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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Ordered bed modular reactor design proposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ordered Bed Modular Reactor (OBMR) is a design as an advanced modular HTGR in which the annular reactor core is filled with an ordered bed of fuel spheres. This arrangement allows fuel elements to be poured into the core cavity which is shaped so that an ordered bed is formed and to be discharged from the core through the opening holes in the reactor top. These operations can be performed in a shutdown shorter time. The OBMR has the most of advantages from both the pebble bed reactor and block type reactor. Its core has great structural flexibility and stability, which allow increasing reactor output power and outlet gas temperature as well as decreasing core pressure drop. This paper introduces ordered packing bed characteristics, unloading and loading technique of the fuel spheres and predicted design features of the OBMR. (authors)

Tian, J. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing 100084 (China)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Computational Analysis of Fluid Flow in Pebble Bed Modular Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a Generation IV reactor under consideration by Department of Energy and in the nuclear industry. There are two categories of HTGRs, namely, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and Prismatic reactor. Pebble...

Gandhir, Akshay

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

3

Modular Pebble Bed Reactor High Temperature Gas Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modular Pebble Bed Reactor High Temperature Gas Reactor Andrew C Kadak Massachusetts Institute For 1150 MW Combined Heat and Power Station Oil Refinery Hydrogen Production Desalinization Plant VHTR/Graphite Discrimination system Damaged Sphere ContainerGraphiteReturn FuelReturn Fresh Fuel Container Spent Fuel Tank #12

4

MODULAR PEBBLE BED REACTOR PROJECT UNIVERSITY RESEARCH CONSORTIUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Annual Report Page ii MODULAR PEBBLE BED REACTOR ABSTRACT This project is developing a fundamental. Publication of an archival journal article covering this work is being prepared. · Detailed gas reactor Abstract

5

Modularity of the MIT Pebble Bed Reactor for use by the commercial power industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor is a small high temperature helium cooled reactor that is being considered for both electric power and hydrogen production. Pebble bed reactors are being developed in South Africa, China and ...

Hanlon-Hyssong, Jaime E

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Proliferation resistant fuel for pebble bed modular reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that it is possible to denature the Plutonium produced in Pebble Bed Modular Reactors (PBMR) by doping the nuclear fuel with either 3050 ppm of {sup 237}Np or 2100 ppm of Am vector. A correct choice of these isotopes concentration yields denatured Plutonium with isotopic ratio {sup 238}Pu/Pu {>=} 6%, for the entire fuel burnup cycle. The penalty for introducing these isotopes into the nuclear fuel is a subsequent shortening of the fuel burnup cycle, with respect to a non-doped reference fuel, by 41.2 Full Power Days (FPDs) and 19.9 FPDs, respectively, which correspond to 4070 MWd/ton and 1965 MWd/ton reduction in fuel discharge burnup. (authors)

Ronen, Y.; Aboudy, M.; Regev, D.; Gilad, E. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Modularity in design of the MIT Pebble Bed Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The future of new nuclear power plant construction will depend in large part on the ability of designers to reduce capital, operations, and maintenance costs. One of the methods proposed, is to enhance the modularity of ...

Berte, Marc Vincent, 1977-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor Project: Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Program FY 2002 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the results of our research in FY-02 on pebble-bed reactor technology under our Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled the Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor. The MPBR is an advanced reactor concept that can meet the energy and environmental needs of future generations under DOE’s Generation IV initiative. Our work is focused in three areas: neutronics, core design and fuel cycle; reactor safety and thermal hydraulics; and fuel performance.

Petti, David Andrew; Dolan, Thomas James; Miller, Gregory Kent; Moore, Richard Leroy; Terry, William Knox; Ougouag, Abderrafi Mohammed-El-Ami; Oh, Chang H; Gougar, Hans D

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

SRS Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The small modular reactor program at the Savannah River Site and the Savannah River National Laboratory.

None

2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

10

SRS Small Modular Reactors  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The small modular reactor program at the Savannah River Site and the Savannah River National Laboratory.

None

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

11

ANALYSIS OF SEPCTRUM CHOICES FOR SMALL MODULAR REACTORS-PERFORMANCE AND DEVELOPMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The research mainly focused on producing a small modular reactor (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor) design to analyze the fuel depletion and plutonium and minor actinide accumulation with varying power densities. The reactors running at low power densities were found...

Kafle, Nischal

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

12

Biparticle fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

13

Biparticle fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

1996-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

14

Modularity Approach Modular Pebble Bed Reactor (MPBR)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

°C 126.7kg/s Circulator HPT 52.8MW Precooler Inventory control Bypass Valve Intercooler IHX Hatch Equip Access Hatch Equip Access Hatch Oil Refinery Hydrogen Production Desalinization Plant VHTR

15

Small Modular Nuclear Reactors | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reactor Technologies » Small Modular Reactor Technologies » Small Modular Nuclear Reactors Small Modular Nuclear Reactors Cutaway of 2-Unit Generation mPower SMR Installation. | © 2012 Generation mPower LLC. All Rights Reserved. Reprinted with permission. Cutaway of 2-Unit Generation mPower SMR Installation. | © 2012 Generation mPower LLC. All Rights Reserved. Reprinted with permission. The development of clean, affordable nuclear power options is a key element of the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. As a part of this strategy, a high priority of the Department has been to help accelerate the timelines for the commercialization and deployment of small modular reactor (SMR) technologies through the SMR Licensing Technical Support program. Begun

16

A future for nuclear energy: pebble bed reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pebble Bed Reactors could allow nuclear plants to support the goal of reducing global climate change in an energy hungry world. They are small, modular, inherently safe, use a demonstrated nuclear technology and can be competitive with fossil fuels. Pebble bed reactors are helium cooled reactors that use small tennis ball size fuel balls consisting of only 9 grams of uranium per pebble to provide a low power density reactor. The low power density and large graphite core provide inherent safety features such that the peak temperature reached even under the complete loss of coolant accident without any active emergency core cooling system is significantly below the temperature that the fuel melts. This feature should enhance public confidence in this nuclear technology. With advanced modularity principles, it is expected that this type of design and assembly could lower the cost of new nuclear plants removing a major impediment to deployment.

Andrew C. Kadak

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Granular Dynamics in Pebble Bed Reactor Cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pebble bed reactor,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol.the AVR reactor,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol. 121,Operating Experience,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol.

Laufer, Michael Robert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Small Modular Reactors (468th Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With good reason, much more media attention has focused on nuclear power plants than solar farms, wind farms, or hydroelectric plants during the past month and a half. But as nations around the world demand more energy to power everything from cell phone batteries to drinking water pumps to foundries, nuclear plants are the only non-greenhouse-gas producing option that can be built to operate almost anywhere, and can continue to generate power during droughts, after the sun sets, and when winds die down. To supply this demand for power, designers around the world are competing to develop more affordable nuclear reactors of the future: small modular reactors. Brookhaven Lab is working with DOE to ensure that these reactors are designed to be safe for workers, members of surrounding communities, and the environment and to ensure that the radioactive materials and technology will only be used for peaceful purposes, not weapons. In his talk, Bari will discuss the advantages and challenges of small modular reactors and what drives both international and domestic interest in them. He will also explain how Brookhaven Lab and DOE are working to address the challenges and provide a framework for small modular reactors to be commercialized.

Bari, Robert

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

19

Economic Aspects of Small Modular Reactors  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Economic Aspects of Small Modular Reactors March 1, 2012 Introduction The potential for SMR deployment will be largely determined by the economic value that these power plants would provide to interested power producers who would evaluate their prospects in relation to other options for generating electricity. To help better understand this proposition, DOE enlisted the Energy Policy Institute at Chicago in 2010 to conduct an economic analysis of SMRs based upon what is known today. Their findings were summarized in a paper by Robert Rosner and Stephen Goldberg, released in December, 2011, titled "Small Modular Reactors - Key to Future Nuclear Power Generation in the U.S." This brief paper will highlight some of the key finding from the study

20

Small Modular Reactors Presentation to Secretary of Energy Advisory...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Presentation to Secretary of Energy Advisory Board - Deputy Assistant Secretary John Kelly Small Modular Reactors Presentation to Secretary of Energy Advisory Board - Deputy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Generic small modular reactor plant design.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report gives an overview of expected design characteristics, concepts, and procedures for small modular reactors. The purpose of this report is to provide those who are interested in reducing the cost and improving the safety of advanced nuclear power plants with a generic design that possesses enough detail in a non-sensitive manner to give merit to their conclusions. The report is focused on light water reactor technology, but does add details on what could be different in a more advanced design (see Appendix). Numerous reactor and facility concepts were used for inspiration (documented in the bibliography). The final design described here is conceptual and does not reflect any proposed concept or sub-systems, thus any details given here are only relevant within this report. This report does not include any design or engineering calculations.

Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Baum, Gregory A.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Human Reliability Analysis for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because no human reliability analysis (HRA) method was specifically developed for small modular reactors (SMRs), the application of any current HRA method to SMRs represents tradeoffs. A first- generation HRA method like THERP provides clearly defined activity types, but these activity types do not map to the human-system interface or concept of operations confronting SMR operators. A second- generation HRA method like ATHEANA is flexible enough to be used for SMR applications, but there is currently insufficient guidance for the analyst, requiring considerably more first-of-a-kind analyses and extensive SMR expertise in order to complete a quality HRA. Although no current HRA method is optimized to SMRs, it is possible to use existing HRA methods to identify errors, incorporate them as human failure events in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and quantify them. In this paper, we provided preliminary guidance to assist the human reliability analyst and reviewer in understanding how to apply current HRA methods to the domain of SMRs. While it is possible to perform a satisfactory HRA using existing HRA methods, ultimately it is desirable to formally incorporate SMR considerations into the methods. This may require the development of new HRA methods. More practicably, existing methods need to be adapted to incorporate SMRs. Such adaptations may take the form of guidance on the complex mapping between conventional light water reactors and small modular reactors. While many behaviors and activities are shared between current plants and SMRs, the methods must adapt if they are to perform a valid and accurate analysis of plant personnel performance in SMRs.

Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Proliferation resistance of small modular reactors fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the proliferation resistance of different types of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) has been examined and classified with criteria available in the literature. In the first part of the study, the level of proliferation attractiveness of traditional low-enriched UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels to be used in SMRs based on pressurized water technology has been analyzed. On the basis of numerical simulations both cores show significant proliferation risks. Although the MOX core is less proliferation prone in comparison to the UO{sub 2} core, it still can be highly attractive for diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material. In the second part of the paper, calculations to assess the proliferation attractiveness of fuel in typical small sodium cooled fast reactor show that proliferation risks from spent fuel cannot be neglected. The core contains a highly attractive plutonium composition during the whole life cycle. Despite some aspects of the design like the sealed core that enables easy detection of unauthorized withdrawal of fissile material and enhances proliferation resistance, in case of open Non-Proliferation Treaty break-out, weapon-grade plutonium in sufficient quantities could be extracted from the reactor core.

Polidoro, F.; Parozzi, F. [RSE - Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico,Via Rubattino 54, 20134, Milano (Italy); Fassnacht, F.; Kuett, M.; Englert, M. [IANUS, Darmstadt University of Technology, Alexanderstr. 35, D-64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Small Modular Reactors Presentation to Secretary of Energy Advisory Board -  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Small Modular Reactors Presentation to Secretary of Energy Advisory Small Modular Reactors Presentation to Secretary of Energy Advisory Board - Deputy Assistant Secretary John Kelly Small Modular Reactors Presentation to Secretary of Energy Advisory Board - Deputy Assistant Secretary John Kelly DOE Small Modular Reactor Program (SMR) Research, Development & Deployment (RD&D) to enable the deployment of a fleet of SMRs in the United States SMR Program is a new program for FY 2011 Structured to address the need to enable the deployment of mature, near-term SMR designs based on known LWR technology Conduct needed R&D activities to advance the understanding and demonstration of innovative reactor technologies and concepts John_Kelly-SEAB_SMRBriefing_July20_2011_final.pdf More Documents & Publications Meeting Materials: June 12, 2012

25

Energy Department Announces Small Modular Reactor Technology Partnerships  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Small Modular Reactor Technology Small Modular Reactor Technology Partnerships at Savannah River Site Energy Department Announces Small Modular Reactor Technology Partnerships at Savannah River Site March 2, 2012 - 10:27am Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. -- The U.S. Energy Department and its Savannah River Site (SRS) announced today three public-private partnerships to develop deployment plans for small modular nuclear reactor (SMR) technologies at SRS facilities, near Aiken, South Carolina. As part of the Energy Department's commitment to advancing the next generation of nuclear reactor technologies and breaking down the technical and economic barriers to deployment, these Memorandums of Agreement (MOA) will help leverage Savannah River's land assets, energy facilities and nuclear expertise to

26

Economic Aspects of Small Modular Reactors | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Economic Aspects of Small Modular Reactors Economic Aspects of Small Modular Reactors Economic Aspects of Small Modular Reactors The potential for SMR deployment will be largely determined by the economic value that these power plants would provide to interested power producers who would evaluate their prospects in relation to other options for generating electricity. To help better understand this proposition, DOE enlisted the Energy Policy Institute at Chicago in 2010 to conduct an economic analysis of SMRs based upon what is known today. Their findings were summarized in a paper by Robert Rosner and Stephen Goldberg, released in December, 2011, titled "Small Modular Reactors - Key to Future Nuclear Power Generation in the U.S." This brief paper will highlight some of the key finding from the study1

27

Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs The Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Licensing Technical Support (LTS) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), through this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) seeks to facilitate the development of innovative SMR designs that have the potential to address the nation's economic, environmental and energy security goals. Specifically, the Department is soliciting applications for SMR designs that offer unique and innovative solutions for achieving the objectives of enhanced safety, operations, and performance relative to currently certified designs. This FOA focuses on design development and

28

Economic Aspects of Small Modular Reactors | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Economic Aspects of Small Modular Reactors Economic Aspects of Small Modular Reactors Economic Aspects of Small Modular Reactors The potential for SMR deployment will be largely determined by the economic value that these power plants would provide to interested power producers who would evaluate their prospects in relation to other options for generating electricity. To help better understand this proposition, DOE enlisted the Energy Policy Institute at Chicago in 2010 to conduct an economic analysis of SMRs based upon what is known today. Their findings were summarized in a paper by Robert Rosner and Stephen Goldberg, released in December, 2011, titled "Small Modular Reactors - Key to Future Nuclear Power Generation in the U.S." This brief paper will highlight some of the key finding from the study1

29

Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs The Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Licensing Technical Support (LTS) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), through this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) seeks to facilitate the development of innovative SMR designs that have the potential to address the nation's economic, environmental and energy security goals. Specifically, the Department is soliciting applications for SMR designs that offer unique and innovative solutions for achieving the objectives of enhanced safety, operations, and performance relative to currently certified designs. This FOA focuses on design development and

30

Partnerships Help Advance Small Modular Reactor Technology | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Partnerships Help Advance Small Modular Reactor Technology Partnerships Help Advance Small Modular Reactor Technology Partnerships Help Advance Small Modular Reactor Technology March 5, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - DOE recently announced three public-private partnerships to develop deployment plans for small modular nuclear reactor (SMR) technologies at Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities near Aiken, S.C. Read the full story on the Memorandums of Agreement to help leverage SRS land assets, energy facilities and nuclear expertise to support potential private sector development, testing and licensing of prototype SMR technologies. Addthis Related Articles Energy Department Announces Small Modular Reactor Technology Partnerships at Savannah River Site The development of clean, affordable nuclear power options is a key element of the Energy Department's Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. As a part of this strategy, a high priority of the Department has been to help accelerate the timelines for the commercialization and deployment of small modular reactor (SMR) technologies through the SMR Licensing Technical Support program. | Photo by the Energy Department.

31

Human Reliability Considerations for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to illustrate how the issues can support SMR probabilistic risk analyses and their review by identifying potential human failure events for a subset of the issues. As part of addressing the human contribution to plant risk, human reliability analysis practitioners identify and quantify the human failure events that can negatively impact normal or emergency plant operations. The results illustrated here can be generalized to identify additional human failure events for the issues discussed and can be applied to those issues not discussed in this report.

OHara J. M.; Higgins, H.; DAgostino, A.; Erasmia, L.

2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

32

Trickle - Bed reactor simulation using a process simulator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study deals with a multiple reaction system in both gas and liquid phases considering the effect of gas-liquid mass transfer limitations in a trickle-bed reactor where the catalytic hydrotreating of gas oil reaction is being carried out. ... Keywords: Trickle - bed reactor, hydrogenation, reactor model, user-added unit operation

E. Verruschi; J. Freitez; Y. Gonzalez; C. G. Dassori

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

German Pebble Bed Research Reactor Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Potential Acceptance and Disposition of German Pebble Bed Research Reactor Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Fuel Environmental Assessment Maxcine Maxted, DOE-SR Used Nuclear Fuel...

34

Methanol synthesis in a trickle bed reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

kinetic models for methanol synthesis under the assumption that the rate limiting step was the reaction between an adsorbed CO molecule and two adsorbed H2 molecules. The experiment was conducted over a Cu/ZnO/Cr~03 catalyst in a fixed bed reactor... to account for the large degree of initial deactivation. However, Rozovskii (1980) claimed the opposite and stated that methanol is made from carbon dioxide and no methanol is produced from Hz/CO mixtures over the Cu/ZnO/Alz03 catalyst. Liu et al. (1984...

Tjandra, Sinoto

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen Nuclear Energy Technology Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen Nuclear Energy Technology...

36

Development of a system model for advanced small modular reactors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a system model that can be used to analyze three advance small modular reactor (SMR) designs through their lifetime. Neutronics of these reactor designs were evaluated using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX/6). The system models were developed in Matlab and Simulink. A major thrust of this research was the initial scoping analysis of Sandia's concept of a long-life fast reactor (LLFR). The inherent characteristic of this conceptual design is to minimize the change in reactivity over the lifetime of the reactor. This allows the reactor to operate substantially longer at full power than traditional light water reactors (LWRs) or other SMR designs (e.g. high temperature gas reactor (HTGR)). The system model has subroutines for lifetime reactor feedback and operation calculations, thermal hydraulic effects, load demand changes and a simplified SCO2 Brayton cycle for power conversion.

Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Hybrid energy systems (HESs) using small modular reactors (SMRs)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large-scale nuclear reactors are traditionally operated for a singular purpose: steady-state production of dispatchable baseload electricity that is distributed broadly on the electric grid. While this implementation is key to a sustainable, reliable energy grid, small modular reactors (SMRs) offer new opportunities for increased use of clean nuclear energy for both electric and thermal ap plications in more locations – while still accommodating the desire to support renewable production sources.

S. Bragg-Sitton

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Analysis of granular flow in a pebble-bed nuclear reactor Chris H. Rycroft,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-temperature reactor 2 , which offers meltdown-proof passive safety, convenient long-term waste storage, modular

Bazant, Martin Z.

39

MCNP4B Modeling of Pebble-Bed Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The applicability of the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B to the neutronic modeling of pebble-bed reactors was investigated. A modeling methodology was developed based on an analysis of critical experiments carried out at the ...

Lebenhaft, Julian Robert

2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Kinetic parameter estimation using nonisothermal trickle-bed reactor data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KINETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION USING NONISOTHERMAL TRICKLE-BED REACTOR DATA A Thesis by MICHAEL ALLEN MENSIK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering KINETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION USING NONISOTHERMAL TRICKLE-BED REACTOR DATA A Thesis by MICHAEL ALLEN MENSIK Approved as to style and content by: A. ger n (Chairman of Comm ee) R. G. Antho...

Mensik, Michael Allen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis -- Complete Design Selection for the Pebble Bed Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Deep-Burn (DB) concept focuses on the destruction of transuranic nuclides from used light water reactor fuel. These transuranic nuclides are incorporated into TRISO coated fuel particles and used in gas-cooled reactors with the aim of a fractional fuel burnup of 60 to 70% in fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). This high performance is expected through the use of multiple recirculation passes of the fuel in pebble form without any physical or chemical changes between passes. In particular, the concept does not call for reprocessing of the fuel between passes. In principle, the DB pebble bed concept employs the same reactor designs as the presently envisioned low-enriched uranium core designs, such as the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR-400). Although it has been shown in the previous Fiscal Year (2009) that a PuO2 fueled pebble bed reactor concept is viable, achieving a high fuel burnup, while remaining within safety-imposed prescribed operational limits for fuel temperature, power peaking and temperature reactivity feedback coefficients for the entire temperature range, is challenging. The presence of the isotopes 239-Pu, 240-Pu and 241-Pu that have resonances in the thermal energy range significantly modifies the neutron thermal energy spectrum as compared to a ”standard,” UO2-fueled core. Therefore, the DB pebble bed core exhibits a relatively hard neutron energy spectrum. However, regions within the pebble bed that are near the graphite reflectors experience a locally softer spectrum. This can lead to power and temperature peaking in these regions. Furthermore, a shift of the thermal energy spectrum with increasing temperature can lead to increased absorption in the resonances of the fissile Pu isotopes. This can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator under certain operating conditions. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge burnup level, while retaining its inherent safety characteristics. Using generic pebble bed reactor cores, this task will perform physics calculations to evaluate the capabilities of the pebble bed reactor to perform utilization and destruction of LWR used-fuel transuranics. The task will use established benchmarked models, and will introduce modeling advancements appropriate to the nature of the fuel considered (high TRU content and high burn-up).

B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both ‘small’ or medium-sized and ‘modular’ by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOE’s ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the Generation IV program and its specific R&D needs will be included in this report when appropriate for comparison. The distinguishing features of the HTGR are the refractory (TRISO) coated particle fuel, the low-power density, graphite-moderated core, and the high outlet temperature of the inert helium coolant. The low power density and fuel form effectively eliminate the possibility of core melt, even upon a complete loss of coolant pressure and flow. The graphite, which constitutes the bulk of the core volume and mass, provides a large thermal buffer that absorbs fission heat such that thermal transients occur over a timespan of hours or even days. As chemically-inert helium is already a gas, there is no coolant temperature or void feedback on the neutronics and no phase change or corrosion product that could degrade heat transfer. Furthermore, the particle coatings and interstitial graphite retain fission products such that the source terms at the plant boundary remain well below actionable levels under all anticipated nominal and off-normal operating conditions. These attributes enable the reactor to supply process heat to a collocated industrial plant with negligible risk of contamination and minimal dynamic coupling of the facilities (Figure 1). The exceptional retentive properties of coated particle fuel in a graphite matrix were first demonstrated in the DRAGON reactor, a European research facility that began operation in 1964.

Hans Gougar

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

The backflow cell model for fluidized bed catalytic reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the backmixing of gas in a small fluidized bed with high length to diameter rati. o is relatively small. Hence, it was recommended. that reaction rate studies in fluidized bed reactors be correlated on the basis oi' piston flow~ neglecting mixing. Nay (19...) points out that the straight line obtained on plotting the results of Gilliland's ex- periment on a paper with semilogarithmic coordinates, can be used to characterize the residence time distribution introduced by Danckwerts (6). A steep slope, he...

Ganapathy, E. V

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

44

Coal hydrogenation and deashing in ebullated bed catalytic reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for hydrogenation of coal containing ash with agglomeration and removal of ash from an ebullated bed catalytic reactor to produce deashed hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, a flowable coal-oil slurry is reacted with hydrogen in an ebullated catalyst bed reaction zone at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The upward velocity and viscosity of the reactor liquid are controlled so that a substantial portion of the ash released from the coal is agglomerated to form larger particles in the upper portion of the reactor above the catalyst bed, from which the agglomerated ash is separately withdrawn along with adhering reaction zone liquid. The resulting hydrogenated hydrocarbon effluent material product is phase separated to remove vapor fractions, after which any ash remaining in the liquid fraction can be removed to produce substantially ash-free coal-derived liquid products.

Huibers, Derk T. A. (Pennington, NJ); Johanson, Edwin S. (Princeton, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen Nuclear  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen Nuclear Energy Technology Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen Nuclear Energy Technology December 12, 2013 - 4:00pm Addthis The basics of small modular reactor technology explained. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. The basics of small modular reactor technology explained. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Assistant Secretary Lyons Assistant Secretary Lyons Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy continues to be an important part of America's diverse energy portfolio, and the Energy Department is committed to supporting a domestic nuclear industry.

46

Mathematical modeling of fluidized bed reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

III-B. Bubbling Bed Model (BBM). 26 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) CHAPTER III-8-1. BBM with Constant Bubble Size III-B-2. BBM with Variable Bubble Size III-C. Countercurrent Backmixing Model (CCBM). Page 28 29 30 III-C-1. CCBM with Constant... IV NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. IV-A. Langmuir-Hinshelwood Type of Kinetics. IV-B. First Order Kinetics . 57 IV-B-1. Davidson and Harrison Model (DHM) . . 57 IV-8-2. Bubbling Bed Model (BBM). IV-B-3. Countercurrent Backmixing Model (CCBM...

Nasif, Nilufer Havva

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

47

Modular Inspection System for a Complete IN-Service Examination of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel, Including Beltline Region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Final Report for a DOE Phase II Contract Describing the design and fabrication of a reactor inspection modular rover prototype for reactor vessel inspection.

David H. Bothell

2000-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

48

Small Modular Reactors and U.S. Clean Energy Sources for Electricity |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Small Modular Reactors and U.S. Clean Energy Sources for Small Modular Reactors and U.S. Clean Energy Sources for Electricity Small Modular Reactors and U.S. Clean Energy Sources for Electricity For the clean energy goal to be met, then, the non-carbon emitting sources must provide some 2900 TWhr. Hydropower is generally assumed to have reached a maximum of 250 TWhr, so if we assume renewables reach 650 TWhr, (double the EIA estimate) that leaves 2000 TWhr for nuclear power. If the Administration's loan guarantee program for current large reactors is successful, then one might expect the large reactors to reach 1000 TWhr by 2035. This leaves some 1000 TWhr for SMR - that is a lot of electricity. SMR and Clean Energy.pdf More Documents & Publications Slide 1 Small Modular Reactor Report (SEAB) A Strategic Framework for SMR Deployment

49

An Overview of the Safety Case for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several small modular reactor (SMR) designs emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s in response to lessons learned from the many technical and operational challenges of the large Generation II light-water reactors. After the accident at the Three Mile Island plant in 1979, an ensuing reactor redesign effort spawned the term inherently safe designs, which later evolved into passively safe terminology. Several new designs were engineered to be deliberately small in order to fully exploit the benefits of passive safety. Today, new SMR designs are emerging with a similar philosophy of offering highly robust and resilient designs with increased safety margins. Additionally, because these contemporary designs are being developed subsequent to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack, they incorporate a number of intrinsic design features to further strengthen their safety and security. Several SMR designs are being developed in the United States spanning the full spectrum of reactor technologies, including water-, gas-, and liquid-metal-cooled ones. Despite a number of design differences, most of these designs share a common set of design principles to enhance plant safety and robustness, such as eliminating plant design vulnerabilities where possible, reducing accident probabilities, and mitigating accident consequences. An important consequence of the added resilience provided by these design approaches is that the individual reactor units and the entire plant should be able to survive a broader range of extreme conditions. This will enable them to not only ensure the safety of the general public but also help protect the investment of the owner and continued availability of the power-generating asset. Examples of typical SMR design features and their implications for improved plant safety are given for specific SMR designs being developed in the United States.

Ingersoll, Daniel T [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Small Modular Fast Reactor Design Description Joint Effort  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

July 1, 2005 ANL-SMFR-1 July 1, 2005 ANL-SMFR-1 Small Modular Fast Reactor Design Description Joint Effort by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) Project Leaders Y. I. Chang and C. Grandy, ANL P. Lo Pinto, CEA M. Konomura, JNC Technical Contributors ANL: J. Cahalan, F. Dunn, M. Farmer, S. Kamal, L. Krajtl, A. Moisseytsev, Y. Momozaki, J. Sienicki, Y. Park, Y. Tang, C. Reed, C. Tzanos, S. Wiedmeyer, and W. Yang CEA: P. Allegre, J. Astegiano, F. Baque, L. Cachon, M. S. Chenaud, J-L Courouau, Ph. Dufour, J. C. Klein, C. Latge, C. Thevenot, and F. Varaine JNC: M. Ando, Y. Chikazawa, M. Nagamura, Y. Okano, Y. Sakamoto,

51

Influence of partial wetting on trickle-bed reactor performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was started once the hydrogen flow rate stabilized. The time required for 4he first drop to appear at the vapor/liquid separator ranged from ]0 ? 40 minutes, depending on the liquid flow rate. The liquid flow rate was measured by monitoring the liquid level..., conversion with we4t, ing efficiency . 23 25 Experiment, al apparatus 6. Cross sect, ion of experimental trickle-bed reactor 7. Approach to steady stale 8. Catalyst, bed axial temperature profiles Change in the exit conversion with liquid flow rate...

Ruecker, Craig Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

52

Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key area of the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) strategy is the development of methodologies and tools that will be used to predict the safety, security, safeguards, performance, and deployment viability of SMRs. The goal of the SMR PRA activity will be to develop quantitative methods and tools and the associated analysis framework for assessing a variety of risks. Development and implementation of SMR-focused safety assessment methods may require new analytic methods or adaptation of traditional methods to the advanced design and operational features of SMRs. We will need to move beyond the current limitations such as static, logic-based models in order to provide more integrated, scenario-based models based upon predictive modeling which are tied to causal factors. The development of SMR-specific safety models for margin determination will provide a safety case that describes potential accidents, design options (including postulated controls), and supports licensing activities by providing a technical basis for the safety envelope. This report documents the progress that was made to implement the PRA framework, specifically by way of demonstration of an advanced 3D approach to representing, quantifying and understanding flooding risks to a nuclear power plant.

Curtis Smith; Steven Prescott; Tony Koonce

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

A Modular Building Controls Virtual Test Bed for the Integrations of Heterogeneous Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) that is currently under development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An earlier prototype linked EnergyPlus with controls hardware through embedded SPARK models and demonstrated its value in more cost-effective envelope design and improved controls sequences for the San Francisco Federal Building. The BCVTB presented here is a more modular design based on a middleware that we built using Ptolemy II, a modular software environment for design and analysis of heterogeneous systems. Ptolemy II provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run-time. Our additions to Ptolemy II allow users to couple to Ptolemy II a prototype version of EnergyPlus,MATLAB/Simulink or other simulation programs for data exchange during run-time. In future work we will also implement a BACnet interface that allows coupling BACnet compliant building automation systems to Ptolemy II. We will present the architecture of the BCVTB and explain how users can add their own simulation programs to the BCVTB. We will then present an example application in which the building envelope and the HVAC system was simulated in EnergyPlus, the supervisory control logic was simulated in MATLAB/Simulink and Ptolemy II was used to exchange data during run-time and to provide realtime visualization as the simulation progresses.

Wetter, Michael; Wetter, Michael; Haves, Philip

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

54

Energy Department Announces New Investment in U.S. Small Modular Reactor  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Investment in U.S. Small Modular Investment in U.S. Small Modular Reactor Design and Commercialization Energy Department Announces New Investment in U.S. Small Modular Reactor Design and Commercialization November 20, 2012 - 2:48pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above strategy to deploy every available source of American energy, the Energy Department today announced an award to support a new project to design, license and help commercialize small modular reactors (SMR) in the United States. This award follows a funding opportunity announcement in March 2012. The project supported by the award will be led by Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) in partnership with the Tennessee Valley Authority and Bechtel. In addition, the Department announced plans to issue a follow-on solicitation

55

First Step to Spur U.S. Manufacturing of Small Modular Nuclear Reactors |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

First Step to Spur U.S. Manufacturing of Small Modular Nuclear First Step to Spur U.S. Manufacturing of Small Modular Nuclear Reactors First Step to Spur U.S. Manufacturing of Small Modular Nuclear Reactors January 25, 2012 - 5:06pm Addthis Brenda DeGraffenreid The Energy Department recently announced the first step toward manufacturing small modular nuclear reactors (SMRs) in the United States, demonstrating the Administration's commitment to advancing U.S. manufacturing leadership in low-carbon, next generation energy technologies and restarting the nation's nuclear industry. The release of a draft Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) last week presents supply-chain procurement opportunities for our nation's small businesses down the line, as industry provides input in advance of a full FOA on engineering, design certification, and licensing through a

56

Fast Kinetics of Fe2+ Oxidation in Packed-Bed Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...protein/ml liquid vol of reactor YPlS Yield of product...material was also used for analysis of the total protein...of the packed-bed reactors. Several experimen...effect. The system reliability was evalu- ated with...ion-exchange resin packed-bed reactor by switching the inlet...

Sergei I. Grishin; Olli H. Tuovinen

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Characterization of Biofilm in 200W Fluidized Bed Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contaminated groundwater beneath the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington is currently being treated using a pump and treat system to remove organics, inorganics, radionuclides, and metals. A granular activated carbon-based fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has been added to remove nitrate, hexavalent chromium and carbon tetrachloride. Initial analytical results indicated the microorganisms effectively reduced many of the contaminants to less than cleanup levels. However shortly thereafter operational upsets of the FBR include carbon carry over, over production of microbial extracellular polymeric substance (biofilm) materials, and over production of hydrogen sulfide. As a result detailed investigations were undertaken to understand the functional diversity and activity of the microbial community present in the FBR over time. Molecular analyses including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were performed on the microbial community extracted from the biofilm within the bed and from the inoculum, to determine functional dynamics of the FBR bed over time and following operational changes. Findings from these analyses indicated: 1) the microbial community within the bed was completely different than community used for inoculation, and was likely from the groundwater; 2) analyses early in the testing showed an FBR community dominated by a few Curvibacter and Flavobacterium species; 3) the final sample taken indicated that the microbial community in the FBR bed had become more diverse; and 4) qPCR analyses indicated that bacteria involved in nitrogen cycling, including denitrifiers and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria, were dominant in the bed. These results indicate that molecular tools can be powerful for determining functional diversity within FBR type reactors. Coupled with micronutrient, influent and effluent chemistry evaluations, a more complete understanding of the balance between system additions (nutrients, groundwater) and biology can be achieved, thus increasing long-term predictions of performance. These analyses uniquely provide information that can be used in optimizing the overall performance, efficiency, and stability of the system both in real time as well as over the long-term, as the system design is altered or improved and/or new streams are added.

