National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for bed combustor project

  1. EIS-0289: JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS assesses environmental issues associated with constructing and demonstrating a project that would be cost-shared by DOE and JEA (formerly the Jacksonville Electric Authority) under the...

  2. Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cannon, Joseph N.; De Lucia, David E.; Jackson, William M.; Porter, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2000-06-30

    This EIS assesses environmental issues associated with constructing and demonstrating a project that would be cost-shared by DOE and JEA (formerly the Jacksonville Electric Authority) under the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project would demonstrate circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology at JEA's existing Northside Generating Station in Jacksonville, Florida, about 9 miles northeast of the downtown area of Jacksonville. The new CFB combustor would use coal and petroleum coke to generate nearly 300 MW of electricity by repowering the existing Unit 2 steam turbine, a 297.5-MW unit that has been out of service since 1983. The proposed project is expected to demonstrate emission levels of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), and particulate matter that would be lower than Clean Air Act limits while at the same time producing power more efficiently and at less cost than conventional coal utilization technologies. At their own risk, JEA has begun initial construction activities without DOE funding. Construction would take approximately two years and, consistent with the original JEA schedule, would be completed in December 2001. Demonstration of the proposed project would be conducted during a 2-year period from March 2002 until March 2004. In addition, JEA plans to repower the currently operating Unit 1 steam turbine about 6 to 12 months after the Unit 2 repowering without cost-shared funding from DOE. Although the proposed project consists of only the Unit 2 repowering, this EIS analyzes the Unit 1 repowering as a related action. The EIS also considers three reasonably foreseeable scenarios that could result from the no-action alternative in which DOE would not provide cost-shared funding for the proposed project. The proposed action, in which DOE would provide cost-shared finding for the proposed project, is DOE's preferred alternative. The EIS evaluates the principal environmental issues, including air quality, traffic

  4. Combined fluidized bed retort and combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Notestein, John E.; Mei, Joseph S.; Zeng, Li-Wen

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combined fluidized bed retorting and combustion system particularly useful for extracting energy values from oil shale. The oil-shale retort and combustor are disposed side-by-side and in registry with one another through passageways in a partition therebetween. The passageways in the partition are submerged below the top of the respective fluid beds to preclude admixing or the product gases from the two chambers. The solid oil shale or bed material is transported through the chambers by inclining or slanting the fluidizing medium distributor so that the solid bed material, when fluidized, moves in the direction of the downward slope of the distributor.

  5. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-10-26

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

  6. Tube construction for fluidized bed combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Feo, Angelo; Hosek, William

    1984-01-01

    A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

  7. Fluidized bed combustor and tube construction therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Feo, Angelo; Hosek, William

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

  8. Metal wastage in fluidized-bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podolski, W.F.; Reimann, K.J.; Swift, W.M.; Carls, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and status of a cooperative research joint venture on metal wastage in fluidized bed combustors. The participants are the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Argonne National Laboratory, Electric Power Research Institute, State of Illinois Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal, Tennessee Valley Authority, ASEA Babcock, Combustion Engineering, and Foster Wheeler. Tasks are being carried out in three main technical areas: (1) hydrodynamic and erosion modeling (the subject of a separate paper), (2) erosion monitor development, and (3) experimental testing and model validation. The latter two areas are discussed in this paper. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  9. 100 Hour test of the pressurized woodchip-fired gravel bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragland, K.W.; Aerts, D.J.

    1992-08-01

    In this project a downdraft, packed bed combustor for a gas turbine cogeneration system using woodchips is being developed. The combustor is designed to promote intense combustion in a thin reaction zone and to control particulate growth by using high excess air. The combustor contains a magnesia and alumina gravel bed on top of which woodchips are fed. The following test objectives were established for the 100 hr test: (a) demonstrate preliminary durability of the combustor; (b) demonstrate steady operation of the system; (c) investigate combustor pressure drop; (d) investigate bed ash cake buildup; (e) expose metal alloy coupons for corrosion examination; (f) obtain closure within 10% on mass and energy balances; and (g) obtain emissions data. The plan for the 100 hr test was to operate the combustor at the following conditions: day 1, 4 atm (absolute) pressure and 700--800 C outlet temperature; day 2, 4 atm pressure and 800--900 C outlet temperature; day 3, 5 atm pressure and 800--900 C outlet temperature; days 4 and 5, repeat day 3. The inlet air was not preheated. The paper gives test results and discusses fuel characterization, combustor performance, mass and energy balance, emissions, composition of ash and deposits, and metal coupons representing turbine blade material.

  10. Fluidized bed combustor and coal gun-tube assembly therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hosek, William S.; Garruto, Edward J.

    1984-01-01

    A coal supply gun assembly for a fluidized bed combustor which includes heat exchange elements extending above the bed's distributor plate assembly and in which the gun's nozzles are disposed relative to the heat exchange elements to only discharge granular coal material between adjacent heat exchange elements and in a path which is substantially equidistant from adjacent heat exchange elements.

  11. Investigation of heat transfer and combustion in the advanced fluidized bed combustor (FBC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Seong W. Lee

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this project is to predict the heat transfer and combustion performance in newly-designed fluidized bed combustor (FBC) and to provide the design guide lines and innovative concept for small-scale boiler and furnace. The major accomplishments are summarized.

  12. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1992-01-01

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g. organic and medical waste, drying, calcining and the like.

  13. Metal wastage in fluidized-bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.F.; Podolski, W.F.; Reimann, K.J.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Youngdahl, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Objectives of the research are (1) to develop guidelines for the design and operation of fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) units with minimum metal wastage rates and (2) to develop continuous erosion monitors for use in pilot plant and full-scale FBC units. The design guidelines will be developed from the understanding gained from the experimental studies and analytical model development activities. The computational models are being developed in order to predict the rates of metal wastage for specific FBC designs and operating conditions. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Predictive models of circulating fluidized bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidaspow, D.

    1992-07-01

    Steady flows influenced by walls cannot be described by inviscid models. Flows in circulating fluidized beds have significant wall effects. Particles in the form of clusters or layers can be seen to run down the walls. Hence modeling of circulating fluidized beds (CFB) without a viscosity is not possible. However, in interpreting Equations (8-1) and (8-2) it must be kept in mind that CFB or most other two phase flows are never in a true steady state. Then the viscosity in Equations (8-1) and (8-2) may not be the true fluid viscosity to be discussed next, but an Eddy type viscosity caused by two phase flow oscillations usually referred to as turbulence. In view of the transient nature of two-phase flow, the drag and the boundary layer thickness may not be proportional to the square root of the intrinsic viscosity but depend upon it to a much smaller extent. As another example, liquid-solid flow and settling of colloidal particles in a lamella electrosettler the settling process is only moderately affected by viscosity. Inviscid flow with settling is a good first approximation to this electric field driven process. The physical meaning of the particulate phase viscosity is described in detail in the chapter on kinetic theory. Here the conventional derivation resented in single phase fluid mechanics is generalized to multiphase flow.

  15. 100 Hour test of the pressurized woodchip-fired gravel bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragland, K.W.; Aerts, D.J.

    1994-08-01

    Combustion of wood chips in a packed bed combustor for a gas turbine cogeneration system is described. A discussion on flue gas emissions and mass balances is included.

  16. Fluidized bed combustor and removable windbox and tube assembly therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFeo, Angelo; Hosek, William S.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed combustor comprises a housing having a chamber therein with a top having a discharge for the gases which are generated in the chamber and a bottom with a discharge for heated fluid. An assembly is arranged in the lower portion of the chamber and the assembly includes a lower plate which is mounted on a support flange of the housing so that it is spaced from the bottom of the chamber and defines a fluid plenum between it and the bottom of the chamber for the discharge of heated fluid. The assembly includes a heat exchanger inlet plenum having tubes therethrough for the passage of fluidizer air and a windbox above the heat exchanger plenum which has a distributor plate top wall. A portion of the chamber above the top wall defines a fluidized bed.

  17. Fluidized bed combustor and removable windbox and tube assembly therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFeo, Angelo; Hosek, William

    1983-01-01

    A fluidized bed combustor comprises a housing having a chamber therein with a top having a discharge for the gases which are generated in the chamber and a bottom with a discharge for heated fluid. An assembly is arranged in the lower portion of the chamber and the assembly includes a lower plate which is mounted on a support flange of the housing so that it is spaced from the bottom of the chamber and defines a fluid plenum between it and the bottom of the chamber for the discharge of heated fluid. The assembly includes a heat exchanger inlet plenum having tubes therethrough for the passage of fluidizer air and a windbox above the heat exchanger plenum which has a distributor plate top wall. A portion of the chamber above the top wall defines a fluidized bed.

  18. Erosivity of particles in circulating fluidized bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, A.V.; Wang, B.Q.; Geng, G.Q. ); Mack, W. )

    1989-01-01

    The metal wastage of superheater tubes in the convection pass region of circulating fluidized bed combustors (CFBC) is a current problem. An investigation was carried out to determine what kinds of metal loss rates and mechanisms occurred when the various types of particles in CFBC's were used as the erodent in a laboratory blast nozzle tester. The laboratory tests were compared to in-service exposures. A loss mechanism was established that was based on metal losses and the observed microstructures of E-C surfaces. It was additionally determined that more angular and larger size particles have a greater level of erosivity and that the particles must be strong enough not to shatter upon impact in order to be erosive. Favorable comparisons between laboratory and in-service loss mechanisms are reported.

  19. In-bed tube bank for a fluidized-bed combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemenway, Jr., Lloyd F.

    1990-01-01

    An in-bed tube bank (10) for a fluidized bed combustor. The tube bank (10) of the present invention comprises one or more fluid communicating boiler tubes (30) which define a plurality of selectively spaced boiler tube sections (32). The tube sections (32) are substantially parallel to one another and aligned in a common plane. The tube bank (10) further comprises support members (34) for joining adjacent tube sections (32), the support members (34) engaging and extending along a selected length of the tube sections (32) and spanning the preselected space therebetween.

  20. Workshop on wear potential of bed material in fluidized-bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    A workshop was held in November 1990 at Argonne National Laboratory to investigate the wear potential of bed material in fluidized-bed combustors (FBCs). The overall objective was to relate feedstock analyses to bed-material characteristics. The potential effects of quartz, alkali, chlorine, particle angularity, particle coatings, and coal rank were discussed. It was concluded that inadequate data exist to draw substantive conclusions, although in the case of two specific FBC facilities, high wastage rates could be related to the accumulation of quartz particles in the bed. The primary research needs identified in the workshop were for standardized methodologies for sampling solids, for measuring their characteristics, and for correlating those characteristics with some measure of materials wastage.

  1. Effect of operating and design parameters on fluidized-bed combustor in-bed tube metal wastage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deffenbaugh, D.M.; Wei, W.; Page, R.A.

    1988-04-01

    The overall program objective is to determine the effect of operating and design parameters of fluidized-bed combustors (FBCs) on in-bed tube metal wastage. The overall program approach is: (1) develop an experimental approach for acquiring tube metal wastage data under controlled and measurable conditions that reproduce the combined local mechanical and chemical environment that exists at the FBC in-bed tube surface, (2) document the precise local mechanical and chemical environment at the in-bed tube surface of an FBC and correlate these local data with global bed operating and design parameters, (3) use the above experimental approach over the entire range of documented local environments to develop a complete database of tube metal wastage results, and (4) analyze this database to determine the effect of operating and design parameters on in-bed tube metal wastage. The project consisted of a literature review, facility design and fabrication, experimentation, and data analysis. The following chapters of this report summarize each of these activities. 80 refs., 47 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Project Profile: CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power » Project Profile: CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor Project Profile: CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor SWRI logo -- This project is inactive -- The Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) and its partners, under the 2012 Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) SunShot R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), are developing an external combustor capable of operating at much higher temperatures than the current state-of-the-art technology. Approach Illustration with a horizontal

  3. Process simulation of a circulating fluidized bed coal combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Legros, R.; Sotudeh-Gharebaagh, R.; Paris, J.; Chaouki, J.; Preto, F.

    1995-12-31

    The focus of this work is the development of a process simulator for a Circulating Fluidized Bed coal Combustor (CFBC). The development of a simple comprehensive model for coal combustion in a CFBC is based on existing work reported in the literature. The model combines the hydrodynamic features of a CFBC riser with the different reaction steps involved during coal combustion, including the sulphur capture by limestone particles. The commercial process simulation program ASPEN PLUS was chosen as a framework for the development of the CFBC process simulator. ASPEN PLUS has been widely accepted in the chemical industry as a design tool because of its ability to simulate various chemical processes, including power generation cycles. In ASPEN PLUS, several ideal chemical reactor models involving solids are available for simulation purposes. The CFBC process simulator is constructed using several ASPEN PLUS unit operation blocks. The information required for each block is obtained from the combustion and hydrodynamic models, which are inserted into the simulation flowsheet as subroutines or internal programs. The resulting CFBC process simulator is used to predict the performance of the CFBC pilot plant at Energy Research laboratories, CANMET in Ottawa.

  4. High temperature degradation by erosion-corrosion in bubbling fluidized bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Peggy Y.; MacAdam, S.; Niu, Y.; Stringer, J.

    2003-04-22

    Heat-exchanger tubes in fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) often suffer material loss due to combined corrosion and erosion. Most severe damage is believed to be caused by the impact of dense packets of bed material on the lower parts of the tubes. In order to understand this phenomenon, a unique laboratory test rig at Berkeley was designed to simulate the particle hammering interactions between in-bed particles and tubes in bubbling fluidized bed combustors. In this design, a rod shaped specimen is actuated a short distance within a partially fluidized bed. The downward specimen motion is controlled to produce similar frequencies, velocities and impact forces as those experienced by the impacting particle aggregates in practical systems. Room temperature studies have shown that the degradation mechanism is a three-body abrasion process. This paper describes the characteristics of this test rig, reviews results at elevated temperatures and compares them to field experience. At higher temperatures, deposits of the bed material on tube surfaces can act as a protective layer. The deposition depended strongly on the type of bed material, the degree of tube surface oxidation and the tube and bed temperatures. With HCl present in the bed, wastage was increased due to enhanced oxidation and reduced oxide scale adherence.

  5. Effect of operating and design parameters on fluidized bed combustor in-bed tube metal wastage: Experimentation test plan: Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaylock, N.W.; Deffenbaugh, D.M.

    1986-06-13

    The objective of this quarterly report is to summarize the work activities for the period from February 1, 1986 to April 30, 1986 for DOE Project No. DE-AC21-85MC22077 (SwRI Project 06-8863). The major effort during this period has been the development of an experimental test plan. The overall objective of this project is to study the phenomenon of in-bed tube metal wastage in a fluidized-bed coal combustor. This work includes a literature review, test plan development, design and fabrication of a test rig, and experimental program and data analysis. The literature review has been completed and reported on in last quarter's progress report. The experimental test plan is completed and documented in this report. The rig design will be initiated next quarter. 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Tubing wastage in fluidized-bed coal combustors (Grimethorpe PFBC (pressurized fluidized-bed combustion) Tube Bank E'')

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherell, C.E.

    1989-10-04

    Samples of evaporator tubing from Tube Bank E'' of the Grimethorpe pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) facility in the UK were examined in the third of a series of studies being conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The program is being conducted to identify the mechanism or mechanisms responsible for metal loss (wastage) of in-bed carbon-steel evaporator tubes in bubbling-bed coal combustors. Results of examination suggest that bed conditions were less aggressive than in previous experiments in this combustor; however, tubing wastage was observed in some samples. Observations made on these tubes are consistent with the hypothesis of tubing wastage proposed in reports of previous LLNL studies conducted under this program that the dominant cause of metal loss is exfoliation of the normally-protective oxide scale by impacting bed particulates. Good correlation was also observed with trends noted earlier that microstructure of the tubing steel plays a role in its wastage response. 12 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Capacitance-level/density monitor for fluidized-bed combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.; Utt, Carroll E.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple segment three-terminal type capacitance probe with segment selection, capacitance detection and compensation circuitry and read-out control for level/density measurements in a fluidized-bed vessel is provided. The probe is driven at a high excitation frequency of up to 50 kHz to sense quadrature (capacitive) current related to probe/vessel capacitance while being relatively insensitive to the resistance current component. Compensation circuitry is provided for generating a negative current of equal magnitude to cancel out only the resistive component current. Clock-operated control circuitry separately selects the probe segments in a predetermined order for detecting and storing this capacitance measurement. The selected segment acts as a guarded electrode and is connected to the read-out circuitry while all unselected segments are connected to the probe body, which together form the probe guard electrode. The selected probe segment capacitance component signal is directed to a corresponding segment channel sample and hold circuit dedicated to that segment to store the signal derived from that segment. This provides parallel outputs for display, computer input, etc., for the detected capacitance values. The rate of segment sampling may be varied to either monitor the dynamic density profile of the bed (high sampling rate) or monitor average bed characteristics (slower sampling rate).

  8. Tubing wastage in fluidized-bed coal combustors: Test Series 2 NCB (IEA Grimethorpe) Ltd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherell, C.E.; Meisenheimer, R.G.

    1988-01-08

    This study of wasted heat-exchanger tubing from the Grimethorpe PFBC Facility was conducted to characterize affected fireside surfaces and identify the mechanism/s responsible. Examinations showed that the wasted surfaces are not typical of those produced by erosion alone, as oxide deposits are present on all surfaces. Continual exfoliation of the normally-protective oxide layer is probably responsible for a major portion of tubing wastage. There are also indications of direct metal loss occurring through a series of events wherein repeated formation and exfoliation of surface oxides produce an irregular metal interface that is mechanically deformed during combustor operation. Cold-worked metal protrusions, or platelets, on the roughened surface readily fracture from the tubing wall and are lost into the bed. In some combustors where metal temperatures generally are above 600 C (1100 F), sulfidation-oxidation corrosion has been identified as the mechanism responsible for metal loss. These occurrences have largely been confined to air heater tubes, uncooled support members, and the like. However, the more perplexing type of metal wastage in FBCs/endash/and that which is the subject of this study/endash/has occurred at much lower metal temperatures of about 400 C (750 F) in in-bed water-cooled tubes. There have been differences of opinion over its cause but the consensus is that erosion is a major factor, if not the sole cause. Examinations have shown that wasted surfaces of heat exchanger tubing from this combustor are the product of combined mechanical, chemical, and thermal effects, all interrelated to produce rapid and localized metal loss. 33 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Process for generating electricity in a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kasper, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for generating electricity using a gas turbine as part of a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor system wherein coal is fed as a fuel in a slurry in which other constituents, including a sulfur sorbent such as limestone, are added. The coal is combusted with air in a pressurized combustion chamber wherein most of the residual sulfur in the coal is captured by the sulfur sorbent. After particulates are removed from the flue gas, the gas expands in a turbine, thereby generating electric power. The spent flue gas is cooled by heat exchange with system combustion air and/or system liquid streams, and the condensate is returned to the feed slurry.

  10. Method of and apparatus for preheating pressurized fluidized bed combustor and clean-up subsystem of a gas turbine power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Rossa W.; Zoll, August H.

    1982-01-01

    In a gas turbine power plant having a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, gas turbine-air compressor subsystem and a gas clean-up subsystem interconnected for fluid flow therethrough, a pipe communicating the outlet of the compressor of the gas turbine-air compressor subsystem with the interior of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor and the gas clean-up subsystem to provide for flow of compressed air, heated by the heat of compression, therethrough. The pressurized fluidized bed combustor and gas clean-up subsystem are vented to atmosphere so that the heated compressed air flows therethrough and loses heat to the interior of those components before passing to the atmosphere.

  11. Effect of operating and design parameters on fluidized-bed combustor in-bed tube metal wastage, literature review. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, W.; Deffenbaugh, D.

    1986-02-01

    This review documents the current state-of-the-art in the three general areas of corrosion, erosion/corrosion. Both the corrosion and erosion studies identify certain relevant parameters for each process. The investigations into the combined erosion/corrosion process point and the complexity of this physical phenomenon even in simple flow fields under well known chemical environments. When applied to the problem of tube metal wastage in a fluidized bed, the issue becomes extremely difficult. The investigation of this complicated process in this extremely complex flow field with a chemical environment that is not well documented requires an extremely careful approach. In order to attack this problem, we propose a new mathematical framework for a model of the erosion/corrosion which is based on physically realistic concepts of the processes occurring, and includes the effects and interactions of the relevant parameters. The resulting ''model'' is a modified corrosion model that treats erosion as an interrelated process that serves to thin the corrosive scale. Once this framework is completed and a range of values for each parameter is identified, a statistical analysis will provide a prioritized list of experiments required to investigate this complex process. This statistical test plan will then be used as guidance for developing design specifications for a test rig. The balance of the project will include the detailed design and fabrication of the rig and a year long test program. The resulting data will then be analyzed and incorporated into the model to gain insight into the process of tube metal wastage in fluidized-bed combustors. 83 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Quarterly report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, I.; Swift, W.M.; Lee, S.H.D.; Boyd, W.A.

    1980-07-01

    In the application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBC) to the generation of electricity, hot corrosion of gas turbine components by alkali metal compounds is a potential problem. The objective of this investigation is to develop a method for removing these gaseous alkali metal compounds from the high-pressure high-temperature gas from a PFBC before the gas enters the gas turbine. A granular-bed filter, using either diatomaceous earth or activated bauxite as the bed material, is the concept currently being studied. Results are presented for the testing of diatomaceous earth for alkali vapor sorption at 800/sup 0/C and 9-atm pressure, using a simulated flue gas. Activated bauxite sorbent can be regenerated by leaching with water, and the kinetics of the leaching is under study.

  13. Characterization and analysis of metal wastage in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazemi, A.H.; Madsen, M.M.; Malone, G.A.

    1985-08-01

    As an integral part of its program in fluidized-bed combustion technology development, the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) supports a number of projects directed toward providing both theoretical and experimental results which will guide solutions to the metal loss problem. As a part of this effort, METC and the MITRE Corporation have undertaken a project to compile and analyze metal loss data obtained from a variety of FBC systems ranging from small-scale experimental units to industrial-size facilities and to establish a functional relationship between metal loss for several alloy types and various FBC design and operating parameters. To date, metal loss and operating information have been categorized for forty-four alloys in twenty separate FBC systems worldwide. Review of the tabulated data indicate the following trends: metal temperatures above 1200/sup 0/F significantly increase rates of metal loss; system operation with high excess air reduces metal loss, but does not eliminate it; use of coals with high ash sintering temperatures does not significantly reduce metal loss; degree of metal loss is much lower for surfaces exposed in the freeboard than for in-bed surfaces; the rate of metal loss decreases with time of exposure; iron-based stainless steels are relatively resistant to conditions which cause metal loss; cobalt-based alloys and high-chromium steels show significant resistance to metal loss; nickel-based alloys are most susceptible to metal loss; sulfidation/oxidation attack on metals within fluidized beds are more likely to occur if sorbent is present; and metal attack will occur irrespective of coal and sorbent type. 25 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Design considerations and operating experience in firing refuse derived fuel in a circulating fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekos, S.J.; Matuny, M.

    1997-12-31

    The worldwide demand for cleaner, more efficient methods to dispose of municipal solid waste has stimulated interest in processing solid waste to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) for use in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The combination of waste processing and materials recovery systems and CFB boiler technology provides the greatest recovery of useful resources from trash and uses the cleanest combustion technology available today to generate power. Foster Wheeler Power Systems along with Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation and several other Foster Wheeler sister companies designed, built, and now operates a 1600 tons per day (TPD) (1450 metric tons) municipal waste-to-energy project located in Robbins, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. This project incorporates waste processing systems to recover recyclable materials and produce RDF. It is the first project in the United States to use CFB boiler technology to combust RDF. This paper will provide an overview of the Robbins, Illinois waste-to-energy project and will examine the technical and environmental reasons for selecting RDF waste processing and CFB combustion technology. Additionally, this paper will present experience with handling and combusting RDF and review the special design features incorporated into the CFB boiler and waste processing system that make it work.

  15. Coal pyrolysis by hot solids from a fluidized-bed combustor. Final technical report, June 1977-June 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longwell, J.P.; Evans, L.B.; Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.A.; Floess, J.K.; Fong, L.; Chen, C.; Yeboah, J.

    1982-06-01

    The effect of adding calcined dolomite stone to the fluidized-bed pyrolysis of coal and oil shale on product quality and product distribution has been studied. This work has provided information relevant to systems where heat is generated by fluidized-bed combustion in the presence of a sulfur acceptor (dolomite) and where the hot stone from the combustor is used in a second reactor to provide heat for pyrolysis. A scoping economic analysis indicated that, for coal, the pyrolysis gas and liquids produced are lower cost than gas and liquids produced by single-product gasification and liquefaction processes. The presence of calcium oxide during pyrolysis was found to improve gas heating value by CO/sub 2/ removal and to essentially eliminate H/sub 2/S. Gas yield was increased at the expense of liquid yield (20 to 30% reduction). Tar properties were improved by reduction of oxygen content, however, little sulfur or nitrogen removal was observed. Used stone from a fluidized-bed combustor gave results comparable to fresh stone with little reduction of the calcium sulfate present in the used stone. Since Colorado oil shale contains dolomite and calcite, stones from spent-shale combustion might be expected to have similar effects on product yields. CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S removal from the gas were observed. Fortunately, liquid yields were not reduced within the 5% experimental error of this work. It is indicated that CaO tends to remove phenols and polycyclic aromatics which are present in much lower concentration in shale oil than in coal tar.

  16. Fuel cell system combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode and cathode effluents. The combustor includes a turbulator section at its input end for intimately mixing the anode and cathode effluents before they contact the combustors primary catalyst bed. The turbulator comprises at least one porous bed of mixing media that provides a tortuous path therethrough for creating turbulent flow and intimate mixing of the anode and cathode effluents therein.

  17. Tubing wastage in fluidized-bed coal combustors: Examinations of tubing from Test Series 2, NCB (IEA Grimethorpe) Ltd. Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherell, C.E.; Meisenheimer, R.G.

    1987-10-30

    This study of wasted heat-exchanger tubing from the Grimethorpe PFBC Facility was conducted to characterize affected fireside surfaces and identify the mechanism/s responsible. Examinations showed that the wasted surfaces are not typical of those produced by erosion alone, as oxide deposits are present on all surfaces. Continual exfoliation of the normally-protective oxide layer is probably responsible for a major portion of tubing wastage. There are also indications of direct metal loss occurring through a series of events wherein repeatd formation and exfoliation of surface oxides produce an irregular metal interface that is mechanically deformed during combustor operation. The cold-worked metal protrusions, or platelets, on the roughened surface readily fracture from the tubing wall and are lost into the bed. 27 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  19. Composition and chemistry of particulates from the Tidd Clean Coal Demonstration Plant pressurized fluidized bed combustor, cyclone, and filter vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.H.; Grimm, U.; Haddad, G.

    1995-12-31

    In a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC)/cyclone/filter system ground coal and sorbent are injected as pastes into the PFBC bed; the hot gases and entrained fine particles of ash and calcined or reacted sorbent are passed through a cyclone (which removes the larger entrained particles); and the very-fine particles that remain are then filtered out, so that the cleaned hot gas can be sent through a non-ruggedized hot-gas turbine. The 70 MWe Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio was completed in late 1990. The initial design utilized seven strings of primary and secondary cyclones to remove 98% of the particulate matter. However, the Plant also included a pressurized filter vessel, placed between the primary and secondary cyclones of one of the seven strings. Coal and dolomitic limestone (i.e, SO{sub 2} sorbent) of various nominal sizes ranging from 12 to 18 mesh were injected into the combustor operating at about 10 atm pressure and 925{degree}C. The cyclone removed elutriated particles larger than about 0.025 mm, and particles larger than ca. 0.0005 mm were filtered at about 750{degree}C by ceramic candle filters. Thus, the chemical reaction times and temperatures, masses of material, particle-size distributions, and chemical compositions were substantially different for particulates removed from the bed drain, the cyclone drain, and the filter unit. Accordingly, we have measured the particle-size distributions and concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, silicon, and aluminum for material taken from the three units, and also determined the chemical formulas and predominant crystalline forms of the calcium and magnesium sulfate compounds formed. The latter information is particularly novel for the filter-cake material, from which we isolated the ``new`` compound Mg{sub 2}Ca(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.

  20. Metal wastage design guidelines for bubbling fluidized-bed combustors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.; Podolski, W.F.; Bouillard, J.X.; Folga, S.M.

    1992-11-01

    These metal wastage design guidelines identify relationships between metal wastage and (1) design parameters (such as tube size, tube spacing and pitch, tube bundle and fluidized-bed height to distributor, and heat exchanger tube material properties) and (2) operating parameters (such as fluidizing velocity, particle size, particle hardness, and angularity). The guidelines are of both a quantitative and qualitative nature. Simplified mechanistic models are described, which account for the essential hydrodynamics and metal wastage processes occurring in bubbling fluidized beds. The empirical correlational approach complements the use of these models in the development of these design guidelines. Data used for model and guideline validation are summarized and referenced. Sample calculations and recommended design procedures are included. The influences of dependent variables on metal wastage, such as solids velocity, bubble size, and in-bed pressure fluctuations, are discussed.

  1. Effect of fuel properties on the bottom ash generation rate by a laboratory fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W.

    2007-06-15

    The range of fuels that can be accommodated by an FBC boiler system is affected by the ability of the fuel, sorbent, and ash-handling equipment to move the required solids through the boiler. Of specific interest is the bottom ash handling equipment, which must have sufficient capacity to remove ash from the system in order to maintain a constant bed inventory level, and must have sufficient capability to cool the ash well below the bed temperature. Quantification of a fuel's bottom ash removal requirements can be useful for plant design. The effect of fuel properties on the rate of bottom ash production in a laboratory FBC test system was examined. The work used coal products ranging in ash content from 20 to 40+ wt. %. The system's classification of solids by particle size into flyash and bottom ash was characterized using a partition curve. Fuel fractions in the size range characteristic of bottom ash were further analyzed for distributions of ash content with respect to specific gravity, using float sink tests. The fuel fractions were then ashed in a fixed bed. In each case, the highest ash content fraction produced ash with the coarsest size consist (characteristic of bottom ash). The lower ash content fractions were found to produce ash in the size range characteristic of flyash, suggesting that the high ash content fractions were largely responsible for the production of bottom ash. The contributions of the specific gravity fractions to the composite ash in the fuels were quantified. The fuels were fired in the laboratory test system. Fuels with higher amounts of high specific gravity particles, in the size ranges characteristic of bottom ash, were found to produce more bottom ash, indicating the potential utility of float sink methods in the prediction of bottom ash removal requirements.

  2. Tube bank metal wastage in the Grimethorpe PFBC. [Pressurized fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    The 2 m x 2 m PFBC facility at Grimethorpe, England is designed to explore the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of coal over a wide range of conditions. A significant degree of metal wastage was observed on the fireside surfaces of the tube bank which occurred during 468 coal-burning hours of hot shakedown and hot commissioning testing. This paper described the operating conditions during testing, the erosion of the metal surfaces, and the repair and modifications undertaken. 1 reference, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  3. A study of parameters influencing metal wastage in fluidized bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podolski, W.F.; Lyczkowski, R. ); Montrone, E. ); Drennen, J. ); Ai, Y.H.; Chao, B.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology is a means of burning high-sulfur coal and various other feedstocks in an efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable manner. Unfortunately, the wearing or wastage of metal heat exchanger tubes in bubbling FBCs has been reported in a large number of units in commercial service. Presently, it is not possible to explain why some FBC units, or regions of a specific bed, undergo rapid metal loss and others do not. An eight-member cooperative R D venture was formed in 1985 to investigate metal wastage in FBCs. The objectives of the R D effort are to hydrodynamics and erosion in FBCs, (2) develop guidelines for the design and operation of FBC units with minimum metal wastage rates, and (3) demonstrate the feasibility of a continuous erosion monitor for use in pilot plant and full-scale FBC units. Computational models are being refined and used to predict the rates of metal wastage for specific FBC designs and operating conditions. The design guidelines will emerge from the understanding gained from experimental studies and analytical modeling activities. This paper updates the status of ongoing experimental studies. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Predictive models of circulating fluidized bed combustors. 12th technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidaspow, D.

    1992-07-01

    Steady flows influenced by walls cannot be described by inviscid models. Flows in circulating fluidized beds have significant wall effects. Particles in the form of clusters or layers can be seen to run down the walls. Hence modeling of circulating fluidized beds (CFB) without a viscosity is not possible. However, in interpreting Equations (8-1) and (8-2) it must be kept in mind that CFB or most other two phase flows are never in a true steady state. Then the viscosity in Equations (8-1) and (8-2) may not be the true fluid viscosity to be discussed next, but an Eddy type viscosity caused by two phase flow oscillations usually referred to as turbulence. In view of the transient nature of two-phase flow, the drag and the boundary layer thickness may not be proportional to the square root of the intrinsic viscosity but depend upon it to a much smaller extent. As another example, liquid-solid flow and settling of colloidal particles in a lamella electrosettler the settling process is only moderately affected by viscosity. Inviscid flow with settling is a good first approximation to this electric field driven process. The physical meaning of the particulate phase viscosity is described in detail in the chapter on kinetic theory. Here the conventional derivation resented in single phase fluid mechanics is generalized to multiphase flow.

  5. Tube bank wastage in the Grimethorpe pressurized fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    The coal-fired pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) at Grimethorpe, England, was run for over 3600 hours of combustion testing under the joint sponsorship of the governments of the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, and the US. Early in the course of these tests, significant metal wastage was experienced, especially on the inbed heat transfer tubes. This paper describes the modifications to design and new alloys which were tested in the PFBC. Operating conditions for three tube banks are given. A new tube bank, D, has been designed which incorporates a variety of alloy types, a number of tubes designed to operate at higher temperatures than those typical of the rest of the tube bank, and some tubes fitted with fins. The datum fluidizing velocity has been reduced to 0.8 m/sec. The effects of these variables: metal surface temperature, alloy chromium content, fin or stud arrangements, and fluidizing velocity, will be investigated in a continuing program funded by British Coal and the Central Electricity Generating Board of the UK, with some participation from the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute. 3 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  6. On-line instrumentation for the real-time monitoring of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the effluents from a fluidized bed combustor - a feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Silva, A.P.; Iles, M.; Rice, G.; Fassel, V.A.

    1984-04-01

    When polynuclear aromatic hydrocargons in the vapor phase are diluted preferably in a rare gas and undergo supersonic jet expansion, rotationally cooled molecules with absorption bandwidths of the order of 0.01 nm (FWHM) are obtained. Selective excitation with a tunable dye laser into such narrow absorption bands leads to the observation of highly specific luminescence spectra. Such an approach has been utilized for the on-line, real-time monitoring of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the effluents from a fluidized bed combustor.

  7. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith, Raymond E.

    1991-10-01

    Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute's decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

  8. Combined heat and power systems that consist of biomass fired fluidised bed combustors and modern steam engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, S.D.; Errey, S.; Thomas, M.; Kruger, P.

    1996-12-31

    Biomass energy is widely used in many processing industries in the ASEAN region. The residue produced by agricultural and wood processing plant is either inefficiently combusted in simple furnaces or in the open, or disposed of in land fill sites or in rivers. Many of these industries are paying high prices for electricity in rural areas and/or supply is unreliable. An ASEAN/Australian cooperation program has been under way for the last ten years to introduce clean burning biomass fired heat and/or combined heat and power equipment. It aims to transfer Australian know how in the design and manufacture of fluidised bed CHP technology to the ASEAN region. The main participants involved in the program include SIRIM and UKM in Malaysia, PCIERD, FPRI and Asia Ratan in the Philippines, King Monkutt Institute of Technology (KMITT) in Thailand, LIPI and ITB in Indonesia, and the University of Singapore. In this paper an outline of the program will be given including results of market research and development undertaken into fluidised bed combustion, the proposed plant design and costings, and research and development undertaken into modem steam engine technology. It will be shown that all of the projects to be undertaken are financially viable. In particular the use of simple low cost high efficient steam engines ensures that the smaller CHP plant (50-100 kWe) can be viable.

