National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for bed combustion fbc

  1. Corrosion assessment in FBC (fluidized-bed combustion) systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    1990-01-01

    Metallic materials selected for the construction of heat exchangers and tube support structure in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) systems must withstand the dynamic corrosive conditions prevalent in these systems. Oxidation-sulfidation interactions leading to accelerated metal wastage of components can occur owing to the presence of sorbent deposits on metal surface and/or the low-oxygen partial pressures in the exposure environment. A number of laboratory tests were conducted to examine the influence of deposit chemistry, gas chemistry, and alloy pretreatment on corrosion of high-chromium alloys, such as, Incoloy 800 and Type 310 stainless steel. Detailed chemical and physical analyses of spent-bed materials were made and correlated with the observed corrosion behavior of the alloys. A comparative analysis was made of the influence of bubbling-bed and circulating-bed deposits on corrosion of several candidate alloys. Finally, a comparison was made of the laboratory corrosion test data with the metal wastage information developed over the years in several FBC test facilities. 5 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Investigation of heat transfer and combustion in the advanced fluidized bed combustor (FBC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Seong W. Lee

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this project is to predict the heat transfer and combustion performance in newly-designed fluidized bed combustor (FBC) and to provide the design guide lines and innovative concept for small-scale boiler and furnace. The major accomplishments are summarized.

  3. Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) and 10 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 deg. C for 48 h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0 MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers.

  4. Corrosion behavior of materials in FBC (fluidized-bed combustion) environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    1990-04-01

    Oxidation-sulfidation interactions that lead to accelerated metal wastage of components can occur in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) systems, owing to the presence of sorbent deposits on metal surfaces and/or the low oxygen partial pressures in the exposure environment. Laboratory tests were conducted to examine the influence of deposit and gas chemistry and alloy pretreatment on corrosion of high-chromium alloys such as Incoloy 800 and Type 310 stainless steel. Detailed chemical and physical analyses that were conducted on spent-bed materials were correlated with the observed corrosion behavior of the alloys. The influence of bubbling- and circulating-bed deposits on the corrosion of several candidate alloys was comparatively analyzed. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  5. An assessment of performance of materials for FBC (fluidized-bed combustion) air heater applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Miller, S.A.; Podolski, W.F.

    1986-10-01

    The major materials issue in the commercialization of fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) systems for utility cogeneration applications is the corrosion/erosion degradation of in-bed components. To examine this issue, pertinent materials information was collected from 13 sources that included 16 different experimental fluidized-bed combustors (four pressurized, the other atmospheric), and a detailed analysis of the data was performed. The data analysis confirmed that austenitic stainless steels (notably Types 304 and 310) and cobalt-base alloys (notably Haynes 188) are superior to nickel-base alloys. Type 347 stainless steel and Incoloy 800H are questionable from the point of view of metal wastage. Very limited data are available for claddings and coatings. The correlations of the corrosion rate data presented in this paper for several of the more promising alloy candidates for air heater application provide guidelines for the selection of materials with reasonably assured performance in a corrosive environment.

  6. Development of a high-temperature erosion monitor for FBC (fluidized bed combustion) heat exchanger tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimann, K.J.

    1990-05-01

    Metal wastage in tubing of heat exchangers used in fluidized bed combustion (FBC) could affect plant operation and threaten the successful development of FBC technology. Monitoring of such wastage during operation would be very beneficial. The development of a high-temperature erosion monitor was undertaken as part of a larger program to understand and ameliorate wastage processes. Two sensor principles, i.e., electromagnetic acoustic and piezoelectric transducers based on time-of-flight measurements, were evaluated. Spatial restrictions and high-energy requirements of electromagnetic acoustic transducers favored piezoelectric transducers as a prototype. Requirements for good coupling between sensor and tubing led to the exploration of two methods for accomplishing this task: pressure coupling and brazing. Initial disappointments with brazing led to the construction of a pressure-coupled transducer that was tested successfully to temperatures of up to 500{degree}C. A brazing method to bond the lithium niobate crystal to stainless steel was finally perfected, but will require additional work for brazing to ferritic steel. The prototype pressure-coupled transducer also needs more development to compensate for the expansion of components and oxidation of coupling surfaces. 3 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume VI. FBC-Data Base-Management-System (FBC-DBMS) development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    The primary goal of the Fluidized Bed Combustor Data Base, (FBCDB), situated in MIT's Energy laboratory, is to establish a data repository for the express use of designers and research personnel involved in FBC development. DBMS is a software that provides an efficient way of storing, retrieving, updating and manipulating data using an English-like query language. It is anticipated that the FBCDB would play an active and a direct role in the development of FBC technology as well as in the FBC commercial application. After some in-house experience and after a careful and extensive review of commercially available database systems, it was determined that the Model 204 DBMS by Computer Corporation of America was the most suitable to our needs. The setup of a prototype in-house database also allowed us to investigate and understand fully the particular problems involved in coordinating FBC development with a DBMS. Various difficult aspects were encountered and solutions had been sought. For instance, we found that it was necessary to rename the variables to avoid repetition as well as to increase usefulness of our database and, hence, we had designed a classification system for which variables were classified under category to achieve standardization of variable names. The primary content of FBCDB is a collection of data points defined by the value of a number of specific FBC variables. A user may interactively access the database from a computer terminal at any location, retrieve, examine, and manipulate the data as well as produce tables or graphs of the results.

  8. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume VII. FBC Data-Base-Management System (FBC-DBMS) users manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    The primary goal of the Fluidized Bed Combustor Data Base (FBCDB) is to establish a data repository for the express use of designers and research personnel involved in FBC development. FBCDB is implemented on MIT's 370/168 computer, using the Model 204 Data Base Management System (DBMS) developed by Computer Corporation of America. DBMS is a software that provides an efficient way of storing, retrieving, updating and manipulating data using an English-like query language. The primary content of FBCDB is a collection of data points defined by the value of a number of specific FBC variables. A user may interactively access the data base from a computer terminal at any location, retrieve, examine, and manipulate the data as well as produce tables or graphs of the results. More than 20 program segments are currently available in M204 User Language to simplify the user interface for the FBC design or research personnel. However, there are still many complex and advanced retrieving as well as applications programs to be written for this purpose. Although there are currently 71 entries, and about 2000 groups reposited in the system, this size of data is only an intermediate portion of our selection. The usefulness of the system at the present time is, therefore, limited. This version of FBCDB will be released on a limited scale to obtain review and comments. The document is intended as a reference guide to the use of FBCDB. It has been structured to introduce the user to the basics of FBCDB, summarize what the available segments in FBCDB can do, and give detailed information on the operation of FBCDB. This document represents a preliminary draft of a Users Manual. The draft will be updated when the data base system becomes fully implemented. Any suggestions as to how this manual may be improved will be appreciated.

  9. Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.W.

    1994-07-01

    This technical report summarizes the research work performed and progress achieved during the period of April 1, 1994 to June 30, 1994. The metal wastage tests were continued to understand the erosion phenomena of in-bed tube in FBC system. The plain carbon steel, AISI 1018 was used as the target materials along with quartz silica (SiO{sub 2}) as the erodent particles. For the high velocity test, the short exposure time (4 hours) minimized the oxide scale formation and potential weight gain. No oxidation layer could be seen on worn surfaces. The eroded surface of specimens tested under high particle velocity exhibited the typical ductile mode. The maximum material wastage was occurred at 45{degrees} of impact angle. The metal wastage rate of AISI 1018 carbon steel demonstrated higher wastage at a shallow angle than at a step angle with a maximum erosion rate occurring at impact angle of 45{degrees}. The morphologies of the specimens were examined and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).

  10. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume IV. FBC-Model-II manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    This document is the fourth of the seven volume series of our Phase II Final Report. The purpose of this manual is to describe how to access and use M.I.T.'s Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC) System Program. Presently, the FBC program is stored in a Honeywell Computer System and can be accessed using the Multics interactive system. The intention in writing this manual is to answer the questions that may arise regarding the mechanics of operating the system program, as well as warn the user of possible pitfalls and mistakes that could be made. No attempt is made here to describe the internals of the systems program. The manual describes the procedures an individual would follow to become an active user of the system program. It then explains the various options available for reaching the Multics interactive system on Honeywell 6180 computer on which the program runs. For users outside the Metropolitan Boston area, a public network for data communications is described which is relatively inexpensive. As the system program is approached through Multics using a special command facility TPSA, a separate introduction is provided for Multics TPSA. This facility allows commands appropriate for testing the program and carrying out parametric studies to be executed in a convenient way. Multics TPSA was formulated to meet the needs of the FBC project in particular. Finally, some sample sessions are presented which illustrate the login and logout procedures, the command language, and the data manipulation features of the FBC program. The use of commands helpful in debugging the program is also illustrated.

  11. Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seong W.

    1996-01-01

    This technical report summarizes the research work performed and progress achieved during the period of October 1, 1995 to December 31, 1995. A series of material wastage tests was carried out on cooled AISI 1018 steel and three thermal-sprayed coating specimens at an elevated environmental temperature (3000{degrees}C) using a nozzle type erosion tester. Test conditions simulated the erosion conditions at the in-bed tubes of fluidized combustors (FBCs). Angular silica quartz particles of average size 742 {micro}m were used for erodent particles for tests at an impact angle of 30{degrees}, at a particle velocity of 2.5 m/s for exposure periods up to 96 hours. The specimens were water-cooled on backside. Material wastage rates were determined from thickness loss measurements of specimens. Test results were compared with material wastage test results from testing isothermal specimens. The morphology of specimens was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that the cooled specimens had greater material wastage than that of the isothermal specimens. The material wastage rate of cooling specimen for AISI 1018 was greater than that for thermal- sprayed coatings. The success in reduction of erosion wastage by cooled-coating specimens was related to the coatings, composition and morphology.

  12. Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system. Technical progress report No. 8, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.W.

    1994-10-01

    This technical report summarizes the research work performed and progress achieved during the period of July 1, 1994 to September 30, 1994. The metal wastage of AISI 1018 low carbon steel at different particle velocity was discussed to understand the erosion phenomena of in-bed tube in FBC system. At both low velocity (2.5 m/s) and high (30 m/s), the maximum metal wastage was occurred at 45{degrees} of impact angle. The erosion rates at low particle velocity were two (2) to three (3) orders of magnitude lower than those at high particle velocity. The characteristics of anti-erosion and design considerations were discussed and suggested for some basic design guidelines, which might be important to the designer of bubbling fluidized combustors. The working principle and mechanism of anti-erosion devices will be discussed. Based upon the understanding of the working principle and mechanism of anti-erosion devices, different types of ant-erosion tube will be designed for the cold model bench-scale FBC system.

  13. Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system. Technical progress report No. 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.W.

    1995-10-01

    This technical report summarizes the research work performed and progress achieved during the period of July 1, 1995 to October 30, 1995. The characteristics of resistant coatings were determined and related to metal wastage of in-bed tubes in FBC under various laboratory test conditions, The tests were conducted at high impact velocity, 30 m/s, and short exposure time (4 hours) to minimize oxidation of surrounding surface specimens. No oxidation layer founded on the worn surfaces of AISI 1018 carbon steel, The eroded surfaces and cross sections of coatings tested at high velocity were investigated, The surfaces of coating specimens were eroded through a combined mechanism of brittle and ductile modes, These mechanical properties of materials are strongly dependent on the composition and microstate of materials, rather than to their hardness, For high velocity testing, all of the coatings exhibited {open_quotes}brittle behavior{close_quotes}, i.e., the erosion rate at shallow angles was higher than at steep angles and maximum erosion rate at impact angle of 90{degrees}. Tests will be continued and compared with erosion test results for different thermal sprayed coatings.

  14. A study of the effect of chloride on mercury removal in a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, K.; Gao, Y.; Li, F.; Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Mehta, A.K.; Ho, K.K.; Smith, S.R.

    2000-07-01

    Mercury exists in three forms, which are elemental mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury. Each form of mercury has a very different exposure potential. Oxidized mercury is soluble and has a tendency to associate with particles. Nearly all the post-combustion flue gas cleaning systems proposed to remove mercury may be categorized as either scrubbers or adsorbers. Therefore, the mercury sink in the cleaning system will be either the excess water of a wet scrubber or the mercury laden sorbent from an absorber. The major problem for post-combustion mercury capture systems is capturing the practically water-insoluble elemental mercury. Co-firing with high chlorine coal or RDF in utility boiler systems can provide an HCI atmosphere for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas at relatively low temperatures (500--600 C). The objective of this study is to increase the efficiency of mercury emission cleaning methods by using HCl to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury species at low monetary costs and lower other toxic air emissions. When high chlorine (0.3--0.5%) coals were burned and a high intensity vortex flow (from secondary air) was used, around 70% of the total mercury in the fuel was condensed and absorbed by the fly ash (including calcium compounds). The remaining 30% of total fuel mercury was emitted in the gas phase in the flue gas. As for the gas phase mercury, about 98% of it exists in an oxidized form with a higher boiling temperature than elemental mercury and can be easily captured by an ESP or FGP apparatus. Only about 0.5% of the total fuel mercury was released to the atmosphere in elemental form.

  15. Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) system. Technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.W.

    1994-04-01

    This technical report summarizes the research work performed and progress achieved during the period of January 1, 1994 to March 31, 1994. The metal wastage mechanisms and rate that occur in 1018 carbon steel used in in-bed tube of the bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) are discussed with particle-surface collision frequency around tube. The distribution of particle-surface collision frequency around tube was affected by the location of tube and bed height. A series of material wastage tests was carried out using 742 {mu}m, quartz silica (SiO{sub 2}) on 1018 steel at elevated temperature (300 {degrees}C) which occurs in-bed locations of BFBC. The morphologies of the specimens were examined and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The maximum collision frequency around the periphery of the tube was found at 45 {degrees}, 315 {degrees} from bottom center, 0{degrees}, which was correlated with maximum material wastage rate of the specimens.

  16. Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system. Technical progress report No. 14, [January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seong W.

    1996-04-01

    The material wastage tests were continued to analyze erosion phenomena under the simulated erosion conditions of in-bed tubes in fluidized bed combustors. AISI 1018 steel and three thermal sprayed coating specimens were tested at an elevated temperature (300{degrees}C) using nozzle type erosion tester. Bed ashes retrieved from the operating biomass-fired boiler were used for erodent particles at a particle loading of 375 g, at particle impact angle of 30{degrees}, at particle velocity 60 m/s for exposure periods of 4 hours. The specimens were water-cooled on the backside. The material wastage of specimens was determined by thickness measurements. Test results can be seen that the cooled specimen had greater material wastage than that of the uncooled specimens. In addition, all of thermal-sprayed coating specimens for both cooled and uncooled specimens could reduce the erosion wastage rates as compared with 1018 steel. Among the three thermal-sprayed coatings, a DS-105 specimen of high velocity oxygen fuel spraying exhibited the lowest erosion wastage rate. When tested a higher particle velocity (60 m/s), but at the same elevated temperature (300{degrees}C), the material wastage rate of all three coatings was about 6 to 18 times higher than that of the material wastage at a low particle velocity (2.5 m/s).

  17. Combustion rates of chars from high-volatile fuels for FBC application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masi, S.; Salatino, P.; Senneca, O.

    1997-12-31

    The fluidized bed combustion of high volatile fuels is often associated with huge occurrence of comminution phenomena. These result into in-bed generation of substantial amounts of carbon fines which further undergo competitive processes of combustion and elutriation. The small size of carbon fines generated by comminution is such that their further combustion is largely controlled by the intrinsic kinetics of carbon oxidation, alone or in combination with intraparticle diffusion. The competition between fine combustion and elutriation strongly affects the efficiency of fixed carbon conversion and calls for thorough characterization of the combustion kinetics and of residence times of fines in a fluidized bed of coarse solids. In this paper a collection of intrinsic combustion kinetic and porosimetric data for chars from three high-volatile fuels suitable for FBC application is presented. Chars from a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), a Tyre Derived Fuel (TDF) and a biomass (Robinia Pseudoacacia) are obtained from devolatilization, in fluidized bed, of fuel samples. Thermogravimetric analysis, mercury porosimetry and helium pycnometry are used to characterize the reactivity and the pore structure of the chars. Combustion rates are characterized over a wide range of temperatures (320--850 C) and oxygen partial pressures, covering the entire range of interest in fluidized bed combustion. Analysis of thermogravimetric and porosimetric data is directed to obtaining the parameters (pre-exponential factors, reaction orders, activation energies, intraparticle diffusivities) of combustion kinetic submodels for application in fluidized bed combustor modeling.

  18. Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system. [Quarterly] technical progress report No. 11, April 1, 1995--June 30, 195

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seong W.

    1995-07-01

    This technical report summarizes the research work performed and progress achieved during the period of April 1, 1995 to June 30, 1995. In this study, the preliminary analysis of test data and understanding of the erosion behavior of resistant coatings for the in-bed tube materials were discussed for one the remedies of preventing in-bed tube erosion. The material wastage of the specimen was determined by weight and thickness loss measurements. The morphologies of the specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For the material wastage. of the coating specimens, High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) coatings (DS200) and the arc-sprayed coating at elevated temperature condition exhibited 2 to 3 times lower erosion wastage than that of AISI 1018 steel. For the angular dependence of erosion rate, two coatings exhibited the ductile behavior as demonstrated by higher wastage rates at shallow impact angle than that at steep impact angle. Tests will be continued and compared with erosion test results from higher velocity test conditions.