Lee, Michelle H.; Saurey, Sabrina D.; Lee, Brady D.; Parker, Kent E.; Eisenhauer, Emalee ER; Cordova, Elsa A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

58

Secretary Chu Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Journal |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Journal Secretary Chu Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Journal March 23, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - Today, the Wall Street Journal published an op-ed by U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu on small modular reactors. The op-ed can be viewed on the Wall Street Journal. The text of the op-ed is below: America's New Nuclear Option Small modular reactors will expand the ways we use atomic power. By Steven Chu Wall Street Journal, March 23, 2010 America is on the cusp of reviving its nuclear power industry. Last month President Obama pledged more than $8 billion in conditional loan guarantees for what will be the first U.S. nuclear power plant to break ground in nearly three decades. And with the new authority granted by the president's

59

Secretary Chu's Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Journal  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Secretary Chu's Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Secretary Chu's Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Journal Secretary Chu's Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Journal March 23, 2010 - 12:24pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - Today, the Wall Street Journal published an op-ed by U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu on small modular reactors. The op-ed can be found here. The text of the op-ed is below: Small modular reactors will expand the ways we use atomic power. By Steven Chu, Secretary of Energy Wall Street Journal America is on the cusp of reviving its nuclear power industry. Last month President Obama pledged more than $8 billion in conditional loan guarantees for what will be the first U.S. nuclear power plant to break ground in nearly three decades. And with the new authority granted by the president's

60

Secretary Chu's Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Journal  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Secretary Chu's Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Secretary Chu's Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Journal Secretary Chu's Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Journal March 23, 2010 - 12:24pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - Today, the Wall Street Journal published an op-ed by U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu on small modular reactors. The op-ed can be found here. The text of the op-ed is below: Small modular reactors will expand the ways we use atomic power. By Steven Chu, Secretary of Energy Wall Street Journal America is on the cusp of reviving its nuclear power industry. Last month President Obama pledged more than $8 billion in conditional loan guarantees for what will be the first U.S. nuclear power plant to break ground in nearly three decades. And with the new authority granted by the president's

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61

Stress Analysis of Coated Particle Fuel in the Deep-Burn Pebble Bed Reactor Design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High fuel temperatures and resulting fuel particle coating stresses can be expected in a Pu and minor actinide fueled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (400 MWth) design as compared to the ’standard’ UO2 fueled core. The high discharge burnup aimed for in this Deep-Burn design results in increased power and temperature peaking in the pebble bed near the inner and outer reflector. Furthermore, the pebble power in a multi-pass in-core pebble recycling scheme is relatively high for pebbles that make their first core pass. This might result in an increase of the mechanical failure of the coatings, which serve as the containment of radioactive fission products in the PBMR design. To investigate the integrity of the particle fuel coatings as a function of the irradiation time (i.e. burnup), core position and during a Loss Of Forced Cooling (LOFC) incident the PArticle STress Analysis code (PASTA) has been coupled to the PEBBED code for neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and depletion analysis of the core. Two deep burn fuel types (Pu with or without initial MA fuel content) have been investigated with the new code system for normal and transient conditions including the effect of the statistical variation of thickness of the coating layers.

B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Energy Department Announces New Investment in U.S. Small Modular Reactor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy Department Announces New Investment in U.S. Small Modular Reactor Design and Commercialization Department to Issue Follow-on Solicitation on SMR Technology Innovation WASHINGTON - As part of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above strategy to deploy every available source of American energy, the Energy Department today announced an award to support a new project to design, license and help commercialize small modular reactors (SMR) in the United States. This award follows a funding opportunity announcement in March 2012. The project supported by the award will be led by Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) in partnership with the Tennessee Valley Authority and Bechtel International. In addition, the Department announced plans to issue a follow-on solicitation open to other companies and manufacturers, focused on furthering small modular reactor efficiency, operations and design.

63

Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOROF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR F Iis fed into a hydro-gasifier reactor. One such process was

Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Optimal control of a time-varying catalytic fixed bed reactor with catalyst deactivation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper deals with the linear-quadratic control problem for a time-varying partial differential equation model of a catalytic fixed-bed reactor. The classical Riccati equation approach, for time-varying infinite-dimensional systems, is extended to ... Keywords: catalyst deactivation, fixed bed reactor, infinite dimensional time-varying system, linear quadratic optimal control

L. Mohammadi; I. Aksikas; J. F. Forbes

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

SASSI Methodology-Based Sensitivity Studies for Deeply Embedded Structures, Such As Small Modular Reactors (SMRs)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

SASSI Methodology-Based Sensitivity Studies for Deeply Embedded Structures, Such As Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) Dr. Dan M. Ghiocel Ghiocel Predictive Technologies Inc. http://www.ghiocel-tech.com 2014 DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Meeting Germantown, MD, October 21-22, 2014

66

Small Modular Reactor Report (SEAB) | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reactors Presentation to Secretary of Energy Advisory Board - Deputy Assistant Secretary John Kelly A Strategic Framework for SMR Deployment Meeting Materials: December 9, 2010...

67

A novel reactor configuration for packed bed chemical-looping combustion of syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study reports on the application of chemical looping combustion (CLC) in pressurized packed bed reactors using syngas as a fuel. High pressure operation of CLC in packed bed has a different set of challenges in terms of material properties, cycle and reactor design compared to fluidized bed operation. However, high pressure operation allows the use of inherently more efficient power cycles than low pressure fluidized bed solutions. This paper quantifies the challenges in high pressure operation and introduces a novel reactor concept with which those challenges can be addressed. Continuous cyclic operation of a packed bed CLC system is simulated in a 1D numerical reactor model. Importantly, it is demonstrated that the temperature profiles that can occur in a packed bed reactor as a result of the different process steps do not accumulate, and have a negligible effect on the overall performance of the system. Moreover, it has been shown that an even higher energy efficiency can be achieved by feeding the syngas from the opposite direction during the reduction step (i.e. countercurrent operation). Unfortunately, in this configuration mode, more severe temperature fluctuations occur in the reactor exhaust, which is disadvantageous for the operation of a downstream gas turbine. Finally, a novel reactor configuration is introduced in which the desired temperature rise for obtained hot pressured air suitable for a gas turbine is obtained by carrying out the process with two packed bed reactor in series (two-stage CLC). This is shown to be a good alternative to the single bed configuration, and has the added advantage of decreasing the demands on both the oxygen carrier and the reactor materials and design specification.

H.P. Hamers; F. Gallucci; P.D. Cobden; E. Kimball; M. van Sint Annaland

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Final report on the use of the modular-logic-nomenclature approach for the N-reactor probabilistic risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The N-Reactor probabilistic risk assessment adaption of the modular logic approach for fault tree modeling has led to the update of the master logic diagram (MLD) nomenclature to conform with a standard modular-logic-model-nomeclature format. This report describes the MLD nomenclature system and provides a listing of the updated MLD label codes, along with the original codes.

NONE

1986-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

69

Start-up of a thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor with mesophilic granular sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fast start-up of thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors was achieved at ... 55 and 64° C, using mesophilic granular sludge as inoculum and fatty acid mixtures as ... temperature optima for aceto...

Jules B. van Lier; Katja C. F. Grolle…

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Proposed Hampton Roads Area Sites for a Possible Small Modular Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this research project is to use the OR-SAGE tool to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) in evaluating future electrical generation deployment options for small modular reactors (SMRs) in areas with significant energy demand from the federal sector. Deployment of SMRs in zones with high federal energy use can provide a means of meeting federal clean energy goals.

Belles, R. J. [ORNL; Omitaomu, O. A. [ORNL

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Reference modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Plant: Concept description report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a summary description of the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) concept and interim results of assessments of costs, safety, constructibility, operability, maintainability, and availability. Conceptual design of this concept was initiated in October 1985 and is scheduled for completion in 1987. Participating industrial contractors are Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC), GA Technologies, Inc. (GA), General Electric Co. (GE), and Combustion Engineering, Inc. (C-E).

Not Available

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor plant design duty cycle. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document defines the Plant Design Duty Cycle (PCDC) for the Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The duty cycle is a set of events and their design number of occurrences over the life of the plant for which the MHTGR plant shall be designed to ensure that the plant meets all the top-level requirements. The duty cycle is representative of the types of events to be expected in multiple reactor module-turbine plant configurations of the MHTGR. A synopsis of each PDDC event is presented to provide an overview of the plant response and consequence. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Chan, T.

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part I: Pebble Bed Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Deep-Burn (DB) concept [ ] focuses on the destruction of transuranic nuclides from used light water reactor (LWR) fuel. These transuranic nuclides are incorporated into tri-isotopic (TRISO) coated fuel particles and used in gas-cooled reactors with the aim of a fractional fuel burnup of 60 to 70% in fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). This high performance is expected through the use of multiple recirculation passes of the fuel in pebble form without any physical or chemical changes between passes. In particular, the concept does not call for reprocessing of the fuel between passes. In principle, the DB pebble bed concept employs the same reactor designs as the presently envisioned low-enriched uranium core designs, such as the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR-400) [ ]. Although it has been shown in the previous Fiscal Year (FY) (2009) that a PuO2 fueled pebble bed reactor concept is viable, achieving a high fuel burnup while remaining within safety-imposed prescribed operational limits for fuel temperature, power peaking, and temperature reactivity feedback coefficients for the entire temperature range, is challenging. The presence of the isotopes 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Pu that have resonances in the thermal energy range significantly modifies the neutron thermal energy spectrum as compared to a standard, UO2-fueled core. Therefore, the DB pebble bed core exhibits a relatively hard neutron energy spectrum. However, regions within the pebble bed that are near the graphite reflectors experience a locally softer spectrum. This can lead to power and temperature peaking in these regions. Furthermore, a shift of the thermal energy spectrum with increasing temperature can lead to increased absorption in the resonances of the fissile Pu isotopes. This can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator under certain operating conditions. Regarding the coated particle performance, the FY 2009 investigations showed that no significant failure is to be expected for the reference fuel particle during normal operation. It was found, however, that the sensitivity of the coating stress to the CO production in the kernel was large. The CO production is expected to be higher in DB fuel than in UO2 fuel, but its exact level has a high uncertainty. Furthermore, in the fuel performance analysis transient conditions were not yet taken into account. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge burnup level, while retaining its inherent safety characteristics. Using generic pebble bed reactor cores, this task will perform physics calculations to evaluate the capabilities of the pebble bed reactor to perform utilization and destruction of LWR used-fuel transuranics. The task will use established benchmarked models, and will introduce modeling advancements appropriate to the nature of the fuel considered (high transuranic [TRU] content and high burn-up). Accomplishments of this work include: •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Uranium. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Modified Open Cycle Components. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Americium targets.

Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Coolant flows in prismatic fuel and particle bed nuclear reactors for rocket applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Semiempirical expressions for pressure losses in prismatic and particle bed reactors for nuclear propulsion are combined with the geometric characteristics of core configurations and coolant flow patterns. The results are used to illustrate a limitation on the coolant velocity and to develop a unified approach to a quantitative comparison of merits and demerits of different reactor core concepts intended for space applications.

Bohachevsky, I.O. (Rocketdyne Division FA44, Rockwell International Corporation, 6633 Canoga Avenue, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States))

1993-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

75

Small modular reactors and the future of nuclear power in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Small modular reactors are the latest “new” technology that nuclear advocates tout as the game changer that will overcome previous economic failures of nuclear power. The debate over \\{SMRs\\} has been particularly intense because of the rapid failure of large “nuclear renaissance” reactors in market economies, the urgent need to address climate change, and the dramatic success of alternative, decentralized resources in lowering costs and increasing deployment. This paper assesses the prospects for SMR technology from three perspectives: the implications of the history of cost escalation in nuclear reactor construction for learning, economies of scale and other process that SMR advocates claim will lower cost; the challenges SMR technology faces in terms of high costs resulting from lost economies of scale, long lead time needed to develop a new design, the size of the task to create assembly lines for modular reactors and intense concern about safety; and the cost and other characteristics – e.g. scalability, speed to market, flexibility, etc. – of available alternatives compared SMR technology. The paper concludes that the decision of the major vendors (Westinghouse and B&W) to dramatically reduce SMR development efforts reflects the severe disadvantages that SMR technology faces in the next several decades.

Mark Cooper

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor for Low Cost Bulk Production of Nanomaterials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

INL developed a bench scale modular hybrid plasma system for gas phase nanomaterials synthesis. The system was being optimized for WO3 nanoparticles production and scale model projection to a 300 kW pilot system. During the course of technology development many modifications had been done to the system to resolve technical issues that had surfaced and also to improve the performance. All project tasks had been completed except 2 optimization subtasks. These 2 subtasks, a 4-hour and an 8-hour continuous powder production runs at 1 lb/hr powder feeding rate, were unable to complete due to technical issues developed with the reactor system. The 4-hour run had been attempted twice and both times the run was terminated prematurely. The modular electrode for the plasma system was significantly redesigned to address the technical issues. Fabrication of the redesigned modular electrodes and additional components had been completed at the end of the project life. However, not enough resource was available to perform tests to evaluate the performance of the new modifications. More development work would be needed to resolve these problems prior to scaling. The technology demonstrated a surprising capability of synthesizing a single phase of meta-stable delta-Al2O3 from pure alpha-phase large Al2O3 powder. The formation of delta-Al2O3 was surprising because this phase is meta-stable and only formed between 973-1073 K, and delta-Al2O3 is very difficult to synthesize as a single phase. Besides the specific temperature window to form this phase, this meta-stable phase may have been stabilized by nanoparticle size formed in a high temperature plasma process. This technology may possess the capability to produce unusual meta-stable nanophase materials that would be otherwise difficult to produce by conventional methods. A 300 kW INL modular hybrid plasma pilot scale model reactor had been projected using the experimental data from PPG Industries 300 kW hot wall plasma reactor. The projected size of the INL 300 kW pilot model reactor would be about 15% that of the PPG 300 kW hot wall plasma reactor. Including the safety net factor the projected INL pilot reactor size would be 25-30% of the PPG 300 kW hot wall plasma pilot reactor. Due to the modularity of the INL plasma reactor and the energy cascading effect from the upstream plasma to the downstream plasma the energy utilization is more efficient in material processing. It is envisioning that the material through put range for the INL pilot reactor would be comparable to the PPG 300 kW pilot reactor but the energy consumption would be lower. The INL hybrid plasma technology is rather close to being optimized for scaling to a pilot system. More near term development work is still needed to complete the process optimization before pilot scaling.

Peter C. Kong

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. Modular HTGR systems design and cost summary. [Methane reforming; steam cycle-cogeneration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a summary description of the preconceptual design and energy product costs of the modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). The reactor system was studied for two applications: (1) reforming of methane to produce synthesis gas and (2) steam cycle/cogeneration to produce process steam and electricity.

Not Available

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Helium circulator design considerations for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts are in progress to develop a standard modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) plant that is amenable to design certification and serial production. The MHTGR reference design, based on a steam cycle power conversion system, utilizes a 350 MW(t) annular reactor core with prismatic fuel elements. Flexibility in power rating is afforded by utilizing a multiplicity of the standard module. The circulator, which is an electric motor-driven helium compressor, is a key component in the primary system of the nuclear plant, since it facilitates thermal energy transfer from the reactor core to the steam generator; and, hence, to the external turbo-generator set. This paper highlights the helium circulator design considerations for the reference MHTGR plant and includes a discussion on the major features of the turbomachine concept, operational characteristics, and the technology base that exists in the U.S.

McDonald, C.F.; Nichols, M.K.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Helium circulator design considerations for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts are in progress to develop a standard modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) plant that is amenable to design certification and serial production. The MHTGR reference design, based on a steam cycle power conversion system, utilizes a 350 MW(t) annular reactor core with prismatic fuel elements. Flexibility in power rating is afforded by utilizing a multiplicity of the standard module. The circulator, which is an electric motor-driven helium compressor, is a key component in the primary system of the nuclear plant, since it facilitates thermal energy transfer from the reactor core to the steam generator; and, hence, to the external turbo-generator set. This paper highlights the helium circulator design considerations for the reference MHTGR plant and includes a discussion on the major features of the turbomachine concept, operational characteristics, and the technology base that exists in the US.

McDonald, C.F.; Nichols, M.K.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Initial Design of a Dual Fluidized Bed Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from a steam hydro gasification and reforming process.study on biomass Air-steam gasification in a fluidized bed.limestone calcination on the gasification processes in a BFB

Yun, Minyoung

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Initial Design of a Dual Fluidized Bed Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fluidized bed gaisifers (CFB) (Figure 1.6) 1.3.1. Bubblingbed gasifiers (BFB and CFB) have great features for SH.employed for the SHR design. CFB enables a circulation of

Yun, Minyoung

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Steam Gasification of Cellulose with Cobalt Catalysts in a Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic performance of Co/MgO catalysts for the treatment of tar derived from cellulose steam gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier of 22 mm i.d. and 500 mm height was investigated by means of two different methods:? hot gas cleaning in a fixed bed reactor after the fluidized bed gasifier (secondary method) and treatment inside the gasifier with catalyst as a fluidizing medium (primary method). ... From this perspective, developing a more effective catalyst is essential for scaling down the plant size while still facilitating high and stable catalytic performance. ... At 720-760°, space-times 0.10-0.20 s, catalyst sizes <1.0 ...

Kazuhiko Tasaka; Takeshi Furusawa; Atsushi Tsutsumi

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

83

Simulation of petcoke gasification in slagging moving bed reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mathematical model for simulation of moving bed petcoke gasifiers was developed. The model introduces a new feed characterization method, gas-phase resistance and volatilization models. The model is validated using reported data for a slagging gasifier. Effect of feed oxygen-to-coke and steam-to-coke ratios and feed coke rates on gasification performance was examined. Slagging zone moving bed gasifier operation with very high petcoke fluxes of over 4000 kg/m2/h was possible with high petcoke conversion. Peak gas temperatures exceeded 1500 °C. Fluxes higher than 5000 kg/m2/h are limited by an approach to fluidization of small particles in the combustion zone. The moving bed gasifier performance was found superior to performance of an entrained flow gasifier (EFG) with respect to energy efficiency and oxygen consumption.

Soumitro Nagpal; T.K. Sarkar; P.K. Sen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Concept development of rotating bed chemical looping combustion reactor:.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this research a new rotary chemical looping combustion (CLC) reactor was developed which is suitable for larger scales and solves some of the issues… (more)

Hermans, C.W.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

A fixed-bed reactor modeling study on the methanation of CO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The methanation of carbon dioxide has gained renewed interest during the last years as a possible technology to synthesize a feasible chemical energy carrier. This modeling study aims at a basic understanding of the aspects relevant for designing an externally cooled fixed-bed reactor for the methanation of a pure, stoichiometric feed gas. It is shown that the reaction rates and the exothermicity (?H° = ?165 kJ/mol) prevent a fixed-bed reactor of technical dimensions to be operated at high conversions without runaway of the reactor. The model predictions of differently detailed pseudo-homogeneous reactor models and a heterogeneous reactor model where the intraparticle transport of mass is described according to a dusty-gas approach are compared to assess the needed level of detail in terms of modeling the heat transfer, fluid flow characteristics and transport resistances on the pellet scale. Under specific conditions, intraparticle mass transfer and external heat transfer need to be considered for describing the temperature and concentration profiles adequately. The study is completed by modeling a fixed-bed membrane reactor as an example of a structured reactor that offers improved temperature control by separated and controlled feeding of hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

David Schlereth; Olaf Hinrichsen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

The gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR), high efficiency, cost competitive, nuclear energy for the next century  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is the result of coupling the evolution of a small passively safe reactor with key technology developments in the US during the last decade: large industrial gas turbines, large active magnetic bearings, and compact, highly effective plate-fin heat exchangers. The GT-MHR is the only reactor concept which provides a step increase in economic performance combined with increased safety. This is accomplished through its unique utilization of the Brayton cycle to produce electricity directly with the high temperature helium primary coolant from the reactor directly driving the gas turbine electrical generator. This cannot be accomplished with another reactor concept. It retains the high levels of passive safety and the standardized modular design of the steam cycle MHTGR, while showing promise for a significant reduction in power generating costs by increasing plant net efficiency to a remarkable 47%.

Zgliczynski, J.B.; Silady, F.A.; Neylan, A.J.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Pressurized fluidized bed reactor and a method of operating the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

Isaksson, J.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

89

Study of the regeneration stage of the MTG process in a pseudoadiabatic fixed bed reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The regeneration stage of a catalyst (prepared based on an HZSM-5 zeolite) has been studied in the process of transformation of methanol into hydrocarbons in a fixed bed reactor. The simulation of the operation requires knowledge of the longitudinal profile of coke content in the reactor at the end of the reaction stage. Longitudinal profiles of temperature, coke content and activity during the regeneration are calculated by solving the energy conservation equation in the reactor together with the kinetic equation for coke combustion and with the kinetic equation for reactivation (activity–coke content relationship). The results of the simulation have been experimentally verified in a laboratory unit provided with a pseudoadiabatic fixed bed reactor.

Andrés T Aguayo; Ana G Gayubo; Javier Ereña; Raquel Vivanco; Javier Bilbao

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Numerical Study on Crossflow Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger for Advanced Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various fluids such as water, gases (helium), molten salts (FLiNaK, FLiBe) and liquid metal (sodium) are used as a coolant of advanced small modular reactors (SMRs). The printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) has been adopted as the intermediate and/or secondary heat exchanger of SMR systems because this heat exchanger is compact and effective. The size and cost of PCHE can be changed by the coolant type of each SMR. In this study, the crossflow PCHE analysis code for advanced small modular reactor has been developed for the thermal design and cost estimation of the heat exchanger. The analytical solution of single pass, both unmixed fluids crossflow heat exchanger model was employed to calculate a two dimensional temperature profile of a crossflow PCHE. The analytical solution of crossflow heat exchanger was simply implemented by using built in function of the MATLAB program. The effect of fluid property uncertainty on the calculation results was evaluated. In addition, the effect of heat transfer correlations on the calculated temperature profile was analyzed by taking into account possible combinations of primary and secondary coolants in the SMR systems. Size and cost of heat exchanger were evaluated for the given temperature requirement of each SMR.

Su-Jong Yoon [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Piyush Sabharwall [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Eung-Soo Kim [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

The effect of velocity and porosity profiles on the performance of fixed bed reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reactors. The reaction systems chosen offered a variety of reaction situations, including highly exothermic reactions, multiple and complex reaction schemes. A comparison of the calculated results by the two dimensional plug flow mcdel and the results... to be independent of axial direction in a bed packed with uniform size cylindrical or spherical particles. Martin(1978), using this data proposed a model for the porosity profile. Catalytic reactors are usually packed by uniform size spherical or cylindrical...

Amin, Kaushik

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

92

Moving bed reactor for solar thermochemical fuel production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Reactors and methods for solar thermochemical reactions are disclosed. Embodiments of reactors include at least two distinct reactor chambers between which there is at least a pressure differential. In embodiments, reactive particles are exchanged between chambers during a reaction cycle to thermally reduce the particles at first conditions and oxidize the particles at second conditions to produce chemical work from heat. In embodiments, chambers of a reactor are coupled to a heat exchanger to pre-heat the reactive particles prior to direct exposure to thermal energy with heat transferred from reduced reactive particles as the particles are oppositely conveyed between the thermal reduction chamber and the fuel production chamber. In an embodiment, particle conveyance is in part provided by an elevator which may further function as a heat exchanger.

Ermanoski, Ivan

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

93

MCNP4B modeling of pebble-bed reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The applicability of the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B to the neutronic modeling of pebblebed reactors was investigated. A modeling methodology was developed based on an analysis of critical experiments carried out at the ...

Lebenhaft, Julian R. (Julian Robert), 1954-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

95

Coke deposits formation and products selectivities for the MTG process in a fluidized bed reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments were carried out in a demonstrative scale fluidized bed reactor for methanol conversion to gasoline (MTG). We investigated the kinetics of the coke deposits formation and their influence on the products selectivities. New reaction indexes were advanced for on line monitoring of the catalyst activity.

Grigore Pop; Gavril Musca; Eleonora Chirila; Rodica Boeru; Gheorghe Niculae; Natalia Natu; Gheorghe Ignatescu; Sorin Straja

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Application of a moving bed biofilm reactor for tertiary ammonia treatment in high temperature industrial wastewater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

industrial wastewater Jennifer L. Shore a,b , William S. M'Coy b , Claudia K. Gunsch a , Marc A. Deshusses a 2012 Available online 17 February 2012 Keywords: Moving bed biofilm reactor Industrial wastewater and industrial wastewater. No biotreatment was observed at 45 °C, although effective nitrification was rapidly

97

Development of the Mathematics of Learning Curve Models for Evaluating Small Modular Reactor Economics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cost of nuclear power is a straightforward yet complicated topic. It is straightforward in that the cost of nuclear power is a function of the cost to build the nuclear power plant, the cost to operate and maintain it, and the cost to provide fuel for it. It is complicated in that some of those costs are not necessarily known, introducing uncertainty into the analysis. For large light water reactor (LWR)-based nuclear power plants, the uncertainty is mainly contained within the cost of construction. The typical costs of operations and maintenance (O&M), as well as fuel, are well known based on the current fleet of LWRs. However, the last currently operating reactor to come online was Watts Bar 1 in May 1996; thus, the expected construction costs for gigawatt (GW)-class reactors in the United States are based on information nearly two decades old. Extrapolating construction, O&M, and fuel costs from GW-class LWRs to LWR-based small modular reactors (SMRs) introduces even more complication. The per-installed-kilowatt construction costs for SMRs are likely to be higher than those for the GW-class reactors based on the property of the economy of scale. Generally speaking, the economy of scale is the tendency for overall costs to increase slower than the overall production capacity. For power plants, this means that doubling the power production capacity would be expected to cost less than twice as much. Applying this property in the opposite direction, halving the power production capacity would be expected to cost more than half as much. This can potentially make the SMRs less competitive in the electricity market against the GW-class reactors, as well as against other power sources such as natural gas and subsidized renewables. One factor that can potentially aid the SMRs in achieving economic competitiveness is an economy of numbers, as opposed to the economy of scale, associated with learning curves. The basic concept of the learning curve is that the more a new process is repeated, the more efficient the process can be made. Assuming that efficiency directly relates to cost means that the more a new process is repeated successfully and efficiently, the less costly the process can be made. This factor ties directly into the factory fabrication and modularization aspect of the SMR paradigm—manufacturing serial, standardized, identical components for use in nuclear power plants can allow the SMR industry to use the learning curves to predict and optimize deployment costs.

Harrison, T. J. [ORNL

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Method for loading, operating, and unloading a ball-bed nuclear reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a method of operating a ball-bed nuclear reactor with fuel element balls. Some have a fissionable material content different from that of others of the balls. It consists of: initially partly filling a reactor core with fuel balls of sufficient fissionable material content for establishing criticality and a desired level of power production at the completion of the partial filling and then, without any further filling of the reactor cavern, starting reactor operation; thereafter without any removal of fuel balls from the reactor cavern, filling fuel balls continually or in groups at relatively short intervals into the reactor cavern during increasing burning up of the fuel balls already, for compensation of the diminishing fissionable material content of the reactor core constituted by the fuel balls until a final total quantity of filling is reached; after the final filling quantity is reached and burning up has occurred, shutting down the reactor, cooling it off, releasing the pressure in the cavern, and thereafter unloading all the fuel balls from the reactor cavern, unloading being begun when the reactor is shut down and being completed before the reactor is restarted.

Teuchert, E.; Haas, K.A.; Gerwin, H.

1987-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

99

Effects of Levels of Automation for Advanced Small Modular Reactors: Impacts on Performance, Workload, and Situation Awareness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Human-Automation Collaboration (HAC) research effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The DOE AdvSMR program focuses on plant design and management, reduction of capital costs as well as plant operations and maintenance costs (O&M), and factory production costs benefits.

Johanna Oxstrand; Katya Le Blanc

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Process characterization of expanded-bed reactors in series  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A process model describing the performance of a resid hydrotreater has been developed using lumped first-order kinetic equations solved for three back-mixed reactors in series. The model has been tested against pilot-plant and commercial data and found to give a good representation of the measurements.

J.F. Mosby; R.D. Buttke; J.A. Cox; C. Nikolaides

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

A Framework to Expand and Advance Probabilistic Risk Assessment to Support Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the early development of nuclear power plants, researchers and engineers focused on many aspects of plant operation, two of which were getting the newly-found technology to work and minimizing the likelihood of perceived accidents through redundancy and diversity. As time, and our experience, has progressed, the realization of plant operational risk/reliability has entered into the design, operation, and regulation of these plants. But, to date, we have only dabbled at the surface of risk and reliability technologies. For the next generation of small modular reactors (SMRs), it is imperative that these technologies evolve into an accepted, encompassing, validated, and integral part of the plant in order to reduce costs and to demonstrate safe operation. Further, while it is presumed that safety margins are substantial for proposed SMR designs, the depiction and demonstration of these margins needs to be better understood in order to optimize the licensing process.

Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Robert Nourgaliev; Cherie Phelan; Diego Mandelli; Kellie Kvarfordt; Robert Youngblood

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Technical Exchange Meeting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During FY13, the INL developed an advanced SMR PRA framework which has been described in the report Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Technical Framework Specification, INL/EXT-13-28974 (April 2013). In this framework, the various areas are considered: Probabilistic models to provide information specific to advanced SMRs Representation of specific SMR design issues such as having co-located modules and passive safety features Use of modern open-source and readily available analysis methods Internal and external events resulting in impacts to safety All-hazards considerations Methods to support the identification of design vulnerabilities Mechanistic and probabilistic data needs to support modeling and tools In order to describe this framework more fully and obtain feedback on the proposed approaches, the INL hosted a technical exchange meeting during August 2013. This report describes the outcomes of that meeting.

Curtis Smith

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Dual bed reactor for the study of catalytic biomass tars conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dual fixed bed laboratory scale set up has been used to compare the activity of a novel Rh/LaCoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst to that of dolomite, olivine and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, typical catalysts used in fluidized bed biomass gasification, to convert tars produced during biomass devolatilization stage. The experimental apparatus allows the catalyst to be operated under controlled conditions of temperature and with a real gas mixture obtained by the pyrolysis of the biomass carried out in a separate fixed bed reactor operated under a selected and controlled heating up rate. The proposed catalyst exhibits much better performances than conventional catalysts tested. It is able to completely convert tars and also to strongly decrease coke formation due to its good redox properties. (author)

Ammendola, P.; Piriou, B.; Lisi, L.; Ruoppolo, G.; Chirone, R.; Russo, G. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Catalyst deactivation by coking in the MTG process in fixed and fluidized bed reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The validity of a kinetic model for describing the deactivation of a catalyst based on a HZSM5 zeolite has been studied by carrying out reaction in fixed and fluidized bed reactors. The kinetic model takes into account that activity is dependent on the concentration of the lumps of oxygenates, of light olefins and of the remaining products and shows that coke formation capability follows this order. The difference between the deactivation kinetic constants calculated for the fixed and fluidized bed reactors is explained by the effect of the steam produced in the reaction, where coke stripping attenuates deactivation. Future improvements in the deactivation kinetic model must take into account coke stripping by the steam produced in the reaction.

Andrés T. Aguayo; Ana G. Gayubo; JoséM. Ortega; Martin Olazar; Javier Bilbao

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Effects of vapor-liquid equilibrium on wetting efficiency in hydrodesulfurization trickle-bed reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the hydrogen was allowed to flow through the reactor tube. The liquid pump was started and the flow rate measured by monitoring the level in the feed tank. The gas flow rate was measured using a wet test meter installed downstream of the gas/liquid separator...EFFECTS OF VAPOR-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM ON WETTING EFFICIENCY IN HYDRODESULFURIZATION TRICKLE-BED REACTORS A Thesis by ANNA LISA MILLS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Mills, Anna Lisa

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

106

Advanced Core Design And Fuel Management For Pebble-Bed Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for designing and optimizing recirculating pebble-bed reactor cores is presented. At the heart of the method is a new reactor physics computer code, PEBBED, which accurately and efficiently computes the neutronic and material properties of the asymptotic (equilibrium) fuel cycle. This core state is shown to be unique for a given core geometry, power level, discharge burnup, and fuel circulation policy. Fuel circulation in the pebble-bed can be described in terms of a few well?defined parameters and expressed as a recirculation matrix. The implementation of a few heat?transfer relations suitable for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors allows for the rapid estimation of thermal properties critical for safe operation. Thus, modeling and design optimization of a given pebble-bed core can be performed quickly and efficiently via the manipulation of a limited number key parameters. Automation of the optimization process is achieved by manipulation of these parameters using a genetic algorithm. The end result is an economical, passively safe, proliferation-resistant nuclear power plant.

Hans D. Gougar; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; William K. Terry

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Hydordesulfurization of dibenzothiophene using hydrogen generated in situ by the water-gas shift reaction in a trickle bed reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDRODESULFURIZATION OF DIBENZOTHIOPHENE USING HYDROGEN GENERATED IN SITU BY THE WATER ? GAS SHIFT REACTION IN A TRICKLE BED REACTOR A Thesis BRUCE DAVID HOOK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering HYDRODESULFURIZATION OF DIBENZOTHIOPHENE USING HYDROGEN GENERATED IN SITU BY THE WATER ? GAS SHIFT REACTION IN A TRICKLE BED REACTOR A Thesis by BRUCE...

Hook, Bruce David

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

108

Microsoft Word - 20.1 Special Study Reactor Type Comparison_VS...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Heat Source NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission PBMR Pebble Bed Modular Reactor PHP Process Heat Plant PLOFC Pressurized Loss of Forced Cooling QA Quality Assurance R&D Research and...

