solar cell increases up to the prescribed temperature of thermal energy use, although it is lower than the cell temperature when using only solar cell panel. For maintaining cell conversion efficiency at the standard conditions, it is necessary to keep the cell at lower temperature. In this paper, electric and thermal energy obtained form a PV/T panel is evaluated in terms of energy. BAsed on this evaluation, the method of not to decrease cell conversion efficiency with collecting solar thermal energy was proposed.

  10. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Parabolic Trough Thermal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of solar power Help reduce the cost of solar electricity. Parabolic trough technology currently has one thermal energy storage option-a two-tank, indirect, molten-salt system. ...

  11. Project Profile: Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators Project Profile: Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators Pennsylvania State University logo -- This project is inactive -- Pennsylvania State University, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is designing and testing a novel solar collector system that relies on stationary optics, avoiding the need for mirror movement. The system is capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough

  12. Thermal model of solar absorption HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergquam, J.B.; Brezner, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a thermal model that describes the performance of solar absorption HVAC systems. The model considers the collector array, the building cooling and heating loads, the absorption chiller and the high temperature storage. Heat losses from the storage tank and piping are included in the model. All of the results presented in the paper are for an array of flat plate solar collectors with black chrome (selective surface) absorber plates. The collector efficiency equation is used to calculate the useful heat output from the array. The storage is modeled as a non-stratified tank with polyurethane foam insulation. The system is assumed to operate continuously providing air conditioning during the cooling season, space heating during the winter and hot water throughout the year. The amount of heat required to drive the chiller is determined from the coefficient of performance of the absorption cycle. Results are presented for a typical COP of 0.7. The cooling capacity of the chiller is a function of storage (generator) temperature. The nominal value is 190 F (88 C) and the range of values considered is 180 F (82 C) to 210 F (99 C). Typical building cooling and heating loads are determined as a function of ambient conditions. Performance results are presented for Sacramento, CA and Washington, D.C. The model described in the paper makes use of National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) data and results are presented for these two locations. The uncertainties in the NSRDB are estimated to be in a range of 6% to 9%. This is a significant improvement over previously available data. The model makes it possible to predict the performance of solar HVAC systems and calculate quantities such as solar fraction, storage temperature, heat losses and parasitic power for every hour of the period for which data are available.

  13. Solar Thermal Technologies Available for Licensing - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Thermal Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Marketing Summaries (40) Success Stories (1) Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Browse Solar Thermal

  14. Project Profile: National Solar Thermal Test Facility Operations and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maintenance (SuNLaMP) | Department of Energy Project Profile: National Solar Thermal Test Facility Operations and Maintenance (SuNLaMP) Project Profile: National Solar Thermal Test Facility Operations and Maintenance (SuNLaMP) Funding Program: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: CSP Location: Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM SunShot Award Amount: $2,250,000 This project maintains the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF), which provides the CSP industry with established test

  15. Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Electric Power Plants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-07-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the potential for parabolic trough solar thermal electric power plants, especially in the Southwestern U.S.

  16. Solar Thermal Energy Storage Device: Hybrid Nanostructures for High-Energy-Density Solar Thermal Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-09

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a thermal energy storage device that captures energy from the sun; this energy can be stored and released at a later time when it is needed most. Within the device, the absorption of sunlight causes the solar thermal fuels photoactive molecules to change shape, which allows energy to be stored within their chemical bonds. A trigger is applied to release the stored energy as heat, where it can be converted into electricity or used directly as heat. The molecules would then revert to their original shape, and can be recharged using sunlight to begin the process anew. MITs technology would be 100% renewable, rechargeable like a battery, and emissions-free. Devices using these solar thermal fuelscalled Hybrisolcan also be used without a grid infrastructure for applications such as de-icing, heating, cooking, and water purification.

  17. Project Profile: Innovative Thermal Energy Storage for Baseload Solar Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generation | Department of Energy Thermal Energy Storage for Baseload Solar Power Generation Project Profile: Innovative Thermal Energy Storage for Baseload Solar Power Generation University of South Florida logo The University of South Florida, under the Baseload CSP FOA, developed a thermal energy storage system based on encapsulated phase change materials (PCM) that meets the utility-scale baseload CSP plant requirements at significantly lower system costs. Approach Previous thermal

  18. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  19. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  20. Solar-Thermal Fluid-Wall Reaction Processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, A. W.; Dahl, J. K.; Lewandowski, A. A.; Bingham, C.; Raska Buechler, K. J.; Grothe, W.

    2006-04-25

    The present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal dissociation reactions requiring rapid-heating and short residence times using solar energy. In particular, the present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal reactions such as dissociation of hydrocarbon containing gases and hydrogen sulfide to produce hydrogen and dry reforming of hydrocarbon containing gases with carbon dioxide. In the methods of the invention where hydrocarbon containing gases are dissociated, fine carbon black particles are also produced. The present invention also provides solar-thermal reactors and solar-thermal reactor systems.

  1. Solar-thermal fluid-wall reaction processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W.; Dahl, Jaimee K.; Lewandowski, Allan A.; Bingham, Carl; Buechler, Karen J.; Grothe, Willy

    2006-04-25

    The present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal dissociation reactions requiring rapid-heating and short residence times using solar energy. In particular, the present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal reactions such as dissociation of hydrocarbon containing gases and hydrogen sulfide to produce hydrogen and dry reforming of hydrocarbon containing gases with carbon dioxide. In the methods of the invention where hydrocarbon containing gases are dissociated, fine carbon black particles are also produced. The present invention also provides solar-thermal reactors and solar-thermal reactor systems.

  2. Solar Thermal Technologies - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool (SGHAT) With growing numbers of solar energy systems being proposed and installed throughout the United States, the potential ...

  3. Project Profile: Novel Thermal Storage Technologies for Concentrating Solar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Generation | Department of Energy Storage Technologies for Concentrating Solar Power Generation Project Profile: Novel Thermal Storage Technologies for Concentrating Solar Power Generation Lehigh logo Lehigh University, under the Thermal Storage FOA, is working to establish the technical feasibility of using phase change materials (PCM) at elevated temperatures and to acquire engineering results that will lead to the demonstration of large-scale thermal storage systems. Approach A

  4. Fluidized-bed technology enabling the integration of high temperature solar receiver CSP systems with steam and advanced power cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakadjian, B.; Hu, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Flynn, T.; Santelmann, K.; Ma, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Solar Particle Receivers (SPR) are under development to drive concentrating solar plants (CSP) towards higher operating temperatures to support higher efficiency power conversion cycles. The novel high temperature SPR-based CSP system uses solid particles as the heat transfer medium (HTM) in place of the more conventional fluids such as molten salt or steam used in current state-of-the-art CSP plants. The solar particle receiver (SPR) is designed to heat the HTM to temperatures of 800 °C or higher which is well above the operating temperatures of nitrate-based molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The solid particles also help overcome some of the other challenges associated with molten salt-based systems such as freezing, instability and degradation. The higher operating temperatures and use of low cost HTM and higher efficiency power cycles are geared towards reducing costs associated with CSP systems. This paper describes the SPR-based CSP system with a focus on the fluidized-bed (FB) heat exchanger and its integration with various power cycles. The SPR technology provides a potential pathway to achieving the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) target of $0.06/kWh that has been set by the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot initiative.

  5. Fluidized-bed technology enabling the integration of high temperature solar receiver CSP systems with steam and advanced power cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakadjian, B.; Hu, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Flynn, T.; Santelmann, K.; Ma, Z.

    2015-06-05

    Solar Particle Receivers (SPR) are under development to drive concentrating solar plants (CSP) towards higher operating temperatures to support higher efficiency power conversion cycles. The novel high temperature SPR-based CSP system uses solid particles as the heat transfer medium (HTM) in place of the more conventional fluids such as molten salt or steam used in current state-of-the-art CSP plants. The solar particle receiver (SPR) is designed to heat the HTM to temperatures of 800 °C or higher which is well above the operating temperatures of nitrate-based molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The solid particles also help overcome some of the other challenges associated with molten salt-based systems such as freezing, instability and degradation. The higher operating temperatures and use of low cost HTM and higher efficiency power cycles are geared towards reducing costs associated with CSP systems. This paper describes the SPR-based CSP system with a focus on the fluidized-bed (FB) heat exchanger and its integration with various power cycles. Furthermore, the SPR technology provides a potential pathway to achieving the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) target of $0.06/kWh that has been set by the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot initiative.

  6. Fluidized-bed technology enabling the integration of high temperature solar receiver CSP systems with steam and advanced power cycles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sakadjian, B.; Hu, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Flynn, T.; Santelmann, K.; Ma, Z.

    2015-06-05

    Solar Particle Receivers (SPR) are under development to drive concentrating solar plants (CSP) towards higher operating temperatures to support higher efficiency power conversion cycles. The novel high temperature SPR-based CSP system uses solid particles as the heat transfer medium (HTM) in place of the more conventional fluids such as molten salt or steam used in current state-of-the-art CSP plants. The solar particle receiver (SPR) is designed to heat the HTM to temperatures of 800 °C or higher which is well above the operating temperatures of nitrate-based molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The solid particles also help overcome somemore » of the other challenges associated with molten salt-based systems such as freezing, instability and degradation. The higher operating temperatures and use of low cost HTM and higher efficiency power cycles are geared towards reducing costs associated with CSP systems. This paper describes the SPR-based CSP system with a focus on the fluidized-bed (FB) heat exchanger and its integration with various power cycles. Furthermore, the SPR technology provides a potential pathway to achieving the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) target of $0.06/kWh that has been set by the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot initiative.« less

  7. Integrated thermal solar heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, D.N.

    1980-04-08

    A compression module may comprise a hermetic helical screw rotary compressor having injection and ejection ports in addition to discharge and suction ports or may comprise a multiple cylinder, multiple level, reciprocating compressor. The module incorporates a subcooler coil and is connected to an outside air coil, a thermal energy storage coil, a direct solar energy supply coil, one or more inside coils for the space to be conditioned and a hot water coil through common, discharge manifold, suction manifold, liquid drain manifold and liquid feed manifold, by suitable solenoid operated control valves and check valves. The solenoid operated control valves are selectively operated in response to system operating parameters. Seal pots and positive displacement pumps may operate to force liquid refrigerant condensed at intermediate pressure to flow to the receiver which is pressurized at a pressure corresponding to the condensation temperature of the highest pressure condensing coil in the system. Alternatively, liquid refrigerant expansion may be used to reach a common receiver pressure for all condenser returns.

  8. Residential solar-absorption chiller thermal dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guertin, J.M.; Wood, B.D.; McNeill, B.W.

    1981-03-01

    Research is reported on the transient performance of a commercial residential 3 ton lithium bromide-water absorption chiller designed for solar firing. Emphasis was placed on separating the chiller response from that of the entire test facility so that its transient response could solely be observed and quantified. It was found that the entire system time response and thermal capacitance has a major impact on performance degradation due to transient operation. Tests run to ascertain computer algorithms which simulate system isolated chiller performance, revealed processes hitherto undocumented. Transient operation is simulated by three distinct algorithms associated with the three phases of chiller operation. The first phase is start up time. It was revealed during testing that the time required to reach steady state performance values, when the chiller was turned on, was a linear function of steady state water supply temperatures. The second phase is quasi steady state performance. Test facility's performance compared favorably with the manufacturer's published data. The third phase is the extra capacity produced during spin down. Spin down occurs when the hot water supply pump is turned off while the other system pumps remain operating for a few minutes, thus allowing extra chiller capacity to be realized. The computer algorithms were used to generate plots which show the operational surface of an isolated absorption chiller subjected to off design and transient operation.

  9. Development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabatiuk, P.A.; Cassel, D.E.; McCabe, M.; Scarbrough, C.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings, thermal design characteristics and anticipated performance for 266 projects in the HUD Passive Residential Design Competition and the HUD Cycle 5 Demonstration Program were analyzed. These passive residences are located in all regions of the United States requiring space heating, and they represent a variety of passive solar system types including direct gain, indirect gain, and solarium (isolated gain) systems. The results of this statistical analysis are being used to develop proposed minimum acceptable levels of thermal performance for passive solar buildings for the residential performance criteria. A number of performance measures were examined, including net solar contribution, solar fraction, and auxiliary energy use. These and other design and climate-related parameters were statistically correlated using the DATAPLOT computer program and standard statistical analysis techniques.

  10. Alumni | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Visit Website Bo Qiu ThermalMechanical Engineer, Intel Corporation Visit Website Veronika Rinnerbauer Innovation Management, Bosch Visit Website Nitin Shukla Thermal Testing ...

  11. Minnesota Power- Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Minnesota Power offers a 25% rebate for qualifying solar thermal water heating systems. The maximum award for single-family customers is $2,000 per customer; $4,000 for 2-3 family unit buildings;...

  12. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To invest in a renewable resource, consider an ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater and use free energy from the sun to heat your water. Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers rebates of $20...

  13. SunShot Podcast: Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This SunShot Initiative podcast features Ranga Pitchumani of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Program. In the first segment of a three-part series focused on thermal energy storage for...

  14. A study of cellulose gasification in a fluidized bed using a high-temperature solar furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    A 4.2-meter solar furnace was used to study the gasification of cellulose with steam in a fluidized bed. The heating value of the high-temperature equilibrium products is about twenty percent higher than that of the reactants. The increase represents stored solar energy; and the product, synthesis gas, is valuable as a chemical feedstock or pipeline gas. All experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure. Pure tabular alumina as well as crushed automotive exhaust was used as a bed material. Microcrystalline {alpha}-cellulose, entrained in argon, entered the fluidized bed just above the distributor. Steam heated to the operating temperature in a 10 cm packed bed section below the fluidized bed. In all cases, the process ran with more steam than required to produce an equimolar mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. We used a quartz reactor between 1100 and 1430 K; a steel reactor at 1500 K and an Inconel reactor at 1600 K. Reactor inside diameter, nominally 5 cm, varied slightly; the bed height was adjusted to keep the gas residence time constant. Hydrogen production rate was measured before and after experiments with steam alone, with this amount subtracted. Equilibrium mixtures were not achieved. Catalysts improved hydrogen yields with higher than expected concentrations of carbon monoxide, methane and lighter hydrocarbons such as ethylene and acetylene. Experiments performed without catalyst at 1300 K, achieved a mixture (dry, argon-free) of 46 mole% CO, 30% H{sub 2} 14% CH{sub 4} 5% CO{sub 2} and 5% C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. An equilibrium mixture at this temperature would have contained 39% CO, 30% H{sub 2} 7% CO{sub 2} and no CH{sub 4} or C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. With the catalyst, the CO and CH{sub 4} decreased to 40% and 2% respectively, the H{sub 2} increased to 47%, and CO{sub 2} remained the same. No ethylene was formed. The hydrocarbon-rich mixtures achieved are typical of rapid-pyrolysis processes.

  15. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems;

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series | Department of Energy Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific

  16. Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz

    2013-11-27

    Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

  17. Thermal storage module for solar dynamic receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beatty, Ronald L.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    A thermal energy storage system comprising a germanium phase change material and a graphite container.

  18. Sandia Energy - National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety,...

  19. Sandia Energy National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solarreserve-is-testing-prototype-heliostats-at-nsttffeed 0 Solar Regional Test Center in Vermont Achieves Milestone Installation http:energy.sandia.gov...

  20. Improved thermal storage module for solar dynamic receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beatty, R.L.; Lauf, R.J.

    1990-12-31

    This invention relates to a thermal storage apparatus and more particularly to an apparatus for use in conjunction with solar dynamic energy storage systems. The invention is comprised of a thermal energy storage system comprising a germanium phase change material and a graphite container.

  1. General theme report: Working session 2, Solar thermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alpert, D.J.; Kolb, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Currently, over 90% of the world's large-scale solar electric energy is generated with concentrating solar thermal power plants. Such plants have the potential to meet many of the world's future energy needs. Research efforts are generally focused on generating electricity, though a variety of other applications are being pursued. Today, the technology for using solar thermal energy is well developed, cost competitive, and in many cases, ready for widespread application. The current state of each of the solar thermal technologies and their applications is reviewed, and recommendations for increasing their use are presented. The technologies reviewed in detail are: parabolic trough systems, central tower systems, and parabolic dish systems. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Modeling The Potential For Thermal Concentrating Solar Power Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yabei; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page; Stackhouse, Jr., Paul W.

    2010-10-25

    In this paper we explore the tradeoffs between thermal storage capacity, cost, and other system parameters in order to examine possible evolutionary pathways for thermal Concen-trating Solar Power (CSP) technologies. A representation of CSP performance that is suit-able for incorporation into economic modeling tools is developed. We find that, as the fraction of electricity supplied by CSP technologies grows, the application of thermal CSP technologies might progress from current hybrid plants, to plants with a modest amount of thermal storage, and potentially even to plants with sufficient thermal storage to provide base load generation capacity. The representation of CSP cost and performance developed here was implemented in the ObjECTS MiniCAM long-term integrated assessment model. Datasets for global solar resource characteristics as applied to CSP technology were also developed. The regional and global potential of thermal CSP technologies is examined.

  3. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  4. Thermal test procedure for a paraboloid concentrator solar cooker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullick, S.C.; Kandpal, T.C.; Kumar, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Suitable thermal tests have been identified for performance evaluation of a concentrating solar cooker. These tests provide parameters that characterize the performance of the solar cooker, and are more or less independent of the climatic variables. The overall heat loss factor is obtained from the cooling curve and the optical efficiency factor is determined from the heating curve - both under full load conditions. The performance characteristic curve for the solar cooker is obtained and discussed. The study indicates that the no load test, which is useful in the case of a box type solar cooker, is not appropriate in the case of concentrator type cookers.

  5. Solar energy collection, concentration, and thermal conversion; A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haddock, C.; McKee, J.S.C. )

    1991-01-01

    The efficiency with which solar energy can be converted into more useful forms is one of the most important parameters concerning its utilization as a viable alternate source of energy. High efficiencies can be obtained by utilizing higher temperature working fluids. This in turn implies concentrating the intensity of sunlight using focusing type collector systems is discussed. Potential applications of concentrated solar intensity are presented in this article. A description of a new and potentially highly efficient solar thermal to electric converter based on a solar sustained cesium plasma is presented. Photovoltaics are not discussed in any detail in this article.

  6. Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenthal, A.

    1993-05-01

    The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

  7. Thermal valorization of post-consumer film waste in a bubbling bed gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martínez-Lera, S. Torrico, J.; Pallarés, J.; Gil, A.

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Film waste from packaging is a common waste, a fraction of which is not recyclable. • Gasification can make use of the high energy value of the non-recyclable fraction. • This waste and two reference polymers were gasified in a bubbling bed reactor. • This experimental research proves technical feasibility of the process. • It also analyzes impact of composition and ER on the performance of the plant. - Abstract: The use of plastic bags and film packaging is very frequent in manifold sectors and film waste is usually present in different sources of municipal and industrial wastes. A significant part of it is not suitable for mechanical recycling but could be safely transformed into a valuable gas by means of thermal valorization. In this research, the gasification of film wastes has been experimentally investigated through experiments in a fluidized bed reactor of two reference polymers, polyethylene and polypropylene, and actual post-consumer film waste. After a complete experimental characterization of the three materials, several gasification experiments have been performed to analyze the influence of the fuel and of equivalence ratio on gas production and composition, on tar generation and on efficiency. The experiments prove that film waste and analogue polymer derived wastes can be successfully gasified in a fluidized bed reactor, yielding a gas with a higher heating value in a range from 3.6 to 5.6 MJ/m{sup 3} and cold gas efficiencies up to 60%.

  8. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, Gerald W.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is the key element in the national effort to establish solar thermal conversion technologies within the major sectors of the national energy market. It provides for the development of concentrating mirror/lens heat collection and conversion technologies for both central and dispersed receiver applications to produce electricity, provide heat at its point of use in industrial processes, provide heat and electricity in combination for industrial, commercial, and residential needs, and ultimately, drive processes for production of liquid and gaseous fuels. This report is the second Annual Technical Progress Report for the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program and is structured according to the organization of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program on September 30, 1979. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program, a brief history, the significant achievements and real progress during FY 1979, also future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements are forecast. (WHK)

  9. Cost-Effective Solar Thermal Energy Storage: Thermal Energy Storage With Supercritical Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UCLA and JPL are creating cost-effective storage systems for solar thermal energy using new materials and designs. A major drawback to the widespread use of solar thermal energy is its inability to cost-effectively supply electric power at night. State-of-the-art energy storage for solar thermal power plants uses molten salt to help store thermal energy. Molten salt systems can be expensive and complex, which is not attractive from a long-term investment standpoint. UCLA and JPL are developing a supercritical fluid-based thermal energy storage system, which would be much less expensive than molten-salt-based systems. The teams design also uses a smaller, modular, single-tank design that is more reliable and scalable for large-scale storage applications.

  10. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  11. Concentrated Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage Can Help Utilities'

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bottom Line, Study Shows - News Releases | NREL Concentrated Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage Can Help Utilities' Bottom Line, Study Shows December 20, 2012 The storage capacity of concentrating solar power (CSP) can add significant value to a utility company's optimal mix of energy sources, a new report by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) suggests. The report found that CSP with a six-hour storage capacity can lower peak net loads when the

  12. Progress from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Introduction to the solid-state solar-thermal energy conversion center plus discussion on phonon transport and solar thermoelectric energy conversion PDF icon chen.pdf More ...

  13. Solar Photo Catalytic Hydrogen Production from water using a dual bed photosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florida Solar Energy Center

    2003-03-30

    A body of work was performed in which the feasibility of photocatalytically decomposing water into its constituent elements using a dual bed, or modular photosystem, under solar radiation was investigated. The system envisioned consists of two modules, each consisting of a shallow, flat, sealed container, in which microscopic photocatalytic particles are immobilized. The photocatalysts absorb light, generating free electrons and lattice vacancy holes, which are capable of performing reductive and oxidative chemistry, respectively. The photocatalysts would be chosen as to whether they specifically promote H{sub 2} or O{sub 2} evolution in their respective containers. An aqueous solution containing a redox mediator is pumped between the two chambers in order to transfer electron equivalents from one reaction to the other.

  14. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F.

    1985-06-18

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls, Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  15. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F.

    1986-04-08

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls. Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  16. The performance of a solar-regenerated open-cycle desiccant bed grain cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, M.Z.; Angus, D.E. ); Thorpe, G.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The cooling of stored food grains suppresses the growth of populations of insect pests, inhibits spoilage by fungi and helps to preserve grain quality. In temperate and subtropical climates, grains may be effectively cooled by ventilating them with ambient air. In tropical climates, the enthalpy of the air must be reduced before it can be used for cooling grain. One method of achieving this is to isothermally reduce the humidity of the air. This paper describes experiments carried out on a simple-to-build solar-regenerated open-cycle grain cooling system. The device consists of a 5.85 m{sup 2} collector coupled with two beds of silica gel. Results from a series of experiments suggest that the device may be used to cool up to 200 tons of grain. The electrical power consumption of the device is of the order of 0.3 watt per ton of grain cooled, and the total electrical energy consumption is of the order of 0.7 kWh per ton of grain stored for a six-month period. The effectiveness of the device is a function of air flow rate and the enthalpy of ambient air, and results presented in this paper suggest that the solar cooling device is particularly effective in tropical climates.

  17. Thermal performance of an earth-sheltered passive solar residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaVigne, A.B. (Puget Sound Power and Light Co., Bellevue, WA); Schuldt, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of the measured thermal performance of a direct gain, passive solar residence in the Pacific Northwest. The east, west, and north exterior walls of the house are bermed to within 12 inches (30 cm) of the ceiling; sliding interior insulated panels cover the double glazed, south facing windows when appropriate. The cost of the house construction was kept modest.

  18. Applied research in the solar thermal-energy-systems program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C. T.; Lefferdo, J. M.

    1981-03-01

    Within the Solar Thermal Research and Advanced Development (RAD) program a coordinated effort in materials research, fuels and chemical research and applied research is being carried out to meet the systems' needs. Each of these three program elements are described with particular attention given to the applied research activity.

  19. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  20. 10-MWe solar thermal central receiver pilot plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartel, J.J.; Skvanna, P.E.

    1984-02-01

    The Solar One Project is the world's largest solar electric generating station. This pilot-scale research and development experiment is a cooperative effort of government and private industry to demonstrate technical feasibility, economic potential, and environmental acceptability of the solar thermal central receiver concept. The project, which is formally known as the 10-MW Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant, has been constructed in the Mojave Desert on 130 acres of Southern California Edison Company's Cool Water Generating Station near Barstow, California, and will supply 10 MW of electrical power to the Edison grid. Solar One is a joint project of the Department of Energy (DOE), Southern California Edison (SCE), the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP), and the California Energy Commission. The solar portion of the facility was designed and constructed under the direction of the DOE, and the turbine-generator facilities, including the control building, were designed and constructed by SCE. This paper presents an overview of the project, discusses the costs and schedule, highlights the planned test program including operation and maintenance, and briefly discusses the experiences through October 1982.

  1. Concentrating Solar Program; Session: Thermal Storage - Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.; Mehos, M.; Mancini, T.