  9. Project Profile: Particle Receiver Integrated with a Fluidized Bed |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Particle Receiver Integrated with a Fluidized Bed Project Profile: Particle Receiver Integrated with a Fluidized Bed NREL logo -- This project is inactive -- The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and its partners, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), are developing a novel receiver that uses falling particles instead of liquid for the heat-transfer fluid (HTF). The research team aims to build a

  10. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

  11. Characterization and analysis of metal wastage in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustors. Statistical analysis plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazemi, A.H.; Smith, E.P.

    1985-11-01

    Metal loss from in-bed heat exchangers has been a persistent problem in FBC systems. As part of its program in FBC technology development, the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) supports a number of projects directed toward providing both theoretical and experimental results which will guide solutions to the metal loss problem. As a part of this effort, METC and The MITRE Corporation began a project in 1984 to collect and analyze metal loss data from various experimental, pilot-scale, and full-scale coal-fired FBC systems worldwide. The specific objective of this effort is to investigate the effects of unit design parameters and operating conditions on metal loss through the use of regression and analysis of variance techniques. To date, forty-one FBC systems worldwide have been identified and most of the data sets which characterize the metal loss occurrences in those units have been developed. The results of MITRE's effort to date were reported earlier (Interim Report No. DOE/MC/21351-1930, August 1985). This report describes the statistical procedures that MITRE will follow to analyze FBC metal loss data. The data will be analyzed using several regression techniques to find variables related to metal loss. Correlation and single variable regressions will be used to indicate important relationships. The joint relationships between the explanatory variables and metal loss will be examined by building multiple regression models. In order to prevent erroneous conclusions, diagnostics will be performed based on partial residual plots, residual analysis, and multicollinearity statistics. 7 refs.

  12. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-31

    During the fourth quarter of 1990, steady-state performance testing at the Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) resumed under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. Co-sponsorship of the Demonstration Test Program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was completed on June 15, 1990. From October through December, 1990, Colorado-Ute Electric Association (CUEA) completed a total of 23 steady-state performance tests, 4 dynamic tests, and set operating records during November and December as the result of improved unit operating reliability. Highlight events and achievements during this period of operation are presented.

  13. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  14. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  15. Scramjet combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harshman, D.L.

    1991-12-17

    This patent describes a scramjet combustor having a longitudinal axis and two spaced-apart, generally opposing, and generally longitudinally extending walls, with at least one of the walls having an aft-facing step. The combustor also having a fuel injector disposed proximate the step at an acute positive angle with respect to the longitudinal axis, and wherein the improvement comprises means for varying the fuel injector angle during supersonic flight.

  16. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Eto, Joseph H.; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Klapp, Dave; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Stevens, John; Volkommer, Harry

    2008-07-25

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating small energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of small generating sources. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation; 2) an approach to electrical protection within the microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications. The techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protections system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust and under all conditions, including difficult motor starts. The results from these test are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field demonstrations involving microgrids that involve one or mroe of the CERTS Microgrid concepts.

  17. Scramjet combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harshman, D.L.

    1991-12-17

    This patent describes an improvement in a scramjet combustor having a longitudinal axis and two spaced-apart, generally opposing, and generally longitudinally extending walls, with each of the walls having an aft-facing step, the steps being a longitudinal distance apart, the combustor also having a fuel injector disposed proximate a the step at an acute positive angle with respect to the longitudinal axis. The improvement comprises: means for varying the longitudinal distance during supersonic flight; means for varying the fuel injector angle during supersonic flight; and means for varying the transverse distance between the walls during supersonic flight.

  18. CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROTARY COMBUSTOR FOR REFIRING PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray F. Abbott; Jamal B. Mereb; Simon P. Hanson; Michael J. Virr

    2000-11-01

    The Rotary Combustor is a novel concept for burning coal with low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. It burns crushed coal in a fluid bed where the bed is maintained in a rotating drum by centripetal force. Since this force may be varied, the combustor may be very compact, and thus be a direct replacement for a p.c. burner on existing boilers. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate that a typical industrial boiler can be refired with the modified prototype Rotary Combustor to burn Ohio high-sulfur coal with low emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The primary problem that must be resolved to demonstrate sustained operations with coal is temperature control in the rotating fluid bed. The prototype Rotary Combustor was assembled and installed on the T-850P CNB boiler at the CONSOL Energy site in South Park, Pennsylvania. Several design improvements were investigated and implemented during the assembly to improve the prototype Rotary Combustor operations compared to prior tests at Detroit Stoker in Monroe, Michigan. An Operating Manual and Safety Review were completed. The shakedown test phase was initiated. Two major problems were initially encountered: binding of the rotating drum at operating temperatures, and reduced fluid-bed pressure drop after short periods of operation. Plating the brush seal rotary land ring with a chrome carbide plasma spray and lubricating the seal prior to each test sufficiently resolved these problems to permit a limited number of operations tests. Unlike previous tests at Detroit Stoker, sustained operation of the prototype Rotary Combustor was accomplished burning a high-Btu fuel, metallurgical coke. The prototype Rotary Combustor was operated with coke in gasifier mode on two occasions. Fluid-bed temperature spiking was minimized with manual control of the feeds (coke, air and steam), and no clinker formation problems were encountered in either test. Emission levels of NO{sub x} were measured at about 270 ppmv which

  19. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute`s decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

  20. Combustor with multistage internal vortices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y.; Harrington, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized bed combustor is provided with a multistage arrangement of vortex generators in the freeboard area. The vortex generators are provided by nozzle means which extend into the interior of the freeboard for forming vortices within the freeboard area to enhance the combustion of particulate material entrained in product gases ascending into the freeboard from the fluidized bed. Each of the nozzles are radially inwardly spaced from the combustor walls defining the freeboard to provide for the formation of an essentially vortex-free, vertically extending annulus about the vortices whereby the particulate material centrifuged from the vortices against the inner walls of the combustor is returned through the annulus to the fluidized bed. By adjusting the vortex pattern within the freeboard, a significant portion of the full cross-sectional area of the freeboard except for the peripheral annulus can be contacted with the turbulent vortical flow for removing the particulate material from the gaseous products and also for enhancing the combustion thereof within the freeboard.

  1. Combustor with multistage internal vortices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Yu; Harrington, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    A fluidized bed combustor is provided with a multistage arrangement of vortex generators in the freeboard area. The vortex generators are provided by nozzle means which extend into the interior of the freeboard for forming vortices within the freeboard areas to enhance the combustion of particulate material entrained in product gases ascending into the freeboard from the fluidized bed. Each of the nozzles are radially inwardly spaced from the combustor walls defining the freeboard to provide for the formation of an essentially vortex-free, vertically extending annulus about the vortices whereby the particulate material centrifuged from the vortices against the inner walls of the combustor is returned through the annulus to the fluidized bed. By adjusting the vortex pattern within the freeboard, a significant portion of the full cross-sectional area of the freeboard except for the peripheral annulus can be contacted with the turbulent vortical flow for removing the particulate material from the gaseous products and also for enhancing the combustion thereof within the freeboard. 2 figs.

  2. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrating solar power tower air Brayton combustor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop an external combustor that allows for the mixing of CSP-heated air with natural gas in hybridized power plants. This project aims to increase the temperature capabilities of the CSP tower air receiver and gas turbine to 1,000ºC and achieve energy conversion efficiencies greater than 50%.

  3. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comparato, Joseph R. (Bloomfield, CT); Jacobs, Martin (Hartford, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  4. Experimental and theoretical investigation on the mechanism of transient bubble images in fluidized-bed combustors: Systematic interpretation and analysis. Final report, July 1992--July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hisashi O. Kono

    1995-08-01

    For the improvement of the design and operation of the FBC systems, the insight into the intrinsic transient bubbling phenomena in freely bubbling fluidized beds is of vital importance. The authors have found several basic new bubbling mechanisms in this work experimentally, and some of them have not been published in past literature. Using the two dimensional fluidized bed, the images of transient bubbling behavior were recorded by videos, and processed and analyzed by computers. As the results of experiments, the following new experimental facts were found: (1) transient bubbles change and fluctuate their size and shape over very short time intervals (on the order of 30 milliseconds); (2) bubble disappearance and reappearance occurred in the emulsion phase in addition to the known phenomena of coalescence and splitting. The bubble interaction occurred between the bubbles and adjacent emulsion phase and also among the transient bubbles; (3) bubble`s velocity fluctuated significantly, e.g., 0.6 to 3.0 m/s; (4) under one single specific fluidization condition, two different fluidization patterns appeared to occur randomly shifting from one pattern to the other or vice versa; (5) the erosion rates of in-bed tubes at ambient and elevated temperature could be predicted using material property data and transient behavior of bubbles. By introducing a new quantitative criterion which the authors call a gas stress index in the emulsion phase, the comparison of the fluidization quality between two and three dimensional fluidized beds was accomplished. They found reasonable correspondence between the two beds, and concluded that the new findings of transient bubble behavior should hold true for both types of fluidized beds. 32 refs., 85 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Next Generation Manufacturing Processes project to develop a unique, fuel-flexible catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultra-low emission, lean premixed combustion of a ...

  6. Combustor and combustor screech mitigation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kwanwoo; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Uhm, Jong Ho; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto

    2014-05-27

    The present application provides for a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a cap member and a number of fuel nozzles extending through the cap member. One or more of the fuel nozzles may be provided in a non-flush position with respect to the cap member.

  7. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  8. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor. Final report, March 15, 1990--July 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  9. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  10. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  11. Advanced fossil fuel combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, B.

    1995-05-01

    Charged with enhancing the use of US fossil energy resources, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is a federal Department of Energy research center that performs its own research and also manages the work of contractors. One interesting recent METC project is the effort to develop a ``multiannular swirl burner`` (MSB) for use in an advanced fossil fuel combustion system. The design is being developed by an outside contractor with funding and technical assistance from METC. Recently, EG and G Technical Services of West Virginia was asked to provide analytical support to the contractor developing the MSB. Design projects like this usually require building and testing a series of very expensive prototypes. Recent success with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) design techniques, however, have generated a great deal of excitement because of its ability to reduce research and development costs. Using FLUENT, a CFD package from Fluent Inc., EG and G was able to predict, with a high degree of accuracy, the performance of one of the MSB combustor prototypes. Furthermore, the model provided researchers with a more detailed understanding of the proposed design`s performance characteristics.

  12. Combustor liner cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

    2013-08-06

    A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

  13. Effect of wood chip size on update gasifier-combustor operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, F.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Caussanel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three wood chip sizes were tested in a 0.3 GJ/h updraft gasifier-combustor. Thermal output did not vary significantly between wood chips. Pressure and temperature profiles were measured in the gasifier bed. Channeling occurred with the small wood chips. Efficiency of the combustor was determined by a mass and energy balance and an enthalpy technique.

  14. Second generation PFBC systems research and development: Phase 2, Topping combustor testing at UTSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanson, N.R.; Foote, J.P.

    1992-12-01

    This report describes a second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant. The topping combustor testing is briefly described. The topping combustor burns low BTU gas produced from substoichiometric combustion of coal in a pressurized carbonizer. Char produced is burned in a PFBC.

  15. Second generation PFBC systems research and development: Phase 2, Topping combustor testing at UTSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanson, N.R.; Foote, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant. The topping combustor testing is briefly described. The topping combustor burns low BTU gas produced from substoichiometric combustion of coal in a pressurized carbonizer. Char produced is burned in a PFBC.

  16. Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion system. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seong W.

    1996-11-01

    Research is presented on erosion and corrosion of fluidized bed combustor component materials. The characteristics of erosion of in-bed tubes was investigated. Anti-corrosion measures were also evaluated.

  17. The Nucla Circulating Fluidized-Bed Demonstration Project: A U.S. DOE post-project assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    This report is a post-project assessment of the Nucla Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Demonstration Project, the second project to be completed in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program. Nucla was the first successful utility repowering project in the US, increasing the capacity of the original power station from 36 MW(e) to 110 MW(e) and extending its life by 30 years. In the CFB boiler, combustion and desulfurization both take place in the fluidized bed. Calcium in the sorbent captures sulfur dioxide and the relatively low combustion temperatures limit NOx formation. Hot cyclones separate the larger particles from the gas and recirculates them to the lower zones of the combustion chambers. This continuous circulation of coal char and sorbent particles is the novel feature of CFB technology. This demonstration project significantly advanced the environmental, operational, and economic potential of atmospheric CFB technology, precipitating a large number of orders for atmospheric CFB equipment. By 1994, more than 200 atmospheric CFB boilers have been constructed worldwide. Although at least six CFB units have been operated, the Nucla project`s CFB database continues to be an important and unique resource for the design of yet larger atmospheric CFB systems. The post-project assessment report is an independent DOE appraisal of the success a completed project had in achieving its objectives and aiding in the commercialization of the demonstrated technology. The report also provides an assessment of the expected technical, environmental, and economic performance of the commercial version of the technology as well as an analysis of the commercial market.

  18. Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

    2003-02-28

    The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

  19. Gas turbine topping combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Janos; Dowdy, Thomas E.; Bachovchin, Dennis M.

    1997-01-01

    A combustor for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone.

  20. Combustor and method for purging a combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight; Hughes, Michael John

    2015-06-09

    A combustor includes an end cap. The end cap includes a first surface and a second surface downstream from the first surface, a shroud that circumferentially surrounds at least a portion of the first and second surfaces, a plate that extends radially within the shroud, a plurality of tubes that extend through the plate and the first and second surfaces, and a first purge port that extends through one or more of the plurality of tubes, wherein the purge port is axially aligned with the plate.

  1. Combustor burner vanelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Benjamin (Greer, SC); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Loveland, OH); Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); Yilmaz, Ertan (Albany, NY); Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC)

    2012-02-14

    The present application provides a burner for use with a combustor of a gas turbine engine. The burner may include a center hub, a shroud, a pair of fuel vanes extending from the center hub to the shroud, and a vanelet extending from the center hub and/or the shroud and positioned between the pair of fuel vanes.

  2. Performance analysis and pilot plant test results for the Komorany fluidized bed retrofit project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, G.C.

    1995-12-01

    Detailed heat and mass balance calculations and emission performance projections are presented for an atmospheric fluidized bed boiler bottom retrofit at the 927 MWt (steam output) Komorany power station and district heating plant in the Czech Republic. Each of the ten existing boilers are traveling grate stoker units firing a local, low-rank brown coal. This fuel, considered to be representative of much of the coal deposits in Central Europe, is characterized by an average gross calorific value of 10.5 MJ/kg (4,530 Btu/lb), an average dry basis ash content of 47 %, and a maximum dry basis sulfur content of 1.8 % (3.4 % on a dry, ash free basis). The same fuel supply, together with limestone supplied from the region will be utilized in the retrofit fluidized bed boilers. The primary objectives of this retrofit program are, (1) reduce emissions to a level at or below the new Czech Clean Air Act, and (2) restore plant capacity to the original specification. As a result of the AFBC retrofit and plant upgrade, the particulate matter emissions will be reduced by over 98 percent, SO{sub 2} emissions will be reduced by 88 percent, and NO{sub x} emissions will be reduced by 38 percent compared to the present grate-fired configuration. The decrease in SO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the fluidized bed retrofit was initially predicted based on fuel sulfur content, including the distribution among organic, pyritic, and sulfate forms; the ash alkalinity; and the estimated limestone calcium utilization efficiency. The methodology and the results of this prediction were confirmed and extended by pilot scale combustion trials at a 1.0 MWt (fuel input), variable configuration test facility in France.

  3. US-VISIT Independent Verification and Validation Project: Test Bed Establishment Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, N W; Gansemer, J D

    2011-01-21

    This document describes the computational and data systems available at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use on the US-VISIT Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) project. This system - composed of data, software and hardware - is designed to be as close as a representation of the operational ADIS system as is required to verify and validate US-VISIT methodologies. It is not required to reproduce the computational capabilities of the enterprise-class operational system. During FY10, the test bed was simplified from the FY09 version by reducing the number of database host computers from three to one, significantly reducing the maintenance and overhead while simultaneously increasing system throughput. During the current performance period, a database transfer was performed as a set of Data Pump Export files. The previous RMAN backup from 2007 required the availability of an AIX system which is not required when using data pump. Due to efficiencies in the new system and process, loading of the database refresh was able to be accomplished in a much shorter time frame than was previously required. The FY10 Oracle Test Bed now consists of a single Linux platform hosting two Oracle databases including the 2007 copy as well as the October 2010 refresh.

  4. Staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Joseph S.; Halow, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system for substantially reducing the quantity of waste through the complete combustion into ash-type solids and gaseous products. The device has two fluidized-bed portions, the first primarily as a combustor/pyrolyzer bed, and the second as a combustor/filter bed. The two portions each have internal baffles to define stages so that material moving therein as fluidized beds travel in an extended route through those stages. Fluidization and movement is achieved by the introduction of gases into each stage through a directional nozzle. Gases produced in the combustor/pyrolyzer bed are permitted to travel into corresponding stages of the combustor/filter bed through screen filters that permit gas flow but inhibit solids flow. Any catalyst used in the combustor/filter bed is recycled. The two beds share a common wall to minimize total volume of the system. A slightly modified embodiment can be used for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Either side-by-side rectangular beds or concentric beds can be used. The system is particularly suited to the processing of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste.

  5. Gas turbine topping combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, J.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1997-06-10

    A combustor is described for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone. 14 figs.

  6. Ceramic combustor mounting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Melvin G.; Janneck, Frank W.

    1982-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine engine includes a metal engine block including a wall portion defining a housing for a combustor having ceramic liner components. A ceramic outlet duct is supported by a compliant seal on the metal block and a reaction chamber liner is stacked thereon and partly closed at one end by a ceramic bypass swirl plate which is spring loaded by a plurality of circumferentially spaced, spring loaded guide rods and wherein each of the guide rods has one end thereof directed exteriorly of a metal cover plate on the engine block to react against externally located biasing springs cooled by ambient air and wherein the rod spring support arrangement maintains the stacked ceramic components together so that a normal force is maintained on the seal between the outlet duct and the engine block under all operating conditions. The support arrangement also is operative to accommodate a substantial difference in thermal expansion between the ceramic liner components of the combustor and the metal material of the engine block.

  7. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuels Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuels This fact sheet provides an overview of the Next Generation Manufacturing Processes project to develop a unique, fuel-flexible catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultra-low emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide range of gaseous opportunity fuels. Fact sheet - Enabling Clean Consumption of Low Btu and Reactive Fuels in Gas

  8. Fluidized Bed Technology- An R&D Success Story

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the early 1990s, POWER magazine called the development of fluidized bed coal combustors "the commercial success story of the last decade in the power generation business." The success, perhaps...

  9. Concentric catalytic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruck, Gerald J.; Laster, Walter R.

    2009-03-24

    A catalytic combustor (28) includes a tubular pressure boundary element (90) having a longitudinal flow axis (e.g., 56) separating a first portion (94) of a first fluid flow (e.g., 24) from a second portion (95) of the first fluid flow. The pressure boundary element includes a wall (96) having a plurality of separate longitudinally oriented flow paths (98) annularly disposed within the wall and conducting respective portions (100, 101) of a second fluid flow (e.g., 26) therethrough. A catalytic material (32) is disposed on a surface (e.g., 102, 103) of the pressure boundary element exposed to at least one of the first and second portions of the first fluid flow.

  10. Segmented annular combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reider, Samuel B.

    1979-01-01

    An industrial gas turbine engine includes an inclined annular combustor made up of a plurality of support segments each including inner and outer walls of trapezoidally configured planar configuration extents and including side flanges thereon interconnected by means of air cooled connector bolt assemblies to form a continuous annular combustion chamber therebetween and wherein an air fuel mixing chamber is formed at one end of the support segments including means for directing and mixing fuel within a plenum and a perforated header plate for directing streams of air and fuel mixture into the combustion chamber; each of the outer and inner walls of each of the support segments having a ribbed lattice with tracks slidably supporting porous laminated replaceable panels and including pores therein for distributing combustion air into the combustion chamber while cooling the inner surface of each of the panels by transpiration cooling thereof.

  11. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

    2005-01-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period October 1, 2004 through December 31, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building have proceeded well. Second, the detailed design of supporting and hanging structures for the CFBC was completed. Third, the laboratory-scale simulated fluidized-bed facility was modified after completing a series of pretests. The two problems identified during the pretest were solved. Fourth, the carbonization of chicken waste and coal was investigated in a tube furnace and a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  12. Improving Aircraft Engine Combustor Simulations | Argonne Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Facility Jet engine combustor design Pratt & Whitney is exploring leading-edge jet engine combustor design methods using the ALCF's Blue Gene/P. Improving Aircraft Engine Combustor Simulations PI Name: Peter Bradley PI Email: peter.c.bradley@pw.utc.com Institution: Pratt & Whitney Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 1.3 Million Year: 2008 Research Domain: Engineering A jet engine combustor combines air flowing faster than a hurricane with swirling fuel to

  13. Demonstrated performance of the TRW pressurized slagging coal combustor during the MHD POC program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright, J.; Bauer, M.; Braswell, R.; Grove, A.

    1994-12-31

    A prototypical 50 MW, pressurized slagging coal combustor has been designed, fabricated and tested as part of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) project. The MHD ITC project was an integral part of the MHD National Proof Of Concept (POC) program that was completed in September 1993. This technical paper presents the demonstrated performance of the MHD combustor which is an integral major component of the 50 MW, prototypical power train that was tested at the CDIF. The paper describes the design requirements and design criteria that formed the foundation for the combustor design. An overview of the resulting prototypical combustor design is included. A summary of all the POC tests that produced 525 hours of operating time is presented and the combustor operational characteristics and demonstrated performance are discussed with the focus being on conductivity (power), heat loss, slag recovery and lifetime projections. The prototypical combustion subsystem demonstrated the capability of meeting or exceeding the DOE Statement of Work performance requirements. A discussion of the impact of the new multipart coal injector on combustor performance is also included. The conclusions and recommendation include the recommended design changes required prior to scaling this design to larger sizes. Recommendations as to the remaining steps required to complete the combustor data base prior to scaling are also presented.

  14. Radial midframe baffle for can-annular combustor arrangement having tangentially oriented combustor cans

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Jose L.

    2015-09-15

    A can-annular gas turbine engine combustion arrangement (10), including: a combustor can (12) comprising a combustor inlet (38) and a combustor outlet circumferentially and axially offset from the combustor inlet; an outer casing (24) defining a plenum (22) in which the combustor can is disposed; and baffles (70) configured to divide the plenum into radial sectors (72) and configured to inhibit circumferential motion of compressed air (16) within the plenum.

  15. NONEQUILIBRIUM SULFUR CAPTURE & RETENTION IN AN AIR COOLED SLAGGING COAL COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert Zauderer

    2003-04-21

    Calcium oxide injected in a slagging combustor reacts with the sulfur from coal combustion to form sulfur-bearing particles. The reacted particles impact and melt in the liquid slag layer on the combustor wall by the centrifugal force of the swirling combustion gases. Due to the low solubility of sulfur in slag, it must be rapidly drained from the combustor to limit sulfur gas re-evolution. Prior analyses and laboratory scale data indicated that for Coal Tech's 20 MMBtu/hour, air-cooled, slagging coal combustor slag mass flow rates in excess of 400 lb/hr should limit sulfur re-evolution. The objective of this 42-month project was to validate this sulfur-in-slag model in a group of combustor tests. A total of 36 days of testing on the combustor were completed during the period of performance of this project. This was more that double the 16 test days that were required in the original work statement. The extra tests were made possible by cost saving innovations that were made in the operation of the combustor test facility and in additional investment of Coal Tech resources in the test effort. The original project plan called for two groups of tests. The first group of tests involved the injection of calcium sulfate particles in the form of gypsum or plaster of Paris with the coal into the 20 MMBtu/hour-combustor. The second group of tests consisted of the entire two-step process, in which lime or limestone is co-injected with coal and reacts with the sulfur gas released during combustion to form calcium sulfate particles that impact and dissolve in the slag layer. Since this sulfur capture process has been validated in numerous prior tests in this combustor, the primary effort in the present project was on achieving the high slag flow rates needed to retain the sulfur in the slag.

  16. Pulse combustor with controllable oscillations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A.; Welter, Michael J.; Morris, Gary J.

    1992-01-01

    A pulse combustor having thermally induced pulse combustion in a continuously flowing system is described. The pulse combustor is fitted with at lease one elongated ceramic body which significantly increases the heat transfer area in the combustion chamber of the combustor. The ceramic body or bodies possess sufficient mass and heat capacity to ignite the fuel-air charge once the ceramic body or bodies are heated by conventional spark plug initiated combustion so as to provide repetitive ignition and combustion of sequentially introduced fuel-air charges without the assistance of the spark plug and the rapid quenching of the flame after each ignition in a controlled manner so as to provide a selective control over the oscillation frequency and amplitude. Additional control over the heat transfer in the combustion chamber is provided by employing heat exchange mechanisms for selectively heating or cooling the elongated ceramic body or bodies and/or the walls of the combustion chamber.

  17. Methanol tailgas combustor control method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart-Predmore, David J.; Pettit, William H.

    2002-01-01

    A method for controlling the power and temperature and fuel source of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to supply heat to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual fuel inlet streams including a first fuel stream, and a second fuel stream of anode effluent from the fuel cell and reformate from the fuel processor. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is determined by regulating the amount of the first and/or second fuel streams and the quantity of the first air flow stream to support fuel processor power requirements.

  18. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-31

    During the fourth quarter of 1990, steady-state performance testing at the Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) resumed under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. Co-sponsorship of the Demonstration Test Program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was completed on June 15, 1990. From October through December, 1990, Colorado-Ute Electric Association (CUEA) completed a total of 23 steady-state performance tests, 4 dynamic tests, and set operating records during November and December as the result of improved unit operating reliability. Highlight events and achievements during this period of operation are presented.

  19. Emission factors for several toxic air pollutants from fluidized-bed combustion of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E.

    1986-03-01

    Clean coal technologies such as fluidized-bed combustion have the potential to emit the same trace elements as conventional combustors. Since the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is likely to promulgate National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for several trace elements, the feasibility of using fluidized-bed combustors to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may depend in part on the relative amounts of trace elements emitted by fluidized-bed and conventional combustors. Emissions of trace elements from both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors were compared with those from conventional combustors by developing fluidized-bed emission factors from information available in the literature and comparing them with the emission factors for conventional combustors recommended in a literature search conducted for EPA. The comparisons are based on the mass of emission per unit of heat input for antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, vanadium, and zinc. When inaccuracies in the data were taken into account, the trace element emissions from atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion seem to be somewhat higher than those from a conventional utility boiler burning pulverized coal and somewhat lower than those from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion.

  20. Second generation PFBC system research and development: Phase 2, Topping combustor development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domeracki, W.; Pillsbury, P.W.; Dowdy, T.E.; Foote, J.

    1992-12-01

    The use of a Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (CPFBC) as the primary combustion system for a combustion turbine requires transporting compressor air to the CPFBC and vitiated air/flue gas back to the turbine. In addition, the topping combustion system must be located in the returning vitiated airflow path. The conventional fuel system and turbine center section require major change for the applications. The selected arrangement, which utilizes two topping combustor assemblies, one on each side of the unit, is shown in Figure 1. Half of the vitiated air from the CPFBC enters an intemal plenum chamber in which topping combustors are mounted. Fuel gas enters the assembly via the fuel nozzles at the head end of the combustor. Combustion occurs, and the products of combustion are ducted into the main shell for distribution to the first-stage turbine vanes. Compressor discharge air leaves the main shell, flowing around the annular duct into the adjacent combustion shells. The air flows around the vitiated air plenums and leaves each combustion assembly via nozzles and is ducted to the CPFBC and carbonizer. Because the air entering the combustor is at 1600{degrees}F rather than the 700{degrees}F usual for gas turbines, the conventional type of combustor is not suitable. Both emissions and wall cooling problems preclude the use of the conventional design. Therefore, a combustor that will meet the requirements of utilizing the higher temperature air for both wall cooling and combustion is required. In selecting a combustor design that will withstand the conditions expected in the topping application, the effective utilization of the 1600{degrees}F air mentioned above could satisfy the wall cooling challenge by maintaining a cooling air layer of substantial thickness.

  1. Variable residence time vortex combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melconian, Jerry O.

    1987-01-01

    A variable residence time vortex combustor including a primary combustion chamber for containing a combustion vortex, and a plurality of louvres peripherally disposed about the primary combustion chamber and longitudinally distributed along its primary axis. The louvres are inclined to impel air about the primary combustion chamber to cool its interior surfaces and to impel air inwardly to assist in driving the combustion vortex in a first rotational direction and to feed combustion in the primary combustion chamber. The vortex combustor also includes a second combustion chamber having a secondary zone and a narrowed waist region in the primary combustion chamber interconnecting the output of the primary combustion chamber with the secondary zone for passing only lower density particles and trapping higher density particles in the combustion vortex in the primary combustion chamber for substantial combustion.

  2. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  3. Regeneration of lime from sulfates for fluidized-bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Steinberg, Meyer

    1980-01-01

    In a fluidized-bed combustor the evolving sulfur oxides are reacted with CaO to form calcium sulfate which is then decomposed in the presence of carbonaceous material, such as the fly ash recovered from the combustion, at temperatures of about 900.degree. to 1000.degree. C., to regenerate lime. The regenerated lime is then recycled to the fluidized bed combustor to further react with the evolving sulfur oxides. The lime regenerated in this manner is quite effective in removing the sulfur oxides.

  4. Combustor with non-circular head end

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a head end with a non-circular configuration, a number of fuel nozzles positioned about the head end, and a transition piece extending downstream of the head end.

  5. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  6. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  7. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  8. Wedge edge ceramic combustor tile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaffer, James E. (Maitland, FL); Holsapple, Allan C. (Poway, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A multipiece combustor has a portion thereof being made of a plurality of ceramic segments. Each of the plurality of ceramic segments have an outer surface and an inner surface. Each of the plurality of ceramic segments have a generally cylindrical configuration and including a plurality of joints. The joints define joint portions, a first portion defining a surface being skewed to the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint portions have a second portion defining a surface being skewed to the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint portions further include a shoulder formed intermediate the first portion and the second portion. The joints provide a sealing interlocking joint between corresponding ones of the plurality of ceramic segments. Thus, the multipiece combustor having the plurality of ceramic segment with the plurality of joints reduces the physical size of the individual components and the degradation of the surface of the ceramic components in a tensile stress zone is generally eliminated reducing the possibility of catastrophic failures.

  9. Wedge edge ceramic combustor tile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaffer, J.E.; Holsapple, A.C.

    1997-06-10

    A multipiece combustor has a portion thereof being made of a plurality of ceramic segments. Each of the plurality of ceramic segments have an outer surface and an inner surface. Each of the plurality of ceramic segments have a generally cylindrical configuration and including a plurality of joints. The joints define joint portions, a first portion defining a surface being skewed to the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint portions have a second portion defining a surface being skewed to the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint portions further include a shoulder formed intermediate the first portion and the second portion. The joints provide a sealing interlocking joint between corresponding ones of the plurality of ceramic segments. Thus, the multipiece combustor having the plurality of ceramic segment with the plurality of joints reduces the physical size of the individual components and the degradation of the surface of the ceramic components in a tensile stress zone is generally eliminated reducing the possibility of catastrophic failures. 7 figs.

  10. Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry

    2000-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

  11. Combustor oscillating pressure stabilization and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gemmen, Randall S.; Richards, George A.; Yip, Mui-Tong Joseph; Robey, Edward H.; Cully, Scott R.; Addis, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    High dynamic pressure oscillations in hydrocarbon-fueled combustors typically occur when the transport time of the fuel to the flame front is at some fraction of the acoustic period. These oscillations are reduced to acceptably lower levels by restructuring or repositioning the flame front in the combustor to increase the transport time. A pilot flame front located upstream of the oscillating flame and pulsed at a selected frequency and duration effectively restructures and repositions the oscillating flame in the combustor to alter the oscillation-causing transport time.

  12. Combustor oscillating pressure stabilization and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gemmen, R.S.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.T.J.; Robey, E.H.; Cully, S.R.; Addis, R.E.

    1998-08-11

    High dynamic pressure oscillations in hydrocarbon-fueled combustors typically occur when the transport time of the fuel to the flame front is at some fraction of the acoustic period. These oscillations are reduced to acceptably lower levels by restructuring or repositioning the flame front in the combustor to increase the transport time. A pilot flame front located upstream of the oscillating flame and pulsed at a selected frequency and duration effectively restructures and repositions the oscillating flame in the combustor to alter the oscillation-causing transport time. 7 figs.

  13. Chaos in an imperfectly premixed model combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kabiraj, Lipika Saurabh, Aditya; Paschereit, Christian O.; Karimi, Nader; Sailor, Anna; Mastorakos, Epaminondas; Dowling, Ann P.

    2015-02-15

    This article reports nonlinear bifurcations observed in a laboratory scale, turbulent combustor operating under imperfectly premixed mode with global equivalence ratio as the control parameter. The results indicate that the dynamics of thermoacoustic instability correspond to quasi-periodic bifurcation to low-dimensional, deterministic chaos, a route that is common to a variety of dissipative nonlinear systems. The results support the recent identification of bifurcation scenarios in a laminar premixed flame combustor (Kabiraj et al., Chaos: Interdiscip. J. Nonlinear Sci. 22, 023129 (2012)) and extend the observation to a practically relevant combustor configuration.

  14. Combustor technology for broadened-properties fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    In order to increase the availability and reduce the cost of future fuels for aircraft gas turbine engines, it may be necessary to broaden fuel specifications. Anticipated changes in fuel properties, and the effects of these changes on combustion system performance, operating characteristics, durability, and emissions are briefly reviewed, and results to date of a program being conducted to develop and demonstrate combustor technology required to utilize broadened-properties fuels in current and next-generation engines are described. Combustion system design considerations and tradeoffs for burning broadened-properties fuels are discussed, and test experience with several applicable combustor design modifications to the G.E. CF6-80A combustion system is reviewed. Modifications have been demonstrated to improve liner cooling and reduce smoke in the conventional annular combustor, thereby reducing effects of variations in fuel hydrogen content. Advanced staged and variable geometry combustor concepts for burning broadened-properties fuels have also been demonstrated.

  15. Combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiebe, David J; Fox, Timothy A

    2013-02-19

    A combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine. The combustor assembly includes a combustor device coupled to a main engine casing, a first fuel injection system, a transition duct, and an intermediate duct. The combustor device includes a flow sleeve for receiving pressurized air and a liner disposed radially inwardly from the flow sleeve. The first fuel injection system provides fuel that is ignited with the pressurized air creating first working gases. The intermediate duct is disposed between the liner and the transition duct and defines a path for the first working gases to flow from the liner to the transition duct. An intermediate duct inlet portion is associated with a liner outlet and allows movement between the intermediate duct and the liner. An intermediate duct outlet portion is associated with a transition duct inlet section and allows movement between the intermediate duct and the transition duct.

  16. Scramjet including integrated inlet and combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutschenreuter, P.H. Jr.; Blanton, J.C.

    1992-02-04

    This patent describes a scramjet engine. It comprises: a first surface including an aft facing step; a cowl including: a leading edge and a trailing edge; an upper surface and a lower surface extending between the leading edge and the trailing edge; the cowl upper surface being spaced from and generally parallel to the first surface to define an integrated inlet-combustor therebetween having an inlet for receiving and channeling into the inlet-combustor supersonic inlet airflow; means for injecting fuel into the inlet-combustor at the step for mixing with the supersonic inlet airflow for generating supersonic combustion gases; and further including a spaced pari of sidewalls extending between the first surface to the cowl upper surface and wherein the integrated inlet-combustor is generally rectangular and defined by the sidewall pair, the first surface and the cowl upper surface.

  17. Rolling contact mounting arrangement for a ceramic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L. (328 Sneath Way, Alpine, CA 91901); Shaffer, James E. (1780 Geronimo Tr., Maitland, FL 32751)

    1995-01-01

    A combustor assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is mounted within a gas turbine engine housing having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the combustor assembly. The combustor assembly is constructed of a inlet end portion, a outlet end portion and a plurality of combustor ring segments positioned between the end portions. A mounting assembly is positioned between the combustor assembly and the gas turbine engine housing to allow for the difference in the rate of thermal expansion while maintaining axially compressive force on the combustor assembly to maintain contact between the separate components.