  19. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  20. Fluidized-bed combustion of scrap tires: Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Y.; Mei, J.S.; Notestein, J.E.

    1981-10-01

    An introduction to fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is presented in Section 2.0. Based on this discussion of its technical development, FBC is then presented as a means of scrap tire disposal. In Section 3.0, scrap tire disposal is reviewed in the categories of (1) physical applications, (2) chemical applications, (3) pyrolysis, and (4) incineration for thermal energy recovery. Scrap tire disposal is reviewed on the basis of (1) environmental acceptability, (2) conservation of resources, (3) impact on existing industries, (4) operational feasibility, and (5) special features. The focus of this report is the fluidized-bed incineration of scrap tires for thermal energy recovery. The factors that affect scrap tire combustion are discussed in Section 4.0. These factors are (1) agitation, (2) temperature, (3) excess air, (4) residence time, (5) feed uniformity, (6) solid waste handling, and (7) pollutants emission control. In reviewing these incineration processes, (1) fuel flexibility, (2) environmental acceptability, (3) combustion efficiency, and (4) operational reliability are discussed. The results from a tire incineration experiment conducted at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center are presented in Section 5.0, and a conceptual fluidized-bed combustor is discussed in Section 6.0. Future considerations in the FBC of scrap tires are discussed in Section 7.0. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, I.; Podolski, W.F.; Swift, W.M.; Henry, R.F.; Hanway, J.E.; Griggs, K.E.; Herzenberg, C.; Helt, J.E.; Carls, E.L.

    1980-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is undertaking several tasks primarily in support of the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion project management team at Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Work is under way to provide fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support to METC, determination of the state of the art of instrumentation for FBC applications, evaluation of the performance capability of cyclones for hot-gas cleaning in PFBC systems, and an initial assessment of methods for the measurement of sodium sulfate dew point.

  3. Relationship between feedstock characteristics and erosivity of FBC bed materials. [Effects of particle size,shape,strength and chemical composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, A.V. ); Wang, B.Q.; Geng, G.Q. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the erosion-corrosion (E-C) metal wastage mechanisms and rates that occur in 1018 plain carbon steel used in tubular heat exchangers of fluid bed combustors (FBC) are discussed. The characteristics of FBC bed material rodent particles such as composition, shape, size, and strength were found to have a major effect on the surface degradation mechanisms and rates that occurred. A total of 16 different bed material particles from ten different FBCs were tested. It was determined that when the particles were strong enough not to shatter when they impacted the steel's surface, their shape and composition were the most important factors in determining their erosivity. The relative amounts of SiO{sub 2}, CaO, CaCo{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 4}, and alkali compounds in the bed materials were related to the metal wastage by using laboratory mixtures of the compounds as rodents. The ratio of SiO{sub 2} to CaO and CaCO{sub 3} was especially important in determining the erosivity of the bed materials. It was found that increasing this ratio increased the metal wastage. A sharp transition ratio occurred on either side of which the metal wastage were linear. The slope of the linear curve was low for the lower sand content mixtures and higher for higher sand content mixtures. The transition ratio required a higher CaO content for higher velocity particles.

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 5, Appendix C, Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  5. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  6. Fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowards, N.K.; Murphy, M.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a vessel. It comprises a fluid bed for continuously incinerating fuel comprising tire segments and the like which comprise metallic wire tramp and for concurrently removing tramp and bed materials at a bottom effluent exit means of the vessel, the vessel further comprising static air distributor means at the periphery of the bed comprising a substantially centrally unobstructed relatively large central region in which the fluid bed and fuel only are disposed and through which bed material and tramp migrate without obstruction to and through the effluent exit means, downwardly and inwardly stepped lower vessel wall means and a plurality of peripherally located centrally directed vertically and horizontally offset spaced air influent means surrounding the central region and associated with the stepped lower vessel wall means by which the bed is supported and fluidized.

  7. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  8. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume 1. Model evolution and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    The Energy Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship, has been engaged in the development of a comprehensive mechanistic model of Fluidized Bed Combustors (FBC). The primary aims of this modeling effort are the generation and to the extent possible, validation of an analytical framework for the design and scale-up of fluidized bed combustors. In parallel with this modeling effort, M.I.T. also embarked upon the development of an FBC-Data Base Management System (FBC-DBMS) aimed at facilitating the coordination, interpretation and utilization of the experimental data that are or will become available from diverse sources, as well as in the identification of areas of large uncertainty or having a paucity of experimental results. The synergistic operation of the FBC-Model and FBC-Data Base promises to offer a powerful tool for the design and optimization of FBC's and represents the ultimate goal of the M.I.T. effort. The modeling effort was initially focused upon evaluation and application of state-of-the-art models. The initial system model was divided into five basic components: fluid dynamics, combustion, sulfur capture, heat transfer and emissions. Due to the technical complexity of modeling FBC operation and the initial primitive nature of models for these components, it was deemed necessary to be able to incorporate evolutionary improvements in understanding and correlating FBC phenomena: the M.I.T. system model is, therefore, modular in nature, i.e., each sub-model can be replaced by an updated or equivalent sub-model without necessitating reprogramming of the entire system model.

  9. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Wilson, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  10. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yung-Yi; Sadhukhan, Pasupati; Fraley, Lowell D.; Hsiao, Keh-Hsien

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  11. Fluidized-bed combustion fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, J.W. Jr.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a process for producing from a solid carbonaceous refuse a high ash fuel for use in a circulating fluidized-bed combustion chamber. It comprises separating from the refuse a carbonaceous portion having an ash content in a selected range percent by weight; separating the carbonaceous portion into first and second fractions, the first fraction being at or above a selected size; crushing the first fraction; and combining the crushed first fraction with the second fraction. Also described is a process wherein the selected ash content range is between about 30 percent and about 50 percent, by weight. Also described is a process wherein the selected size is above about 1/4 inch.

  12. Pyrolysis reactor and fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Norman W.

    1981-01-06

    A solid carbonaceous material is pyrolyzed in a descending flow pyrolysis reactor in the presence of a particulate source of heat to yield a particulate carbon containing solid residue. The particulate source of heat is obtained by educting with a gaseous source of oxygen the particulate carbon containing solid residue from a fluidized bed into a first combustion zone coupled to a second combustion zone. A source of oxygen is introduced into the second combustion zone to oxidize carbon monoxide formed in the first combustion zone to heat the solid residue to the temperature of the particulate source of heat.

  13. Loop-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Slagle, Frank D.; Notestein, John E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.

  14. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume II. Detailed description of the model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    This document is the second of a seven volume series of our Phase II Final Report. This volume deals with detailed descriptions of the structure of each program member (subroutines and functions), the interrelation between the members of a submodel, and the interrelation between the various submodels as such. The systems model for fluidized bed combustors (FBC-II) consists of a systematic combination of the following interrelated areas: fluid mechanics and bubble growth, char combustion and associated kinetics for particle burnout, sulfur capture, NO/sub x/ formation and reduction, freeboard reactions, and heat transfer. Program outline is shown in Figure 1.1. Input variables (supplied by the user are inspected to check that they lie inside the allowed range of values and are input to the various routines as needed. The necessary physical and fluid mechanical properties are calculated and utilized in estimating char combustion and sulfur capture in the bed and the freeboard. NO/sub x/ and CO emissions are estimated by taking into account all relevant chemical reactions. A material and energy balance is made over the bed. Figure 1.1 shows a block diagram of the systems program. In this diagram, the overall structure of the FBC program is illustrated in terms of the various submodels that together constitute the systems program. A more detailed outline of the systems program is shown in Figure 1.2. In this figure, all important subroutine members of the FBC program are shown, and their linkage to each other, as well as to the main program is indicated. A description of the exact sequence in which these various routines are called at time of program execution is provided in Chapter 8 under the executive routine MAIN.

  15. Fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support. Annual report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, I.; Podolski, W.F.; Swift, W.M.; Carls, E.L.; Helt, J.E.; Henry, R.F.; Herzenberg, C.L.; Hanway, J.E.; Griggs, K.E.

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this program is to support the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion project management team at Morgantown Energy Technology Center by providing a core group of experienced personnel (1) to prepare (a) program interaction plans suitable for recommending program needs and (b) recommendations for the DOE-PFBC development program, (2) to analyze data and designs for two large pilot-scale PFBC programs (i.e., Curtiss-Wright and IEA Grimethorpe), and (3) to participate in design/review for the large PFBC programs. Results are reported on a development methodology for the commercialization of PFBC technology, a FBC instrumentation state-of-the-art review, the development of a sodium sulfate dew point measurement instrument, and the evaluation of cyclones for hot gas cleanup.

  16. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan, Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

    2004-07-30

    This report presents the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the quarter April 1--June 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, the final specifications for the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the CFB Combustor Building have been delivered to the architect, and invitations for construction bids for the two tasks have been released. Second, the component parts of the CFBC system have been designed after the design work for assembly parts of the CFBC system was completed. Third, the literature pertaining to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDD) and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDF) released during the incineration of solid waste, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) have been reviewed, and an experimental plan for fundamental research of MSW incineration on a simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facility has been prepared. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  17. Metal wastage in fluidized-bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.F.; Podolski, W.F.; Reimann, K.J.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Youngdahl, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Objectives of the research are (1) to develop guidelines for the design and operation of fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) units with minimum metal wastage rates and (2) to develop continuous erosion monitors for use in pilot plant and full-scale FBC units. The design guidelines will be developed from the understanding gained from the experimental studies and analytical model development activities. The computational models are being developed in order to predict the rates of metal wastage for specific FBC designs and operating conditions. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Laboratory studies on corrosion of materials for fluidized bed combustion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    1990-10-01

    An extensive corrosion test program was conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the corrosion performance of metallic structural materials in environments that simulate both steady-state and off-normal exposure conditions anticipated in fluidized bed combustion (FBC) systems. This report discusses the possible roles of key parameters, such as sorbent and gas chemistries, metal temperature, gas cycling conditions, and alloy pretreatment, in the corrosion process. Data on scale thickness and intergranular penetration depth are presented for several alloys as a function of the chemistry of the exposure environment, deposit chemistry, and exposure time. Test results were obtained to compare the corrosion behavior of materials in the presence of reagent grade sorbent compounds and spent-bed materials from bubbling- and circulating-fluid-bed systems. Finally, the laboratory test results were compared with metal wastage information developed over the years in several fluidized bed test facilities. Metallic alloys chosen for the tests were carbon steel, Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo and Fe-9Cr-1Mo ferritic steels. Types 304 and 310 stainless steel, and Incoloy 800. 26 refs., 61 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Supportive studies in fluidized-bed combustion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    concept involves burning fuels such as coal in a fluidized bed of particulate lime additives that reacts with the sulfur compounds formed during combustion to reduce air pollution. ...

  20. Effect of air distribution on solid fuel bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, J.T.; Hsu, W.S.; Yo, T.C.

    1996-09-01

    One important aspect of refuse mass-burn combination control is the manipulation of combustion air. Proper air manipulation is key to the achievement of good combustion efficiency and reduction of pollutant emissions. Experiments, using a small fix-grate laboratory furnace with cylindrical combustion chamber, were performed to investigate the influence of undergrate/sidewall air distribution on the combustion of beds of wood cubes. Wood cubes were used as a convenient laboratory surrogate of solid refuse. Specifically, for different bed configurations (e.g. bed height, bed voidage and bed fuel size, etc.), burning rates and combustion temperatures at different bed locations were measured under various air supply and distribution conditions. One of the significant results of the experimental investigation is that combustion, with air injected from side walls and no undergrate air, provide the most efficient combustion. On the other hand, combustion with undergrate air achieves higher combustion rates but with higher CO emissions. A simple one-dimensional model was constructed to derive correlations of combustion rate as functions of flue gas temperature and oxygen concentration. Despite the fact that the model is one dimensional and many detailed chemical and physical processes of combustion are not considered, comparisons of the model predictions and the experimental results indicate that the model is appropriate for quantitative evaluation of bed burning rates.

  1. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume III. Model predictions and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    This document is the third of a seven volume series of our Phase II Final Report. This volume deals with parametric studies carried out using the FBC model. A comparison with available pilot plant data is included where such data are available. This volume in essence documents model performance; describing predictions on bubble growth, combustion characteristics, sulfur capture, heat transfer and related parameters. The model has approximately forty input variables which are at the disposal of the user. The user has the option to change a few or all of these input variables. In the parametric studies reported here, a large number of input variables whose variation is less critical to the predicted results, were maintained constant at the default values. On the other hand, those parameters whose selection is very important in design and operation of the FBC's were varied in suitable operating regions. The chief among such parameters are: bed temperature, coal feed size distribution (2 parameters), average bed-sorbent size, calcium to sulfur molar ratio, superficial velocity, excess air fraction, and bed weight (or bed height). The computations for obtaining the parametric relationships are based upon selection of a geometrical design for the combustor. Bed cross-section is 6' x 6', bed height is 4', and the freeboard height is 16'. The heat transfer tubes have 2'' OD, a pitch of 10'', and are located on an equilateral triangle pattern. The air distributor is a perforated plate with 0.1'' diameter holes on a rectangular grid with 0.75'' center-to-center spacing.

  2. Fluidized bed method and apparatus for producing a combustible gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caplin, P. B.

    1984-11-13

    A combustible gas producer plant is described in which a finely divided inert particulate material fluidized bed is divided into a first, combustible-gas producing section and a second, heating section, to both of which sections fuel is fed. Heat transfer, by bed material migration, from the second to the first section sustains the reaction in the first section leading to the production of combustible gas. A diaphragm water wall divides and surrounds the volumes above bed sections and is part of a boiler generating steam used (optionally with added oxygen) to fluidize the first bed section. The steam is also used to fluidize the bed material at the boundary of the bed sections and prevent in-bed gas migration across that boundary. The second section of the bed is fluidized with air or an air/inert gas mixture. Fluidization is effected with sparge tubes and the plant may include evaporator, superheater and economizer sections for the boiler.

  3. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2008-05-31

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Clear Skies Initiative, a legislative proposal to control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and mercury from power plants. In response to this initiative, the National Energy Technology Laboratory organized a Combustion Technology University Alliance and hosted a Solid Fuel Combustion Technology Alliance Workshop. The workshop identified multi-pollutant control; improved sorbents and catalysts; mercury monitoring and capture; and improved understanding of the underlying reaction chemistry occurring during combustion as the most pressing research needs related to controlling environmental emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The Environmental Control Technology Laboratory will help meet these challenges and offer solutions for problems associated with emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The goal of this project was to develop the capability and technology database needed to support municipal, regional, and national electric power generating facilities to improve the efficiency of operation and solve operational and environmental problems. In order to effectively provide the scientific data and the methodologies required to address these issues, the project included the following aspects: (1) Establishing an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory using a laboratory-scale, simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) system; (2) Designing, constructing, and operating a bench-scale (0.6 MW{sub th}), circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system as the main component of the Environmental Control Technology Laboratory; (3) Developing a combustion technology for co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural waste, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with high sulfur coals; (4) Developing a control strategy for gaseous emissions, including NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, organic compounds, and heavy metals; and (5) Developing new mercury capturing sorbents and new

  4. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume II. Introduction and technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of a study subcontracted by PNL to the United Technologies Research Center on the engineering feasibility and economics of a CAES concept which uses a coal fired, fluidized bed combustor (FBC) to heat the air being returned from storage during the power production cycle. By burning coal instead of fuel oil, the CAES/FBC concept can completely eliminate the dependence of compressed air energy storage on petroleum fuels. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume II presents a discussion of program background and an in-depth coverage of both fluid bed combustion and turbomachinery technology pertinent to their application in a CAES power plant system. The CAES/FBC concept appears technically feasible and economically competitive with conventional CAES. However, significant advancement is required in FBC technology before serious commercial commitment to CAES/FBC can be realized. At present, other elements of DOE, industrial groups, and other countries are performing the required R and D for advancement of FBC technology. The CAES/FBC will be reevaluated at a later date when FBC technology has matured and many of the concerns now plaguing FBC are resolved. (LCL)

  5. Industrial application fluidized bed combustion. Category III: indirect fired heaters. Quarterly technical report No. 16, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The High Temperature Heat Flux Test Unit was put into operation during July 1979. Tests using both propane and coal fuels have been completed. Test results are summarized in this report. The object of the Economic and Applications Task of the Program is to evaluate the economic and logistic factors that might influence the schedule and circumstances under which coal fired Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology might be applied to petroleum and petrochemical plant process heaters. The results of these studies indicate that the potential for near term application of AFBC technology to refinery crude heaters is relatively low. A possible alternative application of FBC heaters in the Exxon Donor Solvent Process for the liquefaction of coal has been identified. In this alternative an FBC heater would be used to burn the heavy vacuum tower bottoms. A preliminary design of such a heater has been completed and released to the Exxon Synfuels Division for further evaluation. The final task of the program will be to prepare a design specification for a hypothetical commercial sized process heater from which all interested parties can make a definitive evaluation of the technical and commercial prospects of the technology. This design work is now underway.