    2008-04-01

    The project overview of this presentation is: (1) description--(a) laboratory R and D in advanced heat transfer fluids (HTF) and thermal storage systems; (b) FOA activities in solar collector and component development for use of molten salt as a heat transfer and storage fluid; (c) applications for all activities include line focus and point focus solar concentrating technologies; (2) Major FY08 Activities--(a) advanced HTF development with novel molten salt compositions with low freezing temperatures, nanofluids molecular modeling and experimental studies, and use with molten salt HTF in solar collector field; (b) thermal storage systems--cost analysis and updates for 2-tank and thermocline storage and model development and analysis to support near-term trought deployment; (c) thermal storage components--facility upgrade to support molten salt component testing for freeze-thaw receiver testing, long-shafted molten salt pump for parabolic trough and power tower thermal storage systems; (d) CSP FOA support--testing and evaluation support for molten salt component and field testing work, advanced fluids and storage solicitation preparation, and proposal evaluation for new advanced HTF and thermal storage FOA.

  2. Publications | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications Publications supported by S3TEC: 339 Yang, J.; Xi, L.; Qiu, W.; Wu, L.; Shi, X.; Chen, L.; Yang, J.; Zhang, W.; Uher, C.; Singh, D.J., On the tuning of electrical and thermal transport in thermoelectrics: an integrated theory-experiment perspective, Npj Computational Materials, 2, (2016). [DOI: ] 338 Sun, J.; Singh, D.J., Thermoelectric Properties of {\$}{\{}{$\backslash$}mathrm{\{}Mg{\}}{\}}{\_}{\{}2{\}}({$\backslash$}mathrm{\{}Ge{\}},{$\backslash$}mathrm{\{}Sn{\}}){\$}: Model and

  3. AEETES---A solar reflux receiver thermal performance numerical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, R.E. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Reflux solar receivers for dish-Stirling electric power generation systems are currently being investigated by several companies and laboratories. In support of these efforts, the AEETES thermal performance numerical model has been developed to predict thermal performance of pool-boiler and heat-pipe reflux receivers. The formulation of the AEETES numerical model, which is applicable to axisymmetric geometries with asymmetric incident fluxes, is presented in detail. Thermal efficiency predictions agree to within 4.1% with test data from on-sun tests of a pool-boiler reflux receiver. Predicted absorber and sidewall temperatures agree with thermocouple data to within 3.3.% and 7.3%, respectively. The importance of accounting for the asymmetric incident fluxes is demonstrated in comparisons with predictions using azimuthally averaged variables. The predicted receiver heat losses are characterized in terms of convective, solar and infrared radiative, and conductive heat transfer mechanisms. 27 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Performance contracting for parabolic trough solar thermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, H.; Hewett, R.; Walker, A.; Gee, R.; May, K.

    1997-12-31

    Several applications of solar energy have proven viable in the energy marketplace, due to competitive technology and economic performance. One example is the parabolic trough solar collectors, which use focused solar energy to maximize efficiency and reduce material use in construction. Technical improvements are complemented by new business practices to make parabolic trough solar thermal systems technically and economically viable in an ever widening range of applications. Technical developments in materials and fabrication techniques reduce production cost and expand applications from swimming pool heating and service hot water, to higher-temperature applications such as absorption cooling and process steam. Simultaneously, new financing mechanisms such as a recently awarded US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) indefinite quantity Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) facilitate and streamline implementation of the technology in federal facilities such as prisons and military bases.

  5. Enhanced regeneration of degraded polymer solar cells by thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Bilen, Chhinder; Zhou, Xiaojing; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C.; Feron, Krishna

    2014-05-12

    The degradation and thermal regeneration of poly(3-hexylethiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and P3HT:indene-C{sub 60} bisadduct (ICBA) polymer solar cells, with Ca/Al and Ca/Ag cathodes and indium tin oxide/poly(ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate anode have been investigated. Degradation occurs via a combination of three primary pathways: (1) cathodic oxidation, (2) active layer phase segregation, and (3) anodic diffusion. Fully degraded devices were subjected to thermal annealing under inert atmosphere. Degraded solar cells possessing Ca/Ag electrodes were observed to regenerate their performance, whereas solar cells having Ca/Al electrodes exhibited no significant regeneration of device characteristics after thermal annealing. Moreover, the solar cells with a P3HT:ICBA active layer exhibited enhanced regeneration compared to P3HT:PCBM active layer devices as a result of reduced changes to the active layer morphology. Devices combining a Ca/Ag cathode and P3HT:ICBA active layer demonstrated ∼50% performance restoration over several degradation/regeneration cycles.

  6. Site selection for concentrated solar thermal systems in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seki, A.

    1987-01-01

    This report identifies ares on the five major islands (Oahu, Maui, Molakai, Hawaii, and Kauai) that have the potential for concentrating solar thermal applications. The locations are based on existing solar insolation (mostly global and some direct normal) data, other meteorological information, land use, potential end-use, and existing facilities. These areas are: - Western coast of Oahu, especially near Kahe Point - Maui plains area - South-Central Molokai - Kona coast of the Big Island, especially Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii - Western and southern areas of Kauai. Monitoring stations are recommended at some of these sites to obtain direct normal insolation data for future evaluation.

  7. Candidate for solar power : a novel desalination technology for coal bed methane produced water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanley, Charles J.; Andelman, Marc; Hightower, Michael M.; Sattler, Allan Richard

    2005-03-01

    Laboratory and field developments are underway to use solar energy to power a desalination technology - capacitive deionization - for water produced by remote Coal Bed Methane (CBM) natural gas wells. Due to the physical remoteness of many CBM wells throughout the Southwestern U.S., as shown in Figure 1, this approach may offer promise. This promise is not only from its effectiveness in removing salt from CBM water and allowing it to be utilized for various applications, but also for its potentially lower energy consumption compared to other technologies, such as reverse osmosis. This, coupled with the remoteness (Figure 1) of thousands of these wells, makes them more feasible for use with photovoltaic (solar, electric, PV) systems. Concurrent laboratory activities are providing information about the effectiveness and energy requirements of each technology under various produced water qualities and water reuse applications, such as salinity concentrations and water flows. These parameters are being used to driving the design of integrated PV-powered treatment systems. Full-scale field implementations are planned, with data collection and analysis designed to optimize the system design for practical remote applications. Early laboratory studies of capacitive deionization have shown promise that at common CBM salinity levels, the technology may require less energy, is less susceptible to fouling, and is more compact than equivalent reverse osmosis (RO) systems. The technology uses positively and negatively charged electrodes to attract charged ions in a liquid, such as dissolved salts, metals, and some organics, to the electrodes. This concentrates the ions at the electrodes and reduces the ion concentrations in the liquid. This paper discusses the results of these laboratory studies and extends these results to energy consumption and design considerations for field implementation of produced water treatment using photovoltaic systems.

  8. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance of the Acurex solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Acurex solar collector, with FEK 244 reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  9. Novel Thermal Storage Technologies for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neti, Sudhakar; Oztekin, Alparslan; Chen, John; Tuzla, Kemal; Misiolek, Wojciech

    2013-06-20

    The technologies that are to be developed in this work will enable storage of thermal energy in 100 MWe solar energy plants for 6-24 hours at temperatures around 300oC and 850oC using encapsulated phase change materials (EPCM). Several encapsulated phase change materials have been identified, fabricated and proven with calorimetry. Two of these materials have been tested in an airflow experiment. A cost analysis for these thermal energy storage systems has also been conducted that met the targets established at the initiation of the project.

  10. Proceedings: Fourth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    The results of activities within the parabolic dish technology and applications development program are presented. Stirling, organic Rankine and Brayton module technologies, associated hardware and test results to date, concentrator development and progress, economic analyses, and international dish development activities are covered. Two panel discussions, concerning industry issues affecting solar thermal dish development and dish technology from a utility/user perspective, are also included.

  11. Solar heat pipe testing of the Stirling thermal motors 4-120 Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andraka, C.E.; Rawlinson, K.S.; Moss, T.A.; Adkins, D.R.; Moreno, J.B.; Gallup, D.R.; Cordeiro, P.G.; Johansson, S.

    1996-07-01

    Stirling-cycle engines have been identified as a promising technology for the conversion of concentrated solar energy into usable electrical power. A 25kW electric system takes advantage of existing Stirling-cycle engines and existing parabolic concentrator designs. In previous work, the concentrated sunlight impinged directly on the heater head tubes of the Stirling Thermal Motors (STM) 4-120 engine. A Sandia-designed felt-metal-wick heat pipe receiver was fitted to the STM 4-120 engine for on-sun testing on Sandia`s Test Bed Solar Concentrator. The heat pipe uses sodium metal as an intermediate two-phase heat transfer fluid. The receiver replaces the directly-illuminated heater head previously tested. The heat pipe receiver provides heat isothermally to the engine, and the heater head tube length is reduced, both resulting in improved engine performance. The receiver also has less thermal losses than the tube receiver. The heat pipe receiver design is based on Sandia`s second-generation felt-wick heat pipe receiver. This paper presents the interface design, and compares the heat pipe/engine test results to those of the directly-illuminated receiver/engine package.

  12. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  13. Particle Receiver Integrated with Fludized Bed

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program to NREL which features a particle receiver with a fluidized bed. The research team is working to develop a technology that uses gas/solid, two-phase flow as a heat-transfer fluid and separated, stable, solid particles as a thermal energy storage medium. This project provides a pathway for CSP plants to increase their solar-to-electric conversion efficiency and reduce costs in the areas of solar collection from the solar field to the receiver, energy conversion systems, and thermal energy storage.

  14. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector, with FEK 244 reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  15. Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next-Generation Solar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Power Production | Department of Energy Thermal Array for Next-Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next-Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Los Alamos National Laboratory logo The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the National Laboratory R&D competitive funding opportunity, is developing a megawatt-scale heat pipe-based technology designed to bridge the heliostat reflector field and the power cycle by

  16. Progress from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (S3TEC ) | Department of Energy Introduction to the solid-state solar-thermal energy conversion center plus discussion on phonon transport and solar thermoelectric energy conversion chen.pdf (2.01 MB) More Documents & Publications Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion DOE Office of Basic Sciences: An Overview of Basic Research Activities on Thermoelectrics

  17. Fifth parabolic dish solar thermal power program annual review: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1984-03-01

    The primary objective of the Review was to present the results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program. The Review consisted of nine technical sessions covering overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development, and associated hardware and test results to date; distributed systems operating experience; international dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. A panel discussion concerning business views of solar electric generation was held. These Proceedings contain the texts of presentations made at the Review, as submitted by their authors at the beginning of the Review; therefore, they may vary slightly from the actual presentations in the technical sessions.

  18. KUGEL: a thermal, hydraulic, fuel performance, and gaseous fission product release code for pebble bed reactor core analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamasundar, B.I.; Fehrenbach, M.E.

    1981-05-01

    The KUGEL computer code is designed to perform thermal/hydraulic analysis and coated-fuel particle performance calculations for axisymmetric pebble bed reactor (PBR) cores. This computer code was developed as part of a Department of Energy (DOE)-funded study designed to verify the published core performance data on PBRs. The KUGEL code is designed to interface directly with the 2DB code, a two-dimensional neutron diffusion code, to obtain distributions of thermal power, fission rate, fuel burnup, and fast neutron fluence, which are needed for thermal/hydraulic and fuel performance calculations. The code is variably dimensioned so that problem size can be easily varied. An interpolation routine allows variable mesh size to be used between the 2DB output and the two-dimensional thermal/hydraulic calculations.

  19. Solar-thermal-energy collection/storage-pond system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1982-03-25

    A solar thermal energy collection and storage system is disclosed. Water is contained, and the water surface is exposed directly to the sun. The central part of an impermeable membrane is positioned below the water's surface and above its bottom with a first side of the membrane pointing generally upward in its central portion. The perimeter part of the membrane is placed to create a watertight boundary separating the water into a first volume which is directly exposable to the sun and which touches the membranes first side, and a second volumn which touches the membranes second side. A salt is dissolved in the first water volume.

  20. SunShot Podcast: Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Part II |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Part II SunShot Podcast: Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Part II This SunShot Initiative podcast features Ranga Pitchumani of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Program. In the second segment of a three-part series focused on thermal energy storage for concentrating solar power (CSP), this episode covers the most common storage system in use today and SunShot's role in advancing thermal energy storage technologies.

  1. Midtemperature solar systems test faclity predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector with glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the Solar Kinetics solar line-focusing parabolic trough collector for five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  2. Thermal nuclear pulse simulation at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, C.P.; Ralph, M.E. ); Ghanbari, C.M. ); Oeding, R.; Shaw, K. )

    1991-01-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico is being used to simulate the thermal pulse from a nuclear weapon on relatively large surfaces. Pulses varying in length from 2 seconds to 7 seconds have been produced. The desired pulse length varies as a function of the yield of the weapon being simulated. The present experiment capability can accommodate samples as large as 1.2 {times} 1.5 meters. Samples can be flat or three-dimensional. Samples exposed have ranged from fabrics (protective clothing) to an aircraft canopy and cockpit system, complete with a mannequin in a flight suit and helmet. In addition, a windowed wind tunnel has been constructed which permits exposure of flight surface materials to thermal transients with air speed of Mach 0.8. The wind tunnel can accommodate samples up to .48 {times} .76 meters or an array of smaller samples. The maximum flux capability of the NSTTF is about 70 calories/cm{sup 2}-sec. A black-body temperature of about 6000 K is produced by the solar beam and is therefore ideal for simulating the nuclear source. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Bibliography of reports of the Sandia Solar Thermal Distributed Receiver Systems Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, J.A.; Klimas, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    This document, which is a bibliography of solar thermal distributed receiver reports and publications by Sandia Laboratories and its contractors, is provided as a convenient reference for those interested in solar thermal technology. Reports are listed by principal author, by report numbers, and by unnumbered reports.

  4. Solar electric thermal hydronic (SETH) product development project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.; Sindelar, A.

    2000-10-01

    Positive Energy, Inc. received a second Technology Maturation and Commercialization Project Subcontract during the 1999 round of awards. This Subcontract is for the purpose of further aiding Positive Energy, Inc. in preparing its Solar Electric Thermal Hydronic (SETH) control and distribution package for market introduction. All items of this subcontracted project have been successfully completed. This Project Report contains a summary of the progress made during the SETH Development Project (the Project) over the duration of the 1999 Subcontract. It includes a description of the effort performed and the results obtained in the pursuit of intellectual property protection and development of product documentation for the end users. This report also summarizes additional efforts taken by and for the SETH project outside of the Subcontract. It presents a chronology of activities over the duration of the Subcontract, and includes a few selected sample copies of documents offered as evidence of their success.

  5. Project Profile: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Solar Thermal Collector Project Profile: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector SunTrough Energy logo SunTrough, under the Baseload CSP FOA, developed a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that can significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field. Approach Rendering of an L-shaped metal frame faced to the sky. SunTrough Energy developed a single-axis tracking, line-focus solar concentrator and a pilot manufacturing facility under this

  6. Sustainable solar thermal power generation (STPG) technologies in Indian context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    India is a fast developing country. Some of the factors like population growth, industrialization, liberalization in economic policies, green revolution and awareness toward the environment, are increasing the electricity demand rapidly. As per the 14th Power Survey Report, an energy deficit of (+) 9% and peak demand deficit of (+) 18% have been estimated. Keeping in view the liberalization in economic policies, this deficit may be higher by the year 2000 AD. An estimation indicates that India is blessed with solar energy to the tune of 5 x 10{sup 15} kWh/yr. Being clean and inexhaustible source of energy, it can be used for large-scale power generation in the country. Keeping in view the present state-of-art technologies for STPG in MW range, best possible efforts are required to be made by all the concerned, to develop sustainable STPG technology of the future, specially for tropical regions. Standardization of vital equipment is an important aspect. There are a few required criteria like simple and robust technology, its transfer and adaptation in tropical climate conditions; high plant load factor without fossil-fired backup; availability of plant during evening peak and night hours; least use of fragile components, and capacity optimization for MW plants as per solar irradiance and environmental factors. In this paper, efforts have been made to compare the different STPG technologies. On the basis, of literature surveyed and studies carried out by the author, it may be stated that Central Receiver System technologies using molten salt and volumetric air receiver, along with molten salt and ceramic thermal storage respectively seems to be suitable and comparable in Indian context. Performance of SOLAR-TWO and PHOEBUS plants may be decisive.

  7. The DOE Solar Thermal Electric Program Concentrator Technology Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    The project comprises the development of concentrating solar collectors, heliostats and dishes, and the development of optical materials. Because the solar concentrator represents from 40 to 60% of the cost of a solar thermal electric system, the continued development of high-performance concentrators is very important to the commercial viability of these systems. The project is currently testing two large area heliostats, the SPECO 200 m{sup 2} heliostat and the ATS 150 m{sup 2} heliostat and also trying to reduce the cost of the heliostats through the development of stretched-membrane heliostats. Stretched-membrane heliostats are made by attaching thin metal membranes to the two sides of a circular, metal ring. A slight vacuum in the plenum between the two membranes is used to focus the heliostat. The optical surface is provided by a silver-acrylic film, ECP 305. A prototype 100 m{sup 2} commercial unit has been built and is currently being tested. Parabolic dish concentrators are under development for use on dish-Stirling electric systems. The state-of-the-art dish is the McDAC/SCE faceted glass concentrator. Because of the success of stretched-membrane technology for heliostats, the project applied the technology to parabolic dish development and is currently designing a near-term, faceted, stretched-membrane dish. The current thrust of the program in optical materials development is the development of a low-cost, high-performance, silver-acrylic film. 3M's ECP 305 has demonstrated substantial improvement over previous films in its resistance to corrosion, longer life. An experimental film, developed at SERI, has promise for further improving the lifetime of the ECP 305. The project is currently investigating solutions to the problem of separation between the silver and acrylic layers of the film in the presence of water.

  8. Baoding Solar Thermal Equipment Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Equipment Company Place: Baoding, Hebei Province, China Sector: Solar Product: Solar water heating system manufacturer. Coordinates: 38.855011, 115.480217 Show Map Loading...

  9. An overview of water disinfection in developing countries and the potential for solar thermal water pasteurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Thomas, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    This study originated within the Solar Buildings Program at the U.S. Department of Energy. Its goal is to assess the potential for solar thermal water disinfection in developing countries. In order to assess solar thermal potential, the alternatives must be clearly understood and compared. The objectives of the study are to: (a) characterize the developing world disinfection needs and market; (b) identify competing technologies, both traditional and emerging; (c) analyze and characterize solar thermal pasteurization; (d) compare technologies on cost-effectiveness and appropriateness; and (e) identify research opportunities. Natural consequences of the study beyond these objectives include a broad knowledge of water disinfection problems and technologies, introduction of solar thermal pasteurization technologies to a broad audience, and general identification of disinfection opportunities for renewable technologies.

  10. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco; Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana

    2010-10-15

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

  11. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: solar kinetics T-600 solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the Solar Kinetics T-600 solar line-focusing parabolic trough collector are presented for three output temperatures at five cities in the US. (WHK)

  12. The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center report of its activities and accomplishments in Fiscal Year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menicucci, D.F.

    1994-03-01

    The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) at Sandia National Laboratories is a resource provided by the US Department of Energy`s Solar Thermal Program. Its major objectives are to accelerate the use of solar thermal systems through (a) direct technical assistance to users, (b) cooperative test, evaluation, and development efforts with private industry, and (c) educational outreach activities. This report outlines the major activities and accomplishments of the STDAC in Fiscal Year 1993. The report also contains a comprehensive list of persons who contacted the STDAC by telephone for information or technical consulting.

  13. Research and Development for Novel Thermal Energy Storage Systems (TES) for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faghri, Amir; Bergman, Theodore L; Pitchumani, Ranga

    2013-09-26

    The overall objective was to develop innovative heat transfer devices and methodologies for novel thermal energy storage systems for concentrating solar power generation involving phase change materials (PCMs). Specific objectives included embedding thermosyphons and/or heat pipes (TS/HPs) within appropriate phase change materials to significantly reduce thermal resistances within the thermal energy storage system of a large-scale concentrating solar power plant and, in turn, improve performance of the plant. Experimental, system level and detailed comprehensive modeling approaches were taken to investigate the effect of adding TS/HPs on the performance of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems.

  14. SunShot Podcast: Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Part III

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This SunShot Initiative podcast features Ranga Pitchumani of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Program. In the final segment of a three-part series focused on thermal energy storage for...

  15. S3TEC Annual Workship | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Saturday Feb 13, 2016 9:00am to 8:00pm Location: MIT Faculty Club Annual Workshop - Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion February 13, 2016 9:00 am-8:00 pm Location: MIT ...

  16. Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar Thermal/Molten Salt Energy-Storage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AREVA Commission Solar ThermalMolten Salt Energy-Storage Demonstration - Sandia Energy Energy ... for storage, and removes the need for two sets of heat-exchangers in the system. ...

  17. Rapid Solar-Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Syngas - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Rapid Solar-Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Syngas Production of synthesis gas or hydrogen by gasification or pyrolysis of biological feedstocks using solar-thermal energy. University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The invention provides processes that perform biomass gasification or pyrolysis for production of hydrogen, synthesis gas, liquid fuels, or other

  18. Thermal analysis of solar thermal energy storage in a molten-salt thermocline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhen; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2010-06-15

    A comprehensive, two-temperature model is developed to investigate energy storage in a molten-salt thermocline. The commercially available molten salt HITEC is considered for illustration with quartzite rocks as the filler. Heat transfer between the molten salt and quartzite rock is represented by an interstitial heat transfer coefficient. Volume-averaged mass and momentum equations are employed, with the Brinkman-Forchheimer extension to the Darcy law used to model the porous-medium resistance. The governing equations are solved using a finite-volume approach. The model is first validated against experiments from the literature and then used to systematically study the discharge behavior of thermocline thermal storage system. Thermal characteristics including temperature profiles and discharge efficiency are explored. Guidelines are developed for designing solar thermocline systems. The discharge efficiency is found to be improved at small Reynolds numbers and larger tank heights. The filler particle size strongly influences the interstitial heat transfer rate, and thus the discharge efficiency. (author)

  19. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Craig B.; Kutscher, Charles F.; Gawlik, Keith M.

    1997-01-01

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

  20. Tax Revenue and Job Benefits from Solar Thermal Power Plants in Nye County

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuver, Walt

    2009-11-10

    The objective of this report is to establish a common understanding of the financial benefits that the County will receive as solar thermal power plants are developed in Amargosa Valley. Portions of the tax data and job estimates in the report were provided by developers Solar Millennium and Abengoa Solar in support of the effort. It is hoped that the resulting presented data will be accepted as factual reference points for the ensuing debates and financial decisions concerning these development projects.

  1. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

    1997-12-02

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

  2. Taofang Zeng | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Taofang Zeng Alumni Taofang Zeng Director of Center of Thermal Energy Systems, Huaneng Group Corporation, China

  3. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Suntec solar collector with heat-formed glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Suntec solar collector, with heat-formed glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  4. General volume sizing strategy for thermal storage system using phase change material for concentrated solar thermal power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Ben; Li, Peiwen; Chan, Cholik; Tumilowicz, Eric

    2014-12-18

    With an auxiliary large capacity thermal storage using phase change material (PCM), Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is a promising technology for high efficiency solar energy utilization. In a thermal storage system, a dual-media thermal storage tank is typically adopted in industry for the purpose of reducing the use of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) which is usually expensive. While the sensible heat storage system (SHSS) has been well studied, a dual-media latent heat storage system (LHSS) still needs more attention and study. The volume sizing of the thermal storage tank, considering daily cyclic operations, is of particular significance. In this paper, a general volume sizing strategy for LHSS is proposed, based on an enthalpy-based 1D transient model. One example was presented to demonstrate how to apply this strategy to obtain an actual storage tank volume. With this volume, a LHSS can supply heat to a thermal power plant with the HTF at temperatures above a cutoff point during a desired 6 hours of operation. This general volume sizing strategy is believed to be of particular interest for the solar thermal power industry.

  5. General volume sizing strategy for thermal storage system using phase change material for concentrated solar thermal power plant

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Ben; Li, Peiwen; Chan, Cholik; Tumilowicz, Eric

    2014-12-18

    With an auxiliary large capacity thermal storage using phase change material (PCM), Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is a promising technology for high efficiency solar energy utilization. In a thermal storage system, a dual-media thermal storage tank is typically adopted in industry for the purpose of reducing the use of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) which is usually expensive. While the sensible heat storage system (SHSS) has been well studied, a dual-media latent heat storage system (LHSS) still needs more attention and study. The volume sizing of the thermal storage tank, considering daily cyclic operations, is of particular significance. In thismore » paper, a general volume sizing strategy for LHSS is proposed, based on an enthalpy-based 1D transient model. One example was presented to demonstrate how to apply this strategy to obtain an actual storage tank volume. With this volume, a LHSS can supply heat to a thermal power plant with the HTF at temperatures above a cutoff point during a desired 6 hours of operation. This general volume sizing strategy is believed to be of particular interest for the solar thermal power industry.« less

  6. Research Program - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the Inorganic PV thrust, we develop nanostructured materials architectures for solar energy conversion by engineering absorption and transport properties not available in the bulk. In particular, we aim to exploit unique quantum effects at the nanoscale which are promising for the realization of new paradigms in solar energy conversion such as intermediate band or hot carrier solar cells. Thrust Leaders: Prof. Rachel Goldman (MSE)&nbspand Prof. Jamie Phillips (EECS) Recent Publications -

  7. Wind Issues in Solar Thermal Performance Ratings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Casey, R.

    2009-04-01

    We suggest that wind bias against unglazed solar water heaters be mitigated by using a calibrated collector model to derive a wind correction to the measured efficiency curve.