  18. Rolling contact mounting arrangement for a ceramic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, G.L.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-10-17

    A combustor assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is mounted within a gas turbine engine housing having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the combustor assembly. The combustor assembly is constructed of a inlet end portion, a outlet end portion and a plurality of combustor ring segments positioned between the end portions. A mounting assembly is positioned between the combustor assembly and the gas turbine engine housing to allow for the difference in the rate of thermal expansion while maintaining axially compressive force on the combustor assembly to maintain contact between the separate components. 3 figs.

  19. The Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 demonstration project utilizing Foster Wheeler`s pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClung, J.D.; Provol, S.J.; Morehead, H.T.; Dodd, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The City of Lakeland, Florida, Foster Wheeler and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation have embarked on the demonstration of a Clean Coal Technology at the City of Lakeland`s McIntosh Power Station in lakeland, Polk County, Florida. The project will demonstrate the Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (PCFB) technology developed by Foster Wheeler and Westinghouse. The Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 Project is a nominal 170 MW power plant designed to burn a range of low- to high-sulfur coals. The combined cycle plant employs a Westinghouse 251B12 gas turbine engine in conjunction with a steam turbine operating in a 2400/1000/1000 steam cycle. The plant will demonstrate both the PCFB and topped PCFB combustion technologies. This paper provides a process description of the Foster Wheeler PCFB and Topped PCFB technologies and their application to the Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 Project.

  20. Combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiebe, David J; Fox, Timothy A

    2015-04-28

    A combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine includes a combustor device, a fuel injection system, a transition duct, and an intermediate duct. The combustor device includes a flow sleeve for receiving pressurized air and a liner surrounded by the flow sleeve. The fuel injection system provides fuel to be mixed with the pressurized air and ignited in the liner to create combustion products. The intermediate duct is disposed between the liner and the transition duct so as to define a path for the combustion products to flow from the liner to the transition duct. The intermediate duct is associated with the liner such that movement may occur therebetween, and the intermediate duct is associated with the transition duct such that movement may occur therebetween. The flow sleeve includes structure that defines an axial stop for limiting axial movement of the intermediate duct.

  1. Low NO.sub.x combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Jack R.

    1987-01-01

    A combustor having an annular first stage, a generally cylindrically-shaped second stage, and an annular conduit communicably connecting the first and second stages. The conduit has a relatively small annular height and a large number of quench holes in the walls thereof such that quench air injected into the conduit through the quench holes will mix rapidly with, or quench, the combustion gases flowing through the conduit. The rapid quenching reduces the amount of NO.sub.x produced in the combustor.

  2. Micro-combustor for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Scott M.

    2010-11-30

    An improved gas turbine combustor (20) including a basket (26) and a multiplicity of micro openings (29) arrayed across an inlet wall (27) for passage of a fuel/air mixture for ignition within the combustor. The openings preferably have a diameter on the order of the quenching diameter; i.e. the port diameter for which the flame is self-extinguishing, which is a function of the fuel mixture, temperature and pressure. The basket may have a curved rectangular shape that approximates the shape of the curved rectangular shape of the intake manifolds of the turbine.

  3. System and method for controlling a combustor assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2013-03-05

    A system and method for controlling a combustor assembly are disclosed. The system includes a combustor assembly. The combustor assembly includes a combustor and a fuel nozzle assembly. The combustor includes a casing. The fuel nozzle assembly is positioned at least partially within the casing and includes a fuel nozzle. The fuel nozzle assembly further defines a head end. The system further includes a viewing device configured for capturing an image of at least a portion of the head end, and a processor communicatively coupled to the viewing device, the processor configured to compare the image to a standard image for the head end.

  4. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G.; Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K.

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  5. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G. ); Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K. )

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  6. Combustor for a low-emissions gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glezer, Boris; Greenwood, Stuart A.; Dutta, Partha; Moon, Hee-Koo

    2000-01-01

    Many government entities regulated emission from gas turbine engines including CO. CO production is generally reduced when CO reacts with excess oxygen at elevated temperatures to form CO2. Many manufactures use film cooling of a combustor liner adjacent to a combustion zone to increase durability of the combustion liner. Film cooling quenches reactions of CO with excess oxygen to form CO2. Cooling the combustor liner on a cold side (backside) away from the combustion zone reduces quenching. Furthermore, placing a plurality of concavities on the cold side enhances the cooling of the combustor liner. Concavities result in very little pressure reduction such that air used to cool the combustor liner may also be used in the combustion zone. An expandable combustor housing maintains a predetermined distance between the combustor housing and combustor liner.

  7. Stably operating pulse combustor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zinn, B.T.; Reiner, D.

    1990-05-29

    A pulse combustor apparatus is described which is adapted to burn either a liquid fuel or a pulverized solid fuel within a preselected volume of the combustion chamber. The combustion process is substantially restricted to an optimum combustion zone in order to attain effective pulse combustion operation. 4 figs.

  8. Near-zero emissions combustor system for syngas and biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yongho, Kim; Rosocha, Louis

    2010-01-01

    A multi-institutional plasma combustion team was awarded a research project from the DOE/NNSA GIPP (Global Initiative for Prolifereation Prevention) office. The Institute of High Current Electronics (Tomsk, Russia); Leonardo Technologies, Inc. (an American-based industrial partner), in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory are participating in the project to develop novel plasma assisted combustion technologies. The purpose of this project is to develop prototypes of marketable systems for more stable and cleaner combustion of syngas/biofuels and to demonstrate that this technology can be used for a variety of combustion applications - with a major focus on contemporary gas turbines. In this paper, an overview of the project, along with descriptions of the plasma-based combustors and associated power supplies will be presented. Worldwide, it is recognized that a variety of combustion fuels will be required to meet the needs for supplying gas-turbine engines (electricity generation, propulsion), internal combustion engines (propulsion, transportation), and burners (heat and electricity generation) in the 21st Century. Biofuels and biofuel blends have already been applied to these needs, but experience difficulties in modifications to combustion processes and combustor design and the need for flame stabilization techniques to address current and future environmental and energy-efficiency challenges. In addition, municipal solid waste (MSW) has shown promise as a feedstock for heat and/or electricity-generating plants. However, current combustion techniques that use such fuels have problems with achieving environmentally-acceptable air/exhaust emissions and can also benefit from increased combustion efficiency. This project involves a novel technology (a form of plasma-assisted combustion) that can address the above issues. Plasma-assisted combustion (PAC) is a growing field that is receiving worldwide attention at present. The project is focused on

  9. Lamar repowering project's creative modeling of old and new wins Marmaduke award

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.

    2008-08-15

    Lamar Light and Power is a municipal utility that has been generating the south eastern Colorado city's electricity since 1920. Rising natural gas and oil costs pushed LL & P to retire its steam plant five years ago and begin hunting for more economic power sources. The answer: repower the existing plant with a state-of-the-art coal-fired circulating fluidized-bed combustor and cross-connect old and new steam turbines. The 120 million dollar project will stabilize the region's electricity rates for many years to come. 10 figs. 1 tab.

  10. Fluidized bed pyrolysis to gases containing olefins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuester, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent gasification data are presented for a system designed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel from various biomass feedstocks. The factors under investigation were feedstock type, fluidizing gas type, residence time, temperature and catalyst usage. The response was gas phase composition. A fluidized bed system was utilized with a separate regenerator-combustor. An olefin content as high as 39 mole % was achieved. Hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratios were easily manipulated via steam addition over a broad range with an autocatalytic effect apparent for most feedstocks.

  11. Combustion of refuse derived fuel in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piao, Guilin; Aono, Shigeru; Mori, Shigekatsu; Deguchi, Seiichi; Fujima, Yukihisa; Kondoh, Motohiro; Yamaguchi, Masataka

    1998-12-31

    Power generation from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is an attractive utilization technology of municipal solid waste. To explain the behavior of RDF-fired fluidized bed incinerator, the commercial size RDF was continuously burnt in a 30 x 30 cm bubbling type fluidized-bed combustor. It was found that 12 kg/h of RDF feed rate was too high feed for this test unit and the Co level was higher than 500 ppm. However, 10 kg/h of RDF was a proper feed rate and the Co level was kept under 150 ppm. Secondary air injection and changing air ratio from the pipe grid were effective for the complete combustion of RDE. It was also found that HCl concentration in flue gas was controlled by the calcium component contained in RDF and its level was decreased with decreasing the combustor temperature.

  12. Comparison of the Wymark CO2 Reservoir with the Midale Beds at the Weyburn CO2 Injection Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryerson, F; Johnson, J

    2010-11-22

    The Devonian carbonates of the Duperow Formation on the western flank of the Williston Basin in southwest Saskatchewan contain natural accumulations of CO{sub 2}, and may have done so for as long as 50 m.y. in the views of some investigations. These carbonate sediments are characterized by a succession of carbonate cycles capped by anhydrite-rich evaporites that are thought to act as seals to fluid migration. The Weyburn CO{sub 2} injection site lies 400 km to the east in a series of Mississippian carbonates that were deposited in a similar depositional environment. That natural CO{sub 2} can be stored long-term within carbonate strata has motivated the investigation of the Duperow rocks as a potential natural analogue to storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} that may ultimately provide additional confidence for CO{sub 2} sequestration in carbonate lithologies. For the Duperow strata to represent a legitimate analog for Midale injection and storage, the similarity in lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineral compositions and porosity with the Midale Beds must be established. Previous workers have demonstrated the similarity of the lithofacies at both sites. Here we compare the whole rock compositions, mineralogy and mineral compositions. The major mineral phases at both locales are calcite, dolomite and anhydrite. In addition, accessory pyrite, fluorite and celestine are also observed. The distribution of porosity in the Midale Vuggy units is virtually identical to that of the Duperow Formation, but the Marly units of the Midale have significantly higher porosity. The Duperow Formation is topped by the Dinesmore evaporite that is particularly rich in anhydrite, and often contains authigenic K-feldspar. The chemistry of dolomite and calcite from the two localities also overlaps. Silicate minerals are in low abundance within the analyzed Duperow samples, < 3 wt% on a normative basis, with quartz the only phase identifiable in x-ray diffraction patterns. The Midale

  13. Carbon attrition during the circulating fluidized bed combustion of a packaging-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastellone, M.L.; Arena, U.

    1999-05-01

    Cylindrical pellets of a market-available packaging-derived fuel, obtained from a mono-material collection of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, were batchwise fed to a laboratory scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The apparatus, whose riser was 41 mm ID and 4 m high, was operated under both inert and oxidizing conditions to establish the relative importance of purely mechanical attrition and combustion-assisted attrition in generating carbon fines. Silica sand particles of two size distributions were used as inert materials. For each run, carbon load and carbon particle size distribution in the riser and rates of attrited carbon fines escaping the combustor were determined as a function of time. A parallel investigation was carried out with a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor to point out peculiarities of attrition in CFB combustors. After devolatilization, PET pellets generated fragile aggregates of char and sand, which easily crumbled, leading to single particles, partially covered by a carbon-rich layer. The injected fixed carbon was therefore present in the bed in three phases: an A-phase, made of aggregates of sand and char, an S-phase, made of individual carbon-covered sand particles and an F-phase, made of carbon fines, abraded by the surfaces of the A- and S-phases. The effects of the size of inert material on the different forms under which fixed carbon was present in the bed and on the rate of escape of attrited carbon fines from the combustor were investigated. Features of carbon attrition in CFB and BFB combustors are discussed.

  14. Effects of Combustion-Induced Vortex Breakdown on Flashback Limits of Syngas-Fueled Gas Turbine Combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahsan Choudhuri

    2011-03-31

    flashback regime. Even a small amount of hydrogen in a fuel blend triggers the onset of flashback by altering the kinetics and thermophysical characteristics of the mixture. Additionally, the presence of hydrogen in the fuel mixture modifies the response of the flame to the global effects of stretch and preferential diffusion. Despite its immense importance in fuel flexible combustor design, little is known about the magnitude of fuel effects on CIVB induced flashback mechanism. Hence, this project investigates the effects of syngas compositions on flashback resulting from combustion induced vortex breakdown. The project uses controlled experiments and parametric modeling to understand the velocity field and flame interaction leading to CIVB driven flashback.

  15. Computer modeling of a CFB (circulating fluidized bed) gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidaspow, D.; Ding, J.

    1990-06-01

    The overall objective of this investigation is to develop experimentally verified models for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustors. This report presents an extension of our cold flow modeling of a CFB given in our first quarterly report of this project and published in Numerical Methods for Multiphase Flows'' edited by I. Celik, D. Hughes, C. T. Crowe and D. Lankford, FED-Vol.91, American Society of Mechanical Engineering, pp47--56 (1990). The title of the paper is Multiphase Navier-Stokes Equation Solver'' by D. Gidaspow, J. Ding and U.K. Jayaswal. To the two dimensional code described in the above paper we added the energy equations and the conservation of species equations to describe a synthesis gas from char producer. Under the simulation conditions the injected oxygen reacted near the inlet. The solid-gas mixing was sufficiently rapid that no undesirable hot spots were produced. This simulation illustrates the code's capability to model CFB reactors. 15 refs., 20 figs.

  16. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1 - Implementation Plan, Phase 2 - Validation Testing and Phase 3 - Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  17. Rapid-quench axially staged combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feitelberg, Alan S.; Schmidt, Mark Christopher; Goebel, Steven George

    1999-01-01

    A combustor cooperating with a compressor in driving a gas turbine includes a cylindrical outer combustor casing. A combustion liner, having an upstream rich section, a quench section and a downstream lean section, is disposed within the outer combustor casing defining a combustion chamber having at least a core quench region and an outer quench region. A first plurality of quench holes are disposed within the liner at the quench section having a first diameter to provide cooling jet penetration to the core region of the quench section of the combustion chamber. A second plurality of quench holes are disposed within the liner at the quench section having a second diameter to provide cooling jet penetration to the outer region of the quench section of the combustion chamber. In an alternative embodiment, the combustion chamber quench section further includes at least one middle region and at least a third plurality of quench holes disposed within the liner at the quench section having a third diameter to provide cooling jet penetration to at least one middle region of the quench section of the combustion chamber.

  18. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, W. R.; Anoshkina, E.

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1- Implementation Plan, Phase 2- Validation Testing and Phase 3 Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  19. Controlled pilot oxidizer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laster, Walter R.; Bandaru, Ramarao V.

    2010-07-13

    A combustor (22) for a gas turbine (10) includes a main burner oxidizer flow path (34) delivering a first portion (32) of an oxidizer flow (e.g., 16) to a main burner (28) of the combustor and a pilot oxidizer flow path (38) delivering a second portion (36) of the oxidizer flow to a pilot (30) of the combustor. The combustor also includes a flow controller (42) disposed in the pilot oxidizer flow path for controlling an amount of the second portion delivered to the pilot.

  20. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to develop a unique, fuel-flexible catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultra-low emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide range of gaseous opportunity fuels. Fact...

  1. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber ...

  2. Apparatus and method for cooling a combustor cap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang; Washam, Roy Marshall; Wu, Chunyang

    2014-04-29

    A combustor includes an end cap having a perforated downstream plate and a combustion chamber downstream of the downstream plate. A plenum is in fluid communication with the downstream plate and supplies a cooling medium to the combustion chamber through the perforations in the downstream plate. A method for cooling a combustor includes flowing a cooling medium into a combustor end cap and impinging the cooling medium on a downstream plate in the combustor end cap. The method further includes flowing the cooling medium into a combustion chamber through perforations in the downstream plate.

  3. Coal-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gall, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fuel-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustor. In accordance with the present invention a perforated conveyor belt is utilized in place of the fixed grid normally disposed at the lower end of the fluidized bed combustion zone. The conveyor belt is fed with fuel, e.g. coal, at one end thereof so that the air passing through the perforations dislodges the coal from the belt and feeds the coal into the fluidized zone in a substantially uniform manner.

  4. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,

    1980-04-01

    The pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop was held June 5 and 6, 1979, at The Meadowlands Hilton Hotel, Secaucus, New Jersey. Eleven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The papers include reviews of the US DOE and EPRI programs in this area and papers by Swedish, West German, British and American organizations. The British papers concern the joint program of the USA, UK and FRG at Leatherhead. The key factor in several papers is the use of fluidized bed combustors, gas turbines, and steam turbines in combined-cycle power plants. One paper examines several combined-cycle alternatives. (LTN)

  5. Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waryasz, Richard E.

    1984-01-01

    A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

  6. Particle motion at fluidized bed tube surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drennen, J.F.; Hocking, W.R.; Howard, D.A.

    1990-06-01

    Metal loss from in-bed heat transfer tubes in fluidized bed combustors is recognized as a problem that is affecting the commercialization of FBC technology for coal utilization. A program has been initiated to address the erosion aspect of the wastage problem. Objectives were: (1) to develop a method for measuring the particle impact velocities and mass flux at a fluidized bed tube surface, (2) to obtain wear data from test tubes in an operating cold flow model, and (3) to correlate the results. An instrumented probe was develop during Phase I that could be used to obtain the three orthogonal velocity components and mass flux at a fluidized bed tube surface. The sensors were contained in a 2 inch diameter schedule 40 pipe that can be installed in the cold flow model in place of one of the test tubes. This arrangement allows measurements to be made non-intrusively. The velocity measuring portion used a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) for obtaining the resultant impact velocity and impact angle of the bed particles at the immersed tube surface. Mass flux was derived from the output of a high speed force transducer that measured the individual particle impact momentum signals. The above system was used successfully to measure particle impact velocities and momentum during a limited test program. Test were run in a 1 ft {times} 2 ft ambient temperature fluidized bed test facility using sand and acrylic test tubes. Measurements were taken in the center of the bed at eight circumferential location, by rotating the probe to the desired tube angle. Tube erosion data were also taken at locations corresponding to the above measurement points. The instrumentation provided a wealth of information about the internal hydrodynamics of the fluidized bed. 3 refs., 49 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume V. Appendix: stability and instability in fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    This document is the fifth of the seven volumes series of our Phase II Final Report. The material developed in this volume has not been incorporated into the system model. It will be used as a precursor of a transient model to be developed in the next phase of our model work. There have been various fluidized combustor models of differing complexity and scope published in the literature. Most of these models have identified and predicted - often in satisfactory agreement with results from pilot units - the key steady state combustor characteristics such as the mass of carbon in the bed (carbon loading), the combustion efficiency, the sulfur retention by the solid sorbent and the pollutant (mainly NO/sub x/) emissions. These models, however, cannot be in most instances successfully used to study the extinction and ignition characteristics of the combustor because they are isothermal in structure in the sense that the bed temperature is not an output variable but rather an input one and must be a priori specified. In order to remedy these inadequacies of the previous models, we here present a comprehensive account of the formulation and some typical results of a new nonisothermal model which has been developed in order to study, among other things, the ignition and extinction characteristics of the AFBC units. This model is able to predict the temperature patterns in the bed, the carbon loading, the combustion efficiency and the O/sub 2/ and CO concentration profiles in the combustor for the different design or operational characteristics.

  8. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan, Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

    2004-07-30

    This report presents the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the quarter April 1--June 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, the final specifications for the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the CFB Combustor Building have been delivered to the architect, and invitations for construction bids for the two tasks have been released. Second, the component parts of the CFBC system have been designed after the design work for assembly parts of the CFBC system was completed. Third, the literature pertaining to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDD) and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDF) released during the incineration of solid waste, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) have been reviewed, and an experimental plan for fundamental research of MSW incineration on a simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facility has been prepared. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  9. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, Joel Meier; Mosbacher, David Matthew; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  10. Serial cooling of a combustor for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abreu, Mario E.; Kielczyk, Janusz J.

    2001-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine engine uses compressed air to cool a combustor liner and uses at least a portion of the same compressed air for combustion air. A flow diverting mechanism regulates compressed air flow entering a combustion air plenum feeding combustion air to a plurality of fuel nozzles. The flow diverting mechanism adjusts combustion air according to engine loading.

  11. Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Mowery, Kenneth D.; Ripley, Eugene V.

    2001-01-01

    A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.

  12. Radial inlet guide vanes for a combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang; Simons, Derrick; York, William; Ziminsky, Willy S

    2013-02-12

    A combustor may include an interior flow path therethrough, a number of fuel nozzles in communication with the interior flow path, and an inlet guide vane system positioned about the interior flow path to create a swirled flow therein. The inlet guide vane system may include a number of windows positioned circumferentially around the fuel nozzles. The inlet guide vane system may also include a number of inlet guide vanes positioned circumferentially around the fuel nozzles and adjacent to the windows to create a swirled flow within the interior flow path.

  13. Low NO.sub.x multistage combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E.; Breault, Ronald W.; Litka, Anthony F.; McClaine, Andrew W.; Shukla, Kailash

    2000-01-01

    A high efficiency, Vortex Inertial Staged Air (VIStA) combustor provides ultra-low NO.sub.X production of about 20 ppmvd or less with CO emissions of less than 50 ppmvd, both at 3% O.sub.2. Prompt NO.sub.X production is reduced by partially reforming the fuel in a first combustion stage to CO and H.sub.2. This is achieved in the first stage by operating with a fuel rich mixture, and by recirculating partially oxidized combustion products, with control over stoichiometry, recirculation rate and residence time. Thermal NO.sub.X production is reduced in the first stage by reducing the occurrence of high temperature combustion gas regions. This is achieved by providing the first stage burner with a thoroughly pre-mixed fuel/oxidant composition, and by recirculating part of the combustion products to further mix the gases and provide a more uniform temperature in the first stage. In a second stage combustor thermal NO.sub.X production is controlled by inducing a large flow of flue gas recirculation in the second stage combustion zone to minimize the ultimate temperature of the flame. One or both of the first and second stage burners can be cooled to further reduce the combustion temperature and to improve the recirculation efficiency. Both of these factors tend to reduce production of NO.sub.X.

  14. Investigation of fluid-bed combustion of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eustis, R.H.; Wilson, K.B.; Preuit, L.C.; Marasigan, M.M.

    1985-08-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to burn processed municipal solid waste in a fluid-bed combustor containing water-cooled tubes in the bed. The 300-hour test was performed without incident and terminated on schedule. The combustor and ducting were clean on inspection after the test, and bed agglomeration did not occur. A corrosion tube placed in the free-board showed considerable metal wastage for carbon and low-alloy steels and some wastage for stainless steels. Low-temperature carbon steel water tubes in the bed showed negligible wastage. It was concluded that heat-exchanger tubes in the freeboard require protection from the high-velocity elutriated solids. Combustion efficiency was greater than 99%, and pollutants were measured as follows: SO/sub 2/ = 58 ppm, NOx = 178 ppm, CO = 242 ppm, hydrocarbons = 5.4 ppm. A system study was conducted for a cogeneration, 800-tons/day power plant to be located on the Stanford U. campus to supply all of the process steam requirement and as much of the electrical power as possible.

  15. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUID BED BOILERS (Phase II--Evaluation of the Oxyfuel CFB Concept)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John L. Marion; Nsakala ya Nsakala

    2003-11-09

    The overall project goal is to determine if carbon dioxide can be captured and sequestered at a cost of about $10/ton of carbon avoided, using a newly constructed Circulating Fluidized Bed combustor while burning coal with a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, instead of air. This project is structured in two Phases. Phase I was performed between September 28, 2001 and May 15, 2002. Results from Phase I were documented in a Topical Report issued on May 15, 2003 (Nsakala, et al., 2003), with the recommendation to evaluate, during Phase II, the Oxyfuel-fired CFB concept. DOE NETL accepted this recommendation, and, hence approved the project continuation into Phase II. Phase 2. The second phase of the project--which includes pilot-scale tests of an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed test facility with performance and economic analyses--is currently underway at ALSTOM's Power Plant Laboratories, located in Windsor, CT (US). The objective of the pilot-scale testing is to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in oxygen/carbon dioxide mixtures. Results will be used in the design of oxygen-fired CFB boilers--both retrofit and new Greenfield--as well as to provide a generic performance database for other researchers. At the conclusion of Phase 2, revised costs and performance will be estimated for both retrofit and new Greenfield design concepts with CO2 capture, purification, compression, and liquefaction.

  16. Systems and methods for detection of blowout precursors in combustors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieuwen, Tim C.; Nair, Suraj

    2006-08-15

    The present invention comprises systems and methods for detecting flame blowout precursors in combustors. The blowout precursor detection system comprises a combustor, a pressure measuring device, and blowout precursor detection unit. A combustion controller may also be used to control combustor parameters. The methods of the present invention comprise receiving pressure data measured by an acoustic pressure measuring device, performing one or a combination of spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis on received pressure data, and determining the existence of a blowout precursor based on such analyses. The spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis further comprise their respective sub-methods to determine the existence of blowout precursors.

  17. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  18. Metallic species derived from fluidized bed coal combustion. [59 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natusch, D.F.S.; Taylor, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Samples of fly ash generated by the combustion of Montana Rosebud coal in an experimental 18 inch fluidized bed combustor were collected. The use of a heated cascade impactor permitted collection of size fractionated material that avoided condensation of volatile gases on the particles. Elemental concentration trends were determined as a function of size and temperature and the results compared to published reports for conventional power plants. The behavior of trace metals appears to be substantially different in the two systems due to lower operating temperatures and the addition of limestone to the fluidized bed. Corrosion of the impactor plates was observed at the highest temperature and lowest limestone feed rate sampled during the study. Data from the elemental concentration and leaching studies suggest that corrosion is most likely due to reactions involving sodium sulfate. However, it is concluded that corrosion is less of a potential problem in fluidized-bed systems than in conventional coal-fired systems.

  19. Method for operating a combustor in a fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chalfant, Robert W.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2002-01-01

    A method of operating a combustor to heat a fuel processor in a fuel cell system, in which the fuel processor generates a hydrogen-rich stream a portion of which is consumed in a fuel cell stack and a portion of which is discharged from the fuel cell stack and supplied to the combustor, and wherein first and second streams are supplied to the combustor, the first stream being a hydrocarbon fuel stream and the second stream consisting of said hydrogen-rich stream, the method comprising the steps of monitoring the temperature of the fuel processor; regulating the quantity of the first stream to the combustor according to the temperature of the fuel processor; and comparing said quantity of said first stream to a predetermined value or range of predetermined values.

  20. Experimental study of toxic metal-sorbent reactions in a bench scale combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, T.M.; Biswas, P.

    1996-11-01

    Toxic metals may enter a combustion chamber in many physical or chemical forms, for example, as a constituent of a hazardous or municipal solid waste to be incinerated or as a trace quantity in coal. Control of toxic metal emissions from combustors is currently being stipulated by the US EPA in the form of maximum achievable control technologies (MACT) for 11 metals and their compounds under Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Amendments. Several researchers have proposed using bulk solid sorbents in several geometries (packed bed, fluidized bed, and dry sorbent injection) and have demonstrated the potential to effectively remove metals form an air stream by means of chemisorption. In this paper the authors compare the use of a vapor phase silica precursor with a calcium precursor for lead capture in a high temperature flow reactor. The use of vapor phase sorbent precursors has the potential for more effective sorbent utilization. In a real system, the vapor phase sorbent precursors would be injected into the combustor where the precursor would first decompose, then be oxidized to form an aerosol in the high temperature environment, and provide a surface onto which metal compound vapors condense. Calcium-based sorbents are used in capturing sulfur compounds from coal combustion effluent gases but their effectiveness in chemisorbing toxic metals has not been studied extensively. The objective of this work is to show how the sorbent precursor addition affects the outlet metal aerosol`s chemical composition and size distribution. Specifically, the reactions and interactions that result when a vapor phase silica precursor, hexamethyl disiloxane, or a calcium precursor, calcium acetate, is inlet into a high temperature flow reactor along with an organic lead compound are investigated.

  1. Large Eddy Simulations of Combustor Liner Flows | Argonne Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Facility droplets. Large Eddy Simulations of a GE CFM combustor, temperature distribution and liquid fuel droplets. Anne Dord, GE Global Research Large Eddy Simulations of Combustor Liner Flows PI Name: Anne Dord PI Email: anne.dord@ge.com Institution: GE Global Research Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 75 Million Year: 2014 Research Domain: Engineering Aviation gas turbine engines are an essential part of the transportation industry. In 2012, the commercial

  2. Large Eddy Simulations of Combustor Liner Flows | Argonne Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Facility droplets Large Eddy Simulations of a GE CFM combustor, temperature distribution and liquid fuel droplets. Credit: Anne Dord, GE Global Research Large Eddy Simulations of Combustor Liner Flows PI Name: Anne Dord PI Email: anne.dord@ge.com Institution: GE Global Research Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 89 Million Year: 2015 Research Domain: Engineering In 2012, the commercial aviation industry spent an estimated $207 billion on fuel, or about 33 percent

  3. Characterization of supersonic mixing in a nonreacting Mach 2 combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollo, S.D.; Mcdaniel, J.C.; Hartfield, R.J., JR. )

    1992-01-01

    Planar measurements of the injection mole fraction distribution and the velocity field within a nonreacting model SCRAMJET combustor have been made using laser-induced iodine fluorescence. The combustor geometry investigated in this work is staged transverse injection of air into a Mach 2 freestream. A complete three-dimensional survey of the injectant mole fraction distribution has been generated and a single planar velocity measurement has been completed. The measurements reveal the dramatic effect of streamwise vortices on the mixing of the injectant in the near field of the injectors, as well as the rapid mixing generated by staging two field injectors. Analysis of the downstream decay of the maximum injectant mole fraction in this and other nonreacting combustor geometries indicates that the relative rate of injectant mixing well downstream of the injectors is independent of combustor geometry, combustor Mach number, and injectant molecular weight. Mixing within this region of the combustor is dominated by turbulent diffusion within the injectant plume. The transition of the dominant mixing mechanism, from vortex-driven mixing in the near field to turbulent diffusion in the far field, was found to occur in the region between 10 and 20 jet diameters downstream of the injectors. 22 refs.

  4. EIS-0289: Record of Decision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: Record of Decision EIS-0289: Record of Decision JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project, Jacksonville, Duval County, FL Record of Decision; JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed...

  5. Flow conditioner for fuel injector for combustor and method for low-NO.sub.x combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Partha; Smith, Kenneth O.; Ritz, Frank J.

    2013-09-10

    An injector for a gas turbine combustor including a catalyst coated surface forming a passage for feed gas flow and a channel for oxidant gas flow establishing an axial gas flow through a flow conditioner disposed at least partially within an inner wall of the injector. The flow conditioner includes a length with an interior passage opening into upstream and downstream ends for passage of the axial gas flow. An interior diameter of the interior passage smoothly reduces and then increases from upstream to downstream ends.

  6. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) | Department of Energy Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer System.

  7. External combustor for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santanam, Chandran B.; Thomas, William H.; DeJulio, Emil R.

    1991-01-01

    An external combustor for a gas turbine engine has a cyclonic combustion chamber into which combustible gas with entrained solids is introduced through an inlet port in a primary spiral swirl. A metal draft sleeve for conducting a hot gas discharge stream from the cyclonic combustion chamber is mounted on a circular end wall of the latter adjacent the combustible gas inlet. The draft sleeve is mounted concentrically in a cylindrical passage and cooperates with the passage in defining an annulus around the draft sleeve which is open to the cyclonic combustion chamber and which is connected to a source of secondary air. Secondary air issues from the annulus into the cyclonic combustion chamber at a velocity of three to five times the velocity of the combustible gas at the inlet port. The secondary air defines a hollow cylindrical extension of the draft sleeve and persists in the cyclonic combustion chamber a distance of about three to five times the diameter of the draft sleeve. The hollow cylindrical extension shields the drive sleeve from the inlet port to prevent discharge of combustible gas through the draft sleeve.

  8. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis from a low HH/sub 2/:CO gas in a dry fluidized-bed system. Volume 1. Project summary. Final technical report, October 1, 1986. [Heat tray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.A.; Squires, A.M.

    1986-10-01

    The objective of this project is to experimentally develop and demonstrate a dry fluidized-bed reactor system (called ''heat tray'') for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis from a low H/sub 2/:CO gas. The reactor involves conducting catalytic synthesis reactions primarily in a horizontal conveying zone, in which fine particles of an iron catalyst are carried in a relatively dilute suspension by a large flow of reacting gas. A secondary reaction zone, in the form of a shallow fluidized bed of catalyst particles, is situated beneath the primary reaction zone. This shallow bed also has immersed horizontal heat-transfer tubes for removing reaction heat. A major thrust of the new reactor development is to prevent carbon deposits from forming on the iron catalyst, which cause deactivation and physical degradation. This is to be achieved by conducting the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in an unsteady-state mode, particularly by alternately exposing the iron catalyst to a large flow of low H/sub 2/:CO gas for a short period of time and to a small flow of H/sub 2/-rich gas for a long period of time. The project has been carried out in two key tasks: (1) development of a microreactor system for unsteady-state Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, simulating the life history of an iron catalyst particle in a ''heat-tray'' reactor; and (2) supporting fluidization studies. The present Volume I summarizes the key conclusions and recommendations from this project, and the accompanying Volumes II and III describes the details of experimental investigations and results. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  10. Experimental studies on methane-fuel laboratory scale ram combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, Y.; Kitajima, J.; Seki, Y.; Tatara, A.

    1995-07-01

    The laboratory scale ram combustor test program has been investigating fundamental combustion characteristics of a ram combustor, which operates from Mach 2.5 to 5 for the super/hypersonic transport propulsion system. In the previous study, combustion efficiency had been found poor, less than 70 percent, due to a low inlet air temperature and a high velocity at Mach 3 condition. To improve the low combustion efficiency, a fuel zoning combustion concept was investigated by using a subscale combustor model first. Combustion efficiency more than 90 percent was achieved and the concept was found very effective. Then a laboratory scale ram combustor was fabricated and combustion tests were carried out mainly at the simulated condition of Mach 5. A vitiation technique wa used to simulate a high temperature of 1,263 K. The test results indicate that ignition, flame stability, and combustion efficiency were not significant, but the NO{sub x} emissions are a critical problem for the ram combustor at Mach 5 condition.

  11. Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  12. Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  13. Advanced combustor design concepts to control NOx and air toxics. Quarterly report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pershing, D.W.; Lighty, J.; Spinti, J.

    1995-07-31

    Research continued on coal combustion and combustor design. Progress is reported on the development of a char collection system.

  14. Combustor with two stage primary fuel assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharifi, Mehran; Zolyomi, Wendel; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    2000-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine having first and second passages for pre-mixing primary fuel and air supplied to a primary combustion zone. The flow of fuel to the first and second pre-mixing passages is separately regulated using a single annular fuel distribution ring having first and second row of fuel discharge ports. The interior portion of the fuel distribution ring is divided by a baffle into first and second fuel distribution manifolds and is located upstream of the inlets to the two pre-mixing passages. The annular fuel distribution ring is supplied with fuel by an annular fuel supply manifold, the interior portion of which is divided by a baffle into first and second fuel supply manifolds. A first flow of fuel is regulated by a first control valve and directed to the first fuel supply manifold, from which the fuel is distributed to first fuel supply tubes that direct it to the first fuel distribution manifold. From the first fuel distribution manifold, the first flow of fuel is distributed to the first row of fuel discharge ports, which direct it into the first pre-mixing passage. A second flow of fuel is regulated by a second control valve and directed to the second fuel supply manifold, from which the fuel is distributed to second fuel supply tubes that direct it to the second fuel distribution manifold. From the second fuel distribution manifold, the second flow of fuel is distributed to the second row of fuel discharge ports, which direct it into the second pre-mixing passage.

  15. Gas turbine engine combustor can with trapped vortex cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrus, David Louis; Joshi, Narendra Digamber; Haynes, Joel Meier; Feitelberg, Alan S.

    2005-10-04

    A gas turbine engine combustor can downstream of a pre-mixer has a pre-mixer flowpath therein and circumferentially spaced apart swirling vanes disposed across the pre-mixer flowpath. A primary fuel injector is positioned for injecting fuel into the pre-mixer flowpath. A combustion chamber surrounded by an annular combustor liner disposed in supply flow communication with the pre-mixer. An annular trapped dual vortex cavity located at an upstream end of the combustor liner is defined between an annular aft wall, an annular forward wall, and a circular radially outer wall formed therebetween. A cavity opening at a radially inner end of the cavity is spaced apart from the radially outer wall. Air injection first holes are disposed through the forward wall and air injection second holes are disposed through the aft wall. Fuel injection holes are disposed through at least one of the forward and aft walls.