109

Safety aspects of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is an advanced reactor concept under development through a cooperative program involving the US Government, the nuclear industry and the utilities. The design utilizes the basic high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) features of ceramic fuel, helium coolant, and a graphite moderator. The qualitative top-level safety requirement is that the plant's operation not disturb the normal day-to-day activities of the public. The MHTGR safety response to events challenging the functions relied on to retain radionuclides within the coated fuel particles has been evaluated. A broad range of challenges to core heat removal have been examined which include a loss of helium pressure and a simultaneous loss of forced cooling of the core. The challenges to control of heat generation have considered not only the failure to insert the reactivity control systems, but the withdrawal of control rods. Finally, challenges to control chemical attack of the ceramic coated fuel have been considered, including catastrophic failure of the steam generator allowing water ingress or of the pressure vessels allowing air ingress. The plant's response to these extreme challenges is not dependent on operator action and the events considered encompass conceivable operator errors. In the same vein, reliance on radionuclide retention within the full particle and on passive features to perform a few key functions to maintain the fuel within acceptable conditions also reduced susceptibility to external events, site-specific events, and to acts of sabotage and terrorism. 4 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

Silady, F.A.; Millunzi, A.C.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor balance of plant and supporting systems design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the second in a series of four papers which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. It focuses, in particular, upon the supporting systems and the balance of plant (BOP) designs of the Westinghouse SMR. Several Westinghouse SMR systems are classified as safety, and are critical to the safe operation of the Westinghouse SMR. These include the protection and monitoring system (PMS), the passive core cooling system (PXS), and the spent fuel cooling system (SFS) including pools, valves, and piping. The Westinghouse SMR safety related systems include the instrumentation and controls (I and C) as well as redundant and physically separated safety trains with batteries, electrical systems, and switch gears. Several other incorporated systems are non-safety related, but provide functions for plant operations including defense-in-depth functions. These include the chemical volume control system (CVS), heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) systems, component cooling water system (CCS), normal residual heat removal system (RNS) and service water system (SWS). The integrated performance of the safety-related and non-safety related systems ensures the safe and efficient operation of the Westinghouse SMR through various conditions and transients. The turbine island consists of the turbine, electric generator, feedwater and steam systems, moisture separation systems, and the condensers. The BOP is designed to minimize assembly time, shipping challenges, and on-site testing requirements for all structures, systems, and components. (authors)

Memmott, M. J.; Stansbury, C.; Taylor, C. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 600 Cranberry Woods Drive, Cranberry Twp. PA 16066 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Syngas methanation for substitute natural gas over Ni–Mg/Al2O3 catalyst in fixed and fluidized bed reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A comparative study was conducted for laboratory syngas methanation over a self-made Ni–Mg/Al2O3 catalyst to demonstrate the technical advantages of fluidized bed over fixed bed reactor. At different reaction temperatures, gas velocities and pressures, the CO conversion and selectivity to CH4 in fluidized bed were shown to be higher than in fixed bed, and much closer to the thermodynamic equilibriums. The spent catalysts from fluidized bed methanation had distinctively low and easy-oxidizing deposited carbon in comparison with that from fixed bed. The results were attributed to the bigger effective catalytic surface, better heat and mass transfer in fluidized bed reactor.

Jiao Liu; Wenlong Shen; Dianmiao Cui; Jian Yu; Fabing Su; Guangwen Xu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Small Modular Reactor: First of a Kind (FOAK) and Nth of a Kind (NOAK) Economic Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small modular reactors (SMRs) refer to any reactor design in which the electricity generated is less than 300 MWe. Often medium sized reactors with power less than 700 MWe are also grouped into this category. Internationally, the development of a variety of designs for SMRs is booming with many designs approaching maturity and even in or nearing the licensing stage. It is for this reason that a generalized yet comprehensive economic model for first of a kind (FOAK) through nth of a kind (NOAK) SMRs based upon rated power, plant configuration, and the fiscal environment was developed. In the model, a particular project’s feasibility is assessed with regards to market conditions and by commonly utilized capital budgeting techniques, such as the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), Payback, and more importantly, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for comparison to other energy production technologies. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of changing debt, equity, interest rate, and conditions on the LCOE. The economic model is primarily applied to the near future water cooled SMR designs in the United States. Other gas cooled and liquid metal cooled SMR designs have been briefly outlined in terms of how the economic model would change. FOAK and NOAK SMR costs were determined for a site containing seven 180 MWe water cooled SMRs and compared to a site containing one 1260 MWe reactor. With an equal share of debt and equity and a 10% cost of debt and equity, the LCOE was determined to be $79 $84/MWh and $80/MWh for the SMR and large reactor sites, respectively. With a cost of equity of 15%, the SMR LCOE increased substantially to $103 $109/MWh. Finally, an increase in the equity share to 70% at the 15% cost of equity resulted in an even higher LCOE, demonstrating the large variation in results due to financial and market factors. The NPV and IRR both decreased with increasing LCOE. Unless the price of electricity increases along with the LCOE, the projects may become unprofitable. This is the case at the LCOE of $103 $109/MW, in which the NPV became negative. The IRR increased with increasing electricity price. Three cases, electric only base, storage—compressed air energy storage or pumped hydro, and hydrogen production, were performed incorporating SMRs into a nuclear wind natural gas hybrid energy system for the New York West Central region. The operational costs for three cases were calculated as $27/MWh, $25/MWh, and $28/MWh, respectively. A 3% increase in profits was demonstrated for the storage case over the electric only base case.

Lauren M. Boldon; Piyush Sabharwall

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Representative Source Terms and the Influence of Reactor Attributes on Functional Containment in Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs) offer a high degree of passive safety. The low power density of the reactor and the high heat capacity of the graphite core result in slow transients that do not challenge the integrity of the robust TRISO fuel. Another benefit of this fuel form and the surrounding graphite is their superior ability to retain fission products under all anticipated normal and off-normal conditions, which limits reactor accident source terms to very low values. In this paper, we develop estimates of the source term for a generic MHTGR to illustrate the performance of the radionuclide barriers that comprise the MHTGR functional containment. We also examine the influence of initial fuel quality, fuel performance/failure, reactor outlet temperature, and retention outside of the reactor core on the resultant source term to the environment.

D. A. Petti; Hans Gougar; Dick Hobbins; Pete Lowry

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Dynamic analysis and application of fuel elements pneumatic transportation in a pebble bed reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Almost 10,000 spherical fuel elements are transported pneumatically one by one in the pipeline outside the core of a pebble bed reactor every day. Any failure in the transportation will lead to the shutdown of the reactor, even safety accidents. In order to ensure a stable and reliable transportation, it's of great importance to analyze the motion and force condition of the fuel element. In this paper, we focus on the dynamic analysis of the pneumatic transportation of the fuel element and derive kinetic equations. Then we introduce the design of the transportation pipeline. On this basis we calculate some important data such as the velocity of the fuel element, the force between the fuel element and the pipeline and the efficiency of the pneumatic transportation. Then we analyze these results and provide some suggestions for the design of the pipeline. The experiment was carried out on an experimental platform. The velocities of the fuel elements were measured. The experimental results were consistent with and validated the theoretical analysis. The research may offer the basis for the design of the transportation pipeline and the optimization of the fuel elements transportation in a pebble bed reactor.

Hongbing Liu; Dong Du; Zandong Han; Yirong Zou; Jiluan Pan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Comparative evaluation of pebble-bed and prismatic fueled high-temperature gas-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comparative evaluation has been performed of the HTGR and the Federal Republic of Germany's Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) for potential commercial applications in the US. The evaluation considered two reactor sizes (1000 and 3000 MW(t)) and three process applications (steam cycle, direct cycle, and process heat, with outlet coolant temperatures of 750, 850, and 950/sup 0/C, respectively). The primary criterion for the comparison was the levelized (15-year) cost of producing electricity or process heat. Emphasis was placed on the cost impact of differences between the prismatic-type HTGR core, which requires periodic refuelings during reactor shutdowns, and the pebble bed PBR core, which is refueled continuously during reactor operations. Detailed studies of key technical issues using reference HTGR and PBR designs revealed that two cost components contributing to the levelized power costs are higher for the PBR: capital costs and operation and maintenance costs. A third cost component, associated with nonavailability penalties, tended to be higher for the PBR except for the process heat application, for which there is a large uncertainty in the HTGR nonavailability penalty at the 950/sup 0/C outlet coolant temperature. A fourth cost component, fuel cycle costs, is lower for the PBR, but not sufficiently lower to offset the capital cost component. Thus the HTGR appears to be slightly superior to the PBR in economic performance. Because of the advanced development of the HTGR concept, large HTGRs could also be commercialized in the US with lower R and D costs and shorter lead times than could large PBRs. It is recommended that the US gas-cooled thermal reactor program continue giving primary support to the HTGR, while also maintaining its cooperative PBR program with FRG.

Kasten, P.R.; Bartine, D.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Spent Isopropanol Solution as Possible Liquid Fuel for Moving Bed Reactor in Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spent Isopropanol Solution as Possible Liquid Fuel for Moving Bed Reactor in Chemical Looping Combustion ... The fuels, such as natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, and biomass combusted by CLC are frequently studied by various researchers(17, 26-31) and compared in the previous studies;(20, 33) however, only few studies on liquid fuel combustion are reported. ... Ishida, M.; Takeshita, K.; Susuki, K.; Ohba, T..Application of Fe2O3-Al2O3 composite particles as solid looping material of the chemical loop combustor Energy Fuels 2005, 19, 2514– 2518 ...

Ping-Chin Chiu; Young Ku; Hsuan-Chih Wu; Yu-Lin Kuo; Yao-Hsuan Tseng

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

INEEL/EXT-01-01623 MODULAR PEBBLE-BED REACTOR PROJECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Energy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management Under DOE Idaho Operations Office Contract DE Product Chemistry Module 17 2.2 Studies at MIT 20 2.2.1 In-Core Environment: Simulation of Core Fueling 21 3.1.2.4 Enhancements to the Geometric Modeling Capability 31 3.1.2.5 Ex-Core Radionuclide Decay 32 3

118

Modeling of fixed bed methanation reactor for syngas production: Operating window and performance characteristics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present work focuses on the development of phenomenological model for the bio-syngas to methane conversion process. One dimensional heterogeneous and pseudo-homogeneous model were simulated for a typical pilot plant scale fixed bed methanator processing 55 mol/h of CO (total molar flow rate of 310 mol/h) with inlet composition of H2/CO = 3, CO2/CO = 1, CH4/CO = 0.5 at 550 K and 1 atm. Performance of the fixed bed reactor at different operating conditions like CO2/CO ratio, H2/CO ratio, effect of H2O in the feed was studied. It was found that for feeds that were not pre-enriched with hydrogen, presence of water and water gas shift activity was found to decrease the catalyst inventory substantially. CO2 in the inlet feed stream would help to decrease the temperature due to dilution effect and more importantly, can be chosen to maximize methane yield per mole of CO converted. Further, the model was simulated to predict the performance characteristics of reactor with a mixture containing two types of catalyst, one of them being specifically added to increase H2/CO ratio in feed through water gas shift reaction. The work also laid the importance of incorporating pore diffusion and external mass transfer locally in the computation of actual catalyst inventory and reactor volume. The work was useful in selection of operating window and assessing the various viable options for an industrial reactor. The model developed will serve in selection of operability window for commercialization of substitute natural gas synthesis (SNG) process.

Naren Rajan Parlikkad; Stéphane Chambrey; Pascal Fongarland; Nouria Fatah; Andrei Khodakov; Sandra Capela; Olivier Guerrini

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Novel, Magnetically Fluidized-Bed Reactor Development for the Looping Process: Coal to Hydrogen Production Research and Development  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Novel, Magnetically Fluidized-Bed Novel, Magnetically Fluidized-Bed Reactor Development for the Looping Process: Coal to Hydrogen Production Research and Development Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is committed to improving methods for co-producing power and chemicals, fuels, and hydrogen (H2). Gasification is a process by which fuels such as coal can be used to produce synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of H2, carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon

120

Analysis of Granular Flow in a Pebble-Bed Nuclear Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pebble-bed nuclear reactor technology, which is currently being revived around the world, raises fundamental questions about dense granular flow in silos. A typical reactor core is composed of graphite fuel pebbles, which drain very slowly in a continuous refueling process. Pebble flow is poorly understood and not easily accessible to experiments, and yet it has a major impact on reactor physics. To address this problem, we perform full-scale, discrete-element simulations in realistic geometries, with up to 440,000 frictional, viscoelastic 6cm-diameter spheres draining in a cylindrical vessel of diameter 3.5m and height 10m with bottom funnels angled at 30 degrees or 60 degrees. We also simulate a bidisperse core with a dynamic central column of smaller graphite moderator pebbles and show that little mixing occurs down to a 1:2 diameter ratio. We analyze the mean velocity, diffusion and mixing, local ordering and porosity (from Voronoi volumes), the residence-time distribution, and the effects of wall friction and discuss implications for reactor design and the basic physics of granular flow.

Chris H. Rycroft; Gary S. Grest; James W. Landry; Martin Z. Bazant

2006-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

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121

Analysis of granular flow in a pebble-bed nuclear reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pebble-bed nuclear reactor technology, which is currently being revived around the world, raises fundamental questions about dense granular flow in silos. A typical reactor core is composed of graphite fuel pebbles, which drain very slowly in a continuous refueling process. Pebble flow is poorly understood and not easily accessible to experiments, and yet it has a major impact on reactor physics. To address this problem, we perform full-scale, discrete-element simulations in realistic geometries, with up to 440000 frictional, viscoelastic 6-cm-diam spheres draining in a cylindrical vessel of diameter 3.5m and height 10m with bottom funnels angled at 30° or 60°. We also simulate a bidisperse core with a dynamic central column of smaller graphite moderator pebbles and show that little mixing occurs down to a 1:2 diameter ratio. We analyze the mean velocity, diffusion and mixing, local ordering and porosity (from Voronoi volumes), the residence-time distribution, and the effects of wall friction and discuss implications for reactor design and the basic physics of granular flow.

Chris H. Rycroft; Gary S. Grest; James W. Landry; Martin Z. Bazant

2006-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

122

Scaledown of three-phase ebullieted bed reactors for bitumen hydrotreating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The length of a commercial reactor, in three-phase ebullieted bed processes with pelleted catalysts, for the processing of heavy oils, bitumen and bitumen-derived liquids are long due to the requirement oflow space velocities. The reactor length, for laboratory scale studies of such processes, can be reduced by reducing the superficial liquid velocity. Consequently, the catalyst size has to be reduced to achievecirculation within the reactor. It is important to ensure that, with these changes, the values of the phase holdups are maintained the same in the commercial and the laboratory units. Through extensive similitude studies, similarity criteria that would ensure identical holdups in the commercial and laboratory units were identified, which required the equality of six dimensionless numbers. These criteria were validated using the generalized wake model. It was found that it was impractical to establish all the parameters in the set of dimensionless numbers at the desired values. Therefore, a method to achieve similarity by varying a minimum number of parameters, such as liquid and gas velocities and particle size, was developed using the generalized wake model. This resulted in a set of two conditions, which when satisfied, yielded practically equal holdups in the two reactors.

Deshpande, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Scaledown of three-phase ebullieted bed reactors for bitumen hydrotreating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The length of a commercial reactor, in three-phase ebullieted bed processes with pelleted catalysts, for the processing of heavy oils, bitumen and bitumen-derived liquids are long due to the requirement oflow space velocities. The reactor length, for laboratory scale studies of such processes, can be reduced by reducing the superficial liquid velocity. Consequently, the catalyst size has to be reduced to achievecirculation within the reactor. It is important to ensure that, with these changes, the values of the phase holdups are maintained the same in the commercial and the laboratory units. Through extensive similitude studies, similarity criteria that would ensure identical holdups in the commercial and laboratory units were identified, which required the equality of six dimensionless numbers. These criteria were validated using the generalized wake model. It was found that it was impractical to establish all the parameters in the set of dimensionless numbers at the desired values. Therefore, a method to achieve similarity by varying a minimum number of parameters, such as liquid and gas velocities and particle size, was developed using the generalized wake model. This resulted in a set of two conditions, which when satisfied, yielded practically equal holdups in the two reactors.

Deshpande, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor short term thermal response to flow and reactivity transients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analyses reported here have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Division of Regulatory Applications of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The short-term thermal response of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is analyzed for a range of flow and reactivity transients. These include loss of forced circulation (LOFC) without scram, moisture ingress, spurious withdrawal of a control rod group, hypothetical large and rapid positive reactivity insertion, and a rapid core cooling event. The coupled heat transfer-neutron kinetics model is also described.

Cleveland, J.C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

INITIATORS AND TRIGGERING CONDITIONS FOR ADAPTIVE AUTOMATION IN ADVANCED SMALL MODULAR REACTORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is anticipated that Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs) will employ high degrees of automation. High levels of automation can enhance system performance, but often at the cost of reduced human performance. Automation can lead to human out-of the loop issues, unbalanced workload, complacency, and other problems if it is not designed properly. Researchers have proposed adaptive automation (defined as dynamic or flexible allocation of functions) as a way to get the benefits of higher levels of automation without the human performance costs. Adaptive automation has the potential to balance operator workload and enhance operator situation awareness by allocating functions to the operators in a way that is sensitive to overall workload and capabilities at the time of operation. However, there still a number of questions regarding how to effectively design adaptive automation to achieve that potential. One of those questions is related to how to initiate (or trigger) a shift in automation in order to provide maximal sensitivity to operator needs without introducing undesirable consequences (such as unpredictable mode changes). Several triggering mechanisms for shifts in adaptive automation have been proposed including: operator initiated, critical events, performance-based, physiological measurement, model-based, and hybrid methods. As part of a larger project to develop design guidance for human-automation collaboration in AdvSMRs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory have investigated the effectiveness and applicability of each of these triggering mechanisms in the context of AdvSMR. Researchers reviewed the empirical literature on adaptive automation and assessed each triggering mechanism based on the human-system performance consequences of employing that mechanism. Researchers also assessed the practicality and feasibility of using the mechanism in the context of an AdvSMR control room. Results indicate that there are tradeoffs associated with each mechanism, but that some are more applicable to the AdvSMR domain. The two mechanisms that consistently improve performance in laboratory studies are operator initiated adaptive automation based on hierarchical task delegation and the Electroencephalogram(EEG) –based measure of engagement. Current EEG methods are intrusive and require intensive analysis; therefore it is not recommended for an AdvSMR control rooms at this time. Researchers also discuss limitations in the existing empirical literature and make recommendations for further research.

Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna h Oxstrand

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Equivalent Reactor Network Model for Simulating the Air Gasification of Polyethylene in a Conical Spouted Bed Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Equivalent Reactor Network Model for Simulating the Air Gasification of Polyethylene in a Conical Spouted Bed Gasifier ... Plastic waste treatment technologies, apart from chemical recycling, constitute a growing social problem, such as the loss of natural resources, the depletion of landfill space, and the environmental pollution. ...

Yupeng Du; Qi Yang; Abdallah S. Berrouk; Chaohe Yang; Ahmed S. Al Shoaibi

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

127

Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizing larger catalyst particles and smaller biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

128

Feasibility of Burning First- and Second-Generation Plutonium in Pebble Bed High-Temperature Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management - Fuel Management of Reactors Other Than Light Water Reactors

J. B. M. De Haas; J. C. Kuijper

129

Conceptual design of a passively safe thorium breeder Pebble Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract More sustainable nuclear power generation might be achieved by combining the passive safety and high temperature applications of the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) design with the resource availability and favourable waste characteristics of the thorium fuel cycle. It has already been known that breeding can be achieved with the thorium fuel cycle inside a Pebble Bed Reactor if reprocessing is performed. This is also demonstrated in this work for a cylindrical core with a central driver zone, with 3 g heavy metal pebbles for enhanced fission, surrounded by a breeder zone containing 30 g thorium pebbles, for enhanced conversion. The main question of the present work is whether it is also possible to combine passive safety and breeding, within a practical operating regime, inside a thorium Pebble Bed Reactor. Therefore, the influence of several fuel design, core design and operational parameters upon the conversion ratio and passive safety is evaluated. A Depressurized Loss of Forced Cooling (DLOFC) is considered the worst safety scenario that can occur within a PBR. So, the response to a DLOFC with and without scram is evaluated for several breeder PBR designs using a coupled DALTON/THERMIX code scheme. With scram it is purely a heat transfer problem (THERMIX) demonstrating the decay heat removal capability of the design. In case control rods cannot be inserted, the temperature feedback of the core should also be able to counterbalance the reactivity insertion by the decaying xenon without fuel temperatures exceeding 1600 °C. Results show that high conversion ratios (CR  > 0.96) and passive safety can be combined in a thorium PBR within a practical operating regime, which means a thermal power of 100 MW or higher, 1000 days total residence time of the breeder pebbles and fuel pebble handling times longer than 14.5 s, like in the HTR-PM. With an increased U-233 content of the fresh driver pebbles (18 w%), breeding (CR = 1.0135) can already be achieved for a 220 cm core and 80 cm driver zone radius. While the decay heat removal is sufficient in this design, the temperature feedback of the undermoderated driver pebbles is too weak to compensate the reactivity insertion due to the xenon decay during a DLOFC without scram. With a lower U-233 content per driver pebble (10 w%) it was found possible to combine breeding (CR = 1.0036) and passive safety for a 300 cm core and 100 cm driver zone radius, but this does require more than a doubling of the pebble handling speed and a high reprocessing rate of the fuel pebbles. The maximum fuel temperature during a DLOFC without scram was simulated to be 1481 °C for this design, still quite a bit below the TRISO failure temperature. The maximum reactivity insertion due to an ingress of water vapour is also limited with a value of +1497 pcm.

F.J. Wols; J.L. Kloosterman; D. Lathouwers; T.H.J.J. van der Hagen

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

MORECA: A computer code for simulating modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core heatup accidents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design features of the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) have the potential to make it essentially invulnerable to damage from postulated core heatup accidents. This report describes the ORNL MORECA code, which was developed for analyzing postulated long-term core heatup scenarios for which active cooling systems used to remove afterheat following the accidents can be assumed to the unavailable. Simulations of long-term loss-of-forced-convection accidents, both with and without depressurization of the primary coolant, have shown that maximum core temperatures stay below the point at which any significant fuel failures and fission product releases are expected. Sensitivity studies also have been done to determine the effects of errors in the predictions due both to uncertainties in the modeling and to the assumptions about operational parameters. MORECA models the US Department of Energy reference design of a standard MHTGR.

Ball, S.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

CARBON COATED (CARBONOUS) CATALYST IN EBULLATED BED REACTOR FOR PRODUCTION OF OXYGENATED CHEMICALS FROM SYNGAS/CO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work completed under DOE's Support of Advanced Fuel Research program, Contract No. DE-FG26-99FT40681. The contract period was October 2000 through September 2002. This R&D program investigated the modification of the mechanical strength of catalyst extrudates using Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. (HTI) carbon-coated catalyst technology so that the ebullated bed technology can be utilized to produce valuable oxygenated chemicals from syngas/CO{sub 2} efficiently and economically. Exothermic chemical reactions benefit from the temperature control and freedom from catalyst fouling provided by the ebullated bed reactor technology. The carbon-coated extrudates prepared using these procedures had sufficient attrition resistance and surface area for use in ebullated bed operation. The low cost of carbon coating makes the carbon-coated catalysts highly competitive in the market of catalyst extrudates.

Peizheng Zhou

2002-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

132

Expert assessments of the cost of light water small modular reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Schrattenholzer (S1) report learning...include technical progress economies...suggests, the result we report are probably...high temperature gas cooled reactor...adapted from the report in question (29...storage systems 3) Turbine plant equipmentHigh...

Ahmed Abdulla; Inês Lima Azevedo; M. Granger Morgan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Experimental and modeling study of catalytic steam reforming of methane mixture with propylene in a packed bed reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Producer gas from biomass gasification contains mainly hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and some other low molecular hydrocarbons like propylene. This paper reports mathematical simulation and experimental study of steam reforming of methane mixture with propylene in a packed bed reactor filled with nickel based catalysts. Due to the high heat input through the reformer tube wall and the endothermic reforming reactions, a two-dimensional pseudo-heterogeneous model that takes into account the diffusion reaction phenomena in gas phase as well as inside the catalyst particles has been used to represent temperature distribution and species concentration within the reactor. Steam reforming of propylene is faster and more selective than methane and it is shown that addition of propylene to the methane steam mixture reduces the conversion of methane. The obtained results play a key role in optimization and design of a commercial reactor.

Parham Sadooghi; Reinhard Rauch

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

MTG fluidized bed reactor–regenerator unit with catalyst circulation: process simulation and operation of an experimental setup  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simulation of the MTG process carried out in a fluidized bed reactor–regenerator system with catalyst circulation is studied by using the kinetic results obtained in an experimental unit. Data considered covered a wide range of operating conditions including temperature, space time and average residence times in both reactor and regenerator. This simulation is based on the use of adequate kinetic equations for the main MTG reaction, for the catalyst deactivation and for catalyst regeneration. In addition, a third stage in the process allowing for coke equilibration, prior to its combustion, is also included. Catalyst loss due to attrition has also been taken into account. An objective function based on relative production rate is optimized by changing systematically the process parameters such as temperature, space time and catalyst activity. Results are also validated in the experimental unit and demonstrate the simplicity of the reactor–regenerator system with catalyst circulation and the versatility of this configuration for carrying out the MTG process.

Ana G. Gayubo; Jose M. Ortega; Andres T. Aguayo; Jose M. Arandes; Javier Bilbao

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Closed Brayton cycle power system with a high temperature pellet bed reactor heat source for NEP applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Capitalizing on past and future development of high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) technology a low mass 15 MWe closed gas turbine cycle power system using a pellet bed reactor heating helium working fluid is proposed for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) applications. Although the design of this directly coupled system architecture comprising the reactor/power system/space radiator subsystems is presented in conceptual form sufficient detail is included to permit an assessment of overall system performance and mass. Furthermore an attempt is made to show how tailoring of the main subsystem design characteristics can be utilized to achieve synergistic system level advantages that can lead to improved reliability and enhanced system life while reducing the number of parasitic load driven peripheral subsystems.

Albert J. Juhasz; Mohamed S. El?Genk; William Harper

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Simultaneous measurement of x-ray absorption spectra and kinetics : a fixed-bed, plug-flow operando reactor.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An inexpensive fixed-bed, plug-flow operando reactor is described in which X-ray absorbance and kinetic data can be measured simultaneously. Pt L3 (11.56 keV) XANES and EXAFS data were obtained on a 1.5% Pt/silica catalyst in borosilicate glass reactors of different diameters, 3-6 mm, and thicknesses, 0.3-1.2 mm, some of which are capable of operation at pressures up to about 40 atm. Additionally, polyimide tubular reactors with low absorbance can be used for lower energy edges of the 3d transition metals, or fluorescence detection for low concentration or highly absorbing supports. With the polyimide reactor, however, the pressure is limited to {approx}3.5 atm and the reaction temperature to about 300 C. To validate the reactor, the rate and activation energies for the water-gas shift reaction on 2% Pd, 13.7% Zn on Al2O3 catalyst were within 15% of those obtained in a standard laboratory reactor, which is within laboratory reproducibility. In addition, the Pd K edge (24.35 keV) XANES and EXAFS data on pre-reduced catalyst were identical to that previously determined on a regular cell. The EXAFS data show that the degree of Pd-Zn alloy formation changes with reaction temperature demonstrating the importance of characterizing the catalyst under reaction conditions.

Fingland, B. R.; Ribeiro, F. H.; Miller, J. T.; Purdue Univ.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

The passive safety characteristics of modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGR) in both the US and West Germany use an all-ceramic, coated fuel particle to retain fission products. Data from irradiation, postirradiation examinations and postirradiation heating experiments are used to study the performance capabilities of the fuel particles. The experimental results from fission product release tests with HTGR fuel are discussed. These data are used for development of predictive fuel performance models for purposes of design, licensing, and risk analyses. During off normal events, where temperatures may reach up to 1600/degree/C, the data show that no significant radionuclide releases from the fuel will occur.

Goodin, D.T.; Kania, M.J.; Nabielek, H.; Schenk, W.; Verfondern, K.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Modeling and Experimental Studies of Mercury Oxidation and Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed and Entrained-Flow Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents experimental and modeling mercury oxidation and adsorption data. Fixed-bed and single-particle models of mercury adsorption were developed. The experimental data were obtained with two reactors: a 300-W, methane-fired, tubular, quartz-lined reactor for studying homogeneous oxidation reactions and a fixed-bed reactor, also of quartz, for studying heterogeneous reactions. The latter was attached to the exit of the former to provide realistic combustion gases. The fixed-bed reactor contained one gram of coconut-shell carbon and remained at a temperature of 150oC. All methane, air, SO2, and halogen species were introduced through the burner to produce a radical pool representative of real combustion systems. A Tekran 2537A Analyzer coupled with a wet conditioning system provided speciated mercury concentrations. At 150?C and in the absence of HCl or HBr, the mercury uptake was about 20%. The addition of 50 ppm HCl caused complete capture of all elemental and oxidized mercury species. In the absence of halogens, SO2 increased the mercury adsorption efficiency to up to 30 percent. The extent of adsorption decreased with increasing SO2 concentration when halogens were present. Increasing the HCl concentration to 100 ppm lessened the effect of SO2. The fixed-bed model incorporates Langmuir adsorption kinetics and was developed to predict adsorption of elemental mercury and the effect of multiple flue gas components. This model neglects intraparticle diffusional resistances and is only applicable to pulverized carbon sorbents. It roughly describes experimental data from the literature. The current version includes the ability to account for competitive adsorption between mercury, SO2, and NO2. The single particle model simulates in-flight sorbent capture of elemental mercury. This model was developed to include Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, rate equations, sorbent feed rate, and intraparticle diffusion. The Freundlich isotherm more accurately described in-flight mercury capture. Using these parameters, very little intraparticle diffusion was evident. Consistent with other data, smaller particles resulted in higher mercury uptake due to available surface area. Therefore, it is important to capture the particle size distribution in the model. At typical full-scale sorbent feed rates, the calculations underpredicted adsorption, suggesting that wall effects can account for as much as 50 percent of the removal, making it an important factor in entrained-mercury adsorption models.

Buitrago, Paula A; Morrill, Mike; Lighty, JoAnn S; Silcox, Geoffrey D

2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

139

Steam Gasification of Bio-Oil and Bio-Oil/Char Slurry in a Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present study, the steam gasification of bio-oil/char slurry was investigated using a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor filled with either Ni-based naphtha steam reforming catalyst or silica sand. ... LOI: Loss on ignition after a 30 min fusion at 1000 °C. ... Table 5. Product Gas Composition (in Mol %) and Heating Value from Steam Gasification of the Bio-Oil and the Slurry with the Catalyst and the Sand at T ? 800°C, H2O/C ? 5.5, and GC1HSV ? 340 h?1; Wet with Nitrogen and Dry Nitrogen Free Basisa ...

Masakazu Sakaguchi; A. Paul Watkinson; Naoko Ellis

2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

140

Rotary bed reactor for chemical-looping combustion with carbon capture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising technology for power generation with inherent CO2 capture. Currently almost all the research has been focused on developing CLC based inter-connected fluidized bed ...

Zhao, Zhenlong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Attrition of coal ash particles in a fluidized-bed reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental data of ash-particles attrition in a fluidized bed is presented, and also the results of modeling. Five sizes of ash particles (1.02-1.25; 1.25-1.6; 1.6-2.0; 2.0-5.0; 5.0-10.0 mm) produced in an industrial CFB boiler were examined. A new model of mechanical attrition has been proposed which incorporates new parameters: the shape factor of particles and the ratio of the bed height to bed diameter, strongly influencing the rate of bed mass loss. The model describes very well experimental data for coal-ash particles attrition. The attrition-rate coefficient for ash particles was evaluated.

Tomeczek, J.; Mocek, P. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Neutronic analysis of pebble-bed cores with transuranics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(ORNL). This Department of Energy sponsored center is authorized to collect, maintain, analyze, and distribute computer software and data sets in the area of radiation transport and safety. The full-core VHTR pebble-bed model was developed... II.A SCALE 5.0 The 3D full-core pebble-bed VHTR model was initially built using SCALE version 5.0. The modular code system is developed and maintained by ORNL and is readily validated and accepted for use in thermal reactor analysis around...

Pritchard, Megan Leigh

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Technical Needs for Prototypic Prognostic Technique Demonstration for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report identifies a number of requirements for prognostics health management of passive systems in AdvSMRs, documents technical gaps in establishing a prototypical prognostic methodology for this purpose, and describes a preliminary research plan for addressing these technical gaps. AdvSMRs span multiple concepts; therefore a technology- and design-neutral approach is taken, with the focus being on characteristics that are likely to be common to all or several AdvSMR concepts. An evaluation of available literature is used to identify proposed concepts for AdvSMRs along with likely operational characteristics. Available operating experience of advanced reactors is used in identifying passive components that may be subject to degradation, materials likely to be used for these components, and potential modes of degradation of these components. This information helps in assessing measurement needs for PHM systems, as well as defining functional requirements of PHM systems. An assessment of current state-of-the-art approaches to measurements, sensors and instrumentation, diagnostics and prognostics is also documented. This state-of-the-art evaluation, combined with the requirements, may be used to identify technical gaps and research needs in the development, evaluation, and deployment of PHM systems for AdvSMRs. A preliminary research plan to address high-priority research needs for the deployment of PHM systems to AdvSMRs is described, with the objective being the demonstration of prototypic prognostics technology for passive components in AdvSMRs. Greater efficiency in achieving this objective can be gained through judicious selection of materials and degradation modes that are relevant to proposed AdvSMR concepts, and for which significant knowledge already exists. These selections were made based on multiple constraints including the analysis performed in this document, ready access to laboratory-scale facilities for materials testing and measurement, and potential synergies with other national laboratory and university partners.

Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

2013-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

144

Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Self-Sustained Hydro- Gasification." [0011] In aprocess, using a steam hydro-gasification reactor (SHR) thepyrolysis and hydro-gasification in a single step. This

Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Modelling of trickle-bed reactors at high temperatures and pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that it is very difficult to reproduce the same flow pattern from bed to bed, Lee and Smith present a criterion for negligible inter- and intraphase transport effects. For exothermic reactions, this criterion is (RL/k C )(p /s ) & P/(1-1)) b L L p p (22.... This is valid for reactions such as hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation, which are only slightly exothermic. Most models assume a non-volatile liquid phase. Since the models reviewed were tested against reaction systems at ambient conditions...

Collins, George Michael

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Biomass Pyrolysis and Gasification of Varying Particle Sizes in a Fluidized-Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Light gases, char, and tar evolution as function of the bed temperature and particle size have been compared to literature data. ... A review of the primary measures for tar elimination in biomass gasification processes Biomass Bioenergy 2003, 24 ( 2) 125– 140 ... Some aspects of primary methods and the research and development in this area are reviewed and cited in the present paper. ...

Katherine R. Gaston; Mark W. Jarvis; Perrine Pepiot; Kristin M. Smith; William J. Frederick, Jr.; Mark R. Nimlos

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

147

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidogenic fixed-bed reactor Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

France. Seven... Description pH pH in the reactor vfa volatile fatty acid conc. qGas biogas flow rate qIn input flow rate ratio... unstable states: hydraulic over- load, organic...

148

Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Blend in a Dual Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

circulating flow/forestry, agricultural waste, industry wastes + coalcoke ... Whereas, a dual fluidized bed gasification technology enables production of the medium calorific value gas (12?18 MJ/Nm3) by separating the combustion and gasification zones in which steam is used as a gasifying agent. ... Since Quercus acutissima is widely used in building, pulp, and shipping industries, its demand and supply in Korea is high. ...