  8. OLADE-Solar Thermal World Portal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Solar Hot Water User Interface: Website Website: www.solarthermalworld.org Cost: Free UN Region: Caribbean, South America Language: "English, Spanish; Castilian" is not in...

  9. Thermal control system and method for a passive solar storage wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortega, Joseph K. E.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a system and method for controlling the storing and elease of thermal energy from a thermal storage wall wherein said wall is capable of storing thermal energy from insolation of solar radiation. The system and method includes a device such as a plurality of louvers spaced a predetermined distance from the thermal wall for regulating the release of thermal energy from the thermal wall. This regulating device is made from a material which is substantially transparent to the incoming solar radiation so that when it is in any operative position, the thermal storage wall substantially receives all of the impacting solar radiation. The material in the regulating device is further capable of being substantially opaque to thermal energy so that when the device is substantially closed, thermal release of energy from the storage wall is substantially minimized. An adjustment device is interconnected with the regulating mechanism for selectively opening and closing it in order to regulate the release of thermal energy from the wall.

  10. Spectral calculation of thermal performance of solar pond and comparison of the results with the experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X.Y.; Kanayama, Kimio; Baba, Hiromu

    1999-07-01

    This paper deals with the method and the result of the spectroscopic calculation on the heat balance of a salt-gradient solar pond under the conditions of spectral solar radiation. Furthermore, the reflection of the rays incident upon the surface of the pond water, the refraction of the rays within the salt water layer and the diffusion of the salt in the pond water are considered. On the other hand, in order to make clear the mechanism of heat collection and heat storage of a solar pond, the authors conducted the indoor experiment and numerical analysis on a small scale model of salt-gradient solar pond with 2 m{sup 2} surface area and 1.6 m depth, under incident ray from a Xe-lamp solar simulator. According to above experimental analysis, the authors made a simulation model of thermal performance for a solar pond and calculated the heat balance in it. They found that the simulation calculations correspond well to the experimental result, so that their thermal simulation model might be correct. Furthermore, the authors also did the thermal calculation by changing the incident ray from Xe-lamp into natural ray, and found that the temperature distributions were notably different due to spectral characteristics of the incident ray. Therefore, the spectroscopic consideration for thermal performance of any solar pond is necessary to obtain a correct solution under the spectral incidence of special distributions.

  11. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Sun-Heet nontracking solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the Sun-Heet nontracking, line-focusing parabolic trough collector at five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  12. Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants SENER logo SENER, under the Baseload CSP FOA, aimed to develop a highly efficient, low-maintenance and economical thermal energy storage (TES) system using solid graphite modular blocks for CSP plants. Approach Graphic of a rectangle shape to the left of a row or smaller rectangles stacked in two rows. The main objective was to evaluate a TES system able to

  13. Thermal and economic analysis of a solar multi-effect desalination system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamed, O.A.

    1996-10-01

    The performance of a solar multieffect desalination pilot plant has been studied over an extended period of one year. The impact of solar flux, ambient and sea water temperatures on the monthly average water production and plant performance ratios are investigated. The specific thermal and electric energy requirements of the system have been examined and compared with the requirements of conventional fossil fuel powered desalination plants. The economic viability of the solar desalination system has been assessed. It reveals that the capital and operating costs represent around 93 and 7 percent of the overall water production cost respectively. The capital cost critically depends on solar radiation and distiller performance ratio.

  14. News - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Archives Events/News Archives 1st Annual CSTEC External Workshop: August 4, 2010 2nd Annual CSTEC External Workshop: May 3, 2011 3rd Annual CSTEC External Workshop: October 2, 2012 DOE to establish Energy Frontier Research Center in solar energy at U-M CSTEC investigators co-chair ICEL2010 Forcing mismatched elements together could yield better solar cells Recycling waste heat into energy: Researchers take a step toward more efficient conversion Multi-EFRC Collaborative Effort on TE in

  15. Science Highlights- Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highlight Slides Abstracts (Click on Title) and Science Highlight Slides (Click on Image) Highlights From 2014 Comparison of Ultrafast Pulse Measurement Methods Low-temperature Physical Properties of Cu2Se Modeling the Role of Donor/Acceptor Interface in Charge Transfer in SubPc/C60-based Solar Cells Universal Design Principles for Cascade Heterojunction Solar Cells with High Fill Factors and Internal Quantum Efficiencies Approaching 100% Exciton Management in Organic Photovoltaic Multi-donor

  16. Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in a Simulated Concentrating Solar Power Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Bell, Jason R; Felde, David K; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; Qualls, A L; Weaver, Samuel P

    2014-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon thermal fluids showing thermally stability to 600 C have been tested for solar thermal-power applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C indicated that the fluid isomerized and degraded at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components in trough solar electric generating systems, such as the waste heat rejection exchanger, may become coated or clogged affecting loop performance. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene, without addition of stabilizers, does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the temperatures greater than 500 C. The performance of a concentrating solar loop using high temperature fluids was modeled based on the National Renewable Laboratory Solar Advisory Model. It was determined that a solar-to-electricity efficiency of up to 30% and a capacity factor of near 60% could be achieved using a high efficiency collector and 12 h thermal energy storage.

  17. Research Overview | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    primarily based on thermal-mechanical systems such as steam and gas turbines and internal combustion engines. Such engines are most suitable for power generation at large scales ...

  18. Controlling emissions from a black liquor fluidized bed evaporator (Copeland reactor) using a regenerative thermal oxidizer and a prefilter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grzanka, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on an intriguing pilot project developed to control air emissions from a pulp mill. Testing is complete, and the results show favorable emissions reductions. Stone Container Corporation, REECO, NCASI, the Ohio DEP, and the US EPA, have all worked together and approved the installation of control equipment, for VOC and HAP emissions under Presumptive MACT, setting the standard for the Copeland Reactor process in a semi chem pulp mill. The equipment, once operational, will reduce VOC and CO emissions by greater than 90%. This installation will be done at one seventh the cost of the significant process modifications required to accomplish the same emission reduction. In addition, increased process operating efficiency will be achieved with the use of an energy recovery system. The process is a black liquor fluidized bed boiler, which is used to generate sodium carbonate from the black liquor. The vapor emissions were high in VOCs, CO and particulate. After much study and testing, a wet electrostatic precipitator was chosen as the filter system for particulate control, followed by a regenerative thermal oxidizer for VOC and HAP control, finally an air-to-air heat exchanger is being used to preheat the combustion air entering the process.

  19. Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar Thermal/Molten Salt Energy-Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demonstration AREVA Commission Solar Thermal/Molten Salt Energy-Storage Demonstration - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery

  20. SOLCOST - Version 3. 0. Solar energy design program for non-thermal specialists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The SOLCOST solar energy design program is a public domain computerized design tool intended for use by non-thermal specialists to size solar systems with a methodology based on life cycle cost. An overview of SOLCOST capabilities and options is presented. A detailed guide to the SOLCOST input parameters is included. Sample problems showing typical imput decks and resulting SOLCOST output sheets are given. Details of different parts of the analysis are appended. (MHR)

  1. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucharski, TJ; Ferralis, N; Kolpak, AM; Zheng, JO; Nocera, DG; Grossman, JC

    2014-04-13

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  2. Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC) | U.S. DOE

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Office of Science (SC) Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page S<sup>3</sup>TEC Header Director Gang Chen Lead Institution Massachusetts Institute of Technology Year Established 2009

  3. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  4. Solar Contractor Licensing | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    < Back Eligibility InstallersContractors Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics...

  5. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems simulation with Simulink/Matlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    da Silva, R.M.; Fernandes, J.L.M.

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this work consists in thermodynamic modeling of hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar systems, pursuing a modular strategy approach provided by Simulink/Matlab. PV/T solar systems are a recently emerging solar technology that allows for the simultaneous conversion of solar energy into both electricity and heat. This type of technology present some interesting advantages over the conventional ''side-by-side'' thermal and PV solar systems, such as higher combined electrical/thermal energy outputs per unit area, and a more uniform and aesthetical pleasant roof area. Despite the fact that early research on PV/T systems can be traced back to the seventies, only recently it has gained a renewed impetus. In this work, parametric studies and annual transient simulations of PV/T systems are undertaken in Simulink/Matlab. The obtained results show an average annual solar fraction of 67%, and a global overall efficiency of 24% (i.e. 15% thermal and 9% electrical), for a typical four-person single-family residence in Lisbon, with p-Si cells, and a collector area of 6 m{sup 2}. A sensitivity analysis performed on the PV/T collector suggests that the most important variable that should be addressed to improve thermal performance is the photovoltaic (PV) module emittance. Based on those results, some additional improvements are proposed, such as the use of vacuum, or a noble gas at low-pressure, to allow for the removal of PV cells encapsulation without air oxidation and degradation, and thus reducing the PV module emittance. Preliminary results show that this option allows for an 8% increase on optical thermal efficiency, and a substantial reduction of thermal losses, suggesting the possibility of working at higher fluid temperatures. The higher working temperatures negative effect in electrical efficiency was negligible, due to compensation by improved optical properties. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained from other authors

  6. Power efficiency for very high temperature solar thermal cavity receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDougal, Allan R.; Hale, Robert R.

    1984-01-01

    This invention is an improved solar energy cavity receiver for exposing materials and components to high temperatures. The receiver includes a housing having an internal reflective surface defining a cavity and having an inlet for admitting solar radiation thereto. A photothermal absorber is positioned in the cavity to receive radiation from the inlet. A reflective baffle is positioned between the absorber and the inlet to severely restrict the re-radiation of energy through the inlet. The front surface of the baffle defines a narrow annulus with the internal reflective surface of the housing. The front surface of the baffle is contoured to reflect incoming radiation onto the internal surface of the housing, from which it is reflected through the annulus and onto the front surface of the absorber. The back surface of the baffle intercepts infrared radiation from the front of the absorber. With this arrangement, a high percentage of the solar power input is retained in the cavity; thus, high internal temperatures are attained.

  7. Compendium of information on identification and testing of materials for plastic solar thermal collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinniss, V.D.; Sliemers, F.A.; Landstrom, D.K.; Talbert, S.G.

    1980-07-31

    This report is intended to organize and summarize prior and current literature concerning the weathering, aging, durability, degradation, and testing methodologies as applied to materials for plastic solar thermal collectors. Topics covered include (1) rate of aging of polymeric materials; (2) environmental factors affecting performance; (3) evaluation and prediction of service life; (4) measurement of physical and chemical properties; (5) discussion of evaluation techniques and specific instrumentation; (6) degradation reactions and mechanisms; (7) weathering of specific polymeric materials; and (8) exposure testing methodology. Major emphasis has been placed on defining the current state of the art in plastics degradation and on identifying information that can be utilized in applying appropriate and effective aging tests for use in projecting service life of plastic solar thermal collectors. This information will also be of value where polymeric components are utilized in the construction of conventional solar collectors or any application where plastic degradation and weathering are prime factors in material selection.

  8. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

  9. Solar Thermal Collectors - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy - Energy Information Administration Collectors Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook

  10. Solar Thermal Power Plants - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy - Energy Information Administration Power Plants Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come From

  11. Science Highlights- Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Abstracts and Highlight Slides Energy Level Modulation in Conjugated Polymers for Organic Photovoltaic Applications Aligning Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) Using Ultrafast Laser Irradiation Disordered Interfaces Improve Organic Photovoltaics New Way of Reducing Thermal Conductivity in Thermoelectric Materials Phase-field Simulations of GaN/InGaN Quantum Dot Growth by Selective Area Epitaxy High Performance Thermoelectricity in Earth-Abundant Compounds Based on Natural Mineral Tetrahedrites Effect

  12. Science Highlights- Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Abstracts and Highlight Slides Improving Thermoelectric Efficiency via Low Thermal Boundary Conductance Reduction of Open Circuit Voltage Loss in a Polymer Photovoltaic Cell via Interfacial Molecular Design Mechanisms of Quantum Dot Formation During Annealing of Metallic Islands Improved Measurements of Ultrafast Pulses of Light Recovering Lost Excitons in Organic Photovoltaics using a Transparent Dissociation Layer A Predictive approach for Calculating Electron Charge Transfer within

  13. Experience with thermal storage in tanks of stratified water for solar heating and load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wildin, M.W.; Witkofsky, M.P.; Noble, J.M.; Hopper, R.E.; Stromberg, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results have been obtained for performance of stratified tanks of water used to store heating and cooling capacity in a 5574 m/sup 2/ university building. The major sources of energy used to charge the heated tanks were solar energy, obtained via collectors on the roof of the building, and excess heat recovered from the interior of the building via thermal storage and electric-driven heat pump/chillers. Through stratification of the water in the storage tanks and an appropriate system operating strategy, 40 percent of the building's total heating needs were supplied by solar energy during the first four months of 1981. Month-long thermal efficiencies of the storage array ranging from 70 percent during the heating season to nearly 90 percent during the cooling season, were measured. Work is underway to improve the performance of thermal storage.

  14. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Polisolar Model POL solar collector with glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-05-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Polisolar Model POL solar collector, with glass reflector surfaces, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  15. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Toltec two-axis tracking solar collector with 3M acrylic polyester film reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-06-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Toltec solar collector, with acrylic film reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  16. Event Archives | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Event Archives Seminar S3TEC - Thermal Engineering of GaN Semiconductor Devices Friday, Jul 22, 2016 12:00 am 3-270 The development of gallium nitride (GaN) on a variety of substrates from SiC to diamond is under development to create high power RF technologies for advanced communications and power electronic devices. In general, GaN devices can accommodate high operational frequencies, high junction... more Seminar Cross Cutting seminar series: Generation, transport and relaxation of

  17. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: AAI solar collector with pressure-formed glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhance oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the AAI solar line-focusing slat-type collector for five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  18. Thermal performance simulation of a solar cavity receiver under windy conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.B.; Wei, J.J.; Dong, X.W.; Wang, Y.S.

    2011-01-15

    Solar cavity receiver plays a dominant role in the light-heat conversion. Its performance can directly affect the efficiency of the whole power generation system. A combined calculation method for evaluating the thermal performance of the solar cavity receiver is raised in this paper. This method couples the Monte-Carlo method, the correlations of the flow boiling heat transfer, and the calculation of air flow field. And this method can ultimately figure out the surface heat flux inside the cavity, the wall temperature of the boiling tubes, and the heat loss of the solar receiver with an iterative solution. With this method, the thermal performance of a solar cavity receiver, a saturated steam receiver, is simulated under different wind environments. The highest wall temperature of the boiling tubes is about 150 C higher than the water saturation temperature. And it appears in the upper middle parts of the absorbing panels. Changing the wind angle or velocity can obviously affect the air velocity inside the receiver. The air velocity reaches the maximum value when the wind comes from the side of the receiver (flow angle {alpha} = 90 ). The heat loss of the solar cavity receiver also reaches a maximum for the side-on wind. (author)

  19. Panel results of the solar thermal program research requirement assessment review. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1983-11-01

    The objectives of the assessment were to identify: research needs by topic and activity, relative priority of research needs, options for performing needed research, potential performers, costs and duration of R and D activities, gaps and duplications within the R and D program, and activities underway that appear to be of low priority. To achieve these objectives, research programs of the Division of Solar Thermal Technologies within the Office of Renewable Energy and Conservation and the Materials and Advanced Energy Programs of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences were reviewed. Several recent assessments of solar thermal research needs made within the past two years by various groups were also reviewed, and the key research issues and needs were extracted. The primary results from the assessment are a set of prioritized activities to meet the most important research needs for solar thermal technologies. These activities belong to four disciplines: materials science, thermal science, thermochemistry, and engineering. Further, priorities associated with the needs for research result from the various activities allow the recommended activities to be grouped into two categories; a core group which should be at the heart of any future program developed by the department, and a set of important needs that should, at least, find their way into a program at some time during its existence. The recommended research program is outlined, and the complete set of ranked research needs is listed.

  20. Economic status and prospects of solar thermal industrial heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Hale, M.J.

    1992-12-01

    This paper provides estimates of the levelized energy cost (LEC) of a mid-temperature parabolic trough system for three different development scenarios. A current technology case is developed that is representative of recent designs and costs for commercial systems, and is developed using data from a recent system installed in Tehachapi, California. The second scenario looks at design enhancements to the currenttechnology case as a way to increase annual energy output and decrease costs. The third scenario uses the annual energy output of the enhanced design, but allows for cost reductions that would be possible in higher volume production than currently exist. A simulation model was used to estimate the annual energy output from the system, and the results were combined with cost data in an economic analysis model. The study indicates that R D improvements in the current trough system show promise of reducing the (LEC) by about 40%. At higher production rates, the LEC of the solar system with R D improvements could potentially be reduced by over 50%.

  1. Economic status and prospects of solar thermal industrial heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Hale, M.J.

    1992-12-01

    This paper provides estimates of the levelized energy cost (LEC) of a mid-temperature parabolic trough system for three different development scenarios. A current technology case is developed that is representative of recent designs and costs for commercial systems, and is developed using data from a recent system installed in Tehachapi, California. The second scenario looks at design enhancements to the currenttechnology case as a way to increase annual energy output and decrease costs. The third scenario uses the annual energy output of the enhanced design, but allows for cost reductions that would be possible in higher volume production than currently exist. A simulation model was used to estimate the annual energy output from the system, and the results were combined with cost data in an economic analysis model. The study indicates that R&D improvements in the current trough system show promise of reducing the (LEC) by about 40%. At higher production rates, the LEC of the solar system with R&D improvements could potentially be reduced by over 50%.

  2. Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2011-11-01

    At high penetration of solar generation there are a number of challenges to economically integrating this variable and uncertain resource. These include the limited coincidence between the solar resource and normal demand patterns and limited flexibility of conventional generators to accommodate variable generation resources. Of the large number of technologies that can be used to enable greater penetration of variable generators, concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) presents a number of advantages. The use of storage enables this technology to shift energy production to periods of high demand or reduced solar output. In addition, CSP can provide substantial grid flexibility by rapidly changing output in response to the highly variable net load created by high penetration of solar (and wind) generation. In this work we examine the degree to which CSP may be complementary to PV by performing a set of simulations in the U.S. Southwest to demonstrate the general potential of CSP with TES to enable greater use of solar generation, including additional PV.

  3. Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, Ramana G.

    2013-10-23

    The explicit UA program objective is to develop low melting point (LMP) molten salt thermal energy storage media with high thermal energy storage density for sensible heat storage systems. The novel Low Melting Point (LMP) molten salts are targeted to have the following characteristics: 1. Lower melting point (MP) compared to current salts (<222ºC) 2. Higher energy density compared to current salts (>300 MJ/m3) 3. Lower power generation cost compared to current salt In terms of lower power costs, the program target the DOE's Solar Energy Technologies Program year 2020 goal to create systems that have the potential to reduce the cost of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to less than $15/kWh-th and achieve round trip efficiencies greater than 93%. The project has completed the experimental investigations to determine the thermo-physical, long term thermal stability properties of the LMP molten salts and also corrosion studies of stainless steel in the candidate LMP molten salts. Heat transfer and fluid dynamics modeling have been conducted to identify heat transfer geometry and relative costs for TES systems that would utilize the primary LMP molten salt candidates. The project also proposes heat transfer geometry with relevant modifications to suit the usage of our molten salts as thermal energy storage and heat transfer fluids. The essential properties of the down-selected novel LMP molten salts to be considered for thermal storage in solar energy applications were experimentally determined, including melting point, heat capacity, thermal stability, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, vapor pressure, and corrosion resistance of SS 316. The thermodynamic modeling was conducted to determine potential high temperature stable molten salt mixtures that have thermal stability up to 1000 °C. The thermo-physical properties of select potential high temperature stable (HMP) molten salt mixtures were also experimentally determined. All the salt mixtures align with the go

  4. Thermal-mechanical stability of single crystal oxide refractive concentrators for high-temperature solar thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, D.; Jacobson, S.; Miller, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermo-mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments during the space mission sun/shade transition is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions, and thus provide vital information for the component design. In this paper, a controlled heat flux thermal shock test approach is established for the single crystal oxide materials using a 3.0 kW continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser, with a wavelength 10.6 micron. Thermal fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated and critical temperature gradients are determined under various temperature and heating conditions. The test results show that single crystal sapphire is able to sustain the highest temperature gradient and heating-cooling rate, and thus exhibit the best thermal shock resistance, as compared to the yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttrium aluminum garnet and magnesium oxide.

  5. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaffe, L.D.

    1983-08-15

    In parabolic dish solar collectors, walk-off of the spot of concentrated sunlight can be a hazard if a malfunction causes the concentration to stop following the sun. Therefore, a test program was carried out to evaluate the behavior of various ceramics, metals, and polymers under solar irradiation of about 7000 kW/m/sup 2/ (peak) for 15 minutes. The only materials that did not slump or shatter were two grades of medium-grain extruded graphite. High-purity, slip-cast silica might be satisfactory at somewhat lower flux. Oxidation of the graphite appeared acceptable during tests simulating walk-off, acquisition (2000 cycles on/off sun), and spillage (continuous on-sun operation).

  6. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-08-15

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  7. CYCLIC THERMAL SIGNATURE IN A GLOBAL MHD SIMULATION OF SOLAR CONVECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cossette, Jean-Francois; Charbonneau, Paul; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    2013-11-10

    Global magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the solar convection zone have recently achieved cyclic large-scale axisymmetric magnetic fields undergoing polarity reversals on a decadal time scale. In this Letter, we show that these simulations also display a thermal convective luminosity that varies in-phase with the magnetic cycle, and trace this modulation to deep-seated magnetically mediated changes in convective flow patterns. Within the context of the ongoing debate on the physical origin of the observed 11 yr variations in total solar irradiance, such a signature supports the thesis according to which all, or part, of the variations on decadal time scales and longer could be attributed to a global modulation of the Sun's internal thermal structure by magnetic activity.

  8. Acceptance Performance Test Guideline for Utility Scale Parabolic Trough and Other CSP Solar Thermal Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehos, M. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kearney, D. W.

    2011-08-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of ASME or other international test codes developed for this purpose, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. Progress on interim guidelines was presented at SolarPACES 2010. Significant additions and modifications were made to the guidelines since that time, resulting in a final report published by NREL in April 2011. This paper summarizes those changes, which emphasize criteria for assuring thermal equilibrium and steady state conditions within the solar field.

  9. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  10. An improved absorption generator for solar-thermal powered heat pumps. Part 2: Energy and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fineblum, S.

    1997-12-31

    Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been very expensive for their rating. To enhance collector thermal efficiency the liquid flowing within the collectors must be kept as cool as possible. However, there is also a need to operate the absorption reported earlier. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and more efficient. As noted in Part 1, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures. Therefore, a smaller, less expensive chiller is required. The reduced investment in solar arrays and absorption chillers is estimated along with a range of paybacks.

  11. High-flux, high-temperature thermal vacuum qualification testing of a solar receiver aperture shield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerslake, T.W.; Mason, L.S.; Strumpf, H.J.

    1997-12-31

    As part of the International Space Station (ISS) Phase 1 program, NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Russian Space Agency (RSA) teamed together to design, build and flight test the world`s first orbital Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) on the Russian space station Mir. The Solar Dynamic Flight Demonstration (SDFD) program was to operate a nominal 2 kWe SDPS on Mir for a period up to 1-year starting in late 1997. Unfortunately, the SDFD mission was demanifested from the ISS Phase 1 shuttle program in early 1996. However, substantial flight hardware and prototypical flight hardware was built including a heat receiver and aperture shield. The aperture shield comprises the front face of the cylindrical cavity heat receiver and is located at the focal plane of the solar concentrator. It is constructed of a stainless steel plate with a 1-m outside diameter, a 0.24-m inside diameter and covered with high-temperature, refractory metal multi-foil insulation (MFI). The aperture shield must minimize heat loss from the receiver cavity, provide a stiff, high strength structure to accommodate shuttle launch loads and protect receiver structures from highly concentrated solar fluxes during concentrator off-pointing events. To satisfy Mir operational safety protocols, the aperture shield was required to accommodate direct impingement of the intensely concentrated solar image for a 1-hour period. To verify thermal-structural durability under the anticipated high-flux, high-temperature loading, an aperture shield test article was constructed and underwent a series of two tests in a large thermal vacuum chamber configured with a reflective, point-focus solar concentrator and a solar simulator. The test article was positioned near the focal plane and exposed to concentrated solar flux for a period of 1-hour. In the first test, a near equilibrium temperature of 1862 K was attained in the center of the shield hot spot. In the second test, with increased incident flux, a near

  12. Solar-Thermal Fluid-Wall Reaction Processing - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Solar-Thermal Fluid-Wall Reaction Processing University of Colorado National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact CU About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Currently most hydrogen is produced through a process of heating natural gas with water vapor called steam reforming. This process requires energy to heat the gasses and produces greenhouse gases such as CO2 as its byproducts. These conditions

  13. Solar and Wind Rights | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Wind (Small) Program Info Sector Name State State...

  14. Solar Easements & Rights Laws | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process...

  15. Solar Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Synthesis Gas: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-00335

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Netter, J.

    2013-08-01

    The CRADA is established to facilitate the development of solar thermal technology to efficiently and economically convert biomass into useful products (synthesis gas and derivatives) that can replace fossil fuels. NREL's High Flux Solar Furnace will be utilized to validate system modeling, evaluate candidate reactor materials, conduct on-sun testing of the process, and assist in the development of solar process control system. This work is part of a DOE-USDA 3-year, $1M grant.