  16. Method for operating a combustor in a fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Mowery, Kenneth D.

    2002-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention provides a method of operating a combustor to heat a fuel processor to a desired temperature in a fuel cell system, wherein the fuel processor generates hydrogen (H.sub.2) from a hydrocarbon for reaction within a fuel cell to generate electricity. More particularly, the invention provides a method and select system design features which cooperate to provide a start up mode of operation and a smooth transition from start-up of the combustor and fuel processor to a running mode.

  17. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion part-load behavior. Volume I. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, A. G.; Pillai, K. K.; Raven, P.; Wood, P.

    1981-09-01

    Tests performed during 1980 to determine the part-load characteristics of a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor for a combined-cycle power plant and to examine its behavior during load changing are discussed. Part-load operation was achieved by varying the bed temperature by amounts between 200 to 300/sup 0/F and the bed depth from between 9 and 10 ft at rates varying between 0.2 ft/min and 0.5 ft/min. The performance at part-load steady-state conditions and during transient conditions is reported with information on combustion efficiency (99% at full-load with 9 ft bed depth and 1650/sup 0/F bed temperature; 95% with 4 ft depth and 1390/sup 0/F); sulfur retention (95/sup 0/ at full load to 80% at low bed depth and low bed temperature); sulfur emissions (no definitive results); NO/sub x/ emissions (tendency for increase as bed temperature was reduced); alkali emissions (no bed temperature effect detected); and heat transfer. It was demonstrated that load can be altered in a rapid and controlled manner by changing combinations of bed depth temperature and pressure. The most important practical change was the reduction in O/sub 2/ concentration which occurred when the bed height was increased at a rapid rate. The extra energy required to reheat the incoming bed material resulted (in the most extreme case) in a temporary drop in excess air from 65% to 12%. In a full-scale plant the loss of heat from the stored bed material would be much lower and the excess air trough when increasing load would not be as pronounced. Nevertheless, it seems prudent to design full-scale plant for a full load excess air of not less than about 50% when using bed depth as a load control parameter.

  18. Tube bank metal wastage in the Grimethorpe PFBC. [Pressurized fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    During hot commissioning tests of the Grimethorpe PFBC plant, a significant degree of metal wastage was observed on the fireside surfaces of the tube bank. The investigation of this wastage is described and the remedial measures taken are discussed.

  19. EA-0646: Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustor Development Thermochem, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to develop a more economical, efficient, and environmentally acceptable coal-fired combustion technology in Baltimore, Maryland that can be...

  20. Evaluation of cement production using a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.; Eshbach, R.

    1994-01-01

    There are several primary conclusions which can be reached and used to define research required in establishing the feasibility of using PFBC-derived materials as cement feedstock. 1. With appropriate blending almost any material containing the required cement-making materials can be utilized to manufacture cement. However, extensive blending with multiple materials or the use of ash in relatively small quantities would compromise the worth of this concept. 2. The composition of a potential feedstock must be considered not only with respect to the presence of required materials, but just as significantly, with respect to the presence and concentration of known deleterious materials. 3. The processing costs for rendering the feedstock into an acceptable composition and the energy costs associated with both processing and burning must be considered. It should be noted that the cost of energy to produce cement, expressed as a percentage of the price of the product is higher than for any other major industrial product. Energy consumption is, therefore, a major issue. 4. The need for conformance to environmental regulations has a profound effect on the cement industry since waste materials can neither be discharged to the atmosphere or be shipped to a landfill. 5. Fifth, the need for achieving uniformity in the composition of the cement is critical to controlling its quality. Unfortunately, certain materials in very small concentrations have the capability to affect the rate and extent to which the cementitious compound in portland cement are able to form. Particularly critical are variations in the ash, the sulfur content of the coal or the amount and composition of the stack dust returned to the kiln.

  1. Turbine combustor with fuel nozzles having inner and outer fuel circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2013-12-24

    A combustor cap assembly for a turbine engine includes a combustor cap and a plurality of fuel nozzles mounted on the combustor cap. One or more of the fuel nozzles would include two separate fuel circuits which are individually controllable. The combustor cap assembly would be controlled so that individual fuel circuits of the fuel nozzles are operated or deliberately shut off to provide for physical separation between the flow of fuel delivered by adjacent fuel nozzles and/or so that adjacent fuel nozzles operate at different pressure differentials. Operating a combustor cap assembly in this fashion helps to reduce or eliminate the generation of undesirable and potentially harmful noise.

  2. Design and fabrication of a meso-scale stirling engine and combustor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echekki, Tarek (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Haroldsen, Brent L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Krafcik, Karen L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Morales, Alfredo Martin; Mills, Bernice E.; Liu, Shiling; Lee, Jeremiah C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Karpetis, Adionos N. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Chen, Jacqueline H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ceremuga, Joseph T. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Raber, Thomas N.; Hekmuuaty, Michelle A.

    2005-05-01

    Power sources capable of supplying tens of watts are needed for a wide variety of applications including portable electronics, sensors, micro aerial vehicles, and mini-robotics systems. The utility of these devices is often limited by the energy and power density capabilities of batteries. A small combustion engine using liquid hydrocarbon fuel could potentially increase both power and energy density by an order of magnitude or more. This report describes initial development work on a meso-scale external combustion engine based on the Stirling cycle. Although other engine designs perform better at macro-scales, we believe the Stirling engine cycle is better suited to small-scale applications. The ideal Stirling cycle requires efficient heat transfer. Consequently, unlike other thermodynamic cycles, the high heat transfer rates that are inherent with miniature devices are an advantage for the Stirling cycle. Furthermore, since the Stirling engine uses external combustion, the combustor and engine can be scaled and optimized semi-independently. Continuous combustion minimizes issues with flame initiation and propagation. It also allows consideration of a variety of techniques to promote combustion that would be difficult in a miniature internal combustion engine. The project included design and fabrication of both the engine and the combustor. Two engine designs were developed. The first used a cylindrical piston design fabricated with conventional machining processes. The second design, based on the Wankel rotor geometry, was fabricated by through-mold electroforming of nickel in SU8 and LIGA micromolds. These technologies provided the requisite precision and tight tolerances needed for efficient micro-engine operation. Electroformed nickel is ideal for micro-engine applications because of its high strength and ductility. A rotary geometry was chosen because its planar geometry was more compatible with the fabrication process. SU8 lithography provided rapid

  3. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.

    2005-07-15

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains on internal 'U-tube' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds.IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95% confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory.Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM.Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.

  4. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KLEIN, JAMES

    2004-10-12

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains an internal ''U-tube'' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds. IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95 percent confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory. Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM. Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.

  5. Coanda injection system for axially staged low emission combustors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; ElKady, Ahmed Mostafa; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2012-05-15

    The low emission combustor includes a combustor housing defining a combustion chamber having a plurality of combustion zones. A liner sleeve is disposed in the combustion housing with a gap formed between the liner sleeve and the combustor housing. A secondary nozzle is disposed along a centerline of the combustion chamber and configured to inject a first fluid comprising air, at least one diluent, fuel, or combinations thereof to a downstream side of a first combustion zone among the plurality of combustion zones. A plurality of primary fuel nozzles is disposed proximate to an upstream side of the combustion chamber and located around the secondary nozzle and configured to inject a second fluid comprising air and fuel to an upstream side of the first combustion zone. The combustor also includes a plurality of tertiary coanda nozzles. Each tertiary coanda nozzle is coupled to a respective dilution hole. The tertiary coanda nozzles are configured to inject a third fluid comprising air, at least one other diluent, fuel, or combinations thereof to one or more remaining combustion zones among the plurality of combustion zones.

  6. Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.; Lippert, Thomas E.

    2008-12-16

    A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

  7. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanochko, Ronald M; Corcoran, Connie

    2012-11-15

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  8. Fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowards, N.K.; Murphy, M.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a vessel. It comprises a fluid bed for continuously incinerating fuel comprising tire segments and the like which comprise metallic wire tramp and for concurrently removing tramp and bed materials at a bottom effluent exit means of the vessel, the vessel further comprising static air distributor means at the periphery of the bed comprising a substantially centrally unobstructed relatively large central region in which the fluid bed and fuel only are disposed and through which bed material and tramp migrate without obstruction to and through the effluent exit means, downwardly and inwardly stepped lower vessel wall means and a plurality of peripherally located centrally directed vertically and horizontally offset spaced air influent means surrounding the central region and associated with the stepped lower vessel wall means by which the bed is supported and fluidized.

  9. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  10. EERC pilot-scale CFBC evaluation facility Project CFB test results. Topical report, Task 7.30

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.D.; Hajicek, D.R.; Henderson, A.K.; Moe, T.A.

    1992-09-01

    Project CFB was initiated at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) in May 1988. Specific goals of the project were to (1) construct a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) facility representative of the major boiler vendors` designs with the capability of producing scalable data, (2) develop a database for use in making future evaluations of CFBC technology, and (3) provide a facility for evaluating fuels, free of vendor bias for use in the - energy industry. Five coals were test-burned in the 1-MWth unit: North Dakota and Asian lignites, a Wyoming subbituminous, and Colorado and Pennsylvania bituminous coats. A total of 54 steady-state test periods were conducted, with the key test parameters being the average combustor temperature, excess air, superficial gas velocity, calcium-to-sulfur molar ratio, and the primary air-to-secondary air split. The capture for a coal fired in a CFBC is primarily dependent upon the total alkali-to-sulfur ratio. The required alkali-to ratio for 90% sulfur retention ranged from 1.4 to 4.9, depending upon coal type. While an alkali-to-ratio of 4.9 was required to meet 90% sulfur retention for the Salt Creek coal versus 1.4 for the Asian lignite, the total amount of sorbent addition required is much less for the Salt Creek coal, 4.2 pound sorbent per million Btu coal input, versus 62 pound/million Btu for the Asian lignite. The bituminous coals tested show optimal capture at combustor temperatures of approximately 1550{degree}F, with low-rank coals having optimal sulfur capture approximately 100{degree}F lower.

  11. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Southwest Research Institute is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced power cycles. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  12. Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant U. S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - 13460

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanochko, Ronald M. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix [1]. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility [2]. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling. This study [2] concluded that SBS direct disposal is a viable option to the WTP baseline. The results show: - Off-site transportation and disposal of the SBS condensate is achievable and cost effective. - Reduction of approximately 4,325 vitrified WTP Low Activity Waste canisters could be realized. - Positive WTP operational impacts; minimal WTP construction impacts are realized. - Reduction of mass flow from the LAW Facility to the Pretreatment Facility by 66%. - Improved Double Shell Tank (DST) space management is a benefit. (authors)

  13. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  14. Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

    2012-11-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  15. Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C.; Edmonds, Ryan G.; Williams, Joseph T.; Baldwin, Stephen P.

    2009-10-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  16. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Zuo, Baifang; York, William David

    2013-08-20

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes an end cap having an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and tube bundles extend through the end cap. A diluent supply in fluid communication with the end cap provides diluent flow to the end cap. Diluent distributors circumferentially arranged inside at least one tube bundle extend downstream from the downstream surface and provide fluid communication for the diluent flow through the end cap. A method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes flowing fuel through tube bundles that extend axially through an end cap, flowing a diluent through diluent distributors into a combustion chamber, wherein the diluent distributors are circumferentially arranged inside at least one tube bundle and each diluent distributor extends downstream from the end cap, and forming a diluent barrier in the combustion chamber between at least one pair of adjacent tube bundles.

  17. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Zuo, Baifang; York, William David

    2015-09-01

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes an end cap having an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and tube bundles extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface. A divider inside a tube bundle defines a diluent passage that extends axially through the downstream surface, and a diluent supply in fluid communication with the divider provides diluent flow to the diluent passage. A method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes flowing a fuel through tube bundles, flowing a diluent through a diluent passage inside a tube bundle, wherein the diluent passage extends axially through at least a portion of the end cap into a combustion chamber, and forming a diluent barrier in the combustion chamber between the tube bundle and at least one other adjacent tube bundle.

  18. Self-regulating fuel staging port for turbine combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Nieuwenhuizen, William F.; Fox, Timothy A.; Williams, Steven

    2014-07-08

    A port (60) for axially staging fuel and air into a combustion gas flow path 28 of a turbine combustor (10A). A port enclosure (63) forms an air path through a combustor wall (30). Fuel injectors (64) in the enclosure provide convergent fuel streams (72) that oppose each other, thus converting velocity pressure to static pressure. This forms a flow stagnation zone (74) that acts as a valve on airflow (40, 41) through the port, in which the air outflow (41) is inversely proportion to the fuel flow (25). The fuel flow rate is controlled (65) in proportion to engine load. At high loads, more fuel and less air flow through the port, making more air available to the premixing assemblies (36).

  19. Materials tests in support of an MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) coal combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Wang, D.Y.; Soppet, W.K.

    1989-11-01

    Corrosion tests were conducted to evaluate the compatibility of candidate alloys in simulated fireside and high-temperature, high- pressure waterside environments of slagging magnetohydrodynamic combustors. The fireside tests were conducted with uncoated specimens and specimens covered with deposit layers of slag or a mixture of slag and seed for as long as 750 h at 600 and 800{degree}F. The waterside corrosion tests were conducted at 450{degree}F in a high-pressure autoclave in which water with two different chemistries was used. Detailed results on the scaling kinetics are presented and the data are used to analyze the material options for different locations in the combustor system. 10 refs., 25 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Modeling scramjet combustor flowfields with a grid adaptation scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Singh, D.J. )

    1994-05-01

    The accurate description of flow features associated with the normal injection of fuel into supersonic primary flows is essential in the design of efficient engines for hypervelocity aerospace vehicles. The flow features in such injections are complex with multiple interactions between shocks and between shocks and boundary layers. Numerical studies of perpendicular sonic N2 injection and mixing in a Mach 3.8 scramjet combustor environment are discussed. A dynamic grid adaptation procedure based on the equilibration of spring-mass systems is employed to enhance the description of the complicated flow features. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements and indicate that the adaptation procedure enhances the capability of the modeling procedure to describe the flow features associated with scramjet combustor components. 14 refs.

  1. Large Eddy Simulations of Combustor Liner Flows | Argonne Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Facility Turbulent flow going through a multi-hole coupon geometry Turbulent flow going through a multi-hole coupon geometry. Density iso surface colored by velocity magnitude. Joseph Insley, Argonne National Laboratory; Lee Shunn, Cascade Technologies; Anne Dord, GE Aviation; and Yonduck Sung, GE Global Research Large Eddy Simulations of Combustor Liner Flows PI Name: Anne Dord PI Email: anne.dord@ge.com Institution: GE Aviation Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF:

  2. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  3. Erosion of heat exchanger tubes in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, E.K.; Flemmer, R.L.C.

    1991-01-01

    This final report describes the activities of the 3-year project entitled Erosion of Heat Exchanger Tubes In Fluidized Beds.'' which was completed at the end of 1990. Project accomplishments include the collection of a substantial body of wear data In a 24in. [times] 24in. fluidized bed, comparative wear results In a 6in. [times] 6in. fluidized bed, the development of a dragometer and the collection of a comprehensive set of drag force data in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of bubble probe data to establish dominant bubble frequencies in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed, the use of a heat flux gauge for measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed and the modeling of the tube wear in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed. Analysis of the wear data from the 24in. square bed indicates that tube wear increases with increase in superficial velocity, and with increase in tube height. The latter effect is a result of the tubes higher up in the bed seeing greater movement of dense phase than tubes lower down In the bed. In addition, tube wear was found to decrease with increase in particle size, for constant superficial velocity. Three models of tube wear were formulated and provided acceptable prediction of wear when compared with the experimental data.

  4. Method and apparatus for controlling combustor temperature during transient load changes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Chalfant, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus includes a fast acting air bypass valve connected in parallel with an air inlet to the combustor. A predetermined excess quantity of air is supplied from an air source to a series connected fuel cell and combustor. The predetermined excess quantity of air is provided in a sufficient amount to control the temperature of the combustor during start-up of the fuel processor when the load on the fuel cell is zero and to accommodate any temperature transients during operation of the fuel cell.

  5. JV Task 108 - Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Combustion Testing of Turkish Tufanbeyli Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Hajicek; Jay Gunderson; Ann Henderson; Stephen Sollom; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-08-15

    Two combustion tests were performed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) using Tufanbeyli coal from Turkey. The tests were performed in a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) and a pulverized coal-fired furnace, referred to as the combustion test facility (CTF). One of the goals of the project was to determine the type of furnace best suited to this coal. The coal is high in moisture, ash, and sulfur and has a low heating value. Both the moisture and the sulfur proved problematic for the CTF tests. The fuel had to be dried to less than 37% moisture before it could be pulverized and further dried to about 25% moisture to allow more uniform feeding into the combustor. During some tests, water was injected into the furnace to simulate the level of flue gas moisture had the fuel been fed without drying. A spray dryer was used downstream of the baghouse to remove sufficient sulfur to meet the EERC emission standards permitted by the North Dakota Department of Health. In addition to a test matrix varying excess air, burner swirl, and load, two longer-term tests were performed to evaluate the fouling potential of the coal at two different temperatures. At the lower temperature (1051 C), very little ash was deposited on the probes, but deposition did occur on the walls upstream of the probe bank, forcing an early end to the test after 2 hours and 40 minutes of testing. At the higher temperature (1116 C), ash deposition on the probes was significant, resulting in termination of the test after only 40 minutes. The same coal was burned in the CFBC, but because the CFBC uses a larger size of material, it was able to feed this coal at a higher moisture content (average of 40.1%) compared to the CTF (ranging from 24.2% to 26.9%). Sulfur control was achieved with the addition of limestone to the bed, although the high calcium-to-sulfur rate required to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions resulted in heat loss (through limestone calcination) and additional ash

  6. An assessment of performance of materials for FBC (fluidized-bed combustion) air heater applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Miller, S.A.; Podolski, W.F.

    1986-10-01

    The major materials issue in the commercialization of fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) systems for utility cogeneration applications is the corrosion/erosion degradation of in-bed components. To examine this issue, pertinent materials information was collected from 13 sources that included 16 different experimental fluidized-bed combustors (four pressurized, the other atmospheric), and a detailed analysis of the data was performed. The data analysis confirmed that austenitic stainless steels (notably Types 304 and 310) and cobalt-base alloys (notably Haynes 188) are superior to nickel-base alloys. Type 347 stainless steel and Incoloy 800H are questionable from the point of view of metal wastage. Very limited data are available for claddings and coatings. The correlations of the corrosion rate data presented in this paper for several of the more promising alloy candidates for air heater application provide guidelines for the selection of materials with reasonably assured performance in a corrosive environment.

  7. Tapered bed bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  8. Fluidized Bed Technology- Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fluidized beds suspend solid fuels on upward-blowing jets of air during the combustion process. The result is a turbulent mixing of gas and solids. The tumbling action, much like a bubbling fluid,...

  9. Ancient Salt Beds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Salt Beds Dr. Jack Griffith The key to the search for life on other planets may go through WIPP's ancient salt beds. In 2008, a team of scientists led by Jack Griffith, from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, retrieved salt samples from the WIPP underground and studied them with a transmission electron microscopy lab at the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. In examining fluid inclusions in the salt and solid halite

  10. Sea bed mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sleath, J.F.A.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a discussion on sea bed processes with engineering applications. It brings together the material currently available only in technical reports of research papers. It provides formulae and background references necessary for design calculation of problems such as sea bed or coastal erosion, and sub-marine pipeline stability. It also covers dissipation of wave energy, formation of ripples and dunes, and the transportation of sediments.

  11. Fluidized-bed combustion of scrap tires: Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Y.; Mei, J.S.; Notestein, J.E.

    1981-10-01

    An introduction to fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is presented in Section 2.0. Based on this discussion of its technical development, FBC is then presented as a means of scrap tire disposal. In Section 3.0, scrap tire disposal is reviewed in the categories of (1) physical applications, (2) chemical applications, (3) pyrolysis, and (4) incineration for thermal energy recovery. Scrap tire disposal is reviewed on the basis of (1) environmental acceptability, (2) conservation of resources, (3) impact on existing industries, (4) operational feasibility, and (5) special features. The focus of this report is the fluidized-bed incineration of scrap tires for thermal energy recovery. The factors that affect scrap tire combustion are discussed in Section 4.0. These factors are (1) agitation, (2) temperature, (3) excess air, (4) residence time, (5) feed uniformity, (6) solid waste handling, and (7) pollutants emission control. In reviewing these incineration processes, (1) fuel flexibility, (2) environmental acceptability, (3) combustion efficiency, and (4) operational reliability are discussed. The results from a tire incineration experiment conducted at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center are presented in Section 5.0, and a conceptual fluidized-bed combustor is discussed in Section 6.0. Future considerations in the FBC of scrap tires are discussed in Section 7.0. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ETO, J.; LASSETER, R.; SCHENKMAN, B.; STEVENS, J.; KLAPP, D.; VOLKOMMER, H.; LINTON, E.; HURTADO, H.; ROY, J.

    2010-06-08

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1 a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2 an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3 a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources.

  13. Control of bed height in a fluidized bed gasification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehta, Gautam I.; Rogers, Lynn M.

    1983-12-20

    In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the height of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed height which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.

  14. Development of a low NO/sub x/ lean premixed annular combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, P.B.; Kubasco, A.J.; Sekas, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    An atmospheric test program was conducted to define a low NOx annular combustor concept suitable for a supersonic, high-altitude aircraft application. The lean premixed combustor, known as the Vortex Air Blast (VAB) concept, was tested as a 22.0 cm diameter model in the early development phases to arrive at basic design and performance criteria. 9 refs.

  15. Community-Based Energy Development (C-BED) Tariff

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The C-BED tariff rate must be higher in the first 10 years of the agreement than the last 10 years. The intent of this structure is to provide renewable energy projects with better cash flow during...

  16. Piloted rich-catalytic lean-burn hybrid combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newburry, Donald Maurice

    2002-01-01

    A catalytic combustor assembly which includes, an air source, a fuel delivery means, a catalytic reactor assembly, a mixing chamber, and a means for igniting a fuel/air mixture. The catalytic reactor assembly is in fluid communication with the air source and fuel delivery means and has a fuel/air plenum which is coated with a catalytic material. The fuel/air plenum has cooling air conduits passing therethrough which have an upstream end. The upstream end of the cooling conduits is in fluid communication with the air source but not the fuel delivery means.

  17. Staged fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  18. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  19. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  20. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  1. National SCADA Test Bed

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) is a one-of-a-kind national resource that draws on the integrated expertise and capabilities of the Argonne, Idaho, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories to address the cybersecurity challenges of energy delivery systems.

  2. Combustion Dynamics in Multi-Nozzle Combustors Operating on High-Hydrogen Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santavicca, Dom; Lieuwen, Tim

    2013-09-30

    Actual gas turbine combustors for power generation applications employ multi-nozzle combustor configurations. Researchers at Penn State and Georgia Tech have extended previous work on the flame response in single-nozzle combustors to the more realistic case of multi-nozzle combustors. Research at Georgia Tech has shown that asymmetry of both the flow field and the acoustic forcing can have a significant effect on flame response and that such behavior is important in multi-flame configurations. As a result, the structure of the flame and its response to forcing is three-dimensional. Research at Penn State has led to the development of a three-dimensional chemiluminescence flame imaging technique that can be used to characterize the unforced (steady) and forced (unsteady) flame structure of multi-nozzle combustors. Important aspects of the flame response in multi-nozzle combustors which are being studied include flame-flame and flame-wall interactions. Research at Penn State using the recently developed three-dimensional flame imaging technique has shown that spatial variations in local flame confinement must be accounted for to accurately predict global flame response in a multi-nozzle can combustor.

  3. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joe; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Stevens, John; Klapp, Dave; Volkommer, Harry; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean

    2009-06-18

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2) an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources. These techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations,and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults. The results from these tests are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field demonstrations

  4. Quantitative characterization of a nonreacting, supersonic combustor flowfield using unified, laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, D.G.; McDaniel, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    A calibrated, nonintrusive optical technique, laser-induced iodine fluorescence (LIIF) was used to quantify the steady, compressible flowfield of a nonreacting, supersonic combustor. The combustor was configured with single and staged, transverse-air injection into a supersonic-air freestream behind a rearward-facing step. Pressure, temperature, two-velocity components, and injectant mole fraction were measured with high spatial resolution in the three-dimensional flowfields. These experimental results provide a benchmark set of data for validation of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes being developed to model supersonic combustor flowfields. 8 refs.

  5. Flame dynamics in a micro-channeled combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussain, Taaha; Balachandran, Ramanarayanan; Markides, Christos N.

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) has generated a significant interest in combustion-based power generation technologies, as a replacement of traditional electrochemical batteries which are plagued by low energy densities, short operational lives and low power-to-size and power-to-weight ratios. Moreover, the versatility of integrated combustion-based systems provides added scope for combined heat and power generation. This paper describes a study into the dynamics of premixed flames in a micro-channeled combustor. The details of the design and the geometry of the combustor are presented in the work by Kariuki and Balachandran [1]. This work showed that there were different modes of operation (periodic, a-periodic and stable), and that in the periodic mode the flame accelerated towards the injection manifold after entering the channels. The current study investigates these flames further. We will show that the flame enters the channel and propagates towards the injection manifold as a planar flame for a short distance, after which the flame shape and propagation is found to be chaotic in the middle section of the channel. Finally, the flame quenches when it reaches the injector slots. The glow plug position in the exhaust side ignites another flame, and the process repeats. It is found that an increase in air flow rate results in a considerable increase in the length (and associated time) over which the planar flame travels once it has entered a micro-channel, and a significant decrease in the time between its conversion into a chaotic flame and its extinction. It is well known from the literature that inside small channels the flame propagation is strongly influenced by the flow conditions and thermal management. An increase of the combustor block temperature at high flow rates has little effect on the flame lengths and times, whereas at low flow rates the time over which the planar flame front can be observed decreases and the time of

  6. Supportive studies in fluidized-bed combustion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CHALCOGENIDES; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; COMBUSTION; COMBUSTORS; ENERGY SOURCES; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; FUNCTIONAL MODELS; GASEOUS WASTES; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; OXIDATION; OXIDES; ...

  7. Technical evaluation: pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COMBUSTORS; TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT; ECONOMICS; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; PERFORMANCE; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; DESIGN; EFFICIENCY; GAS TURBINES; HOT GAS CLEANUP; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; ...

  8. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters in commercial plants: A comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

    1993-04-01

    Advanced coal fired power cycles require the removal of coal ash at high temperature and pressure. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters can be used for this service. Conceptual designs for commercial size applications are made for each type of filter. The filters are incorporated in the design of a Foster Wheeler 450 MWe second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant which contains a pressurized fluidized combustor and carbonizer. In a second application, the inters are incorporated in the design of a 100 MWe KRW (air) gasifier based power plant. The candle filter design is state of the art as determined from the open literature with an effort to minimize the cost. The granular-bed filter design is based on test work performed at high temperature and low pressure, tests at New York University performed at high pressure and temperate, and new analysis used to simplify the scale up of the filter and reduce overall cost. The incorporation of chemically reactive granites in the granular-bed filter for the removal of additional coal derived contaminants such as alkali or sulfur is considered. The conceptual designs of the granular-bed inter and the ceramic candle filter are compared in terms of the cost of electricity, capital cost, and operating and maintenance costs for each application.

  9. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Staged fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G.

    1984-01-01

    Method and apparatus for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  11. Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) system. Technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.W.

    1994-04-01

    This technical report summarizes the research work performed and progress achieved during the period of January 1, 1994 to March 31, 1994. The metal wastage mechanisms and rate that occur in 1018 carbon steel used in in-bed tube of the bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) are discussed with particle-surface collision frequency around tube. The distribution of particle-surface collision frequency around tube was affected by the location of tube and bed height. A series of material wastage tests was carried out using 742 {mu}m, quartz silica (SiO{sub 2}) on 1018 steel at elevated temperature (300 {degrees}C) which occurs in-bed locations of BFBC. The morphologies of the specimens were examined and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The maximum collision frequency around the periphery of the tube was found at 45 {degrees}, 315 {degrees} from bottom center, 0{degrees}, which was correlated with maximum material wastage rate of the specimens.

  12. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics and NO.sub.x in a combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong H.; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2015-11-20

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics and NO.sub.x in a combustor includes a tube bundle that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor, wherein the tube bundle comprises an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface. A shroud circumferentially surrounds the upstream and downstream surfaces. A plurality of tubes extends through the tube bundle from the upstream surface through the downstream surface, wherein the downstream surface is stepped to produce tubes having different lengths through the tube bundle. A method for reducing combustion dynamics and NO.sub.x in a combustor includes flowing a working fluid through a plurality of tubes radially arranged between an upstream surface and a downstream surface of an end cap that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor, wherein the downstream surface is stepped.

  13. A feasibility study of oil shale fired pulse combustors with applications to oil shale retorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, G.J.; Johnson, E.K.; Zhang, G.Q.; Roach, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    The results of the experimental investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using pulverized Colorado oil shale to fuel a bench scale pulse combustor reveal that oil shale cannot sustain pulsations when used alone as fuel. Trace amounts of propane mixed with the oil shale enabled the pulsations, however. Up to 80% of the organic material in the oil shale was consumed when it was mixed with propane in the combustor. Beyond the feasibility objectives, the operating conditions of the combustor fuel with propane and mixtures of oil shale and propane were characterized with respect to pulsation amplitude and frequency and the internal combustor wall temperature over fuel lean and fuel rich stoichiometries. Maximum pressure excursions of 12.5 kPa were experienced in the combustor. Pulsation frequencies ranged from 50 to nearly 80 Hz. Cycle resolved laser Doppler anemometry velocities were measured at the tail pipe exit plane. Injecting inert mineral matter (limestone) into the pulse combustor while using propane fuel had only a slight effect on the pulsation frequency for the feed rates tested.

  14. Particle Receiver Integrated with Fludized Bed

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program to NREL which features a particle receiver with a fluidized bed. The research team is working to develop a technology that uses gas/solid, two-phase flow as a heat-transfer fluid and separated, stable, solid particles as a thermal energy storage medium. This project provides a pathway for CSP plants to increase their solar-to-electric conversion efficiency and reduce costs in the areas of solar collection from the solar field to the receiver, energy conversion systems, and thermal energy storage.

  15. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  16. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  17. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  18. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  19. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1996-02-27

    A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  20. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1995-04-25

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  1. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume IV. FBC-Model-II manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    This document is the fourth of the seven volume series of our Phase II Final Report. The purpose of this manual is to describe how to access and use M.I.T.'s Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC) System Program. Presently, the FBC program is stored in a Honeywell Computer System and can be accessed using the Multics interactive system. The intention in writing this manual is to answer the questions that may arise regarding the mechanics of operating the system program, as well as warn the user of possible pitfalls and mistakes that could be made. No attempt is made here to describe the internals of the systems program. The manual describes the procedures an individual would follow to become an active user of the system program. It then explains the various options available for reaching the Multics interactive system on Honeywell 6180 computer on which the program runs. For users outside the Metropolitan Boston area, a public network for data communications is described which is relatively inexpensive. As the system program is approached through Multics using a special command facility TPSA, a separate introduction is provided for Multics TPSA. This facility allows commands appropriate for testing the program and carrying out parametric studies to be executed in a convenient way. Multics TPSA was formulated to meet the needs of the FBC project in particular. Finally, some sample sessions are presented which illustrate the login and logout procedures, the command language, and the data manipulation features of the FBC program. The use of commands helpful in debugging the program is also illustrated.

  2. Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etemad, Shahrokh; Baird, Benjamin; Alavandi, Sandeep; Pfefferle, William

    2010-04-01

    PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOE's goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar Turbines

  3. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryers, Richard W. (Flemington, NJ); Taylor, Thomas E. (Bergenfield, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  4. Characterization of emissions from a fluidized-bed wood chip home heating furnace. Final report Apr 82-May 83

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truesdale, R.S.

    1984-03-01

    The report gives results of measurements of emissions from a residential wood-chip combustor, operated in both a fluidized-bed and cyclone-fired mode, and their comparison with those from a conventional woodstove and industrial wood-fired boilers. In general, the combustion efficiency of the fluidized-bed and cyclone-fired wood-chip burner is higher than that of conventional woodstoves. Concomitant with this increase in efficiency is a decrease in most emissions. For the fluidized-bed tests, significant reductions of total hydrocarbons and CO were observed, compared to woodstove emissions. The cyclone test showed PAH levels far below those of conventional woodstoves, approaching levels measured in industrial wood-fired boilers. A baghouse, installed during two fluidized-bed tests, was extremely effective in reducing both particulate and PAH emissions. Method 5 samples from above the fluid bed suggest that appreciable PAH is formed in the upper region of the furnace or in the watertube heat exchangers. In general, the cyclone-fired mode was more effective in reducing emissions from residential wood combustion than the fluidized-bed mode.

  5. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  6. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  7. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  8. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freeman, David H.; Angeles, Rosalie M.; Keller, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  9. Fluidized bed deposition of diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Carroll, David W.; Trkula, Mitchell; Anderson, Wallace E.; Valone, Steven M.

    1998-01-01

    A process for coating a substrate with diamond or diamond-like material including maintaining a substrate within a bed of particles capable of being fluidized, the particles having substantially uniform dimensions and the substrate characterized as having different dimensions than the bed particles, fluidizing the bed of particles, and depositing a coating of diamond or diamond-like material upon the substrate by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon-containing precursor gas mixture, the precursor gas mixture introduced into the fluidized bed under conditions resulting in excitation mechanisms sufficient to form the diamond coating.

  10. Temperature dependence of steel wastage in a bubbling fluidized bed simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacAdam, S.S. ); Stringer, J. )

    1993-02-01

    Tubes within bubbling fluidized bed combustors have in many instances suffered wastage. The wastage can be quite high at temperatures near 300 C, but it typically shows an abrupt decrease at approximately 400 C. Superheater tubes that operate at higher temperatures generally do not experience wastage. It is widely believed that this decrease in wastage with temperature is due to the development of a continuous oxide layer that protects the metal substrate by virtue of its hardness and resistance to spalling. In this study, the temperature effect is examined using a wear rig specially designed to simulate the impact conditions relevant to in-bed tubes. It was discovered that wastage for mild steel can decrease from a relatively high value to essential zero within the temperature range of 400 to 430 C. This decrease was attributable not to the presence of an oxide scale but to the development of a protective deposit layer. The deposit consisted of an agglomeration of submicron bed material particles. The submicron dust is created through the normal attrition process and it tends to form an adherent coating on the bulk bed particles. Deposition on the specimen occurs by transfer of agglomerated material from bulk particles during impact. Subsequent impacts compact the deposit into a continuous protective layer.

  11. Microwave short-pulse bed-level detector. Annual report, January 1-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balanis, C.A.; Delauder, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    A short-pulse microwave system for measuring the bed-level within a fluidized-bed combustor, has been designed, built, and laboratory tested on static beds. The system is a short-pulse radar which operates in the frequency region of 6.75 to 10.95 GHz as a time-domain measurement system. Laboratory measurements of static bed-levels, for smooth and corrugated surfaces of metal plates and limestone sand, agree to an average of 2.0% of the actual heights. Additionally, the system was tested with a dielectric thermal protector, which did not compromise the accuracy of the measurements. Analytical models have been formulated to provide insight into the operation of the system on a wide range of simulated targets without the necessity of performing expensive and difficult laboratory experiments. Two formulations have been used to describe electromagnetic scattering by a rough surface as a function of frequency: the space harmonic model and the physical optics model. A reconstruction technique has been devised which uses the scattering models and the spectrum of the transmitted pulse to synthesize the reflected pulse. The data generated by the models compare well to previously published data and to experimental results.

  12. Geothermal Heat Pump System for the New 500-bed 200,000 SF Student Housing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project at the University at Albanys Main Campus | Department of Energy Heat Pump System for the New 500-bed 200,000 SF Student Housing Project at the University at Albanys Main Campus Geothermal Heat Pump System for the New 500-bed 200,000 SF Student Housing Project at the University at Albanys Main Campus This project proposes to heat and cool planned 500-bed apartment-style student housing with closed loop vertical bore geothermal heat pump system installation.