Myung Won Seo; Jeong Hoi Goo; Sang Done Kim; See Hoon Lee; Young Chan Choi

2010-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

149

Effect of equation of state on prediction of trickle bed reactor model performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of outlet conversion and a temperature profile. In Order to obtain initial guesses for the nonlinear regression a grid search is performed (Ray, 1982) with the assumption that the relationship between temperature and conversion is linear. The initial.... Wrth the initial guesses for and E and the linear temperature conversion assumption the Marquardt method is used to compute a new E and k . At this point the first iteration is complete. These kinetic parameters are then inputed into the trickle bed...

Netherland, Donald Wayne

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Numerical study of hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process with online CO2 capture as operated in fluidized bed reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A three-dimensional (3D) Eulerian two-fluid model with an in-house code was developed to simulate the gas-particle two-phase flow in the fluidized bed reactors. The CO2 capture with Ca-based sorbents in the steam

Yuefa Wang; Zhongxi Chao; Hugo A. Jakobsen

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Gasification of a solid recovered fuel in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The paper investigates the technical feasibility of an air gasification process of a Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) obtained from municipal solid waste. A pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having a feedstock capacity of about 70 kg/h and a maximum thermal output of about 400 kW, provided the experimental data: the complete composition of the syngas (including the tar, particulate and acid/basic gas contents), the chemical and physical characterization of the bed material and that of entrained fines collected at the cyclone. The experimental runs were carried out by reaching a condition of thermal and chemical steady state under values of equivalence ratio ranging from 0.25 to 0.33. The results indicate that the selected SRF can be conveniently gasified, yielding a syngas of valuable quality for energy applications. The rather high content of tar in the syngas indicates that the more appropriate plant configuration should be that of a “thermal gasifier”, with the direct combustion of the syngas in a burner ad hoc designed, coupled with an adequate energy-conversion device.

Umberto Arena; Fabrizio Di Gregorio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Design of Complex Systems to Achieve Passive Safety: Natural Circulation Cooling of Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a tool for reactor design optimization, and for design ofdesign tool for reactor design optimization, and for designdesign tool for reactor design optimization, and for design

Scarlat, Raluca Olga

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Fluidized bed steam reactor including two horizontal cyclone separators and an integral recycle heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reactor is described comprising: a vessel; a first furnace section disposed in said vessel; a second furnace section disposed in said vessel; means in each of said furnace sections for receiving a combustible fuel for generating heat and combustion gases; a first heat recovery area located adjacent said furnace sections; a second heat recovery area located adjacent said furnace sections; means for passing said combustion gases from said first furnace section to said first heat recovery area; and means for passing said combustion gases from said second furnace section to said second heat recovery area.

Gorzegno, W.P.

1993-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Discussion Paper for DOE SEAB/SMR Subcommittee V.H. Reis Small Modular Reactors and U.S. Clean Energy Sources for Electricity  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Discussion Paper for DOE SEAB/SMR Subcommittee Discussion Paper for DOE SEAB/SMR Subcommittee V.H. Reis Small Modular Reactors and U.S. Clean Energy Sources for Electricity In his 2011 State of the Union speech President Obama stated: "By 2035, 80 percent of America's electricity will come from clean energy sources." As yet, there is no official definition of a clean energy source, but a sensible definition is to suggest a "clean energy standard" where sources are weighted with respect to how much CO 2 they emit per unit of electrical energy produced. That is: Where F CE = Fraction of electricity for clean energy sources (multiply by 100 to get percent)

155

U.S. Department Of Energy Advanced Small Modular Reactor R&D Program: Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The nuclear power industry is currently engaged in a transition from traditional analog-based instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface systems to implementations employing digital technologies. This transition has primarily occurred in an ad hoc fashion through individual system upgrades at existing plants and has been constrained by licenseability concerns. Although the recent progress in constructing new plants has spurred design of more fully digital plant-wide ICHMI systems, the experience base in the nuclear power application domain is limited. Additionally, development of advanced reactor concepts, such as Generation IV designs and small modular reactors, introduces different plant conditions (e.g., higher temperatures, different coolants, etc.) and unique plant configurations (e.g., multiunit plants with shared systems, balance of plant architectures with reconfigurable co-generation options) that increase the need for enhanced ICHMI capabilities to fully achieve industry goals related to economic competitiveness, safety and reliability, sustainability, and proliferation resistance and physical protection. As a result, significant challenges remain to be addressed to enable the nuclear power industry to complete the transition to safe and comprehensive use of modern ICHMI technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, several DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements within their respective research portfolios. This paper describes current ICHMI research in support of advanced small modular reactors. The objectives that can be achieved through execution of the defined RD&D are to provide optimal technical solutions to critical ICHMI issues, resolve technology gaps arising from the unique measurement and control characteristics of advanced reactor concepts, provide demonstration of needed technologies and methodologies in the nuclear power application domain, mature emerging technologies to facilitate commercialization, and establish necessary technical evidence and application experience to enable timely and predictable licensing. 1 Introduction Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The nuclear power industry is currently engaged in a transition from traditional analog-based instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems to implementations employing digital technologies. This transition has primarily occurred in an ad hoc fashion through individual system upgrades at existing plants and has been constrained by licenseability concerns. Although the recent progress in constructing new plants has spurred design of more fully digital plant-wide ICHMI systems, the experience base in the nuclear power application domain is limited. Additionally, development of advanced reactor concepts, such as Generation IV designs and small modular reactors, introduces different plant conditions (e.g., higher temperatures, different coolants, etc.) and unique plant configurations (e.g., multiunit plants with shared systems, balance of plant architectures with reconfigurable co-generation options) that increase the need for enhanced ICHMI capabilities to fully achieve industry goals related to economic competitiveness, safety and reliability, sustainability, and proliferation resistance and physical protection. As a result, significant challenges remain to be addressed to enable the nuclear power industry to complete the transition to safe and comprehensive use of m

Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Numerical simulations of particle growth in a silicon-CVD fluidized bed reactor via a CFD–PBM coupled model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid model coupled with population balance equations was applied to simulate the evolution of silicon particle growth by chemical vapor deposition of silane pyrolysis in a three-dimensional slugging fluidized bed reactor using FLUENT. The simulation of the particle growth considering surface deposition, cluster scavenging, aggregation and wall deposition was carried out after the verification of flow and heat transfer characteristics based on the well-accepted correlations. The results showed that the scavenging effect was responsible for the particle growth, and the growth rate agreed well with the experimental data by Tejero-Ezpeleta et al. (2004) when the scavenging factor was set to 0.1 under the condition of 923 K and atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the formation of light silicon hydrides by silane homogeneous pyrolysis in the dilute phase was also investigated in the form of CHMEKIN mechanism, which showed that disilane turned to be the main silicon hydride and the silane conversion was underestimated by 12.5%. Finally, the effects of operating conditions on the growth rate were studied in detail with the observation of defluidization phenomenon during the evolution of particle growth.

Si-Si Liu; Wen-De Xiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Application of an internally circulating fluidized bed for windowed solar chemical reactor with direct irradiation of reacting particles - article no. 014504  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar thermochemical processes require the development of a high-temperature solar reactor operating at 1000-1500{sup o}C, such as solar gasification of coal and the thermal reduction of metal oxides as part of a two-step water splitting cycle. Here, we propose to apply 'an internally circulating fluidized bed' for a windowed solar chemical reactor in which reacting particles are directly illuminated. The prototype reactor was constructed in a laboratory scale and demonstrated on CO{sub 2} gasification of coal coke using solar-simulated, concentrated visible light from a sun simulator as the energy source. About 12% of the maximum chemical storage efficiency was obtained by the solar-simulated gasification of the coke.

Kodama, T.; Enomoto, S.I.; Hatamachi, T.; Gokon, N. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Symmetric modular torsatron  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Dynamic Modeling and Control Studies of a Two-Stage Bubbling Fluidized Bed Adsorber-Reactor for Solid-Sorbent CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A one-dimensional, non-isothermal, pressure-driven dynamic model has been developed for a two-stage bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) adsorber-reactor for solid-sorbent carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM). The BFB model for the flow of gas through a continuous phase of downward moving solids considers three regions: emulsion, bubble, and cloud-wake. Both the upper and lower reactor stages are of overflow-type configuration, i.e., the solids leave from the top of each stage. In addition, dynamic models have been developed for the downcomer that transfers solids between the stages and the exit hopper that removes solids from the bottom of the bed. The models of all auxiliary equipment such as valves and gas distributor have been integrated with the main model of the two-stage adsorber reactor. Using the developed dynamic model, the transient responses of various process variables such as CO{sub 2} capture rate and flue gas outlet temperatures have been studied by simulating typical disturbances such as change in the temperature, flowrate, and composition of the incoming flue gas from pulverized coal-fired power plants. In control studies, the performance of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, feedback-augmented feedforward controller, and linear model predictive controller (LMPC) are evaluated for maintaining the overall CO{sub 2} capture rate at a desired level in the face of typical disturbances.

Modekurti, Srinivasarao; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Zitney, Stephen E.

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

160

Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed reactor system at Building 9212. Draft environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is Iocated within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The current AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems were designed and constructed more than 40 years ago. Because of their deteriorating condition, the corrosive nature of the materials processed, and the antiquated design philosophy upon which they are based, their long-term reliability cannot be assured. The current AHF supply system cannot mitigate an accidental release of AHF and vents fugitive AHF directly to the atmosphere during operations. the proposed action would reduce the risk of exposing the Y-12 Plant work force, the public, and the environment to an accidental release of AHF and would ensure the continuing ability of the Y-12 Plant to manufacture highly enriched uranium metal and process uranium from retired weapons for storage.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Design of Complex Systems to Achieve Passive Safety: Natural Circulation Cooling of Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Safety. The Accident at TEPCO’s Fukushima Nuclear Power2: Accident and Thermal Fluids Analysis PIRTs. (Nuclearmolten nuclear reactor core debris following accidents such

Scarlat, Raluca Olga

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Carbon free energy development and the role of small modular reactors: A review and decision framework for deployment in developing countries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Global energy demand is projected to continue to grow over the next two decades, especially in developing economies. An emerging energy technology with distinct advantages for growing economies is small modular nuclear reactors (SMRs). Their smaller size makes them suitable for areas with limited grid capacities and dispersed populations while enabling flexibility in generating capacity and fuel sources. They have the ability to pair well with renewable energy sources, the major source of increased energy capacity for many developing economies. Further advantages include their passive safety features, lower capital requirements, and reduced construction times. As a result, \\{SMRs\\} have potential for overcoming energy poverty issues for growing economies without increasing carbon emissions. This study reviews the features and viability of \\{SMRs\\} to meet increasing energy capacity needs and develops a decision support framework to evaluate the market conditions for SMR deployment to emerging economies. The focus is on identifying countries best suited for domestic deployment of \\{SMRs\\} rather than vendor countries with ongoing or future SMR development programs for export. We begin by examining the characteristics of over two hundred countries and identifying those that satisfy several necessary economic, electrical grid capacity, and nuclear security conditions. Countries satisfying these necessary conditions are then evaluated using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) using criteria related to the economic and financial conditions, infrastructure and technological framework, and governmental policies within each country. The results find that countries with increasing GDP and energy demand that possess a robust infrastructure, energy production from high GHG sources, and governmental policies favorable to foreign investment are well-suited for future SMR deployment.

Geoffrey Black; Meredith A. Taylor Black; David Solan; David Shropshire

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

A Multi-Modular Neutronically Coupled Power Generation System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The High Temperature Integrated Multi-Modular Thermal Reactor is a small modular reactor that uses an enhanced conductivity BeO-UO2 fuel with supercritical CO2 coolant to drive turbo-machinery in a direct Brayton cycle. The core consists of several...

Patel, Vishal

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

164

Energy Department Announces New Investment in Innovative Small Modular  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Announces New Investment in Innovative Small Announces New Investment in Innovative Small Modular Reactor Energy Department Announces New Investment in Innovative Small Modular Reactor December 12, 2013 - 4:04pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - Building on President Obama's Climate Action Plan to continue America's leadership in clean energy innovation, the Energy Department today announced an award to NuScale Power LLC to support a new project to design, certify and help commercialize innovative small modular reactors (SMRs) in the United States. This award follows a funding opportunity announcement in March 2013. View a new Energy Department infographic on small modular reactors and their potential to provide clean, safe and cost-effective nuclear energy. "Small modular reactors represent a new generation of safe, reliable,

165

17 - Fluidized bed gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The chapter describes the state-of-the-art of fluidized bed gasification of solid fuels, starting from the key role played by hydrodynamics, and its strong correlation with physical and chemical phenomena of the process and operating performance parameters of the reactor. The possible configurations of fluidized bed gasification plants are also assessed, and an analysis of the main methods for syngas cleaning is reported. Finally, the chapter describes some of the most interesting commercial experiences. The analysis indicates that the gasification of biomass and also of municipal and industrial solid wastes appear to be the most interesting sectors for the industrial development and utilization of fluidized bed gasifiers.

U. Arena

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

The O{sub 2}-enriched air gasification of coal, plastics and wood in a fluidized bed reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of the O{sub 2} in the gasification stream of a BFB gasifier has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main advantage of the O{sub 2}-enriched air is the increasing of the bed temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No remarkable effects on tar reduction. Decreasing of recognized PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification reactions completed inside the dense bed and splashing zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycondensation reactions occur mainly in the freeboard region. - Abstract: The effect of oxygen-enriched air during fluidized bed co-gasification of a mixture of coal, plastics and wood has been investigated. The main components of the obtained syngas were measured by means of on-line analyzers and a gas chromatograph while those of the condensate phase were off-line analysed by means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The characterization of condensate phase as well as that of the water used as scrubbing medium completed the performed diagnostics. The experimental results were further elaborated in order to provide material and substances flow analyses inside the plant boundaries. These analyses allowed to obtain the main substance distribution between solid, gaseous and condensate phases and to estimate the conversion efficiency of carbon and hydrogen but also to easily visualise the waste streams produced by the process. The process performance was then evaluated on the basis of parameters related to the conversion efficiency of fuels into valuable products (i.e. by considering tar and particulate as process losses) as well as those related to the energy recovery.

Mastellone, Maria Laura, E-mail: mlaura.mastellone@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy); Zaccariello, Lucio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Packed-Bed Reactor Study of NETL Sample 196c for the Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Simulated Flue Gas Mixture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An amine-based solid sorbent process to remove CO2 from flue gas has been investigated. The sorbent consists of polyethylenimine (PEI) immobilized onto silica (SiO2) support. Experiments were conducted in a packed-bed reactor and exit gas composition was monitored using mass spectrometry. The effects of feed gas composition (CO2 and H2O), temperature, and simulated steam regeneration were examined for both the silica support as well as the PEI-based sorbent. The artifact of the empty reactor was also quantified. Sorbent CO2 capacity loading was compared to thermogravimetric (TGA) results to further characterize adsorption isotherms and better define CO2 working capacity. Sorbent stability was monitored by periodically repeating baseline conditions throughout the parametric testing and replacing with fresh sorbent as needed. The concept of the Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) Process using this sorbent within a system where sorbent continuously flows between the absorber and regenerator was introduced. The basic tenet is to manipulate or control the level of moisture on the sorbent as it travels around the sorbent circulation path between absorption and regeneration stages to minimize its effect on regeneration heat duty.

Hoffman, James S.; Hammache, Sonia; Gray, McMahan L.; Fauth Daniel J.; Pennline, Henry W.

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

168

Material Control and Accounting Design Considerations for High-Temperature Gas Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The subject of this report is domestic safeguards and security by design (2SBD) for high-temperature gas reactors, focusing on material control and accountability (MC&A). The motivation for the report is to provide 2SBD support to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, which was launched by Congress in 2005. This introductory section will provide some background on the NGNP project and an overview of the 2SBD concept. The remaining chapters focus specifically on design aspects of the candidate high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) relevant to MC&A, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements, and proposed MC&A approaches for the two major HTGR reactor types: pebble bed and prismatic. Of the prismatic type, two candidates are under consideration: (1) GA's GT-MHR (Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor), and (2) the Modular High-Temperature Reactor (M-HTR), a derivative of Areva's Antares reactor. The future of the pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) for NGNP is uncertain, as the PBMR consortium partners (Westinghouse, PBMR [Pty] and The Shaw Group) were unable to agree on the path forward for NGNP during 2010. However, during the technology assessment of the conceptual design phase (Phase 1) of the NGNP project, AREVA provided design information and technology assessment of their pebble bed fueled plant design called the HTR-Module concept. AREVA does not intend to pursue this design for NGNP, preferring instead a modular reactor based on the prismatic Antares concept. Since MC&A relevant design information is available for both pebble concepts, the pebble-bed HTGRs considered in this report are: (1) Westinghouse PBMR; and (2) AREVA HTR-Module. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) sponsors the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program (FCR&D), which contains an element specifically focused on the domestic (or state) aspects of SBD. This Material Protection, Control and Accountancy Technology (MPACT) program supports the present work summarized in this report, namely the development of guidance to support the consideration of MC&A in the design of both pebble-bed and prismatic-fueled HTGRs. The objective is to identify and incorporate design features into the facility design that will cost effectively aid in making MC&A more effective and efficient, with minimum impact on operations. The theft of nuclear material is addressed through both MC&A and physical protection, while the threat of sabotage is addressed principally through physical protection.

Trond Bjornard; John Hockert

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Syngas Production by Thermochemical Gasification of Carbonaceous Waste Materials in a 150 kWth Packed-Bed Solar Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The carbonaceous feedstocks experimentally investigated included coal,(9-11) petcoke,(12, 13) cellulose,(14, 15) biochar,(11, 16) and waste materials such as scrap tire chips and powders, dried sewage sludge, industrial sludges, and fluff. ... reactor for the steam-gasification of petcoke, carried out in a high-flux solar furnace. ... A petcoke-water slurry was continuously injected into a solar cavity-receiver to create a vortex flow directly exposed to concd. ...

Christian Wieckert; Albert Obrist; Peter von Zedtwitz; Gilles Maag; Aldo Steinfeld

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

170

Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidised bed reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidised bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal + 10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal + 10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

S.T. Wagland; P. Kilgallon; R. Coveney; A. Garg; R. Smith; P.J. Longhurst; S.J.T. Pollard; N. Simms

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Gasification of lignite in a fixed bed reactor: Influence of particle size on performance of downdraft gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, an experimental study of the gasification of lignite with various particle sizes was carried out in a pilot-scale (10 kWe) downdraft type fixed bed gasifier. The main objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility of the lignite as a fuel for downdraft gasifier and to evaluate the effect of the particle size on gasifier performance. The influence of the particle size on fuel consumption rate, temperature profile in various zone, gas yield, gas composition and cold gas efficiency was studied. Six different particle sizes viz. 13–16 mm, 16–19 mm, 19–22 mm, 22–25 mm, 25–28 mm, 28–31 mm were selected for experimental work. With the increase in particle size, the reduction in fuel consumption rate was observed, whereas the producer gas production rate had increased. The heating value of the gas increased as particle size increased from 13–16 mm to 22–25 mm and then same had decreased with increase in particle size. Higher temperature in reduction zone resulted in higher H2 and CO contents in producer gas. Under the experiment conditions, the fuel consumption rate, gas yields, LHV (Lower heating value) of gas fuel and cold gas efficiency varied in the range of 9.58–10.67 kg/hr, 2.43–2.63 Nm3/kg, 3.33–4.17 MJ/Nm3 and 51.5%–65.7% respectively. The experimental results showed that the gasification performance was better with lignite particle size of 22–25 mm.

Vimal R. Patel; Darshit S. Upadhyay; Rajesh N. Patel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Thermal degradation of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) containing flame retardants using a fluidized bed reactor: The effects of Ca-based additives on halogen removal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, the thermal degradation of a waste fraction of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene containing brominated flame retardants was performed to reduce halogen content in the pyrolysis oil. Thermal degradation was completed using Ca-based additives (calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide and oyster shells) in a bench-scale pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor and char separation system. Pyrolysis was carried out in a temperature range of 430–510 °C. In the absence of any additive, the oil yield amounted to about 77 wt.%. With the additives, the oil yield was markedly reduced to within a range of 45–64 wt.%. The principle compounds in the oils were toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, cumene, ?-methylstyrene, phenol and heteroatom-containing compounds. When Ca(OH)2 was applied, total bromine and chlorine contents in the oil decreased to 0.05 and 0.04 wt.%, respectively. In addition, Ca(OH)2 reduced the antimony content in the oil to below 0.001 ppm. Most of the halogens and antimony in the feed material were present in the char obtained after pyrolysis.

Su-Hwa Jung; Seon-Jin Kim; Joo-Sik Kim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A., E-mail: aidabenhassen@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Kraiem, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Naoui, S. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Belayouni, H. [Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Effect of temperature on reduction of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier in chemical-looping combustion of simulated coal gas in a fluidized bed reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a promising combustion technology for gaseous and solid fuel with efficient use of energy and inherent separation of CO{sub 2}. The concept of a coal-fueled CLC system using, calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) as oxygen carrier is proposed in this study. Reduction tests of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier with simulated coal gas were performed in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor in the temperature range of 890-950{degree}C. A high concentration of CO{sub 2} was obtained at the initial reduction period. CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier exhibited high reactivity initially and decreased gradually at the late period of reduction. The sulfur release during the reduction of CaSO{sub 4} as oxygen carrier was also observed and analyzed. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} conversions were greatly influenced by reduction temperature. The oxygen carrier conversion and mass-based reaction rates during the reduction at typical temperatures were compared. Higher temperatures would enhance reaction rates and result in high conversion of oxygen carrier. An XRD patterns study indicated that CaS was the dominant product of reduction and the variation of relative intensity with temperature is in agreement with the solid conversion. ESEM analysis indicated that the surface structure of oxygen carrier particles changed significantly from impervious to porous after reduction. EDS analysis also demonstrated the transfer of oxygen from the oxygen carrier to the fuel gas and a certain amount of sulfur loss and CaO formation on the surface at higher temperatures. The reduction kinetics of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier was explored with the shrinking unreacted-core model. The apparent kinetic parameters were obtained, and the kinetic equation well predicted the experimental data. Finally, some basic considerations on the use of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier in a CLC system for solid fuels were discussed.

Song, Q.L.; Xiao, R.; Deng, Z.Y.; Shen, L.H.; Xiao, J.; Zhang, M.Y. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

Modular robot  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

Ferrante, Todd A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Modular robot  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

Ferrante, T.A.

1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

177

Determining average bed temperature of nonisothermal fixed-bed hydrotreater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Employing three catalysts in three parallel pilot-scale fixed-bed reactors, hydrotreating experiments were performed in both isothermal and ascending temperature modes to investigate kinetics and to determine a representative bed temperature. Assuming 1.5th-order for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and 1st-order for both hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and mild hydrocracking (MHC), kinetic parameters were obtained from the isothermal mode operation. With the activation energies from isothermal operations, equivalent isothermal temperatures (EITs) in the ascending mode operations were established for specific HDS, HDN and MHC. Employing 19 thermocouple readouts in the catalyst beds and applying an Arrhenius-type rate equation containing the same activation energy, the representative bed temperature was determined. The temperature so determined is called kinetic EIT. The kinetic EIT was found to be the best to represent the nonisothermal bed temperature. The kinetic EIT has been applied to monitoring the catalyst activity in commercial hydrotreating units.

Sok Yui; John Adjaye

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Multicycle study on chemical-looping combustion of simulated coal gas with a CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier in a fluidized bed reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cyclic test of a CaSO{sub 4}-based oxygen carrier (natural anhydrite) in alternating reducing simulated coal gas and oxidizing conditions was performed at 950{degree}C in a fluidized bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. A high concentration of CO{sub 2} was obtained in the reduction. The H{sub 2} and CO conversions and CO{sub 2} yield increased initially and final decreased significantly. The release of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S during the cyclic test was found to be responsible for the decrease of reactivity of a CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier. The oxygen carrier conversion after the reduction reaction decreased gradually in the cyclic test. Through the comparison of mass-based reaction rates as a function of mass conversion at typical cycles, it was also evident that the reactivity of a CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier increased for the initial cycles but finally decreased after around 15 cycles. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the presence and intensity of the reduction sulfur species was in accordance with the results of gas conversion. The content of CaO was higher than expected, suggesting the formation of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S during the cycles. Surface morphology analysis demonstrates that the natural anhydrite particle surface varied from impervious to porous after the cyclic test. It was also observed that the small grains on the surface of the oxygen carrier sintered in the cyclic tests. Energy-dispersive spectrum analysis also demonstrated the decrease of oxygen intensity after reduction, and CaO became the main component after the 20th oxidation. Pore structure analysis suggested that the particles agglomerated or sintered in the cyclic tests. The possible method for sulfur mitigation is proposed. Finally, some basic consideration on the design criteria of a CLC system for solid fuels using a CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier is discussed by the references and provides direction for future work. 49 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Qilei Song; Rui Xiao; Zhongyi Deng; Wenguang Zheng; Laihong Shen; Jun Xiao [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Thermoenergy Engineering Research Institute

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Modular Integrated Energy Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Honeywell #12;Modular Integrated Energy Systems Task 5 Prototype Development Reference Design DocumentationModular Integrated Energy Systems Prepared for: Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008 Building 3147 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 April 27, 2006 Prepared by: Honeywell Laboratories 3660 Technology Drive

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

180

Modular Integrated Energy Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-driven absorption chiller, · Install and monitor the performance of a prototype IES modular system employing consists of a gas turbine-generator, a heat recovery steam generator, and a waste heat fired absorption chiller. The key goals of the project are: · Develop a set of "reference" CAD-based IES modular system

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Modular tokamak magnetic system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modular tokamak system comprised of a plurality of interlocking moldules. Each module is comprised of a vacuum vessel section, a toroidal field coil, moldular saddle coils which generate a poloidal magnetic field and ohmic heating coils.

Yang, Tien-Fang (Wayland, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Fluid Bed Combustion Applied to Industrial Waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of its relatively recent application to coal fired steam production, fluid beds have been uti lized in industry for over 60 years. Beginning in Germany in the twenties for coal gasification, the technology was applied to catalytic cracking of heavy... system cost), use of minimum excess air required, and maintaining the min"imum reactor temperature neces sary to sustain combustion. For superautogenous fuels, where incineration. only is desired, minimum capital cost is achieved by using direct bed...

Mullen, J. F.; Sneyd, R. J.

183

Prismatic modular reactor analysis with melcor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the calculation for the heat distribution in the graphite and fuel is unsatisfactory which requires MELCOR modification for the PCC simulation. For future work, a complete model of the NGNP under normal operation conditions will be developed when additional data...

Zhen, Ni

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

Energy Department Announces Small Modular Reactor Technology...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

of Agreement (MOA) will help leverage Savannah River's land assets, energy facilities and nuclear expertise to support potential private sector development, testing and licensing...

185

Tube construction for fluidized bed combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

De Feo, Angelo (Totowa, NJ); Hosek, William (Mt. Tabor, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Fluidized bed combustor and tube construction therefor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

De Feo, Angelo (Passaic, NJ); Hosek, William (Morris, NJ)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Modular optical detector system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

Horn, Brent A. (Livermore, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

188

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced fluidized bed Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

"Biomass Thermochemcial Conversion to Biofuels: Advances in Modeling and Summary: gasification in fluidized bed reactors will be presented. This includes the development of...

189

Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (LEFR) is a modular, lab scale, single-user reactor for the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). This system can be employed to study a variety of reactor conditions for both in situ and ex situ CFP.

Not Available

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Experimental Investigation of Chemical-Looping Combustion in Packed Beds: A Parametric Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently a novel reactor concept for chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has been proposed exploiting dynamically operated packed beds. In this work, an experimental parametric study on this reactor concept has been carried out. The effects of operating ...

S. Noorman; F. Gallucci; M. van Sint Annaland; J. A. M. Kuipers

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

191

Steam generator design considerations for modular HTGR plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies are in progress to develop a standard High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant design that is amenable to serial production and is licensable. Based on the results of trade studies performed in the DOE-funded HTGR program, activities are being focused to emphasize a modular concept based on a 350 MW(t) annular reactor core with prismatic fuel elements. Utilization of a multiplicity of the standard module affords flexibility in power rating for utility electricity generation. The selected modular HTGR concept has the reactor core and heat transport systems housed in separate steel vessels. This paper highlights the steam generator design considerations for the reference plant, and includes a discussion of the major features of the heat exchanger concept and the technology base existing in the US.

McDonald, C.F.; DeFur, D.D.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Advanced Reactor Technologies | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advanced Reactor Advanced Reactor Technologies Advanced Reactor Technologies Advanced Reactor Technologies Advanced Reactor Technologies The Office of Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) sponsors research, development and deployment (RD&D) activities through its Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC), and Advanced Small Modular Reactor (aSMR) programs to promote safety, technical, economical, and environmental advancements of innovative Generation IV nuclear energy technologies. The Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) will pursue these advancements through RD&D activities at the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories and U.S. universities, as well as through collaboration with industry and international partners. These activities will focus on advancing scientific

193

Fluid-bed combustion of solid wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For over ten years combustion Power Company has been conducting experimental programs and developing fluid bed systems for agencies of the federal government and for private industry and institutions. Many of these activities have involved systems for the combustion of solid waste materials. Discussed here will be three categories of programs, development of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fired fluid beds, development of wood waste fired fluid beds, and industrial installations. Research and development work on wood wastes has led to the design and construction of two large industrial fluid bed combustors. In one of these, a fluid bed is used for the generation of steam with a fuel that was previously suited only for landfill. Rocks and inerts are continuously removed from this combustor using a patented system. The second FBC is designed to use a variety of fuels as the source of energy to dry hog fuel for use in a high performance power boiler. Here the FBC burns green hog fuel, log yard debris, fly ash (char) from the boiler, and dried wood fines to produce a hot gas system for the wood dryer. A significant advantage of the fluidized bed reactor over conventional incinerators is its ability to reduce noxious gas emission and, finally, the fluidized bed is unique in its ability to efficiently consume low quality fuels. The relatively high inerts and moisture content of solid wastes pose no serious problem and require no associated additional devices for their removal.

Vander Molen, R.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Production of hydrogen rich bio-oil derived syngas from co-gasification of bio-oil and waste engine oil as feedstock for lower alcohols synthesis in two-stage bed reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract High efficient production of lower alcohols (C1–C5 mixed alcohols) from hydrogen rich bio-oil derived syngas was achieved in this work. A non-catalytic partial oxidation (NPOX) gasification technology was successfully applied in the production and conditioning of bio-oil derived syngas using bio-oil (BO) and emulsifying waste engine oil (EWEO) as feedstock. The effects of water addition and feedstock composition on the gasification performances were investigated. When the BO20 and EWEO30 was mixed with mass ratio of 1: 0.33, the maximum hydrogen yield of 93.7% with carbon conversion of 96.7% was obtained, and the hydrogen rich bio-oil derived syngas was effectively produced. Furthermore, a two-stage bed reactor was applied in the downstream process of lower alcohols synthesis from hydrogen rich bio-oil derived syngas (H2/CO/CO2/CH4/N2 = 52.2/19.5/3.0/9.4/15.9, v/v). The highest carbon conversion of 42.5% and the maximum alcohol yield of 0.18 kg/kgcat h with selectivity of 53.8 wt% were obtained over the Cu/ZnO/Al2O3(2.5)//Cu25Fe22Co3K3/SiO2(2.5) catalyst combination system. The mechanism and evaluation for lower alcohols synthesis from model bio-oil derived syngas and model mixture gas were also discussed. The integrative process of hydrogen rich bio-oil derived syngas production and downstream lower alcohols synthesis, potentially providing a promising route for the conversion of organic wastes into high performance fuels and high value-added chemicals.

Haijun Guo; Fen Peng; Hairong Zhang; Lian Xiong; Shanggui Li; Can Wang; Bo Wang; Xinde Chen; Yong Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Modular low aspect ratio-high beta torsatron  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fusion reactor device in which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low aspect ratio toroid in planes having the cylindrical coordinate relationship .phi.=.phi..sub.i +kz where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and .phi..sub.i is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z=o plane. The device may be described as a modular, high beta torsation whose screw symmetry is pointed along the systems major (z) axis. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a racetrack minor cross section. When vertical field coils and preferably a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic field surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

Sheffield, George V. (Hopewell, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ)

1984-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

196

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

E-Print Network 3.0 - avr fuel pebble Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reactors identified in the FLIRA report. These reactors include the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor... , nuclear analysis, and severe accident and source term analysis); (4) fuels...

198

Modular thermoacoustic refrigerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A thermoacousticrefrigerator was built to explore scaling to large heat flux. The refrigerator was constructed according to a modular design so that various stack heat exchanger and resonator sections are easily interchangeable. The resonator is driven by a commercial 10?in. woofer. Initial tests using pure helium gas as the working fluid and steel honeycomb (0.8?mm cell) for the stack pumped 60 W of heat against a 10?°C temperature gradient. Measurements of heat flux and efficiency will be reported as functions of stack structure (e.g. pore size and shape) and will be compared with theoretical predictions.

Steven R. Murrell; George Mozurkewich

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Structure Optimization of CFB Reactor for Moderate Temperature FGD  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gas velocity distribution, sorbent particle concentration distribution and particle residence time in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactors for moderate temperature flue gas desulfurization ... when the in...

Yuan Li; Jie Zhang; Kai Zheng; Changfu You

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Preheating After Modular Inflation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study (p)reheating in modular (closed string) inflationary scenarios, with a special emphasis on Kahler moduli/Roulette models. It is usually assumed that reheating in such models occurs through perturbative decays. However, we find that there are very strong non-perturbative preheating decay channels related to the particular shape of the inflaton potential (which is highly nonlinear and has a very steep minimum). Preheating after modular inflation, proceeding through a combination of tachyonic instability and broad-band parametric resonance, is perhaps the most violent example of preheating after inflation known in the literature. Further, we consider the subsequent transfer of energy to the standard model sector in scenarios where the standard model particles are confined to a D7-brane wrapping the inflationary blow-up cycle of the compactification manifold or, more interestingly, a non-inflationary blow up cycle. We explicitly identify the decay channels of the inflaton in these two scenarios. We also consider the case where the inflationary cycle shrinks to the string scale at the end of inflation; here a field theoretical treatment of reheating is insufficient and one must turn instead to a stringy description. We estimate the decay rate of the inflaton and the reheat temperature for various scenarios.