  6. Staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Joseph S.; Halow, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system for substantially reducing the quantity of waste through the complete combustion into ash-type solids and gaseous products. The device has two fluidized-bed portions, the first primarily as a combustor/pyrolyzer bed, and the second as a combustor/filter bed. The two portions each have internal baffles to define stages so that material moving therein as fluidized beds travel in an extended route through those stages. Fluidization and movement is achieved by the introduction of gases into each stage through a directional nozzle. Gases produced in the combustor/pyrolyzer bed are permitted to travel into corresponding stages of the combustor/filter bed through screen filters that permit gas flow but inhibit solids flow. Any catalyst used in the combustor/filter bed is recycled. The two beds share a common wall to minimize total volume of the system. A slightly modified embodiment can be used for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Either side-by-side rectangular beds or concentric beds can be used. The system is particularly suited to the processing of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste.

  7. Fluidized bed combustion of pelletized biomass and waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chirone, R.; Scala, F.; Solimene, R.; Salatino, P.; Urciuolo, M.

    2008-10-15

    The fluidized bed combustion of three pelletized biogenic fuels (sewage sludge, wood, and straw) has been investigated with a combination of experimental techniques. The fuels have been characterized from the standpoints of patterns and rates of fuel devolatilization and char burnout, extent of attrition and fragmentation, and their relevance to the fuel particle size distribution and the amount and size distribution of primary ash particles. Results highlight differences and similarities among the three fuels tested. The fuels were all characterized by limited primary fragmentation and relatively long devolatilization times, as compared with the time scale of particle dispersion away from the fuel feeding ports in practical FBC. Both features are favorable to effective lateral distribution of volatile matter across the combustor cross section. The three fuels exhibited distinctively different char conversion patterns. The high-ash pelletized sludge burned according to the shrinking core conversion pattern with negligible occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The low-ash pelletized wood burned according to the shrinking particle conversion pattern with extensive occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The medium-ash pelletized straw yielded char particles with a hollow structure, resembling big cenospheres, characterized by a coherent inorganic outer layer strong enough to prevent particle fragmentation. Inert bed particles were permanently attached to the hollow pellets as they were incorporated into ash melts. Carbon elutriation rates were very small for all the fuels tested. For pelletized sludge and straw, this was mostly due to the shielding effect of the coherent ash skeleton. For the wood pellet, carbon attrition was extensive, but was largely counterbalanced by effective afterburning due to the large intrinsic reactivity of attrited char fines. The impact of carbon attrition on combustion efficiency was negligible for all the fuels tested. The size

  8. Kinetics of fluidized bed combustion of wood pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leckner, B.; Hansson, K.M.; Tullin, C.; Borodulya, A.V.; Dikalenko, V.I.; Palchonok, G.I.

    1999-07-01

    Devolatilization and char combustion of a single wood pellet in a fluidized bed has been studied. The effect of operation parameters (bed temperature, bed particle size, oxygen concentration) and pellet characteristics has been investigated. A simplified analytical model of heat-transfer controlled pyrolysis has been developed to interpret the measured volatiles release time. The model predictions are in a good agreement with the experimental data, provided that the initial physical properties of the pellet are used. The model can be used to estimate the devolatilization times in other combustion systems. Kinetic parameters of char combustion are obtained, based on the measured burnout times and simple model considerations. The physical properties of wood pellets need further study.

  9. Fluidized-bed combustion and gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LePori, W.A.; Anthony, R.G.; Lalk, T.R.; Craig, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A 0.61 meter (2 ft) diameter fluidized-bed combustion reactor was used for tests on direct combustion of cotton gin trash. Raw gin trash was continuously augered into the unit with fuel and air rates set to maintain bed temperatures of 760/sup 0/ to 816/sup 0/C (1400/sup 0/ to 1500/sup 0/F). Particulate emissions in the hot stack gases were measured and found to be lower than federal standards for incinerators. Mild steel and stainless alloy samples were placed in the hot stack gas stream to study corrosion and erosion of materials. High rates of potassium, calcium, and sodium deposits accumulated on the samples, and high erosion rates were found. A 0.3 meter (13 in) diameter fluidized-bed gasifier was used to convert raw gin trash into a combustible gas with bed temperatures between 683/sup 0/C and 881/sup 0/C (1261/sup 0/F and 1618/sup 0/F). By limiting the amount of oxygen compared to the fuel feed, only partial combustion occurs, producing heat and endothermic gasification chemical reactions. The combustible gas was composed primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. It had a heating value ranging from 3.40 to 4.82 M Joules per standard cubic meter (98 to 142 Btu/scf), and about 50 percent of the heat value of the gin trash was converted into this low energy gas.

  10. Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leon, Albert M.

    1982-01-01

    Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

  11. Regeneration of lime from sulfates for fluidized-bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Steinberg, Meyer

    1980-01-01

    In a fluidized-bed combustor the evolving sulfur oxides are reacted with CaO to form calcium sulfate which is then decomposed in the presence of carbonaceous material, such as the fly ash recovered from the combustion, at temperatures of about 900.degree. to 1000.degree. C., to regenerate lime. The regenerated lime is then recycled to the fluidized bed combustor to further react with the evolving sulfur oxides. The lime regenerated in this manner is quite effective in removing the sulfur oxides.

  12. Coal-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gall, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fuel-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustor. In accordance with the present invention a perforated conveyor belt is utilized in place of the fixed grid normally disposed at the lower end of the fluidized bed combustion zone. The conveyor belt is fed with fuel, e.g. coal, at one end thereof so that the air passing through the perforations dislodges the coal from the belt and feeds the coal into the fluidized zone in a substantially uniform manner.

  13. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,

    1980-04-01

    The pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop was held June 5 and 6, 1979, at The Meadowlands Hilton Hotel, Secaucus, New Jersey. Eleven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The papers include reviews of the US DOE and EPRI programs in this area and papers by Swedish, West German, British and American organizations. The British papers concern the joint program of the USA, UK and FRG at Leatherhead. The key factor in several papers is the use of fluidized bed combustors, gas turbines, and steam turbines in combined-cycle power plants. One paper examines several combined-cycle alternatives. (LTN)

  14. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  15. Metallic species derived from fluidized bed coal combustion. [59 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natusch, D.F.S.; Taylor, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Samples of fly ash generated by the combustion of Montana Rosebud coal in an experimental 18 inch fluidized bed combustor were collected. The use of a heated cascade impactor permitted collection of size fractionated material that avoided condensation of volatile gases on the particles. Elemental concentration trends were determined as a function of size and temperature and the results compared to published reports for conventional power plants. The behavior of trace metals appears to be substantially different in the two systems due to lower operating temperatures and the addition of limestone to the fluidized bed. Corrosion of the impactor plates was observed at the highest temperature and lowest limestone feed rate sampled during the study. Data from the elemental concentration and leaching studies suggest that corrosion is most likely due to reactions involving sodium sulfate. However, it is concluded that corrosion is less of a potential problem in fluidized-bed systems than in conventional coal-fired systems.

  16. Combustion of refuse derived fuel in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piao, Guilin; Aono, Shigeru; Mori, Shigekatsu; Deguchi, Seiichi; Fujima, Yukihisa; Kondoh, Motohiro; Yamaguchi, Masataka

    1998-12-31

    Power generation from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is an attractive utilization technology of municipal solid waste. To explain the behavior of RDF-fired fluidized bed incinerator, the commercial size RDF was continuously burnt in a 30 x 30 cm bubbling type fluidized-bed combustor. It was found that 12 kg/h of RDF feed rate was too high feed for this test unit and the Co level was higher than 500 ppm. However, 10 kg/h of RDF was a proper feed rate and the Co level was kept under 150 ppm. Secondary air injection and changing air ratio from the pipe grid were effective for the complete combustion of RDE. It was also found that HCl concentration in flue gas was controlled by the calcium component contained in RDF and its level was decreased with decreasing the combustor temperature.

  17. Current state of atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) technology, a coal burning method that has several environmental and technical advantages over the more conventional technologies, such as pulverized-coal methods. The AFBC approach injects an air stream into a boiler in such a way that it mixes with solid fuel and sorbent to create a dense phase region or fluidized bed. This method makes it possible to use a much wider range of low-quality fuels and to burn them at lower temperatures with less pollutant by-product. The paper presents a comprehensive overview of AFBC technology to date. It includes worldwide development of this technology since the 1950s necessary to meet ever-stricter emissions requirements while providing greater fuel flexibility.

  18. Analysis of FBC deterministic chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    It has recently been discovered that the performance of a number of fossil energy conversion devices such as fluidized beds, pulsed combustors, steady combustors, and internal combustion engines are affected by deterministic chaos. It is now recognized that understanding and controlling the chaotic elements of these devices can lead to significantly improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions. Application of these techniques to key fossil energy processes are expected to provide important competitive advantages for U.S. industry.

  19. Investigation of fluid-bed combustion of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eustis, R.H.; Wilson, K.B.; Preuit, L.C.; Marasigan, M.M.

    1985-08-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to burn processed municipal solid waste in a fluid-bed combustor containing water-cooled tubes in the bed. The 300-hour test was performed without incident and terminated on schedule. The combustor and ducting were clean on inspection after the test, and bed agglomeration did not occur. A corrosion tube placed in the free-board showed considerable metal wastage for carbon and low-alloy steels and some wastage for stainless steels. Low-temperature carbon steel water tubes in the bed showed negligible wastage. It was concluded that heat-exchanger tubes in the freeboard require protection from the high-velocity elutriated solids. Combustion efficiency was greater than 99%, and pollutants were measured as follows: SO/sub 2/ = 58 ppm, NOx = 178 ppm, CO = 242 ppm, hydrocarbons = 5.4 ppm. A system study was conducted for a cogeneration, 800-tons/day power plant to be located on the Stanford U. campus to supply all of the process steam requirement and as much of the electrical power as possible.

  20. Repowering with pressurized fluidized-bed combustion units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goidich, S.J. ); Rubow, L.N. ); Kumar, S. . Environmental Services and Technologies Div.); Mukherjee, D. ); Childress, N.B. )

    1991-05-01

    Turbocharged pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plants operating with a gas turbine inlet temperature lower than 800{degrees}F can produce electricity more efficiently (34.2 vs. 33.5% net plant efficiency) and at a lower cost of electricity (87.8 vs. 96. 6 mill/kWh over 30 years) than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. Since the PFBC process produces lower NO{sub x} emissions than conventional pulverized-coal combustion systems and captures sulfur as part of the combustion process, and since major equipment components can be shop-assembled and shipped by barge, retrofit of an existing unit with a turbocharged PFBC boiler can be a cost-effective means for extending the life of the unit and meeting NSPS without retrofitting flue gas desulfurization systems. Using the Wisconsin Electric Power Company's Port Washington Unit 5 as an example, preliminary engineering and economic evaluations were made to investigate the merits of turbocharged PFBC retrofits. This report describes the conceptual designs of the new, major plant components; discusses how the new components are integrated with the existing balance-of-plant equipment; describes the proposed plant control system; and presents an overall economic evaluation. Because design and economic evaluations were prepared on the basis of a commercial design, first-of-a-kind costs and test programs are not included. 5 refs., 58 figs., 55 tabs.

  1. Synthetic aggregate compositions derived from spent bed materials from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Cementitious compositions useful as lightweight aggregates are formed from a blend of spent bed material from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash. The proportions of the blend are chosen so that ensuing reactions eliminate undesirable constituents. The blend is then mixed with water and formed into a shaped article. The shaped article is preferably either a pellet or a "brick" shape that is later crushed. The shaped articles are cured at ambient temperature while saturated with water. It has been found that if used sufficiently, the resulting aggregate will exhibit minimal dimensional change over time. The aggregate can be certified by also forming standardized test shapes, e.g., cylinders while forming the shaped articles and measuring the properties of the test shapes using standardized techniques including X-ray diffraction.

  2. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.; Bonk, D.

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  3. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.; Bonk, D.

    1994-10-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages -- namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects -- brief descriptions of these are also included.

  4. Modern fluidized bed combustion in Ostrava-Karvina cogeneration plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazac, V.; Novacek, A.; Volny, J.

    1995-12-01

    The contemporary situation of our environment claims the sensitive approach to solving effective conversion of energy. Limited supplies of noble fuels and their prices evoke the need to use new combustion technologies of accessible fuels in given region without negative ecological influences. Energoproject participates in the preparation of the two projects in Ostrava-Karvin{acute a} black coal field in Czech Republic. The most effective usage of fuel energy is the combined of electricity and heat. If this physical principle is supported by a pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) one obtains a high electricity/heat ratio integrated steam-gas cycle on the basis of solid fuel. Cogeneration plant Toebovice is the dominant source (600 MW{sub th}) of Ostrava district heating system (1100 MW{sub th}). The high utilization of the installed output and utilization of the clean, compact and efficient of the PFBC technology is the principal but not the single reason for the selection of the Toebovice power plant as the first cogeneration plant for installation of the PFBC in Czech Republic. The boiler will burn black coal from the neighboring coal basin.

  5. Metal wastage analysis of carbon steel tubes in FBC environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sethi, V.K.; Puentes, E.; Natesan, K.; Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1988-11-01

    The TVA 20-MW AFBC Pilot Plant located near Paducah, Kentucky began operations in March 1982, and it operated with the same in-bed evaporator tubes (tube bundle B1) for {approximately}13,625 h through the end of 1985. During January--February 1986, the evaporator tubes were removed to test a new tube bundle configuration (tube bundle C1). After only a short period of operation, tube diameter measurements showed that tube wastage rates for bundle C1 were almost an order of magnitude larger than those recorded for B1. Although several other changes could have been responsible for this increase, the consensus at the TVA was that the increase probably occurred because the pilot plant switched coals from a low chlorine (0.02%) to a high chlorine ({approximately}0.30%) KY 9 coal. In order to determine the validity of the role of chlorine in increasing the tube wastage, several tube sections were cut out from the plant and analyzed at the Kentucky Energy Cabinet Laboratory (KECL) and at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The results of the chemical and metallographic examination showed that wastage could be attributed to erosive wear of chlorine-impregnated iron oxide scales. Corrosion component (oxidation) could have been altered by the presence of elements such as chlorine, sulfur, and potassium in the combustion gases. The results also showed that, in order to understand the complex deposition/corrosion phenomena that occur in FBC systems, it is imperative to characterize the local environment in the vicinity of the tube bundles. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  6. A study of parameters influencing metal wastage in fluidized bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podolski, W.F.; Lyczkowski, R. ); Montrone, E. ); Drennen, J. ); Ai, Y.H.; Chao, B.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology is a means of burning high-sulfur coal and various other feedstocks in an efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable manner. Unfortunately, the wearing or wastage of metal heat exchanger tubes in bubbling FBCs has been reported in a large number of units in commercial service. Presently, it is not possible to explain why some FBC units, or regions of a specific bed, undergo rapid metal loss and others do not. An eight-member cooperative R D venture was formed in 1985 to investigate metal wastage in FBCs. The objectives of the R D effort are to hydrodynamics and erosion in FBCs, (2) develop guidelines for the design and operation of FBC units with minimum metal wastage rates, and (3) demonstrate the feasibility of a continuous erosion monitor for use in pilot plant and full-scale FBC units. Computational models are being refined and used to predict the rates of metal wastage for specific FBC designs and operating conditions. The design guidelines will emerge from the understanding gained from experimental studies and analytical modeling activities. This paper updates the status of ongoing experimental studies. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Supportive studies in fluidized-bed combustion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CHALCOGENIDES; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; COMBUSTION; COMBUSTORS; ENERGY SOURCES; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; FUNCTIONAL MODELS; GASEOUS WASTES; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; OXIDATION; OXIDES; ...

  8. Volatiles combustion in fluidized beds. Final technical report, 4 September 1992--4 June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendergrass, R.A. II; Raffensperger, C.; Hesketh, R.P.

    1996-02-29

    The goal of this project is to investigate the conditions in which volatiles will burn within both the dense and freeboard regions of fluidized beds. Experiments using a fluidized bed operated at incipient fluidization are being conducted to characterize the effect of particle surface area, initial fuel concentration, and particle type on the inhibition of volatiles within a fluidized bed. A review of the work conducted under this grant is presented in this Final Technical Report. Both experimental and theoretical work have been conducted to examine the inhibition of the combustion by the fluidized bed material, sand. It has been shown that particulate phase at incipient fluidization inhibits the combustion of propane by free radical destruction at the surface of sand particles within the particulate phase. The implications of these findings is that at bed temperatures lower than the critical temperatures, gas combustion can only occur in the bubble phase or at the top surface of a bubbling fluidized bed. In modeling fluidized bed combustion this inhibition by the particulate phase should be included.