  13. Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leto, Anthony

    1983-01-01

    A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

  14. Investigations of swirl flames in a gas turbine model combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W.; Duan, X.R.; Weigand, P.

    2006-01-01

    The thermochemical states of three swirling CH{sub 4}/air diffusion flames, stabilized in a gas turbine model combustor, were investigated using laser Raman scattering. The flames were operated at different thermal powers and air/fuel ratios and exhibited different flame behavior with respect to flame instabilities. They had previously been characterized with respect to their flame structures, velocity fields, and mean values of temperature, major species concentrations, and mixture fraction. The single-pulse multispecies measurements presented in this article revealed very rapid mixing of fuel and air, accompanied by strong effects of turbulence-chemistry interactions in the form of local flame extinction and ignition delay. Flame stabilization is accomplished mainly by hot and relatively fuel-rich combustion products, which are transported back to the flame root within an inner recirculation zone. The flames are not attached to the fuel nozzle, and are stabilized approximately 10 mm above the fuel nozzle, where fuel and air are partially premixed before ignition. The mixing and reaction progress in this area are discussed in detail. The flames are short (<50 mm), especially that exhibiting thermoacoustic oscillations, and reach a thermochemical state close to adiabatic equilibrium at the flame tip. The main goals of this article are to outline results that yield deeper insight into the combustion of gas turbine flames and to establish an experimental database for the validation of numerical models.

  15. Dynamic bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stormo, Keith E. (Moscow, ID)

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  16. Simulation of a High Efficiency Multi-bed Adsorption Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Humble, Paul H.; Sweeney, J. B.

    2012-05-01

    Attaining high energy efficiency with adsorption heat pumps is challenging due to thermodynamic losses that occur when the sorbent beds are thermally cycled without effective heat recuperation. The multi-bed concept described here effectively transfers heat from beds being cooled to beds being heated, which enables high efficiency in thermally driven heat pumps. A simplified lumped-parameter model and detailed finite element analysis are used to simulate the performance of an ammonia-carbon sorption compressor, which is used to project the overall heat pump coefficient of performance. The effects of bed geometry and number of beds on system performance are explored, and the majority of the performance benefit is obtained with four beds. Results indicate that a COP of 1.24 based on heat input is feasible at AHRI standard test conditions for residential HVAC equipment. When compared on a basis of primary energy input, performance equivalent to SEER 13 or 14 are theoretically attainable with this system.

  17. Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system. Technical progress report No. 14, [January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seong W.

    1996-04-01

    The material wastage tests were continued to analyze erosion phenomena under the simulated erosion conditions of in-bed tubes in fluidized bed combustors. AISI 1018 steel and three thermal sprayed coating specimens were tested at an elevated temperature (300{degrees}C) using nozzle type erosion tester. Bed ashes retrieved from the operating biomass-fired boiler were used for erodent particles at a particle loading of 375 g, at particle impact angle of 30{degrees}, at particle velocity 60 m/s for exposure periods of 4 hours. The specimens were water-cooled on the backside. The material wastage of specimens was determined by thickness measurements. Test results can be seen that the cooled specimen had greater material wastage than that of the uncooled specimens. In addition, all of thermal-sprayed coating specimens for both cooled and uncooled specimens could reduce the erosion wastage rates as compared with 1018 steel. Among the three thermal-sprayed coatings, a DS-105 specimen of high velocity oxygen fuel spraying exhibited the lowest erosion wastage rate. When tested a higher particle velocity (60 m/s), but at the same elevated temperature (300{degrees}C), the material wastage rate of all three coatings was about 6 to 18 times higher than that of the material wastage at a low particle velocity (2.5 m/s).

  18. Agglomerating combustor-gasifier method and apparatus for coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Joseph L. P.; Archer, David H.

    1976-09-21

    A method and apparatus for gasifying coal wherein the gasification takes place in a spout fluid bed at a pressure of about 10 to 30 atmospheres and a temperature of about 1800.degree. to 2200.degree.F and wherein the configuration of the apparatus and the manner of introduction of gases for combustion and fluidization is such that agglomerated ash can be withdrawn from the bottom of the apparatus and gas containing very low dust loading is produced. The gasification reaction is self-sustaining through the burning of a stoichiometric amount of coal with air in the lower part of the apparatus to form the spout within the fluid bed. The method and apparatus are particularly suitable for gasifying coarse coal particles.

  19. Status of the fluidized bed unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, P.M.; Wade, J.F.

    1994-06-01

    Rocky Flats has a serious mixed waste problem. No technology or company has a license and available facilities to remedy this dilemma. One solution under study is to use a catalytic fluidized bed unit to destroy the combustible portion of the mixed waste. The fluidized bed thermal treatment program at Rocky Flats is building on knowledge gained over twenty years of successful development activity. The FBU has numerous technical advantages over other thermal technologies to treat Rocky Flats` mixed waste, the largest being the lower temperature (700{degrees}C versus 1000{degrees}C) which reduces acid corrosion and mechanical failures and obviates the need for ceramic lining. Successful demonstrations have taken place on bench, pilot, and full-scale tests using radioactive mixed wastes. The program is approaching implementation and licensing of a production-scale fluidized bed system for the safe treatment of mixed waste. The measure for success on this project is the ability to work closely with the community to jointly solve problems and respond to concerns of mixed waste treatment at Rocky Flats.

  20. Erosion of heat exchanger tubes in fluidized beds. Annual report, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, E.K.; Flemmer, R.L.C.

    1991-01-01

    This final report describes the activities of the 3-year project entitled ``Erosion of Heat Exchanger Tubes In Fluidized Beds.`` which was completed at the end of 1990. Project accomplishments include the collection of a substantial body of wear data In a 24in. {times} 24in. fluidized bed, comparative wear results In a 6in. {times} 6in. fluidized bed, the development of a dragometer and the collection of a comprehensive set of drag force data in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of bubble probe data to establish dominant bubble frequencies in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed, the use of a heat flux gauge for measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed and the modeling of the tube wear in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed. Analysis of the wear data from the 24in. square bed indicates that tube wear increases with increase in superficial velocity, and with increase in tube height. The latter effect is a result of the tubes higher up in the bed seeing greater movement of dense phase than tubes lower down In the bed. In addition, tube wear was found to decrease with increase in particle size, for constant superficial velocity. Three models of tube wear were formulated and provided acceptable prediction of wear when compared with the experimental data.

  1. Combustion dynamics of a low-swirl combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, D.M.; Culick, F.E.C.; Ratner, A.

    2007-11-15

    The methodology for the measurement of dynamic combustor behavior has never been clearly established, due to the complexities associated with unsteady premixed flames and the difficulties in their measurement. The global and local distribution of Rayleigh index and the flame response functions are the main parameters normally employed to quantify and describe combustion dynamics. The Rayleigh index quantifies the thermoacoustic coupling, while the flame response function is a measure of the response of the system to outside disturbances. The primary objective of this work is to investigate the combustion dynamics of a commonly used low-swirl burner and to develop tools and methods for examining the dynamics of a combustion system. To this end, the effect of acoustic forcing at various frequencies on flame heat release behavior has been investigated. The current work uses OH-PLIF imaging of the flame region to produce phase-resolved measurements of flame behavior at each frequency. The response of the flame to the imposed acoustic field over the range of 22-400 Hz is then calculated from the processed images. This provides a starting point for an extension/extrapolation to practical acoustic ranges ({proportional_to}5000 Hz). It was found that the thermoacoustic coupling was mainly evident in the shear mixing zone, producing a toroidal Rayleigh index distribution pattern. The phase shift of the flame fluctuation from the imposed acoustic wave seems to be very closely coupled to the vortices generated at the flame boundary due to shear mixing (Kelvin-Helmholtz instability), thus inducing the alternating toroidal structures. The peak value of the flame response function coincides with the peak absolute value of the Rayleigh index. (author)

  2. Fuel Flexible, Low Emission Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eteman, Shahrokh

    2013-06-30

    Limited fuel resources, increasing energy demand and stringent emission regulations are drivers to evaluate process off-gases or process waste streams as fuels for power generation. Often these process waste streams have low energy content and/or highly reactive components. Operability of low energy content fuels in gas turbines leads to issues such as unstable and incomplete combustion. On the other hand, fuels containing higher-order hydrocarbons lead to flashback and auto-ignition issues. Due to above reasons, these fuels cannot be used directly without modifications or efficiency penalties in gas turbine engines. To enable the use of these wide variety of fuels in gas turbine engines a rich catalytic lean burn (RCL®) combustion system was developed and tested in a subscale high pressure (10 atm.) rig. The RCL® injector provided stability and extended turndown to low Btu fuels due to catalytic pre-reaction. Previous work has shown promise with fuels such as blast furnace gas (BFG) with LHV of 85 Btu/ft3 successfully combusted. This program extends on this work by further modifying the combustor to achieve greater catalytic stability enhancement. Fuels containing low energy content such as weak natural gas with a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 6.5 MJ/m3 (180 Btu/ft3 to natural gas fuels containing higher hydrocarbon (e.g ethane) with LHV of 37.6 MJ/m3 (1010 Btu/ft3) were demonstrated with improved combustion stability; an extended turndown (defined as the difference between catalytic and non-catalytic lean blow out) of greater than 250oF was achieved with CO and NOx emissions lower than 5 ppm corrected to 15% O2. In addition, for highly reactive fuels the catalytic region preferentially pre-reacted the higher order hydrocarbons with no events of flashback or auto-ignition allowing a stable and safe operation with low NOx and CO emissions.

  3. Relationship between feedstock characteristics and erosivity of FBC bed materials. [Effects of particle size,shape,strength and chemical composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, A.V. ); Wang, B.Q.; Geng, G.Q. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the erosion-corrosion (E-C) metal wastage mechanisms and rates that occur in 1018 plain carbon steel used in tubular heat exchangers of fluid bed combustors (FBC) are discussed. The characteristics of FBC bed material rodent particles such as composition, shape, size, and strength were found to have a major effect on the surface degradation mechanisms and rates that occurred. A total of 16 different bed material particles from ten different FBCs were tested. It was determined that when the particles were strong enough not to shatter when they impacted the steel's surface, their shape and composition were the most important factors in determining their erosivity. The relative amounts of SiO{sub 2}, CaO, CaCo{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 4}, and alkali compounds in the bed materials were related to the metal wastage by using laboratory mixtures of the compounds as rodents. The ratio of SiO{sub 2} to CaO and CaCO{sub 3} was especially important in determining the erosivity of the bed materials. It was found that increasing this ratio increased the metal wastage. A sharp transition ratio occurred on either side of which the metal wastage were linear. The slope of the linear curve was low for the lower sand content mixtures and higher for higher sand content mixtures. The transition ratio required a higher CaO content for higher velocity particles.

  4. Distribution plate for recirculating fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-ching; Vidt, Edward J.; Keairns, Dale L.

    1977-01-01

    A distribution plate for a recirculating fluidized bed has a centrally disposed opening and a plurality of apertures adjacent the periphery to eliminate dead spots within the bed.

  5. Apparatus and filtering systems relating to combustors in combustion turbine engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Zuo, Baifang; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-07-24

    A combustor for a combustion turbine engine, the combustor that includes: a chamber defined by an outer wall and forming a channel between windows defined through the outer wall toward a forward end of the chamber and at least one fuel injector positioned toward an aft end of the chamber; a screen; and a standoff comprising a raised area on an outer surface of the outer wall near the periphery of the windows; wherein the screen extends over the windows and is supported by the standoff in a raised position in relation to the outer surface of the outer wall and the windows.

  6. System for reducing combustion dynamics and NO.sub.x in a combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Hughes, Michael John; York, William David

    2016-05-31

    A combustor includes an end cap that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor. The end cap includes an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface. A plurality of tubes extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface of the end cap to provide fluid communication through the end cap. Each tube in a first set of the plurality of tubes has an inlet proximate to the upstream surface and an outlet downstream from the downstream surface. Each outlet has a first portion that extends a different axial distance from the inlet than a second portion.

  7. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid-bed retorting process. Final report, September 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Stehn, J.L.; Vego, A.; Robl, T.L.

    1995-02-01

    This summarizes the development of the KENTORT II retorting process, which includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of oil shale. Purpose was to design and test the process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The program included bench- scale studies of coking and cracking reactions of shale oil vapors over processed shale particles to address issues of scaleup associated with solid-recycle retorting. The bench-scale studies showed that higher amounts of carbon coverage reduce the rate of subsequent carbon deposition by shale oil vapors onto processed shale particles; however carbon-covered materials were also active in terms of cracking and coking. Main focus was the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II PDU. Cold-flow modeling and shakedown were done before the PDU was made ready for operation. Seven mass-balanced, steady-state runs were completed within the window of design operating conditions. Goals were achieved: shale feedrate, run duration (10 hr), shale recirculation rates (4:1 to pyrolyzer and 10:1 to combustor), bed temperatures (pyrolyzer 530{degree}C, gasifier 750{degree}C, combustor 830{degree}C), and general operating stability. Highest oil yields (up to 109% of Fischer assay) were achieved for runs lasting {ge} 10 hours. High C content of the solids used for heat transfer to the pyrolysis zone contributed to the enhanced oil yield achieved.

  8. Performance and economics of co-firing a coal/waste slurry in advanced fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.R.; Zaharchuk, R.; Reuther, R.B.; Bonk, D.L.

    1996-09-01

    This study`s objective was to investigate co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor with coal and refuse-derived fuel for the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of waste. Performance evaluation of the pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) power plant co-fired with refuse-derived fuel showed only slightly lower overall thermal efficiency than similar sized plants without waste co-firing. Capital costs and costs of electricity are within 4.2 percent and 3.2 percent, respectively, of waste-free operation. The results also indicate that there are no technology barriers to the co-firing of waste materials with coal in a PFBC power plant. The potential to produce cost-competitive electrical power and support environmentally acceptable waste disposal exists with this approach. However, as part of technology development, there remain several design and operational areas requiring data and verification before this concept can realize commercial acceptance. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Fine and ultrafine particles generated during fluidized bed combustion of different solid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urciuolo, M.; Barone, A.; D'Alessio, A.; Chirone, R.

    2008-12-15

    The paper reports an experimental study carried out with a 110-mm ID fluidized bed combustor focused on the characterization of particulates formation/emission during combustion of coal and non-fossil solid fuels. Fuels included: a bituminous coal, a commercial predried and granulated sludge (GS), a refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and a biomass waste (pine seed shells). Stationary combustion experiments were carried out analyzing the fate of fuel ashes. Fly ashes collected at the combustor exhaust were characterized both in terms of particle size distribution and chemical composition, with respect to both trace and major elements. Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TM-AFM) technique and high-efficiency cyclone-type collector devices were used to characterize the size and morphology of the nanometric-and micronic-size fractions of fly ash emitted at the exhaust respectively. Results showed that during the combustion process: I) the size of the nanometric fraction ranges between 2 and 65 nm; ii) depending on the fuel tested, combustion-assisted attrition or the production of the primary ash particles originally present in the fuel particles, are responsible of fine particle generation. The amount in the fly ash of inorganic compounds is larger for the waste-derived fuels, reflecting the large inherent content of these compounds in the parent fuels.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF AN ULTRA LOW NOx COMBUSTOR FOR GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NEIL K. MCDOUGALD

    2005-04-30

    Alzeta Corporation has developed surface-stabilized fuel injectors for use with lean premixed combustors which provide extended turndown and ultra-low NOX emission performance. These injectors use a patented technique to form interacting radiant and blue-flame zones immediately above a selectively-perforated porous metal surface. This allows stable operation at low reaction temperatures. This technology is being commercialized under the product name nanoSTAR. Initial tests demonstrated low NOX emissions but, were limited by flashback failure of the injectors. The weld seams required to form cylindrical injectors from flat sheet material were identified as the cause of the failures. The approach for this project was to first develop new fabrication methods to produce injectors without weld seams, verify similar emissions performance to the original flat sheet material and then develop products for microturbines and small gas turbines along parallel development paths. A 37 month project was completed to develop and test a surface stabilized combustion system for gas turbine applications. New fabrication techniques developed removed a technological barrier to the success of the product by elimination of conductive weld seams from the injector surface. The injectors demonstrated ultra low emissions in rig tests conducted under gas turbine operating conditions. The ability for injectors to share a common combustion chamber allowing for deployment in annular combustion liner was also demonstrated. Some further development is required to resolve integration issues related to specific engine constraints, but the nanoSTAR technology has clearly demonstrated its low emissions potential. The overall project conclusions can be summarized: (1) A wet-laid casting method successfully eliminated weld seams from the injector surface without degrading performance. (2) Gas turbine cycle analysis identified several injector designs and control schemes to start and load engines using

  11. Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seong W.

    1996-01-01

    This technical report summarizes the research work performed and progress achieved during the period of October 1, 1995 to December 31, 1995. A series of material wastage tests was carried out on cooled AISI 1018 steel and three thermal-sprayed coating specimens at an elevated environmental temperature (3000{degrees}C) using a nozzle type erosion tester. Test conditions simulated the erosion conditions at the in-bed tubes of fluidized combustors (FBCs). Angular silica quartz particles of average size 742 {micro}m were used for erodent particles for tests at an impact angle of 30{degrees}, at a particle velocity of 2.5 m/s for exposure periods up to 96 hours. The specimens were water-cooled on backside. Material wastage rates were determined from thickness loss measurements of specimens. Test results were compared with material wastage test results from testing isothermal specimens. The morphology of specimens was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that the cooled specimens had greater material wastage than that of the isothermal specimens. The material wastage rate of cooling specimen for AISI 1018 was greater than that for thermal- sprayed coatings. The success in reduction of erosion wastage by cooled-coating specimens was related to the coatings, composition and morphology.

  12. Volatiles combustion in fluidized beds. Technical progress report, 4 March 1993--3 June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesketh, R.P.

    1993-09-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate the conditions in which volatiles will burn within both the dense and freeboard regions of fluidized beds. Experiments using a fluidized bed operated at incipient fluidization will be performed to characterize the effect of particle surface area, initial fuel concentration, and particle type on the inhibition of volatiles within a fluidized bed. The work conducted during the period 4 March, 1993 through 3 June, 1993 is reported in this technical progress report. The work during this time period consists primarily of the startup and trouble shooting of the fluidized bed reactor and gas phase modeling of methane and propane.

  13. Investigations of swirl flames in a gas turbine model combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weigand, P.; Meier, W.; Duan, X.R.; Stricker, W.; Aigner, M.

    2006-01-01

    A gas turbine model combustor for swirling CH{sub 4}/air diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure with good optical access for detailed laser measurements is discussed. Three flames with thermal powers between 7.6 and 34.9 kW and overall equivalence ratios between 0.55 and 0.75 were investigated. These behave differently with respect to combustion instabilities: Flame A burned stably, flame B exhibited pronounced thermoacoustic oscillations, and flame C, operated near the lean extinction limit, was subject to sudden liftoff with partial extinction and reanchoring. One aim of the studies was a detailed experimental characterization of flame behavior to better understand the underlying physical and chemical processes leading to instabilities. The second goal of the work was the establishment of a comprehensive database that can be used for validation and improvement of numerical combustion models. The flow field was measured by laser Doppler velocimetry, the flame structures were visualized by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH and CH radicals, and the major species concentrations, temperature, and mixture fraction were determined by laser Raman scattering. The flow fields of the three flames were quite similar, with high velocities in the region of the injected gases, a pronounced inner recirculation zone, and an outer recirculation zone with low velocities. The flames were not attached to the fuel nozzle and thus were partially premixed before ignition. The near field of the flames was characterized by fast mixing and considerable finite-rate chemistry effects. CH PLIF images revealed that the reaction zones were thin (=<0.5 mm) and strongly corrugated and that the flame zones were short (h=<50 mm). Despite the similar flow fields of the three flames, the oscillating flame B was flatter and opened more widely than the others. In the current article, the flow field, structures, and mean and rms values of the temperature, mixture fraction, and species

  14. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine induustrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100[degrees]F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600[degrees]F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  15. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  16. Co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system with coal and refuse derived fuels and/or sludges. Task 16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1994-01-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal waste. Leading this approach, the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The fluidized bed, with its stability of combustion, reduces the amount of thermochemical transients and provides for easier process control. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire-derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  17. Loop-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Slagle, Frank D.; Notestein, John E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.

  18. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1985-02-12

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  19. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  20. Thermoacoustic limit cycles in a premixed laboratory combustor with open and choked exits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hield, Peter A.; Brear, Michael J.; Jin, Seong Ho

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of the response of a turbulent premixed flame during thermoacoustic limit cycle in a simple, laboratory combustor. The flame dynamics are examined using high-speed pressure transducers and CH* chemiluminescence. The so-called 'interaction index' and time delay between the acoustic velocity fluctuations at the flame holder and the flame's overall heat release fluctuations are then determined. A wide range of operating conditions, traversing the combustor's flammability limits in Mach number and equivalence ratio, are studied for four different combustor exits, including one where the exit is choked. In all cases the time delay correlates very well with the amplitude of the velocity fluctuations. There is also some correlation between the interaction index and these velocity fluctuations, but this is less clear. These results suggest a novel, nonlinear flame model, derived entirely empirically. An existing low-order thermoacoustic model is then extended to include convection and dispersion of entropy fluctuations downstream of the flame, enabling the effect of the choked nozzle to be examined. The novel nonlinear flame model is integrated into the low-order thermoacoustic model, and used to investigate the experimentally observed thermoacoustic limit cycles. The model correctly simulates the observed switch to a low-frequency, entropically driven instability observed when the combustor exit is choked. (author)

  1. Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osborn, Liman D.

    1976-12-14

    A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

  2. The demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor, with internal sulfur, nitrogen, and ash control for the conversion of a 23 MMBtu/hour oil fired boiler to pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zauderer, B.; Fleming, E.S.

    1991-08-30

    The project objective was to demonstrate a technology which can be used to retrofit oil/gas designed boilers, and conventional pulverized coal fired boilers to direct coal firing, by using a patented sir cooled coal combustor that is attached in place of oil/gas/coal burners. A significant part of the test effort was devoted to resolving operational issues related to uniform coal feeding, efficient combustion under very fuel rich conditions, maintenance of continuous slag flow and removal from the combustor, development of proper air cooling operating procedures, and determining component materials durability. The second major focus of the test effort was on environmental control, especially control of SO{sub 2} emissions. By using staged combustion, the NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by around 3/4 to 184 ppmv, with further reductions to 160 ppmv in the stack particulate scrubber. By injection of calcium based sorbents into the combustor, stack SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by a maximum of of 58%. (VC)

  3. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor- FY12 Q4

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this SWRI project, funded by SunShot, for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2012.

  4. Fluidized bed combustion of pelletized biomass and waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chirone, R.; Scala, F.; Solimene, R.; Salatino, P.; Urciuolo, M.

    2008-10-15

    The fluidized bed combustion of three pelletized biogenic fuels (sewage sludge, wood, and straw) has been investigated with a combination of experimental techniques. The fuels have been characterized from the standpoints of patterns and rates of fuel devolatilization and char burnout, extent of attrition and fragmentation, and their relevance to the fuel particle size distribution and the amount and size distribution of primary ash particles. Results highlight differences and similarities among the three fuels tested. The fuels were all characterized by limited primary fragmentation and relatively long devolatilization times, as compared with the time scale of particle dispersion away from the fuel feeding ports in practical FBC. Both features are favorable to effective lateral distribution of volatile matter across the combustor cross section. The three fuels exhibited distinctively different char conversion patterns. The high-ash pelletized sludge burned according to the shrinking core conversion pattern with negligible occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The low-ash pelletized wood burned according to the shrinking particle conversion pattern with extensive occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The medium-ash pelletized straw yielded char particles with a hollow structure, resembling big cenospheres, characterized by a coherent inorganic outer layer strong enough to prevent particle fragmentation. Inert bed particles were permanently attached to the hollow pellets as they were incorporated into ash melts. Carbon elutriation rates were very small for all the fuels tested. For pelletized sludge and straw, this was mostly due to the shielding effect of the coherent ash skeleton. For the wood pellet, carbon attrition was extensive, but was largely counterbalanced by effective afterburning due to the large intrinsic reactivity of attrited char fines. The impact of carbon attrition on combustion efficiency was negligible for all the fuels tested. The size

  5. Thermal performance of a scramjet combustor operating at Mach 5.6 flight conditions. Final report, May 1996--May 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stouffer, S.D.; Neumann, R.D.; Emmer, D.S.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the experimental data and the procedures used in acquiring and reducing the thermal loads data during tests of a hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustor at United Technologies Research Center (UTRC). This research effort is part of the UTRC effort to develop dual-mode scramjet combustor technology to support the development of Mach S missile technology. The objective of the thermal loads testing was to map the thermal and mechanical loads, including heat transfer, dynamic and static pressures, and skin friction in a scramjet combustor during direct-connect scramjet tests. The tests were conducted at the UTRC Ramject/Scramjet direct-connect combustor test facility in East Hartford, CT.

  6. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  7. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  8. Rotary combustor and boiler tubes after long term service: A materials evaluation: Municipal solid waste subscale rotary combustor program: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitlow, G.A.

    1986-11-01

    A metallurgical evaluation of sections of combustor and superheater tubing removed after 27,500 hours of exposure in the Westinghouse-O'Connor, waste-to-energy facility at Gallatin, Tennessee, has been performed. Both of these carbon steel components have withstood an aggressive, corrosion/erosion environment with minimal metal wastage, which augurs well for safe, reliable service to continue for the foreseeable future. Extensive deposition of chlorides and sulfates occurred on the exposed surfaces, but due to the relatively low metal temperatures involved little interaction with the carbon steel surfaces was observed. 2 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Char binder for fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borio, Richard W.; Accortt, Joseph I.

    1981-01-01

    An arrangement that utilizes agglomerating coal as a binder to bond coal fines and recycled char into an agglomerate mass that will have suitable retention time when introduced into a fluidized bed 14 for combustion. The simultaneous use of coal for a primary fuel and as a binder effects significant savings in the elimination of non-essential materials and processing steps.

  10. A feasibility study of oil shale fired pulse combustors with applications to oil shale retorting. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, G.J.; Johnson, E.K.; Zhang, G.Q.; Roach, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    The results of the experimental investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using pulverized Colorado oil shale to fuel a bench scale pulse combustor reveal that oil shale cannot sustain pulsations when used alone as fuel. Trace amounts of propane mixed with the oil shale enabled the pulsations, however. Up to 80% of the organic material in the oil shale was consumed when it was mixed with propane in the combustor. Beyond the feasibility objectives, the operating conditions of the combustor fuel with propane and mixtures of oil shale and propane were characterized with respect to pulsation amplitude and frequency and the internal combustor wall temperature over fuel lean and fuel rich stoichiometries. Maximum pressure excursions of 12.5 kPa were experienced in the combustor. Pulsation frequencies ranged from 50 to nearly 80 Hz. Cycle resolved laser Doppler anemometry velocities were measured at the tail pipe exit plane. Injecting inert mineral matter (limestone) into the pulse combustor while using propane fuel had only a slight effect on the pulsation frequency for the feed rates tested.

  11. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume III. Model predictions and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    This document is the third of a seven volume series of our Phase II Final Report. This volume deals with parametric studies carried out using the FBC model. A comparison with available pilot plant data is included where such data are available. This volume in essence documents model performance; describing predictions on bubble growth, combustion characteristics, sulfur capture, heat transfer and related parameters. The model has approximately forty input variables which are at the disposal of the user. The user has the option to change a few or all of these input variables. In the parametric studies reported here, a large number of input variables whose variation is less critical to the predicted results, were maintained constant at the default values. On the other hand, those parameters whose selection is very important in design and operation of the FBC's were varied in suitable operating regions. The chief among such parameters are: bed temperature, coal feed size distribution (2 parameters), average bed-sorbent size, calcium to sulfur molar ratio, superficial velocity, excess air fraction, and bed weight (or bed height). The computations for obtaining the parametric relationships are based upon selection of a geometrical design for the combustor. Bed cross-section is 6' x 6', bed height is 4', and the freeboard height is 16'. The heat transfer tubes have 2'' OD, a pitch of 10'', and are located on an equilateral triangle pattern. The air distributor is a perforated plate with 0.1'' diameter holes on a rectangular grid with 0.75'' center-to-center spacing.

  12. Geomechanical risks in coal bed carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Larry R.

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and evaluate geomechanical factors which should be taken into account in assessing the risk of leakage of CO{sub 2} from coal bed sequestration projects. The various steps in developing such a project will generate stresses and displacements in the coal seam and the adjacent overburden. The question is whether these stresses and displacements will generate new leakage pathways by failure of the rock or slip on pre-existing discontinuities such as fractures and faults. In order to evaluate the geomechanical issues in CO{sub 2} sequestration in coal beds, it is necessary to review each step in the process of development of such a project and evaluate its geomechanical impact. A coal bed methane production/CO{sub 2} sequestration project will be developed in four steps: (1) Formation dewatering and methane production; (2) CO{sub 2} injection with accompanying methane production; (3) Possible CO{sub 2} injection for sequestration only; and The approach taken in this study was to review each step: Identify the geomechanical processes associated with it, and assess the risks that leakage would result from these processes.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Combustion and Rotor-Stator Interaction in a Turbine Combustor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Isvoranu, Dragos D.; Cizmas, Paul G. A.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the development of a numerical algorithm for the computation of flow and combustion in a turbine combustor. The flow and combustion are modeled by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the species-conservation equations. The chemistry model used herein is a two-step, global, finite-rate combustion model for methane and combustion gases. The governing equations are written in the strong conservation form and solved using a fully implicit, finite-difference approximation. The gas dynamics and chemistry equations are fully decoupled. A correction technique has been developed to enforce the conservation of mass fractions. The numerical algorithm developed herein has beenmore » used to investigate the flow and combustion in a one-stage turbine combustor.« less

  14. Modeling of a coal-fired slagging combustor: Development of a slag submodel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.H.; Zhao, D.Q.; He, L.B.; Jiang, L.Q.; He, Q.; Chen, Y.

    2007-05-15

    In a slagging combustor or furnace, the high combustion temperature makes the molten slag layer cover the wall and capture the particles. If these particles contain combustible matter, they will continue to burn on the running slag. As a result, the total amount of ash deposition will be much greater than that in dry-wall combustors and the total heat flux through the deposition surface will change greatly. Considering the limitations of existing simulation methods for slagging combustion, this paper introduces a new wall burning model and slag flow model from the analysis of particle deposition phenomena. Combined with a conventional combustion simulation program, the total computational frame is introduced. From comparisons of simulation results from several kinds of methods with experimental data, the conclusion is drawn that the conventional simulation methods are not very suitable for slagging combustion and the wall burning mechanism should be considered more thoroughly. (author)

  15. Nondestructive characterization of ceramic composites used as combustor liners in advanced gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingson, W.A.; Rothermel, S.A.; Simpson, J.F.

    1996-07-01

    Nondestructive characterization (NDC) methods, which can provide full-field information about components prior to and during use, are critical to the reliable application of continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites in high-firing-temperature (>1,350 C) gas turbines. [For combustor liners, although they are nonmechanical load-bearing components, both thermal characteristics and mechanical integrity are vitally important.] NDC methods being developed to provide necessary information include x-ray computed tomography (mainly for through-wall density and delamination detection), infrared-based thermal diffusivity imaging, and single-wall through-transmission x-ray imaging (mainly for fiber content and alignment detection). Correlation of the data obtained from NDC methods with subscale combustor liner tests have shown positive results at thermal cycling temperatures from 700 C to 1,177 C.

  16. Method and apparatus for the control of fluid dynamic mixing in pulse combustors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell; Keller, Jay O.

    1992-06-02

    In a method and apparatus for controlling total ignition delay time in a pulse combustor, and thus controlling the mixing characteristics of the combustion reactants and the combustion products in the combustor, the total ignition delay time is controlled by adjusting the inlet geometry of the inlet to the combustion chamber. The inlet geometry may be fixed or variable for controlling the mixing characteristics. A feedback loop may be employed to sense actual combustion characteristics, and, in response to the sensed combustion characteristics, the inlet geometry may be varied to obtain the total ignition delay time necessary to achieve the desired combustion characteristics. Various embodiments relate to the varying of the mass flow rate of reactants while holding the radius/velocity ratio constant.

  17. Method and apparatus for the control of fluid dynamic mixing in pulse combustors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1992-06-02

    In a method and apparatus for controlling total ignition delay time in a pulse combustor, and thus controlling the mixing characteristics of the combustion reactants and the combustion products in the combustor, the total ignition delay time is controlled by adjusting the inlet geometry of the inlet to the combustion chamber. The inlet geometry may be fixed or variable for controlling the mixing characteristics. A feedback loop may be employed to sense actual combustion characteristics, and, in response to the sensed combustion characteristics, the inlet geometry may be varied to obtain the total ignition delay time necessary to achieve the desired combustion characteristics. Various embodiments relate to the varying of the mass flow rate of reactants while holding the radius/velocity ratio constant. 10 figs.

  18. Enhanced air/fuel mixing for automotive Stirling engine turbulator-type combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riecke, G.T.; Stotts, R.E.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes a combustor for use in a Stirling engine and the like. It comprises: a combustor chamber; a fuel inlet couple to the chamber to inject fuel therein; a turbulator means disposed in the chambers downstream of the fuel inlet means for injecting combustion air into the chamber, the turbulator means being so positioned to cause a mixing of the combustion air and fuel injected in the chamber; diverter means for dividing the combustion air and creating a primary mixing zone downstream fa the primary mixing zone; and wherein the primary mixing zone comprises a fuel rich zone where combustion initiates and the secondary mixing zone has sufficient combustion air to complete combustion of the fuel.

  19. Ultra low injection angle fuel holes in a combustor fuel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    York, William David

    2012-10-23

    A fuel nozzle for a combustor includes a mixing passage through which fluid is directed toward a combustion area and a plurality of swirler vanes disposed in the mixing passage. Each swirler vane of the plurality of swirler vanes includes at least one fuel hole through which fuel enters the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes thereby decreasing a flameholding tendency of the fuel nozzle. A method of operating a fuel nozzle for a combustor includes flowing a fluid through a mixing passage past a plurality of swirler vanes and injecting a fuel into the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes.

  20. Z-Bed Recovery Water Disposal

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Z-Bed Recovery Water Disposal Tritium Programs Engineering Louis Boone Josh Segura ... detailed explanation of the plan to capture and dispose of Z-Bed Recovery (ZR) water. ...

  1. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    Precision Combustion, Inc. will develop a unique, fuel-flexible Rich Catalytic Lean-Burn (RCL) injector with catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultralow-emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide range of gaseous opportunity fuels. This will broaden the range of opportunity fuels that can be utilized to include low- and ultralow-Btu gases, such as digester and blast furnace gases, and fuels containing reactive species, such as refinery, wellhead, and industrial byproduct gases.

  2. Report covering examination of parts from downhole steam generators. [Combustor head and sleeve parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettit, F. S.; Meier, G. H.

    1983-08-01

    Combustor head and sleeve parts were examined by using optical and scanning electron metallography after use in oxygen/diesel and air/diesel downhole steam generators. The degradation of the different alloy components is described in terms of reactions with oxygen, sulfur and carbon in the presence of cyclic stresses, all generated by the combustion process. Recommendations are presented for component materials (alloys and coatings) to extend component lives in the downhole steam generators. 9 references, 22 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. An assessment of the current situation in the United States and forecast of future emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  4. Investigation of the mechanism in Rijke pulse combustors with tangential air and fuel injection. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.I.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.