  16. Development and Performance Evaluation of High Temperature Concrete for Thermal Energy Storage for Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Panneer Selvam; Hale, Micah; Strasser, Matt

    2013-03-31

    Thermal energy can be stored by the mechanism of sensible or latent heat or heat from chemical reactions. Sensible heat is the means of storing energy by increasing the temperature of the solid or liquid. Since the concrete as media cost per kWhthermal is $1, this seems to be a very economical material to be used as a TES. This research is focused on extending the concrete TES system for higher temperatures (500 °C to 600 °C) and increasing the heat transfer performance using novel construction techniques. To store heat at high temperature special concretes are developed and tested for its performance. The storage capacity costs of the developed concrete is in the range of $0.91-$3.02/kWhthermal. Two different storage methods are investigated. In the first one heat is transported using molten slat through a stainless steel tube and heat is transported into concrete block through diffusion. The cost of the system is higher than the targeted DOE goal of $15/kWhthermal. The increase in cost of the system is due to stainless steel tube to transfer the heat from molten salt to the concrete blocks.The other method is a one-tank thermocline system in which both the hot and cold fluid occupy the same tank resulting in reduced storage tank volume. In this model, heated molten salt enters the top of the tank which contains a packed bed of quartzite rock and silica sand as the thermal energy storage (TES) medium. The single-tank storage system uses about half the salt that is required by the two-tank system for a required storage capacity. This amounts to a significant reduction in the cost of the storage system. The single tank alternative has also been proven to be cheaper than the option which uses large concrete modules with embedded heat exchangers. Using computer models optimum dimensions are determined to have an round trip efficiency of 84%. Additionally, the cost of the structured concrete thermocline configuration provides the TES

  17. Neural network modelling of thermal stratification in a solar DHW storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geczy-Vig, P.; Farkas, I.

    2010-05-15

    In this study an artificial neural network (ANN) model is introduced for modelling the layer temperatures in a storage tank of a solar thermal system. The model is based on the measured data of a domestic hot water system. The temperatures distribution in the storage tank divided in 8 equal parts in vertical direction were calculated every 5 min using the average 5 min data of solar radiation, ambient temperature, mass flow rate of collector loop, load and the temperature of the layers in previous time steps. The introduced ANN model consists of two parts describing the load periods and the periods between the loads. The identified model gives acceptable results inside the training interval as the average deviation was 0.22 C during the training and 0.24 C during the validation. (author)

  18. An improved absorption generator for solar-thermal powered heat pumps. Part 1: Feasibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fineblum, S.

    1997-12-31

    Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been, typically, very expensive for their rating. The need to keep the liquid flowing within the collectors as cool as possible to enhance collector thermal efficiency, conflicts with the need to operate the absorption chiller at a higher temperature. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and much more efficient. In addition, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures and, therefore, a smaller chiller is required. The economic consequences of these benefits will be presented in Part 2.

  19. Dish/Stirling systems: Overview of an emerging commercial solar thermal electric technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, J.W.; Diver, R.B.; Estrada, C.

    1995-11-01

    Dish/Stirling is a solar thermal electric technology which couples parabolic, point-focusing solar collectors and heat engines which employ the Stirling thermodynamic cycle. Since the late 1970s, the development of Dish/Stirling systems intended for commercial use has been in progress in Germany, Japan, and the US. In the next several years it is expected that one or more commercial systems will enter the market place. This paper provides a general overview of this emerging technology, including: a description of the fundamental principles of operation of Dish/Stirling systems; a presentation of the major components of the systems (concentrator, receiver, engine/alternator, and controls); an overview of the actual systems under development around the world, with a discussion of some of the technical issues and challenges facing the Dish/Stirling developers. A brief discussion is also presented of potential applications for small Dish/Stirling systems in northern Mexico.

  20. Evaluation of annual efficiencies of high temperature central receiver concentrated solar power plants with thermal energy storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrhart, Brian David; Gill, David Dennis

    2013-07-01

    The current study has examined four cases of a central receiver concentrated solar power plant with thermal energy storage using the DELSOL and SOLERGY computer codes. The current state-of-the-art base case was compared with a theoretical high temperature case which was based on the scaling of some input parameters and the estimation of other parameters based on performance targets from the Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This comparison was done for both current and high temperature cases in two configurations: a surround field with an external cylindrical receiver and a north field with a single cavity receiver. There is a fairly dramatic difference between the design point and annual average performance, especially in the solar field and receiver subsystems, and also in energy losses due to the thermal energy storage being full to capacity. Additionally, there are relatively small differences (<2%) in annual average efficiencies between the Base and High Temperature cases, despite an increase in thermal to electric conversion efficiency of over 8%. This is due the increased thermal losses at higher temperature and operational losses due to subsystem start-up and shut-down. Thermal energy storage can mitigate some of these losses by utilizing larger thermal energy storage to ensure that the electric power production system does not need to stop and re-start as often, but solar energy is inherently transient. Economic and cost considerations were not considered here, but will have a significant impact on solar thermal electric power production strategy and sizing.

  1. Kinematic Stirling engine as an energy conversion subsystem for paraboloidal dish solar thermal power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, J.M.

    1984-04-15

    The potential of a suitably designed and economically manufactured Stirling engine as the energy conversion subsystem of a paraboloidal dish-Stirling solar thermal power module has been estimated. Results obtained by elementary cycle analyses have been shown to match quite well the performance characteristics of an advanced kinematic Stirling engine, the United Stirling P-40, as established by current prototypes of the engine and by a more sophisticated analytic model of its advanced derivative. In addition to performance, brief consideration has been given to other Stirling engine criteria such as durability, reliability, and serviceability. Production costs have not been considered here.

  2. Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a Production Cost Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Hummon, M.

    2012-11-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) provides a dispatchable source of renewable energy. The value of CSP with TES, as with other potential generation resources, needs to be established using traditional utility planning tools. Production cost models, which simulate the operation of grid, are often used to estimate the operational value of different generation mixes. CSP with TES has historically had limited analysis in commercial production simulations. This document describes the implementation of CSP with TES in a commercial production cost model. It also describes the simulation of grid operations with CSP in a test system consisting of two balancing areas located primarily in Colorado.

  3. HEATING THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE BY THE SELF-ENHANCED THERMAL WAVES CAUSED BY THE DYNAMO PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumin, Yurii V. E-mail: dumin@izmiran.ru

    2012-05-20

    We discuss a possible mechanism for heating the solar atmosphere by the ensemble of thermal waves, generated by the photospheric dynamo and propagating upward with increasing magnitudes. These waves are self-sustained and amplified due to the specific dependence of the efficiency of heat release by Ohmic dissipation on the ratio of the collisional to gyrofrequencies, which in its turn is determined by the temperature profile formed in the wave. In the case of sufficiently strong driving, such a mechanism can increase the plasma temperature by a few times, i.e., it may be responsible for heating the chromosphere and the base of the transition region.

  4. Using Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Energy Storage for Baseload Concentrating Solar Power (EPCM-TES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur, Anoop

    2013-12-15

    middle layer between the salt prill and the shell material. The selected polymer decomposes at temperatures below the melting point of the salt and forms gases which escape through the pores in the capsule shell thus leaving a void in the capsule. We have demonstrated the process with a commonly used inorganic nitrate salt in a low-cost shell material that can withstand over 10,000 high-temperature thermal cycles, or a thirty-year or greater life in a solar plant. The shell used to encapsulate the salt was demonstrated to be compatible with molten salt heat transfer fluid typically used in CSP plants to temperatures up to 600 °C. The above findings have led to the concept of a cascaded arrangement. Salts with different melting points can be encapsulated using the same recipe and contained in a packed bed by cascading the salt melting at higher melting point at the top over the salt melting at lower melting point towards the bottom of the tank. This cascaded energy storage is required to effectively transfer the sensible heat collected in heat transfer fluids between the operating temperatures and utilize the latent heat of fusion in the salts inside the capsule. Mathematical models indicate that over 90% of the salts will undergo phase change by using three salts in equal proportion. The salts are selected such that the salt at the top of the tank melts at about 15°C below the high operating-temperature, and the salt at the bottom of the tank melts 15°C above the low operating-temperature. The salt in the middle of tank melts in-between the operating temperature of the heat transfer fluid. A cascaded arrangement leads to the capture of 90% of the latent-heat of fusion of salts and their sensible heats. Thus the energy density is increased by over 50% from a sensible-only, two-tank thermal energy storage. Furthermore, the Terrafore cascaded storage method requires only one tank as opposed to the two-tanks used in sensible heat storage. Since heat is transferred from

  5. Mechanism of Thermal Reversal of the (Fulvalene)tetracarbonyldiruthenium Photoisomerization: Toward Molecular Solar-Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanai, Y; Srinivasan, V; Meier, S K; Vollhardt, K P; Grossman, J C

    2010-02-18

    In the currently intensifying quest to harness solar energy for the powering of our planet, most efforts are centered around photoinduced generic charge separation, such as in photovoltaics, water splitting, other small molecule activation, and biologically inspired photosynthetic systems. In contrast, direct collection of heat from sunlight has received much less diversified attention, its bulk devoted to the development of concentrating solar thermal power plants, in which mirrors are used to focus the sun beam on an appropriate heat transfer material. An attractive alternative strategy would be to trap solar energy in the form of chemical bonds, ideally through the photoconversion of a suitable molecule to a higher energy isomer, which, in turn, would release the stored energy by thermal reversal. Such a system would encompass the essential elements of a rechargeable heat battery, with its inherent advantages of storage, transportability, and use on demand. The underlying concept has been explored extensively with organic molecules (such as the norbornadiene-quadricyclane cycle), often in the context of developing photoswitches. On the other hand, organometallic complexes have remained relatively obscure in this capacity, despite a number of advantages, including expanded structural tunability and generally favorable electronic absorption regimes. A highly promising organometallic system is the previously reported, robust photo-thermal fulvalene (Fv) diruthenium couple 1 {l_reversible} 2 (Scheme 1). However, although reversible and moderately efficient, lack of a full, detailed atom-scale understanding of its key conversion and storage mechanisms have limited our ability to improve on its performance or identify optimal variants, such as substituents on the Fv, ligands other than CO, and alternative metals. Here we present a theoretical investigation, in conjunction with corroborating experiments, of the mechanism for the heat releasing step of 2 {yields} 1 and

  6. Alternative energy sources. IV. Proceedings of the Fourth Miami International Conference, Miami Beach, FL, December 14-16, 1981. Volume 1 - Solar Collectors Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veziroglu, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Aspects of solar measurements, solar collectors, selective coatings, thermal storage, phase change storage, and heat exchangers are discussed. The analysis and testing of flat-plate solar collectors are addressed. The development and uses of plastic collectors, a solar water heating system, solar energy collecting oil barrels, a glass collector panel, and a two-phase thermosyphon system are considered. Studies of stratification in thermal storage, of packed bed and fluidized bed systems, and of thermal storage in solar towers, in wall passive systems, and in reversible chemical reactions are reported. Phase change storage by direct contact processes and in residential solar space heating and cooling is examined, as are new materials and surface characteristics for solar heat storage. The use of R-11 and Freon-113 in heat exchange is discussed.

  7. Full-size solar dynamic heat receiver thermal-vacuum tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedgwick, L.M.; Kaufmann, K.J.; Mclallin, K.L.; Kerslake, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    The testing of a full-size, 120 kW, solar dynamic heat receiver utilizing high-temperature thermal energy storage is described. The purpose of the test program was to quantify receiver thermodynamic performance, operating temperatures, and thermal response to changes in environmental and power module interface boundary conditions. The heat receiver was tested in a vacuum chamber with liquid nitrogen cold shrouds and an aperture cold plate to partly simulate a low-Earth-orbit environment. The cavity of the receiver was heated by an infrared quartz lamp heater with 30 independently controllable zones to allow axially and circumferentially varied flux distributions. A closed-Brayton cycle engine simulator conditioned a helium-xenon gas mixture to specific interface conditions to simulate the various operational modes of the solar dynamic power module on the Space Station Freedom. Inlet gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate were independently varied. A total of 58 simulated orbital cycles, each 94 minutes in duration, was completed during the test conduct period.

  8. A long-term strategic plan for development of solar thermal electric technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Burch, G.; Chavez, J.M.; Mancini, T.R.; Tyner, C.E.

    1997-06-01

    Solar thermal electric (STE) technologies--parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish/engine systems--can convert sunlight into electricity efficiently and with minimum effect on the environment. These technologies currently range from developmental to early commercial stages of maturity. This paper summarizes the results of a recent strategic planning effort conducted by the US department of Energy (DOE) to develop a long-term strategy for the development of STE technologies. The planning team led by DOE included representatives from the solar thermal industry, domestic utilities, state energy offices, and Sun{center_dot}Lab (the cooperative Sandia National laboratories/National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnership that supports the STE Program) as well as project developers. The plan was aimed at identifying specific activities necessary to achieve the DOE vision of 20 gigawatts of installed STE capability by the year 2020. The planning team developed five strategies that both build on the strengths of, and opportunities for, STE technology and address weaknesses and threats. These strategies are to: support future commercial opportunities for STE technologies; demonstrate improved performance and reliability of STE components and systems; reduce STE energy costs; develop advanced STE systems and applications; and address nontechnical barriers and champion STE power. The details of each of these strategies are discussed.

  9. Modelling Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage for Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Mehos, M.

    2013-10-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) can provide multiple benefits to the grid, including low marginal cost energy and the ability to levelize load, provide operating reserves, and provide firm capacity. It is challenging to properly value the integration of CSP because of the complicated nature of this technology. Unlike completely dispatchable fossil sources, CSP is a limited energy resource, depending on the hourly and daily supply of solar energy. To optimize the use of this limited energy, CSP-TES must be implemented in a production cost model with multiple decision variables for the operation of the CSP-TES plant. We develop and implement a CSP-TES plant in a production cost model that accurately characterizes the three main components of the plant: solar field, storage tank, and power block. We show the effect of various modelling simplifications on the value of CSP, including: scheduled versus optimized dispatch from the storage tank and energy-only operation versus co-optimization with ancillary services.

  10. Modelling Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage for Integration Studies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2013-10-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) can provide multiple benefits to the grid, including low marginal cost energy and the ability to levelize load, provide operating reserves, and provide firm capacity. It is challenging to properly value the integration of CSP because of the complicated nature of this technology. Unlike completely dispatchable fossil sources, CSP is a limited energy resource, depending on the hourly and daily supply of solar energy. To optimize the use of this limited energy, CSP-TES must be implemented in a production cost model with multiple decision variables for the operation of the CSP-TES plant. We develop and implement a CSP-TES plant in a production cost model that accurately characterizes the three main components of the plant: solar field, storage tank, and power block. We show the effect of various modelling simplifications on the value of CSP, including: scheduled versus optimized dispatch from the storage tank and energy-only operation versus co-optimization with ancillary services.

  11. Methods for Analyzing the Economic Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Miller, Mackay; Zhou, Ella; Wang, Caixia

    2015-07-20

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) provides multiple quantifiable benefits compared to CSP without storage or to solar photovoltaic (PV) technology, including higher energy value, ancillary services value, and capacity value. This report describes modeling approaches to quantifying these benefits that have emerged through state-level policymaking in the United States as well as the potential applicability of these methods in China. The technical potential for CSP-TES in China is significant, but deployment has not yet achieved the targets established by the Chinese government. According to the 12th Five Year Plan for Renewable Energy (2011-2015), CSP was expected to reach 1 GW by 2015 and 3 GW by 2020 in China, yet as of December 2014, deployment totaled only 13.8 MW. One barrier to more rapid deployment is the lack of an incentive specific to CSP, such as a feed-in tariff. The 13th Five Year Plan for Solar Generation (2016-2020), which is under development, presents an opportunity to establish a feed-in tariff specific to CSP. This report, produced under the auspices of the U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership, aims to support the development of Chinese incentives that advance CSP deployment goals.

  12. A solar thermal cooling and heating system for a building: Experimental and model based performance analysis and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming; Yin, Hongxi; Archer, David H.

    2010-02-15

    A solar thermal cooling and heating system at Carnegie Mellon University was studied through its design, installation, modeling, and evaluation to deal with the question of how solar energy might most effectively be used in supplying energy for the operation of a building. This solar cooling and heating system incorporates 52 m{sup 2} of linear parabolic trough solar collectors; a 16 kW double effect, water-lithium bromide (LiBr) absorption chiller, and a heat recovery heat exchanger with their circulation pumps and control valves. It generates chilled and heated water, dependent on the season, for space cooling and heating. This system is the smallest high temperature solar cooling system in the world. Till now, only this system of the kind has been successfully operated for more than one year. Performance of the system has been tested and the measured data were used to verify system performance models developed in the TRaNsient SYstem Simulation program (TRNSYS). On the basis of the installed solar system, base case performance models were programmed; and then they were modified and extended to investigate measures for improving system performance. The measures included changes in the area and orientation of the solar collectors, the inclusion of thermal storage in the system, changes in the pipe diameter and length, and various system operational control strategies. It was found that this solar thermal system could potentially supply 39% of cooling and 20% of heating energy for this building space in Pittsburgh, PA, if it included a properly sized storage tank and short, low diameter connecting pipes. Guidelines for the design and operation of an efficient and effective solar cooling and heating system for a given building space have been provided. (author)

  13. Solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (STEOR). Sections 2-8. Final report, October 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elzinga, E.; Arnold, C.; Allen, D.; Garman, R.; Joy, P.; Mitchell, P. Shaw, H.

    1980-11-01

    The program objectives were: (1) determine the technical, economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery using line focusing distributed collectors at Exxon's Edison Field, and (2) estimate the quantity of solar heat which might be applied to domestic enhanced oil recovery. This volume of the report summarizes all of the work done under the contract Statement of Work. Topics include the selection of the solar system, trade-off studies, preliminary design for steam raising, cost estimate for STEOR at Edison Field, the development plan, and a market and economics analysis. (WHK)

  14. Solar and Wind Easements, Local Options, and Severability | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal...

  15. Effect of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cell blended with organic salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad; Salleh, Muhamad Mat

    2013-11-27

    This work presents the influence of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of organic solar cell blended with organic salt. The organic solar cells were composed of indium tin oxide as anode, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]: (6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate blend as organic active layer and aluminium as cathode. The devices underwent a simultaneous fixed-voltage electrical and thermal treatment at different temperatures of 25, 50 and 75 °C. It was found that photovoltaic performance improved with the thermal treatment temperature. Accumulation of more organic salt ions in the active layer leads to broadening of p-n doped regions and hence higher built-in electric field across thin intrinsic layer. The simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment has been shown to be able to reduce the electrical treatment voltage.

  16. High efficiency thermal storage system for solar plants (HELSOLAR). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villarroel, Eduardo; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Lenartz, Jeff; Parysek, Karen

    2013-02-27

    The project objective was to develop a high temperature Thermal Storage System (TES) based on graphite and able to provide both economical and technical advantages with respect to existing solutions contributing to increase the share of Concentrated Solar Plants (CSP). One of the main disadvantages of most of the renewable energy systems is their dependence to instantaneous irradiation and, thus, lack of predictability. CSP plants with thermal storage have proved to offer a good solution to this problem although still at an elevated price. The identification of alternative concepts able to work more efficiently would help to speed up the convergence of CSP towards grid parity. One way to reduce costs is to work in a range of temperatures higher than those allowed by the actual molten salt systems, currently the benchmark for TES in CSP. This requires the use of alternative energy storage materials such as graphite, as well as the utilization of Heat Transfer Fluids (HTF) other than molten salts or organic oils. The main technical challenges identified are derived from the high temperatures and significant high pressures, which pose risks such as potential graphite and insulation oxidation, creep, fatigue, corrosion and stress-corrosion in the pipes, leakages in the joints, high blower drivers’ electrical power consumption, thermal compatibility or relative deformations of the different materials. At the end, the main challenge of the project, is to identify a technical solution able to overcome all these problems but still at a competitive cost when compared to already existing thermal storage solutions. Special attention is given to all these issues during this project.

  17. Passive solar design handbook. Volume two of two volumes: passive solar design analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Barley, D.; McFarland, R.; Perry, J. Jr.; Wray, W.; Noll, S.

    1980-01-01

    A manual for the design and performance evaluation and analysis of passive solar heating systems is presented. Two passive solar building types are analyzed: direct gain and thermal storage walls. Rules of thumb for the schematic design phase and simplified procedures for the design development phase are described. Analysis methods for the construction documents phase are given. The design procedure for fan-forced rock beds for hybrid systems is presented. Economic analysis methods for passive solar buildings are described. Tables of monthly average solar radiation, temperature, and degree-days for various locations in the US and southern Canada are included. (WHK)

  18. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  19. Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Module | Department of Energy Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Acciona logo Acciona Solar, under the Thermal Storage FOA, plans to develop a prototype thermal energy storage (TES) module with high efficiency. This project is looking at a packed or structured bed TES tank with molten salt flowing through it. Approach A computational modeling of molten salt heat transfer fluid

  20. Initial appraisal of solar thermal electric energy in Tibet and Xinjiang Provinces, People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Junfeng; Zhu Li; Liu Zhan; Zhang Yuan; Washom, B.; Kolb, G.

    1998-07-01

    At the request of US sponsors Spencer Management Associates (SMA) and Sun{diamond}Lab, China`s Center for Renewable Energy Development and former Ministry of Electric Power conducted an initial appraisal of the issues involved with developing China`s first solar thermal electric power plant in the sunbelt regions of Tibet or Xinjiang provinces. The appraisal concerns development of a large-scale, grid-connected solar trough or tower project capable of producing 30 or more megawatts of electricity. Several of the findings suggest that Tibet could be a niche market for solar thermal power because a solar plant may be the low-cost option relative to other methods of generating electricity. China has studied the concept of a solar thermal power plant for quite some time. In 1992, it completed a pre-feasibility study for a SEGS-type parabolic trough plant with the aid of Israel`s United Development Limited. Because the findings were positive, both parties agreed to conduct a full-scale feasibility study. However, due to funding constraints, the study was postponed. Most recently, Sun{diamond}Lab and SMA asked China to broaden the analysis to include tower as well as trough concepts. The findings of this most recent investigation completed i November of 1997, are the subject of this paper. The main conclusions of all studies conducted to date suggest that a region in the proximity of Lhasa, Tibet, offers the best near-term opportunity within China. The opportunities for solar thermal power plants in other regions of China were also investigated.

  1. Apex Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Apex Solar Place: Sofia, Bulgaria Zip: 1616 Sector: Solar Product: Bulgarian PV and solar thermal project developer and installer. References: Apex Solar1 This article is a...

  2. Atlantic Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Logo: Atlantic Solar Name: Atlantic Solar Place: Cape Town, South Africa Sector: Solar Product: Solar Thermal Technology Year Founded: 1985 Phone Number:...

  3. AS Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: AS Solar Address: Am Tnniesberg 4A Place: Hannover, Germany Sector: Solar Product: PV, solar thermal Phone Number: +49 511 475578 - 0...

  4. Sylcom Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sylcom Solar provides the design, research, distribution, construction, operation, maintenance of products and of Photovoltaic Solar, Thermal Solar and Solar Thermoelectric...

  5. Thermal influence on charge carrier transport in solar cells based on GaAs PN junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osses-Márquez, Juan; Calderón-Muñoz, Williams R.

    2014-10-21

    The electron and hole one-dimensional transport in a solar cell based on a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) PN junction and its dependency with electron and lattice temperatures are studied here. Electrons and heat transport are treated on an equal footing, and a cell operating at high temperatures using concentrators is considered. The equations of a two-temperature hydrodynamic model are written in terms of asymptotic expansions for the dependent variables with the electron Reynolds number as a perturbation parameter. The dependency of the electron and hole densities through the junction with the temperature is analyzed solving the steady-state model at low Reynolds numbers. Lattice temperature distribution throughout the device is obtained considering the change of kinetic energy of electrons due to interactions with the lattice and heat absorbed from sunlight. In terms of performance, higher values of power output are obtained with low lattice temperature and hot energy carriers. This modeling contributes to improve the design of heat exchange devices and thermal management strategies in photovoltaic technologies.

  6. Proof-of-Concept Testing of the Passive Cooling System (T-CLIP™) for Solar Thermal Applications at an Elevated Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Seung Jun; Quintana, Donald L.; Vigil, Gabrielle M.; Perraglio, Martin Juan; Farley, Cory Wayne; Tafoya, Jose I.; Martinez, Adam L.

    2015-11-30

    The Applied Engineering and Technology-1 group (AET-1) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted the proof-of-concept tests of SolarSPOT LLC’s solar thermal Temperature- Clipper, or T-CLIP™ under controlled thermal conditions using a thermal conditioning unit (TCU) and a custom made environmental chamber. The passive T-CLIP™ is a plumbing apparatus that attaches to a solar thermal collector to limit working fluid temperature and to prevent overheating, since overheating may lead to various accident scenarios. The goal of the current research was to evaluate the ability of the T-CLIP™ to control the working fluid temperature by using its passive cooling mechanism (i.e. thermosiphon, or natural circulation) in a small-scale solar thermal system. The assembled environmental chamber that is thermally controlled with the TCU allows one to simulate the various possible weather conditions, which the solar system will encounter. The performance of the T-CLIP™ was tested at two different target temperatures: 1) room temperature (70 °F) and 2) an elevated temperature (130 °F). The current test campaign demonstrated that the T-CLIP™ was able to prevent overheating by thermosiphon induced cooling in a small-scale solar thermal system. This is an important safety feature in situations where the pump is turned off due to malfunction or power outages.