  9. JV Task 108 - Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Combustion Testing of Turkish Tufanbeyli Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Hajicek; Jay Gunderson; Ann Henderson; Stephen Sollom; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-08-15

    Two combustion tests were performed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) using Tufanbeyli coal from Turkey. The tests were performed in a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) and a pulverized coal-fired furnace, referred to as the combustion test facility (CTF). One of the goals of the project was to determine the type of furnace best suited to this coal. The coal is high in moisture, ash, and sulfur and has a low heating value. Both the moisture and the sulfur proved problematic for the CTF tests. The fuel had to be dried to less than 37% moisture before it could be pulverized and further dried to about 25% moisture to allow more uniform feeding into the combustor. During some tests, water was injected into the furnace to simulate the level of flue gas moisture had the fuel been fed without drying. A spray dryer was used downstream of the baghouse to remove sufficient sulfur to meet the EERC emission standards permitted by the North Dakota Department of Health. In addition to a test matrix varying excess air, burner swirl, and load, two longer-term tests were performed to evaluate the fouling potential of the coal at two different temperatures. At the lower temperature (1051 C), very little ash was deposited on the probes, but deposition did occur on the walls upstream of the probe bank, forcing an early end to the test after 2 hours and 40 minutes of testing. At the higher temperature (1116 C), ash deposition on the probes was significant, resulting in termination of the test after only 40 minutes. The same coal was burned in the CFBC, but because the CFBC uses a larger size of material, it was able to feed this coal at a higher moisture content (average of 40.1%) compared to the CTF (ranging from 24.2% to 26.9%). Sulfur control was achieved with the addition of limestone to the bed, although the high calcium-to-sulfur rate required to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions resulted in heat loss (through limestone calcination) and additional ash

  10. Emission factors for several toxic air pollutants from fluidized-bed combustion of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E.

    1986-03-01

    Clean coal technologies such as fluidized-bed combustion have the potential to emit the same trace elements as conventional combustors. Since the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is likely to promulgate National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for several trace elements, the feasibility of using fluidized-bed combustors to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may depend in part on the relative amounts of trace elements emitted by fluidized-bed and conventional combustors. Emissions of trace elements from both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors were compared with those from conventional combustors by developing fluidized-bed emission factors from information available in the literature and comparing them with the emission factors for conventional combustors recommended in a literature search conducted for EPA. The comparisons are based on the mass of emission per unit of heat input for antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, vanadium, and zinc. When inaccuracies in the data were taken into account, the trace element emissions from atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion seem to be somewhat higher than those from a conventional utility boiler burning pulverized coal and somewhat lower than those from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion.

  11. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion part-load behavior. Volume I. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, A. G.; Pillai, K. K.; Raven, P.; Wood, P.

    1981-09-01

    Tests performed during 1980 to determine the part-load characteristics of a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor for a combined-cycle power plant and to examine its behavior during load changing are discussed. Part-load operation was achieved by varying the bed temperature by amounts between 200 to 300/sup 0/F and the bed depth from between 9 and 10 ft at rates varying between 0.2 ft/min and 0.5 ft/min. The performance at part-load steady-state conditions and during transient conditions is reported with information on combustion efficiency (99% at full-load with 9 ft bed depth and 1650/sup 0/F bed temperature; 95% with 4 ft depth and 1390/sup 0/F); sulfur retention (95/sup 0/ at full load to 80% at low bed depth and low bed temperature); sulfur emissions (no definitive results); NO/sub x/ emissions (tendency for increase as bed temperature was reduced); alkali emissions (no bed temperature effect detected); and heat transfer. It was demonstrated that load can be altered in a rapid and controlled manner by changing combinations of bed depth temperature and pressure. The most important practical change was the reduction in O/sub 2/ concentration which occurred when the bed height was increased at a rapid rate. The extra energy required to reheat the incoming bed material resulted (in the most extreme case) in a temporary drop in excess air from 65% to 12%. In a full-scale plant the loss of heat from the stored bed material would be much lower and the excess air trough when increasing load would not be as pronounced. Nevertheless, it seems prudent to design full-scale plant for a full load excess air of not less than about 50% when using bed depth as a load control parameter.

  12. Volatiles combustion in fluidized beds. [Quarterly] technical progress report, 4 December 1994--4 March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendergrass II, R.A.; Mansker, L.D.; Hesketh, R.P.

    1995-08-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate the conditions in which volatiles will bum within both the dense and freeboard regions of fluidized beds. Experiments using a fluidized bed operated at incipient fluidization are being conducted to characterize the effect of particle surface area, initial fuel concentration, and particle type on the inhibition of volatiles within a fluidized bed. The work conducted during the period 4 December, 1994 through, 3 March 1995 is presented in this technical progress report. The research consists of the application of a detailed chemical kinetics model for propane combustion and planned improvements in the experimental system.

  13. Materials performance in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustion environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    1993-07-01

    Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed for the generation of electricity and process heat has been in progress for a number of years. This paper addresses some of the key components in these systems, materials requirements/performance, and areas where additional effort is needed to improve the viability of these concepts for electric power generation.

  14. Tubing wastage in fluidized-bed coal combustors (Grimethorpe PFBC (pressurized fluidized-bed combustion) Tube Bank E'')

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherell, C.E.

    1989-10-04

    Samples of evaporator tubing from Tube Bank E'' of the Grimethorpe pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) facility in the UK were examined in the third of a series of studies being conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The program is being conducted to identify the mechanism or mechanisms responsible for metal loss (wastage) of in-bed carbon-steel evaporator tubes in bubbling-bed coal combustors. Results of examination suggest that bed conditions were less aggressive than in previous experiments in this combustor; however, tubing wastage was observed in some samples. Observations made on these tubes are consistent with the hypothesis of tubing wastage proposed in reports of previous LLNL studies conducted under this program that the dominant cause of metal loss is exfoliation of the normally-protective oxide scale by impacting bed particulates. Good correlation was also observed with trends noted earlier that microstructure of the tubing steel plays a role in its wastage response. 12 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' in this quarter (September-December of 2003). The main tasks in this quarter consisted of the following four parts. First, all documents for managing this project have been prepared and sent to the Office of Project Management at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Second, plans for the renovation of space for a new combustion laboratory for the CFBC system has progressed smoothly. Third, considerable progress in the design of the CFBC system has been made. Finally, a lab-scale simulated fluidized-bed combustion facility has been set up in order to make some fundamental investigations of the co-firing of coal with waste materials in the next quarter. Proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  16. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume II. Technical sessions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The papers covered recent developments in atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, especially the design, operation and control of pilot and demonstration plants. The cleanup of combustion products and the erosion, corrosion and fouling of gas turbines was emphasized also. Fifty-five papers from Volume 2 of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  17. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

    2005-01-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period October 1, 2004 through December 31, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building have proceeded well. Second, the detailed design of supporting and hanging structures for the CFBC was completed. Third, the laboratory-scale simulated fluidized-bed facility was modified after completing a series of pretests. The two problems identified during the pretest were solved. Fourth, the carbonization of chicken waste and coal was investigated in a tube furnace and a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  18. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume V. Appendix: stability and instability in fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    This document is the fifth of the seven volumes series of our Phase II Final Report. The material developed in this volume has not been incorporated into the system model. It will be used as a precursor of a transient model to be developed in the next phase of our model work. There have been various fluidized combustor models of differing complexity and scope published in the literature. Most of these models have identified and predicted - often in satisfactory agreement with results from pilot units - the key steady state combustor characteristics such as the mass of carbon in the bed (carbon loading), the combustion efficiency, the sulfur retention by the solid sorbent and the pollutant (mainly NO/sub x/) emissions. These models, however, cannot be in most instances successfully used to study the extinction and ignition characteristics of the combustor because they are isothermal in structure in the sense that the bed temperature is not an output variable but rather an input one and must be a priori specified. In order to remedy these inadequacies of the previous models, we here present a comprehensive account of the formulation and some typical results of a new nonisothermal model which has been developed in order to study, among other things, the ignition and extinction characteristics of the AFBC units. This model is able to predict the temperature patterns in the bed, the carbon loading, the combustion efficiency and the O/sub 2/ and CO concentration profiles in the combustor for the different design or operational characteristics.

  19. Method of removing sulfur emissions from a fluidized-bed combustion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, Gerhard John; Jonke, Albert A.; Snyder, Robert B.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal oxides are impregnated within refractory support material such as alumina and introduced into a fluidized-bed process for the combustion of coal. Sulfur dioxide produced during combustion reacts with the metal oxide to form metal sulfates within the porous support material. The support material is removed from the process and the metal sulfate regenerated to metal oxide by chemical reduction. Suitable pore sizes are originally developed within the support material by heat-treating to accommodate both the sulfation and regeneration while still maintaining good particle strength.

  20. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Volume 1. Plenary sessions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia, April 9-11, 1980. The papers in this volume involved presentation of the research and development programs of the US (US DOE, TVA, EPRI and US EPA), United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and the People's Republic of China. Eight papers from Vol. 1 (Plenary Sessions) of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  1. Design and performance of a fluidized-bed incinerator for TRU combustible wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    Problems encountered in the incineration of glovebox generated waste at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) led to the development of a fluidized-bed incineration (FBI) system for transuranic (TRU) combustible wastes. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the process preceded the installation of an 82-kg/h production demonstration incinerator at RFP. The FBI process is discussed, and the design of the demonstration incinerator is described. Operating experience and process performance for both the pilot and demonstration units are presented.

  2. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume III. Technical sessions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Forty-five papers from Vol. III of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Two papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  3. Exploratory and basic fluidized-bed combustion studies. Quarterly report, April-June 1980. [Limestone and dolomite; USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, I.; Myles, K.M.; Swift, W.M.

    1980-12-01

    This work supports the development studies for both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion. Laboratory and process development studies are aimed at providing needed information on limestone utilization, removal of particles and alkali metal compounds from the flue gas, control of SO/sub 2/ and trace pollutant emissions, and other aspects of fluidized-bed coal combustion. This report presents information on: (1) the development of a sorbent utilization prediction methodology, (2) studies of factors which affect limestone breakup and elutriation, (3) basic studies of limestone sulfation under combustion conditions, and (4) studies of the kinetics of the hydration of spent limestone.

  4. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine induustrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100[degrees]F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600[degrees]F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  5. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  6. Fine and ultrafine particles generated during fluidized bed combustion of different solid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urciuolo, M.; Barone, A.; D'Alessio, A.; Chirone, R.

    2008-12-15

    The paper reports an experimental study carried out with a 110-mm ID fluidized bed combustor focused on the characterization of particulates formation/emission during combustion of coal and non-fossil solid fuels. Fuels included: a bituminous coal, a commercial predried and granulated sludge (GS), a refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and a biomass waste (pine seed shells). Stationary combustion experiments were carried out analyzing the fate of fuel ashes. Fly ashes collected at the combustor exhaust were characterized both in terms of particle size distribution and chemical composition, with respect to both trace and major elements. Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TM-AFM) technique and high-efficiency cyclone-type collector devices were used to characterize the size and morphology of the nanometric-and micronic-size fractions of fly ash emitted at the exhaust respectively. Results showed that during the combustion process: I) the size of the nanometric fraction ranges between 2 and 65 nm; ii) depending on the fuel tested, combustion-assisted attrition or the production of the primary ash particles originally present in the fuel particles, are responsible of fine particle generation. The amount in the fly ash of inorganic compounds is larger for the waste-derived fuels, reflecting the large inherent content of these compounds in the parent fuels.

  7. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Zhongxian Cheng; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2006-09-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project entitled ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2006 through September 30, 2006. The following activities have been completed: the steel floor grating around the riser in all levels and the three-phase power supply for CFBC System was installed. Erection of downcomers, loop seals, ash bunker, thermal expansion joints, fuel and bed material bunkers with load cells, rotary air-lock valves and fuel flow monitors is underway. Pilot-scale slipstream tests conducted with bromine compound addition were performed for two typical types of coal. The purposes of the tests were to study the effect of bromine addition on mercury oxidization. From the test results, it was observed that there was a strong oxidization effect for Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The proposed work for next quarter and project schedule are also described.

  8. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash during coal and residual char combustion in a pressurized fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hongcang Zhou; Baosheng Jin; Rui Xiao; Zhaoping Zhong; Yaji Huang

    2009-04-15

    To investigate the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fly ash, the combustion of coal and residual char was performed in a pressurized spouted fluidized bed. After Soxhlet extraction and Kuderna-Danish (K-D) concentration, the contents of 16 PAHs recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in coal, residual char, and fly ash were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence and diode array detection. The experimental results show that the combustion efficiency is lower and the carbon content in fly ash is higher during coal pressurized combustion, compared to the residual char pressurized combustion at the pressure of 0.3 MPa. Under the same pressure, the PAH amounts in fly ash produced from residual char combustion are lower than that in fly ash produced from coal combustion. The total PAHs in fly ash produced from coal and residual char combustion are dominated by three- and four-ring PAHs. The amounts of PAHs in fly ash produced from residual char combustion increase and then decrease with the increase of pressure in a fluidized bed. 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Carbon attrition during the circulating fluidized bed combustion of a packaging-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastellone, M.L.; Arena, U.

    1999-05-01

    Cylindrical pellets of a market-available packaging-derived fuel, obtained from a mono-material collection of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, were batchwise fed to a laboratory scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The apparatus, whose riser was 41 mm ID and 4 m high, was operated under both inert and oxidizing conditions to establish the relative importance of purely mechanical attrition and combustion-assisted attrition in generating carbon fines. Silica sand particles of two size distributions were used as inert materials. For each run, carbon load and carbon particle size distribution in the riser and rates of attrited carbon fines escaping the combustor were determined as a function of time. A parallel investigation was carried out with a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor to point out peculiarities of attrition in CFB combustors. After devolatilization, PET pellets generated fragile aggregates of char and sand, which easily crumbled, leading to single particles, partially covered by a carbon-rich layer. The injected fixed carbon was therefore present in the bed in three phases: an A-phase, made of aggregates of sand and char, an S-phase, made of individual carbon-covered sand particles and an F-phase, made of carbon fines, abraded by the surfaces of the A- and S-phases. The effects of the size of inert material on the different forms under which fixed carbon was present in the bed and on the rate of escape of attrited carbon fines from the combustor were investigated. Features of carbon attrition in CFB and BFB combustors are discussed.

  10. Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion system. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seong W.

    1996-11-01

    Research is presented on erosion and corrosion of fluidized bed combustor component materials. The characteristics of erosion of in-bed tubes was investigated. Anti-corrosion measures were also evaluated.

  11. Comminution phenomena during the fluidized bed combustion of a commercial refuse-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, U.; Cammarota, A.; Chirone, R.; D`Anna, G.

    1995-12-31

    A commercial densified refuse-derived fuel (RDF), obtained as pellets from municipal solid wastes, was burned in two laboratory scale bubbling fluidized bed combustors, having an internal diameter of 41 mm. The apparatus were both batchwise operated at 850 C by injecting batches of RDF particles into a bed of silica sand (300--400 {micro}m as size range) fluidized at a superficial gas velocity of 0.8 m/s. RDF particles with equivalent mean diameter ranging from 4 to 9 mm were used. Different experimental procedures were set up to separately investigate comminution phenomena of fuel particles. Results were compared with those obtained burning a South African bituminous coal. Results pointed out that RDF particles undergo a strong primary fragmentation phenomenon, with a probability of particle breakage equal to 1 for fuel particles larger than 6 mm. Attrition and char fragmentation phenomena are particularly relevant under both inert and oxidizing conditions, generating a large amount of unburned fines which may affect overall combustion efficiency.

  12. Combustion of liquid paint wastes in fluidized bed boiler as element of waste management system in the paint factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soko, W.A.; Biaecka, B.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the solution to waste problems in the paint industry is presented by describing their combustion in a fluidized bed boiler as a part of the waste management system in the paint factory. Based on the Cleaner Production idea and concept of integration of design process with a future exploitation of equipment, some modifications of the waste management scheme in the factory are discussed to reduce the quantity of toxic wastes. To verify this concept combustion tests of paint production wastes and cocombustion of paint wastes with coal in an adopted industrial boiler were done. Results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  13. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending 31 December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The test plan is designed to demonstrate that oil shale co-combusted with municipal solid waste (MSW) can reduce gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, CO) to acceptable levels (90%+ reduction) and produce a cementitious ash which will, at a minimum, be acceptable in normal land fills. The small-scale combustion testing will be accomplished in a 6-in. circulating fluid bed combustor (CFBC) at Hazen Research Laboratories. This work will be patterned after the study the authors conducted in 1988 when coal and oil shale were co-combusted in a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The specific purpose of the test program will be to: determine the required ratio of oil shale to MSW by determining the ratio of absorbent to pollutant (A/P); determine the effect of temperature and resident time in the reactor; and determine if kinetic model developed for coal/oil shale mixture is applicable.

  14. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Rui; Ismail, Tamer M.; Ren, Xiaohan; Abd El-Salam, M.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW.

  15. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 3.8, Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.

    1995-03-01

    The goal of the PFBC activity is to generate fundamental process information that will further the development of an economical and environmentally acceptable second-generation PFBC. The immediate objectives focus on generic issues, including the performance of sulfur sorbents, fate of alkali, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) heavy metals in PFBC. A great deal of PFBC performance relates to the chemistry of the bed and the contact between gas and solids that occurs during combustion. These factors can be studied in a suitably designed bench-scale reactor. The present studies are focusing on the emission control strategies applied in the bed, rather than in hot-gas cleaning. Emission components include alkali and heavy metals in addition to SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O, and CO. The report presents: a description of the pressurized fluidized-bed reactor (PFBR); a description of the alkali sampling probe; shakedown testing of the bench-scale PFBR; results from alkali sampling; results from sulfur sorbent performance tests; and results from refuse-derived fuel and lignite combustion tests.