Neil Barnaby; J. Richard Bond; Zhiqi Huang; Lev Kofman

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Simulation of space particle bed reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

derived from the equations governing K ? FIX computer code. s Table 1. Summary Comparison of K ? FIX and FLUFIX codes Item I&FIX FLHFIX Interphase Drag Flexibility Initial Conditions Stability Gas ? Liquid LMFBR HCDR specific non ? isothermal...

Vincendon, Isabelle R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Granular Dynamics in Pebble Bed Reactor Cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+?t using the matrix equation X ipr (t + ! t) = X i (t) C prFollowing the predictor step, X ipr is used to evaluate theacceleration ? a i = a ico - a ipr is then used to update X

Laufer, Michael Robert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development - Nuclear Engineering Division  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

> Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development > Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development Capabilities Nuclear Systems Modeling and Design Analysis Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis Nuclear Data Program Advanced Reactor Development Overview Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR) Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development Generation IV Nuclear Waste Form and Repository Performance Modeling Nuclear Energy Systems Design and Development Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Advanced Reactor Development and Technology Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development Bookmark and Share STAR-LM: Simplified, Modular, Small Reactor Featuring Flow-thru Fuel Cartridge STAR-LM: Simplified, Modular, Small Reactor Featuring Flow-thru Fuel Cartridge. Click on image to view larger image. Argonne has traditionally been the foremost institute in the US for

204

Honeywell modular automation system acceptance test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the results of the Acceptance Test Procedure for the Honeywell Modular Automation System.

Cunningham, L.T., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

205

Modular Optical PDV System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A modular optical photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) detector system has been developed by using readily available optical components with a 20-GHz Miteq optical detector into eight channels of single-wide modules integrated into a 3U rack unit (1U = 1.75 inches) with a common power supply. Optical fibers were precisely trimmed, welded, and timed within each unit. This system has been used to collect dynamic velocity data on various physics experiments. An optical power meter displays the laser input power to the module and optical power at the detector. An adjustable micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) optical attenuator is used to adjust the amount of unshifted light entering the detector. Front panel LEDs show the presence of power to the module. A fully loaded chassis with eight channels consumes 45 watts of power. Each chassis requires 1U spacing above and below for heat management. Modules can be easily replaced.

Araceli Rutkowski, David Esquibel

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

206

Particle withdrawal from fluidized bed systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for removing ash formed within, and accumulated at the lower portion of, a fluidized bed coal gasification reactor vessel. A supplemental fluidizing gas, at a temperature substantially less than the average fluidized bed combustion operating temperature, is injected into the vessel and upwardly through the ash so as to form a discrete thermal interface region between the fluidized bed and the ash. The elevation of the interface region, which rises with ash accumulation, is monitored by a thermocouple and interrelated with a motor controlled outlet valve. When the interface rises above the temperature indicator, the valve opens to allow removal of some of the ash, and the valve is closed, or positioned at a minimum setting, when the interface drops to an elevation below that of the thermocouple.

Salvador, Louis A. (Greensburg, PA); Andermann, Ronald E. (Arlington Heights, IL); Rath, Lawrence K. (Mt. Pleasant, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Mathematical modeling and heat transfer experiments for an annular bed methane-steam reformer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new type of catalytic reactor has been proposed for conducting endothermic chemical reactions. The reactor catalyst bed is in the form of a tubular reactor with an annular cross-section. Heat is supplied to the catalyst bed by countercurrent flowing gases on opposite sides of the annulus walls. This study consisted of the development of a mathematical model to describe the performance of an annular bed reactor employing the methane-steam reforming reaction for the production of hydrogen. The model is two-dimensional, and predicts both axial and radial temperature and concentration profiles throughout the reactor. The model was used to perform parameter sensitivity studies, reactor size optimization, and reactor scaleup.

Summers, W.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

209

Nuclear Reactor Technologies | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reactor Technologies Reactor Technologies Nuclear Reactor Technologies TVA Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant | Photo courtesy of Tennessee Valley Authority TVA Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant | Photo courtesy of Tennessee Valley Authority Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Small Modular Reactor Technologies Small modular reactors can also be made in factories and transported to sites where they would be ready to "plug and play" upon arrival, reducing both capital costs and construction times. The smaller size also makes these reactors ideal for small electric grids and for locations that

210

Microsoft PowerPoint - Mod 2a - Background and Evolution - final...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AVR: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchs Reactor THTR: Thorium High Temperature NP-MHTGR: New Production MHTGR GT-MHR: Gas-Turbine Modular i g Reactor PBMR: Pebble Bed Modular Reactor...

211

Aspen Plus simulations of fluidised beds for chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is a technology able to generate energy whilst managing CO2 emissions. A system composed by two interconnected fluidised beds is often used in CLC: the two fluidised beds are employed for carrying out the oxidation and reduction reactions of the metal oxide employed as oxygen carrier. In this work, a model to implement fluidised bed systems in Aspen Plus is presented. Depending on the hydrodynamic regimes, two different models are considered: one of the two fluidised beds, called the fuel reactor, is modelled according to the two-phase theory (i.e. emulsion and bubble phase) whilst the other bed, called the air reactor, is assumed to operate in the fast fluidisation regime. Kinetic equations for heterogeneous gas/solid reactions are also considered in the model. Simulation tests for each fluidised bed are carried out, and comparisons are made with experimental data from the literature. A comparison with the largely used Gibbs reactor model is carried out showing the advantages of using the models developed here. In addition, the net heat duty of the whole process is calculated and the role of the main variables that affect the process is investigated.

Rosario Porrazzo; Graeme White; Raffaella Ocone

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Characterization of Solid Emissions from Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Two Czech Lignites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In fluidized-bed combustion, particles of coal burn within the bed of vigorously moving smaller inert particles with bed temperatures between 1000 and 1300 K. Due to intense heat transfer from the burning particle to bed particles and percolating gas, the temperature of a particle is on average 200 K above that of the bed (29, 30). ... Two lignites from the Centrum mine and the Vršany open pit mine (North Bohemian Coal Basin) were used in this study. ... The reactor is equipped with a supplementary natural gas burner, a feeding system, and measuring and control peripherals. ...

Ji?í Smolík; Jaroslav Schwarz; Václav Veselý; Ivana Sýkorová; Jan Kuc?era; Vladimír Havránek

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing ~24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during launch vibration. Details analysis indicates that the design offers a substantial improvement in specific power over the present generator of RTGs, using the same heat source modules. There are three copies in the file.

Schock, Alfred

1981-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

214

Conversion of methanol to light olefins on SAPO-34: kinetic modeling and reactor design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

design of an MTO reactor, accounting for the strong exothermicity of the process. Multi-bed adiabatic and fluidized bed technologies show good potential for the industrial process for the conversion of methanol into olefins....

Al Wahabi, Saeed M. H.

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

215

Modular low-aspect-ratio high-beta torsatron  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fusion-reactor device is described which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low-aspect-ratio toroid in planed having the cylindrical coordinate relationship phi = phi/sub i/ + kz, where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and phi/sub i/ is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z = o plane. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a race track minor cross section. When vertical field coils and, preferably, a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic-field-surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack-shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

Sheffield, G.V.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Radiation field modeling and optimization of a compact and modular  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation field modeling and optimization of a compact and modular Radiation field modeling and optimization of a compact and modular multi-plate photocatalytic reactor (MPPR) for air/water purification by Monte Carlo method Title Radiation field modeling and optimization of a compact and modular multi-plate photocatalytic reactor (MPPR) for air/water purification by Monte Carlo method Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Zazueta, Ana Luisa Loo, Hugo Destaillats, and Gianluca Li Puma Journal Chemical Engineering Journal Volume 217 Pagination 475-485 Date Published 02/01/2013 Abstract The radiation field in a multi-plate photocatalytic reactor (MPPR) for air or water purification was modeled and optimized using a Monte Carlo stochastic method. The MPPR consists of parallel photocatalytic plates irradiated by cylindrical UV lamps orthogonal to the plates. The photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO2) is supported on the plates as a thin film. The photoreactor design is compact and offers a large irradiated photocatalytic surface area, a high degree of photon utilization, low pressure drop and a modular design which can facilitate scale-up. These features are desirable for the decontamination of indoor air in ventilation ducts or for water detoxification. The Monte Carlo method was applied to determine three dimensionless reactor performance parameters: the photon absorption efficiency (Φ), the uniformity of the distribution of the dimensionless radiation intensity (η) and the overall photonic efficiency (Φ). The emission of photons from the light sources was simulated by the extensive source with superficial emission (ESSE) model. Simulations were performed by varying the catalyst reflectivity albedo, the number and the diameter of lamps, and the dimensions and spacing of the photocatalytic plates. Optimal design for a basic reactor module with one lamp was accomplished for lamp-diameter-to-plate-height ratio (β) of 0.7, while the plate-spacing-to-plate-height ratio (α) was correlated by [αoptimum = 0.191 β2 - 0.5597 β + 0.3854]. A multilamp arrangement leads to a feasible increase in the size and number of the plates and the irradiated photocatalytic surface area. The optimum design was validated by measuring the apparent quantum yield of the oxidation of toluene (7 ppmv) in a humidified air stream using immobilized TiO2 (Degussa P25). Experiments performed varying the geometrical parameter α correlated well with the model calculations, with maximum apparent quantum yield for α = 0.137. The results are directly transferable to the treatment of water by photocatalysis.

217

Invertible Program Restructurings for Continuing Modular Maintenance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Invertible Program Restructurings for Continuing Modular Maintenance Julien Cohen ASCOLA team (EMN in main- tenance with invertible program transformations. We illustrate this on the typical Expression problems with our approach. Keywords-modular maintenance; restructuring; invertible pro- gram

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 fuel fuel feed air products air fuel Retort) products Underfeed Combustion fuel feed air #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 required #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Overfeed Bed fuel motion products air

Hallett, William L.H.

219

Characteristics of Air-blown Gasification for Woods in a Fixed-bed Downdraft Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental investigation of a fixed-bed, downdraft air-blown gasifier has been carried out using wooden cubes...3 made of Lauan wood. The reactor is a cylinder with an internal diameter of 200 mm and a heigh...

Chih-Lun Hsi; Tzong-Yuan Wang; Chiu-Hao Liu…

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Modular multivariable control improves hydrocracking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modular multivariable control (MMC), a system of interconnected, single process variable controllers, can be a user-friendly, reliable and cost-effective alternative to centralized, large-scale multivariable control packages. MMC properties and features derive directly from the properties of the coordinated controller which, in turn, is based on internal model control technology. MMC was applied to a hydrocracking unit involving two process variables and three controller outputs. The paper describes modular multivariable control, MMC properties, tuning considerations, application at the DCS level, constraints handling, and process application and results.

Chia, T.L.; Lefkowitz, I. [ControlSoft, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Tamas, P.D. [Marathon Oil Co., Robinson, IL (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Innovative safety features of the modular HTGR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is an advanced reactor concept under development through a cooperative program involving the US Government, the nuclear industry, and the utilities. Near-term development is focused on electricity generation. The top-level safety requirement is that the plant's operation not disturb the normal day-to-day activities of the public. Quantitatively, this requires that the design meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's Protective Action Guides at the site boundary and hence preclude the need for sheltering or evacuation of the public. To meet these stringent safety requirements and at the same time provide a cost competitive design requires the innovative use of the basic high temperature gas-cooled reactor features of ceramic fuel, helium coolant, and a graphite moderator. The specific fuel composition and core size and configuration have been selected to the use the natural characteristics of these materials to develop significantly higher margins of safety. In this document the innovative safety features of the MHTGR are reviewed by examining the safety response to events challenging the functions relied on to retain radionuclides within the coated fuel particles. A broad range of challenges to core heat removal are examined, including a loss of helium pressure of a simultaneous loss of forced cooling of the core. The challenges to control of heat generation consider not only the failure to insert the reactivity control systems but also the withdrawal of control rods. Finally, challenges to control of chemical attack of the ceramic-coated fuel are considered, including catastrophic failure of the steam generator, which allows water ingress, or failure of the pressure vessels, which allows air ingress. The plant's response to these extreme challenges is not dependent on operator action, and the events considered encompass conceivable operator errors.

Silady, F.A.; Simon, W.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Innovative safety features of the modular HTGR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is an advanced reactor concept under development through a cooperative program involving the US Government, the nuclear industry, and the utilities. Near-term development is focused on electricity generation. The top-level safety requirement is that the plant`s operation not disturb the normal day-to-day activities of the public. Quantitatively, this requires that the design meet the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Protective Action Guides at the site boundary and hence preclude the need for sheltering or evacuation of the public. To meet these stringent safety requirements and at the same time provide a cost competitive design requires the innovative use of the basic high temperature gas-cooled reactor features of ceramic fuel, helium coolant, and a graphite moderator. The specific fuel composition and core size and configuration have been selected to the use the natural characteristics of these materials to develop significantly higher margins of safety. In this document the innovative safety features of the MHTGR are reviewed by examining the safety response to events challenging the functions relied on to retain radionuclides within the coated fuel particles. A broad range of challenges to core heat removal are examined, including a loss of helium pressure of a simultaneous loss of forced cooling of the core. The challenges to control of heat generation consider not only the failure to insert the reactivity control systems but also the withdrawal of control rods. Finally, challenges to control of chemical attack of the ceramic-coated fuel are considered, including catastrophic failure of the steam generator, which allows water ingress, or failure of the pressure vessels, which allows air ingress. The plant`s response to these extreme challenges is not dependent on operator action, and the events considered encompass conceivable operator errors.

Silady, F.A.; Simon, W.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Using Ilmenite To Reduce the Tar Yield in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, ilmenite was used as the catalytic material in the Chalmers 2–4 MWth dual fluidized bed gasifier to decrease the yield of tar. ... Indirect gasification, using the Dual Fluidized Bed (DFB) concept, has been identified as being suitable for medium- to large-scale production units. ... catalytic reactors, the implementation of specific reaction media such as supercrit. ...

Anton Larsson; Mikael Israelsson; Fredrik Lind; Martin Seemann; Henrik Thunman

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

224

Acoustics of modular construction—Industry overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This session will provide an overview of the issues and efforts impacting the commercial modular construction industry throughout North America with particular focus on acoustics in relocatable classrooms. The Modular Building Institute is the international nonprofit trade association representing manufacturers and dealers of commercial modular facilites both temporary and permanent serving educational health care retail industrial military and multi?family markets.

Thomas E. Hardiman

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Transportation Safeguards & Security Test Bed (TSSTB) | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Safeguards and Security Test Bed May 30, 2013 The Transportation Safeguards and Security Test Bed consists of a test-bed vehicle and a monitoringlaboratorytraining...

226

Tenth annual fluidized bed conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proceedings of the Tenth Annual Fluidized Bed Conference is presented. The Conference was held November 14-15, 1994 in Jacksonville, FL and covered such topics as: opportunity fuels, the fluid bed market, bubbling fluid bed retrofitting, waste fuel-based circulating fluidized-bed project, construction permits for major air pollution sources, fluidized bed residues, uses for fluidized bed combustion ash, ash pelletization, sorbents for FBC applications, refractory maintenance, and petroleum coke. A separate abstract and indexing have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

Nuclear Reactor (atomic reactor)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor splits Uranium or Plutonium nuclei, and the...235 is fissionable but more than 99% of the naturally occurring Uranium is U238 that makes enrichment mandatory. In some reactors U238 and Thorium23...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Staged fluidized bed  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

Mallon, R.G.

1983-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

229

Influence of gas flow rate on liquid distribution in trickle-beds using perforated plates as liquid distributors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

" the distribution imposed at the top of the reactor. Finally, a comparison between the two measuring techniques-beds reactors, the second will directly affect its performances. Indeed, a bad liquid distribution will not only distribution when fluids distribution on top of the reactor is ensured by a perforated plate. In opposition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

Analysis of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System for Very High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Tools  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The design of passive heat removal systems is one of the main concerns for the modular Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (VHTR) vessel cavity. The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is an important heat removal system in case of accidents...

Frisani, Angelo

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

231

An improved weighted average reactor temperature estimation for simulation of adiabatic industrial hydrotreaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A study on the improvement of the representative operating temperature from the temperature profile of an industrial adiabatic reactor is presented. This temperature is used to simulate the reactor performance by small scale laboratory isothermal reactors. An improved methodology for the estimation of a Weighted Average Bed Temperature (WABT) was elaborated to simulate an industrial multi-bed HDS reactor. The improved WABT, so called Weighted Average Reactor Temperature (WART), was compared with the most usually used WABT in a wide range of operational conditions as well as of kinetic parameters. In case of a multi-bed industrial hydrotreater, where quench zones are located between the beds and the H2 flow rate, which enters each bed, is different, the optimal gas to oil ratio was estimated for the laboratory-scale reactor.

G.D. Stefanidis; G.D. Bellos; N.G. Papayannakos

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Nuclear reactor control column  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Plum Borough, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Fluidized Bed Fuel Cell Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... smoothed the electrolyte flow through the bed. The mesh acted as bed support and electrical contactor to the beads. In the case of the hydrogen peroxide electrode the nickel mesh ... at the top 'of the bed for the hydrogen peroxide electrode and close to the contactor for the methanol electrode. In both cases polarization measurements were carried out at 20 ...

T. BERENT; I. FELLS; R. MASON

1969-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

234

Optimization of actinide transmutation in innovative lead-cooled fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thesis investigates the potential of fertile free fast lead-cooled modular reactors as efficient incinerators of plutonium and minor actinides (MAs) for application to dedicated fuel cycles for transmutation. A methodology ...

Romano, Antonino, 1972-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Reactor for exothermic reactions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

1993-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

236

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular Classroom Test Bed Title Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular Classroom Test Bed Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2005 Authors Apte, Michael G., Ian S. Buchanan, David Faulkner, William J. Fisk, Chi-Ming Lai, Michael Spears, and Douglas P. Sullivan Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract The primary goals of this research effort were to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research was motivated by several factors, including the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many classrooms are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in classrooms. This project involved the installation and verification of the performance of an Improved Heat Pump Air Conditioning (IHPAC) system, and its comparison, a standard HVAC system having an efficiency of 10 SEER. The project included the verification of the physical characteristics suitable for direct replacement of existing 10 SEER systems, quantitative demonstration of improved energy efficiency, reduced acoustic noise levels, quantitative demonstration of improved ventilation control, and verification that the system would meet temperature control demands necessary for the thermal comfort of the occupants. Results showed that the IHPAC met these goals. The IHPAC was found to be a direct bolt-on replacement for the 10 SEER system. Calculated energy efficiency improvements based on many days of classroom cooling or heating showed that the IHPAC system is about 44% more efficient during cooling and 38% more efficient during heating than the 10 SEER system. Noise reduction was dramatic, with measured A-weighed sound level for fan only operation conditions of 34.3 dB(A), a reduction of 19 dB(A) compared to the 10 SEER system. Similarly, the IHPAC stage-1 and stage-2 compressor plus fan sound levels were 40.8 dB(A) and 42.7 dB(A), reductions of 14 and 13 dB(A), respectively. Thus, the IHPAC is 20 to 35 times quieter than the 10 SEER systems depending upon the operation mode. The IHPAC system met the ventilation requirements and was able to provide consistent outside air supply throughout the study. Indoor CO2 levels with simulated occupancy were maintained below 1000 ppm. Finally temperature settings were met and controlled accurately. The goals of the laboratory testing phase were met and this system is ready for further study in a field test of occupied classrooms

237

Role of Nuclear Grade Graphite in Oxidation in Modular HTGRs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The passively safe High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design is one of the primary concepts considered for Generation IV and Small Modular Reactor (SMR) programs. The helium cooled, nuclear grade graphite moderated core achieves extremely high operating temperatures allowing either industrial process heat or electricity generation at high efficiencies. In addition to their neutron moderating properties, nuclear grade graphite core components provide excellent high temperature stability, thermal conductivity, and chemical compatibility with the high temperature nuclear fuel form. Graphite has been continuously used in nuclear reactors since the 1940’s and has performed remarkably well over a wide range of core environments and operating conditions. Graphite moderated, gas-cooled reactor designs have been safely used for research and power production purposes in multiple countries since the inception of nuclear energy development. However, graphite is a carbonaceous material, and this has generated a persistent concern that the graphite components could actually burn during either normal or accident conditions [ , ]. The common assumption is that graphite, since it is ostensibly similar to charcoal and coal, will burn in a similar manner. While charcoal and coal may have the appearance of graphite, the internal microstructure and impurities within these carbonaceous materials are very different. Volatile species and trapped moisture provide a source of oxygen within coal and charcoal allowing them to burn. The fabrication process used to produce nuclear grade graphite eliminates these oxidation enhancing impurities, creating a dense, highly ordered form of carbon possessing high thermal diffusivity and strongly (covalently) bonded atoms.

Willaim Windes; G. Strydom; J. Kane; R. Smith

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Conceptual design of a Ni-based chemical looping combustion process using fixed-beds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work presents a comprehensive conceptual design of a Ni-based chemical looping combustion process (CLC) carried out in fixed bed reactors. The process is intended to exploit the well-known advantages of the Ni/NiO redox system for CLC applications in terms of high reactivity, O2 carrying capacity and chemical and thermal stability. Solutions to the problem of heat management in fixed bed reactors at high temperature and high pressure are described, while a continuous flow of nitrogen for driving a gas turbine is produced. Each reactor involved in the process goes through a cyclic sequence of five reaction and heat transfer stages. Cool product gas recirculations are incorporated into the Ni oxidation and NiO reduction stages in order to moderate the maximum temperatures in the beds and control the displacement of the reaction and heat transfer fronts. A preliminary conceptual design of the process has been carried out to determine the minimum number of reactors needed for continuous operation in typical large-scale CO2 capture systems. Basic reactor models and assumptions based on an ideal plug flow pattern have been used in all the reactors during the chemical reactions and the heat transfer operations. This has made it possible to identify reasonable operating windows for the eight fixed-bed reactors that make up the CO2 capture system, and has demonstrated not only its technical viability but also its great potential for further development.

J.R. Fernández; J.C. Abanades

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Modular CHP System for Utica College: Design Specification, March...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Modular CHP System for Utica College: Design Specification, March 2007 Modular CHP System for Utica College: Design Specification, March 2007 This paper describes Utica College's...

240

Regulator of modular units and Mahler measures.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a proof of the formula, due to Mellit and Brunault, which evaluates an integral of the regulator of two modular units to the value of the $L$-series of a modular form of weight 2 at $s=2$. Applications of the formula to computing Mahler measures are discussed.

Wadim Zudilin.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

Comparato, Joseph R. (Bloomfield, CT); Jacobs, Martin (Hartford, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Assessment and reduction of proliferation risk of reactor-grade plutonium regarding construction of ‘fizzle bombs’ by terrorists  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The approximately 23.7 wt% 240Pu in reactor-grade plutonium denatures the 239Pu to the extent that it cannot fuel high yield nuclear weapons. 240Pu has a high spontaneous fission rate, which increases the spontaneous neutron flux within the fuel. When such a nuclear weapon is triggered, these neutrons cause the nuclear fission chain reaction to pre-detonate which blows the imploding fuel shell apart before the designed level of compression and reactivity could be attained, thereby greatly reducing the average energy yield of such “fizzle” bombs. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium is normally viewed as highly proliferation resistant. In this article the literature on the proliferation resistance of reactor-grade plutonium and on the mechanism and effect of fizzle bombs is reviewed in order to test this view. It is shown that even very low yield fizzle bombs, exploded in urban areas, would still cause serious blast damage as well as radioactive contamination. Combined with the high levels of induced terror, fizzle bombs might thus be attractive psychological weapons for terrorists. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium may not be sufficiently proliferation resistant against nuclear terrorism. However, denaturisation with more than 9% 238Pu produces high levels of decay heat which will melt or explode the high explosives around uncooled implosion type weapons, rendering them useless. Unfortunately, reactor-grade Pu contains only 2.7% 238Pu and is thus not sufficiently proliferation resistant in this respect. It is also shown that the associated neptunium poses a substantial proliferation risk. In the present study strong improvement of the proliferation resistance was demonstrated by simulation of incineration of reactor-grade plutonium in the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. Results for modified fuel cycles, aimed at transmutating 237Np to 238Pu are also reported. However, these modifications increased the disloaded heavy metal mass, thereby substantially increasing the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel. Therefore this intervention is not recommended. 237NP should thus rather be incinerated it in fast reactors, light-water reactors or CANDU reactors.

Dawid E. Serfontein; Eben J. Mulder; Frederik Reitsma

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Performance and Safety Analysis of a Generic Small Modular Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for spent fuel from a Westinghouse AP1000. The results showed that from a fuel material standpoint, the SMR and AP1000 had effectively the same PR value. Unable to analyze security systems and methods employed at specific nuclear power plant sites...

Kitcher, Evans Damenortey, 1987-

2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

244

Influence of bed materials on methanogenic characteristics and immobilized microbes in anaerobic digester  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports and discusses the effects of bed materials on the performance of methanogenic fluidized bed reactors with acetic acid as the sole organic substrate. Four bed materials (carbon filter, rock wool, loofah sponge and polyurethane foam) were evaluated and compared for their methanogenic characteristics and immobilized microbes. The present results indicated that the characteristics of the bed materials for immobilization had a significant influence on the methane production. The loofah sponge and polyurethane foam were suggested to be suitable for the bed material in anaerobic digestion. The best methane yield was obtained from the loofah reactor among the four kinds of bed materials. The main cellular morphologies present in the biofilms of the four different materials on the colonization were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The microphotographs indicated that the biofilm was primarily composed of coccus, diplococci-shaped Methanosarcina-like cells, long rods of Methanobacterium and coccobacillus of Methanobrevibacter-like bacteria. The morphologies observed from the microscopic analysis indicated that the different bed materials could provide specific conditions for the adherence of distinct microorganism types. Furthermore, a 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis was conducted to compare the immobilized archaeal population. The results of the 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis indicated that the major immobilized methanogens were Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanosarcina mazei in all the bed materials. A similar clone distribution was observed with the loofah sponge and the carbon felt.

Yingnan Yang; Chika Tada; Md Shohidullah Miah; Kenichiro Tsukahara; Tatsuo Yagishita; Shigeki Sawayama

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Coal Bed Methane Primer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

246

Fluidized bed boiler feed system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

CESAR: Center for Exascale Simulation of Advanced Reactors | Argonne  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CESAR: Center for Exascale Simulation of Advanced Reactors CESAR: Center for Exascale Simulation of Advanced Reactors CESAR: Center for Exascale Simulation of Advanced Reactors CESAR is an interdisciplinary center for developing an innovative, next-generation nuclear reactor analysis tool that both utilizes and guides the development of exascale computing platforms. Existing reactor analysis codes are highly tuned and calibrated for commercial light-water reactors, but they lack the physics fidelity to seamlessly carry over to new classes of reactors with significantly different design characteristics-as, for example, innovative concepts such as TerraPower's Traveling Wave reactor and Small Modular Reactor concepts. Without vastly improved modeling capabilities, the economic and safety characteristics of these and other novel systems will require tremendous

248

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g. organic and medical waste, drying, calcining and the like.

Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Results from the DOE Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modular HTGR designs were developed to provide natural safety, which prevents core damage under all design basis accidents and presently envisioned severe accidents. The principle that guides their design concepts is to passively maintain core temperatures below fission product release thresholds under all accident scenarios. This level of fuel performance and fission product retention reduces the radioactive source term by many orders of magnitude and allows potential elimination of the need for evacuation and sheltering beyond a small exclusion area. This level, however, is predicated on exceptionally high fuel fabrication quality and performance under normal operation and accident conditions. Germany produced and demonstrated high quality fuel for their pebble bed HTGRs in the 1980s, but no U.S. manufactured fuel had exhibited equivalent performance prior to the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The design goal of the modular HTGRs is to allow elimination of an exclusion zone and an emergency planning zone outside the plant boundary fence, typically interpreted as being about 400 meters from the reactor. To achieve this, the reactor design concepts require a level of fuel integrity that is better than that claimed for all prior US manufactured TRISO fuel, by a few orders of magnitude. The improved performance level is about a factor of three better than qualified for German TRISO fuel in the 1980’s. At the start of the AGR program, without a reactor design concept selected, the AGR fuel program selected to qualify fuel to an operating envelope that would bound both pebble bed and prismatic options. This resulted in needing a fuel form that could survive at peak fuel temperatures of 1250°C on a time-averaged basis and high burnups in the range of 150 to 200 GWd/MTHM (metric tons of heavy metal) or 16.4 to 21.8% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). Although Germany has demonstrated excellent performance of TRISO-coated UO2 particle fuel up to about 10% FIMA and 1150°C, UO2 fuel is known to have limitations because of CO formation and kernel migration at the high burnups, power densities, temperatures, and temperature gradients that may be encountered in the prismatic modular HTGRs. With uranium oxycarbide (UCO) fuel, the kernel composition is engineered to prevent CO formation and kernel migration, which are key threats to fuel integrity at higher burnups, temperatures, and temperature gradients. Furthermore, the recent poor fuel performance of UO2 TRISO fuel pebbles measured in Chinese irradiation testing in Russia and in German pebbles irradiated at 1250°C, and historic data on poorer fuel performance in safety testing of German pebbles that experienced burnups in excess of 10% FIMA [1] have each raised concern about the use of UO2 TRISO above 10% FIMA and 1150°C and the degree of margin available in the fuel system. This continues to be an active area of study internationally.

David Petti

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Heat dissipating nuclear reactor with metal liner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment including a reactor vessel disposed within a cavity with capability for complete inherent decay heat removal in the earth and surrounded by a cast steel containment member which surrounds the vessel. The member has a thick basemat in contact with metal pilings. The basemat rests on a bed of porous particulate material, into which water is fed to produce steam which is vented to the atmosphere. There is a gap between the reactor vessel and the steel containment member. The containment member holds any sodium or core debris escaping from the reactor vessel if the core melts and breaches the vessel.

Gluekler, Emil L. (San Jose, CA); Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Lazarus, Jonathan D. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

TEPP Training - Modular Emergency Response Radiological Transportation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Services » Waste Management » Packaging and Transportation » Services » Waste Management » Packaging and Transportation » Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program » TEPP Training - Modular Emergency Response Radiological Transportation Training (MERRTT) TEPP Training - Modular Emergency Response Radiological Transportation Training (MERRTT) Once the jurisdiction has completed an evaluation of their plans and procedures, they will need to address any gaps in training. To assist, TEPP has developed the Modular Emergency Response Radiological Transportation Training (MERRTT) program. MERRTT provides fundamental knowledge for responding to transportation incidents involving radiological material and builds on training in existing hazardous materials curricula. MERRTT satisfies the training requirements outlined in the Waste Isolation Pilot

252

Modular design for increasing assembly automation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Modular design can address the need for a high number of product variants and further allow a higher degree of automation in the assembly line. A framework is developed for the simultaneous modular product design and the design of automated manufacturing system. Product designs are optimized for automation using Design Structure Matrix and Modular Function Deployment. Alternative production systems are designed and accessed based on the analysis of assembly steps hierarchically. The implementation of the framework on the design of a production system for furniture assembly, able to handle multiple variants with a large number of components, is demonstrated.

Konstantinos Salonitis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The general specifications for a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor Design Report (PAFBC) plant are presented. The design tasks for the PAFBC are described in the following areas: Coal/Limestone preparation and feed system; pulse combustor; fluidized bed; boiler parts; and ash handling system.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland J. L. Bamber 1 ,al. : A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland Howat, I. M.al. : A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland Fig. 3. (a)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

A MODULAR, SCALABLE, ARCHITECTURE FOR UNMANNED VEHICLES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A MODULAR, SCALABLE, ARCHITECTURE FOR UNMANNED VEHICLES David G. Armstrong II, Carl D. Crane III://www.me.ufl.edu/CIMAR Ralph English Wintec, Inc. Ft. Walton Beach, Florida Phillip Adsit Applied Research Associates Tyndall

Florida, University of

256

Honeywell modular automation system computer software documentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a Computer Software Docuemntation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-21I.

Cunningham, L.T.

1997-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

257

A design flow based on modular refinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a practical methodology based on modular refinement to design complex systems. The methodology relies on modules with latency-insensitive interfaces so that the refinements can change the timing contract of a ...

Dave, Nirav H.

258

Design of a modular motorcycle windshield wiper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motorcycle windshield wipers are essentially non-existent in the United States. Customer and market research reveals a demand for such a product. This paper explores the product viability of a modular motorcycle windshield ...

Boyd, Robert Allen Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Fixed bed gasification studies on coal-feedlot biomass and coal-chicken litter biomass under batch mode operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the processes for energy conversion of biomass fuels is thermochemical gasification. For the current study, a laboratory scale, 10 kW[th], fixed-bed gasifier (reactor internal diameter 0.15 m, reactor height 0.30 m) facility was built at the Texas A...

Priyadarsan, Soyuz

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

260

E-Print Network 3.0 - ap600 testing program Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modular Pebble Bed Reactor Collection: Fission and Nuclear Technologies 4 NUCLEAR ENERGY RENAISSANCE:NUCLEAR ENERGY RENAISSANCE: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES OF CLIMATE CHANGE...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

E-Print Network 3.0 - accident release fractions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering, Modular Pebble Bed Reactor Collection: Fission and Nuclear Technologies 4 Spatial Data Analysis and Modeling of Radioactively-Contaminated Territories: Lessons...

262

Microsoft Word - NGNP_Special Study_20.2_01-31-07.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Layer Thickness PBMR Pebble Bed Modular Reactor PCU Power Conversion Unit PHP Process Heat Plant PLOFC Pressurized Loss of Forced Cooling R&D Research and Development RBMK...

263

Microsoft Word - 11-22708_HTGRSafetyBasis_Final-8-31-11-A LAR...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electric Company, LLC, and Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) Pty Ltd. from South Africa, AREVA NP, Inc., and General Atomics. These plants were designed for production of...