  7. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector with 0. 125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-04-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector, with 0.125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  8. The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

  9. An Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a California 33% Renewable Scenario (Report Summary) (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a California 33% Renewable Scenario (Report Summary) Paul Denholm, Yih-Huei Wan, Marissa Hummon, Mark Mehos March 2013 NREL/PR-6A20-58470 2 Motivation * Implement concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in a commercial production cost model o Develop approaches that can be used by utilities and system planners to incorporate CSP in standard planning tools * Evaluate the optimal dispatch of CSP with

  10. Sandia Energy - Thermal Pulses for Boeing Test Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Pulses for Boeing Test Article Home Renewable Energy Energy Partnership News EC Concentrating Solar Power Solar National Solar Thermal Test Facility Thermal Pulses for...

  11. Summary Report for Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Workshop: New Concepts and Materials for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat-Transfer Fluids, May 20, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-08-01

    This document summarizes a workshop on thermal energy storage for concentrating solar power (CSP) that was held in Golden, Colorado, on May 20, 2011. The event was hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. The objective was to engage the university and laboratory research communities to identify and define research directions for developing new high-temperature materials and systems that advance thermal energy storage for CSP technologies. This workshop was motivated, in part, by the DOE SunShot Initiative, which sets a very aggressive cost goal for CSP technologies -- a levelized cost of energy of 6 cents per kilowatt-hour by 2020 with no incentives or credits.

  12. Transpired Solar Collector - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Transpired Solar Collector National Renewable Energy ...

  13. Benefits analysis for the production of fuels and chemicals using solar thermal energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-05-01

    Numerous possibilities exist for using high temperature solar thermal energy in the production of various chemicals and fuels (Sun Fuels). Research and development activities have focused on the use of feedstocks such as coal and biomass to provide synthesis gas, hydrogen, and a variety of other end-products. A Decision Analysis technique geared to the analysis of Sun Fuels options was developed. Conventional scoring methods were combined with multi-attribute utility analysis in a new approach called the Multi-Attribute Preference Scoring (MAPS) system. MAPS calls for the designation of major categories of attributes which describe critical elements of concern for the processes being examined. The six major categories include: Process Demonstration; Full-Scale Process, Feedstock; End-Product Market; National/Social Considerations; and Economics. MAPS calls for each attribute to be weighted on a simple scale for all of the candidate processes. Next, a weight is assigned to each attribute, thus creating a multiplier to be used with each individual value to derive a comparative weighting. Last, each of the categories of attributes themselves are weighted, thus creating another multiplier, for use in developing an overall score. With sufficient information and industry input, each process can be ultimately compared using a single figure of merit. After careful examination of available information, it was decided that only six of the 20 candidate processes were adequately described to allow a complete MAPS analysis which would allow direct comparisons for illustrative purposes. These six processes include three synthesis gas processes, two hydrogen and one ammonia. The remaining fourteen processes were subjected to only a partial MAPS assessment.

  14. Heat-transfer characteristics of flowing and stationary particle-bed-type fusion-reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nietert, R.E.

    1983-02-01

    The following five appendices are included: (1) physical properties of materials, (2) thermal entrance length Nusselt number variations, (3) stationary particle bed temperature variations, (4) falling bed experimental data and calculations, and (5) stationary bed experimental data and calculations. (MOW)

  15. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  16. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water ...

  17. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & ...

  18. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility Program for predicting thermal performance of line-focusing, concentrating solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    The program at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, for predicting the performance of line-focusing solar collectors in industrial process heat applications is described. The qualifications of the laboratories selected to do the testing and the procedure for selecting commercial collectors for testing are given. The testing program is outlined. The computer program for performance predictions is described. An error estimate for the predictions and a sample of outputs from the program are included.

  19. Temperature, thermal efficiency, and gradient performance from two seawater-SZ solar ponds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collado, F.; Lowrey, P. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents 10 months of experience with two seawater-SZ (Storage Zone) solar ponds operated as a source of warm seawater which could have been used in an adjacent mariculture facility. Observations and extensive temperature, gradient and efficiency data are presented. This work demonstrated operation of and heat extraction from seawater-SZ solar ponds over a much longer interval than in previous work. It confirmed that seawater-SZ solar ponds can consistently give useful temperature elevations. A few phenomena not characteristic of conventional solar ponds were identified and are discussed.

  20. Synthesis Gas Production by Rapid Solar Thermal Gasification of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, C. M.; Woodruff, B.; Andrews, L.; Lichty, P.; Lancaster, B.; Weimer, A. W.; Bingham, C.

    2008-03-01

    Biomass resources hold great promise as renewable fuel sources for the future, and there exists great interest in thermochemical methods of converting these resources into useful fuels. The novel approach taken by the authors uses concentrated solar energy to efficiently achieve temperatures where conversion and selectivity of gasification are high. Use of solar energy removes the need for a combustion fuel and upgrades the heating value of the biomass products. The syngas product of the gasification can be transformed into a variety of fuels useable with today?s infrastructure. Gasification in an aerosol reactor allows for rapid kinetics, allowing efficient utilization of the incident solar radiation and high solar efficiency.

  1. Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  2. Thermal annealing study on P3HT: PCBM based bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gollu, Sankara Rao; Sharma, Ramakant G, Srinivas Gupta, Dipti

    2014-10-15

    Recently, Thermal annealing is an important process for bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ OSCs) to improve the device efficiency and performance of the organic solar cells. Here in, we have examined the changes in the efficiency and morphology of P3HT: PCBM film according to the thermal annealing temperature to find the changes during the annealing process by measuring the optical absorption, atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction. We also investigated the effect of different annealing process conditions (without, pre- and post-annealing) on the device performance of the inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells consist the structure of ITO/ ZnO / P3HT: PCBM / MoO{sub 3}/ Al by measuring AC impedance characteristics. Particularly, the power conversion efficiency (PCE), crystalline nature of the polymer, light absorption and the surface smoothness of P3HT: PCBM films are significantly improved after the annealing process. These results indicated the improvement in terms of PCE, interface smoothness between the P3HT: PCBM and MoO{sub 3} layers of the post annealed device originated from the decrease of series resistance between P3HT: PCBM layer and Al electrodes, which could be due to decrease in the effective life time of charge carriers.

  3. City of Boulder - Solar Access Ordinance | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Construction Local Government Residential Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Photovoltaics Program Info Sector Name...

  4. Sunerg Solar srl | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Sunerg Solar srl Place: Italy Sector: Solar Product: Focused on solar thermal and PV system integration. References: Sunerg Solar srl1 This article is a...

  5. Sandia Energy - Concentrating Solar Power Technical Management...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Technical Management Position Home Renewable Energy Energy Facilities News Concentrating Solar Power Solar Job Listing National Solar Thermal Test...

  6. RawSolar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RawSolar Jump to: navigation, search Name: RawSolar Place: Berkeley, California Sector: Solar Product: California-based startup aiming to commercialise concentrating solar thermal...

  7. SolarHybrid AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SolarHybrid AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: SolarHybrid AG Place: Germany Sector: Solar Product: Germany-based solar thermal hybrid product manufacturer References:...

  8. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A solar energy system is defined as "a system affixed to a building or buildings that uses solar devices, which are thermally isolated from living space or any other area where the energy is used...

  9. Summary of: Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a Production Cost Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Hummon, M.

    2013-02-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) provides a dispatchable source of renewable energy. The value of CSP with TES, as with other potential generation resources, needs to be established using traditional utility planning tools. Production cost models, which simulate the operation of grid, are often used to estimate the operational value of different generation mixes. CSP with TES has historically had limited analysis in commercial production simulations. This document describes the implementation of CSP with TES in a commercial production cost model. It also describes the simulation of grid operations with CSP in a test system consisting of two balancing areas located primarily in Colorado.

  10. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  11. Solar2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Germany Zip: 27472 Sector: Solar Product: Sells and installs PV, solar thermal and wood pellet powered heating systems. References: Solar21 This article is a stub. You can...

  12. Line-Focus Solar Collector

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar thermal electric technologies, such as this concentrating solar power parabolic trough, use highly reflective materials to capture the sun's energy and produce electricity. Shown is solar...

  13. ESPEE Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Karnataka, India Zip: 560 091 Sector: Solar Product: Distributor of solar thermal water heating systems and PV lights. References: ESPEE Solar1 This article is a stub....

  14. solar

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  15. Development of a Solar-Thermal ZnO/Zn Water-Splitting Thermochemical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... However, significant reductions in solar field costs (especially towers and heliostats) will be required to reduce the required selling price to 3kg (for the 10% IRR). It is ...

  16. Final report on the power production phase of the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radosevich, L.G.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the evaluations of the power production testing of Solar One, the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant near Barstow, California. The Pilot Plant, a cooperative project of the US Department of Energy and utility firms led by the Southern California Edison Company, began a three year period of power production operation in August 1984. During this period, plant performance indicators, such as capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability, were studied to assess the operational capability of the Pilot Plant to reliably supply electrical power. Also studied was the long-term performance of such key plant components as the heliostats and the receiver. During the three years of power production, the Pilot Plant showed an improvement in performance. Considerable increases in capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability were achieved. Heliostat operation was reliable, and only small amounts of mirror corrosion were observed. Receiver tube leaks did occur, however, and were the main cause of the plant's unscheduled outages. The Pilot Plant provided valuable lessons which will aid in the design of future solar central receiver plants. 53 refs., 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Biomass gasification at the focus of the Odeillo (France 1-MW (thermal) solar furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Royere, C.; Vialaron, A.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments described in this paper were undertaken to explore the use of concentrated solar radiation for the flash pyrolysis of biomass. Biomass materials (powdered, microcrystalline cellulose and ground corn cob material) have been successfully gasified in a windowed chemical reactor operating at the focus of the Odeillo 1 MW/sub th/ solar furnace. The quartz window survived radiant flux levels in excess of 1000 W/cm/sup 2/; however impurities carried by the steam flow into the reactor ultimately clouded the window. Pyrolytic char yields of the Odeillo experimetns were quite low: ranging between one and four percent. Gas yields were also relatively low, but condensible yields were high. These results reflect the important role played by the gas phase chemistry (largely unaffected by the high solar flux) in the production of permanent gases from biomass. A consideration of the characteristic times for chemical kinetic and heat transfer phenomenon within a rapidly pyrolyzing particle indicate that heat transfer (not chemical kinetics) is the rate limiting step. However, the thermochemical and optical properties of biomass materials are poorly understood and much more experimental work must be completed before definitive conclusions in this important area can be made. Because the use of concentrated solar radiation for direct gasification of biomass materials results in the formation of little or no char without reliance on the water gas or Boudourad reactions, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass holds unusual promise for the economical production of liquid and gaseous fuels from renewable resources.

  18. Contamination effects of satellite-material outgassing products on thermal surfaces and solar cells. Final report, 1 Oct 88-30 Sep 90

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seiber, B.L.; Bertrand, W.T.; Wood, B.E.

    1990-12-01

    The Wright Research and Development Center (WRDC) and the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) have initiated a program for measuring optical and radiative effects of satellite material outgassing products on thermal control and cryo-optic surfaces. A solar absorptance chamber for making reflectance/absorptance measurements on thermal control materials has been established. This report describes the operation of the solar absorptance chamber used to measure the degradation of reflective surfaces and solar cells caused by deposition of outgassing contaminants. The effects of solar irradiation (UV) were also studied, and results are presented. Data are presented for Dow Corning 93-500 Space-grade encapsulant (DC93-500), Furane Products Uralane 5753-A/B(LV) encapsulant, and Polyclad FR-4 Epoxy laminate. (js)

  19. Modeling, design and thermal performance of a BIPV/T system thermally coupled with a ventilated concrete slab in a low energy solar house: Part 2, ventilated concrete slab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Galal, Khaled; Athienitis, A.K.

    2010-11-15

    This paper is the second of two papers that describe the modeling and design of a building-integrated photovoltaic-thermal (BIPV/T) system thermally coupled with a ventilated concrete slab (VCS) adopted in a prefabricated, two-storey detached, low energy solar house and their performance assessment based on monitored data. The VCS concept is based on an integrated thermal-structural design with active storage of solar thermal energy while serving as a structural component - the basement floor slab ({proportional_to}33 m{sup 2}). This paper describes the numerical modeling, design, and thermal performance assessment of the VCS. The thermal performance of the VCS during the commissioning of the unoccupied house is presented. Analysis of the monitored data shows that the VCS can store 9-12 kWh of heat from the total thermal energy collected by the BIPV/T system, on a typical clear sunny day with an outdoor temperature of about 0 C. It can also accumulate thermal energy during a series of clear sunny days without overheating the slab surface or the living space. This research shows that coupling the VCS with the BIPV/T system is a viable method to enhance the utilization of collected solar thermal energy. A method is presented for creating a simplified three-dimensional, control volume finite difference, explicit thermal model of the VCS. The model is created and validated using monitored data. The modeling method is suitable for detailed parametric study of the thermal behavior of the VCS without excessive computational effort. (author)

  20. Catalytic conversion of solar thermal produced pyrolysis gases to liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanley, T.R.; Benham, C.B.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of a simulated pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas using a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst system in a fluidized-bed reactor is investigated. Liquid fuels were produced between 550 and 660/sup 0/F (288 and 349/sup 0/C) for the simulated pyrolysis gas feed. An analysis of both liquid and gaseous product streams is performed. This investigation indicates a need for more extensive research with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon-monoxide usage ratios and with respect to the role of alkenes in fuel production.

  1. Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems with a Solar-Assisted Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kush, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    An outline of possibilities for effective use of PV/T collectors with a Solar Assisted Heat Pump is given. A quantitative analysis of the performance and cost of the various configurations as a function of regional climates, using up-to-date results from solar heat pump and PV/T collector studies, will be required for more definitive assessment; and it is recommended that these be undertaken in the PV/T Program. Particular attention should be paid to development of high performance PV/T collectors, matching of heat pump electrical system to PV array and power conditioning characteristics, and optimization of storage options for cost effectiveness and utility impact.

  2. Hybrid solar thermal-photovoltaic systems demonstration, Phase I and II. Final technical progress report, July 5, 1979-December 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loferski, J.J.

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of the project is to investigate a system based on combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels to supply the energy needs of a small single family residence. The system finally selected and constructed uses PV/T panels which utilize air as the heat transfer medium. Optimization of thermal performance was accomplished by attaching metal fins to the back surface of each cell which significantly increased the heat transfer coefficient from the solar cells to the air stream. The other major components of the selected system are an air-to-air heat pump, a rock bin thermal energy storage bin, a synchronous dc-to-ac converter, a microprocessor to control the system, a heat exchanger for the domestic hot water system and of course the building itself which is a one story, well insulated structure having a floor area of 1200 ft/sup 2/. A prototype collector was constructed and tested. Based on this experience, twenty collectors, containing 2860 four inch diameter solar cells, were constructed and installed on the building. Performance of the system was simulated using a TRNSYS-derived program, modified to accommodate PV/T panels and to include the particular components included in the selected system. Simulation of the performance showed that about 65 percent of the total annual energy needs of the building would be provided by the PV/T system. Of this total, about one half is produced at a time when it can be used in the building and one half must be sold back to the utility.

  3. Modeling, design and thermal performance of a BIPV/T system thermally coupled with a ventilated concrete slab in a low energy solar house: Part 1, BIPV/T system and house energy concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Athienitis, A.K.; Galal, Khaled

    2010-11-15

    This paper is the first of two papers that describe the modeling, design, and performance assessment based on monitored data of a building-integrated photovoltaic-thermal (BIPV/T) system thermally coupled with a ventilated concrete slab (VCS) in a prefabricated, two-storey detached, low energy solar house. This house, with a design goal of near net-zero annual energy consumption, was constructed in 2007 in Eastman, Quebec, Canada - a cold climate area. Several novel solar technologies are integrated into the house and with passive solar design to reach this goal. An air-based open-loop BIPV/T system produces electricity and collects heat simultaneously. Building-integrated thermal mass is utilized both in passive and active forms. Distributed thermal mass in the direct gain area and relatively large south facing triple-glazed windows (about 9% of floor area) are employed to collect and store passive solar gains. An active thermal energy storage system (TES) stores part of the collected thermal energy from the BIPV/T system, thus reducing the energy consumption of the house ground source heat pump heating system. This paper focuses on the BIPV/T system and the integrated energy concept of the house. Monitored data indicate that the BIPV/T system has a typical efficiency of about 20% for thermal energy collection, and the annual space heating energy consumption of the house is about 5% of the national average. A thermal model of the BIPV/T system suitable for preliminary design and control of the airflow is developed and verified with monitored data. (author)

  4. Coupled modeling of a directly heated tubular solar receiver for supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle: Optical and thermal-fluid evaluation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ortega, Jesus; Khivsara, Sagar; Christian, Joshua; Ho, Clifford; Yellowhair, Julius; Dutta, Pradip

    2016-05-30

    In single phase performance and appealing thermo-physical properties supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) make a good heat transfer fluid candidate for concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The development of a solar receiver capable of delivering s-CO2 at outlet temperatures ~973 K is required in order to merge CSP and s-CO2 Brayton cycle technologies. A coupled optical and thermal-fluid modeling effort for a tubular receiver is undertaken to evaluate the direct tubular s-CO2 receiver’s thermal performance when exposed to a concentrated solar power input of ~0.3–0.5 MW. Ray tracing, using SolTrace, is performed to determine the heat flux profiles on the receivermore » and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) determines the thermal performance of the receiver under the specified heating conditions. Moreover, an in-house MATLAB code is developed to couple SolTrace and ANSYS Fluent. CFD modeling is performed using ANSYS Fluent to predict the thermal performance of the receiver by evaluating radiation and convection heat loss mechanisms. Understanding the effects of variation in heliostat aiming strategy and flow configurations on the thermal performance of the receiver was achieved through parametric analyses. Finally, a receiver thermal efficiency ~85% was predicted and the surface temperatures were observed to be within the allowable limit for the materials under consideration.« less

  5. Thermal response of a series- and parallel-connected solar energy storage to multi-day charge sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruickshank, Cynthia A.; Harrison, Stephen J.

    2011-01-15

    The thermal response of a multi-tank thermal storage was studied under variable charge conditions. Tests were conducted on an experimental apparatus that simulated the thermal charging of the storage system by a solar collector over predetermined (prescribed) daylong periods. The storage was assembled from three standard 270 L hot-water storage tanks each charged through coupled, side-arm, natural convection heat exchangers which were connected in either a series- or parallel-flow configuration. Both energy storage rates and tank temperature profiles were experimentally measured during charge periods representative of two consecutive clear days or combinations of a clear and overcast day. During this time, no draw-offs were conducted. Of particular interest was the effect of rising and falling charge-loop temperatures and collector-loop flow rate on storage tank stratification levels. Results of this study show that the series-connected thermal storage reached high levels of temperature stratification in the storage tanks during periods of rising charge temperatures and also limited destratification during periods of falling charge temperature. This feature is a consequence of the series-connected configuration that allowed sequential stratification to occur in the component tanks and energy to be distributed according to temperature level. This effect was not observed in the parallel charge configuration. A further aspect of the study investigated the effect of increasing charge-loop flow rate on the temperature distribution within the series-connected storage and showed that, at high flow rates, the temperature distributions were found to be similar to those obtained during parallel charging. A disadvantage of both the high-flow series-connected and parallel-connected multi-tank storage is that falling charge-loop temperatures, which normally occur in the afternoon, tend to mix and destratify the storage tanks. (author)

  6. Design of solar cells for use in photovoltaic/thermal collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, C.H. III

    1980-01-01

    A promising design development for combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors is one in which the photovoltaic cell is both the conversion device for electrical energy and the absorber of thermal energy. To accomplish this, the PV cell design is modified to use the approximately 25 percent of the air mass 1 spectrum at lambda > 1.1 ..mu..m that is currently rejected by the cell. The parameters investigated are: cell back metallization, back surface field, texture etching and anti-reflective coating. A model indicating the increase in absorptance as a function of these parameters is presented, together with the results of experimental measurements. Discussion closes with the presentation of a PV/T collector design that incorporates the improved cells, has 10 percent greater thermal output than current PV/T collectors, and exhibits no degradation in electrical output.

  7. Improved power efficiency for very-high-temperature solar-thermal-cavity receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDougal, A.R.; Hale, R.R.

    1982-04-14

    This invention is an improved solar energy cavity receiver for exposing materials and components to high temperatures. The receiver includes a housing having an internal reflective surface defining a cavity and having an inlet for admitting solar radiation thereto. A photothermal absorber is positiond in the cavity to receive radiation from the inlet. A reflective baffle is positioned between the absorber and the inlet to severely restrict the re-radiation of energy through the inlet. The front surface of the baffle defines a narrow annulus with the internal reflective surface of the housing. The front surface of the baffle is contoured to reflect incoming radiation onto the internal surface of the housing, from which it is reflected through the annulus and onto the front surface of the absorber. The back surface of the baffle intercepts radiation from the front of the absorber. With this arrangement, a high percentage of the solar power input is retained in the cavity; thus, high internal temperatues are attained.

  8. Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish-Engine Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qui, Songgang; Galbraith, Ross

    2013-01-23

    This final report summarizes the final results of the Phase II Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish-Engine Solar Power Generation project being performed by Infinia Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-FC36-08GO18157 during the project period of September 1, 2009 - August 30, 2012. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate the practicality of integrating thermal energy storage (TES) modules, using a suitable thermal salt phase-change material (PCM) as its medium, with a dish/Stirling engine; enabling the system to operate during cloud transients and to provide dispatchable power for 4 to 6 hours after sunset. A laboratory prototype designed to provide 3 kW-h of net electrical output was constructed and tested at Infinia's Ogden Headquarters. In the course of the testing, it was determined that the system's heat pipe network - used to transfer incoming heat from the solar receiver to both the Stirling generator heater head and to the phase change salt - did not perform to expectations. The heat pipes had limited capacity to deliver sufficient heat energy to the generator and salt mass while in a charging mode, which was highly dependent on the orientation of the device (vertical versus horizontal). In addition, the TES system was only able to extract about 30 to 40% of the expected amount of energy from the phase change salt once it was fully molten. However, the use of heat pipes to transfer heat energy to and from a thermal energy storage medium is a key technical innovation, and the project team feels that the limitations of the current device could be greatly improved with further development. A detailed study of manufacturing costs using the prototype TES module as a basis indicates that meeting DOE LCOE goals with this hardware requires significant efforts. Improvement can be made by implementing aggressive cost-down initiatives in design and materials, improving system

  9. CONC/11: a computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-02-15

    CONC/11 is a computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. It is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended Fortran (similar to Fortran 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers.

  10. A steady state thermal duct model derived by fin-theory approach and applied on an unglazed solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stojanovic, B.; Hallberg, D.; Akander, J.

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents the thermal modelling of an unglazed solar collector (USC) flat panel, with the aim of producing a detailed yet swift thermal steady-state model. The model is analytical, one-dimensional (1D) and derived by a fin-theory approach. It represents the thermal performance of an arbitrary duct with applied boundary conditions equal to those of a flat panel collector. The derived model is meant to be used for efficient optimisation and design of USC flat panels (or similar applications), as well as detailed thermal analysis of temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations at steady-state conditions; without requiring a large amount of computational power and time. Detailed surface temperatures are necessary features for durability studies of the surface coating, hence the effect of coating degradation on USC and system performance. The model accuracy and proficiency has been benchmarked against a detailed three-dimensional Finite Difference Model (3D FDM) and two simpler 1D analytical models. Results from the benchmarking test show that the fin-theory model has excellent capabilities of calculating energy performances and fluid temperature profiles, as well as detailed material temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations (at steady-state conditions), while still being suitable for component analysis in junction to system simulations as the model is analytical. The accuracy of the model is high in comparison to the 3D FDM (the prime benchmark), as long as the fin-theory assumption prevails (no 'or negligible' temperature gradient in the fin perpendicularly to the fin length). Comparison with the other models also shows that when the USC duct material has a high thermal conductivity, the cross-sectional material temperature adopts an isothermal state (for the assessed USC duct geometry), which makes the 1D isothermal model valid. When the USC duct material has a low thermal conductivity, the heat transfer course of

  11. Passive solar/earth sheltered office/dormitory cooling season thermal performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.

    1984-01-01

    Continuous detailed hourly thermal performance measurements have been taken since February 1982 in and around an occupied, underground, 4000 ft/sup 2/ office/dormitory building at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This building has a number of energy saving features which have been analyzed relative to their performance in a southeastern US climate and with respect to overall commercial building performance. This analysis documents cooling season performance, as well as effects of earth contact, interior thermal mass, an economizer cycle and interface of an efficient building envelope with a central three-ton heat pump. The Joint Institute Dormitory obtains a cooling energy savings of about 30% compared with an energy-efficient, above-grade structure and has the potential to save as much as 50%. The proper installation of the overhand, interior thermal mass, massive supply duct system, and earth contact team up to prevent summertime overheating. From May through September, this building cost a total of $300 (at 5.7 cents/kWh) to cool and ventilate 24 hours per day. Besides thermal performance of the building envelope, extensive comfort data was taken illustrating that at least 90% of the occupants are comfortable all of the time according to the PMV measurements.