  16. Characterization and analysis of metal wastage in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazemi, A.H.; Madsen, M.M.; Malone, G.A.

    1985-08-01

    As an integral part of its program in fluidized-bed combustion technology development, the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) supports a number of projects directed toward providing both theoretical and experimental results which will guide solutions to the metal loss problem. As a part of this effort, METC and the MITRE Corporation have undertaken a project to compile and analyze metal loss data obtained from a variety of FBC systems ranging from small-scale experimental units to industrial-size facilities and to establish a functional relationship between metal loss for several alloy types and various FBC design and operating parameters. To date, metal loss and operating information have been categorized for forty-four alloys in twenty separate FBC systems worldwide. Review of the tabulated data indicate the following trends: metal temperatures above 1200/sup 0/F significantly increase rates of metal loss; system operation with high excess air reduces metal loss, but does not eliminate it; use of coals with high ash sintering temperatures does not significantly reduce metal loss; degree of metal loss is much lower for surfaces exposed in the freeboard than for in-bed surfaces; the rate of metal loss decreases with time of exposure; iron-based stainless steels are relatively resistant to conditions which cause metal loss; cobalt-based alloys and high-chromium steels show significant resistance to metal loss; nickel-based alloys are most susceptible to metal loss; sulfidation/oxidation attack on metals within fluidized beds are more likely to occur if sorbent is present; and metal attack will occur irrespective of coal and sorbent type. 25 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Volatiles combustion in fluidized beds. Technical progress report, 4 March 1993--3 June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesketh, R.P.

    1993-09-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate the conditions in which volatiles will burn within both the dense and freeboard regions of fluidized beds. Experiments using a fluidized bed operated at incipient fluidization will be performed to characterize the effect of particle surface area, initial fuel concentration, and particle type on the inhibition of volatiles within a fluidized bed. The work conducted during the period 4 March, 1993 through 3 June, 1993 is reported in this technical progress report. The work during this time period consists primarily of the startup and trouble shooting of the fluidized bed reactor and gas phase modeling of methane and propane.

  18. Experimental investigation of wood combustion in a fixed bed with hot air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markovic, Miladin Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: Upward combustion is a new combustion concept with ignition by hot primary air. Upward combustion has three stages: short drying, rapid devolatilization and char combustion. Variation of fuel moisture and inert content have little influence on the combustion. Experimental comparison between conventional and upward combustion is presented. - Abstract: Waste combustion on a grate with energy recovery is an important pillar of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the Netherlands. In MSW incinerators fresh waste stacked on a grate enters the combustion chamber, heats up by radiation from the flame above the layer and ignition occurs. Typically, the reaction zone starts at the top of the waste layer and propagates downwards, producing heat for drying and devolatilization of the fresh waste below it until the ignition front reaches the grate. The control of this process is mainly based on empiricism. MSW is a highly inhomogeneous fuel with continuous fluctuating moisture content, heating value and chemical composition. The resulting process fluctuations may cause process control difficulties, fouling and corrosion issues, extra maintenance, and unplanned stops. In the new concept the fuel layer is ignited by means of preheated air (T > 220 C) from below without any external ignition source. As a result a combustion front will be formed close to the grate and will propagate upwards. That is why this approach is denoted by upward combustion. Experimental research has been carried out in a batch reactor with height of 4.55 m, an inner diameter of 200 mm and a fuel layer height up to 1 m. Due to a high quality two-layer insulation adiabatic conditions can be assumed. The primary air can be preheated up to 350 C, and the secondary air is distributed via nozzles above the waste layer. During the experiments, temperatures along the height of the reactor, gas composition and total weight decrease are continuously monitored. The influence of the primary

  19. Simulation of coal and char nitrogen reactions in combustion. [Final report, September 1992--August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumpaty, S.K.

    1993-10-01

    The observed rate of increase of N{sub 2}O (0.18% to 0.26% annually) is a matter of increasing concern both because N{sub 2}O is a greenhouse gas and has a major and unfavorable influence on the ozone layer (Weiss, 1981). The combustion contribution to the overall nitrous oxide budget is difficult to assess; yet the emission of N{sub 2}O from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) has been identified in the past few years as significant. It was concluded in the European workshop, 1988 that the emission level from a coal-fired fluidized bed boiler is 50--200 ppM but it is only 1--20 ppM in boilers equipped with other types of combustion devices. For this reason it is worthwhile to investigate the emissions from FBC more thoroughly. Gaseous fuels (Miller and Bowman, 1989), but the N{sub 2}O emissions under fluidized bed conditions is poorly understood. In fluidized bed combustion, N{sub 2}O can arise from homogeneous gas phase reactions involving amines and cyano species (Hiltunen et al, 1991) or it can be formed from heterogeneous reactions (eg. char oxidation). Removal of N{sub 2}O can be brought about by gas phase reactions or by catalytic or non-catalytic heterogeneous reduction on char/limestone. This work was carried out with an objective of enhancing the fundamental understanding of coal and char nitrogen reaction pathways in fluidized bed combustion environment. The formation and destruction of HCN and N{sub 2}O under variety of influential parameters were investigated. This simulation contained a nonisothermal single particle combustion in a preheated reactor and a gas phase reaction are designed to stimulate the nitrogen chemistry in a circulating fluidzied bed. The LSODE differential equation solver used for single particle combustion and the CHEMKIN package, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, was applied for gas phase reactions. This computational work was done as an exploratory research program under the solicitation of the DOE fossil energy utilization.

  20. PFBC (pressurized fluidized bed combustion) turbocharged boiler design and economic study: Volume 1, Executive summary: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    A coal combustion technology that promises to reduce the cost of electrical power is pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). Since a PFBC boiler is physically smaller than a conventional pulverized coal fired boiler with a flue gas desulfurization system (PC/FGD) and the same power rating shop assembly and modularized shipment to the power plant site can be considered. Modular construction can substantially reduce the overall design/construction time. Emission controls are equivalent to, or better than, conventional PC/FGD units, and the PFBC combustor can tolerate coals with a wider range of characteristics. Two PFBC plants and the reference PC/FGD plant were each to have four nominal 250 MW(e) units to be completed for start-up at one year intervals. To establish a well defined consistent design basis for all units, the turbine-generator and steam cycle of a recently constructed 250 MW(e) unit (designed by Fluor and built under Fluor construction management) was selected and made the common element in both of the PFBC plants and the reference PC/FGD plant. Steam conditions of 2400 psia, 1000/sup 0/F were to be identical for all units as were the steam flows for the design load range of 50% to steam turbine valves-wide-open with inlet steam pressure 5% over design pressure (VWO 5% OP). The study produced three plant designs - a 4-unit turbocharged PFBC using bubbling bed technology, a 4-unit turbocharged PFBC using circulating bed technology, and a 4-unit PC/FGD reference plant using conventional pulverized coal technology coupled with wet limestone scrubber technology. The hot gas clean-up system, operating at these more modest temperatures, is capable of reducing the particulate in the gas to a level which meets EPA/NSPS standards without further cleanup. With this level of cleanup, service conditions for the turbocharger turbine are tolerable in commercially available designs and materials. 48 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. High-temperature-staged fluidized-bed combustion (HITS), bench scale experimental test program conducted during 1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R E; Jassowski, D M; Newton, R A; Rudnicki, M L

    1981-04-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the process feasibility of the first stage of the HITS two-stage coal combustion system. Tests were run in a small (12-in. ID) fluidized bed facility at the Energy Engineering Laboratory, Aerojet Energy Conversion Company, Sacramento, California. The first stage reactor was run with low (0.70%) and high (4.06%) sulfur coals with ash fusion temperatures of 2450/sup 0/ and 2220/sup 0/F, respectively. Limestone was used to scavenge the sulfur. The produced low-Btu gas was burned in a combustor. Bed temperature and inlet gas percent oxygen were varied in the course of testing. Key results are summarized as follows: the process was stable and readily controllable, and generated a free-flowing char product using coals with low (2220/sup 0/F) and high (2450/sup 0/F) ash fusion temperatures at bed temperatures of at least 1700/sup 0/ and 1800/sup 0/F, respectively; the gaseous product was found to have a total heating value of about 120 Btu/SCF at 1350/sup 0/F, and the practicality of cleaning the hot product gas and delivering it to the combustor was demonstrated; sulfur capture efficiencies above 80% were demonstrated for both low and high sulfur coals with a calcium/sulfur mole ratio of approximately two; gasification rates of about 5,000 SCF/ft/sup 2/-hr were obtained for coal input rates ranging from 40 to 135 lbm/hr, as required to maintain the desired bed temperatures; and the gaseous product yielded combustion temperatures in excess of 3000/sup 0/F when burned with preheated (900/sup 0/F) air. The above test results support the promise of the HITS system to provide a practical means of converting high sulfur coal to a clean gas for industrial applications. Sulfur capture, gas heating value, and gas production rate are all in the range required for an effective system. Planning is underway for additional testing of the system in the 12-in. fluid bed facility, including demonstration of the second stage char burnup

  2. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-09-30

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill{trademark}. The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable

  3. MARKET ASSESSMENT AND TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH USE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.E. Bland; T.H. Brown

    1997-04-01

    Western Research Institute, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler International, Inc. and the US Department of Energy, has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC ashes. Ashes from the Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot-scale circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, combusting (1) low-sulfur subbituminous and (2) high-sulfur bituminous coal, and ash from the AEP's high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at WR1. The technical feasibility study examined the use of PFBC ash in construction-related applications, including its use as a cementing material in concrete and use in cement manufacturing, fill and embankment materials, soil stabilization agent, and use in synthetic aggregate production. Testing was also conducted to determine the technical feasibility of PFBC ash as a soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and spoils encountered in agricultural and reclamation applications. The results of the technical feasibility testing indicated the following conclusions. PFBC ash does not meet the chemical requirements as a pozzolan for cement replacement. However, it does appear that potential may exist for its use in cement production as a pozzolan and/or as a set retardant. PFBC ash shows relatively high strength development, low expansion, and low permeability properties that make its use in fills and embankments promising. Testing has also indicated that PFBC ash, when mixed with low amounts of lime, develops high strengths, suitable for soil stabilization applications and synthetic aggregate production. Synthetic aggregate produced from PFBC ash is capable of meeting ASTM/AASHTO specifications for many construction applications. The residual calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in the PFE3C ash has been shown to be of value in

  4. Engineering systems analysis of pressurized fluidized-bed-combustion power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.L.; Griffin, F.P.; Lackey, M.E.

    1982-04-01

    This effort was conducted to provde supporting data for the research and development program on pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) systems being continued under the auspices of the Office of Coal Utilization of DOE. This report deals with the first phase of the effort, designated Task 1, which was scoped to be a somewhat broad review of PFBC technology and an analysis to determine its potential and sensitivity to key development needs. Background information pertaining to the application of PFBC to the market for coal-fired technology is included. The status of development is reviewed and the deficiencies in data are identified. Responses to a survey of PFBC developers are reviewed with emphasis on the high risk areas of the PFBC concept. Some of these problems are: uncertainty of life of gas turbine components; lack of demonstration of load following; and hot solids handling. Some high risk areas, such as the gas cleanup or gas turbine systems, can be relieved by reducing the severity of design conditions such as the turbine inlet temperature. Alternate turbine designs or plant configurations are also possible solutions. Analyses were performed to determine whether the advantages held by PFBC systems in cost, efficiency, and emissions would be nullified by measures taken to reduce risk. In general, the results showed that the attractive features of the PFBC could be preserved.

  5. Metal wastage analysis of carbon steel tubes from TVA 20 MW AFBC (atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    1987-11-01

    Evaporator tubes of carbon steel material, obtained from the TVA 20 MW AFBC test facility, were examined for deposit formation and metal wastage. Three different regions of the tube sections were analyzed using electron diffraction and several electron-optical techniques. The results showed that excessive metal wastage in one of the locations can be attributed to erosive wear of chlorine impregnated iron oxide scales. The results also showed that corrosion accelerating elements such as Cl, S, and K act independent of each other on the carbon steel evaporator tubes and it is imperative to characterize the local environment in the vicinity of the tube banks for understanding the complex deposition/corrosion phenomena that occur in FBC systems. 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Characterization of ashes from co-combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal, wood and bark in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M.

    1998-12-31

    The technical and environmental feasibility of co-combustion of a recovered fuel (RF) prepared from combustible waste fractions (separated at the source), together with coal, peat, wood or wood-waste in thermal power/electricity generation has been studied in several R and D projects within Finland. The current work focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of RF with coal, wood or bark, which could lead to bed agglomeration, slagging, fouling and even corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced in a 15 kW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustion reactor, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analyzed by XRF. The sintering tendency behavior of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at Aabo Akademi University. Earlier, a screening program involved ashes from RF (from a waste separation scheme in Finland) co-combustion with peat, wood and bark, in which ash pellets were thermally treated in air. This showed significant sintering below 600 C as well as above 800 C for RF/wood and RF/bark, but not for RF/peat. This seemed to correlate with alkali chloride and sulfate concentrations in the ashes. The current work addresses a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark, coal, bark+coal, wood, and wood+coal (eight tests). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1,000 C. Ash from 100% RDF combustion does not sinter, 25% RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of a 25% coal fraction (on energy basis) seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows that, in general, an increased level of

  7. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainikka, Pasi; Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  8. The Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 demonstration project utilizing Foster Wheeler`s pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClung, J.D.; Provol, S.J.; Morehead, H.T.; Dodd, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The City of Lakeland, Florida, Foster Wheeler and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation have embarked on the demonstration of a Clean Coal Technology at the City of Lakeland`s McIntosh Power Station in lakeland, Polk County, Florida. The project will demonstrate the Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (PCFB) technology developed by Foster Wheeler and Westinghouse. The Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 Project is a nominal 170 MW power plant designed to burn a range of low- to high-sulfur coals. The combined cycle plant employs a Westinghouse 251B12 gas turbine engine in conjunction with a steam turbine operating in a 2400/1000/1000 steam cycle. The plant will demonstrate both the PCFB and topped PCFB combustion technologies. This paper provides a process description of the Foster Wheeler PCFB and Topped PCFB technologies and their application to the Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 Project.

  9. Co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system with coal and refuse derived fuels and/or sludges. Task 16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1994-01-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal waste. Leading this approach, the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The fluidized bed, with its stability of combustion, reduces the amount of thermochemical transients and provides for easier process control. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire-derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  10. Second-generation pressurized fluidized-bed combustion plant: Conceptual design and optimization of a second-generation PFB combustion plant. Phase 2, Annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Newby, R.; Rehmat, A.; Horazak, D.

    1992-10-01

    After many years of experimental testing and development work, coal-fired pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) combustion combined-cycle power plants are moving toward reality. Under the US Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program, a 70-MWe PFB combustion retrofit, utilizing a 1525{degrees}F gas turbine inlet temperature, has been built and operated as a demonstration plant at the American Electric Power Company`s Tidd Plant in Brilliant, Ohio. As PFB combustion technology moves closer and closer to commercialization, interest is turning toward the development of an even more efficient and more cost-effective PFB combustion plant. The targeted goals of this ``second-generation`` plant are a 45-percent efficiency and a cost of electricity (COE) that is at least 20 percent lower than the COE of a conventional pulverized-coal (PC)-fired plant with stack gas scrubbing. In addition, plant emissions should be within New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and the plant should have high availability, be able to burn different ranks of coal, and incorporate modular construction technologies. In response to this need, a team of companies led by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC). The key components in the proposed second-generation plant are the carbonizer, CPFBC, ceramic cross-flow filter, and topping combustor. Unfortunately, none of these components has been operated at proposed plant operating conditions, and experimental tests must be conducted to explore/determine their performance throughout the proposed plant operating envelope. The major thrust of Phase 2 is to design, construct, test, and evaluate the performance of the key components of the proposed plant.

  11. Performance and economics of co-firing a coal/waste slurry in advanced fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.R.; Zaharchuk, R.; Reuther, R.B.; Bonk, D.L.

    1996-09-01

    This study`s objective was to investigate co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor with coal and refuse-derived fuel for the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of waste. Performance evaluation of the pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) power plant co-fired with refuse-derived fuel showed only slightly lower overall thermal efficiency than similar sized plants without waste co-firing. Capital costs and costs of electricity are within 4.2 percent and 3.2 percent, respectively, of waste-free operation. The results also indicate that there are no technology barriers to the co-firing of waste materials with coal in a PFBC power plant. The potential to produce cost-competitive electrical power and support environmentally acceptable waste disposal exists with this approach. However, as part of technology development, there remain several design and operational areas requiring data and verification before this concept can realize commercial acceptance. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Fluidized Bed Technology- Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fluidized beds suspend solid fuels on upward-blowing jets of air during the combustion process. The result is a turbulent mixing of gas and solids. The tumbling action, much like a bubbling fluid,...