264

ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000 F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.'s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 C (700 F) to 538 C (1000 F) and regeneration temperatures up to 760 C (1400 F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent development at General Electric's Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

R.E Ayala; V.S. Venkataramani; Javad Abbasian; Rachid B. Slimane; Brett E. Williams; Minoo K. Zarnegar; James R. Wangerow; Andy H. Hill

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

265

ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM; DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 °C (900-1000 °F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.?s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 °C (650 °F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 °C (650-1000 °F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 °C (700 °F) to 538 °C (1000 °F) and regeneration tempera-tures up to 760 °C (1400 °F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent develop-ment at General Electric?s Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

R.E. AYALA; V.S. VENKATARAMANI

1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

266

Modular ITT Module D Modular ITT Module D Version 1 16/02/2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

manage health and safety at work. Your responses should include: basic statement on safety awarenessModular ITT ­ Module D Modular ITT ­ Module D Version 1 16/02/2012 Module D ­ Health & Safety an overall failing of your bid. This section allows us to assess your competency for health and safety. We

267

Figure 1. Recurrent modular network architecture Recurrent modular network architecture for sea ice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Classification of sea ice in MIZ is important for navigation in these regions and for accurate evaluation of heatFigure 1. Recurrent modular network architecture Recurrent modular network architecture for sea ice classification in the Marginal Ice Zone using ERS SAR images Andrey V. Bogdanov1a , Marc Toussaint1b , Stein

Toussaint, Marc

268

Transport reactor development status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is part of METC`s Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located at Wilsonville, Alabama. The primary objective of the Advanced Gasifier module is to produce vitiated gases for intermediate-term testing of Particulate Control Devices (PCDs). The Transport reactor potentially allows particle size distribution, solids loading, and particulate characteristics in the off-gas stream to be varied in a number of ways. Particulates in the hot gases from the Transport reactor will be removed in the PCDs. Two PCDs will be initially installed in the module; one a ceramic candle filter, the other a granular bed filter. After testing of the initial PCDs they will be removed and replaced with PCDs supplied by other vendors. A secondary objective is to verify the performance of a Transport reactor for use in advanced Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IG-FC), and Pressurized Combustion Combined Cycle (PCCC) power generation units. This paper discusses the development of the Transport reactor design from bench-scale testing through pilot-scale testing to design of the Process Development Unit (PDU-scale) facility at Wilsonville.

Rush, R.E.; Fankhanel, M.O.; Campbell, W.M.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment structure base mat so as to insulate the reactor vessel bottom end wall from the containment structure base mat and allow the reactor vessel bottom end wall to freely expand as it heats up while providing continuous support thereof. Further, a deck is supported upon the side wall of the containment structure above the top open end of the reactor vessel, and a plurality of serially connected extendible and retractable annular bellows extend between the deck and the top open end of the reactor vessel and flexibly and sealably interconnect the reactor vessel at its top end to the deck. An annular guide ring is disposed on the containment structure and extends between its side wall and the top open end of the reactor vessel for providing lateral support of the reactor vessel top open end by limiting imposition of lateral loads on the annular bellows by the occurrence of a lateral seismic event.

Sharbaugh, John E. (Bullskin Township, Fayette County, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Twelfth annual fluidized bed conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Fluidized Bed Conference held November 11-13, 1996 in Pittsburgh, PA are presented. Information is given on: owner`s discussions; new aspects and field upgrades in fluidized bed boilers; manufacturer`s perspectives; fuel considerations; FBC ash reclassification; and beneficial uses of FBC ash. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

Stream-bed scour, egg burial depths, and the influence of salmonid spawning on bed surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stream-bed scour, egg burial depths, and the influence of salmonid spawning on bed surface mobility-Hames, and Thomas P. Quinn Abstract: Bed scour, egg pocket depths, and alteration of stream-bed surfaces by spawning chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) were measured in two Pacific Northwest gravel-bedded streams. Close

Montgomery, David R.

272

Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main tasks was to design and validate new gate drive circuits to provide the capability of high temp operation. The new power stages and controls were later validated through extensive performance, durability and environmental tests. To further validate the design, two power stages and controls were integrated into a grid-tied load bank test fixture, a real application for field-testing. This fixture was designed to test motor drives with PWM output up to 50kW. In the second part of this program the new control topology based on sub-phases control and interphase transformer technology was successfully developed and validated. The main advantage of this technology is to reduce magnetic mass, loss and current ripple. This report summarizes the results of the advanced modular inverter technology development and details: (1) Power stage development and fabrication (2) Power stage validation testing (3) Grid-tied test fixture fabrication and initial testing (4) Interphase transformer technology development

Adam Szczepanek

2006-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

273

Modular cell biology: retroactivity and insulation Domitilla Del Vecchio1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modular cell biology: retroactivity and insulation Domitilla Del Vecchio1, *, Alexander J Ninfa2 a remarkable insulation property, due to the fast timescales of the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation: computational methods; metabolic and regulatory networks Keywords: feedback; insulation; modularity; singular

Sontag, Eduardo

274

Conversion model aids scale-up of mobil's fluid-bed MTG process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mobil's fluid-bed Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) process was successfully scaled-up, from 0.04m diameter reactor, through 0.1m, to 0.6m diameter demonstration plant. Gas tracer responses in cold flow models were interpreted by a one-dimensional axial dispersion model, and combined with reaction kinetics to develop a conversion model.

M. Edwards; A. Avidan

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

A Modular Building Controls Virtual Test Bed for the Integrations of Heterogeneous Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Martin Otter, Proceedings of the 2nd Modelica con- ference.Modelica Association and Deutsches Zen- trum fur Luft- und

Wetter, Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Introduction and Condensation The 2-modular characters of Fi23  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction and Condensation The 2-modular characters of Fi23 Problem, Perfidy, Tricks, and Tackling them Verification, Overview and Outlook Computing the 2-modular characters of Fi23 Max Neunhöffer23 #12;Introduction and Condensation The 2-modular characters of Fi23 Problem, Perfidy, Tricks

Neunhöffer, Max

277

Initial Design of a Dual Fluidized Bed Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes in a BFB coal gasifier, chemical engineeringbed biomass steam gasifier, Powder Technology 180 (2008)The reaction condition of gasifier is 800 o C and 400 psi.

Yun, Minyoung

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

PEBBLE-BED NUCLEAR REACTOR SYSTEM PHYSICS AND FUEL UTILIZATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In addition, I also appreciate the support of the ORNL, particularly my mentor Germina Ilas, who gave me the opportunity to expand upon my research in a national lab environment. Megan Pritchard also made important contributions with her previous work.... Finally, I would like to thank my advisor Pavel Tsvetkov for his support of my academic career and for funding my research. vii NOMENCLATURE HCP Hexagonal Close Packed HPP Hexagonal Point-to-Point ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory P...

Kelly, Ryan 1989-

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

279

Piecing together modular : understanding the benefits and limitations of modular construction methods for multifamily development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary purpose of this thesis is to explain the benefits and limitations of modular construction as it pertains to primarily wood-frame, multifamily housing in the United States. This thesis attempts to educate the ...

Cameron, Peter J. (Peter Jay)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Fluid-bed studies of olefin production from methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With newly developed technology, conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons represents the final link in the production of premium transportation fuels from coal or natural gas. The methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process has been developed. The more readily scaled fixed-bed version is the heart of the New Zealand Gas-to-gasoline complex, which will produce 14,000 BPD high octane gasoline from 120 million SCFD gas. The fluid-bed version of the process, which is also available for commercial license, has a higher thermal efficiency and possesses substantial yield and octane advantages over the fixed-bed. Successful scale-up was completed in 1984 in a 100 BPD semi-works plant near Cologne, West Germany. The project funded jointly by the U.S. and German governments and an industrial consortium comprised of Mobil; Union Rheinsche Braunkohlen Kraftstoff, AG; and Uhde, GmbH. The 100 BPD MTG project was extended recently to demonstrate a related fluid bed process for selective conversion of methanol to light olefins (MTO). The products of the MTO reaction make an excellent feed to the commercially available Mobile-Olefins-to-Gasoline-and-Distillate process (MOGD) which selectively converts olefins to premium transportation fuels . A schematic of the combined processes is shown. Total liquid fuels production is typically greater than 90 wt% of hydrocarbon in the feed. Distillate/gasoline product ratios from the plant can be adjusted over a wide range to meet seasonal demands. This paper describes the initial scale-up of the MTO process from a micro-fluid-bed reactor (1-10 grams of catalyst) to a large pilot unit (10-25 kilograms of catalyst).

Socha, R.F.; Chang, C.D.; Gould, R.M.; Kane, S.E.; Avidan, A.A.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a Computer Software Documentation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-211 and vertical denitration calciner in HC-230C-2.

CUNNINGHAM, L.T.

1999-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

282

Advanced atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion design - spouted bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the Spouted-Fluidized Bed Boiler that is an advanced atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (FBC). The objective of this system design study is to develop an advanced AFBC with improved performance and reduced capital and operating costs compared to a conventional AFBC and an oil-fired system. The Spouted-Fluidized Bed (SFB) system is a special type of FBC with a distinctive jet of air in the bed to establish an identifiable solids circulation pattern. This feature is expected to provide: reduced NO/sub x/ emissions because of the fuel rich spout zone; high calcium utilization, calcium-to-sulfur ratio of 1.5, because of the spout attrition and mixing; high fuel utilization because of the solids circulation and spout attrition; improved thermal efficiency because of reduced solids heat loss; and improved fuel flexibility because of the spout phenomena. The SFB was compared to a conventional AFBC and an oil-fired package boiler for 15,000 pound per hour system. The evaluation showed that the operating cost advantages of the SFB resulted from savings in fuel, limestone, and waste disposal. The relative levelized cost for steam from the three systems in constant 1985 dollars is: SFB - $10 per thousand pounds; AFBC - $11 per thousand pounds; oil-fired - $14 per thousand pounds. 18 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

Shirley, F.W.; Litt, R.D.

1985-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

283

Chemical and Physical Characterization of a TiO2-Coated Fiber Optic Cable Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Practical application of metal oxide photocatalysts for the remediation of contaminated wastestreams often requires immobilization of the photocatalyst in a fixed-bed reactor configuration that allows the continu ous use of the photocatalyst by ...

Nicola J. Peill; Michael R. Hoffmann

1996-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

284

Reactor Design, Cold-Model Experiment and CFD Modeling for Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an efficient, clean and...2...capture, and an interconnected fluidized bed is more appropriate solution for CLC. This paper aims to design a reactor system for CLC, carry out ...

Shaohua Zhang; Jinchen Ma; Xintao Hu…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Creating value for the business service buyer through modularity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study explores how modularity makes services visible and how it enables the customers to participate in service co-creation. We review the literature on buying business services to determine the buying challenges and we define service modularity and especially concentrate on defining the attributes of a modular service offering. Theoretical framework describing the connections of the attributes and challenges in service buying is elaborated through a single case study of a modular service in a professional service firm. We argue that a modular service offering can help customers by increasing the visibility of the service offering.

Pauliina Ulkuniemi; Saara Pekkarinen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion of coal and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with deposits most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Other deposit locations included side walls and return loops. Three general types of mineralogic reactions were observed to occur in the agglomerates and deposits. Although alkalies may play a role with some {open_quotes}high alkali{close_quotes} lignites, we found agglomeration was initiated due to fluxing reactions between iron (II) from pyrites and aluminosilicates from clays. This is indicated by the high amounts of iron, silica, and alumina in the agglomerates and the mineralogy of the agglomerates. Agglomeration likely originated in the dense phase of the FBC bed within the volatile plume which forms when coal is introduced to the boiler. Secondary mineral reactions appear to occur after the agglomerates have formed and tend to strengthen the agglomerates. When calcium is present in high amounts, most of the minerals in the resulting deposits are in the melilite group (gehlenite, melilite, and akermanite) and pyroxene group (diopside and augite). During these solid-phase reactions, the temperature of formation of the melilite minerals can be lowered by a reduction of the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (Diopside + Calcite {r_arrow}Akermanite).

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is working under DOE contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx}2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate sequestration of stack gas carbon dioxide gases for a 100% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building block that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. The PGM consists of a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) reactor together with a recycle cyclone and a particulate removing barrier filter. Coal, air, steam, and possibly sand are fed to the bottom of the PCFB reactor and establish a relatively dense bed of coal/char in the bottom section. As these constituents react, a hot syngas is produced which conveys the solids residue vertically up through the reactor and into the recycle cyclone. Solids elutriated from the dense bed and contained in the syngas are collected in the cyclone and drain via a dipleg back to the dense bed at the bottom of the PCFB reactor. This recycle loop of hot solids acts as a thermal flywheel and promotes efficient solid-gas chemical reaction.

Unknown

2001-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

288

Rotary bed reactor for chemical-looping combustion with carbon capture ; Rotary bed reactor for CLC with carbon capture .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising technology for power generation with inherent CO2 capture. Currently almost all the research has been focused on… (more)

Zhao, Zhenlong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Bed management in a Critical Care Unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......can also be approach using a stochastic...150 BED MANAGEMENT IN A CRITICAL...of Decision Sciences and Information Management, Catholic University...bed-occupancy management and planning...Improving the Sipp approach for staffing......

J. D. Griffiths; V. Knight; I. Komenda

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Eleventh annual fluidized bed conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Fluidized Bed Conference are presented. The Conference was held November 14-15, 1995 in Allentown, Pennsylvania and discussed the following topics: third and fourth generation systems; fuel considerations; and FBC energy and environmntal regulatory issues. A separate abstract was entered into the Energy Science and Technology Database for each of the 19 papers presented at the conference.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

291

Pebble-Bed Simulation1 5.1 Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- actor [49], which offers meltdown-proof passive safety, convenient long-term waste storage, modular

Rycroft, Chris H.

292

Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

293

Simulation of Syngas Production from Municipal Solid Waste Gasification in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Using Aspen Plus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simulation of Syngas Production from Municipal Solid Waste Gasification in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Using Aspen Plus ... When the reaction kinetics is not known, a rigorous reactor and multiphase equilibrium based on the minimization of the total Gibbs free energy of the product mixture (an RGibbs block) is preferred to predict the equilibrium composition of the produced syngas. ... Catalytic steam gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce hydrogen-rich gas or syngas (H2 + CO) with calcined dolomite as a catalyst in a bench-scale downstream fixed bed reactor was investigated. ...

Miaomiao Niu; Yaji Huang; Baosheng Jin; Xinye Wang

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

294

NUCLEAR REACTORS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Nuclear reactors are devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain… (more)

Belachew, Dessalegn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Fluidized bed pyrolysis of terrestrial biomass feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hybrid poplar, switchgrass, and corn stover were pyrolyzed in a bench scale fluidized-bed reactor to examine the influence of storage time on thermochemical converting of these materials. The influence of storage on the thermochemical conversion of the biomass feedstocks was assessed based on pyrolysis product yields and chemical and instrumental analyses of the pyrolysis products. Although char and gas yields from corn stover feedstock were influenced by storage time, hybrid poplar and switchgrass were not significantly affected. Liquid, char, and gas yields were feedstock dependent. Total liquid yields (organic+water) varied from 58%-73% depending on the feedstock. Char yields varied from 14%-19% while gas yields ranged from 11%-15%. The chemical composition of the pyrolysis oils from hybrid polar feedstock was slightly changed by storage, however, corn stover and switchgrass feedstock showed no significant changes. Additionally, stored corn stover and hybrid poplar pyrolysis oils showed a significant decrease in their higher heating values compared to the fresh material.

Besler, S.; Agblevor, F.A.; Davis, M.F. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

296

The development of an integrated multistage fluid bed retorting process. [Kentort II process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT II) during the period of April 1, 1992 through June 30, 1992. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The raw oil shale sample for the program was mined, prepared, characterized and stored this quarter. The shale that was chosen was from the high-grade zone of the Devonian Cleveland Member of the Ohio Shale in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The shale was mined and then transported to the contractor's crushing facility where it was crushed, double-screened, and loaded into 85 55-gal barrels. The barrels, containing a total of 25-30 tons of shale, were transported to the (CAER) Center for Applied Energy Research where the shale was double-screened, analyzed and stored. A major objective of the program is the study of solid-induced secondary coking and cracking reactions. A valved fluidized bed reactor has been the primary apparatus used for this study prior to this quarter, but two additional techniques have been initiated this quarter for the study of other aspects of this issue. First, the two-stage hydropyrolysis reactor at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, was used to study the coking tendency of shale oil vapors under a wide range of pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis conditions. This work enabled us to examine secondary reactions under high pressure conditions (up to 150 bar) which were previously unavailable. Second, the development of a fixed bed reactor system was initiated at the CAER to study the coking and cracking characteristics of model compounds. A fixed bed apparatus was necessary because the conversion of model compounds was too low in the fluidized bed apparatus.

Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Robl, T.L.; Hower, J.C.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Uniform retorting of an anisotropic shale bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ oil shale retorts have typically been designed for the fracturing event to produce a rubble bed having uniform cross-sectional rubble properties. This uniform rubble bed approach strived to produce constant void fraction and particle size distribution within all regions of the rubble bed. Ideally, these isotropic rubble beds have uniform flow of oxidants, retorting and combustion products. However, edge effects during the blast event typically produce channeling at the retort walls during processing, reducing the rubble sweep and the local yield. Second generation in situ retorts are addressing uniform retorting within the rubble bed rather than the uniformity of rubble bed properties. Here, the blast design produces and anisotropic rubble bed with varying particle size distribution and void fraction normal to the direction of flow. This paper describes a laboratory experiment in which a highly-instrumented, 100 kg bed of shale with zones of differing particle size and void was retorted. Shale particle size and void were varied over the retort cross-section so that a retorting front would move at a constant velocity downward through the rubble bed. The bed was designed using data from numerous pressure drop measurements on uniform shale beds of varying shale particle size distribution and void. Retorting of the bed showed a uniform retorting front and a yield comparable with that achieved in isotropic shale beds. We present thermal data and offgas, oil and shale analyses (allowing material and energy balance closures) and compare these data to previous vertical retorting experiments on uniform and non-uniform beds of shale. This experiment verifies that uniform retorting fronts can be achieved in correctly designed anisotropic beds of shale and validates the concept of uniform retorting in order increase the oil recovery in second generation retorts. 20 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

Bickel, T.C.; Cook, D.W.; Engler, B.P.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Guthrie, Stephen E. (Livermore, CA); Raber, Thomas N. (Livermore, CA); Wally, Karl (Lafayette, CA); Whinnery, LeRoy L. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Fluidized-bed gasification of an eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current conceptual HYTORT process design for the hydroretorting of oil shales employs moving-bed retorts that utilize shale particles larger than 3 mm. Work at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is in progress to investigate the potential of high-temperature (1100 to 1300 K) fluidized-bed gasification of shale fines (<3 mm size) using steam and oxygen as a technique for more complete utilization of the resource. Synthesis gas produced from fines gasification can be used for making some of the hydrogen needed in the HYTORT process. After completing laboratory-scale batch and continuous gasification tests with several Eastern oil shales, two tests with Indiana New Albany shale were conducted in a 0.2 m diameter fluidized-bed gasification process development unit (PDU). A conceptual gasifier design for 95% carbon conversion was completed. Gasification of 20% of the mined shale can produce the hydrogen required by the HYTORT reactor to retort 80% of the remaining shale. 12 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Lau, F.S.; Rue, D.M.; Punwani, D.V.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Conductivity tracer studies for a fluidized-bed bioreactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An automated conductivity tracer test was developed to measure the residence time distribution (RTD) of a cometabolic fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBBR). The FBBR contained sand-core bioparticles grown with phenol and it provided high (70% to 80%) removal of trichloroethene (TCE) at short (3 minute) detention times. The tracer test apparatus was constructed with off-the-shelf components controlled with a PC-based data acquisition system. Non-disruptive hydrodynamic testing was obtained during normal operation of the FBBR. The conductivity of injected brine pulses was monitored at the reactor inlet and outlet. Dispersion numbers and detention times were computed by fitting the advection-dispersion model to the tracer curves. Typical dispersion numbers attributed to the fluidized-bed of bioparticles ranged from 0.07 to 0.11. In simplified modeling of the FBBR, dispersion was found to have little effect on TCE removal. Based on the dispersion of brine pulses, it was determined that phenol feed pulses injected at inhibitory concentrations over 2 g/L would be rapidly dispersed in the biological bed to non-inhibitory concentrations.

Leung, S.Y.; Segar, R.L. Jr. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Rapid starting methanol reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

Chludzinski, Paul J. (38 Berkshire St., Swampscott, MA 01907); Dantowitz, Philip (39 Nancy Ave., Peabody, MA 01960); McElroy, James F. (12 Old Cart Rd., Hamilton, MA 01936)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Transient Simulations of Spouted Fluidized Bed for Coal-Direct Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transient Simulations of Spouted Fluidized Bed for Coal-Direct Chemical Looping Combustion ... Instead of having air to support the combustion process, an oxygen compound (metal or non-metal based) is used as an oxidizer in the fuel reactor; thus, the fuel is chemically combusted by the metal oxide than the oxygen present in air in case of standard power plants. ... The CFD/DEM simulation approach has been used in various applications which require the modeling of particle/fluid interaction;(19-23) however, its application in the context of close-loop spouted fluidized bed system has so far been quite limited and preliminary. ...

Zheming Zhang; Ling Zhou; Ramesh Agarwal

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

303

Modular architecture for robotics and teleoperation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods for modularization and discretization of real-time robot, telerobot and teleoperation systems using passive, network based control laws. Modules consist of network one-ports and two-ports. Wave variables and position information are passed between modules. The behavior of each module is decomposed into uncoupled linear-time-invariant, and coupled, nonlinear memoryless elements and then are separately discretized.

Anderson, Robert J. (11908 Ibex Ave., N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

304

Modular test facility for HTS insert coils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The final beam cooling stages of a Muon Collider may require DC solenoid magnets with magnetic fields in the range of 40-50 T. In this paper we will present a modular test facility developed for the purpose of investigating very high field levels with available 2G HTS superconducting materials. Performance of available conductors is presented, together with magnetic calculations and evaluation of Lorentz forces distribution on the HTS coils. Finally a test of a double pancake coil is presented.

Lombardo, V; Bartalesi, A.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed Title CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-3553E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Lasseter, Robert H., Joseph H. Eto, Ben Schenkman, John Stevens, Harry T. Volkommer, David Klapp, Ed Linton, Hector Hurtado, and Joyashree Roy Journal IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery Volume 26 Start Page 325 Issue 1 Date Published 01/2011 Keywords distributed energy resources (der) Abstract CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a "microgrid". The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resynchronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults. Keywords: CHP, UPS, distributed generation, intentional islanding, inverters, microgrid, CERTS, power vs. frequency droop, voltage droop.

307

Improved catalyst loading reduces guard reactor fouling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new catalyst-loading strategy reduced the fouling tendency of the gas oil hydrotreater guard reactors at Syncrude Canada Ltd.'s heavy-crude upgrading facilities. Studies conducted on the guard reactors were designed to determine the thermal stability of the coker gas oil and to understand the properties of the fouling material. Small particles (described as fines) were present in the upper section of the removed catalyst bed. This part of the bed was then replaced in one of three ways. One way was to replace the catalyst with used, nonregenerated catalyst, and cover the catalyst with nonactive support balls, 10 and 13 mm in diameter. The second way was to fill the entire space with nonactive support balls, and the third way was to fill with regenerated oxidic catalyst combined with semiactive support balls (unsulfided).

Sanford, E.C.; Kirchen, R.P. (Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton (CA))

1988-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

308

Modular CHP System for Utica College: Design Specification, March 2007  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report describes a system specification for purchasing the modularized components of a cogeneration facility for assembly, shipping, and onsite operation.

309

A graphical operations interface for modular surface systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents the design and implementation of algorithms for a new graphical operations interface system specifically adapted to operating modular reconfigurable articulated surface systems. Geometric models of ...

Vona, Marsette A.

310

Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

Anstine, Larry D. (San Jose, CA); James, Dean B. (Saratoga, CA); Melaika, Edward A. (Berkeley, CA); Peterson, Jr., John P. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Reactor Physics, Thermal-hydraulics and Depletion Uncertainty Analysis: Description of the Benchmark Test Cases and Phases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The uncertainties in the HTR analysis tools are today typically assessed with sensitivity analysis and then a few important input uncertainties (typically based on a PIRT process) are varied in the analysis to find a spread in the parameter of importance. However, one wish to apply a more fundamental approach to determine the predictive capability and accuracies of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations used for reactor design and safety assessment. Today there is a broader acceptance of the use of uncertainty analysis even in safety studies and it has been accepted by regulators in some cases to replace the traditional conservative analysis. Finally, there is also a renewed focus in supplying reliable covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) that can then be used in uncertainty methods. Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are therefore becoming an essential component of any significant effort in data and simulation improvement. In order to address uncertainty in analysis and methods in the HTGR community the IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling early in 2012. The project is built on the experience of the OECD/NEA Light Water Reactor (LWR) Uncertainty Analysis in Best-Estimate Modelling (UAM) benchmark activity, but focuses specifically on the peculiarities of HTGR designs and its simulation requirements. Two benchmark problems were defined with the prismatic type design represented by the MHTGR-350 design from General Atomics (GA) while a 250 MW modular pebble bed design, similar to the INET (China) and indirect-cycle PBMR (South Africa) designs are also included. In the paper more detail on the benchmark cases, the different specific phases and tasks and the latest status and plans are presented.

Frederik Reitsma; Gerhard Strydom; Bismark Tyobeka; Kostadin Ivanov

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

naval reactors  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

After operating for 34 years and training over 14,000 sailors, the Department of Energy S1C Prototype Reactor Site in Windsor, Connecticut, was returned to "green field"...

314

Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Zboray, James A. (Irvine, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Battery using a metal particle bed electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A zinc-air battery in a case including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit.

Evans, James V. (Piedmont, CA); Savaskan, Gultekin (Albany, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Building a Raised Bed Garden  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

need, and are less likely to wet foliage. However, they do have some disadvantages. Emitters are prone to clogging unless the water used is very clean, and if emitters are installed under mulch it is difficult to spot problems. Emitters are also... this flexibility as your plantings mature. If you choose drip or trickle irrigation, determine the length of the hose and the number of emitters you will need. Drip tape with 12-inch emitter spacing is best for vegetables. Beds should be divided into watering zones...

Files, Priscilla J.; Dainello, Frank J.; Arnold, Michael A.; Welsh, Douglas F.

2009-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

317

Circulating fluidised-bed combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam generators with circulating fluidized-bed combustion systems (CFBC) are characterized by a high degree of environmental comparability and a wide acceptance for FBC boiler plants involving a wide fuel spectrum which ranges from dried brown coal to high-ash coal and low-volatile bituminous coal as well as wood waste and bark. These plants incorporate a variety of CFBC systems. The choice in favor of different system options was not motivated by the inherent fuel properties but has evolved from the progressive advancement in power station FBC technology. The article elucidates several FBC system variants.

Rettemeier, W.; von der Kammer, G. (Steinmueller (L.u.C.) GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany, F.R.))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Texaco T-STAR Process for ebullated bed hydrotreating/hydrocracking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Texaco has developed an ebullated bed hydrotreater/hydrocracker process called the T-STAR Process. This process is based upon the well known residuum H-Oil[reg sign] Process and Texaco's fixed bed hydrotreating/hydrocracking technology experience. T-STAR is ideally suited for hard to process feedstocks and for difficult processing requirements for the 90's such as FCCU feed pretreating, gas oil hydrocracking, and diesel aromatics reduction. The T-STAR reactors can be used in-line as hydrotreaters/hydrocrackers within an H-Oil[reg sign] unit. Pilot plant data are presented for several reactor/process configurations as well as commercial data and yields for a heavy gas oil operation. Texaco and HRI are offering the T-STAR Process to refiners for license and use.

Johns, W.F.; Kaufman, H. (Texaco Development Corp., Bellaire, TX (United States)); Clausen, G.; Nongbri, G. (Texaco Research and Development, Port Arthur, TX (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Language constructs for modular parallel programs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe programming language constructs that facilitate the application of modular design techniques in parallel programming. These constructs allow us to isolate resource management and processor scheduling decisions from the specification of individual modules, which can themselves encapsulate design decisions concerned with concurrence, communication, process mapping, and data distribution. This approach permits development of libraries of reusable parallel program components and the reuse of these components in different contexts. In particular, alternative mapping strategies can be explored without modifying other aspects of program logic. We describe how these constructs are incorporated in two practical parallel programming languages, PCN and Fortran M. Compilers have been developed for both languages, allowing experimentation in substantial applications.

Foster, I.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This CSWD describes hardware and PFP developed software for control of stabilization furnaces. The Honeywell software can generate configuration reports for the developed control software. These reports are described in the following section and are attached as addendum's. This plan applies to PFP Engineering Manager, Thermal Stabilization Cognizant Engineers, and the Shift Technical Advisors responsible for the Honeywell MAS software/hardware and administration of the Honeywell System.

STUBBS, A.M.

2000-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Nucleic acid amplification using modular branched primers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and compositions expand the options for making primers for use in amplifying nucleic acid segments. The invention eliminates the step of custom synthesis of primers for Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Instead of being custom-synthesized, a primer is replaced by a combination of several oligonucleotide modules selected from a pre-synthesized library. A modular combination of just a few oligonucleotides essentially mimics the performance of a conventional, custom-made primer by matching the sequence of the priming site in the template. Each oligonucleotide module has a segment that matches one of the stretches within the priming site.

Ulanovsky, Levy (Westmont, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in DataFOR A MODULAR, SCALABLE LIQUID-RACK COOLING SYSTEM IN DATA3 M ODULAR LIQUID - RACK COOLING

Xu, TengFang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fluidized-bed combustion evolved from efforts to find a combustion process able to control pollutant emissions without external emission controls (such as scrubbers). The...

324

Combined fluidized bed retort and combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a combined fluidized bed retorting and combustion system particularly useful for extracting energy values from oil shale. The oil-shale retort and combustor are disposed side-by-side and in registry with one another through passageways in a partition therebetween. The passageways in the partition are submerged below the top of the respective fluid beds to preclude admixing or the product gases from the two chambers. The solid oil shale or bed material is transported through the chambers by inclining or slanting the fluidizing medium distributor so that the solid bed material, when fluidized, moves in the direction of the downward slope of the distributor.

Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Zeng, Li-Wen (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Particle Receiver Integrated with Fludized Bed  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bed CONTACTS Partnering Organizations: * Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc. * Massachusetts Institute of Technology For more information, visit the project page at:...

326

Analysis of kinetic models of the methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process in an integral reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From experimental results obtained in a wide range of operating conditions (temperature and contact time) in an isothermal fixed bed integral reactor, the validity both of the kinetic models proposed in the literature as well as their modifications, for the methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process at zero time on-stream, has been studied. The kinetic parameters for the various models have been calculated by solving the equation of mass conservation in the reactor for the lumps of the kinetic models. The usefulness of the model of Schipper and Krambeck for simulating the operation in the isothermal fixed bed integral reactor has been proven in the 573–648 K range.

Ana G. Gayubo; Pedro L. Benito; Andrés T. Aguayo; Itziar Aguirre; Javier Bilbao

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Research reactors - an overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

West, C.D.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Fast Machine Code for Modular Multiplication Michael Scott  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fast Machine Code for Modular Multiplication Michael Scott School of Computer Applications Dublin, that is the calculation of a = b e mod n where for acceptable levels of security a, b, e, and n are large multiprecision will be not much larger than the number of bits in the binary representation of e. Therefore fast modular

Bernstein, Daniel

329

On -Induction, Chiral Generators and Modular Invariants for Subfactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On -Induction, Chiral Generators and Modular Invariants for Subfactors Jens B¨ockenhauer and David apply -induction and, developing further some ideas of Ocneanu, we define chiral generators -Induction, Chiral Generators and Modular Invariants 43 5.1 Relating -induction to chiral generators

Kawahigashi, Yasuyuki

330

Toward Infusing Modular and Reflective Design Learning throughout the Curriculum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toward Infusing Modular and Reflective Design Learning throughout the Curriculum John C. Georgas intervention that cen- ters on the widespread infusion of design learning throughout the curriculum using: An emphasis on broadly infusing design learning through the curriculum using modular design challenges

Georgas, John

331

Calculating bed load transport in steep boulder bed channels E. M. Yager,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Calculating bed load transport in steep boulder bed channels E. M. Yager,1,2 J. W. Kirchner,1 and W: Yager, E. M., J. W. Kirchner, and W. E. Dietrich (2007), Calculating bed load transport in steep boulder, more mobile sediment and large, relatively immobile boulders that are often arranged into cascades

Kirchner, James W.

332

Light Water Reactor Sustainability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 Light Water Reactor Sustainability ACCOMPLISHMENTS REPORT 2014 Accomplishments Report | Light Water Reactor Sustainability 2 T he mission of the Light Water Reactor...

333

Modular Biomass Systems Could Boost Rural Areas | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Modular Biomass Systems Could Boost Rural Areas Modular Biomass Systems Could Boost Rural Areas Modular Biomass Systems Could Boost Rural Areas June 16, 2010 - 1:09pm Addthis Community Power Corporation's modular biomass systems can generate up to 100 kilowatts of energy. | Courtesy of Community Power Corporation Community Power Corporation's modular biomass systems can generate up to 100 kilowatts of energy. | Courtesy of Community Power Corporation Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE Increased ethanol production will help revitalize the rural economy and decrease America's dependence on foreign oil, but there are other ways to create opportunities in the farmlands. For Robb Walt, president of Community Power Corporation (CPC) in Littleton, Colo., one answer is community-scale, bio-energy service companies, or

334

Z-score-based modularity for community detection in networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identifying community structure in networks is an issue of particular interest in network science. The modularity introduced by Newman and Girvan [Phys. Rev. E 69, 026113 (2004)] is the most popular quality function for community detection in networks. In this study, we identify a problem in the concept of modularity and suggest a solution to overcome this problem. Specifically, we obtain a new quality function for community detection. We refer to the function as Z-modularity because it measures the Z-score of a given division with respect to the fraction of the number of edges within communities. Our theoretical analysis shows that Z-modularity mitigates the resolution limit of the original modularity in certain cases. Computational experiments using both artificial networks and well-known real-world networks demonstrate the validity and reliability of the proposed quality function.