  12. Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gawlik, Keith

    2013-06-25

    Thermal energy storage systems using phase change materials were evaluated for trough systems that use oil, steam, and high temperature salts as heat transfer fluids. A variety of eutectic salts and metal alloys were considered as phase change materials in a cascaded arrangement. Literature values of specific heat, latent heat, density, and other thermophysical properties were used in initial analyses. Testing laboratories were contracted to measure properties for candidate materials for comparison to the literature and for updating the models. A TRNSYS model from Phase 1 was further developed for optimizing the system, including a novel control algorithm. A concept for increasing the bulk thermal conductivity of the phase change system was developed using expanded metal sheets. Outside companies were contracted to design and cost systems using platecoil heat exchangers immersed in the phase change material. Laboratory evaluations of the one-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior of expanded metal sheets in a low conductivity medium were used to optimize the amount of thermal conductivity enhancement. The thermal energy storage systems were compared to baseline conventional systems. The best phase change system found in this project, which was for the high temperature plant, had a projected cost of $25.2 per kWhth, The best system also had a cost that was similar to the base case, a direct two-tank molten salt system.

  13. Performance and cost benefits associated with nonimaging secondary concentrators used in point-focus dish solar thermal applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1987-09-01

    Using nonimaging secondary concentrators in point-focus applications may permit the development of more cost-effective concentrator systems by either improving performance or reducing costs. Secondaries may also increase design flexibility. The major objective of this study was to develop as complete an understanding as possible of the quantitative performance and cost effects associated with deploying nonimaging secondary concentrators at the focal zone of point-focus solar thermal concentrators. A performance model was developed that uses a Monte Carlo ray-trace procedure to determine the focal plane distribution of a paraboloidal primary as a function of optical parameters. It then calculates the corresponding optimized concentration and thermal efficiency as a function of temperature with and without the secondary. To examine the potential cost benefits associated with secondaries, a preliminary model for the rational optimization of performance versus cost trade-offs was developed. This model suggests a possible 10% to 20% reduction in the cost of delivered energy when secondaries are used. This is a lower limit, and the benefits may even be greater if using a secondary permits the development of inexpensive primary technologies for which the performance would not otherwise be viable. 20 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Graybox and adaptative dynamic neural network identification models to infer the steady state efficiency of solar thermal collectors starting from the transient condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, Baccoli; Ubaldo, Carlini; Stefano, Mariotti; Roberto, Innamorati; Elisa, Solinas; Paolo, Mura

    2010-06-15

    This paper deals with the development of methods for non steady state test of solar thermal collectors. Our goal is to infer performances in steady-state conditions in terms of the efficiency curve when measures in transient conditions are the only ones available. We take into consideration the method of identification of a system in dynamic conditions by applying a Graybox Identification Model and a Dynamic Adaptative Linear Neural Network (ALNN) model. The study targets the solar collector with evacuated pipes, such as Dewar pipes. The mathematical description that supervises the functioning of the solar collector in transient conditions is developed using the equation of the energy balance, with the aim of determining the order and architecture of the two models. The input and output vectors of the two models are constructed, considering the measures of 4 days of solar radiation, flow mass, environment and heat-transfer fluid temperature in the inlet and outlet from the thermal solar collector. The efficiency curves derived from the two models are detected in correspondence to the test and validation points. The two synthetic simulated efficiency curves are compared with the actual efficiency curve certified by the Swiss Institute Solartechnik Puffung Forschung which tested the solar collector performance in steady-state conditions according to the UNI-EN 12975 standard. An acquisition set of measurements of only 4 days in the transient condition was enough to trace through a Graybox State Space Model the efficiency curve of the tested solar thermal collector, with a relative error of synthetic values with respect to efficiency certified by SPF, lower than 0.5%, while with the ALNN model the error is lower than 2.2% with respect to certified one. (author)

  15. A model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data.

  16. Model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data. 38 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  17. Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, Todd M; Lichty, Paul R; Perkins, Christopher; Tucker, Melinda; Kreider, Peter B; Funke, Hans H; Lewandowski, A; Weimer, Alan W

    2012-10-24

    There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar-driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

  18. APOLO Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    APOLO Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: APOLO Solar Address: Paseo de la Castellana, 164-166 1 Place: Madrid, Spain Sector: Solar Product: PV, solar thermal Phone Number:...

  19. Hainan Tianwen Solar Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Power Co Ltd Place: Hainan Province, China Sector: Solar Product: China-based solar thermal project developer References: Hainan Tianwen Solar Power Co Ltd1 This...

  20. Ferrostaal eSolar JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ferrostaal eSolar JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ferrostaal & eSolar JV Place: Germany Sector: Solar Product: Germany-based solar thermal electricity generation joint...

  1. thermal energy power conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear ... Climate & Earth Systems Climate Measurement & Modeling ... Tribal Energy Program Intellectual Property Current EC ...

  2. Solar Position Algorithm (SPA) - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Solar Thermal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Solar Position Algorithm (SPA) National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About ...

  3. TOPCAT Solar Cell Alignment & Energy Concentration Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Solar Thermal Find More Like This Return to Search TOPCAT Solar Cell Alignment & Energy Concentration Technology Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This ...

  4. Software/firmware design specification for 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladewig, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    The software and firmware employed for the operation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are completely described. The systems allow operator control of up to 2048 heliostats, and include the capability of operator-commanded control, graphic displays, status displays, alarm generation, system redundancy, and interfaces to the Operational Control System, the Data Acquisition System, and the Beam Characterization System. The requirements are decomposed into eleven software modules for execution in the Heliostat Array Controller computer, one firmware module for execution in the Heliostat Field Controller microprocessor, and one firmware module for execution in the Heliostat Controller microprocessor. The design of the modules to satisfy requirements, the interfaces between the computers, the software system structure, and the computers in which the software and firmware will execute are detailed. The testing sequence for validation of the software/firmware is described. (LEW)

  5. Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next-Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Array for Next-Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next-Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Los Alamos ...

  6. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  7. Lighthouse Solar Diablo Valley | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CA. Lighthousesolar is a solar services company offering solar electric and solar thermal solutions for residential and commercial customers. Our mission is to facilitate the...

  8. Lighthouse Solar Westchester | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NY. Lighthousesolar is a solar services company offering solar electric and solar thermal solutions for residential and commercial customers. Our mission is to facilitate the...

  9. Lighthouse Solar Central Valley | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CA. Lighthousesolar is a solar services company offering solar electric and solar thermal solutions for residential and commercial customers. Our mission is to facilitate the...

  10. V K Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Delhi (NCT), India Zip: 110 048 Sector: Solar Product: Manufactures PV modules, inverters and systems, plus solar thermal water heaters. References: V-K Solar1 This article...

  11. Environmental Solar Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Environmental Solar Systems Address: 117 West Street Place: Methuen, Massachusetts Zip: 01844 Region: Greater Boston Area Sector: Solar Product: Solar thermal panels for home...

  12. Design and experimental testing of the performance of an outdoor LiBr/H{sub 2}O solar thermal absorption cooling system with a cold store

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agyenim, Francis; Knight, Ian; Rhodes, Michael

    2010-05-15

    A domestic-scale prototype experimental solar cooling system has been developed based on a LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption system and tested during the 2007 summer and autumn months in Cardiff University, UK. The system consisted of a 12 m{sup 2} vacuum tube solar collector, a 4.5 kW LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption chiller, a 1000 l cold storage tank and a 6 kW fan coil. The system performance, as well as the performances of the individual components in the system, were evaluated based on the physical measurements of the daily solar radiation, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperatures, mass flow rates and electrical consumption by component. The average coefficient of thermal performance (COP) of the system was 0.58, based on the thermal cooling power output per unit of available thermal solar energy from the 12 m{sup 2} Thermomax DF100 vacuum tube collector on a hot sunny day with average peak insolation of 800 W/m{sup 2} (between 11 and 13.30 h) and ambient temperature of 24 C. The system produced an electrical COP of 3.6. Experimental results prove the feasibility of the new concept of cold store at this scale, with chilled water temperatures as low as 7.4 C, demonstrating its potential use in cooling domestic scale buildings. (author)

  13. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  14. MAGNETIC FIELD TOPOLOGY AND THE THERMAL STRUCTURE OF THE CORONA OVER SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; DeRosa, Marc L.; Title, Alan M.

    2010-08-20

    Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images of quiescent active-region coronae are characterized by ensembles of bright 1-2 MK loops that fan out from select locations. We investigate the conditions associated with the formation of these persistent, relatively cool, loop fans within and surrounding the otherwise 3-5 MK coronal environment by combining EUV observations of active regions made with TRACE with global source-surface potential-field models based on the full-sphere photospheric field from the assimilation of magnetograms that are obtained by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on SOHO. We find that in the selected active regions with largely potential-field configurations these fans are associated with (quasi-)separatrix layers (QSLs) within the strong-field regions of magnetic plage. Based on the empirical evidence, we argue that persistent active-region cool-loop fans are primarily related to the pronounced change in connectivity across a QSL to widely separated clusters of magnetic flux, and confirm earlier work that suggested that neither a change in loop length nor in base field strengths across such topological features are of prime importance to the formation of the cool-loop fans. We discuss the hypothesis that a change in the distribution of coronal heating with height may be involved in the phenomenon of relatively cool coronal loop fans in quiescent active regions.

  15. Solar engineering 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, T.R. ); Watanabe, K. ); Klett, D.E. )

    1991-01-01

    This book contains paper presented at the second ASME-JSES-JSME international solar energy conference. It is organized under the following headings: Solar ponds, Energy fundamentals in solar systems, General solar energy, Solar powered cars, Distributed receiver components and systems, Central receiver components and systems, Chemical processes and waste destruction, High flux and innovative applications, Solar thermal space propulsion, Solar dynamic power systems, Analysis methods for monitored building use. Photovoltaics, Testing and measurement.

  16. ROTATING SOLAR JETS IN SIMULATIONS OF FLUX EMERGENCE WITH THERMAL CONDUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Fang; Fan, Yuhong; McIntosh, Scott W.

    2014-07-01

    We study the formation of coronal jets through numerical simulation of the emergence of a twisted magnetic flux rope into a pre-existing open magnetic field. Reconnection inside the emerging flux rope in addition to that between the emerging and pre-existing fields give rise to the violent eruption studied. The simulated event closely resembles the coronal jets ubiquitously observed by the X-Ray Telescope on board Hinode and demonstrates that heated plasma is driven into the extended atmosphere above. Thermal conduction implemented in the model allows us to qualitatively compare simulated and observed emission from such events. We find that untwisting field lines after the reconnection drive spinning outflows of plasma in the jet column. The Poynting flux in the simulated jet is dominated by the untwisting motions of the magnetic fields loaded with high-density plasma. The simulated jet is comprised of ''spires'' of untwisting field that are loaded with a mixture of cold and hot plasma and exhibit rotational motion of order 20 km s{sup –1} and match contemporary observations.

  17. Impact of tax incentives on the commercialization of solar thermal electric technologies. Volume II. Federal revenue considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bos, P.B.; Morris, G.P.

    1985-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of the Solar Thermal Central Receiver (STCR) tax incentives and commercialization on the federal treasury revenues. The initial STCR market penetration was assumed to take place in California, because of favorable local conditions. The initial financing was assumed to be underwritten by intermediary partnerships under long-term avoided cost contracts with the local utility companies with subsequent sale of the plants to utilities at competitive prices. To estimate the impacts of these various tax incentives associated with the commercialization of the STCR technology, the tax revenues and costs for the STCR plants were compared with the tax revenues and costs for the displaced conventional power plants. This differential analysis takes into account the different operating expenses, as well as the different depreciation charges, financing costs, and tax credits associated with STCR and conventional plants. The study also evaluated the impact of both the previous (1983) and current (1984) proposed federal energy tax credits. The resulting total annual tax cash flows were subsequently cumulated to determine the aggregate tax revenues and costs throughout the 1985 to 2034 time period. The results of this analysis indicate that the initial federal tax revenues are negative. With increasing market penetration, the installed costs of the STCR plants decrease rapidly and the net present values of the tax revenue cash flows associated with plants constructed after 1995 are positive, and become significantly larger than those for the corresponding displaced conventional plants.

  18. Low thermal budget, photonic-cured compact TiO2 layers for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Das, Sanjib; Gu, Gong; Joshi, Pooran C.; Yang, Bin; Aytug, Tolga; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Geohegan, David B.; Xiao, Kai

    2016-05-25

    Rapid advances in organometallic trihalide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have positioned them to be one of the leading next generation photovoltaic technologies. However, most of the high-performance PSCs, particularly those using compact TiO2 as an electron transport layer, require a high-temperature sintering step, which is not compatible with flexible polymer-based substrates. Considering the materials of interest for PSCs and corresponding device configurations, it is technologically imperative to fabricate high-efficiency cells at low thermal budget so that they can be realized on low-temperature plastic substrates. In this paper, we report on a new photonic curing technique that produces crystalline anatase-phase TiO2more » films on indium tin oxide-coated glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. Finally, the planar PSCs, using photonic-cured TiO2 films, exhibit PCEs as high as 15.0% and 11.2% on glass and flexible PET substrates, respectively, comparable to the device performance of PSCs incorporating furnace annealed TiO2 films.« less

  19. Dramatic enhancement of fullerene anion formation in polymer solar cells by thermal annealing: Direct observation by electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Dong; Nagamori, Tatsuya; Yabusaki, Masaki; Yasuda, Takeshi; Han, Liyuan; Marumoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-06-16

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we clarified the origin of the efficiency degradation of polymer solar cells containing a lithium-fluoride (LiF) buffer layer created by a thermal annealing process after the deposition of an Al electrode (post-annealing). The device structure was indium-tin-oxide/ poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)/poly (3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM)/LiF/Al. Three samples consisting of quartz/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al, quartz/P3HT:PCBM/Al, and quartz/PCBM/LiF/Al were investigated and compared. A clear ESR signal from radical anions on the PCBM was observed after LiF/Al was deposited onto a P3HT:PCBM layer because of charge transfer at the interface between the PCBM and the LiF/Al, which indicated the formation of PCBM{sup −}Li{sup +} complexes. The number of radical anions on the PCBM was enhanced remarkably by the post-annealing process; this enhancement was caused by the surface segregation of PCBM and by the dissociation of LiF at the Al interface by the post-annealing process. The formation of a greater number of anions enhanced the electron scattering, decreased the electron-transport properties of the PCBM molecules, and caused an energy-level shift at the interface. These effects led to degradation in the device performance.

  20. Low Thermal Budget, Photonic-Cured Compact TiO2 Layer for High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Das, Sanjib; Gu, Gong; Joshi, Pooran C; Aytug, Tolga; Rouleau, Christopher; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances in organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have positioned them to be one of the leading next generation photovoltaic technologies. However, most of the high-performance PSCs, particularly those using compact TiO2 as electron transport layer, require a high-temperature sintering step, which is not compatible with flexible polymer-based substrates. Considering the materials of interest for PSCs and corresponding device configurations, it is technologically imperative to fabricate high-efficiency cells at low thermal budget so that they can be realized on low-temperature plastic substrates. We report on a new photonic curing technique that produces high-quality crystalline TiO2 films on indium tinmore » oxide-coated glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The planar PSCs, using photonic-cured TiO2 films, exhibit PCEs as high as 15.0% and 11.2% on glass and flexible PET substrates, respectively, comparable to the device performance of PSCs incorporating furnace annealed TiO2 films.« less

  1. Sunbiz Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Address: 6207 Bayshore Blvd Place: Tampa, Florida Zip: 33611 Sector: Solar Product: Solar ThermalElectric, Energy & Water Conservation through building envelope and water...

  2. Dalkia Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agullent, Spain Zip: 46890 Sector: Solar Product: Agullent-based installer of photovoltaic and solar thermal power plants. Coordinates: 38.824755, -0.547039 Show Map...

  3. 2009 PILOT SCALE FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TESTING USING THE THOR (THERMAL ORGANIC REDUCTION) PROCESS: ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR TANK 48H ORGANIC DESTRUCTION - 10408

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.; Jantzen, C.; Burket, P.; Crawford, C.; Daniel, G.; Aponte, C.; Johnson, C.

    2009-12-28

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) must empty the contents of Tank 48H, a 1.3 million gallon Type IIIA HLW storage tank, to return this tank to service. The tank contains organic compounds, mainly potassium tetraphenylborate that cannot be processed downstream until the organic components are destroyed. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) technology, herein after referred to as steam reforming, has been demonstrated to be a viable process to remove greater than 99.9% of the organics from Tank 48H during various bench scale and pilot scale tests. These demonstrations were supported by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and the Department of Energy (DOE) has concurred with the SRR recommendation to proceed with the deployment of the FBSR technology to treat the contents of Tank 48H. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and proved the concept with non-radioactive simulants for SRR beginning in 2003. By 2008, several pilot scale campaigns had been completed and extensive crucible testing and bench scale testing were performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells using Tank 48H radioactive sample. SRNL developed a Tank 48H non-radioactive simulant complete with organic compounds, salt, and metals characteristic of those measured in a sample of the radioactive contents of Tank 48H. FBSR Pilot Scaled Testing with the Tank 48H simulant has demonstrated the ability to remove greater than 98% of the nitrites and greater than 99.5% of the nitrates from the Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily alkali carbonate. The alkali carbonate is soluble and, thus, amenable to pumping as a liquid to downstream facilities for processing. The FBSR technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) pilot scale steam reformer at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. Additional ESTD tests were completed in 2008 and in 2009 that further demonstrated the

  4. Oxidation-resistant, solution-processed plasmonic Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x < 2) selective solar thermal absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiaobai; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Juchuan

    2014-08-21

    Metal oxidation at high temperatures has long been a challenge in cermet solar thermal absorbers, which impedes the development of atmospherically stable, high-temperature, high-performance concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. In this work, we demonstrate solution-processed Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x < 2) and Ni nanochain-SiO{sub 2} selective solar thermal absorbers that exhibit a strong anti-oxidation behavior up to 600 °C in air. The thermal stability is far superior to previously reported Ni nanoparticle-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} selective solar thermal absorbers, which readily oxidize at 450 °C. The SiO{sub x} (x < 2) and SiO{sub 2} matrices are derived from hydrogen silsesquioxane and tetraethyl orthosilicate precursors, respectively, which comprise Si-O cage-like structures and Si-O networks. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows that the dissociation of Si-O cage-like structures and Si-O networks at high temperatures have enabled the formation of new bonds at the Ni/SiO{sub x} interface to passivate the surface of Ni nanoparticles and prevent oxidation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate that the excess Si in the SiO{sub x} (x < 2) matrices reacts with Ni nanostructures to form silicides at the interfaces, which further improves the anti-oxidation properties. As a result, Ni-SiO{sub x} (x < 2) systems demonstrate better anti-oxidation performance than Ni-SiO{sub 2} systems. This oxidation-resistant Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x < 2) cermet coating also exhibits excellent high-temperature optical performance, with a high solar absorptance of ∼90% and a low emittance ∼18% measured at 300 °C. These results open the door towards atmospheric stable, high temperature, high-performance solar selective absorber coatings processed by low-cost solution-chemical methods for future generations of CSP systems.

  5. NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future for Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Return to Search NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future for Solar Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Success Story Details Partner ...

  6. Fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowards, N.K.; Murphy, M.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a vessel. It comprises a fluid bed for continuously incinerating fuel comprising tire segments and the like which comprise metallic wire tramp and for concurrently removing tramp and bed materials at a bottom effluent exit means of the vessel, the vessel further comprising static air distributor means at the periphery of the bed comprising a substantially centrally unobstructed relatively large central region in which the fluid bed and fuel only are disposed and through which bed material and tramp migrate without obstruction to and through the effluent exit means, downwardly and inwardly stepped lower vessel wall means and a plurality of peripherally located centrally directed vertically and horizontally offset spaced air influent means surrounding the central region and associated with the stepped lower vessel wall means by which the bed is supported and fluidized.

  7. Coupled optical/thermal/fluid analysis and design requirements for operation and testing of a supercritical CO2 solar receiver.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khivsara, Sagar

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have evaluated closed-loop supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) Brayton cycles to be a higher energy-density system in comparison to conventional superheated steam Rankine systems. At turbine inlet conditions of 923K and 25 MPa, high thermal efficiency (~50%) can be achieved. Achieving these high efficiencies will make concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies a competitive alternative to current power generation methods. To incorporate a s-CO2 Brayton power cycle in a solar power tower system, the development of a solar receiver capable of providing an outlet temperature of 923 K (at 25 MPa) is necessary. To satisfy the temperature requirements of a s-CO2 Brayton cycle with recuperation and recompression, it is required to heat s-CO2 by a temperature of ~200 K as it passes through the solar receiver. Our objective was to develop an optical-thermal-fluid model to design and evaluate a tubular receiver that will receive a heat input ~1 MWth from a heliostat field. We also undertook the documentation of design requirements for the development, testing and safe operation of a direct s-CO2 solar receiver. The main purpose of this document is to serve as a reference and guideline for design and testing requirements, as well as to address the technical challenges and provide initial parameters for the computational models that will be employed for the development of s-CO2 receivers.

  8. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D.; James, Darryl L.

    2008-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  9. Chemically Reactive Working Fluids for the Capture and Transport of Concentrated Solar Thermal Energy for Power Generation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  10. Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish Engine Solar Power Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  11. A NOVEL LOW THERMAL BUDGET THIN-FILM POLYSILICON FABRICATION PROCESS FOR LARGE-AREA, HIGH-THROUGHPUT SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue Kuo

    2010-08-15

    A novel thin-film poly-Si fabrication process has been demonstrated. This low thermal budget process transforms the single- and multi-layer amorphous silicon thin films into a poly-Si structure in one simple step over a pulsed rapid thermal annealing process with the enhancement of an ultrathin Ni layer. The complete poly-Si solar cell was fabricated in a short period of time without deteriorating the underneath glass substrate. The unique vertical crystallization process including the mechanism is discussed. Influences of the dopant type and process parameters on crystal structure will be revealed. The poly-Si film structure has been proved using TEM, XRD, Raman, and XPS methods. The poly-Si solar cell structure and the performance have been examined. In principle, the new process is potentially applicable to produce large-area thin-film poly-Si solar cells at a high throughput and low cost. A critical issue in this process is to prevent the excessive dopant diffusion during crystallization. Process parameters and the cell structure have to be optimized to achieve the production goal.

  12. Concentrating Solar Power Services CSP Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    providing consulting, due diligence and component testing for Solar Thermal Electricity Generation (STEG). References: Concentrating Solar Power Services (CSP...

  13. EA-1683: Abengoa Solar's Solana Concentrating Solar Power Facility, Gila

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bend, AZ | Department of Energy 83: Abengoa Solar's Solana Concentrating Solar Power Facility, Gila Bend, AZ EA-1683: Abengoa Solar's Solana Concentrating Solar Power Facility, Gila Bend, AZ May 3, 2010 EA-1683: Final Environmental Assessment Loan Guarantee to Abengoa Solar Inc. for the Solana Thermal Electric Power Project near Gila Bend, Arizona May 6, 2010 EA-1683: Finding of No Significant Impact Abengoa Solar Inc., the Solana Thermal Electric Power Project near Gila Bend, Arizona

  14. Solar Thermal Incentive Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    NOTE: The incentive amounts for the program was updated effective July 17, 2015. Applications are being received until December 15, 2015 or, until the funds are exhausted. 

  15. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this Penn State project, funded by SunShot, for the second quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  16. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  17. SunTrac Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SunTrac Solar Place: Golden,, Colorado Zip: 80403 Sector: Solar Product: Colorado based solar thermal integrator References: SunTrac Solar1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  18. CT Solar Lease

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CT Solar Lease allows homeowners to lease a photovoltaic (PV) or solar thermal system, with fixed monthly payments, for a term of 20 years, at no upfront down payment.* This program, which takes...

  19. Silicon solar cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burgess, Edward L.; Nasby, Robert D.; Schueler, Donald G.

    1979-01-01

    A silicon solar cell assembly comprising a large, thin silicon solar cell bonded to a metal mount for use when there exists a mismatch in the thermal expansivities of the device and the mount.

  20. Table 10.6 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and Trade, 1974-2009 (Thousand Square Feet, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and Trade, 1974-2009 (Thousand Square Feet, Except as Noted) Year Low-Temperature Collectors 1 Medium-Temperature Collectors 2 High-Temperature Collectors 3 Total Shipments Trade Number of U.S. Manu- facturers Quantity Shipped Shipments per Manu- facturer Price 4 (dollars 5 per square foot) Number of U.S. Manu- facturers Quantity Shipped Shipments per Manu- facturer Price 4 (dollars 5 per square foot) Quantity Shipped Price 4 (dollars 5 per

  1. Table 10.7 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2001-2009 (Thousand Square Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2001-2009 (Thousand Square Feet) Year and Type By Market Sector By End Use Total Residential Commercial 1 Industrial 2 Electric Power 3 Other 4 Pool Heating Water Heating Space Heating Space Cooling Combined Heating 5 Process Heating Electricity Generation Total Shipments 6<//td> 2001 Total 10,125 1,012 17 1 35 10,797 274 70 0 12 34 2 11,189 Low 7 9,885 987 12 0 34 10,782 42 61 0 0 34 0 10,919 Medium 8 240 24 5 0 1 16

  2. Apollo Solar Lanka Limited ASLL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lanka Zip: 10250 Sector: Solar Product: Sri Lankan company that is developing both PV & thermal solar technologies. References: Apollo Solar Lanka Limited (ASLL)1 This article...