  13. Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant: Phase 1, Task 2 topical report---Grimethorpe tube bundle E'' wastage evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kegel, W.

    1989-08-01

    Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) took part in a pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) test program at the Grimethorpe PFBC facility in England. FWDC's participation included generating data to assess comparative wear rates and patterns on several different tubing alloys and surface protection techniques. The alloys and protection techniques are being used in, or are planned for, commercial atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed boilers. Tubular specimens which were grouped into ten classes: carbon steel; finned carbon steel; finned 2-1/4%Cr-1%Mo; finned and studded carbon steel; finned and studded 2-1/4%Cr-1%Mo; finned and studded Type 347H stainless steel; chromized carbon steel; chromized 2-1/4%Cr-1%Mo; finned, studded and chromized carbon steel; and finned, studded and chromized 2-1/4%Cr-1%Mo. The materials are typical of those normally used in boiler service for carrying water, generating steam, and superheating steam. The test program and spanned approximately 1400 operating hours and was composed of three test sequences. Each test in the A2 series was run with a different fuel feedstock. The first utilized a UK coal (dry); the second evaluated a US coal/water mixture (slurry); the third test employed a UK coal slurry. Test runs with UK coal included a limestone sorbent while dolomite was used in the second test sequence. Exposed test specimens were removed for independent surface scale analysis before FWDC began metal wastage evaluations. The specimens were then inspected visually, analyzed dimensionally, and examined metallographically. 5 refs., 75 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Overall review of work carried out at Grimethorpe in collaboration with US DOE and EPRI and under IEA Agreement on PFBC (pressurised fluidised bed combustion), 1985-1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    Between 1984 and 1988, the Grimethorpe Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Facility was operated for the UK BCC/CEGB Joint Programme on PFBC. Additional funding was obtained from the US Department of Energy (for investigation of operation using a wet slurry feed system), EPRI (for testing an advanced gas filtration device) and as an extension of the IEA Agreement in PFBC (for design of the wet slurry feed system, and further studies into the use of wet slurry). Co-operation with the US DOE extended to the investigation of metal wastage in a new tube bank, Tube Bank E', involving a US boiler manufacture, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation. The report outlines the results of this collaborative work including combustor performance, operation and performance of the wet slurry feeding system, operation and performance of the EPRI HTHP Filter, and performance of research instrumentation. It also summarizes materials aspects of the collaborative work, including those aspects of the tube bank metal wastage investigation which can be released into the public domain. 39 refs., 27 figs., 17 tabs.

  15. DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    This project evaluated the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with coal combustion byproducts. Success was measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). Phase 1 of the project was completed in September 1995 and was concerned with the development of the grout and a series of predictive models. These models were verified through the Phase II field phase and will be further verified fin the large scale field demonstration of Phase III. The verification allows the results to be packaged in such a way that the technology can be easily adapted to different site conditions. Phase II was successfully completed with 1000 cubic yards of grout being injected into Anker Energy's Fairfax mine. The grout flowed over 600 feet from a single injection borehole. The grout achieved a compressive strength of over 1000 psi (twice the level that is needed to guarantee subsidence control). Phase III was a full scale test at Anker's eleven acre Longridge mine site. The CCB grout replaced what was an open mine void with a solid so that the groundwater tends to flow around and through the pillars rather than through the previously mined areas. The project has demonstrated that CCBs can be successfully disposed in underground mines. Additionally, the project has shown that filling an abandoned underground mine with CCBs can lead to the reduction and elimination of environmental problems associated with underground mining such as acid mine drainage and subsidence. The filling of the Longridge Mine with 43,000 cubic yards of CCB grout resulted in a 97% reduction in acid mine drainage coming from the mine.

  16. Metal wastage analysis of carbon steel tubes in FBC environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sethi, V.K.; Puentes, E. ); Natesan, K. )

    1989-01-01

    The TVA 20-MW AFBC Pilot Plant located near Paducah, Kentucky began operations in March 1982, and it operated with the same in-bed evaporator tubes (tube bundle B1) for {approximately}13,625 h through the end of 1985. During January-February 1986, the evaporator tubes were removed to test a new tube bundle configuration (tube bundle C1). After only a short period of operation, tube diameter measurements show that tube wastage rates for bundle C1 were almost an order of magnitude larger than those recorded for B1. Although several other changes could have been responsible for this increase, the consensus at the TVA was that the increase probably occurred because the pilot plant switched coals from a low chlorine (0.02%) to a high chlorine ({approximately}0.30%) KY No. 9 coal. In order to determine the validity of the role of chlorine in increasing the tube wastage, several tube sections were cut out from the plant and analyzed. The results of the chemical and metallographic examination are reported.

  17. Coal combustion products 2007 production and use report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-01

    The American Coal Ash Association's 2007 Annual Coal Combustion Products (CCP) are derived from data from more than 170 power plants. The amount of CCPs used was 40.55%, a decrease of 2.88% from 2006, attributed to reduced fuel burn and a decrease in demand in the building industry. Figures are given for the production of fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum, bottom ash, FBC ash and boiler slag. The article summarises results of the survey. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  18. Workshop on wear potential of bed material in fluidized-bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    A workshop was held in November 1990 at Argonne National Laboratory to investigate the wear potential of bed material in fluidized-bed combustors (FBCs). The overall objective was to relate feedstock analyses to bed-material characteristics. The potential effects of quartz, alkali, chlorine, particle angularity, particle coatings, and coal rank were discussed. It was concluded that inadequate data exist to draw substantive conclusions, although in the case of two specific FBC facilities, high wastage rates could be related to the accumulation of quartz particles in the bed. The primary research needs identified in the workshop were for standardized methodologies for sampling solids, for measuring their characteristics, and for correlating those characteristics with some measure of materials wastage.

  19. Effect of operating and design parameters on fluidized-bed combustor in-bed tube metal wastage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deffenbaugh, D.M.; Wei, W.; Page, R.A.

    1988-04-01

    The overall program objective is to determine the effect of operating and design parameters of fluidized-bed combustors (FBCs) on in-bed tube metal wastage. The overall program approach is: (1) develop an experimental approach for acquiring tube metal wastage data under controlled and measurable conditions that reproduce the combined local mechanical and chemical environment that exists at the FBC in-bed tube surface, (2) document the precise local mechanical and chemical environment at the in-bed tube surface of an FBC and correlate these local data with global bed operating and design parameters, (3) use the above experimental approach over the entire range of documented local environments to develop a complete database of tube metal wastage results, and (4) analyze this database to determine the effect of operating and design parameters on in-bed tube metal wastage. The project consisted of a literature review, facility design and fabrication, experimentation, and data analysis. The following chapters of this report summarize each of these activities. 80 refs., 47 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherish, Peter; Salvador, Louis A.

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  1. Post Combustion Test Bed Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabe, James E.; King, Dale A.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2011-12-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assessment methodology and slip-stream testing platform enables the comprehensive early-stage evaluation of carbon capture solvents and sorbents utilizing a breadth of laboratory experimental capability as well as a testing platform at a nearby 600 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant.

  2. Advanced clean combustion technology in Shanxi province

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, K.-C.

    2004-07-01

    Biomass energy resources in China are first described, along with biomass gasification R & D now underway. In Shanxi province biomass and other regenerative energy is relatively little used but coal resources are large. Hence Shanxi is mainly developing clean coal technology to meet its economic and environmental protection requirements. Clean combustion research at Taiyuan University of Technology includes cofiring of coal and RDF in FBC, gas purification and adsorption, fundamentals of plasma-aided coal pyrolysis and gasification and coal derived liquid fuels from synthesis gas. 5 refs.

  3. Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

  4. DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Chemistry/DISI Combustion DISI Combustion admin 2015-10-28T02:44:30+00:00

  5. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryers, Richard W. (Flemington, NJ); Taylor, Thomas E. (Bergenfield, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  6. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  7. Data:0149f280-821d-4e6f-bc27-501c18ec12fd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    f-bc27-501c18ec12fd No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic...

  8. Particle motion at fluidized bed tube surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drennen, J.F.; Hocking, W.R.; Howard, D.A.

    1990-06-01

    Metal loss from in-bed heat transfer tubes in fluidized bed combustors is recognized as a problem that is affecting the commercialization of FBC technology for coal utilization. A program has been initiated to address the erosion aspect of the wastage problem. Objectives were: (1) to develop a method for measuring the particle impact velocities and mass flux at a fluidized bed tube surface, (2) to obtain wear data from test tubes in an operating cold flow model, and (3) to correlate the results. An instrumented probe was develop during Phase I that could be used to obtain the three orthogonal velocity components and mass flux at a fluidized bed tube surface. The sensors were contained in a 2 inch diameter schedule 40 pipe that can be installed in the cold flow model in place of one of the test tubes. This arrangement allows measurements to be made non-intrusively. The velocity measuring portion used a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) for obtaining the resultant impact velocity and impact angle of the bed particles at the immersed tube surface. Mass flux was derived from the output of a high speed force transducer that measured the individual particle impact momentum signals. The above system was used successfully to measure particle impact velocities and momentum during a limited test program. Test were run in a 1 ft {times} 2 ft ambient temperature fluidized bed test facility using sand and acrylic test tubes. Measurements were taken in the center of the bed at eight circumferential location, by rotating the probe to the desired tube angle. Tube erosion data were also taken at locations corresponding to the above measurement points. The instrumentation provided a wealth of information about the internal hydrodynamics of the fluidized bed. 3 refs., 49 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Second generation pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) research and development, Phase 2 -- Task 4, carbonizer testing. Volume 1, Test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Froehlich, R.; Robertson, A.; Vanhook, J.; Goyal, A.; Rehmat, A.; Newby, R.

    1994-11-01

    During the period beginning November 1991 and ending September 1992, a series of tests were conducted at Foster Wheeler Development Corporation in a fluidized-bed coal carbonizer to determine its performance characteristics. The carbonizer was operated for 533 hours in a jetting fluidized-bed configuration during which 36 set points (steady-state periods) were achieved. Extensive data were collected on the feed and product stream compositions, heating values, temperatures, and flow rates. With these data, elemental and energy balances were computed to evaluate and confirm accuracy of the data. The carbonizer data were not as self-consistent as could be desired (balance closure imperfection). A software package developed by Science Ventures, Inc., of California, called BALAID, was used to reconcile the carbonizer data; the details of the reconciliation have been given in Volume 1 of this report. The reconciled data for the carbonizer were rigorously analyzed, correlations were developed, and the model was updated accordingly. The model was then used in simulating each of the 36 steady-state periods achieved in the pilot plant. The details are given in this Volume of the report.

  10. Beneficial use of coal combustion products continues to grow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, M.

    2008-07-01

    In August 2007 the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) released results of the Coal Combustion Products Production (CCP) and use survey. Production was 124,795,000 tons while beneficial use was 54,203,000 tons, a utilization rate of over 43%, 3% higher than in 2005. The article includes graphs of 40 years of CCP production and use and projected trade of CCP utilization until 2011. It also gives 2006 figures for Production and use of fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, FGD gypsum and other FGD products, and FBC ash. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels/Spray Combustion Spray Combustion admin 2015-10-28T02:17:06+00:00

  12. Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  13. Combustion Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  14. Pressurized fluidized bed combustion second-generation system research and development. Technical progress for Phase 2 and Phase 3, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, A.; Horazak, D.; Newby, R.; Rehmat, A.; White, J.

    1998-10-01

    When DOE funds were exhausted in March 1995, all Phase 2 activities were placed on hold. In February 1996 a detailed cost estimate was submitted to the DOE for completing the two remaining Phase 2 Multi Annular Swirl Burner (MASB) topping combustor test burns; in August 1996 release was received from METC to proceed with these tests. The first test (Test Campaign No.3) will be conducted to: (1) test the MASB at proposed demonstration plant full to minimum loading operating conditions; (2) identify the lower oxygen limit of the MASB; and (3) demonstrate natural gas to carbonizer fuel gas switching. The Livingston Phase 3 Pilot Plant was last operated under contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 in September 1995 for seven days in an integrated carbonizer-CPFBC configuration. In May, 1996, the pilot plant was transferred to Contract DE-AC22-95PC95143 to allow testing in support of the High Performance Power Systems (HIPPS) Program. The HIPPS Program required modifications to the pilot plant and the following changes were incorporated: (1) installation of a dense phase transport system for loading pulverized coal into the feed system lock hopper directly from a pneumatic transport truck; (2) removal of the char transfer pipe between the char collecting hopper and the CPFBC to allow carbonizer only operation; (3) installation of a lock hopper directly under the char collecting hopper to facilitate char removal from the process, the hopper vent gases exhaust to the carbonizer baghouse filter and the depressured char is transferred via nitrogen to the CPFBC baghouse for dumping into drums; (4) removal of the carbonizer cyclone and top of bed overflow drain line; all material elutriated from the carbonizer bed will thus be removed by the 22-element Westinghouse ceramic candle filter; (5) replacement of the carbonizer continuous bottom bed drain (screw feeder) with a batch-type drain removal system; and (6) installation of a mass spectrometer that draws sample gas via a steam jacketed

  15. Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More than 95 percent of the sulfur pollutants in coal can be captured inside the boiler by the sorbent. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) builds on earlier work in ...

  16. Characterization and analysis of metal wastage in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustors. Statistical analysis plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazemi, A.H.; Smith, E.P.

    1985-11-01

    Metal loss from in-bed heat exchangers has been a persistent problem in FBC systems. As part of its program in FBC technology development, the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) supports a number of projects directed toward providing both theoretical and experimental results which will guide solutions to the metal loss problem. As a part of this effort, METC and The MITRE Corporation began a project in 1984 to collect and analyze metal loss data from various experimental, pilot-scale, and full-scale coal-fired FBC systems worldwide. The specific objective of this effort is to investigate the effects of unit design parameters and operating conditions on metal loss through the use of regression and analysis of variance techniques. To date, forty-one FBC systems worldwide have been identified and most of the data sets which characterize the metal loss occurrences in those units have been developed. The results of MITRE's effort to date were reported earlier (Interim Report No. DOE/MC/21351-1930, August 1985). This report describes the statistical procedures that MITRE will follow to analyze FBC metal loss data. The data will be analyzed using several regression techniques to find variables related to metal loss. Correlation and single variable regressions will be used to indicate important relationships. The joint relationships between the explanatory variables and metal loss will be examined by building multiple regression models. In order to prevent erroneous conclusions, diagnostics will be performed based on partial residual plots, residual analysis, and multicollinearity statistics. 7 refs.

  17. Starting procedure for internal combustion vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Harry A.

    1978-09-26

    A vertical vessel, having a low bed of broken material, having included combustible material, is initially ignited by a plurality of ignitors spaced over the surface of the bed, by adding fresh, broken material onto the bed to buildup the bed to its operating depth and then passing a combustible mixture of gas upwardly through the material, at a rate to prevent back-firing of the gas, while air and recycled gas is passed through the bed to thereby heat the material and commence the desired laterally uniform combustion in the bed. The procedure permits precise control of the air and gaseous fuel mixtures and material rates, and permits the use of the process equipment designed for continuous operation of the vessel.

  18. Char binder for fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borio, Richard W.; Accortt, Joseph I.

    1981-01-01

    An arrangement that utilizes agglomerating coal as a binder to bond coal fines and recycled char into an agglomerate mass that will have suitable retention time when introduced into a fluidized bed 14 for combustion. The simultaneous use of coal for a primary fuel and as a binder effects significant savings in the elimination of non-essential materials and processing steps.

  19. Solids feed nozzle for fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielinski, Edward A.

    1982-01-01

    The vertical fuel pipe of a fluidized bed extends up through the perforated support structure of the bed to discharge granulated solid fuel into the expanded bed. A cap, as a deflecting structure, is supported above the discharge of the fuel pipe and is shaped and arranged to divert the carrier fluid and granulated fuel into the combusting bed. The diverter structure is spaced above the end of the fuel pipe and provided with a configuration on its underside to form a venturi section which generates a low pressure in the stream into which the granules of solid fuel are drawn to lengthen their residence time in the combustion zone of the bed adjacent the fuel pipe.

  20. Combined fluidized bed retort and combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Notestein, John E.; Mei, Joseph S.; Zeng, Li-Wen

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combined fluidized bed retorting and combustion system particularly useful for extracting energy values from oil shale. The oil-shale retort and combustor are disposed side-by-side and in registry with one another through passageways in a partition therebetween. The passageways in the partition are submerged below the top of the respective fluid beds to preclude admixing or the product gases from the two chambers. The solid oil shale or bed material is transported through the chambers by inclining or slanting the fluidizing medium distributor so that the solid bed material, when fluidized, moves in the direction of the downward slope of the distributor.

  1. 100 Hour test of the pressurized woodchip-fired gravel bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragland, K.W.; Aerts, D.J.

    1994-08-01

    Combustion of wood chips in a packed bed combustor for a gas turbine cogeneration system is described. A discussion on flue gas emissions and mass balances is included.

  2. Combustion Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The chemistry that drives combustion is a highly complicated web of reactions. To describe the combustion of a single fuel compound, say iso-octane, in full chemical detail ...