Miyauchi, Atsushi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Modular Biomass Systems Could Boost Rural Areas | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Modular Biomass Systems Could Boost Rural Areas Modular Biomass Systems Could Boost Rural Areas Modular Biomass Systems Could Boost Rural Areas June 16, 2010 - 1:09pm Addthis Community Power Corporation's modular biomass systems can generate up to 100 kilowatts of energy. | Courtesy of Community Power Corporation Community Power Corporation's modular biomass systems can generate up to 100 kilowatts of energy. | Courtesy of Community Power Corporation Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE Increased ethanol production will help revitalize the rural economy and decrease America's dependence on foreign oil, but there are other ways to create opportunities in the farmlands. For Robb Walt, president of Community Power Corporation (CPC) in Littleton, Colo., one answer is community-scale, bio-energy service companies, or

336

Intelligent Control of Modular Robotic Welding Cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although robotic machines are routinely used for welding, such machines do not normally incorporate intelligent capabilities. We are studying the general problem of formulating usable levels of intelligence into welding machines. From our perspective, an intelligent machine should: incorporate knowledge of the welding process, know if the process is operating correctly, know if the weld it is making is good or bad, have the ability to learn from its experience to perform welds, and be able to optimize its own performance. To this end, we are researching machine architecture, methods of knowledge representation, decision making and conflict resolution algorithms, methods of learning and optimization, human/machine interfaces, and various sensors. This paper presents work on the machine architecture and the human/machine interface specifically for a robotic, gas metal arc welding cell. Although the machine control problem is normally approached from the perspective of having a central body of control in the machine, we present a design using distributed agents. A prime goal of this work is to develop an architecture for an intelligent machine that will support a modular, plug and play standard. A secondary goal of this work is to formulate a human/machine interface that treats the human as an active agent in the modular structure.

Smartt, Herschel Bernard; Kenney, Kevin Louis; Tolle, Charles Robert

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

INTEGRATED FISCHER TROPSCH MODULAR PROCESS MODEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With declining petroleum reserves, increased world demand, and unstable politics in some of the world’s richest oil producing regions, the capability for the U.S. to produce synthetic liquid fuels from domestic resources is critical to national security and economic stability. Coal, biomass and other carbonaceous materials can be converted to liquid fuels using several conversion processes. The leading candidate for large-scale conversion of coal to liquid fuels is the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. Process configuration, component selection, and performance are interrelated and dependent on feed characteristics. This paper outlines a flexible modular approach to model an integrated FT process that utilizes a library of key component models, supporting kinetic data and materials and transport properties allowing rapid development of custom integrated plant models. The modular construction will permit rapid assessment of alternative designs and feed stocks. The modeling approach consists of three thrust areas, or “strands” – model/module development, integration of the model elements into an end to end integrated system model, and utilization of the model for plant design. Strand 1, model/module development, entails identifying, developing, and assembling a library of codes, user blocks, and data for FT process unit operations for a custom feedstock and plant description. Strand 2, integration development, provides the framework for linking these component and subsystem models to form an integrated FT plant simulation. Strand 3, plant design, includes testing and validation of the comprehensive model and performing design evaluation analyses.

Donna Post Guillen; Richard Boardman; Anastasia M. Gribik; Rick A. Wood; Robert A. Carrington

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Safety approaches for high power modular laser operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 20 years ago, a program was initiated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study the feasibility of using lasers to separate isotopes of uranium and other materials. Of particular interest has been the development of a uranium enrichment method for the production of commercial nuclear power reactor fuel to replace current more expensive methods. The Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program has progressed to the point where a plant-scale facility to demonstrate commercial feasibility has been built and is being tested. The U-AVLIS Program uses copper vapor lasers which pump frequency selective dye lasers to photoionize uranium vapor produced by an electron beam. The selectively ionized isotopes are electrostatically collected. The copper lasers are arranged in oscillator/amplifier chains. The current configuration consists of 12 chains, each with a nominal output of 800 W for a system output in excess of 9 kW. The system requirements are for continuous operation (24 h a day, 7 days a week) and high availability. To meet these requirements, the lasers are designed in a modular form allowing for rapid change-out of the lasers requiring maintenance. Since beginning operation in early 1985, the copper lasers have accumulated over 2 million unit hours at a >90% availability. The dye laser system provides approximately 2.5 kW average power in the visible wavelength range. This large-scale laser system has many safety considerations, including high-power laser beams, high voltage, and large quantities ({approximately}3000 gal) of ethanol dye solutions. The Laboratory`s safety policy requires that safety controls be designed into any process, equipment, or apparatus in the form of engineering controls. Administrative controls further reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Selected examples of engineering and administrative controls currently being used in the U-AVLIS Program are described.

Handren, R.T.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Catalytic reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

Aaron, Timothy Mark (East Amherst, NY); Shah, Minish Mahendra (East Amherst, NY); Jibb, Richard John (Amherst, NY)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

340

Bed management in a Critical Care Unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......with the variability in demand for the services that...adequate facilities on demand can lead to serious consequences...how improvements in bed management may be achieved by distinguishing...task of ensuring that demand for hospital services...equipment at each bed-side is around 60,000......

J. D. Griffiths; V. Knight; I. Komenda

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Kinetic model of the MTG process taking into account the catalyst deactivation. Reactor simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A kinetic model for the deactivation of catalyst (based on a HZSM5 zeolite) in the transformation of methanol into gasoline is proposed from results obtained in an isothermal fixed bed integral reactor. The kinetic model takes into account the effect of the composition of the lumps of oxygenates, light olefins and rest of products on the catalyst deactivation along the reactor. The model allows for simulating the integral reactor and for studying the influence of the operating conditions on selectivity towards different lumps in the MTG process. The resukts have been experimentally proven in an isothermal integral reactor and are in agreement with the results of coke deposition along the reactor.

A.G. Gayubo; P.L. Benito; A.T. Aguayo; M. Castilla; J. Bilbao

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Tanning bed use, deviance regulation theory, and source factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tanning bed use, especially among young, white females, has become a serious health problem in the United States. Those who use tanning beds value a tanned appearance; thus, one possible way to get individuals to stop using tanning beds...

Head, Katharine J.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

A study of cellulose gasification in a fluidized bed using a high-temperature solar furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 4.2-meter solar furnace was used to study the gasification of cellulose with steam in a fluidized bed. The heating value of the high-temperature equilibrium products is about twenty percent higher than that of the reactants. The increase represents stored solar energy; and the product, synthesis gas, is valuable as a chemical feedstock or pipeline gas. All experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure. Pure tabular alumina as well as crushed automotive exhaust was used as a bed material. Microcrystalline {alpha}-cellulose, entrained in argon, entered the fluidized bed just above the distributor. Steam heated to the operating temperature in a 10 cm packed bed section below the fluidized bed. In all cases, the process ran with more steam than required to produce an equimolar mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. We used a quartz reactor between 1100 and 1430 K; a steel reactor at 1500 K and an Inconel reactor at 1600 K. Reactor inside diameter, nominally 5 cm, varied slightly; the bed height was adjusted to keep the gas residence time constant. Hydrogen production rate was measured before and after experiments with steam alone, with this amount subtracted. Equilibrium mixtures were not achieved. Catalysts improved hydrogen yields with higher than expected concentrations of carbon monoxide, methane and lighter hydrocarbons such as ethylene and acetylene. Experiments performed without catalyst at 1300 K, achieved a mixture (dry, argon-free) of 46 mole% CO, 30% H{sub 2} 14% CH{sub 4} 5% CO{sub 2} and 5% C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. An equilibrium mixture at this temperature would have contained 39% CO, 30% H{sub 2} 7% CO{sub 2} and no CH{sub 4} or C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. With the catalyst, the CO and CH{sub 4} decreased to 40% and 2% respectively, the H{sub 2} increased to 47%, and CO{sub 2} remained the same. No ethylene was formed. The hydrocarbon-rich mixtures achieved are typical of rapid-pyrolysis processes.

Murray, J.P.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery Abstract--. CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a "microgrid". The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations,

345

Fluidized bed heat treating system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

346

Dual-Bed Gasification of Petcoke: Model Development and Validation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dual-Bed Gasification of Petcoke: Model Development and Validation ... A series of sensitivity analyses is performed with regard to a conventional gasifier fed by petcoke, and the effects of residence time and oxygen/carbon mass ratio in the feed are investigated over three process variables: char conversion at the gasifier exit, temperature at the gasifier exit, and amount of useful syngas (H2 and CO) produced, in terms of N?m3 per ton of petcoke. ... Different from most literature publications, such as refs 5 and 6, where coal and/or petcoke gasification models are checked against available data, with respect to the syngas composition obtained, and to the process cold gas efficiency, one of the purposes of our paper is to correlate experimental data to a parameter that is important both for simulation and for reactor design: the value of the residence time of the gasifier. ...

Maria Sudiro; Carlos Zanella; Alberto Bertucco; Luigi Bressan; Marco Fontana

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Small modular HTGR nuclear power plant concept to meet the total energy needs of the developing nations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, a small modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is described that can support the total energy needs of the developing nations by supplying electrical power, process steam, low-grade heat for desalination, and hydrogen production. Major features of the nuclear power plant concept, currently under development by GA Technologies Inc. (GA), are discussed with emphasis on (1) plant simplicity, (2) inherent safety, (3) ease of operation, (4) design and licensing standardization, and (5) acceptable power generation economics.

McDonald, C.F.

1983-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

348

Bed and bed-site reuse by western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we describe bed (nest) and bed-site reuse by western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla...) in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, south-eastern Gabon. During an eight-month study 44 bed...

Yuji Iwata; Chieko Ando

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector (September 2009) National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector...

350

Dynamics on modular networks with heterogeneous correlations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We develop a new ensemble of modular random graphs in which degree-degree correlations can be different in each module, and the inter-module connections are defined by the joint degree-degree distribution of nodes for each pair of modules. We present an analytical approach that allows one to analyze several types of binary dynamics operating on such networks, and we illustrate our approach using bond percolation, site percolation, and the Watts threshold model. The new network ensemble generalizes existing models (e.g., the well-known configuration model and Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi networks) by allowing a heterogeneous distribution of degree-degree correlations across modules, which is important for the consideration of nonidentical interacting networks.

Melnik, Sergey [MACSI, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick (Ireland) [MACSI, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick (Ireland); Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Porter, Mason A. [Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom) [Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Mucha, Peter J. [Department of Mathematics, Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3250 (United States) [Department of Mathematics, Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3250 (United States); Institute for Advanced Materials, Nanoscience and Technology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3216 (United States); Gleeson, James P. [MACSI, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick (Ireland)] [MACSI, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick (Ireland)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Honeywell modular automation system computer software documentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The Honeywell MAS is used to control the thermal stabilization furnaces in glovebox HA-211. The PFP developed software is being updated to reflect the Polycube Processing and Unwashed Salt Thermal Stabilization program addition. The polycube processing program was installed per HNF-FMP-02-11162-R2. The functional test of the program was performed in JCS work package 22-02-1031, The unwashed salt item program was installed per HNF-FMP-03-16577-RO. The functional test of the program completed in JCS work package 22-03-00654.

STUBBS, A.M.

2003-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

352

Honeywell Modular Automation System Acceptance Test Procedure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) is to verify the operability of the three new furnaces as controlled by the new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS). The Honeywell MAS is being installed in PFP to control the three thermal stabilization furnaces in glovebox HA-211. The ATP provides instructions for testing the configuration of the Honeywell MAS at the Plutonium Finishing Plant(PFP). The test will be a field test of the analog inputs, analog outputs, and software interlocks. The interlock test will check the digital input and outputs. Field equipment will not be connected forth is test. Simulated signals will be used to test thermocouple, limit switch, and vacuum pump inputs to the PLUMAS.

STUBBS, A.M.

1999-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

353

Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations.

Nichols, Ralph L. (812 Plantation Point Dr., N. Augusta, SC 29841); Widdowson, Mark A. (4204 Havana Ct., Columbia, SC 29206); Mullinex, Harry (10 Cardross La., Columbia, SC 29209); Orne, William H. (12 Martha Ct., Sumter, SC 29150); Looney, Brian B. (1135 Ridgemont Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Kahler stabilized, modular invariant heterotic string models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We review the theory and phenomenology of effective supergravity theories based on orbifold compactifications of the weakly-coupled heterotic string. In particular, we consider theories in which the four-dimensional theory displays target space modular invariance and where the dilatonic mode undergoes Kahler stabilization. A self-contained exposition of effective Lagrangian approaches to gaugino condensation and heterotic string theory is presented, leading to the development of the models of Binétruy, Gaillard and Wu. Various aspects of the phenomenology of this class of models are considered. These include issues of supersymmetry breaking and superpartner spectra, the role of anomalous U(1) factors, issues of flavor and R-parity conservation, collider signatures, axion physics, and early universe cosmology. For the vast majority of phenomenological considerations the theories reviewed here compare quite favorably to other string-derived models in the literature. Theoretical objections to the framework and directions for further research are identified and discussed.

Gaillard, Mary K.; Gaillard, Mary K.; Nelson, Brent D.

2007-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

355

Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Superatmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gassification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor.

Isaksson, Juhani M. (Karhula, FI)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Super-atmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gasification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor. 2 figs.

Isaksson, J.M.

1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

357

Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

358

Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Test bed for a high throughput supersonic chemical oxygen - iodine laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper reports the development of a test bed for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser based on a high throughput jet flow singlet oxygen generator (JSOG). The system provides vertical singlet oxygen extraction followed by horizontal orientation of subsequent subsystems. This design enables the study of flow complexities and engineering aspects of a distributed weight system as an input for mobile and other platform-mounted systems developed for large scale power levels. The system under consideration is modular and consists of twin SOGs, plenum and supersonic nozzle modules, with the active medium produced in the laser cavity. The maximal chlorine flow rate for the laser is {approx}1.5 mole s{sup -1} achieving a typical chemical efficiency of about 18%. (lasers)

Singhal, Gaurav; Mainuddin; Rajesh, R; Varshney, A K; Dohare, R K; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, V K; Kumar, Ashwani; Verma, Avinash C; Arora, B S; Chaturvedi, M K; Tyagi, R K; Dawar, A L

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

360

Solar Photo Catalytic Hydrogen Production from water using a dual bed photosystem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A body of work was performed in which the feasibility of photocatalytically decomposing water into its constituent elements using a dual bed, or modular photosystem, under solar radiation was investigated. The system envisioned consists of two modules, each consisting of a shallow, flat, sealed container, in which microscopic photocatalytic particles are immobilized. The photocatalysts absorb light, generating free electrons and lattice vacancy holes, which are capable of performing reductive and oxidative chemistry, respectively. The photocatalysts would be chosen as to whether they specifically promote H{sub 2} or O{sub 2} evolution in their respective containers. An aqueous solution containing a redox mediator is pumped between the two chambers in order to transfer electron equivalents from one reaction to the other.

Florida Solar Energy Center

2003-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Modular Applied General Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Modular Applied General Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET) Modular Applied General Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Modular Applied General Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET) Agency/Company /Organization: LEI Wageningen UR, the Netherlands Complexity/Ease of Use: Moderate Related Tools Ex Ante Appraisal Carbon-Balance Tool (EX-ACT) Climate Rapid Overview and Decision Support (C-ROADS) Simulator Partnership for Economic Policy Modeling and Policy Impact Analysis (MPIA) ... further results Find Another Tool FIND DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ASSESSMENT TOOLS A modular global computable general equilibrium model that covers the whole economy and has been used extensively in agricultural, environmental, and trade policy analysis; builds on the GTAP model, and is the successor of LEITAP. Approach MAGNET is based on the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model and

362

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Renewable Energy Power System Modular  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Renewable Energy Power System Modular Simulator (RPM-Sim) Renewable Energy Power System Modular Simulator (RPM-Sim) Project Summary Full Title: Renewable Energy Power System Modular Simulator (RPM-Sim) Project ID: 104 Principal Investigator: Edward Muljadi Keywords: Renewable; hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) Purpose This is a package software program developed based on a modular concept. Each module consists of a type of equipment or an element of a power system (for example, diesel-genset, wind turbine generator, village load, rotary converter, PV-inverter module, fuel cell-inverter module (developed by Prof. Hashem Nehrir, Montana State University), electrolysis module (developed by Prof. Hosein Salehfar and Prof. Mann University of North Dakota). Performer Principal Investigator: Edward Muljadi Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

363

Modularity and Commonality Research: Past Developments and Future Opportunities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research on modularity and commonality has grown substantially over the past 15 years. Searching 36 journals over more than the past 35 years, I identify over 160 references in the engineering and management literature ...

Fixson, Sebastian K.

2007-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

364

Improving link failover efficiency in MANETs using modular prediction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a flexible, modular architecture to combine various link state related measurements and prediction algorithms in order to accurately predict link failure in MANETs, while keeping bandwidth and energy overhead low. Our architecture ...

E. Van Den Berg; A. Cisneros; I. Hokelek; K. Parmeswaran; S. Samtani; J. Sucec; J. L. Simbol; A. Staikos; G. B. Rucker

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Distributed algorithms for self-disassembly in modular robots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We developed a modular robotic system that behaves as programmable matter. Specifically, we designed, implemented, and tested a collection of robots that, starting from an amorphous arrangement, can be assembled into ...

Gilpin, Kyle W

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Retroactivity, modularity, and insulation in synthetic biology circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A central concept in synthetic biology is the reuse of well-characterized modules. Modularity simplifies circuit design by allowing for the decomposition of systems into separate modules for individual construction. Complex ...

Lin, Allen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Modular redundancy without voters decreases complexity of restoring organ  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fault-tolerant modules have usually been implemented through the use of static fault-masking or dynamic spare-switching. But a new class of MR (Modular Redundancy), the Responsive schemes, promises higher reliability levels and more efficient implementations ...

P. T. DeSousa; F. P. Mathur

1977-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Distributed Online Learning of Central Pattern Generators in Modular Robots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we study distributed online learning of locomotion gaits for modular robots. The learning is based on a stochastic approximation method, SPSA, which optimizes the parameters of coupled oscillator...

David Johan Christensen; Alexander Spröwitz…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Light Water Reactors Technology Development - Nuclear Reactors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Light Water Reactors Light Water Reactors About Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us Nuclear Energy Why Nuclear Energy? Why are some people afraid of Nuclear Energy? How do nuclear reactors work? Cheaper & Safer Nuclear Energy Helping to Solve the Nuclear Waste Problem Nuclear Reactors Nuclear Reactors Early Exploration Training Reactors Basic and Applied Science Research LWR Technology Development BORAX-III lighting Arco, Idaho (Press Release) Heavy Water and Graphite Reactors Fast Reactor Technology Integral Fast Reactor Argonne Reactor Tree CP-1 70th Anniversary CP-1 70th Anniversary Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy

370

Fuel and cladding nano-technologies based solutions for long life heat-pipe based reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel nuclear reactor concept, unifying the fuel pipe with fuel tube functionality has been developed. The structure is a quasi-spherical modular reactor, designed for a very long life. The reactor module unifies the fuel tube with the heat pipe and a graphite beryllium reflector. It also uses a micro-hetero-structure that allows the fission products to be removed in the heat pipe flow and deposited in a getter area in the cold zone of the heat pipe, but outside the neutron flux. The reactor operates as a breed and burn reactor - it contains the fuel pipe with a variable enrichment, starting from the hot-end of the pipe, meant to assure the initial criticality, and reactor start-up followed by area with depleted uranium or thorium that get enriched during the consumption of the first part of the enriched uranium. (authors)

Popa-Simil, L. [LAVM LLC, Los Alamos (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Chapter 14 - Coal bed methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary Methane adsorbed to the surface of coal is a very old issue with some new commercial ramifications. This explosive gas has made underground coal mines dangerous both from the risk of explosion and the possibility of an oxygen-poor atmosphere that wouldn't support life. The miner's main concern with coal bed methane (CBM) has been how to get rid of it. Techniques to deal with CBM in mines have ranged from the classic canary in a cage to detect an oxygen-poor atmosphere to huge ventilation fans to force the replacement of a methane-rich environment with outside air, to drilling CBM wells in front of the coal face to try to degas the coal prior to exposing the mine to the CBM. All these techniques have met with some amount of success. None of the techniques to prevent CBM from fouling the air in an underground mine has been totally successful. With the CBM's unique method of gas storage, the preponderance of the gas is available only to very low coalface pressures. The coalface pressure is set by a combination of flowing wellhead pressure and the hydrostatic head exerted by standing liquid within the well bore. Effective compression strategies can lower the wellhead pressure to very low values. Effective deliquification techniques can reduce or remove the backpressure caused by accumulated liquid. CBM's economic impact is briefly explained in this chapter.

James F. Lea; Henry V. Nickens; Mike R. Wells

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

On the modular curve X0(23) Rene Schoof  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the extension does not split over Z[ 1 23 ]. The group scheme J0(23)[2] even has irreducible featuresOn the modular curve X0(23) Ren´e Schoof Abstract. The Jacobian J0(23) of the modular curve X0(23) is a semi-stable abelian variety over Q with good reduction outside 23. It is simple. We prove that every

Schoof, René

373

Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Technologies » Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview Fluidized beds suspend solid fuels on upward-blowing jets of air during the combustion process. The result is a turbulent mixing of gas and solids. The tumbling action, much like a bubbling fluid, provides more effective chemical reactions and heat transfer. Fluidized-bed combustion evolved from efforts to find a combustion process able to control pollutant emissions without external emission controls (such as scrubbers). The technology burns fuel at temperatures of 1,400 to 1,700 degrees F, well below the threshold where nitrogen oxides form (at approximately 2,500 degrees F, the nitrogen and oxygen atoms in the

374

Biomass Gasification in Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dual fluidized bed gasification technology is prospective because it produces high...2...dilution even when air is used to generate the required endothermic heat via in situ combustion. This study is devoted ...

Toshiyuki Suda; Takahiro Murakami…

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

A MODULAR ACTUATOR ARCHITECTURE FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Complexes perform numerous hazardous material handling operations within the confines of a glovebox. The DOE is continuing to seek more efficient and safer means of handling these materials inside gloveboxes rather than the conventional, labor-intensive method through lead lined gloves. The use of glovebox automation technology will also be critical to the DOE in its efforts to comply with its mandated ALARA principles in handling the hazardous materials associated with the cleanup process. Operations associated with materials processing in a glovebox are similar to many industrial tasks, but the unique glovebox environment and Plutonium material properties create a unique set of challenges for conventional automation machinery. Such properties include: Low to moderate levels of ionizing radiation, high abrasiveness, corrosiveness, pyrophoric tendencies, rapid dispersal and permeation of environment, diffuses quickly, and possible incompatible material interaction. The glovebox presents the following challenges: existing gloveboxes may not be readily altered or even modified at all, complex mechanical operations for maintenance and repair are difficult or impossible through gloves, failed equipment may not be removed easily or at all. If a broken piece of equipment cannot be bagged-out through a glove port (approximately 216 mm (8 1/2 inch) diameter) it must remain in place. Broken equipment obstructs further operations. If it renders the entire glovebox unusable, a significant volume of waste is generated and an expensive system must be disposed of and replaced. A moderate sized glovebox alone costs between $250,000 and $500,000 and an equipment malfunction, which penetrates the glovebox and exposes the room to Plutonium or other toxic materials, is catastrophic. In addition to the human exposure issues, cleanup can easily run into the millions of dollars. A solution to the issues described above is ARM Automation Inc.'s (ARM) modular robotic manipulator technology developed for DOE EM operations, which addresses many of the issues discussed in the previous section. This manipulator system has the capability of custom configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as materials repackaging. The modular nature and quick connects of this system simplify installations into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. In the field of automation and robotics, a very common element is one used to generate motion for precise positioning of loads. One example of such an automation component would be an individual joint within an industrial robotic manipulator. This component consists of a tightly integrated package containing an electric motor, gear train, output support bearings, position sensors, brake, servo-amplifier and communications controller. Within the context of this paper, this key building block is referred to as an actuator module. With regard to the needs of the EM, [8] and [9] have shown that while each focus area has unique requirements for robotic automation at a system or manipulator level, their requirements at the actuator level are very similar. Thereby, a modular approach to automation which utilizes a small set of versatile actuator modules can be used to construct a broad range of robotic systems and automation cells suited to EM applications. By providing a pre-engineered, pre-integrated motion system to different robotics users within the DOE, new automation systems can be more quickly created without extensive expertise in motion control or the expense of building custom equipment.

None

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Potassium-Modified Iron Ore as Oxygen Carrier for Coal Chemical Looping Combustion: Continuous Test in 1 kW Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(20) Briefly, it consists of a fast fluidized bed as an air reactor, a cyclone, a spout-fluid bed as a fuel reactor, and an external loop-seal. ... Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2013), 52 (28), 9573-9585 CODEN: IECRED; ISSN:0888-5885. ... Gu, H.; Shen, L.; Xiao, J.; Zhang, S.; Song, T.; Chen, D.Iron ore as oxygen carrier improved with potassium for chemical looping combustion of anthracite coal Combust. ...

Haiming Gu; Laihong Shen; Zhaoping Zhong; Xin Niu; Huijun Ge; Yufei Zhou; Shen Xiao

2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

377

Modular robotics overview of the `state of the art`  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of a robotic arm processing modular components and reconfigurable links is the general goal of a modular robotics development program. The impetus behind the pursuit of modular design is the remote engineering paradigm of improved reliability and availability provided by the ability to remotely maintain and repair a manipulator operating in a hazardous environment by removing and replacing worn or failed modules. Failed components can service off- line and away from hazardous conditions. The desire to reconfigure an arm to perform different tasks is also an important driver for the development of a modular robotic manipulator. In order to bring to fruition a truly modular manipulator, an array of technical challenges must be overcome. These range from basic mechanical and electrical design considerations such as desired kinematics, actuator types, and signal and transmission types and routings, through controls issues such as the need for control algorithms capable of stable free space and contact control, to computer and sensor design issues like consideration of the use of embedded processors and redundant sensors. This report presents a brief overview of the state of the art of technical issues relevant of modular robotic arm design. The focus is on breadth of coverage, rather than depth, in order to provide a reference frame for future development.

Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Hamel, W.R.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Issues in acoustic field testing of quiet modular classrooms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modular classrooms are important to American education: About 300 000 modular classrooms are currently in use by public school systems here. Good acoustical conditions for learning are no less vital for students in modular classrooms than stick?built classrooms. In an effort to promote good acoustics in modular classrooms ANSI S12 Working Group 46 is seeking to standardize acoustic field testing. Their efforts are in response to key acoustical issues of modular classrooms: Excessive noise from HVAC (heating ventilating and air conditioning) systems and poor airborne sound insulation from exterior noise sources. In a recent and notable advance an HVAC system provider reported good progress in modular HVACnoise reduction: A ducted wall mounted system was used instead of the usual free blowing system with exposed fans. HVACnoise in the unoccupied room was near the maximum 35 dB level required by ANSI S12.60. Interior noise levels were so low that efforts to confirm their values were confounded by noise contamination from exterior sources. The relatively high interior ambient noise levels were due to poor airborne sound insulation. Lessons learned from recent field testing will be discussed. Results of airborne sound insulation tests now in planning stages will be reported if available.

David Lubman; Louis C. Sutherland

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Distribution of bed material in a Horizontal Circulating Fluidised Bed boiler.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A conventional circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler has a limitation due to the height of the furnace, when implemented in smaller industrial facilities. The design… (more)

Ekvall, Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Effect of sediment pulse grain size on sediment transport rates and bed mobility in gravel bed rivers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of sediment pulse grain size on sediment transport rates and bed mobility in gravel bed] Sediment supply to gravel bed river channels often takes the form of episodic sediment pulses, and there is considerable interest in introducing sediment pulses in stream restorations to alter bed surface grain size

Venditti, Jeremy G.

382

Experimental determination of agglomeration tendency in fluidized bed combustion of biomass by measuring slip resistance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A method by measuring the slip resistance between particles was used to determine the agglomeration tendency in fluidized bed combustion of biomass. Solid particles were taken from different stages of biomass combustion in a fluidized bed and loaded into a bench-scale test apparatus with two concentric cylinders. A precision variable frequency motor and a torque sensor were employed to measure the torque driven by the inner cylinder at a constant speed, which is directly related to the slip resistance of the solid particles. The measurement results showed significant difference in the slip resistance of the bed solids taken from different stages of biomass combustion at different operating temperatures. A strong correlation was found between the onset of agglomeration and increase in the slip resistance, especially near the onset of agglomeration, due to the build-up of molten biomass ashes, presence of liquid bridges between particles and formation of incipient agglomerates. With further validation, the method developed in the present study can potentially be used to quantify agglomeration tendency in a fluidized bed reactor and characterize the dynamic process of agglomeration.

Chunjiang Yu; Zifeng Tang; Leiyun Zeng; Chen Chen; Bin Gong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Modular Countermine Payload for Small Robots  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Payloads for small robotic platforms have historically been designed and implemented as platform and task specific solutions. A consequence of this approach is that payloads cannot be deployed on different robotic platforms without substantial re-engineering efforts. To address this issue, we developed a modular countermine payload that is designed from the ground-up to be platform agnostic. The payload consists of the multi-mission payload controller unit (PCU) coupled with the configurable mission specific threat detection, navigation and marking payloads. The multi-mission PCU has all the common electronics to control and interface to all the payloads. It also contains the embedded processor that can be used to run the navigational and control software. The PCU has a very flexible robot interface which can be configured to interface to various robot platforms. The threat detection payload consists of a two axis sweeping arm and the detector. The navigation payload consists of several perception sensors that are used for terrain mapping, obstacle detection and navigation. Finally, the marking payload consists of a dual-color paint marking system. Through the multi-mission PCU, all these payloads are packaged in a platform agnostic way to allow deployment on multiple robotic platforms, including Talon and Packbot.

Herman Herman; Doug Few; Roelof Versteeg; Jean-Sebastien Valois; Jeff McMahill; Michael Licitra; Edward Henciak

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Photocatalytic reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photocatalytic reactor is described for processing selected reactants from a fluid medium comprising at least one permeable photocatalytic membrane having a photocatalytic material. The material forms an area of chemically active sites when illuminated by light at selected wavelengths. When the fluid medium is passed through the illuminated membrane, the reactants are processed at these sites separating the processed fluid from the unprocessed fluid. A light source is provided and a light transmitting means, including an optical fiber, for transmitting light from the light source to the membrane. 4 figs.

Bischoff, B.L.; Fain, D.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

385

Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Rotunda, John R. (Fairmont, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Treatment of septage in sludge drying reed beds: a case study on pilot-scale beds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Treatment of septage in sludge drying reed beds: a case study on pilot-scale beds S. Troesch***, A systems by local authorities. This will result in a large increase of the quantity of sludge from septic to treat this sludge because they may have reached their nominal load or they are not so numerous in rural

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

387

Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Huntington Beach, CA); Sahimi, Muhammad (Altadena, CA); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Richmond, CA); Harale, Aadesh (Los Angeles, CA); Park, Byoung-Gi (Yeosu, KR); Liu, Paul K. T. (Lafayette Hill, PA)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Indiana New Albany shale in batch and continuous units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work is being conducted at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for the production of oil from Eastern oil shales. The PFH process, using smaller particle sizes than the moving-bed hydroretorting process, offers higher oil yields and greater reactor mass fluxes through higher selectivity of organic carbon to oil and shorter residence times, respectively. Batch PFH tests have been conducted to study the effects of shale preheat time (15 to 30 min) and temperature (25{degree} to 320{degree}C), retorting temperature (450{degree} to 710{degree}C), hydrogen pressure (2.8 to 7.0 MPa), particle size (65 to 330 microns), and residence time (5 to 30 min) on the product yields from Indiana New Albany shale. Oil yield has been found to increase with increasing hydrogen pressure. Results are discussed. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Roosmagi, C. (USDOE Laramie Energy Technology Center, WY (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Work was performed on the following activities. First, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility were completed. The riser, primary cyclone and secondary cyclone of Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Combustor have been erected. Second, the Mercury Control Workshop and the Grand Opening of Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET) were successfully held on February 22 and 23, 2006, respectively. Third, effects of hydrogen chlorine (HCl) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) on mercury oxidation were studied in a drop tube reactor. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; Songgeng Li

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

GEN-IV Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Generation-IV reactors are a set of nuclear reactors currently being developed under international collaborations targeting ... economics, proliferation resistance, and physical protection of nuclear energy. Nuclear

Taek K. Kim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

The Netherlands Reactor Centre  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Two illustrated brochures in English have recently J. been issued by the Netherlands Reactor Centre ( ... Centre (Reactor Centrum Nederland). The first* gives a general survey of the ...

S. WEINTROUB

1964-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

394

Steam generator conceptual design for the modular HTGR - Dissimilar metal weld considerations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The steam generator for the current Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) has evolved from a technology basis developed in U.S. and European gas-cooled reactor programs. The MHTGR steam generator is a vertically-oriented, counterflow, shell-and-tube, once-through, non-reheat, helical heat exchanger with helium on the shell side and water/steam in the tubes. In the MHTGR applications, the normal operating temperatures of the steam generator tubes can be as high as 638/sup 0/C (1180/sup 0/F). Concerns such as cost, creep strength, steam side scaling and stress corrosion cracking often lead to a design decision to use two different tube materials, one for the evaporating portion and another for the superheating portion of the steam generator. The current MHTGR steam generator design utilizes 2 1/4 CR - 1 Mo material for the economizer/evaporator/initial superheater tube section and Alloy 800H material for the finishing superheat tube section. Therefore, a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) is incorporated in each tube circuit. This feature of the design imposes certain important constraints on the steam generator designer. This paper presents an overview of the MHTGR steam generator conceptual design, and then focuses on the DMW considerations and how these have influenced the design configuration.

Spring, A.H.; Basol, M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fossil-fuel processing technical/professional services: comparison of Fischer-Tropsch reactor systems. Phase I, final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fischer-Tropsch reaction was commercialized in Germany and used to produce military fuels in fixed bed reactors. It was recognized from the start that this reactor system had severe operating and yield limitations and alternative reactor systems were sought. In 1955 the Sasol I complex, using an entrained bed (Synthol) reactor system, was started up in South Africa. Although this reactor was a definite improvement and is still operating, the literature is filled with proponents of other reactor systems, each claiming its own advantages. This report provides a summary of the results of a study to compare the development potential of three of these reactor systems with the commercially operating Synthol-entrained bed reactor system. The commercial Synthol reactor is used as a benchmark against which the development potential of the other three reactors can be compared. Most of the information on which this study is based was supplied by the M.W. Kellogg Co. No information beyond that in the literature on the operation of the Synthol reactor system was available for consideration in preparing this study, nor were any details of the changes made to the original Synthol system to overcome the operating problems reported in the literature. Because of conflicting claims and results found in the literature, it was decided to concentrate a large part of this study on a kinetic analysis of the reactor systems, in order to provide a theoretical analysis of intrinsic strengths and weaknesses of the reactors unclouded by different catalysts, operating conditions and feed compositions. The remainder of the study considers the physical attributes of the four reactor systems and compares their respective investment costs, yields, catalyst requirements and thermal efficiencies from simplified conceptual designs.