    1993-03-01

    To study the mechanisms that control the operation of this combustor, an experimental setup is developed with access for detailed optical measurements. Propane is employed as fuel because the absence of liquid drops and combustion generated particulates in the combustion region significantly simplifies the optical diagnostics. The experimental techniques utilized include acoustic pressure measurements, space and time resolved radiation measurements, steady temperature measurements, exhaust flow chemical analysis, high speed video and intensified images of the reacting flow field by a computer based CCD camera imaging system. Flow visualization by the imaging system and the results from radiation intensity distribution measurements suggest that the periodic combustion processes caused by periodic vortex shedding and impingement provide the energy required to sustain the pressure oscillations. High radiation intensity occurs during a relatively short period of time and is in phase with the pressure oscillations, indicating that Rayleigh`s criterion is satisfied. Periodic variations of the air and fuel flow rates and, consequently, the air/fuel ratio of the reacting mixture inside the combustor appear to be another mechanism that contributes to the occurrence of periodic combustion and heat release processes. The presence of this mechanism has been uncovered by acoustic pressure measurements that revealed the presence of traveling pressure waves inside the air and fuel feed lines. These traveling waves produce periodic fuel and air feed rates which, in turn, result in periodic combustion and heat release processes within the combustor.

  5. Nonlinear heat-release/acoustic model for thermoacoustic instability in lean premixed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peracchio, A.A.; Proscia, W.M.

    1999-07-01

    Lean premixed combustors, such as those used in industrial gas turbines to achieve low emissions, are often susceptible to thermoacoustic combustion instabilities, which manifest themselves as pressure and heat release oscillations in the combustor. These oscillations can result in increased noise and decreased durability due to vibration and flame motion. A physically based nonlinear parametric model has been developed that captures this instability. It describes the coupling of combustor acoustics with the rate of heat release. The model represents this coupling by accounting for the effect of acoustic pressure fluctuations on the varying fuel/air ratio being delivered to the flame, causing a fluctuating heat release due to both fuel air ratio variations and flame front oscillations. If the phasing of the fluctuating heat release and pressure are proper, an instability results that grows into a limit cycle. The nonlinear nature of the model predicts the onset of the instability and additionally captures the resulting limit cycle. Tests of a lean premixed nozzle at engine scale and engine operating conditions in the UTRC single nozzle rig, conducted under DARPA contract, exhibited instabilities. Parameters from the model were adjusted so that analytical results were consistent with relevant experimental data from this test. The parametric model captures the limit cycle behavior over a range of mean fuel air ratios, showing the instability amplitude (pressure and heat release) to increase and limit cycle frequency to decrease as mean fuel air ratio is reduced.

  6. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, C. Stuart; Hawk, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  7. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  8. Comminution phenomena during the fluidized bed combustion of a commercial refuse-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, U.; Cammarota, A.; Chirone, R.; D`Anna, G.

    1995-12-31

    A commercial densified refuse-derived fuel (RDF), obtained as pellets from municipal solid wastes, was burned in two laboratory scale bubbling fluidized bed combustors, having an internal diameter of 41 mm. The apparatus were both batchwise operated at 850 C by injecting batches of RDF particles into a bed of silica sand (300--400 {micro}m as size range) fluidized at a superficial gas velocity of 0.8 m/s. RDF particles with equivalent mean diameter ranging from 4 to 9 mm were used. Different experimental procedures were set up to separately investigate comminution phenomena of fuel particles. Results were compared with those obtained burning a South African bituminous coal. Results pointed out that RDF particles undergo a strong primary fragmentation phenomenon, with a probability of particle breakage equal to 1 for fuel particles larger than 6 mm. Attrition and char fragmentation phenomena are particularly relevant under both inert and oxidizing conditions, generating a large amount of unburned fines which may affect overall combustion efficiency.

  9. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-02-08

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char--for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests.

  10. High-temperature-staged fluidized-bed combustion (HITS), bench scale experimental test program conducted during 1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R E; Jassowski, D M; Newton, R A; Rudnicki, M L

    1981-04-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the process feasibility of the first stage of the HITS two-stage coal combustion system. Tests were run in a small (12-in. ID) fluidized bed facility at the Energy Engineering Laboratory, Aerojet Energy Conversion Company, Sacramento, California. The first stage reactor was run with low (0.70%) and high (4.06%) sulfur coals with ash fusion temperatures of 2450/sup 0/ and 2220/sup 0/F, respectively. Limestone was used to scavenge the sulfur. The produced low-Btu gas was burned in a combustor. Bed temperature and inlet gas percent oxygen were varied in the course of testing. Key results are summarized as follows: the process was stable and readily controllable, and generated a free-flowing char product using coals with low (2220/sup 0/F) and high (2450/sup 0/F) ash fusion temperatures at bed temperatures of at least 1700/sup 0/ and 1800/sup 0/F, respectively; the gaseous product was found to have a total heating value of about 120 Btu/SCF at 1350/sup 0/F, and the practicality of cleaning the hot product gas and delivering it to the combustor was demonstrated; sulfur capture efficiencies above 80% were demonstrated for both low and high sulfur coals with a calcium/sulfur mole ratio of approximately two; gasification rates of about 5,000 SCF/ft/sup 2/-hr were obtained for coal input rates ranging from 40 to 135 lbm/hr, as required to maintain the desired bed temperatures; and the gaseous product yielded combustion temperatures in excess of 3000/sup 0/F when burned with preheated (900/sup 0/F) air. The above test results support the promise of the HITS system to provide a practical means of converting high sulfur coal to a clean gas for industrial applications. Sulfur capture, gas heating value, and gas production rate are all in the range required for an effective system. Planning is underway for additional testing of the system in the 12-in. fluid bed facility, including demonstration of the second stage char burnup

  11. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  12. Rivesville multicell fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    One objective of the experimental MFB at Rivesville, WV, was the evaluation of alternate feed systems for injecting coal and limestone into a fluidized bed. A continuous, uniform feed flow to the fluid bed is essential in order to maintain stable operations. The feed system originally installed on the MFB was a gravity feed system with an air assist to help overcome the back pressure created by the fluid bed. The system contained belt, vibrating, and rotary feeders which have been proven adequate in other material handling applications. This system, while usable, had several operational and feeding problems during the MFB testing. A major portion of these problems occurred because the coal and limestone feed control points - a belt feeder and rotary feeder, respectively - were pressurized in the air assist system. These control points were not designed for pressurized service. An alternate feed system which could accept feed from the two control points, split the feed into six equal parts and eliminate the problems of the pressurized system was sought. An alternate feed system designed and built by the Fuller Company was installed and tested at the Rivesville facility. Fuller feed systems were installed on the north and south side of C cell at the Rivesville facility. The systems were designed to handle 10,000 lb/hr of coal and limestone apiece. The systems were installed in late 1979 and evaluated from December 1979 to December 1980. During this time period, nearly 1000 h of operating time was accumulated on each system.

  13. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This eighteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1991 to January 31, 1992. The precombustor is fully assembled. Manufacturing of all slagging stage components has been completed. All cooling panels were welded in place and the panel/shell gap was filled with RTV. Final combustor assembly is in progress. The low pressure cooling subsystem (LPCS) was delivered to the CDIF. Second stage brazing issues were resolved. The construction of the two anode power cabinets was completed.

  14. CMI Unique Facility: Pilot-Scale Separations Test Bed Facility | Critical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Institute Pilot-Scale Separations Test Bed Facility Pilot-scale separations test bed facility at Idaho National Laboratory A group tours the 30-stage mixer-settler during a meeting at Idaho National Laboratory. This technology was developed for a CMI project. The Pilot-Scale Separations Test Bed Facility is one of more than a dozen unique facilities developed by the Critical Materials Institute, an Energy Innovation Hub of the U.S. Department of Energy. Noting that the CMI Grand

  15. Volatiles combustion in fluidized beds. [Quarterly] technical progress report, 4 December 1994--4 March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendergrass II, R.A.; Mansker, L.D.; Hesketh, R.P.

    1995-08-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate the conditions in which volatiles will bum within both the dense and freeboard regions of fluidized beds. Experiments using a fluidized bed operated at incipient fluidization are being conducted to characterize the effect of particle surface area, initial fuel concentration, and particle type on the inhibition of volatiles within a fluidized bed. The work conducted during the period 4 December, 1994 through, 3 March 1995 is presented in this technical progress report. The research consists of the application of a detailed chemical kinetics model for propane combustion and planned improvements in the experimental system.

  16. DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Fiscal Year 2009 Work Plan | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy OE National SCADA Test Bed Fiscal Year 2009 Work Plan DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Fiscal Year 2009 Work Plan This document is designed to help guide and strengthen the DOE/OE NSTB program's research and development (R&D) of advance security tools and to heighten awareness among energy sector partners of the more than 30 NSTB projects underway in FY2009. DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Fiscal Year 2009 Work Plan (260.95 KB) More Documents & Publications National SCADA Test

  17. Investigation of the mechanism in RIJKE pulse combustors with tangential air and fuel injection. Progress report, August 1, 1992--January 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.I.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of DOE Contract No. DE-AS04-85AL31881. This three year investigation started in August 1989 and its objective was to elucidate the mechanisms that control the driving of pulsations in the liquid fuel burning, Rijke type, pulse combustor developed under a preceding DOE contracts. It was demonstrated in that contract that the developed Rijke type pulse combustor can burn a variety of light and heavy liquid fuel oils with high combustion efficiencies while using low excess air, which produces high thermal efficiencies. Since the elucidation of the driving mechanism in the Rijke pulse combustor required the use of optical diagnostics (e.g., radiation measurements), it was decided to perform these investigations in a Rijke pulse combustor that burned propane instead of a liquid fuel in order to avoid difficulties that are often encountered due to the presence of liquid droplets in the combustion region. Consequently, an effort was made to develop a Rijke pulse combustor that is similar to the one developed in the preceding program and demonstrated similar performance characteristics. Such a pulse combustor was developed in the early phases of this program. The developed experimental setup was provided with capabilities for measuring steady combustor temperature distributions, the characteristics of the excited pressure oscillations, the exhaust flow composition, the characteristics of the flow field and the reaction rates. This pulse combustor consists of a cylindrical tube that is attached to a decoupling chamber at each end. Fuel and air are supplied via a tangential air/fuel injection system that is located at a distance of L/4 from the combustor entrance, where L is the combustor length. Part of the combustor tube, where combustion occurs, is water cooled. This section is also equipped with flat quartz windows to permit optical diagnostics.

  18. Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit: National SCADA Test Bed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 2008 | Department of Energy Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit: National SCADA Test Bed May 2008 Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit: National SCADA Test Bed May 2008 This project of the cyber security audit and attack detection toolkit is adding control system intelligence to widely deployed enterprise vulnerability scanners and security event managers While many energy utilities employ vulnerability scanners and security event managers (SEM) on their enterprise

  19. Fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, I.; Podolski, W.F.; Swift, W.M.; Henry, R.F.; Hanway, J.E.; Griggs, K.E.; Herzenberg, C.; Helt, J.E.; Carls, E.L.

    1980-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is undertaking several tasks primarily in support of the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion project management team at Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Work is under way to provide fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support to METC, determination of the state of the art of instrumentation for FBC applications, evaluation of the performance capability of cyclones for hot-gas cleaning in PFBC systems, and an initial assessment of methods for the measurement of sodium sulfate dew point.

  20. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending 31 December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The test plan is designed to demonstrate that oil shale co-combusted with municipal solid waste (MSW) can reduce gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, CO) to acceptable levels (90%+ reduction) and produce a cementitious ash which will, at a minimum, be acceptable in normal land fills. The small-scale combustion testing will be accomplished in a 6-in. circulating fluid bed combustor (CFBC) at Hazen Research Laboratories. This work will be patterned after the study the authors conducted in 1988 when coal and oil shale were co-combusted in a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The specific purpose of the test program will be to: determine the required ratio of oil shale to MSW by determining the ratio of absorbent to pollutant (A/P); determine the effect of temperature and resident time in the reactor; and determine if kinetic model developed for coal/oil shale mixture is applicable.

  1. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume 1. Model evolution and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    The Energy Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship, has been engaged in the development of a comprehensive mechanistic model of Fluidized Bed Combustors (FBC). The primary aims of this modeling effort are the generation and to the extent possible, validation of an analytical framework for the design and scale-up of fluidized bed combustors. In parallel with this modeling effort, M.I.T. also embarked upon the development of an FBC-Data Base Management System (FBC-DBMS) aimed at facilitating the coordination, interpretation and utilization of the experimental data that are or will become available from diverse sources, as well as in the identification of areas of large uncertainty or having a paucity of experimental results. The synergistic operation of the FBC-Model and FBC-Data Base promises to offer a powerful tool for the design and optimization of FBC's and represents the ultimate goal of the M.I.T. effort. The modeling effort was initially focused upon evaluation and application of state-of-the-art models. The initial system model was divided into five basic components: fluid dynamics, combustion, sulfur capture, heat transfer and emissions. Due to the technical complexity of modeling FBC operation and the initial primitive nature of models for these components, it was deemed necessary to be able to incorporate evolutionary improvements in understanding and correlating FBC phenomena: the M.I.T. system model is, therefore, modular in nature, i.e., each sub-model can be replaced by an updated or equivalent sub-model without necessitating reprogramming of the entire system model.

  2. Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

  3. Updraft Fixed Bed Gasification Aspen Plus Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-09-27

    The updraft fixed bed gasification model provides predictive modeling capabilities for updraft fixed bed gasifiers, when devolatilization data is available. The fixed bed model is constructed using Aspen Plus, process modeling software, coupled with a FORTRAN user kinetic subroutine. Current updraft gasification models created in Aspen Plus have limited predictive capabilities and must be "tuned" to reflect a generalized gas composition as specified in literature or by the gasifier manufacturer. This limits the applicability of the process model.

  4. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  5. Battery using a metal particle bed electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, James V.; Savaskan, Gultekin

    1991-01-01

    A zinc-air battery in a case including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit.

  6. Battery using a metal particle bed electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, J.V.; Savaskan, G.

    1991-04-09

    A zinc-air battery in a case is described including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit. 7 figures.

  7. Comparison of emissions from landfills, municipal waste combustors, and fossil fuel-fired utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    Landfilling is the most popular disposal method for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). However, air emissions from MSW landfills have generally been unregulated until recently. Instead, EPA has focused on emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), even though they only manage 15% of MSW generated in the United States. In the past, little data have been available comparing landfill and MWC air emissions. Such information is provided by this paper. It also compares emissions from waste-to-energy MWCs and fossil fuel-fired utilities with equivalent electrical generation capacity. 1 refs., 6 tabs.

  8. Measurement of flowfield in a simulated solid-propellant ducted rocket combustor using laser Doppler velocimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, W.H.; Yang, V.; Chuang, C.L.; Yang, A.S.; Cherng, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    A two-component LDV system was used to obtain detailed flow velocity and turbulence measurements in order to study the flow characteristics in a simulated solid-propellant ducted rocket combustor. The vortical structures near the dome region, the size of the recirculation zone, and the location of the reattachment point are all shown to be strongly affected by the jet momentum of both ram air and fuel streams. It is found that the turbulence intensity is anisotropic throughout the front portion of the simulated conbustor, and that the measured Reynolds stress conmponent distribution is well correlated with the local mean velocity vector distribution. 25 refs.

  9. Turbine combustor configured for high-frequency dynamics mitigation and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang; York, William David; Srinivasan, Shivakumar

    2014-11-04

    A turbomachine combustor includes a combustion chamber; a plurality of micro-mixer nozzles mounted to an end cover of the combustion chamber, each including a fuel supply pipe affixed to a nozzle body located within the combustion chamber, wherein fuel from the supply pipe mixes with air in the nozzle body prior to discharge into the combustion chamber; and wherein at least some of the nozzle bodies of the plurality of micro-mixer nozzles have axial length dimensions that differ from axial length dimensions of other of the nozzle bodies.

  10. Flame-vortex interaction driven combustion dynamics in a backward-facing step combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altay, H. Murat; Speth, Raymond L.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2009-05-15

    The combustion dynamics of propane-hydrogen mixtures are investigated in an atmospheric pressure, lean, premixed backward-facing step combustor. We systematically vary the equivalence ratio, inlet temperature and fuel composition to determine the stability map of the combustor. Simultaneous pressure, velocity, heat release rate and equivalence ratio measurements and high-speed video from the experiments are used to identify and characterize several distinct operating modes. When fuel is injected far upstream from the step, the equivalence ratio entering the flame is temporally and spatially uniform, and the combustion dynamics are governed only by flame-vortex interactions. Four distinct dynamic regimes are observed depending on the operating parameters. At high but lean equivalence ratios, the flame is unstable and oscillates strongly as it is wrapped around the large unsteady wake vortex. At intermediate equivalence ratios, weakly oscillating quasi-stable flames are observed. Near the lean blowout limit, long stable flames extending from the corner of the step are formed. At atmospheric inlet temperature, the unstable mode resonates at the 1/4 wavemode of the combustor. As the inlet temperature is increased, the 5/4 wavemode of the combustor is excited at high but lean equivalence ratios, forming the high-frequency unstable flames. Higher hydrogen concentration in the fuel and higher inlet temperatures reduce the equivalence ratios at which the transitions between regimes are observed. We plot combustion dynamics maps or the response curves, that is the overall sound pressure level as a function of the equivalence ratio, for different operating conditions. We demonstrate that numerical results of strained premixed flames can be used to collapse the response curves describing the transitions among the dynamic modes onto a function of the heat release rate parameter alone, rather than a function dependent on the equivalence ratio, inlet temperature and fuel

  11. Turbomachine combustor nozzle including a monolithic nozzle component and method of forming the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoia, Lucas John; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Stevenson, Christian Xavier; Vanselow, John Drake; Westmoreland, James Harold

    2016-02-23

    A turbomachine combustor nozzle includes a monolithic nozzle component having a plate element and a plurality of nozzle elements. Each of the plurality of nozzle elements includes a first end extending from the plate element to a second end. The plate element and plurality of nozzle elements are formed as a unitary component. A plate member is joined with the nozzle component. The plate member includes an outer edge that defines first and second surfaces and a plurality of openings extending between the first and second surfaces. The plurality of openings are configured and disposed to register with and receive the second end of corresponding ones of the plurality of nozzle elements.

  12. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling ... SYSTEMS; COAL; COAL GASIFICATION; ELECTRICITY; FLUIDIZED BEDS; GAS TURBINES; ...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATIONG FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling ... CHARS; COAL; COAL GASIFICATION; ELECTRICITY; FLUIDIZED BEDS; GAS TURBINES; ...

  15. Durable zinc oxide containing sorbents for moving bed and fluid-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1998-12-31

    A series of novel regenerable desulfurization sorbents operational at a wide range of temperatures (260--600 C) has been developed by the in-house research staff at the US Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Technology Center. The sorbent, identified as METC10, has demonstrated very high attrition resistance as well as very high and stable reactivity conducted under numerous testing regimes under both simulated and actual fuel gas conditions. The METC10 sorbent suitable for moving bed reactor applications is the only sorbent which has exceeded all the criteria required for use in the Tampa Electric Company (TECO) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) demonstration project. The required criteria for the TECO project included, a sulfur loading of 6.7 lb/ft{sup 3} while maintaining the outlet H{sub 2}S level < 20 ppmv, attrition of < 5 wt% after 25 cycle test and regeneration under the very drastic conditions of 10% SO{sub 2} at 510 C under 5--7 atmospheres. In addition, the sorbent was also tested at temperatures ranging from 370 C to 260 C with simulated coal gas. At this low temperature, it was possible to achieve a sulfur loading > 6 lb/ft{sup 3}, indicating that the sorbent is suitable for applications over a wide range of temperatures. It was also possible to prepare METC10 sorbent suitable for fluidized/transport reactor bed applications utilizing spray drying technique. These sorbents had both high attrition resistance (> 95%) and high sulfur capacity (> 14 wt%), and showed stable reactivity during multi-cycle testing.

  16. Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system. Technical progress report No. 8, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.W.

    1994-10-01

    This technical report summarizes the research work performed and progress achieved during the period of July 1, 1994 to September 30, 1994. The metal wastage of AISI 1018 low carbon steel at different particle velocity was discussed to understand the erosion phenomena of in-bed tube in FBC system. At both low velocity (2.5 m/s) and high (30 m/s), the maximum metal wastage was occurred at 45{degrees} of impact angle. The erosion rates at low particle velocity were two (2) to three (3) orders of magnitude lower than those at high particle velocity. The characteristics of anti-erosion and design considerations were discussed and suggested for some basic design guidelines, which might be important to the designer of bubbling fluidized combustors. The working principle and mechanism of anti-erosion devices will be discussed. Based upon the understanding of the working principle and mechanism of anti-erosion devices, different types of ant-erosion tube will be designed for the cold model bench-scale FBC system.

  17. Volatiles combustion in fluidized beds. Final technical report, 4 September 1992--4 June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendergrass, R.A. II; Raffensperger, C.; Hesketh, R.P.

    1996-02-29

    The goal of this project is to investigate the conditions in which volatiles will burn within both the dense and freeboard regions of fluidized beds. Experiments using a fluidized bed operated at incipient fluidization are being conducted to characterize the effect of particle surface area, initial fuel concentration, and particle type on the inhibition of volatiles within a fluidized bed. A review of the work conducted under this grant is presented in this Final Technical Report. Both experimental and theoretical work have been conducted to examine the inhibition of the combustion by the fluidized bed material, sand. It has been shown that particulate phase at incipient fluidization inhibits the combustion of propane by free radical destruction at the surface of sand particles within the particulate phase. The implications of these findings is that at bed temperatures lower than the critical temperatures, gas combustion can only occur in the bubble phase or at the top surface of a bubbling fluidized bed. In modeling fluidized bed combustion this inhibition by the particulate phase should be included.

  18. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    2014-05-06

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

  19. Building Controls Virtual Test Bed

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-04-01

    The Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) is a modular software environment that is based on the Ptolemy II software environment. The BCVTB can be used for design and analysis of heterogenous systems, such as building energy and controls systems. Our additions to Ptolemy II allow users to Couple to Ptolemy II simulation software such as EnergyPlus, MATLAB/Simulink or Dymola for data exchange during run-time. Future versions of the BCVTS will also contain an interfacemore » to BACnet which is a communication protocol for building Control systems, and interfaces to digital/analog converters that allow communication with controls hardware. Through Ptolemy II, the BCVTB provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run- time.« less

  20. Fluidized-bed combustion fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, J.W. Jr.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a process for producing from a solid carbonaceous refuse a high ash fuel for use in a circulating fluidized-bed combustion chamber. It comprises separating from the refuse a carbonaceous portion having an ash content in a selected range percent by weight; separating the carbonaceous portion into first and second fractions, the first fraction being at or above a selected size; crushing the first fraction; and combining the crushed first fraction with the second fraction. Also described is a process wherein the selected ash content range is between about 30 percent and about 50 percent, by weight. Also described is a process wherein the selected size is above about 1/4 inch.

  1. Method for control of NOx emission from combustors using fuel dilution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schefer, Robert W.; Keller, Jay O

    2007-01-16

    A method of controlling NOx emission from combustors. The method involves the controlled addition of a diluent such as nitrogen or water vapor, to a base fuel to reduce the flame temperature, thereby reducing NOx production. At the same time, a gas capable of enhancing flame stability and improving low temperature combustion characteristics, such as hydrogen, is added to the fuel mixture. The base fuel can be natural gas for use in industrial and power generation gas turbines and other burners. However, the method described herein is equally applicable to other common fuels such as coal gas, biomass-derived fuels and other common hydrocarbon fuels. The unique combustion characteristics associated with the use of hydrogen, particularly faster flame speed, higher reaction rates, and increased resistance to fluid-mechanical strain, alter the burner combustion characteristics sufficiently to allow operation at the desired lower temperature conditions resulting from diluent addition, without the onset of unstable combustion that can arise at lower combustor operating temperatures.

  2. OH-Planar Fluorescence Measurements of Pressurized, Hydrogen Premixed Flames in the SimVal Combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strakey, P.A.; Woodruff, S.D.; Williams, T.C.; Schefer, R.W.

    2008-07-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the hydroxyl radical in lean, premixed natural gas flames augmented with hydrogen are presented. The experiments were conducted in the Simulation Validation combustor at the National Energy Technology Laboratory at operating pressures from 1 to 8 atmospheres. The data, which were collected in a combustor with well-controlled boundary conditions, are intended to be used for validating computational fluid dynamics models under conditions directly relevant to land-based gas turbine engines. The images, which show significant effects of hydrogen on local flame quenching, are discussed in terms of a turbulent premixed combustion regime and nondimensional parameters such as Karlovitz number. Pressure was found to thin the OH region, but only had a secondary effect on overall flame shape compared with the effects of hydrogen addition, which was found to decrease local quenching and shorten the turbulent flame brush. A method to process the individual images based on local gradients of fluorescence intensity is proposed, and results are presented. Finally, the results of several large eddy simulations are presented and compared with the experimental data in an effort to understand the issues related to model validation, especially for simulations that do not include OH as an intermediate species.

  3. Methodological report on the 1980 manufacturing industries survey of large combustors (EIA-463)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The 1980 Manufacturing Industries Energy Consumption Study and Survey of Large Combustors (EIA-463) was designed to collect information on large combustors in the United States and the manufacturing establishments operating them. The survey was mailed to a list of respondents in late November and early December 1980. On February 20, 1981, the Secretary of Energy received notice from the Office of Management and Budget that authority for this information collection activity had been withdrawn and that the information already collected must be treated in a confidential manner. At that time, responses had been received from approximately 76 percent of the final survey frame and, even though this represented a respectable response rate, the usefulness of the survey was substantially disminished. This report presents a detailed overview of the methodology for this survey and a discussion of its limitations. This report is technical and is designed for analysts working with the results of this survey and for survey statisticians interested in specific survey methodologies.

  4. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composites for Shrouds and Combustor Liners of Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra; Jill Jonkowski; Joseph Mavec; Paul Bakke; Debbie Haught; Merrill Smith

    2011-01-07

    This report covers work performed under the Advanced Materials for Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines (AMAIGT) program by GE Global Research and its collaborators from 2000 through 2010. A first stage shroud for a 7FA-class gas turbine engine utilizing HiPerComp{reg_sign}* ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material was developed. The design, fabrication, rig testing and engine testing of this shroud system are described. Through two field engine tests, the latter of which is still in progress at a Jacksonville Electric Authority generating station, the robustness of the CMC material and the shroud system in general were demonstrated, with shrouds having accumulated nearly 7,000 hours of field engine testing at the conclusion of the program. During the latter test the engine performance benefits from utilizing CMC shrouds were verified. Similar development of a CMC combustor liner design for a 7FA-class engine is also described. The feasibility of using the HiPerComp{reg_sign} CMC material for combustor liner applications was demonstrated in a Solar Turbines Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine (CSGT) engine test where the liner performed without incident for 12,822 hours. The deposition processes for applying environmental barrier coatings to the CMC components were also developed, and the performance of the coatings in the rig and engine tests is described.

  5. Solids feed nozzle for fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielinski, Edward A.

    1982-01-01

    The vertical fuel pipe of a fluidized bed extends up through the perforated support structure of the bed to discharge granulated solid fuel into the expanded bed. A cap, as a deflecting structure, is supported above the discharge of the fuel pipe and is shaped and arranged to divert the carrier fluid and granulated fuel into the combusting bed. The diverter structure is spaced above the end of the fuel pipe and provided with a configuration on its underside to form a venturi section which generates a low pressure in the stream into which the granules of solid fuel are drawn to lengthen their residence time in the combustion zone of the bed adjacent the fuel pipe.

  6. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O'Hern; Paul Tortora

    2008-02-29

    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a breakthrough particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  7. Z-Bed Recovery Water Disposal | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Z-Bed Recovery Water Disposal Z-Bed Recovery Water Disposal Presentation from the 33rd Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Aiken, South Carolina on April 22-24, 2014. Z-Bed ...

  8. National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector (September 2009) National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector...

  9. National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector (September 2009) National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector ...

  10. Adsorbent and adsorbent bed for materials capture and separation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Adsorbent and adsorbent bed for materials capture and separation processes Title: Adsorbent and adsorbent bed for materials capture and separation processes A method device and ...

  11. Using fully coupled hydro-geomechanical numerical test bed to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    test bed to study reservoir stimulation with low hydraulic pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Using fully coupled hydro-geomechanical numerical test bed to ...

  12. Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel Nuclear ...

  13. National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation Evaluation Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation Evaluation Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation ...

  14. National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation Evaluation Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation Evaluation Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation Evaluation Report You ...

  15. CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE ...

  16. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasseter, R. H.; Eto, J. H.; Schenkman, B.; Stevens, J.; Volkmmer, H.; Klapp, D.; Linton, E.; Hurtado, H.; Roy, J.

    2010-06-08

    CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a 'microgrid'. The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resynchronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults.

  17. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume II. Introduction and technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of a study subcontracted by PNL to the United Technologies Research Center on the engineering feasibility and economics of a CAES concept which uses a coal fired, fluidized bed combustor (FBC) to heat the air being returned from storage during the power production cycle. By burning coal instead of fuel oil, the CAES/FBC concept can completely eliminate the dependence of compressed air energy storage on petroleum fuels. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume II presents a discussion of program background and an in-depth coverage of both fluid bed combustion and turbomachinery technology pertinent to their application in a CAES power plant system. The CAES/FBC concept appears technically feasible and economically competitive with conventional CAES. However, significant advancement is required in FBC technology before serious commercial commitment to CAES/FBC can be realized. At present, other elements of DOE, industrial groups, and other countries are performing the required R and D for advancement of FBC technology. The CAES/FBC will be reevaluated at a later date when FBC technology has matured and many of the concerns now plaguing FBC are resolved. (LCL)

  18. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Euker, Jr., Charles A.; Wesselhoft, Robert D.; Dunkleman, John J.; Aquino, Dolores C.; Gouker, Toby R.

    1984-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  19. Updraft Fixed Bed Gasification Aspen Plus Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-09-27

    The updraft fixed bed gasification model provides predictive modeling capabilities for updraft fixed bed gasifiers, when devolatilization data is available. The fixed bed model is constructed using Aspen Plus, process modeling software, coupled with a FORTRAN user kinetic subroutine. Current updraft gasification models created in Aspen Plus have limited predictive capabilities and must be "tuned" to reflect a generalized gas composition as specified in literature or by the gasifier manufacturer. This limits the applicability ofmore » the process model.« less

  20. Engineering systems analysis of pressurized fluidized-bed-combustion power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.L.; Griffin, F.P.; Lackey, M.E.

    1982-04-01

    This effort was conducted to provde supporting data for the research and development program on pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) systems being continued under the auspices of the Office of Coal Utilization of DOE. This report deals with the first phase of the effort, designated Task 1, which was scoped to be a somewhat broad review of PFBC technology and an analysis to determine its potential and sensitivity to key development needs. Background information pertaining to the application of PFBC to the market for coal-fired technology is included. The status of development is reviewed and the deficiencies in data are identified. Responses to a survey of PFBC developers are reviewed with emphasis on the high risk areas of the PFBC concept. Some of these problems are: uncertainty of life of gas turbine components; lack of demonstration of load following; and hot solids handling. Some high risk areas, such as the gas cleanup or gas turbine systems, can be relieved by reducing the severity of design conditions such as the turbine inlet temperature. Alternate turbine designs or plant configurations are also possible solutions. Analyses were performed to determine whether the advantages held by PFBC systems in cost, efficiency, and emissions would be nullified by measures taken to reduce risk. In general, the results showed that the attractive features of the PFBC could be preserved.

  1. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 1. Program and facility description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Poole, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittleson, D.

    1984-10-01

    The United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines, Twin Cities Research Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota is the site of a 6.5 foot diameter Wellman-Galusha gasifier, installed in 1977-1978. This gasifier, combustor/incinerator, and flue gas scrubber system in the past had been operated jointly by Bureau of Mines personnel, personnel from member companies of the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas Group, and United States Department of Energy personnel-consultants. Numerous tests using a variety of coals have to date been performed. In May of 1982, Black, Sivalls and Bryson, Incorporated (BS and B) was awarded the contract to plan, execute, and report gasification test performance data from this small industrial fixed-bed gasification test facility. BS and B is responsible for program administration, test planning, test execution, and all documentation of program activities and test reports. The University of Minnesota, Particle Technology Laboratory (UMPTL) is subcontractor to BS and B to monitor process parameters, and provide analysis for material inputs and outputs. This report is the initial volume in a series of reports describing the fixed-bed gasification of US coals at the Bureau of Mines, Twin Cities Research Center. A history of the program is given in Section 1 and a thorough description of the facility in Section 2. The operation of the facility is described in Section 3. Monitoring systems and procedures are described in Sections 4 and 5. Data reduction tools are outlined in Section 6. There is no executive summary or conclusions as this volume serves only to describe the research program. Subsequent volumes will detail each gasification test and other pertinent results of the gasification program. 32 references, 23 figures, 15 tables.

  2. Mercury emissions from German fluidized bed sludge incinerators -- A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saenger, M.; Werther, J.; Lungwitz, H.

    1999-07-01

    In 1996 19% of the 2.7 million tons dry matter of sewage sludge produced in Germany were disposed by incineration. Incineration of the sludge is carried out mainly in fluidized bed combustors. German emission regulations set a limit to the mercury emission of 0.05 mg/m{sup 3} (under standard condition, dry basis) the observance of which requires special flue gas cleaning installations. In the present paper, an overview is given on the state of the art of flue gas cleaning with respect to mercury emissions from sewage sludge incineration in Germany. A total of 13 plants were examined. Because of the thermochemical instability of the mercury compounds only elemental mercury will exist inside the combustion chamber. During the cooling of the flue gas the elemental mercury reacts depending on the presence of other flue gas components to several mercurous and mercuric compounds. Measurements in the plants investigated indicate that the ratio of elemental to chemically bound mercury decreases with increasing chlorine content in the sludge feed. Different types of gas cleaning systems are used to remove the mercury from the flue gas which may be grouped into two categories, namely scrubbers and adsorbers, respectively. The mercury sink in the cleaning system will therefore be either the excess water of a wet scrubber or the laden adsorbent from an adsorber. If the amount of the practically water-insoluble elemental mercury is below the emission limit wet scrubbers will be sufficient to remove the mercuric and mercurous species. Otherwise elemental mercury has to be additionally removed by adding agents to oxidize the mercury for capture in a scrubber or by an adsorbent. Only 1--6% of the mercury supplied with the sludge is found in the fly ash separated with electrostatic precipitators. The different kinds of mercury capture systems used in German fluidized bed sludge incineration plants, the mercury concentrations in the cleaned flue gas and the removal efficiencies with

  3. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaufrere, A.H.

    1982-04-30

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas fired furnances or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  4. Dispersion of seed vapor and gas ionization in an MHD second stage combustor and channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-01-01

    An approach is introduced for the simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic system consisting of a second stage combustor, a convergent nozzle, and a channel. The simulation uses an Argonne integral combustion flow computer code and another Argonne channel computer code to predict flow, thermal and electric properties in the seed particle laden reacting flow in the system. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for gaseous and condensed phases. The channel code is a multigrid three-dimensional computer code for compressible flow subject to magnetic and electric interactions. Results of this study suggests that (1) the processes of seed particle evaporation, seed vapor dispersion, and gas ionization in the reacting flow are critical to the evaluation of the downstream channel performance and (2) particle size, loading, and inlet profile have strong effects on wall deposition and plasma temperature development.

  5. Dispersion of seed vapor and gas ionization in an MHD second stage combustor and channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-07-01

    An approach is introduced for the simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic system consisting of a second stage combustor, a convergent nozzle, and a channel. The simulation uses an Argonne integral combustion flow computer code and another Argonne channel computer code to predict flow, thermal and electric properties in the seed particle laden reacting flow in the system. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for gaseous and condensed phases. The channel code is a multigrid three-dimensional computer code for compressible flow subject to magnetic and electric interactions. Results of this study suggests that (1) the processes of seed particle evaporation, seed vapor dispersion, and gas ionization in the reacting flow are critical to the evaluation of the downstream channel performance and (2) particle size, loading, and inlet profile have strong effects on wall deposition and plasma temperature development.

  6. A Summary of Tritium In-Bed Accountability for 1500 Liter La-Ni-Al Storage Beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.

    2001-07-31

    This paper summarizes the in-bed accountability (IBA) calibration results for all the RF LaNi4.25Al0.75 tritium storage beds.