  3. Aries Solar Termoelectrica SL ASTE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Madrid, Spain Zip: 28046 Sector: Solar Product: Joint venture to set up Solar Thermal Electricity Generation (STEG) plants in Castilla la Mancha. References: Aries Solar...

  4. Solar/Wind Contractor Licensing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Licensing Louisiana InstallerContractor Photovoltaics Solar Water Heat Yes Tennessee Solar Panel Installation Specialty and Solar Thermal-Geothermal Licensing (Tennessee)...

  5. Mulk Renewable Energy Aditya Solar Power Industries JV | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Arab Emirates Sector: Solar Product: UAE-based company that is developing a 200MW solar thermal plant in Sharjah. References: Mulk Renewable Energy & Aditya Solar Power...

  6. LighthouseSolar (New Paltz) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    4 Cherry Hill Rd Place: New Paltz, New York Zip: 12561 Region: Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area Sector: Solar Product: Solar Electric and Solar Thermal Website:...

  7. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  8. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  9. Project Profile: Particle Receiver Integrated with a Fluidized Bed |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Particle Receiver Integrated with a Fluidized Bed Project Profile: Particle Receiver Integrated with a Fluidized Bed NREL logo -- This project is inactive -- The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and its partners, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), are developing a novel receiver that uses falling particles instead of liquid for the heat-transfer fluid (HTF). The research team aims to build a

  10. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Solar Pool Heating

  11. Energy and economic assessment of desiccant cooling systems coupled with single glazed air and hybrid PV/thermal solar collectors for applications in hot and humid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beccali, Marco; Finocchiaro, Pietro; Nocke, Bettina

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the energy and economic performance of desiccant cooling systems (DEC) equipped with both single glazed standard air and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/t) collectors for applications in hot and humid climates. The use of 'solar cogeneration' by means of PV/t hybrid collectors enables the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, which can be directly used by desiccant air handling units, thereby making it possible to achieve very energy savings. The present work shows the results of detailed simulations conducted for a set of desiccant cooling systems operating without any heat storage. System performance was investigated through hourly simulations for different systems and load combinations. Three configurations of DEC systems were considered: standard DEC, DEC with an integrated heat pump and DEC with an enthalpy wheel. Two kinds of building occupations were considered: office and lecture room. Moreover, three configurations of solar-assisted air handling units (AHU) equipped with desiccant wheels were considered and compared with standard AHUs, focusing on achievable primary energy savings. The relationship between the solar collector's area and the specific primary energy consumption for different system configurations and building occupation patterns is described. For both occupation patterns, sensitivity analysis on system performance was performed for different solar collector areas. Also, this work presents an economic assessment of the systems. The cost of conserved energy and the payback time were calculated, with and without public incentives for solar cooling systems. It is worth noting that the use of photovoltaics, and thus the exploitation of related available incentives in many European countries, could positively influence the spread of solar air cooling technologies (SAC). An outcome of this work is that SAC systems equipped with PV/t collectors are shown to have better performance in terms of

  12. Particle withdrawal from fluidized bed systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salvador, Louis A.; Andermann, Ronald E.; Rath, Lawrence K.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for removing ash formed within, and accumulated at the lower portion of, a fluidized bed coal gasification reactor vessel. A supplemental fluidizing gas, at a temperature substantially less than the average fluidized bed combustion operating temperature, is injected into the vessel and upwardly through the ash so as to form a discrete thermal interface region between the fluidized bed and the ash. The elevation of the interface region, which rises with ash accumulation, is monitored by a thermocouple and interrelated with a motor controlled outlet valve. When the interface rises above the temperature indicator, the valve opens to allow removal of some of the ash, and the valve is closed, or positioned at a minimum setting, when the interface drops to an elevation below that of the thermocouple.

  13. Tapered bed bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  14. Fluidized Bed Technology- Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fluidized beds suspend solid fuels on upward-blowing jets of air during the combustion process. The result is a turbulent mixing of gas and solids. The tumbling action, much like a bubbling fluid,...

  15. Ancient Salt Beds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Salt Beds Dr. Jack Griffith The key to the search for life on other planets may go through WIPP's ancient salt beds. In 2008, a team of scientists led by Jack Griffith, from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, retrieved salt samples from the WIPP underground and studied them with a transmission electron microscopy lab at the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. In examining fluid inclusions in the salt and solid halite

  16. Sea bed mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sleath, J.F.A.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a discussion on sea bed processes with engineering applications. It brings together the material currently available only in technical reports of research papers. It provides formulae and background references necessary for design calculation of problems such as sea bed or coastal erosion, and sub-marine pipeline stability. It also covers dissipation of wave energy, formation of ripples and dunes, and the transportation of sediments.

  17. Control of bed height in a fluidized bed gasification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehta, Gautam I.; Rogers, Lynn M.

    1983-12-20

    In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the height of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed height which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF AN {sup 84}Sr-DEPLETED CARRIER IN PRIMITIVE METEORITES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THERMAL PROCESSING IN THE SOLAR PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paton, Chad; Schiller, Martin; Bizzarro, Martin E-mail: schiller@snm.ku.dk

    2013-02-01

    The existence of correlated nucleosynthetic heterogeneities in solar system reservoirs is now well demonstrated for numerous nuclides. However, it has proven difficult to discriminate between the two disparate processes that can explain such correlated variability: incomplete mixing of presolar material or secondary processing of a well-mixed disk. Using stepwise acid-leaching of the Ivuna CI-chondrite, we show that unlike other nuclides such as {sup 54}Cr and {sup 50}Ti, Sr-isotope variability is the result of a carrier depleted in {sup 84}Sr. The carrier is most likely presolar SiC, which is known to have both high Sr-concentrations relative to solar abundances and extremely depleted {sup 84}Sr compositions. Thus, variability in {sup 84}Sr in meteorites and their components can be attributed to varying contributions from presolar SiC. The observed {sup 84}Sr excesses in calcium-aluminum refractory inclusions (CAIs) suggest their formation from an SiC-free gaseous reservoir, whereas the {sup 84}Sr depletions present in differentiated meteorites require their formation from material with an increased concentration of SiC relative to CI chondrites. The presence of a positive correlation between {sup 84}Sr and {sup 54}Cr, despite being hosted in carriers of negative and positive anomalies, respectively, is not compatible with incomplete mixing of presolar material but instead suggests that the solar system's nucleosynthetic heterogeneity reflects selective thermal processing of dust. Based on vaporization experiments of SiC under nebular conditions, the lack of SiC material in the CAI-forming gas inferred from our data requires that the duration of thermal processing of dust resulting in the vaporization of CAI precursors was extremely short-lived, possibly lasting only hours to days.

  19. Performance evaluation of the Balcomb solar house

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Perry, J.E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Additional instrumentation was added to the Balcomb solar house for a six-week period and up to 85 channels were recorded hourly. Some new findings based on an evaluation of these data are presented. (1) The thermal comfort characteristics of four rooms are documented. (2) Relative humidity in the living room varies from 30 to 50%; these data are used to infer an evaporation rate in the house of about 25 kg of water/day. The evaporation rate correlates reasonably well with greenhouse temperature. (3) Heat storage in the greenhouse floor is estimated at about 0.30 kWh/day-m/sup 2/ based on temperatures measured at four depths. (4) Several thermal characteristics of the rock bed are deduced but it is evident that the heat flow is not yet completely understood.

  20. Solar Selective Absorption Coatings - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of solar selective absorber coatings that significantly improve the thermal conversion efficiency of solar units by reducing radiative energy losses from the absorbing elements. ...

  1. Solar Reflection Panels - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications and Industries Solar Energy Renewable Energy Solar Thermal Power Patents and Patent Applications ID Number Title and Abstract Primary Lab Date Patent 7,077,532 Patent ...

  2. SolarPACES | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: International cooperative organisation focused on research, development and marketing of solar thermal power systems. References: SolarPACES1 This article is a stub....

  3. Stea Divisione Energia Solare | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Italy-based company present alternative energy, offering engineering services, marketing and installation of solar PV and solar thermal projects. References: Stea Divisione...

  4. Rules of thumb for passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Rules of thumb are given for passive solar systems for: (1) sizing solar glazing for 219 cities, (2) sizing thermal storage mass, and (3) building orientation.

  5. NREL: Learning - Solar Process Heat Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Heating Solar water-heating systems are designed to provide large quantities of hot water for nonresidential ... Solar absorption systems use thermal energy to evaporate a ...

  6. Gehrlicher Solar AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    96465 Sector: Solar Product: Germany-based company that plans, builds and markets photovoltaic and solar thermal plants. It consults for local, private and environmental...

  7. explicit representation of uncertainty in solar generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar generation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia ... Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ... National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear ...

  8. ThermalSoul | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: Austin, Texas-based parabolic trough-based solar thermal electrical generation systems maker. Coordinates: 30.267605, -97.742984 Show Map Loading...

  9. Solar Two

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Solar Two is a concentrating solar power plant that can supply electric power on demand to the local utility, Southern California Edison Company. It can do so because it operates not only during sunny parts of the day, but it can store enough thermal energy from the sun to operate during cloudy periods and after dark, for up to three hours, at its rated output of 10 megawatts (MW). For the first time ever, a utility scale solar power plant can supply electricity when the utility needs it most, to satisfy the energy requirements of its customers.

  10. Experimental analysis of thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in stationary standard and daily conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zambolin, E.; Del Col, D.

    2010-08-15

    New comparative tests on two different types of solar collectors are presented in this paper. A standard glazed flat plate collector and an evacuated tube collector are installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions; the evacuated collector is a direct flow through type with external compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) reflectors. Efficiency in steady-state and quasi-dynamic conditions is measured following the standard and it is compared with the input/output curves measured for the whole day. The first purpose of the present work is the comparison of results in steady-state and quasi-dynamic test methods both for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. Besides this, the objective is to characterize and to compare the daily energy performance of these two types of collectors. An effective mean for describing and analyzing the daily performance is the so called input/output diagram, in which the collected solar energy is plotted against the daily incident solar radiation. Test runs have been performed in several conditions to reproduce different conventional uses (hot water, space heating, solar cooling). Results are also presented in terms of daily efficiency versus daily average reduced temperature difference: this allows to represent the comparative characteristics of the two collectors when operating under variable conditions, especially with wide range of incidence angles. (author)

  11. Simulation of a High Efficiency Multi-bed Adsorption Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Humble, Paul H.; Sweeney, J. B.

    2012-05-01

    Attaining high energy efficiency with adsorption heat pumps is challenging due to thermodynamic losses that occur when the sorbent beds are thermally cycled without effective heat recuperation. The multi-bed concept described here effectively transfers heat from beds being cooled to beds being heated, which enables high efficiency in thermally driven heat pumps. A simplified lumped-parameter model and detailed finite element analysis are used to simulate the performance of an ammonia-carbon sorption compressor, which is used to project the overall heat pump coefficient of performance. The effects of bed geometry and number of beds on system performance are explored, and the majority of the performance benefit is obtained with four beds. Results indicate that a COP of 1.24 based on heat input is feasible at AHRI standard test conditions for residential HVAC equipment. When compared on a basis of primary energy input, performance equivalent to SEER 13 or 14 are theoretically attainable with this system.

  12. Staged fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  13. Internal waves and K-H instability in thermal layers of the advanced solar pond (ASP). [Kelvin-Helmholtz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bemporad, G.A.; Rubin, H. )

    1991-01-01

    The development of internal waves and instabilities of the Kelvin Helmholtz-type may prevent the density gradient maintenance which allows the proper functioning of the Advanced Solar Pond (ASP). The properties and characteristics of internal waves, of constant and growing amplitude, are quantitatively described in this paper. The numerical simulations made in this study are in good agreement with previous theoretical and experimental results.

  14. Overview of advanced Stirling and gas turbine engine development programs and implications for solar thermal electrical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alger, D.

    1984-03-01

    The DOE automotive advanced engine development projects managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center were described. These included one Stirling cycle engine development and two air Brayton cycle development. Other engine research activities included: (1) an air Brayton engine development sponsored by the Gas Research Institute, and (2) plans for development of a Stirling cycle engine for space use. Current and potential use of these various engines with solar parabolic dishes were discussed.

  15. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  16. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  17. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  18. Progress in solar engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yogi Goswami, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents reviews of various areas of solar energy technology, including wind energy technology and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). It also identifies and suggests needs and future directions of research and development. The subjects covered in this book include solar thermal power technology, solar thermal storage, solar ponds, industrial process heat, solar water heating, active and passive solar cooling methods, low-cost collector development, photovoltaic research and applications, wind energy technology, and OTEC. Also covered are the status of the technology, basic and applied research, design and analysis methods, and performance and operational experiences of various systems. The book will thus be helpful as a review of various solar, wind, and OTEC technologies.

  19. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Xina Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power | NREL Xina Solar One Abengoa has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) of South Africa to develop Xina Solar One, a 100 MW parabolic trough plant with a five-hour thermal energy storage system using molten salts. This project will form the largest solar complex in Africa together with Abengoa's plant KaXu Solar One that is currently under construction in the country. Xina Solar One was awarded to Abengoa in the third round of renewable energy projects organized by the

  20. National SCADA Test Bed

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) is a one-of-a-kind national resource that draws on the integrated expertise and capabilities of the Argonne, Idaho, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories to address the cybersecurity challenges of energy delivery systems.

  1. Solar Energy Initiatives Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Initiatives Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Energy Initiatives Inc Place: St. Johns, Florida Zip: 32082 Sector: Solar Product: US-based PV and solar thermal and PV...

  2. SolarAire LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Place: Folsom, California Sector: Solar Product: Developing a solar thermal air conditioning unit. References: SolarAire LLC1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  3. ZEN Eaga Solar Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    upon Tyne, United Kingdom Zip: NE2 1DB Sector: Solar Product: Distributes solar thermal water heating and PV products. References: ZEN Eaga Solar Ltd1 This article is a stub....

  4. Status of the fluidized bed unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, P.M.; Wade, J.F.

    1994-06-01

    Rocky Flats has a serious mixed waste problem. No technology or company has a license and available facilities to remedy this dilemma. One solution under study is to use a catalytic fluidized bed unit to destroy the combustible portion of the mixed waste. The fluidized bed thermal treatment program at Rocky Flats is building on knowledge gained over twenty years of successful development activity. The FBU has numerous technical advantages over other thermal technologies to treat Rocky Flats` mixed waste, the largest being the lower temperature (700{degrees}C versus 1000{degrees}C) which reduces acid corrosion and mechanical failures and obviates the need for ceramic lining. Successful demonstrations have taken place on bench, pilot, and full-scale tests using radioactive mixed wastes. The program is approaching implementation and licensing of a production-scale fluidized bed system for the safe treatment of mixed waste. The measure for success on this project is the ability to work closely with the community to jointly solve problems and respond to concerns of mixed waste treatment at Rocky Flats.

  5. GWU Solar GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: GWU Solar GmbH Place: Germany Sector: Solar Product: Solar PV and thermal system manufacturers. References: GWU Solar GmbH1 This article is a...

  6. SolarCraft Services Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: SolarCraft Services Inc Place: Novato, California Zip: 94949 Sector: Solar Product: Solar thermal and PV system installer. References: SolarCraft Services Inc1 This article...

  7. Active Solar Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home Heating Systems » Active Solar Heating Active Solar Heating This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary radiant floor heating system. | Photo courtesy of Jim Schmid Photography, NREL This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary radiant floor heating

  8. Passive Solar Home Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design for Efficiency » Passive Solar Home Design Passive Solar Home Design This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system (top of roof) supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary radiant floor heating system. | Photo courtesy of Jim Schmid Photography. This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system (top of roof) supplies both domestic hot water and a

  9. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Staged fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G.

    1984-01-01

    Method and apparatus for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  11. EmmVee Solar Systems Pvt Ltd ESSPL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bangalore, Karnataka, India Zip: 560 024 Sector: Solar Product: Manufactures and markets solar thermal and solar photovoltaic products. Coordinates: 12.97092, 77.60482 Show...

  12. Solar Power Group GmbH formerly Solarmundo | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Solar Power Group GmbH (formerly Solarmundo) Place: Essen, Germany Zip: 45128 Sector: Solar Product: Developing solar thermal power production plants...

  13. Shielded fluid stream injector for particle bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Notestein, John E.

    1993-01-01

    A shielded fluid-stream injector assembly is provided for particle bed reactors. The assembly includes a perforated pipe injector disposed across the particle bed region of the reactor and an inverted V-shaped shield placed over the pipe, overlapping it to prevent descending particles from coming into direct contact with the pipe. The pipe and shield are fixedly secured at one end to the reactor wall and slidably secured at the other end to compensate for thermal expansion. An axially extending housing aligned with the pipe and outside the reactor and an in-line reamer are provided for removing deposits from the inside of the pipe. The assembly enables fluid streams to be injected and distributed uniformly into the particle bed with minimized clogging of injector ports. The same design may also be used for extraction of fluid streams from particle bed reactors.

  14. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comparato, Joseph R. (Bloomfield, CT); Jacobs, Martin (Hartford, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  15. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  16. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  17. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  18. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  19. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  20. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1996-02-27

    A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  1. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1995-04-25

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  2. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Particle Receiver...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle Receiver Integrated with a Fluidized Bed-Novel Components to Overcome Existing Barriers Advancing concentrating solar power (CSP) systems to the target cost of 0.06 per...

  3. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryers, Richard W. (Flemington, NJ); Taylor, Thomas E. (Bergenfield, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  4. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  5. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  6. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  7. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freeman, David H.; Angeles, Rosalie M.; Keller, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  8. Fluidized bed deposition of diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Carroll, David W.; Trkula, Mitchell; Anderson, Wallace E.; Valone, Steven M.

    1998-01-01

    A process for coating a substrate with diamond or diamond-like material including maintaining a substrate within a bed of particles capable of being fluidized, the particles having substantially uniform dimensions and the substrate characterized as having different dimensions than the bed particles, fluidizing the bed of particles, and depositing a coating of diamond or diamond-like material upon the substrate by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon-containing precursor gas mixture, the precursor gas mixture introduced into the fluidized bed under conditions resulting in excitation mechanisms sufficient to form the diamond coating.

  9. Design and installation manual for thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R L; Nield, K J; Rohde, R R; Wolosewicz, R M

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in active solar systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating and cooling systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-Chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to latent heat storage include properties of phase-change materials, sizing the storage unit, insulating the storage unit, available systems, and cost. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating systems, and stand alone domestics hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, economic insulation thickness, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.

  10. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  11. California Solar Initiative- Solar Thermal Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Note: Funding is no longer available for residential systems that displace electricity or propane in any of the program service territories.  Additionally, funding has been exhausted for commercial...

  12. EIS-0416: Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in San Bernardino...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (07-AFC-5) Project, Proposal to Construct a 400-m Megawatt Concentrated Solar Power Tower, Thermal-Electric Power Plant, San Bernardino ...

  13. NASA's Solar Tower Test of the 1-Meter Aeroshell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA's Solar Tower Test of the 1-Meter Aeroshell - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia ... Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear Energy Systems ...

  14. Solar access of residential rooftops in four California cities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes ...

  15. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling Not Available...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling Not Available 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR ENERGY; EDUCATION; BIOMASS; CURRICULUM GUIDES; GREENHOUSE EFFECT; METHANE; OCEAN THERMAL POWER PLANTS; RENEWABLE...

  16. Resonant bonding leads to low lattice thermal conductivity (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC); Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: solar (photovoltaic), ...

  17. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems ...

  18. Project Profile: Novel Thermal Storage Technologies for Concentrating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Technologies for Concentrating Solar Power Generation Project Profile: Novel Thermal Storage Technologies for Concentrating Solar Power Generation Lehigh logo Lehigh ...

  19. Experimental study of the proposed super-thermal-conductor: BAs...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC); Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: solar (photovoltaic), ...

  20. Quantifying the Value of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Energy Storage This PowerPoint slide deck was originally presented at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power ... other variable generation sources including solar ...

  1. Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected Solar Irradiance - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Early Stage R&D Early Stage R&D Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected Solar Irradiance Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (767 KB) Solar glare from aerial view Solar glare from aerial view Typical solar glare Typical solar glare

  2. Dynamic bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stormo, Keith E. (Moscow, ID)

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  3. Copper slag thermal storage -- projections of performance and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curto, P.A.

    1984-02-01

    A solid residual regarded as waste from copper smelters, known as copper slag, offers an excellent medium for the storage of heat energy. Over one billion tons of slag is available at hundreds of smelters around the world. Copper slag is predominantly iron orthosilicate (2FeO.SiO/sub 2/), with sizable amounts of calcium, aluminum, magnesium and copper oxides. Formed in a highly oxidized environment at temperatures in excess of 1400/sup 0/C, copper slag is thermally, mechanically, chemically and physically stable when utilized as a thermal storage medium below 1000/sup 0/C. Conceptual designs for copper slag thermal storage systems have been proposed wherein a packed bed of copper slag is thermally cycled with air or some other gases utilized as transport media. Simply constructed with a metallic sheet liner and buried with an earthen berm, projected costs are literally one order of magnitude less than for molten salt, hot oils or other thermal storage techniques proposed for high-temperature systems. Applications for copper slag thermal storage include heat recovery systems for intermittent or uncontrolled heat sources, or peak-shaving power systems. A specific design for a solar combined cycle system is evaluated.

  4. Concentrating Solar Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use mirrors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver, from which a heat transfer fluid carries the intense thermal energy to a power block to generate electricity. A distinguishing feature of CSP is its ability to incorporate simple, efficient, and cost-effective thermal energy storage by virtue of converting sunlight to heat as an intermediate step to generating electricity. In addition to providing dispatchable

  5. Solar energy legal bibliography update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeley, D.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Energy Legal Bibliography Update is a compilation of approximately 100 solar publications abstracted for their legal and policy content (covering the period October 1978 to August 1979). Emphasis is on legal barriers and incentives to solar energy development. Abstracts are arranged under the following categories: Antitrust, Biomass, Building Codes, Consumer Protection, Environmental Aspects, Federal Legislation and Programs, Financing/Insurance, International Law, Labor, Land Use (Covenants, Easements, Nuisance, Zoning), Local Legislation and Programs, Ocean Energy, Patents and Licenses, Photovoltaics, Solar Access Rights, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Standards, State Legislation and Programs, Tax Law, Tort Liability, Utilities, Warranties, Wind Resources, and General Solar Law.

  6. Solar resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulstrom, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Following the 1973 oil embargo, the US government initiated a program to develop and use solar energy. This led to individual programs devoted to developing various solar radiation energy conversion technologies: photovoltaic and solar-thermal conversion devices. Nearly concurrently, it was recognized that understanding the available insolation resources was required to develop and deploy solar energy devices and systems. It was also recognized that the insolation information available at that time (1973) was not adequate to meet the specific needs of the solar energy community. Federal efforts were initiated and conducted to produce new and more extensive information and data. The primary federal agencies that undertook such efforts were the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NOAA's efforts included activities performed by the National Weather Service (NWS) and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This book has two man objectives: to report some of the insolation energy data, information, and products produced by the federal efforts and to describe how they were produced. Products include data bases, models and algorithms, monitoring networks, instrumentation, and scientific techniques. The scope of products and results does not include all those produced by past federal efforts. The book's scope and subject matter are oriented to support the intent and purpose of the other volumes in this series. In some cases, other pertinent material is presented to provide a more complete coverage of a given subject. 385 refs., 149 figs., 50 tabs.

  7. Key technologies for tritium storage bed development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S.H.; Chang, M.H.; Kang, H.G.; Chung, D.Y.; Oh, Y.H.; Jung, K.J.; Chung, H.; Koo, D.; Sohn, S.H.; Song, K.M.

    2015-03-15

    ITER Storage and Delivery System (SDS) is a complex system involving tens of storage beds. The most important SDS getter bed will be used for the absorption and desorption of hydrogen isotopes in accordance with the fusion fuel cycle scenario. In this paper the current status concerning research/development activities for the optimal approach to the final SDS design is introduced. A thermal analysis is performed and discussed on the aspect of heat losses considering whether the reflector and/or the feed-through is present or not. A thermal hydraulic simulation shows that the presence of 3 or 4 reflectors minimize the heat loss. Another important point is to introduce the real-time gas analysis in the He{sup 3} collection system. In this study 2 independent strength methods based on gas chromatography and quadruple mass spectrometer for one and on a modified self-assaying quadruple mass spectrometer for the second are applied to separate the hydrogen isotopes in helium gas. Another issue is the possibility of using depleted uranium getter material for the storage of hydrogen isotopes, especially of tritium.

  8. 2011 News | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 News Below are news stories related to Concentrating Solar Power. RSS Learn about RSS. December 20, 2011 Thermal Energy Storage Included in California Power Purchase Agreements The value of thermal energy storage in concentrating solar power plants has become obvious?so much so that BrightSource Energy, Inc. and Southern California Edison have rewritten some power purchase agreements to include thermal energy storage in plans for three solar power tower plants. December 6, 2011 Thermal Energy

  9. Solar Circuitry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Circuitry" with the Solar Powered Energy Kit Curriculum: Solar Power- (lightelectromagnetic radiation, electricity, circuitry, efficiency, energy transformation, subatomic ...

  10. Development and applications of clean coal fluidized bed technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eskin, N.; Hepbasli, A.