Thompson, G.J.; Riekena, M.L.; Vickers, A.G.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Kernel for modular robot applications: Automatic modeling techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A modular robotic system consists of standardized joint and link units that an be assembled into various kinematic configurations for different types of tasks. For the control and simulation of such a system, manual derivation of the kinematic and dynamic models, as well as the error model for kinematic calibration, require tremendous effort, because the models constantly change as the robot geometry is altered after module reconfiguration. This paper presents a frame-work to facilitate the model-generation procedure for the control and simulation of the modular robot system. A graph technique, termed kinematic graphs and realized through assembly incidence matrices (AIM), is introduced to represent the module-assembly sequence and robot geometry. The kinematics and dynamics are formulated based on a local representation of the theory of lie groups and Lie algebras. The automatic model-generation procedure starts with a given assembly graph of the modular robot. Kinematic, dynamic, and error models of the robot are then established, based on the local representations and iterative graph-traversing algorithms. This approach can be applied to a modular robot with both serial and branch-type geometries, and arbitrary degrees of freedom. Furthermore, the AIM of the robot naturally leads to solving the task-oriented optimal configuration problem in modular robots. There is no need to maintain a huge library of robot models, and the footprint of the overall software system can be reduced.

Chen, I.M.; Yeo, S.H.; Chen, G. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). School of Mechanical and production Engineering] [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). School of Mechanical and production Engineering; Yang, G. [Gintic Inst. of Manufacturing Technology (Singapore). Automation Technology Div.] [Gintic Inst. of Manufacturing Technology (Singapore). Automation Technology Div.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

National SCADA Test Bed | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cybersecurity » Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity Cybersecurity » Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity » National SCADA Test Bed National SCADA Test Bed Created in 2003, the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) is a one-of-a-kind national resource that draws on the integrated expertise and capabilities of the Argonne, Idaho, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories to address the cybersecurity challenges of energy delivery systems. Core and Frontier Research The NSTB core capabilities combine a network of the national labs' state-of-the-art operational system testing facilities with expert research, development, analysis, and training to discover and address critical security vulnerabilities and threats the energy sector faces. NSTB offers testing and research facilities, encompassing field-scale control

398

Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA); Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Fluidized bed combustion picks up steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial interest in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) continues, although the technology has been slow to enter the marketplace. Two FBC pilot plants funded by DOE and one commercial size project are in operation. FBC designs and commercial warranties are already available from the boiler industry, but 1981 was the first year to see significant numbers of privately-funded orders, now numbering 38 out of 50 boilers. Manufacturers are working on a universal boiler able to accept any fuel, but potential users are wary of new technology without a long-term demonstration of reliability and economics. There is interest in second generation designs, a new shallow-bed design suitable for retrofitting, and circulating bed types that decouple the combustion system from the heat removal system. (DCK)

Lawn, J.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric fluidized bed Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

conditions... in a fluidized bed coater. The bed relative humidity and the droplet size of the coating aerosol were predicted... Fluidized bed coating ... Source: Groningen,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Fast pyrolysis of a waste fraction of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) containing brominated flame retardants in a fluidized bed reactor: The effects of various Ca-based additives (CaO, Ca(OH)2 and oyster shells) on the removal of bromine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A waste fraction of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) containing brominated flame retardants and antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) as a synergist was pyrolyzed in a bench-scale system equipped with a fluidized bed and char separation system. Experiments were carried out to observe the effects of the reaction temperature and three additives (CaO, Ca(OH)2, oyster shells) on the removal of bromine. An analysis of the pyrolysis oils obtained showed the oils were mainly composed of toluene, ethyl-benzene, styrene, cumene, ?-methylstyrene, 1,3-diphenylpropane, 1,3-diphenylbutane and (1-bromoethyl)-benzene. When the Ca-based additives were used, the concentration of styrene was markedly increased; whereas, those of ethlybenzene and cumene were reduced. The total bromine content of pyrolysis oil produced without any additive at 459 °C was about 5 wt.%. When Ca(OH)2 and oyster shells were applied, the total bromine contents of the pyrolysis oils were decreased to 1.3 and 2.7 wt.%, respectively. The antimony content in the pyrolysis oil was relatively small due to the efficient operation of the char separation system.

Su-Hwa Jung; Seon-Jin Kim; Joo-Sik Kim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Characterization of chemical looping combustion of coal in a 1 kW{sub th} reactor with a nickel-based oxygen carrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion is a novel technology that can be used to meet the demand on energy production without CO{sub 2} emission. To improve CO{sub 2} capture efficiency in the process of chemical looping combustion of coal, a prototype configuration for chemical looping combustion of coal is made in this study. It comprises a fast fluidized bed as an air reactor, a cyclone, a spout-fluid bed as a fuel reactor and a loop-seal. The loop-seal connects the spout-fluid bed with the fast fluidized bed and is fluidized by steam to prevent the contamination of the flue gas between the two reactors. The performance of chemical looping combustion of coal is experimentally investigated with a NiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier in a 1 kW{sub th} prototype. The experimental results show that the configuration can minimize the amount of residual char entering into the air reactor from the fuel reactor with the external circulation of oxygen carrier particles giving up to 95% of CO{sub 2} capture efficiency at a fuel reactor temperature of 985 C. The effect of the fuel reactor temperature on the release of gaseous products of sulfur species in the air and fuel reactors is carried out. The fraction of gaseous sulfur product released in the fuel reactor increases with the fuel reactor temperature, whereas the one in the air reactor decreases correspondingly. The high fuel reactor temperature results in more SO{sub 2} formation, and H{sub 2}S abatement in the fuel reactor. The increase of SO{sub 2} in the fuel reactor accelerates the reaction of SO{sub 2} with CO to form COS, and COS concentration in the fuel reactor exit gas increases with the fuel reactor temperature. The SO{sub 2} in the air reactor exit gas is composed of the product of sulfur in residual char burnt with air and that of nickel sulfide oxidization with air in the air reactor. Due to the evident decrease of residual char in the fuel reactor with increasing fuel reactor temperature, it results in the decrease of residual char entering the air reactor from the fuel reactor, and the decrease of SO{sub 2} from sulfur in the residual char burnt with air in the air reactor. (author)

Shen, Laihong; Wu, Jiahua; Gao, Zhengping; Xiao, Jun [Thermoenergy Engineering Research Institute, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: All Modular Industry Growth Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

All Modular Industry Growth Assessment (AMIGA) Model All Modular Industry Growth Assessment (AMIGA) Model Project Summary Full Title: All Modular Industry Growth Assessment (AMIGA) Model Project ID: 139 Principal Investigator: Donald Hanson Purpose A comprehensive economic model of energy markets, primarily used to simulate a wide range of technology and policy issues. Performer Principal Investigator: Donald Hanson Organization: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Address: 9700 S. Cass Ave. Argonne, IL 60439 Telephone: 630-252-5061 Email: dhanson@anl.gov Additional Performers: Peter Balash, NETL; John Marano, NETL Sponsor(s) Name: Peter Balash Organization: National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Telephone: 412-386-5753 Email: Peter.Balash@NETL.DOE.GOV Period of Performance Start: January 2001 Project Description

404

Modular Robot Systems From Self-Assembly to Self-Disassembly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have presented a detailed retrospective on modular robots and discussed connections between modular robots and programmable matter. This field has seen a great deal of creativity and innovation at the level of designing ...

Rus, Daniela L.

405

What exactly is Product Modularity? The answer depends on who you ask  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'Product modularity' has recently experienced a significant increase in interest in the academic literature. While the concept of product modularity is used across a wide range of academic research areas, substantial ...

Fixson, Sebastian K.

2007-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

406

Concepts and technology development for the autonomous assembly and reconfiguration of modular space systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis will present concepts of modular space systems, including definitions and specific examples of how modularity has been incorporated into past and present space missions. In addition, it will present two ...

Rodgers, Lennon Patrick

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modular and Scalable Baseload Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant Conceptual Design and Feasibility on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Modular and Scalable

408

Model for attrition in fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model developed to predict the particle-size distribution and amount of fines generated during the attrition of particles in fluidized beds agrees well with experimental data for siderite iron ore and lignite char. Certain parameters used in the model are independent of particle size, orifice size, system pressure, bed weight, and attrition time, thus making the model suitable for scale-up purposes. Although the analysis was limited to a single jet with the attrition occurring at room temperature, the model can be extended to multi-jet, high-temperature operations.

Chen, T.P.; Sishtla, C.I.; Punwani, D.V.; Arastoopour, H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Evaluating the fluidized bed combustion options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proceedings from a conference on fluidized bed combustion are now available. The book discusses the immediate availability of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion technology as a practical, environmentally sound option for burning all grades of coal, wood, wood wastes, and biomass. The economics and technical fundamentals of atmospheric FBC are explained for the benefit of owners and managers of industrial boilers, boiler operators, architects/engineers, boiler manufacturers, and fuel suppliers. More than 15 FBC experts have contributed their expertise and experiences to the book.

Sheahan, R.T. (ed.)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Pebble-bed pebble motion: Simulation and Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pebble bed reactors (PBR) have moving graphite fuel pebbles. This unique feature provides advantages, but also means that simulation of the reactor requires understanding the typical motion and location of the granular flow of pebbles. This report presents a method for simulation of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. A new mechanical motion simulator, PEBBLES, efficiently simulates the key elements of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. This model simulates gravitational force and contact forces including kinetic and true static friction. It's used for a variety of tasks including simulation of the effect of earthquakes on a PBR, calculation of packing fractions, Dancoff factors, pebble wear and the pebble force on the walls. The simulator includes a new differential static friction model for the varied geometries of PBRs. A new static friction benchmark was devised via analytically solving the mechanics equations to determine the minimum pebble-to-pebble friction and pebble-to-surface friction for a five pebble pyramid. This pyramid check as well as a comparison to the Janssen formula was used to test the new static friction equations. Because larger pebble bed simulations involve hundreds of thousands of pebbles and long periods of time, the PEBBLES code has been parallelized. PEBBLES runs on shared memory architectures and distributed memory architectures. For the shared memory architecture, the code uses a new O(n) lock-less parallel collision detection algorithm to determine which pebbles are likely to be in contact. The new collision detection algorithm improves on the traditional non-parallel O(n log(n)) collision detection algorithm. These features combine to form a fast parallel pebble motion simulation. The PEBBLES code provides new capabilities for understanding and optimizing PBRs. The PEBBLES code has provided the pebble motion data required to calculate the motion of pebbles during a simulated earthquake. The PEBBLES code provides the ability to determine the contact forces and the lengths of motion in contact. This information combined with the proper wear coefficients can be used to determine the dust production from mechanical wear. These new capabilities enhance the understanding of PBRs, and the capabilities of the code will allow future improvements in understanding.

Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration. [PWR; BWR  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution is described. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

Anstine, L.D.; James, D.B.; Melaika, E.A.; Peterson, J.P. Jr.

1980-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

412

Export possibilities for small nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The worldwide deployment of peaceful nuclear technology is predicated on conformance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1972. Under this international treaty, countries have traded away pursuit of nuclear weapons in exchange for access to commercial nuclear technology that could help them grow economically. Realistically, however, most nuclear technology has been beyond the capacity of the NPT developing countries to afford. Even if the capital cost of the plant is managed, the costs of the infrastructure and the operational complexity of most nuclear technology have taken it out of the hands of the nations who need it the most. Now, a new class of small sodium cooled reactors has been specifically designed to meet the electrical power, water, hydrogen and heat needs of small and remote users. These reactors feature small size, long refueling interval, no onsite fuel storage, and simplified operations. Sized in the 10 MW(e) to 50 MW(e) range these reactors are modularized for factory production and for rapid site assembly. The fuel would be <20% U-235 uranium fuel with a 30-year core life. This new reactor type more appropriately fills the needs of countries for lower power distributed systems that can fill the gap between large developed infrastructure and primitive distributed energy systems. Looking at UN Resolution 1540 and the impact of other agreements, there is a need to address the issues of nuclear security, fuel, waste, and economic/legal/political-stakeholder concerns. This paper describes the design features of this new reactor type that specifically address these issues in a manner that increases the availability of commercial nuclear technology to the developing nations of the world. (authors)

Campagna, M.S.; Hess, C.; Moor, P. [Burns and Roe Enterprises, Inc., Oradell, NJ (United States); Sawruk, W. [ABSG Consulting, Inc., Shillington, PA (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Head Loss Through Fibrous Debris Bed with Different Types of Perforated Strainers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Loss of Coolant Accident LWR Light Water Reactor MBLOCA Medium Break Loss of Coolant Accident MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet NEI Nuclear Energy Institute NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NPP Nuclear Power Plants NPSH Net... than the randomly generated debris bed on the sump strainer of the NPP. The U.S. NRC began their analysis in 1996 in order to predict and estimate the loss of the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) by establishing GSI-191. In 1995, NUREG/CR-6224...

Abdulsattar, Suhaeb S

2014-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

414

Modularity, quaternion-Kähler spaces, and mirror symmetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We provide an explicit twistorial construction of quaternion-Kähler manifolds obtained by deformation of c-map spaces and carrying an isometric action of the modular group SL(2,Z). The deformation is not assumed to preserve any continuous isometry and therefore this construction presents a general framework for describing NS5-brane instanton effects in string compactifications with N= 2 supersymmetry. In this context the modular invariant parametrization of twistor lines found in this work yields the complete non-perturbative mirror map between type IIA and type IIB physical fields.

Alexandrov, Sergei; Banerjee, Sibasish [Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France)] [Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

The Los Alamos VXI-based modular RF control system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the design and implementation of the Los Alamos modular RF control system, which provides high-performance feedback and/or feedforward control of RF accelerator cavities. This is a flexible, modular control system which has been realized in the industry-standard VXI cardmodular format. A wide spectrum of system functionality can be accommodated simply by incorporating only those modules and features required for a particular application. The fundamental principles of the design approach are discussed. Details of the VXI implementation are given, including the system architecture and interfaces, performance capabilities, and available features.

Jachim, S.P.; Ziomek, C.; Natter, E.F.; Regan, A.H.; Hill, J.; Eaton, L.; Gutscher, W.D.; Curtin, M.; Denney, P.; Hansberry, E.; Brooks, T.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

The Los Alamos VXI-based modular RF control system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the design and implementation of the Los Alamos modular RF control system, which provides high-performance feedback and/or feedforward control of RF accelerator cavities. This is a flexible, modular control system which has been realized in the industry-standard VXI cardmodular format. A wide spectrum of system functionality can be accommodated simply by incorporating only those modules and features required for a particular application. The fundamental principles of the design approach are discussed. Details of the VXI implementation are given, including the system architecture and interfaces, performance capabilities, and available features.

Jachim, S.P.; Ziomek, C.; Natter, E.F.; Regan, A.H.; Hill, J.; Eaton, L.; Gutscher, W.D.; Curtin, M.; Denney, P.; Hansberry, E.; Brooks, T.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Model-Based Testing for the Second Generation of Integrated Modular Avionics Christof Efkemann, Jan Peleska  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

activities regarding automated testing of Integrated Modular Avionics controllers in the European research, specialised electronics devices, many of them with cus- tom interfaces. In the Integrated Modular AvionicsModel-Based Testing for the Second Generation of Integrated Modular Avionics Christof Efkemann, Jan

Peleska, Jan - Fachbereich 3

418

Nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

Thomson, Wallace B. (Severna Park, MD)

2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

419

Bed load equation evaluation based on alluvial river data, India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rate of bed load transport in weight per unit width for ... material has been computed by collecting the field data of Tapi River, in the monsoon season ... of this paper is to estimate the bed load carried b...

S. M. Yadav; B. K. Samtani

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Design of a Pilot Plant Fluidized Bed Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article presents the design principles for a biomass fluidized bed gasifier pilot plant. The fluidized bed gasifier has a nominal capacity of 400 kg ... most important parameters for the performance of the gasifier

K. Maniatis; V. Vassilatos; S. Kyritsis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Current Status and Challenges within Fluidized Bed Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fluidized-bed technology is rapidly expanding. Today, more than 600 large (20+ MWth) FBC boilers with a total installed thermal capacity of ... beds (BFBC). The size of the boilers has increased steeply; the larg...

Mikko Hupa

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Fluidized bed gasification of agricultural residue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studied to develop a process which can convert organic waste matter into fuel gas. Hammond et al. (1974) described a fixed bed gasifier which operated at 1800 F (1256 K) and atmos- pheric pressure. When woodchips were used as the feed material...

Groves, John David

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Fluidized bed retorting of eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of eastern New Albany oil shale. This is the fourth design study conducted by Foster Wheeler; previous design cases employed the following technologies: Fluidized bed rotating/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. An FCC concept of fluidized bed retorting/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. Directly heated moving vertical-bed process using Colorado Mahogany zone shale. The conceptual design encompasses a grassroots facility which processes run-of-mine oil shale into a syncrude oil product and dispose of the spent shale solids. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per day of syncrude product, produced from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 15 gallons per ton. Design of the processing units was based on non-confidential published information and supplemental data from process licensors. Maximum use of process and cost information developed in the previous Foster Wheeler studies was employed. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is detailed by plant section and estimates of the annual operating requirements and costs are provided. In addition, process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed. 12 refs., 17 figs., 52 tabs.

Gaire, R.J.; Mazzella, G.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Bed Bugs: Clinical Relevance and Control Options  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the treatment of field infestations...95) and cedar oil. The modes of...Best Yet cedar oil can kill all bed...the control of field infestations...complexes, as the gas cannot be tightly...Insecticides The cost to develop and...insects during spray operations. In laboratory...

Stephen L. Doggett; Dominic E. Dwyer; Pablo F. Peñas; Richard C. Russell

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Bed Bugs: Clinical Relevance and Control Options  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...assist those who cannot pay the high price of control, bed bugs are set to...antigen and bronchial asthma in Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 21 : 735-746...Doggett, SL . 2009. Identification natural history, p 13-22. InSL Doggett...

Stephen L. Doggett; Dominic E. Dwyer; Pablo F. Peñas; Richard C. Russell

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Wilson, John S. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 {mu}m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871{degrees}C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750{degrees}C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750{degrees}C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 [mu]m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871[degrees]C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750[degrees]C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750[degrees]C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Failure Analysis of Bed Coil Tube in an Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology is being used in thermal power plants for steam generation. FBC plants are more flexible than conventional plants ... fuels may be used for firing. The FBC technology...

M. Venkateswara Rao; S. U. Pathak…

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

MHTGR: New production reactor summary of experience base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Worldwide interest in the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) stems from the capability of the system to retain the advanced fuel and thermal performance while providing unparalleled levels of safety. The small power level of the MHTGR and its passive systems give it a margin of safety not attained by other concepts being developed for power generation. This report covers the experience base for the key nuclear system, components, and processes related to the MHTGR-NPR. 9 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Forecasting Hospital Bed Availability Using Simulation and Neural Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forecasting Hospital Bed Availability Using Simulation and Neural Networks Matthew J. Daniels is a critical factor for decision-making in hospitals. Bed availability (or alternatively the bed occupancy in emergency departments, and many other important hospital decisions. To better enable a hospital to make

Kuhl, Michael E.

432

Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated therethrough to prevent deterioration of the support.

Lawton, Carl W. (West Hartford, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion system. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is presented on erosion and corrosion of fluidized bed combustor component materials. The characteristics of erosion of in-bed tubes was investigated. Anti-corrosion measures were also evaluated.

Lee, Seong W.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Modular PM Motor Drives for Automotive Traction Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents modular permanent magnet (PM) motor drives for automotive traction applications. A partially modularized drive system consisting of a single PM motor and multiple inverters is described. The motor has multiple three-phase stator winding sets and each winding set is driven with a separate three-phase inverter module. A truly modularized inverter and motor configuration based on an axial-gap PM motor is then introduced, in which identical PM motor modules are mounted on a common shaft and each motor module is powered by a separate inverter module. The advantages of the modular approach for both inverter and motor include: (1) power rating scalability--one design meets different power requirements by simply stacking an adequate number of modules, thus avoiding redesigning and reducing the development cost, (2) increased fault tolerance, and (3) easy repairing. A prototype was constructed by using two inverters and an axial-gap PM motor with two sets of three-phase stat or windings, and it is used to assist the diesel engine in a hybrid electric vehicle converted from a Chevrolet Suburban. The effect of different pulse-width-modulation strategies for both motoring and regenerative modes on current control is analyzed. Torque and regenerative control algorithms are implemented with a digital signal processor. Analytical and initial testing results are included in the paper.

Su, G.J.

2001-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

435

New Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory recently released an expanded version of its FAST wind turbine computer-aided engineering tool under a new modularization framework. The new framework will transform FAST into a powerful, robust, and flexible modeling software for wind and water power technology developers.

436

Should one always use Repeated Squaring for Modular Exponentiation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

squaring, which is based on representing the exponent in the standard binary numeration system. We show here that for certain applications, replacing the standard system by one based on Fibonacci numbers may, Fibonacci number system, cryptog­ raphy 1. Introduction Modular exponentiation is defined as the task

Klein Shmuel Tomi

437

A modular microfluidic architecture for integrated biochemical analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A modular microfluidic architecture for integrated biochemical analysis Kashan A. Shaikh*, Kee Suk for review November 15, 2004) Microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip (LOC) systems based on a mod- ular (lead) at a sensitivity of 500 nM in microfluidic breadboard

Barron, Annelise E.

438

Modular Exponentiation Algorithm Analysis for Energy Consumption and Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modular Exponentiation Algorithm Analysis for Energy Consumption and Performance Lin Zhong lzhong of their complexity, parallelism and latency. Insights are found for tradeoff between energy consumption of a tree structure. For example, Figure 1.3 shows to add 5 k-bit integers together in a tree sequence. It

Zhong, Lin

439

Development and Features EatSafe: Modular Portable Food Sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The convenience of the EatSafe Sensor allows for this. PRONE TO FOOD-POISONING Seniors, children, pregnant womenDevelopment and Features EatSafe: Modular Portable Food Sensor ECE-Rady Design Competition FOOD INDUSTRY Every year >76 million people become sick from the consumption of contaminated food. PACKAGING

California at San Diego, University of

440

Design of Slurry Bubble Column Reactors: Novel Technique for Optimum Catalyst Size Selection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Slurry Bubble Column Reactors: Novel Technique Slurry Bubble Column Reactors: Novel Technique for Optimum Catalyst Size Selection Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,619,011 entitled "Design of Slurry Bubble Column Reactors: Novel Technique for Optimum Catalyst Size Selection." Disclosed in this patent is a method to determine the optimum catalyst particle size for application in a fluidized bed reactor, such as a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), to convert synthesis gas into liquid fuels. The reactor can be gas-solid, liquid- solid, or gas-liquid-solid. The method considers the complete granular temperature balance based on the kinetic theory of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Expert assessments of the cost of light water small modular reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...viability of SMRs as an energy source. These include...variable and intermittent renewable power into systems...likely evolution of the energy system over the next...25-150 26 2 FBNR FURGS Brazil iPWR 72 26 3 ACP100...HTR 240 26 20 G4M Gen 4 Energy USA LMR 25 26 21 SMR-160...

Ahmed Abdulla; Inês Lima Azevedo; M. Granger Morgan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Expert assessments of the cost of light water small modular reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...future, both lower up-front cost and new markets could yield a more attractive economic paradigm for SMR...that are designed to accelerate their market penetration. These investigations usually...monitoringEarthing equipmentDiesel and diesel control equipmentAux equipment: transformers...

Ahmed Abdulla; Inês Lima Azevedo; M. Granger Morgan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Expert assessments of the cost of light water small modular reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the Post-Fukushima Age. Presentation to the Nuclear Energy Standards Coordination Collaborative, July 17, 2012, Washington, DC...computers, monitoring equipment, instrumentation equipment 8) HVAC and fire fighting equipmentVentilation and air conditioning...

Ahmed Abdulla; Inês Lima Azevedo; M. Granger Morgan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Expert assessments of the cost of light water small modular reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nuclear plants. An even more fundamental point is that this strategy...agreed that this is one of the fundamental benefits of SMRs...monitoringEarthing equipmentDiesel and diesel control equipmentAux equipment...during constructionFuel for engines, turbines, and boilersWaste...

Ahmed Abdulla; Inês Lima Azevedo; M. Granger Morgan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Design data needs modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Design Data Needs (DDNs) provide summary statements for program management, of the designer`s need for experimental data to confirm or validate assumptions made in the design. These assumptions were developed using the Integrated Approach and are tabulated in the Functional Analysis Report. These assumptions were also necessary in the analyses or trade studies (A/TS) to develop selections of hardware design or design requirements. Each DDN includes statements providing traceability to the function and the associated assumption that requires the need.

NONE

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Expert assessments of the cost of light water small modular reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...computers, monitoring equipment, instrumentation equipment 8) HVAC and fire fighting equipmentVentilation and air conditioning...buildings that are not in controlled areas Both of the above include filters, heaters, coolers, fans, blowers, humidifiers, ducts...

Ahmed Abdulla; Inês Lima Azevedo; M. Granger Morgan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Expert assessments of the cost of light water small modular reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...our questions. The specifications we developed for the...SMR [160 megawatts-thermal (MW th ), 45 MW e...from NuScale.† Specifications for the...valves, piping, insulation, instrumentation...

Ahmed Abdulla; Inês Lima Azevedo; M. Granger Morgan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Evaluation of fluid bed heat exchanger optimization parameters. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainty in the relationship of specific bed material properties to gas-side heat transfer in fluidized beds has inhibited the search for optimum bed materials and has led to over-conservative assumptions in the design of fluid bed heat exchangers. An experimental program was carried out to isolate the effects of particle density, thermal conductivity, and heat capacitance upon fluid bed heat transfer. A total of 31 tests were run with 18 different bed material loads on 12 material types; particle size variations were tested on several material types. The conceptual design of a fluidized bed evaporator unit was completed for a diesel exhaust heat recovery system. The evaporator heat transfer surface area was substantially reduced while the physical dimensions of the unit increased. Despite the overall increase in unit size, the overall cost was reduced. A study of relative economics associated with bed material selection was conducted. For the fluidized bed evaporator, it was found that zircon sand was the best choice among materials tested in this program, and that the selection of bed material substantially influences the overall system costs. The optimized fluid bed heat exchanger has an estimated cost 19% below a fin augmented tubular heat exchanger; 31% below a commercial design fluid bed heat exchanger; and 50% below a conventional plain tube heat exchanger. The comparisons being made for a 9.6 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h waste heat boiler. The fluidized bed approach potentially has other advantages such as resistance to fouling. It is recommended that a study be conducted to develop a systematic selection of bed materials for fluidized bed heat exchanger applications, based upon findings of the study reported herein.

Not Available

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Fredericton, New Brunswick, 5 June 2010 CMS Summer Meeting slide 1 Modular Invariant Theory of the Cyclic Group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fredericton, New Brunswick, 5 June 2010 CMS Summer Meeting ­ slide 1 Modular Invariant Theory Some Consequences Fredericton, New Brunswick, 5 June 2010 CMS Summer Meeting ­ slide 2 Modular 2010 CMS Summer Meeting ­ slide 3 #12;The Modular Group of Prime Order Modular Representation Theory

Wehlau, David

450

Modular cathode assemblies and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Modular cathode assemblies are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include a basket through which fluid electrolyte may pass and exchange charge with a material to be reduced in the basket. The basket can be divided into upper and lower sections to provide entry for the material. Example embodiment cathode assemblies may have any shape to permit modular placement at any position in reduction systems. Modular cathode assemblies include a cathode plate in the basket, to which unique and opposite electrical power may be supplied. Example embodiment modular cathode assemblies may have standardized electrical connectors. Modular cathode assemblies may be supported by a top plate of an electrolytic reduction system. Electrolytic oxide reduction systems are operated by positioning modular cathode and anode assemblies at desired positions, placing a material in the basket, and charging the modular assemblies to reduce the metal oxide.

Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Barnes, Laurel A; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

451

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Institutional Fuel Distributor Program Info State Montana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation The Coal Bed Methane Protection Act establishes a long-term coal bed methane protection account and a coal bed methane protection program for the purpose of compensating private landowners and water right holders for damage to land and to water quality and availability that is attributable to the development of coal bed methane wells. The Act aims to provide for

452

Light weight space power reactors for nuclear electric propulsion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) unit capable of propelling a manned vehicle to MARS will be required to have a value of {alpha} (kg/kWe) which is less than five. In order to meet this goal the reactor mass, and thus its contribution to the value of {alpha} will have to be minimized. In this paper a candidate for such a reactor is described. It consists of a gas cooled Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), with specially chosen materials which allow it to operate at an exit temperature of approximately 2000 K. One of the unique features of a PBR is the direct cooling of particulate fuel by the working fluid. This feature allows for high power densities, highest possible gas exit temperatures, for a given fuel temperature and because of the thin particle bed a low pressure drop. The PBR's described in this paper will have a ceramic moderator (Be{sub 2}C), ZrC coated fuel particles and a carbon/carbon hot frit. All the reactors will be designed with sufficient fissile loading to operate at full power for seven years. The burn up possible with particulate fuel is approximately 30%--50%. These rector designs achieve a value of {alpha} less than unity in the power range of interest (5 MWe). 5 refs., 3 figs.

Ludewig, H.; Mughabghab, S.; Lazareth, O.; Perkins, K.; Schmidt, E.; Powell, J.R.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Coal Bed Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE R. Stanton (rstanton@usgs.gov; 703-648-6462) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 R. Flores (rflores@usgs.gov; 303-236-7774) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 P.D. Warwick (pwarwick@usgs.gov; 703-648-6469) H. Gluskoter (halg@usgs.gov; 703-648-6429) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 G.D. Stricker (303-236-7763) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 Introduction Geologic sequestration of CO 2 generated from fossil fuel combustion may be an environmentally attractive method to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Of the geologic options, sequestering CO

454

Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

Waryasz, Richard E. (Longmeadow, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Attrition reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur. 2 figures.

Scott, C.D.; Davison, B.H.

1993-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

457

Elementary Reactor Physics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THERE are few subjects which have developed at the rate at which reactor physics and ... physics and reactor theory have done. This, of course, is largely due to the circumstances in ...

J. F. HILL

1962-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

458

Colliding Beam Fusion Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The recirculating power for virtually all types of fusion reactors has previously been calculated [1] with the Fokker–Planck equation. The reactors involve non-Maxwellian plasmas. The calculations are ... the rec...

Norman Rostoker; Artan Qerushi; Michl Binderbauer

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

A Basic LEGO Reactor Design for the Provision of Lunar Surface Power  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A final design has been established for a basic Lunar Evolutionary Growth-Optimized (LEGO) Reactor using current and near-term technologies. The LEGO Reactor is a modular, fast-fission, heatpipe-cooled, clustered-reactor system for lunar-surface power generation. The reactor is divided into subcritical units that can be safely launched with lunar shipments from Earth, and then emplaced directly into holes drilled into the lunar regolith to form a critical reactor assembly. The regolith would not just provide radiation shielding, but serve as neutron-reflector material as well. The reactor subunits are to be manufactured using proven and tested materials for use in radiation environments, such as uranium-dioxide fuel, stainless-steel cladding and structural support, and liquid-sodium heatpipes. The LEGO Reactor system promotes reliability, safety, and ease of manufacture and testing at the cost of an increase in launch mass per overall rated power level and a reduction in neutron economy when compared to a single-reactor system. A single unshielded LEGO Reactor subunit has an estimated mass of approximately 448 kg and provides approximately 5 kWe. The overall envelope for a single subunit with fully extended radiator panels has a height of 8.77 m and a diameter of 0.50 m. Six subunits could provide sufficient power generation throughout the initial stages of establishing a lunar outpost. Portions of the reactor may be neutronically decoupled to allow for reduced power production during unmanned periods of base operations. During later stages of lunar-base development, additional subunits may be emplaced and coupled into the existing LEGO Reactor network, subject to lunar base power demand. Improvements in reactor control methods, fuel form and matrix, shielding, as well as power conversion and heat rejection techniques can help generate an even more competitive LEGO Reactor design. Further modifications in the design could provide power generative opportunities for use on other extraterrestrial surfaces.

John Darrell Bess

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Burnup concept for a long-life fast reactor core using MCNPX.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a reactor design with a burnup concept for a long-life fast reactor core that was evaluated using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). The current trend in advanced reactor design is the concept of a small modular reactor (SMR). However, very few of the SMR designs attempt to substantially increase the lifetime of a reactor core, especially without zone loading, fuel reshuffling, or other artificial mechanisms in the core that %E2%80%9Cflatten%E2%80%9D the power profile, including non-uniform cooling, non-uniform moderation, or strategic poison placement. Historically, the limitations of computing capabilities have prevented acceptable margins in the temporal component of the spatial excess reactivity in a reactor design, due primarily to the error in burnup calculations. This research was performed as an initial scoping analysis into the concept of a long-life fast reactor. It can be shown that a long-life fast reactor concept can be modeled using MCNPX to predict burnup and neutronics behavior. The inherent characteristic of this conceptual design is to minimize the change in reactivity over the lifetime of the reactor. This allows the reactor to operate substantially longer at full power than traditional Light Water Reactors (LWRs) or other SMR designs. For the purpose of this study, a single core design was investigated: a relatively small reactor core, yielding a medium amount of power (~200 to 400 MWth). The results of this scoping analysis were successful in providing a preliminary reactor design involving metal U-235/U-238 fuel with HT-9 fuel cladding and sodium coolant at a 20% volume fraction.

Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Parma, Edward J.,

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bed modular reactor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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461

Sulfur removal in advanced two stage pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents under operating conditions relevant to first stage (carbonizer) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the first stage generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, removal of sulfur compounds takes place through the reaction between H{sub 2}S and calcium carbonate. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents will be determined by conducting tests in pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. During this quarter a series of sulfidation tests were conducted in the high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. During this quarter a series of sulfidation tests were conducted in the high-pressure high-temperature thermogravimetric analyzer (HPTGA unit) using limestone and dolomite. The results suggest that half-calcined dolomite is much more reactive than uncalcined limestone. Also, temperature in the range of 800 to 950 C did not significantly affect the sulfidation reaction rates for both limestone and dolomite.

Abbasian, J.; Chowdiah, P.; Hill, A.H.; Rue, D.M. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

An innovative bed temperature-oriented modeling and robust control of a circulating fluidized bed combustor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion systems are increasingly used as superior coal burning systems in power generation due to their higher efficiency and lower emissions. However, because of their non-linearity and complex behavior, it is difficult to build a comprehensive model that incorporates all the system dynamics. In this paper, a mathematical model of the circulating fluidized