  7. Combustor with two stage primary fuel tube with concentric members and flow regulating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, David Marchant; Whidden, Graydon Lane; Zolyomi, Wendel

    1999-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine having a centrally located fuel nozzle and inner, middle and outer concentric cylindrical liners, the inner liner enclosing a primary combustion zone. The combustor has an air inlet that forms two passages for pre-mixing primary fuel and air to be supplied to the primary combustion zone. Each of the pre-mixing passages has a circumferential array of swirl vanes. A plurality of primary fuel tube assemblies extend through both pre-mixing passages, with each primary fuel tube assembly located between a pair of swirl vanes. Each primary fuel tube assembly is comprised of two tubular members. The first member supplies fuel to the first pre-mixing passage, while the second member, which extends through the first member, supplies fuel to the second pre-mixing passage. An annular fuel manifold is divided into first and second chambers by a circumferentially extending baffle. The proximal end of the first member is attached to the manifold itself while the proximal end of the second member is attached to the baffle. The distal end of the first member is attached directly to the second member at around its mid-point. The inlets of the first and second members are in flow communication with the first and second manifold chambers, respectively. Control valves separately regulate the flow of fuel to the two chambers and, therefore, to the two members of the fuel tube assemblies, thereby allowing the flow of fuel to the first and second pre-mixing passages to be separately controlled.

  8. National SCADA Test Bed | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Created in 2003, the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) is a one-of-a-kind national resource ... In December 2012, the lab successfully demonstrated QKD on the University of Illinois test ...

  9. Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More than 95 percent of the sulfur pollutants in coal can be captured inside the boiler by the sorbent. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) builds on earlier work in ...

  10. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielinski, Edward A.; Comparato, Joseph R.

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  11. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherish, Peter; Salvador, Louis A.

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  12. WTP Pretreatment Facility Potential Design Deficiencies--Sliding Bed and Sliding Bed Erosion Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, E. K.

    2015-05-06

    This assessment is based on readily available literature and discusses both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries with respect to sliding beds and erosion due to sliding beds. This report does not quantify the size of the sliding beds or erosion rates due to sliding beds, but only assesses if they could be present. This assessment addresses process pipelines in the Pretreatment (PT) facility and the high level waste (HLW) transfer lines leaving the PT facility to the HLW vitrification facility concentrate receipt vessel.

  13. CFD-DEM study of effect of bed thickness for bubbling fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tingwen, Li; Gopalakrishnan, Pradeep; Garg, Rahul; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2011-10-01

    The effect of bed thickness in rectangular fluidized beds is investigated through the CFD–DEM simulations of small-scale systems. Numerical results are compared for bubbling fluidized beds of various bed thicknesses with respect to particle packing, bed expansion, bubble behavior, solids velocities, and particle kinetic energy. Good two-dimensional (2D) flow behavior is observed in the bed having a thickness of up to 20 particle diameters. However, a strong three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior is observed in beds with a thickness of 40 particle diameters, indicating the transition from 2D flow to 3D flow within the range of 20–40 particle diameters. Comparison of velocity profiles near the walls and at the center of the bed shows significant impact of the front and back walls on the flow hydrodynamics of pseudo-2D fluidized beds. Hence, for quantitative comparison with experiments in pseudo-2D columns, the effect of walls has to be accounted for in numerical simulations.

  14. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.; Bonk, D.

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  15. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.; Bonk, D.

    1994-10-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages -- namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects -- brief descriptions of these are also included.

  16. PFBC (pressurized fluidized bed combustion) turbocharged boiler design and economic study: Volume 1, Executive summary: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    A coal combustion technology that promises to reduce the cost of electrical power is pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). Since a PFBC boiler is physically smaller than a conventional pulverized coal fired boiler with a flue gas desulfurization system (PC/FGD) and the same power rating shop assembly and modularized shipment to the power plant site can be considered. Modular construction can substantially reduce the overall design/construction time. Emission controls are equivalent to, or better than, conventional PC/FGD units, and the PFBC combustor can tolerate coals with a wider range of characteristics. Two PFBC plants and the reference PC/FGD plant were each to have four nominal 250 MW(e) units to be completed for start-up at one year intervals. To establish a well defined consistent design basis for all units, the turbine-generator and steam cycle of a recently constructed 250 MW(e) unit (designed by Fluor and built under Fluor construction management) was selected and made the common element in both of the PFBC plants and the reference PC/FGD plant. Steam conditions of 2400 psia, 1000/sup 0/F were to be identical for all units as were the steam flows for the design load range of 50% to steam turbine valves-wide-open with inlet steam pressure 5% over design pressure (VWO 5% OP). The study produced three plant designs - a 4-unit turbocharged PFBC using bubbling bed technology, a 4-unit turbocharged PFBC using circulating bed technology, and a 4-unit PC/FGD reference plant using conventional pulverized coal technology coupled with wet limestone scrubber technology. The hot gas clean-up system, operating at these more modest temperatures, is capable of reducing the particulate in the gas to a level which meets EPA/NSPS standards without further cleanup. With this level of cleanup, service conditions for the turbocharger turbine are tolerable in commercially available designs and materials. 48 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume II. Detailed description of the model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    This document is the second of a seven volume series of our Phase II Final Report. This volume deals with detailed descriptions of the structure of each program member (subroutines and functions), the interrelation between the members of a submodel, and the interrelation between the various submodels as such. The systems model for fluidized bed combustors (FBC-II) consists of a systematic combination of the following interrelated areas: fluid mechanics and bubble growth, char combustion and associated kinetics for particle burnout, sulfur capture, NO/sub x/ formation and reduction, freeboard reactions, and heat transfer. Program outline is shown in Figure 1.1. Input variables (supplied by the user are inspected to check that they lie inside the allowed range of values and are input to the various routines as needed. The necessary physical and fluid mechanical properties are calculated and utilized in estimating char combustion and sulfur capture in the bed and the freeboard. NO/sub x/ and CO emissions are estimated by taking into account all relevant chemical reactions. A material and energy balance is made over the bed. Figure 1.1 shows a block diagram of the systems program. In this diagram, the overall structure of the FBC program is illustrated in terms of the various submodels that together constitute the systems program. A more detailed outline of the systems program is shown in Figure 1.2. In this figure, all important subroutine members of the FBC program are shown, and their linkage to each other, as well as to the main program is indicated. A description of the exact sequence in which these various routines are called at time of program execution is provided in Chapter 8 under the executive routine MAIN.

  18. Fuel nozzle assembly for use as structural support for a duct structure in a combustor of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiebe, David J; Fox, Timothy A

    2015-03-31

    A fuel nozzle assembly for use in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer housing of the fuel nozzle assembly includes an inner volume and provides a direct structural connection between a duct structure and a fuel manifold. The duct structure defines a flow passage for combustion gases flowing within the combustor apparatus. The fuel manifold defines a fuel supply channel therein in fluid communication with a source of fuel. A fuel injector of the fuel nozzle assembly is provided in the inner volume of the outer housing and defines a fuel passage therein. The fuel passage is in fluid communication with the fuel supply channel of the fuel manifold for distributing the fuel from the fuel supply channel into the flow passage of the duct structure.

  19. Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.; Rotunda, John R.

    1984-01-01

    An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

  20. Coal fired fluid bed module for a single elevation style fluid bed power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waryasz, Richard E.

    1979-01-01

    A fluidized bed for the burning of pulverized fuel having a specific waterwall arrangement that comprises a structurally reinforced framework of wall tubes. The wall tubes are reversely bent from opposite sides and then bonded together to form tie rods that extend across the bed to support the lateral walls thereof.

  1. In-bed accountability of tritium in production scale metal hydride storage beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.

    1995-10-01

    An `in-bed accountability` (IBA) flowing gas calorimetric measurement method has been developed and implemented to eliminate the need to remove tritium from production scale metal hydride storage beds for inventory measurement purposes. Six-point tritium IBA calibration curves have been completed for two, 390 gram tritium metal hydride storage beds. The calibration curves for the two tritium beds are similar to those obtained from the `cold` test program. Tritium inventory errors at the 95 percent confidence level ranged from {+-} 7.3 to 8.6 grams for the cold test results compared to {+-} 4.2 to 7.5 grams obtained for the two tritium calibrated beds. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Wear prediction in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, E.J.; Rogers, W.A.

    1993-06-01

    A procedure to model the wear of surfaces exposed to a fluidized bed is formulated. A stochastic methodology adapting the kinetic theory of gases to granular flows is used to develop an impact wear model. This uses a single-particle wear model to account for impact wear from all possible-particle collisions. An adaptation of a single-particle abrasion model to describe the effects of many abrading particles is used to account for abrasive wear. Parameters describing granular flow within the fluidized bed, necessary for evaluation of the wear expressions, are determined by numerical solution of the fluidized bed hydrodynamic equations. Additional parameters, describing the contact between fluidized particles and the wearing surface, are determined by optimization based on wear measurements. The modeling procedure was used to analyze several bubbling and turbulent fluidized bed experiments with single-tube and tube bundle configurations. Quantitative agreement between the measured and predicted wear rates was found, with some exceptions for local wear predictions. This work demonstrates a methodology for wear predictions in fluidized beds.

  3. Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future Test Bed and Data Infrastructure Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dean N.; Foster, I.; Van Dam, Kerstin Kleese; Shipman, G.

    2014-05-04

    The collaborative Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) project started in July 2011 with the goal of accelerating the development of climate model components (i.e., atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, and land surface) and enhancing their predictive capabilities while incorporating uncertainty quantification (UQ). This effort required accessing and converting observational data sets into specialized model testing and verification data sets and building a model development test bed, where model components and sub-models can be rapidly evaluated. CSSEF’s prototype test bed demonstrated, how an integrated testbed could eliminate tedious activities associated with model development and evaluation, by providing the capability to constantly compare model output—where scientists store, acquire, reformat, regrid, and analyze data sets one-by-one—to observational measurements in a controlled test bed.

  4. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' in this quarter (September-December of 2003). The main tasks in this quarter consisted of the following four parts. First, all documents for managing this project have been prepared and sent to the Office of Project Management at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Second, plans for the renovation of space for a new combustion laboratory for the CFBC system has progressed smoothly. Third, considerable progress in the design of the CFBC system has been made. Finally, a lab-scale simulated fluidized-bed combustion facility has been set up in order to make some fundamental investigations of the co-firing of coal with waste materials in the next quarter. Proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  5. Nucla CFB Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This report documents Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) demonstration project. It describes the plant equipment and system design for the first US utility-size circulating AFBC boiler and its support systems. Included are equipment and system descriptions, design/background information and appendices with an equipment list and selected information plus process flow and instrumentation drawings. The purpose of this report is to share the information gathered during the Nucla circulating AFBC demonstration project and present it so that the general public can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of replacing pulverized or stoker-fired boiler units with circulating fluidized-bed boiler units. (VC)

  6. Particle withdrawal from fluidized bed systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salvador, Louis A.; Andermann, Ronald E.; Rath, Lawrence K.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for removing ash formed within, and accumulated at the lower portion of, a fluidized bed coal gasification reactor vessel. A supplemental fluidizing gas, at a temperature substantially less than the average fluidized bed combustion operating temperature, is injected into the vessel and upwardly through the ash so as to form a discrete thermal interface region between the fluidized bed and the ash. The elevation of the interface region, which rises with ash accumulation, is monitored by a thermocouple and interrelated with a motor controlled outlet valve. When the interface rises above the temperature indicator, the valve opens to allow removal of some of the ash, and the valve is closed, or positioned at a minimum setting, when the interface drops to an elevation below that of the thermocouple.

  7. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y.; Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

  8. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, J.Y.; Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.

    1992-12-15

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyses the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step. 9 figs.

  9. Management and Development of the Western Resources Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Brown

    2009-03-09

    The purpose of this project was to manage the Western Resources Project, which included a comprehensive, basin-wide set of experiments investigating the impacts of coal bed methane (CBM; a.k.a. coal bed natural gas, CBNG) production on surface and groundwater in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. This project included a number of participants including Apache Corporation, Conoco Phillips, Marathon, the Ucross Foundation, Stanford University, the University of Wyoming, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, and Western Research Institute.

  10. AIR PASSIVATION OF METAL HYDRIDE BEDS FOR WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J; R. H. Hsu, R

    2007-07-02

    Metal hydride beds offer compact, safe storage of tritium. After metal hydride beds have reached the end of their useful life, the beds will replaced with new beds and the old beds prepared for disposal. One acceptance criteria for hydride bed waste disposal is that the material inside the bed not be pyrophoric. To determine the pyrophoric nature of spent metal hydride beds, controlled air ingress tests were performed. A simple gas handling manifold fitted with pressure transducers and a calibrated volume were used to introduce controlled quantities of air into a metal hydride bed and the bed temperature rise monitored for reactivity with the air. A desorbed, 4.4 kg titanium prototype hydride storage vessel (HSV) produced a 4.4 C internal temperature rise upon the first air exposure cycle and a 0.1 C temperature rise upon a second air exposure. A total of 346 scc air was consumed by the bed (0.08 scc per gram Ti). A desorbed, 9.66 kg LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} prototype storage bed experienced larger temperature rises over successive cycles of air ingress and evacuation. The cycles were performed over a period of days with the bed effectively passivated after the 12th cycle. Nine to ten STP-L of air reacted with the bed producing both oxidized metal and water.

  11. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This seventeenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period August 1, 1991 to October 31, 1991. Manufacturing of the prototypical combustor pressure shell has been completed including leak, proof, and assembly fit checking. Manufacturing of forty-five cooling panels was also completed including leak, proof, and flow testing. All precombustor internal components (combustion can baffle and swirl box) were received and checked, and integration of the components was initiated. A decision was made regarding the primary and backup designs for the 1A4 channel. The assembly of the channel related prototypical hardware continued. The cathode wall electrical wiring is now complete. The mechanical design of the diffuser has been completed.

  12. TRITIUM IN-BED ACCOUNTABILITY FOR A PASSIVELY COOLED, ELECTRICALLY HEATED HYDRIDE BED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Foster, P.

    2011-01-21

    A PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been deployed into tritium service in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. The bed design, absorption and desorption performance, and cold (non-radioactive) in-bed accountability (IBA) results have been reported previously. Six PACE Beds were fitted with instrumentation to perform the steady-state, flowing gas calorimetric inventory method. An IBA inventory calibration curve, flowing gas temperature rise ({Delta}T) versus simulated or actual tritium loading, was generated for each bed. Results for non-radioactive ('cold') tests using the internal electric heaters and tritium calibration results are presented. Changes in vacuum jacket pressure significantly impact measured IBA {Delta}T values. Higher jacket pressures produce lower IBA {Delta}T values which underestimate bed tritium inventories. The exhaust pressure of the IBA gas flow through the bed's U-tube has little influence on measured IBA {Delta}T values, but larger gas flows reduce the time to reach steady-state conditions and produce smaller tritium measurement uncertainties.

  13. Saga of coal bed methane, Ignacio Blanco gas field, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyce, B.C.; Harr, C.L.; Burch, L.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Prior to the 1977 discovery of the Cedar Hill Basal Fruitland pool (the first officially designated coal-bed methane field in the western US) 28.5 bcf of gas had been produced from Fruitland Formation coal seams in the Ignacio Blanco Fruitland-Pictured Cliffs field, Northern San Juan basin, Colorado. The discovery well for the field, Southern Ute D-1, was drilled and completed in 1951 on the Ignacio anticline, La Plata County, Colorado. Initial completion was attempted in the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The well was plugged back after making water from the Pictured Cliffs and was completed in the lower coal-bearing section of the Fruitland Formation. The well produced 487,333 mcf of gas in nine years and was abandoned in 1959 due to water encroachment. Additionally, 52 similarly completed Ignacio anticline Fruitland wells were abandoned by the early 1970s due to the nemesis of If it's starting to kick water, you're through. Under today's coal-bed methane technology and economics, Amoco has twinned 12 of the abandoned wells, drilled five additional wells, and is successfully dewatering and producing adsorbed methane from previously depleted coal sections of the Ignacio structure. Field-wide drilling activity in 1988 exceeded all previous annual levels, with coal-seam degasification projects leading the resurgence. Drilling and completion forecasts for 1989 surpass 1988 levels by 50%.

  14. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaufrere, Albert H.

    1983-10-04

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas for further combustion in modified oil or gas fired furnaces or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion volume within the inner shell and a plenum between them through which combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  15. Apparatus and filtering systems relating to combustors in combustion turbine engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Zuo, Baifang; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-03-27

    A combustor for a combustion turbine engine that includes: a chamber defined by an outer wall and forming a channel between windows defined through the outer wall toward a forward end of the chamber and at least one fuel injector positioned toward an aft end of the chamber; and a multilayer screen filter comprising at least two layers of screen over at least a portion of the windows and at least one layer of screen over the remaining portion of the windows. The windows include a forward end and a forward portion, and an aft end and an aft portion. The multilayer screen filter is positioned over the windows such that, in operation, a supply of compressed air entering the chamber through the windows passes through at least one layer of screen. The multilayer screen filter is configured such that the aft portion of the windows include at least two layers of screen, and the forward portion of the windows includes one less layer of screen than the aft portion of the windows.

  16. Spatially distributed flame transfer functions for predicting combustion dynamics in lean premixed gas turbine combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, K.T.; Lee, J.G.; Quay, B.D.; Santavicca, D.A.

    2010-09-15

    The present paper describes a methodology to improve the accuracy of prediction of the eigenfrequencies and growth rates of self-induced instabilities and demonstrates its application to a laboratory-scale, swirl-stabilized, lean-premixed, gas turbine combustor. The influence of the spatial heat release distribution is accounted for using local flame transfer function (FTF) measurements. The two-microphone technique and CH{sup *} chemiluminescence intensity measurements are used to determine the input (inlet velocity perturbation) and the output functions (heat release oscillation), respectively, for the local flame transfer functions. The experimentally determined local flame transfer functions are superposed using the flame transfer function superposition principle, and the result is incorporated into an analytic thermoacoustic model, in order to predict the linear stability characteristics of a given system. Results show that when the flame length is not acoustically compact the model prediction calculated using the local flame transfer functions is better than the prediction made using the global flame transfer function. In the case of a flame in the compact flame regime, accurate predictions of eigenfrequencies and growth rates can be obtained using the global flame transfer function. It was also found that the general response characteristics of the local FTF (gain and phase) are qualitatively the same as those of the global FTF. (author)

  17. The impact of equivalence ratio oscillations on combustion dynamics in a backward-facing step combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murat Altay, H.; Speth, Raymond L.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2009-11-15

    The combustion dynamics of propane-air flames are investigated in an atmospheric pressure, atmospheric inlet temperature, lean, premixed backward-facing step combustor. We modify the location of the fuel injector to examine the impact of equivalence ratio oscillations arriving at the flame on the combustion dynamics. Simultaneous pressure, velocity, heat-release rate and equivalence ratio measurements and high-speed video from the experiments are used to identify and characterize several distinct operating modes. When the fuel is injected far upstream from the step, the equivalence ratio arriving at the flame is steady and the combustion dynamics are controlled only by flame-vortex interactions. In this case, different dynamic regimes are observed depending on the operating parameters. When the fuel is injected close to the step, the equivalence ratio arriving at the flame exhibits oscillations. In the presence of equivalence ratio oscillations, the measured sound pressure level is significant across the entire range of lean mean equivalence ratios even if the equivalence ratio oscillations arriving at the flame are out-of-phase with the pressure oscillations. The combustion dynamics are governed primarily by the flame-vortex interactions, while the equivalence ratio oscillations have secondary effects. The equivalence ratio oscillations could generate variations in the combustion dynamics in each cycle under some operating conditions, destabilize the flame at the entire range of the lean equivalence ratios, and increase the value of the mean equivalence ratio at the lean blowout limit. (author)

  18. 3-D capacitance density imaging of fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved.

  19. Solid fuel feed system for a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C.

    1982-01-01

    A fluidized bed for the combustion of coal, with limestone, is replenished with crushed coal from a system discharging the coal laterally from a station below the surface level of the bed. A compartment, or feed box, is mounted at one side of the bed and its interior separated from the bed by a weir plate beneath which the coal flows laterally into the bed while bed material is received into the compartment above the plate to maintain a predetermined minimum level of material in the compartment.

  20. Internal dust recirculation system for a fluidized bed heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamble, Robert L.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan A.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided in a heat exchange relation to the bed and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the bed and a tube bank extending between the steam drum and a water drum. The tube bank is located in the path of the effluent gases exiting from the bed and a baffle system is provided to separate the solid particulate matter from the effluent gases. The particulate matter is collected and injected back into the fluidized bed.

  1. Fluidized bed heat exchanger utilizing angularly extending heat exchange tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Talmud, Fred M.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan-Antonio

    1980-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the fluidized bed and a series of tubes connected at one end to the steam drum. A portion of the tubes are connected to a water drum and in the path of the air and the gaseous products of combustion exiting from the bed. Another portion of the tubes pass through the bed and extend at an angle to the upper surface of the bed.

  2. Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project. Final report, March 1, 1994--March 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, D.A.; Hoffman, J.D.; Marrocco, M.; Mudd, M.J.; Reinhart, W.P.; Stogran, H.K.

    1995-08-01

    The Tidd Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Demonstration Plant was the first utility-scale pressurized fluidized bed combustor to operate in combined-cycle mode in the US. The 45-year old pulverized coal plant was repowered with PFBC components in order to demonstrate that PFBC combined-cycle technology is an economic, reliable, and environmentally superior alternative to conventional technology in using high-sulfur coal to generate electricity. The three-year demonstration period started on February 28, 1991 and terminated on February 28, 1994. The fourth year of testing started on March 1, 1994 and terminated on March 30, 1995. This report reviews the experience of the 70-MW(e), Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant during the fourth year of operation.

  3. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Wilson, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  4. Fluidized bed electrowinning of copper. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to: design and construct a 10,000- amp fluidized bed electrowinning cell for the recovery of copper from acidic sulfate solutions; demonstrate the technical feasibility of continuous particle recirculation from the electrowinning cell with the ultimate goal of continuous particle removal; and measure cell efficiency as a function of operating conditions.

  5. In-bed measurement of tritium loading in process metal hydride beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobile, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Replacement Tritium Facility at Savannah River Plant will make extensive use of metal hydride technology for the storage, pumping, isotopic separation, and compression of hydrogen isotopes. Two options were considered for routine accountability of tritium stored in metal hydride beds. One option was to use standard P-V-T-mass spectrometry techniques after desorption of storage beds to tanks of known volume. The second option was to develop a technique for direct measurement of bed loading. It was thought that such a technique would be more rapid and would account for heel, although some accuracy would be lost.The static nitrogen and flowing nitrogen methods were considered for this option. The flowing nitrogen method was eventually selected because it was insensitive to bed physical properties and isotopic gas composition, as well as being more accurate and easier to automate.

  6. Models to interpret bed-form geometries from cross-bed data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luthi, S.M. (Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (USA)); Banavar, J.R. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA)); Bayer, U. (Institute Erdoel und Organische Chemie, Kernforschungsanlage Juelich (West Germany))

    1990-05-01

    To improve the understanding of the relation of cross-bed azimuth distributions to bed-forms, geometric models were developed for migrating bed forms using a minimum number of parameters. Semielliptical and sinusoidal bed-form crestlines were modeled with curvature and sinuosity as parameters. Both bedform crestlines are propagated at various angles of migration over a finite area of deposition. Two computational approaches are used, a statistical random sampling (Monte Carlo) technique over the area of the deposit, and an analytical method based on topology and differential geometry. The resulting foreset azimuth distributions provide a catalog for a variety of simulations. The resulting thickness distributions have a simple shape and can be combined with the azimuth distributions to further constrain the cross-strata geometry. Paleocurrent directions obtained by these models can differ substantially from other methods, especially for obliquely migrating low-curvature bed forms. Interpretation of foreset azimuth data from outcrops and wells can be done either by visual comparison with the cataloged distributions, or by iterative computational fits. Studied examples include eolian cross-strata from the Permian Rotliegendes in the North Sea, fluvial dunes from the Devonian in the Catskills (New York state), the Triassic Schilfsandstein (Federal Republic of Germany), and the Paleozoic-Jurassic of the Western Desert (Egypt), as well as recent tidal dunes from the German coast of the North Sea and tidal cross-strata from the Devonian Koblentzquartzit (Federal Republic of Germany). In all cases the semi-elliptical bed-form model gave a good fit to the data, suggesting that it may be applicable over a wide range of bed forms. The data from the Western Desert could be explained only by data scatter due to channel sinuosity combined with the scatter attributed to the ellipticity of the bed-form crestlines.

  7. DOE - Fossil Energy: A Bed for Burning Coal?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4-Bed for Burning Coal An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with ...

  8. Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed A large ...

  9. Fluidized bed method and apparatus for producing a combustible gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caplin, P. B.

    1984-11-13

    A combustible gas producer plant is described in which a finely divided inert particulate material fluidized bed is divided into a first, combustible-gas producing section and a second, heating section, to both of which sections fuel is fed. Heat transfer, by bed material migration, from the second to the first section sustains the reaction in the first section leading to the production of combustible gas. A diaphragm water wall divides and surrounds the volumes above bed sections and is part of a boiler generating steam used (optionally with added oxygen) to fluidize the first bed section. The steam is also used to fluidize the bed material at the boundary of the bed sections and prevent in-bed gas migration across that boundary. The second section of the bed is fluidized with air or an air/inert gas mixture. Fluidization is effected with sparge tubes and the plant may include evaporator, superheater and economizer sections for the boiler.

  10. Method of feeding particulate material to a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borio, Richard W. (Somers, CT); Goodstine, Stephen L. (Windsor, CT)

    1984-01-01

    A centrifugal spreader type feeder that supplies a mixture of particulate limestone and coal to the top of a fluidized bed reactor having a flow of air upward therethrough. Large particles of particulate matter are distributed over the upper surface of the bed to utilize the natural mixing within the bed, while fine particles are adapted to utilize an independent feeder that separates them from the large particles and injects them into the bed.

  11. Combustion characteristics of pulverized coal and air/gas premixed flame in a double swirl combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamal, M.M.

    2009-07-01

    An experimental work was performed to investigate the co-firing of pulverized coal and premixed gas/air streams in a double swirl combustor. The results showed that the NOx emissions are affected by the relative rates of thermal NOx formation and destruction via the pyrolysis of the fuel-N species in high temperature fuel-rich zones. Various burner designs were tested in order to vary the temperature history and the residence time across both coal and gas flames inside the furnace. It was found that by injecting the coal with a gas/air mixture as a combined central jet surrounded by a swirled air stream, a double flame envelope develops with high temperature fuel-rich conditions in between the two reaction zones such that the pyrolysis reactions to N{sub 2} are accelerated. A further reduction in the minimum NOx emissions, as well as in the minimum CO concentrations, was reported for the case where the coal particles are fed with the gas/air mixture in the region between the two swirled air streams. On the other hand, allocating the gas/air mixture around the swirled air-coal combustion zone provides an earlier contact with air and retards the NOx reduction mechanism in such a way that the elevated temperatures around the coal particles allow higher overall NOx emissions. The downstream impingement of opposing air jets was found more efficient than the impinging of particle non-laden premixed flames for effective NOx reduction. In both cases, there is an upstream flow from the stagnation region to the coal primary combustion region, but with the case of air impingement, the hot fuel-rich zone develops earlier. The optimum configuration was found by impinging all jets of air and coal-gas/air mixtures that pronounced minimum NOx and CO concentrations of 310 and 480ppm, respectively.

  12. Plasma assisted NO{sub x} reduction in existing coal combustors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, S.C.; Russell, T.

    1991-12-31

    The feasibility of NO{sub x} reduction using plasma injection has been investigated. Both numerical and experimental methods were used in the development of this new NO{sub x}reduction technique. The numerical analysis was used to investigate various flow mechanisms in order to provide fundamental support in the development of this new NO{sub x} control technique. The calculations using this approach can give the information of the particle trajectories and distributions which are important for the design of the in-flame plasma injection configuration. The group model also established the necessary ground for further complete modeling of the whole process including the chemical kinetics. Numerical calculations were also performed for a turbulent gas flow field with variable properties. The results provided fundamental understanding of mixing effects encountered in the experiments at Pittsburgh Energy and Technology Center. A small scale experiment facility was designed and constructed at the heterogeneous combustion laboratory at Carnegie Mellon University. A series of tests were conducted in this setup to investigate the potential of the ammonia plasma injection for NO{sub x} reduction and parametric effects of this process. The experimental results are very promising. About 86% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved using ammonia radicals produced by argon plasma within the present test range. The total percentage of NO{sub x} reduction increases when ammonia flowrate, argon flow rate and initial NO concentration increase and when plasma power and the amount of excess air in the combustor decrease. A combined transport and reaction model was postulated for understanding the mechanism of NO{sub x} reduction using the plasma injection.

  13. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Zhongxian Cheng; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2006-09-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project entitled ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2006 through September 30, 2006. The following activities have been completed: the steel floor grating around the riser in all levels and the three-phase power supply for CFBC System was installed. Erection of downcomers, loop seals, ash bunker, thermal expansion joints, fuel and bed material bunkers with load cells, rotary air-lock valves and fuel flow monitors is underway. Pilot-scale slipstream tests conducted with bromine compound addition were performed for two typical types of coal. The purposes of the tests were to study the effect of bromine addition on mercury oxidization. From the test results, it was observed that there was a strong oxidization effect for Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The proposed work for next quarter and project schedule are also described.

  14. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidised bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagland, S.T.; Kilgallon, P.; Coveney, R.; Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.

    2011-06-15

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidised bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal + 10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal + 10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

  15. Fundamentals of fluidized bed chemical processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical processes based on the use of fluidized solids, although widely used on an industrial scale for some four decades, are currently increasing in importance as industry looks for improved methods for handling and reacting solid materials. This book provides background necessary for an understanding of the technique of gas-solid fluidization. Contents: Some Fundamental Aspects of Fluidization-General Features of Gas-Solid Fluidization; Minimum Fluidization Velocity; Inter-particle forces; Liquid-Solid Fluidization; Bubbles; Slugging; Entrainment and Elutriation; Particle Movement; Bed Viscosity; Fluidization Under Pressure. Fluidized-Bed Reactor Models-ome Individual Models; Model Comparisons; Multiple Region Models. Catalytic Cracking-Process Developments Riser Cracking; Catalysis; Process Chemistry; Kinetics; Process Models. Combustion and Gasification-Plant Developments; Oil and Gas Combustion; Desulphurization; No/sub x/ Emissions; Coal Gassification. Miscellaneous Processes-Phthalic Anhydride (1,3-isobezofurandione); Acrylonitrile (prop-3-enenitrile); Vinyl Chloride (chloroethene); Titanium Dioxide; Uranium Processing; Sulphide Roasting; Indexes.

  16. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aquino, Dolores C.; DaPrato, Philip L.; Gouker, Toby R.; Knoer, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  18. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yung-Yi; Sadhukhan, Pasupati; Fraley, Lowell D.; Hsiao, Keh-Hsien

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  19. Method for in situ gasification of a subterranean coal bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-05-31

    The method of the present invention relates to providing controlled directional bores in subterranean earth formations, especially coal beds for facilitating in situ gasification operations. Boreholes penetrating the coal beds are interconnected by laser-drilled bores disposed in various arrays at selected angles to the major permeability direction in the coal bed. These laser-drilled bores are enlarged by fracturing prior to the gasification of the coal bed to facilitate the establishing of combustion zones of selected configurations in the coal bed for maximizing the efficiency of the gasification operation.

  20. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  1. Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Community Renewable Energy Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Enacted March 2015, L.B. 412 created the following requirement: "To the extent feasible, a C-BED project developer shall provide, in writing, notice of incentives pursuant to the Rural...

  2. Assessment of pulverized-coal-fired combustor performance. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, W.; Clark, W.; Payne, R.

    1982-08-01

    There are substantial economic incentives to explore the possibility of converting boilers and other industrial processes from natural gas or oil to pulverized-fuel firing; however, such a change can have a considerable impact on the thermal performance of the system, due mainly to: fuel specific adiabatic flame temperatures; different flow and combustion patterns in the furnace; differences in the type and concentration of radiative species, especially particles, in the combustion products; and ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces. This program is concerned with the provision of a technology base to expedite the conversion of industrial processes from oil and gas to coal and other pulverized fuels. It addresses primarily the impact of fuel type on the thermal performance of a combustor. The program incorporates two experimental tasks and is constructed around an analytical task (Task 1) which will identify and upgrade a family of computer programs required to undertake thermal performance analysis studies. These analytical tools will thus be used to predict the effects of parameters such as fuel type and furnace variables on combustor performance, and to identify those properties which have a major impact on thermal performance. The second task uses a combustion reactor to screen the key variable identified in Task 1 and to provide data on the properties of coal particulate matter which affect heat transfer performance. Verification of the engineering analytical approach will be provided by measurements made in a pilot-scale furnace in the third task.

  3. Electrode assembly for a fluidized bed apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schora, Jr., Frank C.; Matthews, Charles W.; Knowlton, Ted M.

    1976-11-23

    An electrode assembly comprising a high voltage electrode having a generally cylindrical shape and being electrically connected to a high voltage source, where the cylinder walls may be open to flow of fluids and solids; an electrically grounded support electrode supporting said high voltage electrode by an electrically insulating support where both of the electrically grounded and electrically insulating support may be hollow; and an electrically grounded liner electrode arranged concentrically around both the high voltage and support electrodes. This assembly is specifically adapted for use in a fluidized bed chemical reactor as an improved heating means therefor.

  4. Wood fuel in fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of fluidized bed fire-tube and water-tube boilers for the burning of wood, gas, and refuse-derived fuel will be reviewed. Experience gained in already installed plants will be outlined. Research experiments results on the use of various forms of wood and other biomass fuels, such as wood chips, pellets, peach pits, nut shells and kernels and refuse-derived fuels, will be described for small and medium sized fire-tube boilers, and for larger water-tube boilers for co-generation. (Refs. 4).

  5. Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadler, III, Leon Y.

    1997-01-01

    A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid ticles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size.

  6. Storage opportunities in Arizona bedded evaporites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T.; Rauzi, S.L.

    1996-10-01

    Arizona is endowed with incredibly diverse natural beauty, and has also been blessed with at least seven discrete deposits of bedded salt. These deposits are dispersed around the state and cover some 2, 500 square miles; they currently contain 14 LPG storage caverns, with preliminary plans for more in the future. The areal extent and thickness of the deposits creates the opportunity for greatly expanded storage of LPG, natural gas, and compressed air energy storage (CAES). The location of salt deposits near Tucson and Phoenix may make CAES an attractive prospect in the future. The diversity of both locations and evaporate characteristics allows for much tailoring of individual operations to meet specific requirements.

  7. Pyrolysis reactor and fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Norman W.

    1981-01-06

    A solid carbonaceous material is pyrolyzed in a descending flow pyrolysis reactor in the presence of a particulate source of heat to yield a particulate carbon containing solid residue. The particulate source of heat is obtained by educting with a gaseous source of oxygen the particulate carbon containing solid residue from a fluidized bed into a first combustion zone coupled to a second combustion zone. A source of oxygen is introduced into the second combustion zone to oxidize carbon monoxide formed in the first combustion zone to heat the solid residue to the temperature of the particulate source of heat.

  8. Hydrodynamic aspects of a circulating fluidized bed with internals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balasubramanian, N.; Srinivasakannan, C.

    1998-06-01

    An attempt is made to examine the influence of internals (baffles) in the riser of the circulating fluidized bed. Experiments are conducted in a circulating fluidized bed, having perforated plates with different free areas. It is noticed from the present work that a circulating fluidized bed having 45% free area gives uniform solids concentration and pressure drop along the length of the riser. In addition to the uniformity, the circulating fluidized bed with internals gives higher pressure drop (solids concentration) compared to a conventional circulating fluidized bed. For internals having 67.6% free area the pressure drop is higher at the lower portion of the riser compared to the upper portion, similar to a conventional circulating fluidized bed. For 30% free area plates the solids concentration varies axially within the stage and remains uniform from stage to stage.

  9. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marrocco, M.