    2006-09-15

    Power generation in Europe and elsewhere relies heavily on coal and coal-based fuels as the source of energy. The reliance will increase in the future due to the decreasing stability of price and security of oil supply. In other words, the studies on fluidized bed combustion systems, which is one of the clean coal technologies, will maintain its importance. The main objective of the present study is to introduce the development and the applications of the fluidized bed technology (FBT) and to review the fluidized bed combustion studies conducted in Turkey. The industrial applications of the fluidized bed technology in the country date back to the 1980s. Since then, the number of the fluidized bed boilers has increased. The majority of the installations are in the textile sector. In Turkey, there is also a circulating fluidized bed thermal power plant with a capacity of 2 x 160 MW under construction at Can in Canakkale. It is expected that the FBT has had, or will have, a significant and increasing role in dictating the energy strategies for Turkey.

  11. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  12. Solar collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, S.L.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains summaries and pictures of projects funded by the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program which include the following solar technologies: solar dish; photovoltaics; passive solar building and solar hot water system; Trombe wall; hot air panel; hybrid solar heating system; solar grain dryer; solar greenhouse; solar hot water workshops; and solar workshops.

  13. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF SOLAR FLARES WITH AIA/SDO. II. HYDRODYNAMIC SCALING LAWS AND THERMAL ENERGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Shimizu, Toshifumi E-mail: shimizu.toshifumi@isas.jaxa.jp

    2013-10-20

    In this study we measure physical parameters of the same set of 155 M- and X-class solar flares observed with AIA/SDO as analyzed in Paper I, by performing a differential emission measure analysis to determine the flare peak emission measure EM{sub p} , peak temperature T{sub p} , electron density n{sub p} , and thermal energy E{sub th}, in addition to the spatial scales L, areas A, and volumes V measured in Paper I. The parameter ranges for M- and X-class flares are log (EM{sub p}) = 47.0-50.5, T{sub p} = 5.0-17.8 MK, n{sub p} = 4 × 10{sup 9}-9 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup –3}, and thermal energies of E{sub th} = 1.6 × 10{sup 28}-1.1 × 10{sup 32} erg. We find that these parameters obey the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana (RTV) scaling law T{sub p}{sup 2}∝n{sub p} L and H∝T {sup 7/2} L {sup –2} during the peak time t{sub p} of the flare density n{sub p} , when energy balance between the heating rate H and the conductive and radiative loss rates is achieved for a short instant and thus enables the applicability of the RTV scaling law. The application of the RTV scaling law predicts power-law distributions for all physical parameters, which we demonstrate with numerical Monte Carlo simulations as well as with analytical calculations. A consequence of the RTV law is also that we can retrieve the size distribution of heating rates, for which we find N(H)∝H {sup –1.8}, which is consistent with the magnetic flux distribution N(Φ)∝Φ{sup –1.85} observed by Parnell et al. and the heating flux scaling law F{sub H} ∝HL∝B/L of Schrijver et al.. The fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality model in conjunction with the RTV scaling law reproduces the observed power-law distributions and their slopes for all geometrical and physical parameters and can be used to predict the size distributions for other flare data sets, instruments, and detection algorithms.

  14. Numerical comparison of hydrogen desorption behaviors of metal hydride beds based on uranium and on zirconium-cobalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyoung, S.; Yoo, H.; Ju, H.

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the hydrogen delivery capabilities of uranium (U) and zirconium-cobalt (ZrCo) are compared quantitatively in order to find the optimum getter materials for tritium storage. A three-dimensional hydrogen desorption model is applied to two identically designed cylindrical beds with the different materials, and hydrogen desorption simulations are then conducted. The simulation results show superior hydrogen delivery performance and easier thermal management capability for the U bed. This detailed analysis of the hydrogen desorption behaviors of beds with U and ZrCo will help to identify the optimal bed material, bed design, and operating conditions for the storage and delivery system in ITER. (authors)

  15. Suppression of thermal carrier escape and efficient photo-carrier generation by two-step photon absorption in InAs quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells using a dot-in-well structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asahi, S.; Teranishi, H.; Kasamatsu, N.; Kada, T.; Kaizu, T.; Kita, T.

    2014-08-14

    We investigated the effects of an increase in the barrier height on the enhancement of the efficiency of two-step photo-excitation in InAs quantum dot (QD) solar cells with a dot-in-well structure. Thermal carrier escape of electrons pumped in QD states was drastically reduced by sandwiching InAs/GaAs QDs with a high potential barrier of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As. The thermal activation energy increased with the introduction of the barrier. The high potential barrier caused suppression of thermal carrier escape and helped realize a high electron density in the QD states. We observed efficient two-step photon absorption as a result of the high occupancy of the QD states at room temperature.

  16. Evaluation of temperature profiles in packed beds by simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrano, M.T.C.; Hernandez Suarez, R.

    1996-12-31

    The packed bed reactors with cocurrent upflow or downflow of gas and liquid are widely used in chemical and petrochemical industries for solid-catalysed heterogeneous reactions. It`s well known that a preferential-flow exists, thus the estimation of heat transfer parameters such as thermal conductivity of the bed and wall transfer resistance are important in order to predict the temperature profiles inside the reactor. This paper let us simulate the influence of these preferential zones of flow on the heat transfer parameters on this type of reactor. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Community Shared Solar with Solarize | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Community Shared Solar with Solarize Community Shared Solar with Solarize

  18. Distribution plate for recirculating fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-ching; Vidt, Edward J.; Keairns, Dale L.

    1977-01-01

    A distribution plate for a recirculating fluidized bed has a centrally disposed opening and a plurality of apertures adjacent the periphery to eliminate dead spots within the bed.

  19. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Collector R&D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal energy storage (TES) research at NREL focuses on reducing the costs of thermal storage and electricity from concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. NREL's TES effort ...

  20. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - News Release Archives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 December 20, 2011 Thermal Energy Storage Included in California Power Purchase Agreements The value of thermal energy storage in concentrating solar power plants has become ...

  1. Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in a Simulated Concentrating Solar Power Loop Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Performance of a Thermally...

  2. Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Acciona logo Acciona Solar, under ...

  3. Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish Engine Solar Power Generation Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy ...

  4. Project Profile: Innovative Thermal Energy Storage for Baseload...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Energy Storage for Baseload Solar Power Generation Project Profile: Innovative ... FOA, developed a thermal energy storage system based on encapsulated phase change ...

  5. Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for ... is looking at innovative ways to reduce thermal energy storage (TES) system costs. ...

  6. Innovative Phase hange Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Phase hange Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload Power Innovative Phase hange Thermal Energy ... for Dish Engine Solar Power Generation Dish Stirling High Performance ...

  7. Concentrating Solar Power Projects by Project Name | Concentrating Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power | NREL Project Name In this section, you can select a concentrating solar power (CSP) project from the alphabetical listing of project names below. You can then review a profile covering project basics, participating organizations, and power plant configuration data for the solar field, power block, and thermal energy storage. Abhijeet Solar Project ACME Solar Tower Agua Prieta II Airlight Energy Ait-Baha Pilot Plant Alba Nova 1 Andasol-1 (AS-1) Andasol-2 (AS-2) Andasol-3 (AS-3)

  8. Improved Concentrating Solar Power Systems - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Concentrating Solar Power Systems National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems utilize solar energy to drive a thermal power cycle for the generation of electricity. CSP technologies include parabolic trough, linear Fresnel, central receiver or "power tower", and dish/engine systems.

  9. EECBG Success Story: Alabama Justice Center Expands its Solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Center Expands its Solar Capabilities The roof of the justice center where a solar panel array will be installed to power a solar thermal water-heating system | Photo courtesy ...

  10. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A National Skills Assessment of the U.S. Wind Industry in 2012 M. Leventhal and S. Tegen Technical Report NREL/TP-7A30-57512 June 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013

  11. Solar-thermal reaction processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W; Dahl, Jaimee K; Lewandowski, Allan A; Bingham, Carl; Raska Buechler, Karen J; Grothe, Willy

    2014-03-18

    In an embodiment, a method of conducting a high temperature chemical reaction that produces hydrogen or synthesis gas is described. The high temperature chemical reaction is conducted in a reactor having at least two reactor shells, including an inner shell and an outer shell. Heat absorbing particles are included in a gas stream flowing in the inner shell. The reactor is heated at least in part by a source of concentrated sunlight. The inner shell is heated by the concentrated sunlight. The inner shell re-radiates from the inner wall and heats the heat absorbing particles in the gas stream flowing through the inner shell, and heat transfers from the heat absorbing particles to the first gas stream, thereby heating the reactants in the gas stream to a sufficiently high temperature so that the first gas stream undergoes the desired reaction(s), thereby producing hydrogen or synthesis gas in the gas stream.

  12. Thermal equation of state and spin transition of magnesiosiderite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal equation of ... Subject: catalysis (heterogeneous), solar (photovoltaic), phonons, thermoelectric, energy storage (including ...

  13. Solar Blog | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Blog Solar Blog RSS The SunShot Initiative's Solar Blog features the latest stories about the work of the solar energy technologies office within the Department of Energy. Learn more about us. August 4, 2016 Giant Leap Technologies uses microfluidics to bend light toward a solar at the top of the plant. Each solar thermal power plant shown is a football field in size. | <em>Photo courtesy of Giant Leap Technologies</em> Cutting-Edge Science Drives SunShot Projects The

  14. Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool (SGHAT) - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool (SGHAT) Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (1,235 KB) Technology Marketing Summary With growing numbers of solar energy systems being proposed and installed throughout the United States, the potential impact of glint and glare from photovoltaic

  15. Diffraction: Enhanced Light Absorption of Solar Cells and Photodetectors -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Diffraction: Enhanced Light Absorption of Solar Cells and Photodetectors Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (890 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryThe solar and photovoltaic industry has grown steadily over the last several years. In order to maintain

  16. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses (Conference)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid

  17. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Thermal Solar Collector Manufacturer Statistics - Number of Manufacturers in 2008: 88 - Companies with 90% of their revenue coming from solar collector sales: 56 - Percentage of shipped solar collectors produced by top 5 manufacturers: 79% Source(s): EIA, Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities 2009, Dec. 2010, p. 2, Table 2.17, p. 24, Table 2.20, p. 27.

  18. NREL: Solar Research - News Release Archives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    issusing a Request for Proposal (RFP) for a utility-scale concentrating solar power plant. ... from a 553-megawatt solar thermal power plant to be located in California's Mojave Desert. ...

  19. Solar Energy Partners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: W1K 4ND Sector: Solar Product: London-based firm active in investments in photovoltaic and thermal solar energy projects for pension funds, private equity, specialist...

  20. Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

    1991-12-01

    Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

  1. Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

    1991-12-01

    Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

  2. Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osborn, Liman D.

    1976-12-14

    A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

  3. Solar Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Labs Contributes to Solar Industry Innovation: A Partnership Story Customers & Partners, News, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar Newsletter Sandia ...

  4. Solar Photovoltaic Success Stories - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marketing Summaries (132) Success Stories (5) Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Graphic of a ...

  5. Keahole Solar Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    solar thermal project developer which has partnered with equipment provider Sopogy to build projects in the Hawaiian islands. Coordinates: 19.64014, -155.995678 Show Map...

  6. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in its CSP deployment efforts in the following areas: Collectors Receivers Power block Thermal energy storage Analysis. NREL received funding from DOE for concentrating solar...

  7. Project Profile: Polyaromatic Naphthalene Derivatives as Solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    need for heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for solar power generation that are stable to temperatures approaching 600C, have good thermal characteristics, and do not react with the ...

  8. Passive-solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  9. Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... gas, electric, and solar hot water evaluation * Energy Storage Laboratory is home to the world's most accurate battery calorimeters of their kind, thermal imaging, battery ...

  10. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  11. Standby cooling system for a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crispin, Larry G.; Weitzel, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    A system for protecting components including the heat exchangers of a fluidized bed boiler against thermal mismatch. The system includes an injection tank containing an emergency supply of heated and pressurized feedwater. A heater is associated with the injection tank to maintain the temperature of the feedwater in the tank at or about the same temperature as that of the feedwater in the heat exchangers. A pressurized gas is supplied to the injection tank to cause feedwater to flow from the injection tank to the heat exchangers during thermal mismatch.

  12. Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cannon, Joseph N.; De Lucia, David E.; Jackson, William M.; Porter, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

  13. Erosion-corrosion behavior of PFBC in-bed tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsumita, Yoshi; Namba, Kazuo; Kajigaya, Ichiro; Sonoya, Keiji

    1997-12-31

    In the design and operation of Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) plant, it is important to investigate erosion-corrosion behavior of in-bed heat exchanger tubes, since such phenomena is complicated by interaction of erosion and corrosion due to high operating temperature. Investigations to clarify the erosion-corrosion mechanism of materials were performed by using laboratory test facility and PFBC pilot plant (3MW), to determine the specifications of in-bed tubes and assess their life for the first commercial PFBC plant having a capacity of 360MW. In the laboratory test, erosion-corrosion behavior of wide variety of coated materials, which include thermally sprayed coatings, diffusion coatings and hard metal claddings, and non-coated steel candidates for the typical boiler tubes were evaluated by using fluidized-bed type erosion test rig. The erosion tests were carried out in order to obtain the tanking of candidate materials. And test coupons of candidate materials were also inserted into IHI`s PFBC pilot plant in order to predict the material wastage of actual boiler environment. The following guidelines for selecting the appropriate materials and assessing the life of in-bed tubes were given by these test results. (1) At lower temperature, applying thermal spray coatings is the best solution to protect erosion damage. (2) At higher temperature, materials show enough erosion-corrosion resistance because of the formation of hard oxide scale on the surface. These results have been verified by long-term operational experience of the 71MW Wakamatsu PFBC, which is the first demonstration plant in Japan.

  14. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  15. Advanced research in solar-energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luft, W.

    1983-01-01

    The Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute is reviewed. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800/sup 0/C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The applications for such high-temperature storage are thermochemical processes, solar thermal-electric power generation, cogeneration of heat and electricity, industrial process heat, and thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. The research results for five high-temperature thermal energy storage technologies and two thermochemical systems are described.

  16. Char binder for fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borio, Richard W.; Accortt, Joseph I.

    1981-01-01

    An arrangement that utilizes agglomerating coal as a binder to bond coal fines and recycled char into an agglomerate mass that will have suitable retention time when introduced into a fluidized bed 14 for combustion. The simultaneous use of coal for a primary fuel and as a binder effects significant savings in the elimination of non-essential materials and processing steps.

  17. EA-1683: Abengoa Solar's Solana Concentrating Solar Power Facility...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    May 3, 2010 EA-1683: Final Environmental Assessment Loan Guarantee to Abengoa Solar Inc. for the Solana Thermal Electric Power Project near Gila Bend, Arizona May 6, 2010 EA-1683: ...

  18. Sol-Char: Producing Char from Waste using Solar Energy - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sol-Char: Producing Char from Waste using Solar Energy ... Current waterless toilets - such as dry pit latrines, ... Solar-driven thermal toilet with biochar production (video). ...

  19. Ausra Inc Formerly Solar Heat and Power Pty Ltd SHP | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pty Ltd (SHP)) Place: Palo Alto, California Zip: 94303 Sector: Solar Product: US-based solar thermal electrical generation (STEG) company owned by AREVA Group. References: Ausra...

  20. Sustainable Heat Power Europe GmbH formerly Solar Heat Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    involved in the project development, design and construction of solar thermal, PV and biogas power plants. References: Sustainable Heat & Power Europe GmbH (formerly Solar Heat &...

  1. Sandia Energy - Areva Solar and Sandia Labs Join Forces for CLFR...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Areva Solar is collaborating with Sandia National Laboratories on a new concentrated solar power (CSP) installation with thermal energy storage. The CSP storage project combines...

  2. EERE Success Story-Solar Receiver Redesign Enables CSP to Beam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next generation concentrating solar power (CSP) system designs use supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) turbine power cycles to more efficiently convert solar thermal energy to ...

  3. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  4. Z-Bed Recovery Water Disposal

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Z-Bed Recovery Water Disposal Tritium Programs Engineering Louis Boone Josh Segura ... detailed explanation of the plan to capture and dispose of Z-Bed Recovery (ZR) water. ...

  5. Solar Policy Environment: Madison

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Madison’s Solar America Cities project, “MadiSUN”, will coordinate and galvanize substantial local and state resources to showcase how a U.S. Midwest city can dramatically increase the use of solar energy. Madison’s approach includes a comprehensive review of zoning and land use planning, streamlining the permitting processes, development of the local workforce, and assessment of city-owned buildings for solar PV and thermal applications. The City of Madison objective is to make Madison a green capital city and a national leader in energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  6. High-Performance Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells by Using a Combination of Ultrasonic Spray-Coating and Low Thermal Budget Photonic Curing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanjib, Das; Yang, Bin; Gu, Gong; Joshi, Pooran C; Ivanov, Ilia N; Rouleau, Christopher; Aytug, Tolga; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the commercialization of high-performance and robust perovskite solar cells urgently requires the development of economically scalable processing techniques. Here we report a high-throughput ultrasonic spray-coating (USC) process capable of fabricating perovskite film-based solar cells on glass substrates with power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 13.04%. Perovskite films with high uniformity, crystallinity, and surface coverage are obtained in a single step. Moreover, we report USC processing on TiOx/ITO-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates to realize flexible perovskite solar cells with PCE as high as 8.02% that are robust under mechanical stress. In this case, an optical curing technique was used to achieve a highly-conductive TiOx layer on flexible PET substrates for the first time. The high device performance and reliability obtained by this combination of USC processing with optical curing appears very promising for roll-to-roll manufacturing of high-efficiency, flexible perovskite solar cells.

  7. Microtracking and Self-Adaptive Solar Concentration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microtracking and Self-Adaptive Solar Concentration Microtracking and Self-Adaptive Solar Concentration This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042313_giebink.pdf (2.44 MB) More Documents & Publications Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators - FY12 Q4 Final Report - Prototype Development and Evaluation of Self-Cleaning

  8. California Solar Initiative- Low-Income Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) voted in October 2011 to create the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Thermal Low-Income program for single and multifamily residential properties....

  9. Proposed solar two project Barstow, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the environmental consequences of the proposed conversion and operation of the existing Solar One Facility in Daggett, Ca, near the city of Barstow, to a nitrate salt based heat transfer system, Solar Two. The EA also addresses the alternatives of different solar conversion technologies and alternative sites and discusses a no action alternative. A primary objective of the Solar Two Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a solar central receiver power plant using molten salt as the thermal storage and transport fluid medium. If successful, the information gathered from the Solar Two Project could be used to design larger commercial solar power plants.

  10. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, C. Stuart; Hawk, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  11. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  12. Fluidized-bed combustion of scrap tires: Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Y.; Mei, J.S.; Notestein, J.E.

    1981-10-01

    An introduction to fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is presented in Section 2.0. Based on this discussion of its technical development, FBC is then presented as a means of scrap tire disposal. In Section 3.0, scrap tire disposal is reviewed in the categories of (1) physical applications, (2) chemical applications, (3) pyrolysis, and (4) incineration for thermal energy recovery. Scrap tire disposal is reviewed on the basis of (1) environmental acceptability, (2) conservation of resources, (3) impact on existing industries, (4) operational feasibility, and (5) special features. The focus of this report is the fluidized-bed incineration of scrap tires for thermal energy recovery. The factors that affect scrap tire combustion are discussed in Section 4.0. These factors are (1) agitation, (2) temperature, (3) excess air, (4) residence time, (5) feed uniformity, (6) solid waste handling, and (7) pollutants emission control. In reviewing these incineration processes, (1) fuel flexibility, (2) environmental acceptability, (3) combustion efficiency, and (4) operational reliability are discussed. The results from a tire incineration experiment conducted at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center are presented in Section 5.0, and a conceptual fluidized-bed combustor is discussed in Section 6.0. Future considerations in the FBC of scrap tires are discussed in Section 7.0. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Evaporative heat transfer in beds of sensible heat pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arimilli, R.V.; Moy, C.A.

    1989-03-01

    An experimental study of boiling/evaporative heat transfer from heated spheres in vertical packed beds with downward liquid-vapor flow of Refrigerant-113 was conducted. Surface superheats of 1 to 50{degrees}C, mass flow rates of 1.7 to 5.6 Kg/min, sphere diameters of 1.59 and 2.54 cm, quality (i.e., mass fraction of vapor) of the inlet flow of 0.02 to 1.0, and two surface conditions were considered. Instrumented smooth and rough aluminum spheres were used to measure the heat transfer coefficients under steady state conditions. Heat transfer coefficients were independently determined for each sphere at three values three values of surface superheat. The quantitative results of this extensive experimental study are successfully correlated. The correlation equation for the boiling heat transfer coefficients is presented in terms of a homogeneous model. The correlation may be used in the development of numerical models to simulate the transient thermal performance of packed bed thermal energy storage unit while operating as an evaporator. The boiling of the liquid-vapor flow around the spheres in the packed bed was visually observed with a fiber-optic baroscope and recorded on a videotape. The visualization results showed qualitatively the presence of four distinct flow regimes. One of these occurs under saturated inlet conditions and are referred to as the Low-quality, Medium-quality, and High-quality Regimes. The regimes are discussed in detail in this paper.

  14. Thin film solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrauto, R.J.; Myers, H.; Williams, J.C.

    1982-03-23

    A solar energy collector has improved absorptance and emissivity levels comprising: (1) a silver-copper oxide-rhodium oxide solar absorption film, (2) a cerium oxide interlayer and a substrate of quartz, silica glass or metal. The cerium oxide interlayer minimizes agglomeration of the metal particles, maintains a relatively low thermal emittance and improves overall stability.

  15. Project Profile: Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Generation | Department of Energy Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation Project Profile: Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation Alabama logo The University of Alabama, under the Thermal Storage FOA, is developing thermal energy storage (TES) media consisting of low melting point (LMP) molten salt with high TES density for sensible heat storage systems. Approach They will conduct

  16. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H.

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  17. Hybrid Solar GHP Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-12-11

    This project provides an easy-to-use, menu-driven, software tool for designing hybrid solar-geothermal heat pump systems (GHP) for both heating- and cooling-dominated buildings. No such design tool currently exists. In heating-dominated buildings, the design approach takes advantage of glazed solar collectors to effectively balance the annual thermal loads on the ground with renewable solar energy. In cooling-dominated climates, the design approach takes advantage of relatively low-cost, unglazed solar collectors as the heat rejecting component. The primarymore » benefit of hybrid GHPs is the reduced initial cost of the ground heat exchanger (GHX). Furthermore, solar thermal collectors can be used to balance the ground loads over the annual cycle, thus making the GHX fully sustainable; in heating-dominated buildings, the hybrid energy source (i.e., solar) is renewable, in contrast to a typical fossil fuel boiler or electric resistance as the hybrid component; in cooling-dominated buildings, use of unglazed solar collectors as a heat rejecter allows for passive heat rejection, in contrast to a cooling tower that consumes a significant amount of energy to operate, and hybrid GHPs can expand the market by allowing reduced GHX footprint in both heating- and cooling-dominated climates. The design tool allows for the straight-forward design of innovative GHP systems that currently pose a significant design challenge. The project lays the foundations for proper and reliable design of hybrid GHP systems, overcoming a series of difficult and cumbersome steps without the use of a system simulation approach, and without an automated optimization scheme. As new technologies and design concepts emerge, sophisticated design tools and methodologies must accompany them and be made usable for practitioners. Lack of reliable design tools results in reluctance of practitioners to implement more complex systems. A menu-driven software tool for the design of hybrid solar GHP systems

  18. Rivesville multicell fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    One objective of the experimental MFB at Rivesville, WV, was the evaluation of alternate feed systems for injecting coal and limestone into a fluidized bed. A continuous, uniform feed flow to the fluid bed is essential in order to maintain stable operations. The feed system originally installed on the MFB was a gravity feed system with an air assist to help overcome the back pressure created by the fluid bed. The system contained belt, vibrating, and rotary feeders which have been proven adequate in other material handling applications. This system, while usable, had several operational and feeding problems during the MFB testing. A major portion of these problems occurred because the coal and limestone feed control points - a belt feeder and rotary feeder, respectively - were pressurized in the air assist system. These control points were not designed for pressurized service. An alternate feed system which could accept feed from the two control points, split the feed into six equal parts and eliminate the problems of the pressurized system was sought. An alternate feed system designed and built by the Fuller Company was installed and tested at the Rivesville facility. Fuller feed systems were installed on the north and south side of C cell at the Rivesville facility. The systems were designed to handle 10,000 lb/hr of coal and limestone apiece. The systems were installed in late 1979 and evaluated from December 1979 to December 1980. During this time period, nearly 1000 h of operating time was accumulated on each system.

  19. Packed bed thermal energy storage: A simplified experimentally...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anderson, Ryan ; Bates, Liana ; Johnson, Erick ; Morris, Jeffrey F. Publication Date: 2015-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1222500 GrantContract Number: FC36-08GO18151 Type: Published...

  20. Solar Dish/Engine Power Plant Illustration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This graphic illustrates a parabolic dish of mirrors directs and concentrates sunlight onto a central engine that produces electricity. The solar concentrator, or dish, gathers the solar energy coming directly from the sun. The resulting beam of concentrated sunlight is reflected onto a thermal receiver that collects the solar heat. The dish is mounted on a structure that tracks the sun continuously throughout the day to reflect the highest percentage of sunlight possible onto the thermal receiver.