  3. Tube construction for fluidized bed combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Feo, Angelo; Hosek, William

    1984-01-01

    A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

  4. Fluidized bed combustor and tube construction therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Feo, Angelo; Hosek, William

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

  5. Sealed Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-12

    This information sheet discusses the benefits of sealed combustion appliance units in order to ensure good indoor air quality.

  6. Solid fuel feed system for a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C.

    1982-01-01

    A fluidized bed for the combustion of coal, with limestone, is replenished with crushed coal from a system discharging the coal laterally from a station below the surface level of the bed. A compartment, or feed box, is mounted at one side of the bed and its interior separated from the bed by a weir plate beneath which the coal flows laterally into the bed while bed material is received into the compartment above the plate to maintain a predetermined minimum level of material in the compartment.

  7. Fluidized bed heat exchanger utilizing angularly extending heat exchange tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Talmud, Fred M.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan-Antonio

    1980-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the fluidized bed and a series of tubes connected at one end to the steam drum. A portion of the tubes are connected to a water drum and in the path of the air and the gaseous products of combustion exiting from the bed. Another portion of the tubes pass through the bed and extend at an angle to the upper surface of the bed.

  8. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-10-26

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

  9. Method for in situ combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Shuck, Lowell Z.; Overbey, Jr., William K.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved in situ combustion method for the recovery of hydrocarbons from subterranean earth formations containing carbonaceous material. The method is practiced by penetrating the subterranean earth formation with a borehole projecting into the coal bed along a horizontal plane and extending along a plane disposed perpendicular to the plane of maximum permeability. The subterranean earth formation is also penetrated with a plurality of spaced-apart vertical boreholes disposed along a plane spaced from and generally parallel to that of the horizontal borehole. Fractures are then induced at each of the vertical boreholes which project from the vertical boreholes along the plane of maximum permeability and intersect the horizontal borehole. The combustion is initiated at the horizontal borehole and the products of combustion and fluids displaced from the earth formation by the combustion are removed from the subterranean earth formation via the vertical boreholes. Each of the vertical boreholes are, in turn, provided with suitable flow controls for regulating the flow of fluid from the combustion zone and the earth formation so as to control the configuration and rate of propagation of the combustion zone. The fractures provide a positive communication with the combustion zone so as to facilitate the removal of the products resulting from the combustion of the carbonaceous material.

  10. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielinski, Edward A.; Comparato, Joseph R.

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  11. Computational Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  12. Method for increasing the calorific value of gas produced by the in situ combustion of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of relatively high Btu gas by the in situ combustion of subterranean coal. The coal bed is penetrated with a horizontally-extending borehole and combustion is initiated in the coal bed contiguous to the borehole. The absolute pressure within the resulting combustion zone is then regulated at a desired value near the pore pressure within the coal bed so that selected quantities of water naturally present in the coal will flow into the combustion zone to effect a hydrogen and carbon monoxide-producing steam-carbon reaction with the hot carbon in the combustion zone for increasing the calorific value of the product gas.

  13. Oil shale combustion/retorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted a number of feasibility studies on the combustion and retorting of five oil shales: Celina (Tennessee), Colorado, Israeli, Moroccan, and Sunbury (Kentucky). These studies generated technical data primarily on (1) the effects of retorting conditions, (2) the combustion characteristics applicable to developing an optimum process design technology, and (3) establishing a data base applicable to oil shales worldwide. During the research program, METC applied the versatile fluidized-bed process to combustion and retorting of various low-grade oil shales. Based on METC's research findings and other published information, fluidized-bed processes were found to offer highly attractive methods to maximize the heat recovery and yield of quality oil from oil shale. The principal reasons are the fluidized-bed's capacity for (1) high in-bed heat transfer rates, (2) large solid throughput, and (3) selectivity in aromatic-hydrocarbon formation. The METC research program showed that shale-oil yields were affected by the process parameters of retorting temperature, residence time, shale particle size, fluidization gas velocity, and gas composition. (Preferred values of yields, of course, may differ among major oil shales.) 12 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

  14. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-05

    Topics covered in this presentation include: the continued importance of coal; related materials challenges; combining oxy-combustion & A-USC steam; and casting large superalloy turbine components.

  15. Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Duty/Spray Combustion Spray Combustion admin 2015-10-28T02:00:56+00:00 Optically accessible high-temperature, high-pressure spray chamber Optically accessible high-temperature, high-pressure spray chamber Fuel spray injection is expected to be one of the key elements for enabling high-efficiency, low-emission engines of the future. Understanding the details of the spray combustion process is therefore now more important than ever. But investigating engine combustion processes is

  16. Advanced Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Combustion Background Conventional coal-fired power plants utilize steam turbines to ... development of large-scale Ni-based superalloy castings for power plant applications. ...

  17. Method for in situ gasification of a subterranean coal bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-05-31

    The method of the present invention relates to providing controlled directional bores in subterranean earth formations, especially coal beds for facilitating in situ gasification operations. Boreholes penetrating the coal beds are interconnected by laser-drilled bores disposed in various arrays at selected angles to the major permeability direction in the coal bed. These laser-drilled bores are enlarged by fracturing prior to the gasification of the coal bed to facilitate the establishing of combustion zones of selected configurations in the coal bed for maximizing the efficiency of the gasification operation.

  18. Combustion Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pictured here is an animation showing the basic mechanics of how an internal combustion engine works. With support from the Energy Department, General Motors researchers developed a new technology ...

  19. Applied combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  20. Effect of fuel properties on the bottom ash generation rate by a laboratory fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W.

    2007-06-15

    The range of fuels that can be accommodated by an FBC boiler system is affected by the ability of the fuel, sorbent, and ash-handling equipment to move the required solids through the boiler. Of specific interest is the bottom ash handling equipment, which must have sufficient capacity to remove ash from the system in order to maintain a constant bed inventory level, and must have sufficient capability to cool the ash well below the bed temperature. Quantification of a fuel's bottom ash removal requirements can be useful for plant design. The effect of fuel properties on the rate of bottom ash production in a laboratory FBC test system was examined. The work used coal products ranging in ash content from 20 to 40+ wt. %. The system's classification of solids by particle size into flyash and bottom ash was characterized using a partition curve. Fuel fractions in the size range characteristic of bottom ash were further analyzed for distributions of ash content with respect to specific gravity, using float sink tests. The fuel fractions were then ashed in a fixed bed. In each case, the highest ash content fraction produced ash with the coarsest size consist (characteristic of bottom ash). The lower ash content fractions were found to produce ash in the size range characteristic of flyash, suggesting that the high ash content fractions were largely responsible for the production of bottom ash. The contributions of the specific gravity fractions to the composite ash in the fuels were quantified. The fuels were fired in the laboratory test system. Fuels with higher amounts of high specific gravity particles, in the size ranges characteristic of bottom ash, were found to produce more bottom ash, indicating the potential utility of float sink methods in the prediction of bottom ash removal requirements.

  1. Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

    1991-12-01

    Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

  2. Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

    1991-12-01

    Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

  3. Biofuels combustion*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  4. Biofuels combustion*

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acidsmore » and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.« less

  5. DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Automotive/DISI Combustion DISI Combustion admin 2015-10-28T02:06:42+00:00 DISI engine in all-metal configuration with lower oil-collection cylinder installed. DISI engine in all-metal configuration with lower oil-collection cylinder installed. In order to reduce our dependence on petroleum and to reduce CO2emissions, it is important to both supplement traditional gasoline with renewable fuels and to improve the fuel efficiency of automotive engines. Under the Energy Independence and Security

  6. DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels/DISI Combustion DISI Combustion admin 2015-10-28T02:15:13+00:00 In order to reduce our dependence on petroleum and to reduce CO2emissions, it is important to both supplement traditional gasoline with renewable fuels and to improve the fuel efficiency of automotive engines. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, the volume of renewable fuel required to be blended into transportation fuel will increase from 9 billion gallons in 2008 to 36 billion gallons by 2022. At

  7. Low-rank coal research: Volume 3, Combustion research: Final report. [Great Plains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M. D.; Hajicek, D. R.; Zobeck, B. J.; Kalmanovitch, D. P.; Potas, T. A.; Maas, D. J.; Malterer, T. J.; DeWall, R. A.; Miller, B. G.; Johnson, M. D.

    1987-04-01

    Volume III, Combustion Research, contains articles on fluidized bed combustion, advanced processes for low-rank coal slurry production, low-rank coal slurry combustion, heat engine utilization of low-rank coals, and Great Plains Gasification Plant. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  8. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spray Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Fuels Spray Combustion Spray CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:17:06+00:00 Fuel...

  9. Sandia Energy - DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DISI Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Automotive DISI Combustion DISI CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:06:42+00:00 DISI...

  10. Sandia Energy - DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DISI Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Combustion Chemistry DISI Combustion DISI CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:44:30+00:00...

  11. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spray Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Automotive Spray Combustion Spray CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:10:49+00:00...

  12. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spray Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Heavy Duty Spray Combustion Spray CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:00:56+00:00...

  13. Sandia Energy - DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DISI Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Fuels DISI Combustion DISI CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:15:13+00:00 In order to...

  14. Combustion Energy Research Fellows - Combustion Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Energy Research Fellows Combustion Energy Research Fellows Enoch Dames Co-sponsored by Professor William H. Green, MIT, Professor Ronald K. Hanson, Stanford University, ...

  15. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jukkola, Walfred W.; Leon, Albert M.; Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C.; McCoy, Daniel E.; Fisher, Barry L.; Saiers, Timothy L.; Karstetter, Marlin E.

    1981-11-24

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  16. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  17. Lightweight combustion residues-based structural materials for use in mines. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Zhang, Y.; Ghosh, A.K.; Palmer, S.R.

    1994-12-31

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a 70--80 pcf, 2,500--3,000 psi-compressive-strength cellular concrete-type product from PCC fly ash, PCC bottom ash, and/or FBC spent bed ash alone or in suitable combination thereof. The developed combustion residue-based lightweight structural material will be used to replace wooden posts and crib members in underground mines. This report outlines the work completed in the first quarter of the project. The density gradient centrifuge (DGC) has been used to separate a power plant fly ash sample into fractions of different density. Each of the fly ash fractions obtained by DGC, an aliquot of the unseparated fly ash and an aliquot of a magnetic component of the fly ash, were digested in strong acids following the procedures outlined in ASTM 3050. Preliminary experiments have also been carried out to study the effect of mix proportions and curing regimes on the strength and density on the developed material. The DGC separation test reveals that most of the fly ash sample (approx. 90%) has a density above 1.9 g/cm{sup 3}. Indeed, nearly half of the sample has a density greater than 2.4 g/cm{sup 3}. Since only a very small amount of this fly ash has a reasonably low specific gravity, it appears unlikely at this time that enough low density material would be isolated to significantly enhance lightweight concrete production using fractionated material. A series of mixes have been made using fly ash, sodium silicate, cement, sand and water. Preliminary tests show that both cement and sodium silicate can be used as the binders to develop residues-based lightweight concrete. To date, compressive strength as high as 1,290 psi have been achieved with a density of 133 pcf, with 50 g of cement, 50 g of fly ash and 300 g of sand. Most of the work during the first quarter was done to understand the characteristics of the component materials.

  18. Fundamentals of fluidized bed chemical processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical processes based on the use of fluidized solids, although widely used on an industrial scale for some four decades, are currently increasing in importance as industry looks for improved methods for handling and reacting solid materials. This book provides background necessary for an understanding of the technique of gas-solid fluidization. Contents: Some Fundamental Aspects of Fluidization-General Features of Gas-Solid Fluidization; Minimum Fluidization Velocity; Inter-particle forces; Liquid-Solid Fluidization; Bubbles; Slugging; Entrainment and Elutriation; Particle Movement; Bed Viscosity; Fluidization Under Pressure. Fluidized-Bed Reactor Models-ome Individual Models; Model Comparisons; Multiple Region Models. Catalytic Cracking-Process Developments Riser Cracking; Catalysis; Process Chemistry; Kinetics; Process Models. Combustion and Gasification-Plant Developments; Oil and Gas Combustion; Desulphurization; No/sub x/ Emissions; Coal Gassification. Miscellaneous Processes-Phthalic Anhydride (1,3-isobezofurandione); Acrylonitrile (prop-3-enenitrile); Vinyl Chloride (chloroethene); Titanium Dioxide; Uranium Processing; Sulphide Roasting; Indexes.

  19. Regenerative combustion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  20. Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  1. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  2. Engine Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engine Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  3. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and ...

  4. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1992-01-01

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g. organic and medical waste, drying, calcining and the like.

  5. Particle withdrawal from fluidized bed systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salvador, Louis A.; Andermann, Ronald E.; Rath, Lawrence K.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for removing ash formed within, and accumulated at the lower portion of, a fluidized bed coal gasification reactor vessel. A supplemental fluidizing gas, at a temperature substantially less than the average fluidized bed combustion operating temperature, is injected into the vessel and upwardly through the ash so as to form a discrete thermal interface region between the fluidized bed and the ash. The elevation of the interface region, which rises with ash accumulation, is monitored by a thermocouple and interrelated with a motor controlled outlet valve. When the interface rises above the temperature indicator, the valve opens to allow removal of some of the ash, and the valve is closed, or positioned at a minimum setting, when the interface drops to an elevation below that of the thermocouple.

  6. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitrolo, Augustine A.; Mei, Joseph S.; Shang, Jerry Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  7. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.; Eddings, E.; Lighty, J.; Ring, T.; Smith, P.; Thornock, J.; Y Jia, W. Morris; Pedel, J.; Rezeai, D.; Wang, L.; Zhang, J.; Kelly, K.

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  8. Advanced Combustion FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Q: What is advanced combustion? A: State-of-the-art, coal-fired boilers use air for the ... Q: What could an advanced combustion power plant look like? A: An oxy-combustion power ...

  9. Co-combustion of pellets from Soma lignite and waste dusts of furniture works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deveci, N.D.; Yilgin, M.; Pehlivan, D.

    2008-07-01

    In this work, volatiles and char combustion behaviors of the fuel pellets prepared from a low quality lignite and the dusts of furniture works and their various blends were investigated in an experimental fixed bed combustion system through which air flowed by natural convection. Combustion data obtained for varied bed temperatures, mass of pellets, and blend compositions has showed that ignition times of the pellets decreased and volatiles combustion rates tended to increase with the burning temperature. It was concluded that some synergy had existed between lignite and lower ratios of furniture work dusts, which was indicated by a prompt effect on the volatiles combustion rates. Char combustion rates of blend pellets have depended predominantly on the amount of lignite in the blend. The amounts of combustion residues of the pellets were considerably higher than those calculated from individual ash contents of the raw materials and related to lignite ratio in the blends.

  10. Pressurized Combustion and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... However, properly designing new pressurized combustion burners and boilers requires accurate data on coal devolatilization and combustion rates under these conditions. Similarly, ...

  11. Combustion Energy Postdoctoral Research Fellowships - Combustion Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontier Research Center Application Schedule Sample Projects How to Apply Combustion Energy Research Fellows 2016 Combustion Summer School News, Events & Publications Contact CEFRC CEFRC In Pictures CEFRC Intranet (Members Only) Home » Combustion Energy Postdoctoral Research Fellowships Program Description Two-year positions as Combustion Energy Research Fellows are available for co-sponsored postdoctoral or more senior research associates to perform joint, high-risk/high-payoff

  12. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.

    1993-01-01

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  13. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  14. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, L.K.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising; a rotary compressor mechanism; a rotary expander mechanism; and combustion chamber means disposed between the compressor mechanism and the expander mechanism, whereby compressed air is delivered to the combustion chamber through the compressor discharge port, and pressurized gas is delivered from the combustion chamber into the expander mechanism through the pressurized gas intake port.

  15. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of each position within the Combustion Byproducts Recyclcing Consortium.

  16. Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L

    2014-12-16

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boiler-Turbine-Generator (BTG) units and a 5.times.5 CFB combustion process of advanced boilers. Those boilers include Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  17. Effects of effluents of coal combustion and gasification upon lung structure and function. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinton, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to correlate both structural and functional alterations in cells and tissues of the lung brought about by exposure to fluidized bed combustion and fixed bed gasification effluents and reagent grade oxides of metals known to be associated with coal combustion gasification. Projected milestones are described. Progress during the first year in setting up aerosol exposure facilities, intratracheal instillations, pulmonary mechanics, and morphometric examinations is reported. (DMC)

  18. Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Combustion To develop a more thorough understanding of combustion, scientists and engineers must be able to analyze the interaction of many different chemical species at high temperatures and pressures. Making combustion more efficient requires a holistic view of chemical reactions that integrate theoretical and applied chemistry, physics, and advanced computing. Combustion research at Argonne emphasizes studies of the dynamics and rates of gas-phase chemical reactions and the

  19. Development and applications of clean coal fluidized bed technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eskin, N.; Hepbasli, A.