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Fluidized Bed Polymerization Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rong Fan

    2006-08-09

    , monovariate population balance, bivariate population balance, aggregation and breakage equation and DQMOM-Multi-Fluid model are described. In the last section of Chapter 3, numerical methods involved in the multi-fluid model and time-splitting method are presented. Chapter 4 is based on a paper about application of DQMOM to polydisperse gas-solid fluidized beds. Results for a constant aggregation and breakage kernel and a kernel developed from kinetic theory are shown. The effect of the aggregation success factor and the fragment distribution function are investigated. Chapter 5 shows the work on validation of mixing and segregation phenomena in gas-solid fluidized beds with a binary mixture or a continuous size distribution. The simulation results are compared with available experiment data and discrete-particle simulation. Chapter 6 presents the project with Univation Technologies on CFD simulation of a Polyethylene pilot-scale FB reactor, The fluid dynamics, mass/heat transfer and particle size distribution are investigated through CFD simulation and validated with available experimental data. The conclusions of this study and future work are discussed in Chapter 7.

  11. The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wastewater Reuse | Department of Energy The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient Wastewater Reuse The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient Wastewater Reuse Presentation by Perry McCarty, Stanford University, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18-19, 2015. The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for

  12. Key technologies for tritium storage bed development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S.H.; Chang, M.H.; Kang, H.G.; Chung, D.Y.; Oh, Y.H.; Jung, K.J.; Chung, H.; Koo, D.; Sohn, S.H.; Song, K.M.

    2015-03-15

    ITER Storage and Delivery System (SDS) is a complex system involving tens of storage beds. The most important SDS getter bed will be used for the absorption and desorption of hydrogen isotopes in accordance with the fusion fuel cycle scenario. In this paper the current status concerning research/development activities for the optimal approach to the final SDS design is introduced. A thermal analysis is performed and discussed on the aspect of heat losses considering whether the reflector and/or the feed-through is present or not. A thermal hydraulic simulation shows that the presence of 3 or 4 reflectors minimize the heat loss. Another important point is to introduce the real-time gas analysis in the He{sup 3} collection system. In this study 2 independent strength methods based on gas chromatography and quadruple mass spectrometer for one and on a modified self-assaying quadruple mass spectrometer for the second are applied to separate the hydrogen isotopes in helium gas. Another issue is the possibility of using depleted uranium getter material for the storage of hydrogen isotopes, especially of tritium.

  13. Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict

  14. Simulated process test bed for integrated safeguards operations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    safeguards operations monitoring Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulated process test bed for integrated safeguards operations monitoring No abstract prepared. ...

  15. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: * Decontamination ...

  16. German Pebble Bed Research Reactor Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Potential Acceptance and Disposition of German Pebble Bed Research Reactor Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Fuel Environmental Assessment Maxcine Maxted, DOE-SR Used Nuclear Fuel...

  17. Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson 12 MGMT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES aerogel; iodine...

  18. Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for...

  19. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests Citation Details In-Document Search ... for lower iodine concentrations. * The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined ...

  20. The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18-19, 2015. The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient Wastewater Reuse (2.54 MB) More Documents & ...

  1. Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel Nuclear fission ... Subject: 12 MGMT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES ...

  2. German Pebble Bed Research Reactor Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    German Pebble Bed Research Reactor Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Fuel Environmental Assessment Maxcine Maxted, DOE-SR Used Nuclear Fuel Program Manager June 24, 2014 Public ...

  3. Supportive studies in fluidized-bed combustion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    concept involves burning fuels such as coal in a fluidized bed of particulate lime additives that reacts with the sulfur compounds formed during combustion to reduce air pollution. ...

  4. Z-Bed Recovery Water Disposal

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    OVERVIEW OVERVIEW YAN Demographics Biomass Study Team YAN Biomass Study Background Project Rationale & Outline Project Progress Future Q&A YAN DEMOGRAPHICS YAN DEMOGRAPHICS * YAN Population = 1800 Enrolled Members * YAN Geography = 650 Acres in 5 Locations * Projected location of a Biomass Facility - Located in Verde Valley of Central Arizona - Middle Verde (On reservation) - Drake (30 Miles from the Reservation) YAN BIOMASS STUDY TEAM YAN BIOMASS STUDY TEAM * YAN Energy Director- Tracy

  5. EFFECT OF COMBUSTOR INLET GEOMETRY ON ACOUSTIC SIGNATURE AND FLOW FIELD BEHAVIOUR OF THE LOW SWIRL INJECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Therkelsen, Peter L.; Littlejohn, David; Cheng, Robert K.; Portillo, J. Enrique; Martin, Scott M.

    2009-11-30

    Low Swirl Injector (LSI) technology is a lean premixed combustion method that is being developed for fuel-flexible gas turbines. The objective of this study is to characterize the fuel effects and influences of combustor geometry on the LSI's overall acoustic signatures and flowfields. The experiments consist of 24 flames at atmospheric condition with bulk flows ranging between 10 and 18 m/s. The flames burn CH{sub 4} (at {phi} = 0.6 & 0.7) and a blend of 90% H{sub 2} - 10% CH{sub 4} by volume (at {phi} = 0.35 & 0.4). Two combustor configurations are used, consisting of a cylindrical chamber with and without a divergent quarl at the dump plane. The data consist of pressure spectral distributions at five positions within the system and 2D flowfield information measured by Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). The results show that acoustic oscillations increase with U{sub 0} and {phi}. However, the levels in the 90% H{sub 2} flames are significantly higher than in the CH{sub 4} flames. For both fuels, the use of the quarl reduces the fluctuating pressures in the combustion chamber by up to a factor of 7. The PIV results suggest this to be a consequence of the quarl restricting the formation of large vortices in the outer shear layer. A Generalized Instability Model (GIM) was applied to analyze the acoustic response of baseline flames for each of the two fuels. The measured frequencies and the stability trends for these two cases are predicted and the triggered acoustic mode shapes identified.

  6. Modern fluidized bed combustion in Ostrava-Karvina cogeneration plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazac, V.; Novacek, A.; Volny, J.

    1995-12-01

    The contemporary situation of our environment claims the sensitive approach to solving effective conversion of energy. Limited supplies of noble fuels and their prices evoke the need to use new combustion technologies of accessible fuels in given region without negative ecological influences. Energoproject participates in the preparation of the two projects in Ostrava-Karvin{acute a} black coal field in Czech Republic. The most effective usage of fuel energy is the combined of electricity and heat. If this physical principle is supported by a pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) one obtains a high electricity/heat ratio integrated steam-gas cycle on the basis of solid fuel. Cogeneration plant Toebovice is the dominant source (600 MW{sub th}) of Ostrava district heating system (1100 MW{sub th}). The high utilization of the installed output and utilization of the clean, compact and efficient of the PFBC technology is the principal but not the single reason for the selection of the Toebovice power plant as the first cogeneration plant for installation of the PFBC in Czech Republic. The boiler will burn black coal from the neighboring coal basin.

  7. Settlement of footing on compacted ash bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, G.; Pusadkar, S.S.

    2007-11-15

    Compacted coal ash fills exhibit capillary stress due to contact moisture and preconsolidation stress due to the compaction process. As such, the conventional methods of estimating settlement of footing on cohesionless soils based on penetration tests become inapplicable in the case of footings on coal ash fills, although coal ash is also a cohesionless material. Therefore, a method of estimating load-settlement behavior of footings resting on coal ash fills accounting for the effect of capillary and preconsolidation stresses is presented here. The proposed method has been validated by conducting plate load tests on laboratory prepared compacted ash beds and comparing the observed and predicted load-settlement behavior. Overestimation of settlement greater than 100% occurs when capillary and preconsolidation stresses are not accounted for, as is the case in conventional methods.

  8. A Spouted Bed Reactor Monitoring System for Particulate Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. S. Wendt; R. L. Bewley; W. E. Windes

    2007-06-01

    Conversion and coating of particle nuclear fuel is performed in spouted (fluidized) bed reactors. The reactor must be capable of operating at temperatures up to 2000°C in inert, flammable, and coating gas environments. The spouted bed reactor geometry is defined by a graphite retort with a 2.5 inch inside diameter, conical section with a 60° included angle, and a 4 mm gas inlet orifice diameter through which particles are removed from the reactor at the completion of each run. The particles may range from 200 µm to 2 mm in diameter. Maintaining optimal gas flow rates slightly above the minimum spouting velocity throughout the duration of each run is complicated by the variation of particle size and density as conversion and/or coating reactions proceed in addition to gas composition and temperature variations. In order to achieve uniform particle coating, prevent agglomeration of the particle bed, and monitor the reaction progress, a spouted bed monitoring system was developed. The monitoring system includes a high-sensitivity, low-response time differential pressure transducer paired with a signal processing, data acquisition, and process control unit which allows for real-time monitoring and control of the spouted bed reactor. The pressure transducer is mounted upstream of the spouted bed reactor gas inlet. The gas flow into the reactor induces motion of the particles in the bed and prevents the particles from draining from the reactor due to gravitational forces. Pressure fluctuations in the gas inlet stream are generated as the particles in the bed interact with the entering gas stream. The pressure fluctuations are produced by bulk movement of the bed, generation and movement of gas bubbles through the bed, and the individual motion of particles and particle subsets in the bed. The pressure fluctuations propagate upstream to the pressure transducer where they can be monitored. Pressure fluctuation, mean differential pressure, gas flow rate, reactor

  9. About Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE Projects MicroBooNE Project Web Pages The Project Pages hold information and links for the collaboration and its Project Managers, and also hold links to project Director's and ...

  10. Synthetic aggregate compositions derived from spent bed materials from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Cementitious compositions useful as lightweight aggregates are formed from a blend of spent bed material from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash. The proportions of the blend are chosen so that ensuing reactions eliminate undesirable constituents. The blend is then mixed with water and formed into a shaped article. The shaped article is preferably either a pellet or a "brick" shape that is later crushed. The shaped articles are cured at ambient temperature while saturated with water. It has been found that if used sufficiently, the resulting aggregate will exhibit minimal dimensional change over time. The aggregate can be certified by also forming standardized test shapes, e.g., cylinders while forming the shaped articles and measuring the properties of the test shapes using standardized techniques including X-ray diffraction.

  11. YPF uses horizontal reentry to aid thin bed production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acosta, M.R.; Leiro, F.A.; Sesano, G.S.; Hill, D.

    1997-01-01

    Reentry and horizontal drilling/completion techniques have proven themselves useful in exploiting thin beds. A pilot horizontal reentry contracted by Yacimiento Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) for a marginal well in its Lomita Sur field resulted in decreased water coning and production rates four times greater than expected. Further horizontal reentries in this thin-bed field are planned.

  12. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  13. Methods of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Douglas W.

    2011-05-24

    There is disclosed an apparatus for forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the apparatus includes a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile, and the bottom portion configured to contain a bed of particles; and a gas inlet configured to produce a column of gas to carry entrained particles therein. There is disclosed a method of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the method includes positioning particles within a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile; producing a column of gas directed upwardly through a gas inlet; carrying entrained particles in the column of gas to produce a fountain of particles over the fluidized bed of circulating particles and subside in the particle bed until being directed inwardly into the column of gas within the curvilinear profile.

  14. Heat-transfer characteristics of flowing and stationary particle-bed-type fusion-reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nietert, R.E.

    1983-02-01

    The following five appendices are included: (1) physical properties of materials, (2) thermal entrance length Nusselt number variations, (3) stationary particle bed temperature variations, (4) falling bed experimental data and calculations, and (5) stationary bed experimental data and calculations. (MOW)

  15. U.S. DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Supports | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    U.S. DOEOE National SCADA Test Bed Supports U.S. DOEOE National SCADA Test Bed Supports To help advance the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed's (NSTB) ...

  16. Combined planar imaging of schlieren photography with OH-LIPF and spontaneous OH-emission in a 2-D valveless pulse combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishino, Yojiro; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Ohiwa, Norio

    1999-07-01

    Using a novel optical system, simultaneous imaging of schlieren photography and laser induced predissociation fluorescence of OH radicals (OH-LIPF) have been carried out to examine combustion processes and flame structure in a two-dimensional valveless pulse combustor. Simultaneous imaging of schlieren photographs and spontaneous OH-emission have also been made, in order to obtain information on the behavior of the flame front during a cycle of pulsation. The pulse combustor used in this experiment consists of a combustion chamber of a volume of 125 cm{sup 3} and a tailpipe of a length of 976 mm, which is followed by an automobile muffler. The fuel used is commercial grade gaseous propane.

  17. Interagency nitric oxide measurement investigation: AEDC results for phase III (comparison of optical and probe measurements of nitric oxide concentration in combustors). Final report, October 1979-January 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Few, J.D.; Lowry, H.S. III; McGregor, W.K.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of Phase III of this program was to measure NO concentration on three successively more complicated combustion systems using both optical and probe techniques. The results of all measurements, both probe and optical, were compared and analyzed. Generally, the NO concentrations determined by the optical method were no larger than 30 percent above the values obtained with probes for a methane/air flat-frame burner, a propane/air swirl combustor, and a liquid-fueled simulated jet engine combustor. Close examination of the data revealed that probe results were influenced by some chemical reaction. The probes were designed for subsonic, atmospheric pressure flows, and arguments are presented to show that the agreement found in these experiments need not be expected in near sonic or supersonic flow using the same probe designs.

  18. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Progress report, December 1991--February 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C.; Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objective is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Easter oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Beneficiation Research; Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; and Project Management and Reporting. 24 figs., 19 tabs. (AT)

  19. Effect of air distribution on solid fuel bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, J.T.; Hsu, W.S.; Yo, T.C.

    1996-09-01

    One important aspect of refuse mass-burn combination control is the manipulation of combustion air. Proper air manipulation is key to the achievement of good combustion efficiency and reduction of pollutant emissions. Experiments, using a small fix-grate laboratory furnace with cylindrical combustion chamber, were performed to investigate the influence of undergrate/sidewall air distribution on the combustion of beds of wood cubes. Wood cubes were used as a convenient laboratory surrogate of solid refuse. Specifically, for different bed configurations (e.g. bed height, bed voidage and bed fuel size, etc.), burning rates and combustion temperatures at different bed locations were measured under various air supply and distribution conditions. One of the significant results of the experimental investigation is that combustion, with air injected from side walls and no undergrate air, provide the most efficient combustion. On the other hand, combustion with undergrate air achieves higher combustion rates but with higher CO emissions. A simple one-dimensional model was constructed to derive correlations of combustion rate as functions of flue gas temperature and oxygen concentration. Despite the fact that the model is one dimensional and many detailed chemical and physical processes of combustion are not considered, comparisons of the model predictions and the experimental results indicate that the model is appropriate for quantitative evaluation of bed burning rates.

  20. Moving granular-bed filter development program. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1994-04-01

    Advanced, coal-based, power plants, such as IGCC and Advanced-PFBC, are currently nearing commercial demonstration. These power plant technologies require hot gas filtration as part of their gas cleaning trains. Ceramic barrier filters are the major filter candidates being developed for these hot gas cleaning applications. While ceramic barrier filters achieve high levels of particle removal, concerns exist for their reliability and operability in these applications. An alternative hot gas filtration technology is the moving granular bed filter. An advanced, moving granular bed filter has been conceived, and early development activities performed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science and Technology Center. This document reports on the Base Contract tasks performed to resolve the barrier technical issues for this technology. The concept, the Standleg Moving Granular Bed Filter (SMGBF) has a concurrent downward, gas and bed media flow configuration that results in simplified features and improved scaleup feasibility compared to alternative designs. Two modes of bed media operation were assessed in the program: once-through using pelletized power plant waste as bed media, and recycle of bed media via standleg and pneumatic transport techniques. Cold Model testing; high-temperature, high-pressure testing; and pelletization testing using advanced power plant wastes, have been conducted in the program. A commercial, economic assessment of the SMGBF technology was performed for IGCC and Advanced-PFBC applications. The evaluation shows that the barrier technical issues can be resolved, and that the technology is potentially competitive with ceramic barrier filters.

  1. Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor ...

  2. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  3. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Essam A

    2013-01-09

    Details of numerical simulations of two-phase gas-solid turbulent flow in the riser section of Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor (CFBR) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique are reported. Two CFBR riser configurations are considered and modeled. Each of these two riser models consist of inlet, exit, connecting elbows and a main pipe. Both riser configurations are cylindrical and have the same diameter but differ in their inlet lengths and main pipe height to enable investigation of riser geometrical scaling effects. In addition, two types of solid particles are exploited in the solid phase of the two-phase gas-solid riser flow simulations to study the influence of solid loading ratio on flow patterns. The gaseous phase in the two-phase flow is represented by standard atmospheric air. The CFD-based FLUENT software is employed to obtain steady state and transient solutions for flow modulations in the riser. The physical dimensions, types and numbers of computation meshes, and solution methodology utilized in the present work are stated. Flow parameters, such as static and dynamic pressure, species velocity, and volume fractions are monitored and analyzed. The differences in the computational results between the two models, under steady and transient conditions, are compared, contrasted, and discussed.

  4. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  5. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM; DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.E. AYALA; V.S. VENKATARAMANI

    1998-09-30

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.?s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost

  6. Overall review of work carried out at Grimethorpe in collaboration with US DOE and EPRI and under IEA Agreement on PFBC (pressurised fluidised bed combustion), 1985-1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    Between 1984 and 1988, the Grimethorpe Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Facility was operated for the UK BCC/CEGB Joint Programme on PFBC. Additional funding was obtained from the US Department of Energy (for investigation of operation using a wet slurry feed system), EPRI (for testing an advanced gas filtration device) and as an extension of the IEA Agreement in PFBC (for design of the wet slurry feed system, and further studies into the use of wet slurry). Co-operation with the US DOE extended to the investigation of metal wastage in a new tube bank, Tube Bank E', involving a US boiler manufacture, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation. The report outlines the results of this collaborative work including combustor performance, operation and performance of the wet slurry feeding system, operation and performance of the EPRI HTHP Filter, and performance of research instrumentation. It also summarizes materials aspects of the collaborative work, including those aspects of the tube bank metal wastage investigation which can be released into the public domain. 39 refs., 27 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  8. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois {number sign}6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

  9. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 [mu]m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871[degrees]C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750[degrees]C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750[degrees]C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

  10. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 {mu}m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871{degrees}C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750{degrees}C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750{degrees}C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

  11. Nuclear Safeguards Considerations For The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip Casey Durst; David Beddingfield; Brian Boyer; Robert Bean; Michael Collins; Michael Ehinger; David Hanks; David L. Moses; Lee Refalo

    2009-10-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been considered since the 1940s, and have been constructed and demonstrated in the United Kingdom (Dragon), United States (Peach Bottom and Fort Saint Vrain), Japan (HTTR), Germany (AVR and THTR-300), and have been the subject of conceptual studies in Russia (VGM). The attraction to these reactors is that they can use a variety of reactor fuels, including abundant thorium, which upon reprocessing of the spent fuel can produce fissile U-233. Hence, they could extend the stocks of available uranium, provided the fuel is reprocessed. Another attractive attribute is that HTRs typically operate at a much higher temperature than conventional light water reactors (LWRs), because of the use of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coated (TRISO) fuel particles embedded in ceramic graphite. Rather than simply discharge most of the unused heat from the working fluid in the power plant to the environment, engineers have been designing reactors for 40 years to recover this heat and make it available for district heating or chemical conversion plants. Demonstrating high-temperature nuclear energy conversion was the purpose behind Fort Saint Vrain in the United States, THTR-300 in Germany, HTTR in Japan, and HTR-10 and HTR-PM, being built in China. This resulted in nuclear reactors at least 30% or more thermodynamically efficient than conventional LWRs, especially if the waste heat can be effectively utilized in chemical processing plants. A modern variant of high temperature reactors is the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Originally developed in the United States and Germany, it is now being redesigned and marketed by the Republic of South Africa and China. The team examined historical high temperature and high temperature gas reactors (HTR and HTGR) and reviewed safeguards considerations for this reactor. The following is a preliminary report on this topic prepared under the ASA-100 Advanced Safeguards Project in support of the NNSA Next

  12. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. ); Schultz, C.W. ); Parekh, B.K. ); Misra, M. ); Bonner, W.P. )

    1992-11-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

  13. Use of a polishing scrubber with a fluid bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toher, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    Once viewed as {open_quotes}competitive{close_quotes} technologies, the circulating dry scrubber (CDS){reg_sign} and circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler are being used together to achieve enhanced performance with lower overall costs. The need to understand the synergy between these two technologies is driven by deregulation of the power industry and the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Deregulation of power production in the US has spurred the growth of Independent Power Producers (IPP) who are responding to Industry`s demand for lower cost fuels, and close attention to annual operating costs. Utilities have to provide {open_quotes}open{close_quotes} access to their transmission lines allowing various IPP`s to connect with the end user. Industrial users can now choose from one of several sources of electricity with prices per kilowatt hour that are much lower than what they are currently being charged. The race is on to reduce power production costs and fuel can be the key in many cases. IPP`s and industry are banding together in very logical ways that can benefit both. Industry`s byproducts with heating value can be sold {open_quotes}over the fence{close_quotes} to an IPP who provides the industry with low cost steam and or electricity in return. However, many alternative lower cost fuels also have a higher emissions potential for criteria pollutants such a SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, particulate, or other emissions such as VOC`s and mercury which are more recently receiving attention. Cost effective management of these environmental issues must be an integral part of the project planning process. Three such cases are examined that involve the use of CFB`s with the CDS{reg_sign} as a polishing scrubber for SO{sub 2}. The first two cases involve repowering of existing facilities with petroleum coke as the fuel. The last case involves a new facility powered with low sulfur coal.

  14. Shielded fluid stream injector for particle bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Notestein, John E.

    1993-01-01

    A shielded fluid-stream injector assembly is provided for particle bed reactors. The assembly includes a perforated pipe injector disposed across the particle bed region of the reactor and an inverted V-shaped shield placed over the pipe, overlapping it to prevent descending particles from coming into direct contact with the pipe. The pipe and shield are fixedly secured at one end to the reactor wall and slidably secured at the other end to compensate for thermal expansion. An axially extending housing aligned with the pipe and outside the reactor and an in-line reamer are provided for removing deposits from the inside of the pipe. The assembly enables fluid streams to be injected and distributed uniformly into the particle bed with minimized clogging of injector ports. The same design may also be used for extraction of fluid streams from particle bed reactors.

  15. Spray-dried fluid-bed sorbents tests - CMP-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangwal, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of manufacturing highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents by spray drying, suitable for bubbling (conventional) as well as transport-type fluidized-bed reactor systems.

  16. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-09-18

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

  17. First Trinity supercomputer test beds delivered to Los Alamos, Sandia |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) First Trinity supercomputer test beds delivered to Los Alamos, Sandia Tuesday, February 24, 2015 - 1:41pm NNSA Blog Staff at Los Alamos and Sandia national laboratories welcomed the first hardware delivery for NNSA's next generation supercomputer, called Trinity. Test beds for Trinity were delivered (two to Los Alamos and one to Sandia) as part of the New Mexico Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES) collaboration. Trinity came out of

  18. Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high

  19. A Study of Strain Rate Effects for Turbulent Premixed Flames with Application to LES of a Gas Turbine Combustor Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kemenov, Konstantin A.; Calhoon, William H.

    2015-03-24

    Large-scale strain rate field, a resolved quantity which is easily computable in large-eddy simulations (LES), could have profound effects on the premixed flame properties by altering the turbulent flame speed and inducing local extinction. The role of the resolved strain rate has been investigated in a posterior LES study of GE lean premixed dry low NOx emissions LM6000 gas turbine combustor model. A novel approach which is based on the coupling of the lineareddy model with a one-dimensional counter-flow solver has been applied to obtain the parameterizations of the resolved premixed flame properties in terms of the reactive progress variable,more » the local strain rate measure, and local Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers. The strain rate effects have been analyzed by comparing LES statistics for several models of the turbulent flame speed, i.e, with and without accounting for the local strain rate effects, with available experimental data. The sensitivity of the simulation results to the inflow velocity conditions as well as the grid resolution have been also studied. Overall, the results suggest the necessity to represent the strain rate effects accurately in order to improve LES modeling of the turbulent flame speed.« less

  20. A Study of Strain Rate Effects for Turbulent Premixed Flames with Application to LES of a Gas Turbine Combustor Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemenov, Konstantin A.; Calhoon, William H.

    2015-03-24

    Large-scale strain rate field, a resolved quantity which is easily computable in large-eddy simulations (LES), could have profound effects on the premixed flame properties by altering the turbulent flame speed and inducing local extinction. The role of the resolved strain rate has been investigated in a posterior LES study of GE lean premixed dry low NOx emissions LM6000 gas turbine combustor model. A novel approach which is based on the coupling of the lineareddy model with a one-dimensional counter-flow solver has been applied to obtain the parameterizations of the resolved premixed flame properties in terms of the reactive progress variable, the local strain rate measure, and local Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers. The strain rate effects have been analyzed by comparing LES statistics for several models of the turbulent flame speed, i.e, with and without accounting for the local strain rate effects, with available experimental data. The sensitivity of the simulation results to the inflow velocity conditions as well as the grid resolution have been also studied. Overall, the results suggest the necessity to represent the strain rate effects accurately in order to improve LES modeling of the turbulent flame speed.

  1. Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

  2. Development and applications of clean coal fluidized bed technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eskin, N.; Hepbasli, A.

    2006-09-15

    Power generation in Europe and elsewhere relies heavily on coal and coal-based fuels as the source of energy. The reliance will increase in the future due to the decreasing stability of price and security of oil supply. In other words, the studies on fluidized bed combustion systems, which is one of the clean coal technologies, will maintain its importance. The main objective of the present study is to introduce the development and the applications of the fluidized bed technology (FBT) and to review the fluidized bed combustion studies conducted in Turkey. The industrial applications of the fluidized bed technology in the country date back to the 1980s. Since then, the number of the fluidized bed boilers has increased. The majority of the installations are in the textile sector. In Turkey, there is also a circulating fluidized bed thermal power plant with a capacity of 2 x 160 MW under construction at Can in Canakkale. It is expected that the FBT has had, or will have, a significant and increasing role in dictating the energy strategies for Turkey.

  3. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C.

    1982-01-01

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  4. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project. Eighteenth quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This eighteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1991 to January 31, 1992. The precombustor is fully assembled. Manufacturing of all slagging stage components has been completed. All cooling panels were welded in place and the panel/shell gap was filled with RTV. Final combustor assembly is in progress. The low pressure cooling subsystem (LPCS) was delivered to the CDIF. Second stage brazing issues were resolved. The construction of the two anode power cabinets was completed.

  5. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of fluidized-bed polymerization reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rokkam, Ram

    2012-01-01

    Polyethylene is one of the most widely used plastics, and over 60 million tons are produced worldwide every year. Polyethylene is obtained by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene in gas and liquid phase reactors. The gas phase processes are more advantageous, and use fluidized-bed reactors for production of polyethylene. Since they operate so close to the melting point of the polymer, agglomeration is an operational concern in all slurry and gas polymerization processes. Electrostatics and hot spot formation are the main factors that contribute to agglomeration in gas-phase processes. Electrostatic charges in gas phase polymerization fluidized bed reactors are known to influence the bed hydrodynamics, particle elutriation, bubble size, bubble shape etc. Accumulation of electrostatic charges in the fluidized-bed can lead to operational issues. In this work a first-principles electrostatic model is developed and coupled with a multi-fluid computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to understand the effect of electrostatics on the dynamics of a fluidized-bed. The multi-fluid CFD model for gas-particle flow is based on the kinetic theory of granular flows closures. The electrostatic model is developed based on a fixed, size-dependent charge for each type of particle (catalyst, polymer, polymer fines) phase. The combined CFD model is first verified using simple test cases, validated with experiments and applied to a pilot-scale polymerization fluidized-bed reactor. The CFD model reproduced qualitative trends in particle segregation and entrainment due to electrostatic charges observed in experiments. For the scale up of fluidized bed reactor, filtered models are developed and implemented on pilot scale reactor.

  6. Research Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LaboratoryNational Security Education Center Menu NSEC Educational Programs Los Alamos Dynamics Summer School Science of Signatures Advanced Studies Institute Judicial Science School SHM Data Sets and Software Research Projects Current Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute » Research Projects » Joint Los Alamos National Laboratory/UCSD research projects Past Research Projects Previous collaborations between Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of

  7. Desulfurization Sorbents for Transport-Bed Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Vierheilig, Albert A.

    1997-07-01

    This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-{micro}m particle size range for transport reactor applications; (2) To transfer sorbent production technology to private sector; and (3) To provide technical support to Sierra Pacific Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and FETC's Hot-Gas Desulfurization Process Development Unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system.

  8. Research Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Research Projects Joint Los Alamos National LaboratoryUCSD Research Projects Collaborations between Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of California at San...

  9. Project Accounts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Accounts Project Accounts A redirector page has been set up without anywhere to redirect to. Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:50

  10. Project Gnome

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Gnome Double Beta Decay Dark Matter Biology Repository Science Renewable Energy The first underground physics experiment near Carlsbad was Project Gnome, December 10, 1961 ...

  11. Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

    1991-12-01

    Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

  12. Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

    1991-12-01

    Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

  13. Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A.

    2008-02-15

    The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

  14. Pressurized fluidized bed combustion second-generation system research and development. Technical progress for Phase 2 and Phase 3, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, A.; Horazak, D.; Newby, R.; Rehmat, A.; White, J.

    1998-10-01

    When DOE funds were exhausted in March 1995, all Phase 2 activities were placed on hold. In February 1996 a detailed cost estimate was submitted to the DOE for completing the two remaining Phase 2 Multi Annular Swirl Burner (MASB) topping combustor test burns; in August 1996 release was received from METC to proceed with these tests. The first test (Test Campaign No.3) will be conducted to: (1) test the MASB at proposed demonstration plant full to minimum loading operating conditions; (2) identify the lower oxygen limit of the MASB; and (3) demonstrate natural gas to carbonizer fuel gas switching. The Livingston Phase 3 Pilot Plant was last operated under contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 in September 1995 for seven days in an integrated carbonizer-CPFBC configuration. In May, 1996, the pilot plant was transferred to Contract DE-AC22-95PC95143 to allow testing in support of the High Performance Power Systems (HIPPS) Program. The HIPPS Program required modifications to the pilot plant and the following changes were incorporated: (1) installation of a dense phase transport system for loading pulverized coal into the feed system lock hopper directly from a pneumatic transport truck; (2) removal of the char transfer pipe between the char collecting hopper and the CPFBC to allow carbonizer only operation; (3) installation of a lock hopper directly under the char collecting hopper to facilitate char removal from the process, the hopper vent gases exhaust to the carbonizer baghouse filter and the depressured char is transferred via nitrogen to the CPFBC baghouse for dumping into drums; (4) removal of the carbonizer cyclone and top of bed overflow drain line; all material elutriated from the carbonizer bed will thus be removed by the 22-element Westinghouse ceramic candle filter; (5) replacement of the carbonizer continuous bottom bed drain (screw feeder) with a batch-type drain removal system; and (6) installation of a mass spectrometer that draws sample gas via a steam jacketed

  15. Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development; Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollis, Rebecca

    2013-03-31

    Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in 2005 to study and develop a competing technology for use in future fossil-fueled power generation facilities that could operate with near zero emissions. CES’s background in oxy-fuel (O-F) rocket technology lead to the award of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42645, “Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development,” where CES was to first evaluate the potential of these O-F power cycles, then develop the detailed design of a commercial-scale O-F combustor for use in these clean burning fossil-fueled plants. Throughout the studies, CES found that in order to operate at competitive cycle efficiencies a high-temperature intermediate pressure turbine was required. This led to an extension of the Agreement for, “Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications” where CES was to also develop an intermediate-pressure O-F turbine (OFT) that could be deployed in O-F industrial plants that capture and sequester >99% of produced CO2, at competitive cycle efficiencies using diverse fuels. The following report details CES’ activities from October 2005 through March 2013, to evaluate O-F power cycles, develop and validate detailed designs of O-F combustors (main and reheat), and to design, manufacture, and test a commercial-scale OFT, under the three-phase Cooperative Agreement.

  16. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the Breckinridge Project and summarizes the results achieved during the development phase of the project performed under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy. The Breckinridge Project provides for the design, construction and operation of a 50,000 barrel per day coal liquefaction facility in Breckinridge County, Kentucky. The development of the basic technology used in the Breckinridge Project dates back to the late 1950's and the invention by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., (HRI) of the ebullated-bed reactor and the H-OIL process. The H-COAL process is based on the H-OIL technology. This coal liquefaction process produces clean low-sulfur petroleum substitutes suitable for most types of hydrocarbon-based fuel and chemical uses regardless of the sulfur content of the coal. A large H-COAL Pilot Plant in operation at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, is converting 220 tons of coal per day into 600 barrels of distillate products by catalytic hydrogenation. The estimated capital cost of the commercial facility is $3.17 billion, and the associated out-of-pocket operating cost is $18 per barrel, both in January 1981 dollars. Financial analysis shows the project to be an attractive investment under certain leveraged conditions which are possible through the assistance of the Synthetic Fuels Corporation. Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. is currently working with the Synthetic Fuels Corporation and potential partners to develop financing for the commercial venture. Critical permits are being obtained and an Environmental Impact Statement is being prepared pursuant to initiating site preparation in early 1983. Commercial operations are expected to start up in early 1988.

  17. Kinetics of fluidized bed combustion of wood pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leckner, B.; Hansson, K.M.; Tullin, C.; Borodulya, A.V.; Dikalenko, V.I.; Palchonok, G.I.

    1999-07-01

    Devolatilization and char combustion of a single wood pellet in a fluidized bed has been studied. The effect of operation parameters (bed temperature, bed particle size, oxygen concentration) and pellet characteristics has been investigated. A simplified analytical model of heat-transfer controlled pyrolysis has been developed to interpret the measured volatiles release time. The model predictions are in a good agreement with the experimental data, provided that the initial physical properties of the pellet are used. The model can be used to estimate the devolatilization times in other combustion systems. Kinetic parameters of char combustion are obtained, based on the measured burnout times and simple model considerations. The physical properties of wood pellets need further study.

  18. Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leon, Albert M.

    1982-01-01

    Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

  19. Coal hydrogenation and deashing in ebullated bed catalytic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huibers, Derk T. A.; Johanson, Edwin S.

    1983-01-01

    An improved process for hydrogenation of coal containing ash with agglomeration and removal of ash from an ebullated bed catalytic reactor to produce deashed hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, a flowable coal-oil slurry is reacted with hydrogen in an ebullated catalyst bed reaction zone at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The upward velocity and viscosity of the reactor liquid are controlled so that a substantial portion of the ash released from the coal is agglomerated to form larger particles in the upper portion of the reactor above the catalyst bed, from which the agglomerated ash is separately withdrawn along with adhering reaction zone liquid. The resulting hydrogenated hydrocarbon effluent material product is phase separated to remove vapor fractions, after which any ash remaining in the liquid fraction can be removed to produce substantially ash-free coal-derived liquid products.

  20. A coupled transport and solid mechanics formulation with improved reaction kinetics parameters for modeling oxidation and decomposition in a uranium hydride bed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salloum, Maher N.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.

    2013-03-01

    Modeling of reacting flows in porous media has become particularly important with the increased interest in hydrogen solid-storage beds. An advanced type of storage bed has been proposed that utilizes oxidation of uranium hydride to heat and decompose the hydride, releasing the hydrogen. To reduce the cost and time required to develop these systems experimentally, a valid computational model is required that simulates the reaction of uranium hydride and oxygen gas in a hydrogen storage bed using multiphysics finite element modeling. This SAND report discusses the advancements made in FY12 (since our last SAND report SAND2011-6939) to the model developed as a part of an ASC-P&EM project to address the shortcomings of the previous model. The model considers chemical reactions, heat transport, and mass transport within a hydride bed. Previously, the time-varying permeability and porosity were considered uniform. This led to discrepancies between the simulated results and experimental measurements. In this work, the effects of non-uniform changes in permeability and porosity due to phase and thermal expansion are accounted for. These expansions result in mechanical stresses that lead to bed deformation. To describe this, a simplified solid mechanics model for the local variation of permeability and porosity as a function of the local bed deformation is developed. By using this solid mechanics model, the agreement between our reacting bed model and the experimental data is improved. Additionally, more accurate uranium hydride oxidation kinetics parameters are obtained by fitting the experimental results from a pure uranium hydride oxidation measurement to the ones obtained from the coupled transport-solid mechanics model. Finally, the coupled transport-solid mechanics model governing equations and boundary conditions are summarized and recommendations are made for further development of ARIA and other Sandia codes in order for them to sufficiently implement the model.