    2006-09-15

    Power generation in Europe and elsewhere relies heavily on coal and coal-based fuels as the source of energy. The reliance will increase in the future due to the decreasing stability of price and security of oil supply. In other words, the studies on fluidized bed combustion systems, which is one of the clean coal technologies, will maintain its importance. The main objective of the present study is to introduce the development and the applications of the fluidized bed technology (FBT) and to review the fluidized bed combustion studies conducted in Turkey. The industrial applications of the fluidized bed technology in the country date back to the 1980s. Since then, the number of the fluidized bed boilers has increased. The majority of the installations are in the textile sector. In Turkey, there is also a circulating fluidized bed thermal power plant with a capacity of 2 x 160 MW under construction at Can in Canakkale. It is expected that the FBT has had, or will have, a significant and increasing role in dictating the energy strategies for Turkey.

  20. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  1. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1997-08-05

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

  2. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-Ching; Newby, Richard A.; Lippert, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

  3. Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waryasz, Richard E.

    1984-01-01

    A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

  4. Advanced Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Advanced Combustion Combustion engines drive a large percentage of our nation's transportation vehicles and power generation and manufacturing facilities. Today's...

  5. Metal wastage in fluidized-bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podolski, W.F.; Reimann, K.J.; Swift, W.M.; Carls, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and status of a cooperative research joint venture on metal wastage in fluidized bed combustors. The participants are the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Argonne National Laboratory, Electric Power Research Institute, State of Illinois Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal, Tennessee Valley Authority, ASEA Babcock, Combustion Engineering, and Foster Wheeler. Tasks are being carried out in three main technical areas: (1) hydrodynamic and erosion modeling (the subject of a separate paper), (2) erosion monitor development, and (3) experimental testing and model validation. The latter two areas are discussed in this paper. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  7. Pressurized fluidized bed combustion low temperature cycle demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, D.K.

    1984-06-01

    The merits of the turbocharged PFBC cycle are well known. Brown Boveri have been working in the past on a concept to commercialize this technology. As the leader of a team, with Foster Wheeler, Burns and Roe and Research Cottrell, Brown Boveri have conceived a turbocharged PFBC retrofit demonstration plant (20 MWe/40 MWe, net heat rate 11,000 BTU/kWh) which is discussed below. Several old power stations in the USA have small coal-fired electric generatin units which are inactive. The boilers are usually unreliable and their overhauling is uneconomical. The balance of the systems is quite often in a relatively good condition. In this retrofit concept the existing conventional boiler is replaced by a field-assembled PFBC steam generator with pneumatic feed system. It is considered that the steam turbogenerator with its complete condensing plant, together with the coal handling and the storage system can be used. The estimated total construction cost for the retrofit installation amounts to $28,000,000 for the 20 MWe and to $40,200,000 for the 40 MWe plant. This price is accurate to within plus/minus 20%. An extrapolation of these costs for a 80 MWe retrofit unit using barge transport for shop-fabricated and assembled components and applying coal-water slurry feed system result in an investment cost of $600/kW approximately. The cost of a retrofit plant looks attractive and indicates that the PFBC turbocharged cycle is economical compared to the conventional plant with FGD, as has been reported before. Improved cost prediction for a 80 MWe unit is only possible if a conceptual design is carried out.

  8. Technical evaluation: pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COMBUSTORS; TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT; ECONOMICS; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; PERFORMANCE; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; DESIGN; EFFICIENCY; GAS TURBINES; HOT GAS CLEANUP; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; ...

  9. Technical evaluation: pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report Number(s): ANLFE-81-65 ON: DE82014903 DOE Contract Number: W-31-109-ENG-38 Resource Type: Technical Report Resource Relation: Other Information: Portions of document are ...

  10. Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  11. Tapered bed bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  12. Ancient Salt Beds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Salt Beds Dr. Jack Griffith The key to the search for life on other planets may go through WIPP's ancient salt beds. In 2008, a team of scientists led by Jack Griffith, from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, retrieved salt samples from the WIPP underground and studied them with a transmission electron microscopy lab at the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. In examining fluid inclusions in the salt and solid halite

  13. Sea bed mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sleath, J.F.A.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a discussion on sea bed processes with engineering applications. It brings together the material currently available only in technical reports of research papers. It provides formulae and background references necessary for design calculation of problems such as sea bed or coastal erosion, and sub-marine pipeline stability. It also covers dissipation of wave energy, formation of ripples and dunes, and the transportation of sediments.

  14. Control of bed height in a fluidized bed gasification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehta, Gautam I.; Rogers, Lynn M.

    1983-12-20

    In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the height of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed height which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.

  15. NO reduction in decoupling combustion of biomass and biomass-coal blend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Dong; Shiqiu Gao; Wenli Song; Jinghai Li; Guangwen Xu

    2009-01-15

    Biomass is a form of energy that is CO{sub 2}-neutral. However, NOx emissions in biomass combustion are often more than that of coal on equal heating-value basis. In this study, a technology called decoupling combustion was investigated to demonstrate how it reduces NO emissions in biomass and biomass-coal blend combustion. The decoupling combustion refers to a two-step combustion method, in which fuel pyrolysis and the burning of char and pyrolysis gas are separated and the gas burns out during its passage through the burning-char bed. Tests in a quartz dual-bed reactor demonstrated that, in decoupling combustion, NO emissions from biomass and biomass-coal blends were both less than those in traditional combustion and that NO emission from combustion of blends of biomass and coal decreased with increasing biomass percentage in the blend. Co-firing rice husk and coal in a 10 kW stove manufactured according to the decoupling combustion technology further confirmed that the decoupling combustion technology allows for truly low NO emission as well as high efficiency for burning biomass and biomass-coal blends, even in small-scale stoves and boilers. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  17. Status of the fluidized bed unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, P.M.; Wade, J.F.

    1994-06-01

    Rocky Flats has a serious mixed waste problem. No technology or company has a license and available facilities to remedy this dilemma. One solution under study is to use a catalytic fluidized bed unit to destroy the combustible portion of the mixed waste. The fluidized bed thermal treatment program at Rocky Flats is building on knowledge gained over twenty years of successful development activity. The FBU has numerous technical advantages over other thermal technologies to treat Rocky Flats` mixed waste, the largest being the lower temperature (700{degrees}C versus 1000{degrees}C) which reduces acid corrosion and mechanical failures and obviates the need for ceramic lining. Successful demonstrations have taken place on bench, pilot, and full-scale tests using radioactive mixed wastes. The program is approaching implementation and licensing of a production-scale fluidized bed system for the safe treatment of mixed waste. The measure for success on this project is the ability to work closely with the community to jointly solve problems and respond to concerns of mixed waste treatment at Rocky Flats.

  18. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  19. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  20. Comparative results of the combustion of lignin briquettes and black coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.G. Lurii

    2008-12-15

    A new type of biofuel - hydrolytic lignin briquettes - was tested as compared with ordinary SS coal from the Kuznetsk Basin in fuel-bed firing in a Universal-6 boiler. It was found that the (total) efficiency of the boiler with the firing of lignin briquettes was 38% higher than that with the use of black coal. Carbon loss in the combustion of briquettes was 1%, whereas it was 48.2% in the combustion of black coal. The emission of harmful gas pollutants into the environment in the combustion of briquettes was lower than that in the combustion of coal by a factor of 4.5.

  1. Effect of bed pressure drop on performance of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Shi Yang; Guangxi Yue; Jun Su; Zhiping Fu

    2009-05-15

    The effect of bed pressure drop and bed inventory on the performances of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was studied. By using the state specification design theory, the fluidization state of the gas-solids flow in the furnace of conventional CFB boilers was reconstructed to operate at a much lower bed pressure drop by reducing bed inventory and control bed quality. Through theoretical analysis, it was suggested that there would exist a theoretical optimal value of bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan energy consumption. The analysis was validated by field tests carried out in a 75 t/h CFB boiler. At full boiler load, when bed pressure drop was reduced from 7.3 to 3.2 kPa, the height of the dense zone in the lower furnace decreased, but the solid suspension density profile in the upper furnace and solid flow rate were barely influenced. Consequently, the average heat transfer coefficient in the furnace was kept nearly the same and the furnace temperature increment was less than 17{sup o}C. It was also found that the carbon content in the fly ash decreased first with decreasing bed pressure drop and then increased with further increasing bed pressure drop. The turning point with minimal carbon content was referred to as the point with optimal bed pressure drop. For this boiler, at the optimum point the bed pressure was around 5.7 kPa with the overall excess air ratio of 1.06. When the boiler was operated around this optimal point, not only the combustion efficiency was improved, but also fan energy consumption and wear of heating surface were reduced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Staged fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  3. Fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery system development: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patch, K.D.; Cole, W.E.

    1988-06-01

    A major energy loss in industry is the heat content of the flue gases from industrial process heaters. One effective way to utilize the energy, which is applicable to all processes, is to preheat the combustion air for the process heater. Although recuperators are available to preheat this air when the flue gases are clean, recuperators to recover the heat from dirty and corrosive flue gases do not exist. The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) system is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, recirculating alumina particles are heated by the flue gas in a raining bed. The hot particles are then removed from the bed and placed in a fluidized bed where they are fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is preheated. The cooled particles are then returned to the raining bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry. In this final report, the design, development, fabrication, and installation of a full-scale FBWHR system is detailed.

  4. Carbonaceous fuel combustion with improved desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY); Shen, Ming-shing (Rocky Point, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides adsorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. The iron oxide present in the spent limestone is found to catalyze the regeneration rate of the spent limestone in a reducing environment. Thus both the calcium and iron components may be recycled.

  5. Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halow, J.S.

    1999-04-20

    The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction. 1 fig.

  6. Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halow, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction.

  7. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  8. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2008-10-21

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  9. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perrin, G.; Bergmann, H.

    1984-06-12

    An externally auto-ignited four-stroke internal combustion engine which includes a combustion chamber disposed in an upper surface of a piston such that, in an upper dead-center position of the piston, the combustion chamber receives almost all of the fuel-air mixture. The combustion chamber includes a planar bottom portion and has a cross-sectional shape of a truncated cone expanding in a direction of the cylinder head. The internal combustion engine also includes a recess or depression provided in the cylinder head and disposed eccentrically with respect to a longitudinal center axis of the cylinder. The depression or recess in the cylinder head has the shape of a truncated cone expanding in a direction of the piston, with a spark plug projecting or penetrating into the recess or depression in the cylinder head. In order to enable the achievement of good combustion, increased overall engine performance, and the minimum amount of harmful components in the exhaust gases from the engine when different types of fuel are used, predetermined constructional parameters are selected with respect to the combustion chamber and recess or depression disposed above the combustion chamber as well as the disposition of the combustion chamber with respect to a longitudinal center axis of the cylinder.

  10. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi; Hisashi , Bool, III; Lawrence E.

    2007-06-05

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  11. Combustion Research Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Predictive Simulation of Engines Transportation Energy Consortiums Engine Combustion ... Schematic representation of the experimental set-up. Shown in the figure is the jet-stirre...

  12. Supersonic combustion engine and method of combustion initiation and distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickler, D.B.; Ballantyne, A.; Kyuman Jeong.

    1993-06-29

    A supersonic combustion ramjet engine having a combustor with a combustion zone intended to channel gas flow at relatively high speed therethrough, the engine comprising: means for substantially continuously supplying fuel into the combustion zone; and means for substantially instantaneously igniting a volume of fuel in the combustion zone for providing a spatially controlled combustion distribution, the igniting means having means for providing a diffuse discharge of energy into the volume, the volume extending across a substantially complete cross-sectional area of the combustion zone, the means for discharging energy being capable of generating free radicals within the volume of reactive fuel in the combustion zone such that fuel in the volume can initiate a controlled relatively rapid combustion of fuel in the combustion zone whereby combustion distribution in relatively high speed gas flows through the combustion zone can be initiated and controlled without dependence upon a flame holder or relatively high local static temperature in the combustion zone.

  13. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  14. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  15. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  16. National SCADA Test Bed

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) is a one-of-a-kind national resource that draws on the integrated expertise and capabilities of the Argonne, Idaho, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories to address the cybersecurity challenges of energy delivery systems.

  17. 2016 Combustion Summer School - Combustion Energy Frontier Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    To provide the next generation of combustion researchers with a comprehensive knowledge in the technical areas of combustion theory, experiment, computation, fundamentals, and ...

  18. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  19. Particle Ignition and Char Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... reactivity of lignin residues that remain after biomass is processed and on quantifying the residue's ignition delay and char combustion rates during oxy-fuel combustion of coal. ...

  20. Plum Combustion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plum Combustion Place: Atlanta, Georgia Product: Combustion technology, which reduces NOx-emissions. Coordinates: 33.748315, -84.391109 Show Map Loading map......

  1. Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbulent combustion simulations, which provide input to the design of more fuel-efficient ... simulations, which play an important role in designing more efficient combustion systems. ...

  2. Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stroke boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, Kenneth L.

    1980-01-01

    A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the fuel bed is maintained at a depth sufficient to consume all oxygen admitted under fire and to insure a continuous layer of fresh fuel thereover to entrap charred particles inside the fuel bed.

  3. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith, Raymond E.

    1991-10-01

    Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute's decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

  4. Nonisothermal particle modeling of municipal solid waste combustion with heavy metal vaporization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazza, G.; Falcoz, Q.; Gauthier, D.; Flamant, G.; Soria, J.

    2010-12-15

    A particulate model was developed for municipal solid-waste incineration in a fluidized bed combining solid-waste-particle combustion and heavy metal vaporization from the burning particles. Based on a simpler, isothermal version presented previously, this model combines an asymptotic-combustion model for carbonaceous-solid combustion and a shrinking-core model to describe the heavy metal vaporization phenomenon, in which the particle is now considered nonisothermal. A parametric study is presented that shows the influence of temperature on the global metal-vaporization process. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained with a lab-scale fluid bed incinerator and to the results of the simpler isothermal model. It is shown that conduction in the particle strongly affects the variation of the vaporization rate with time and that the present version of the model well fits both the shape of the plots and the maximum heavy metal vaporization rates for all bed temperatures. (author)

  5. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2011-07-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This work focused on two classes of oxygen carrier, one that merely undergoes a change in oxidation state, such as Fe3O4/Fe2O3 and one that is converted from its higher to its lower oxidation state by the release of oxygen on heating, i.e., CuO/Cu2O. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification (3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratory-scale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability (4) the identification of mechanisms and rates for the copper, cuprous oxide, and cupric oxide system using thermogravimetric analysis.

  6. Co-combustion feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handcock, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report investigates the technical and economic feasibility of co-combusting municipal sewage sludge produced by the Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1 with paper mill sludge produced by the Cottrell Paper Company, Encore Paper Company, International Paper Company, Mohawk Paper Mills, and TAGSONS Papers at the Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1`s secondary wastewater treatment plant and recovering any available energy products. The co-combustion facility would consist of sludge and wood chip storage and conveying systems, belt filter presses, screw presses, fluidized-bed incinerators, venturi scrubbers and tray cooling systems, ash dewatering facilities, heat recovery steam generators, gas-fired steam superheaters, and a back-pressure steam turbine system. Clean waste wood chips would be used as an auxiliary fuel in the fluidized-bed incinerators. It is recommended that the ash produced by the proposed facility be beneficially used, potentially as a raw material in the manufacture of cement and/or as an interim barrier layer in landfills.

  7. Staged fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G.

    1984-01-01

    Method and apparatus for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  8. Experimental and theoretical investigation on the mechanism of transient bubble images in fluidized-bed combustors: Systematic interpretation and analysis. Final report, July 1992--July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hisashi O. Kono

    1995-08-01

    For the improvement of the design and operation of the FBC systems, the insight into the intrinsic transient bubbling phenomena in freely bubbling fluidized beds is of vital importance. The authors have found several basic new bubbling mechanisms in this work experimentally, and some of them have not been published in past literature. Using the two dimensional fluidized bed, the images of transient bubbling behavior were recorded by videos, and processed and analyzed by computers. As the results of experiments, the following new experimental facts were found: (1) transient bubbles change and fluctuate their size and shape over very short time intervals (on the order of 30 milliseconds); (2) bubble disappearance and reappearance occurred in the emulsion phase in addition to the known phenomena of coalescence and splitting. The bubble interaction occurred between the bubbles and adjacent emulsion phase and also among the transient bubbles; (3) bubble`s velocity fluctuated significantly, e.g., 0.6 to 3.0 m/s; (4) under one single specific fluidization condition, two different fluidization patterns appeared to occur randomly shifting from one pattern to the other or vice versa; (5) the erosion rates of in-bed tubes at ambient and elevated temperature could be predicted using material property data and transient behavior of bubbles. By introducing a new quantitative criterion which the authors call a gas stress index in the emulsion phase, the comparison of the fluidization quality between two and three dimensional fluidized beds was accomplished. They found reasonable correspondence between the two beds, and concluded that the new findings of transient bubble behavior should hold true for both types of fluidized beds. 32 refs., 85 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Stratified cross combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoads, J.L.

    1981-06-23

    A piston engine is provided in which adjacent cylinder pairs share a common combustion chamber and the pistons are mounted to reciprocate substantially in phase, one of the pistons in each piston pair receiving a rich mixture which is ignited by a sparkplug in that cylinder, with the other cylinder in the cylinder pair being passive in its preferred form, and receiving through a separate intake valve either pure air or a leaner mixture into which the combusted richer mixture pours, insuring that the greatest combustion possible resulting in the greatest percentage of carbon dioxide formation as opposed to carbon monoxide is created.

  10. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ...