National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for bed boiler opposed

  1. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  2. Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osborn, Liman D.

    1976-12-14

    A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

  3. Wood fuel in fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of fluidized bed fire-tube and water-tube boilers for the burning of wood, gas, and refuse-derived fuel will be reviewed. Experience gained in already installed plants will be outlined. Research experiments results on the use of various forms of wood and other biomass fuels, such as wood chips, pellets, peach pits, nut shells and kernels and refuse-derived fuels, will be described for small and medium sized fire-tube boilers, and for larger water-tube boilers for co-generation. (Refs. 4).

  4. Rivesville multicell fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    One objective of the experimental MFB at Rivesville, WV, was the evaluation of alternate feed systems for injecting coal and limestone into a fluidized bed. A continuous, uniform feed flow to the fluid bed is essential in order to maintain stable operations. The feed system originally installed on the MFB was a gravity feed system with an air assist to help overcome the back pressure created by the fluid bed. The system contained belt, vibrating, and rotary feeders which have been proven adequate in other material handling applications. This system, while usable, had several operational and feeding problems during the MFB testing. A major portion of these problems occurred because the coal and limestone feed control points - a belt feeder and rotary feeder, respectively - were pressurized in the air assist system. These control points were not designed for pressurized service. An alternate feed system which could accept feed from the two control points, split the feed into six equal parts and eliminate the problems of the pressurized system was sought. An alternate feed system designed and built by the Fuller Company was installed and tested at the Rivesville facility. Fuller feed systems were installed on the north and south side of C cell at the Rivesville facility. The systems were designed to handle 10,000 lb/hr of coal and limestone apiece. The systems were installed in late 1979 and evaluated from December 1979 to December 1980. During this time period, nearly 1000 h of operating time was accumulated on each system.

  5. Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L

    2014-12-16

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boiler-Turbine-Generator (BTG) units and a 5.times.5 CFB combustion process of advanced boilers. Those boilers include Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  6. Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waryasz, Richard E.

    1984-01-01

    A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

  7. Standby cooling system for a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crispin, Larry G.; Weitzel, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    A system for protecting components including the heat exchangers of a fluidized bed boiler against thermal mismatch. The system includes an injection tank containing an emergency supply of heated and pressurized feedwater. A heater is associated with the injection tank to maintain the temperature of the feedwater in the tank at or about the same temperature as that of the feedwater in the heat exchangers. A pressurized gas is supplied to the injection tank to cause feedwater to flow from the injection tank to the heat exchangers during thermal mismatch.

  8. Circulating fluidized-bed boiler makes inroads for waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boilers have ben used for years in Scandinavia to burn refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Now, Foster Wheeler Power Systems, Inc., (Clinton, N.J.) is bringing the technology to the US. Touted as the world`s largest waste-to-energy plant to use CFB technology, the Robbins (III.) Resource Recovery Facility will have the capacity to process 1,600 tons/d of municipal solid waste (MSW) when it begins operation in early 1997. The facility will have two materials-separation and RDF-processing trains, each with dual trommel screens, magnetic and eddy current separators, and shredders. About 25% of the incoming MSW will be sorted and removed for recycling, while 75% of it will be turned into fuel, with a heat value of roughly 6,170 btu/lb. Once burned in the twin CFB boilers the resulting steam will be routed through a single turbine generator to produce 50,000 mW of electric power.

  9. Effect of bed pressure drop on performance of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Shi Yang; Guangxi Yue; Jun Su; Zhiping Fu

    2009-05-15

    The effect of bed pressure drop and bed inventory on the performances of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was studied. By using the state specification design theory, the fluidization state of the gas-solids flow in the furnace of conventional CFB boilers was reconstructed to operate at a much lower bed pressure drop by reducing bed inventory and control bed quality. Through theoretical analysis, it was suggested that there would exist a theoretical optimal value of bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan energy consumption. The analysis was validated by field tests carried out in a 75 t/h CFB boiler. At full boiler load, when bed pressure drop was reduced from 7.3 to 3.2 kPa, the height of the dense zone in the lower furnace decreased, but the solid suspension density profile in the upper furnace and solid flow rate were barely influenced. Consequently, the average heat transfer coefficient in the furnace was kept nearly the same and the furnace temperature increment was less than 17{sup o}C. It was also found that the carbon content in the fly ash decreased first with decreasing bed pressure drop and then increased with further increasing bed pressure drop. The turning point with minimal carbon content was referred to as the point with optimal bed pressure drop. For this boiler, at the optimum point the bed pressure was around 5.7 kPa with the overall excess air ratio of 1.06. When the boiler was operated around this optimal point, not only the combustion efficiency was improved, but also fan energy consumption and wear of heating surface were reduced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Use of a polishing scrubber with a fluid bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toher, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    Once viewed as {open_quotes}competitive{close_quotes} technologies, the circulating dry scrubber (CDS){reg_sign} and circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler are being used together to achieve enhanced performance with lower overall costs. The need to understand the synergy between these two technologies is driven by deregulation of the power industry and the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Deregulation of power production in the US has spurred the growth of Independent Power Producers (IPP) who are responding to Industry`s demand for lower cost fuels, and close attention to annual operating costs. Utilities have to provide {open_quotes}open{close_quotes} access to their transmission lines allowing various IPP`s to connect with the end user. Industrial users can now choose from one of several sources of electricity with prices per kilowatt hour that are much lower than what they are currently being charged. The race is on to reduce power production costs and fuel can be the key in many cases. IPP`s and industry are banding together in very logical ways that can benefit both. Industry`s byproducts with heating value can be sold {open_quotes}over the fence{close_quotes} to an IPP who provides the industry with low cost steam and or electricity in return. However, many alternative lower cost fuels also have a higher emissions potential for criteria pollutants such a SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, particulate, or other emissions such as VOC`s and mercury which are more recently receiving attention. Cost effective management of these environmental issues must be an integral part of the project planning process. Three such cases are examined that involve the use of CFB`s with the CDS{reg_sign} as a polishing scrubber for SO{sub 2}. The first two cases involve repowering of existing facilities with petroleum coke as the fuel. The last case involves a new facility powered with low sulfur coal.

  11. Combine waste-to-energy, recycling with fluid-bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    This article describes a plant that will be the first to incorporate a fluidized-bed boiler to burn refuse-derived fuel exclusively. An effective long-term solid-waste management program will soon be a reality for Bladen, Cumberland, and Hoke counties, North Carolina. The key element of the program is a 600-ton/day waste-to-energy (WTE) facility, scheduled to begin commercial operation later this year. The BCH Energy project, which gets its name from the initials of the three counties it serves, will become the first fluidized-bed boiler in the US designed to be fueled solely by refuse-derived fuel (RDF). As such, it provides an innovative and efficient approach to solid-waste management in several ways: (1) Maximizes community participation in a recovery and recycling effort. (2) Maximizes additional waste handling and hauling efforts. (3) Significantly reducing waste flow into landfill. (4) Eliminating use of fossil fuel for a nearby chemical plant`s energy load. (5) Substantially improves air quality through use of the latest combustion and emissions control technology.

  12. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department

  13. Combine waste-to-energy, recycling with fluid-bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    An effective long-term solid-waste management program will soon be a reality for Bladen, Cumberland, and Hoke counties, North Carolina. The key element of the program is a 600-ton/day waste-to-energy (WTE) facility, scheduled to begin commercial operation later this year. The BCH Energy project, which gets its name from the initials of the three counties it serves, will become the first fluidized-bed boiler in the US designed to be fueled solely by refuse-derived fuel (RDF). As such, it provides an innovative and efficient approach to solid-waste management in several ways: (1) maximimizes community participation in a recovery and recycling effort; (2) maximizes additional waste handling and hauling efforts; (3) significantly reducing waste flow into landfill; (4) eliminating use of fossil fuel for a nearby chemical plant`s energy load; and (5) substantially improves air quality through use of the latest combustoin and emissions control technology.

  14. Combustion of liquid paint wastes in fluidized bed boiler as element of waste management system in the paint factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soko, W.A.; Biaecka, B.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the solution to waste problems in the paint industry is presented by describing their combustion in a fluidized bed boiler as a part of the waste management system in the paint factory. Based on the Cleaner Production idea and concept of integration of design process with a future exploitation of equipment, some modifications of the waste management scheme in the factory are discussed to reduce the quantity of toxic wastes. To verify this concept combustion tests of paint production wastes and cocombustion of paint wastes with coal in an adopted industrial boiler were done. Results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  15. Design and performance requirements for a fluidized bed boiler firing municipal refuse derived fuel in Ravenna, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M.L.

    1999-07-01

    In early 1998, the City of Ravenna, Italy, commissioned a fluid bed boiler/waste-to-energy system to combust approximately 50,000 tonnes per year of processed municipal waste and generate electrical power. Much of the fuel preparation and processing equipment was already in place and the primary focus of this project was to implement an environmentally acceptable energy conversion process compatible with the 6.0 tonnes/hr of fuel being processed. The fluid bed boiler system being provided will incorporate state of the art environmental controls for abatement of all pollutants, including products of incomplete combustion (PICs), NO{sub x}, acid gases, and particulates. The project will deliver an average of 70,000 pounds per hour of steam to generate approximately 7 MW of electricity. The following is a description of the process and equipment being utilized for the energy conversion and boiler island, including the environmental abatement equipment. Design specifications for the plant including fuel and emission limits are presented herein. The facility is scheduled for startup in mid-1999.

  16. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C.

    1982-01-01

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  17. PFBC (pressurized fluidized bed combustion) turbocharged boiler design and economic study: Volume 1, Executive summary: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    A coal combustion technology that promises to reduce the cost of electrical power is pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). Since a PFBC boiler is physically smaller than a conventional pulverized coal fired boiler with a flue gas desulfurization system (PC/FGD) and the same power rating shop assembly and modularized shipment to the power plant site can be considered. Modular construction can substantially reduce the overall design/construction time. Emission controls are equivalent to, or better than, conventional PC/FGD units, and the PFBC combustor can tolerate coals with a wider range of characteristics. Two PFBC plants and the reference PC/FGD plant were each to have four nominal 250 MW(e) units to be completed for start-up at one year intervals. To establish a well defined consistent design basis for all units, the turbine-generator and steam cycle of a recently constructed 250 MW(e) unit (designed by Fluor and built under Fluor construction management) was selected and made the common element in both of the PFBC plants and the reference PC/FGD plant. Steam conditions of 2400 psia, 1000/sup 0/F were to be identical for all units as were the steam flows for the design load range of 50% to steam turbine valves-wide-open with inlet steam pressure 5% over design pressure (VWO 5% OP). The study produced three plant designs - a 4-unit turbocharged PFBC using bubbling bed technology, a 4-unit turbocharged PFBC using circulating bed technology, and a 4-unit PC/FGD reference plant using conventional pulverized coal technology coupled with wet limestone scrubber technology. The hot gas clean-up system, operating at these more modest temperatures, is capable of reducing the particulate in the gas to a level which meets EPA/NSPS standards without further cleanup. With this level of cleanup, service conditions for the turbocharger turbine are tolerable in commercially available designs and materials. 48 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; Rhett McLaren; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz; Joseph J. Battista

    2003-03-26

    The Pennsylvania State University, utilizing funds furnished by the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, investigated the installation of a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The study was performed using a team that included personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. The activities included assessing potential feedstocks at the University Park campus and surrounding region with an emphasis on biomass materials, collecting and analyzing potential feedstocks, assessing agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion tendencies, identifying the optimum location for the boiler system through an internal site selection process, performing a three circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler design and a 15-year boiler plant transition plan, determining the costs associated with installing the boiler system, developing a preliminary test program, determining the associated costs for the test program, and exploring potential emissions credits when using the biomass CFB boiler.

  19. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke; Joseph J. Battista

    2001-03-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives.

  20. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke

    2001-10-12

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels.

  1. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

    2002-07-12

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives.

  2. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

    2002-10-14

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, the final technical design and cost estimate were submitted to Penn State by Foster Wheeler. In addition, Penn State initiated the internal site selection process to finalize the site for the boiler plant.

  3. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke

    2001-07-13

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, work focused on completing the biofuel characterization and the design of the conceptual fluidized bed system.

  4. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Curtis Jawdy

    2000-10-09

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal or coal refuse, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and Cofiring Alternatives. The major emphasis of work during this reporting period was to assess the types and quantities of potential feedstocks and collect samples of them for analysis. Approximately twenty different biomass, animal waste, and other wastes were collected and analyzed.

  5. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUID BED BOILERS (Phase II--Evaluation of the Oxyfuel CFB Concept)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John L. Marion; Nsakala ya Nsakala

    2003-11-09

    The overall project goal is to determine if carbon dioxide can be captured and sequestered at a cost of about $10/ton of carbon avoided, using a newly constructed Circulating Fluidized Bed combustor while burning coal with a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, instead of air. This project is structured in two Phases. Phase I was performed between September 28, 2001 and May 15, 2002. Results from Phase I were documented in a Topical Report issued on May 15, 2003 (Nsakala, et al., 2003), with the recommendation to evaluate, during Phase II, the Oxyfuel-fired CFB concept. DOE NETL accepted this recommendation, and, hence approved the project continuation into Phase II. Phase 2. The second phase of the project--which includes pilot-scale tests of an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed test facility with performance and economic analyses--is currently underway at ALSTOM's Power Plant Laboratories, located in Windsor, CT (US). The objective of the pilot-scale testing is to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in oxygen/carbon dioxide mixtures. Results will be used in the design of oxygen-fired CFB boilers--both retrofit and new Greenfield--as well as to provide a generic performance database for other researchers. At the conclusion of Phase 2, revised costs and performance will be estimated for both retrofit and new Greenfield design concepts with CO2 capture, purification, compression, and liquefaction.

  6. Small boiler uses waste coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  7. DOE Opposes Injunction Motion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On April 23, 2010, the Department of Energy opposed the State of Washington’s motion to enjoin the Department's efforts to wind down the Yucca Mountain Program. The Department's filing, made in the...

  8. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  9. Super Boiler Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-01

    This presentation from the 2007 American Boiler Manufacturers Association Manufacturers Conference provides an update of the First Generation Super Boiler.

  10. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  11. " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," " " "," "

  12. ,,,"with Any"," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.3;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Establishments" ,,,"with Any"," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," "

  13. Fossil-Fired Boilers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-09-23

    Boiler Performance Model (BPM 3.0S) is a set of computer programs developed to analyze the performance of fossil-fired utility boilers. The programs can model a wide variety of boiler designs, and can model coal, oil, or natural gas firing. The programs are intended for use by engineers performing analyses of alternative fuels, alternative operating modes, or boiler modifications.

  14. Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More than 95 percent of the sulfur pollutants in coal can be captured inside the boiler by the sorbent. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) builds on earlier work in ...

  15. Boiler and cooling water basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketrick, B.T.

    1995-06-01

    Boiler Water Treatment products and programs are used in boiler systems to prevent the formation of water side deposits and corrosion. Water side deposits will cause a loss of boiler efficiency, as well as, damage to the boiler internals. Corrosion can cause a loss of boiler metal integrity. Both conditions can lead to a reduced operating life for the boiler and costly annual repairs.

  16. Opposed slant tube diabatic sorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Donald C.

    2004-01-20

    A sorber comprised of at least three concentric coils of tubing contained in a shell with a flow path for liquid sorbent in one direction, a flow path for heat transfer fluid which is in counter-current heat exchange relationship with sorbent flow, a sorbate vapor port in communication with at least one of sorbent inlet or exit ports, wherein each coil is coiled in opposite direction to those coils adjoining it, whereby the opposed slant tube configuration is achieved, with structure for flow modification in the core space inside the innermost coil.

  17. Second Generation Super Boiler Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    This factsheet describes a research project to develop a high-pressure watertube boiler system that incorporates and improves upon the capabilities of the firetube Super Boiler system.

  18. Minimize Boiler Blowdown

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on minimizing boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  19. Minimize Boiler Blowdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on minimizing boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  20. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing boilers achieve higher efficiencies than conventional boilers by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases.

  1. Boiler MACT | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Boiler MACT Boiler MACT DOE currently provides technical assistance on combined heat and power (CHP) technologies to commercial and industrial facilities through its seven ...

  2. Fluidized bed method and apparatus for producing a combustible gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caplin, P. B.

    1984-11-13

    A combustible gas producer plant is described in which a finely divided inert particulate material fluidized bed is divided into a first, combustible-gas producing section and a second, heating section, to both of which sections fuel is fed. Heat transfer, by bed material migration, from the second to the first section sustains the reaction in the first section leading to the production of combustible gas. A diaphragm water wall divides and surrounds the volumes above bed sections and is part of a boiler generating steam used (optionally with added oxygen) to fluidize the first bed section. The steam is also used to fluidize the bed material at the boundary of the bed sections and prevent in-bed gas migration across that boundary. The second section of the bed is fluidized with air or an air/inert gas mixture. Fluidization is effected with sparge tubes and the plant may include evaporator, superheater and economizer sections for the boiler.

  3. Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler Uses a Combination of Wood Waste and Tire-Derived Fuel In 2011, the ...

  4. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Design features of first of its kind AFBC high pressure boiler for Kutch lignite fuel in Gujarat, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokashi, A.; Diwakar, K.W.

    1998-07-01

    Gujarat Heavy Chemicals Ltd. (GHCL) of Gujarat State in India is one of the largest manufacturers of Soda Ash with modern technology from Akzo of the Netherlands. GHCL with earlier experience in firing lignite on a travagrate boiler and with a converted fluidized bed boiler has very clearly identified the problem area for review, and with that rich experience awarded a contract to Thermax Babcock and Wilcox Ltd. (TBW), Pune, India. Accordingly, a boiler has been designed to suit Kutch Lignite and coal with AFBC technology. This paper discusses the complete design of the boiler, effects of Kutch Lignite, its composition, thermal efficiency on coal as well as lignite, various performance parameters and guarantees, sizing arrangements of pressure parts, feeding arrangement and specially designed fluidizing bed combustor, various instrumentation and control loops. This paper discusses all the above features of this high-pressure boiler which can be an ideal boiler for the Kutch lignite fuel.

  6. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  7. Update of operating experience of B and W IR-CFB coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belin, F.; Kavidass, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Walker, D.J.; Mandal, A.K.; Price, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper updates the operating experience of two Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal-fired, internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boilers. The first boiler is located at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois, USA, and is designed for 35 MW{sub th} output for cogeneration application, utilizing high sulfur, low ash Illinois coal. The second boiler is located at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries in Renukoot, India, and is designed for 81 MW{sub th} output for captive power requirement, firing high ash, low sulfur coal. This boiler was supplied by Thermax B and W Ltd., a joint venture company of B and W and Thermax of India. The choice of CFB technology was based on its fuel flexibility, cost effectiveness and environmental benefits for solid fuels. Based on the broad experience in designing utility and industrial boilers for operation worldwide, B and W has developed a cost effective and compact atmospheric pressure IR-CFB boiler. The B and W IR-CFB boiler design is distinctive in its use of U-beam particle separators. Worldwide, B and W offers IF-CFB boilers up to 175 MW{sub th}, both reheat and non-reheat, and is pursuing units up to 350 MW{sub th}. This paper reviews the general description of each IR-CFB boiler, design and performance aspects, as well as overall operating experiences. The boiler availabilities including maintenance aspects and emissions data will be presented.

  8. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  9. In-bed tube bank for a fluidized-bed combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemenway, Jr., Lloyd F.

    1990-01-01

    An in-bed tube bank (10) for a fluidized bed combustor. The tube bank (10) of the present invention comprises one or more fluid communicating boiler tubes (30) which define a plurality of selectively spaced boiler tube sections (32). The tube sections (32) are substantially parallel to one another and aligned in a common plane. The tube bank (10) further comprises support members (34) for joining adjacent tube sections (32), the support members (34) engaging and extending along a selected length of the tube sections (32) and spanning the preselected space therebetween.

  10. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This tip sheet outlines how to improve boiler combustion efficiency as part of an optimized steam system.

  11. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Heat can be recovered from boiler blowdown by using a heat exchanger to preheat boiler makeup water. Any boiler with continuous blowdown ...

  12. Postcombustion and its influences in 135 MWe CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaohua Li; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Qing Liu; Junfu Lu; Guangxi Yue

    2009-09-15

    In the cyclone of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a noticeable increment of flue gas temperature, caused by combustion of combustible gas and unburnt carbon content, is often found. Such phenomenon is defined as post combustion, and it could introduce overheating of reheated and superheated steam and extra heat loss of exhaust flue gas. In this paper, mathematical modeling and field measurements on post combustion in 135MWe commercial CFB boilers were conducted. A novel one-dimensional combustion model taking post combustion into account was developed. With this model, the overall combustion performance, including size distribution of various ashes, temperature profile, and carbon content profiles along the furnace height, heat release fraction in the cyclone and furnace were predicted. Field measurements were conducted by sampling gas and solid at different positions in the boiler under different loads. The measured data and corresponding model-calculated results were compared. Both prediction and field measurements showed post combustion introduced a temperature increment of flue gas in the cyclone of the 135MWe CFB boiler in the range of 20-50{sup o}C when a low-volatile bituminous coal was fired. Although it had little influence on ash size distribution, post combustion had a remarkable influence on the carbon content profile and temperature profile in the furnace. Moreover, it introduced about 4-7% heat release in the cyclone over the total heat release in the boiler. This fraction slightly increased with total air flow rate and boiler load. Model calculations were also conducted on other two 135MWe CFB boilers burning lignite and anthracite coal, respectively. The results confirmed that post combustion was sensitive to coal type and became more severe as the volatile content of the coal decreased. 15 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  14. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  15. Return Condensate to the Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on boiler combustion efficiency provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  17. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  18. Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact Sheet, April 2015 Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact ...

  19. Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... What Were the Benefits? boilercombustionchart.jpg The boiler combustion control and monitoring system was installed on a 25 MMBtuhr steam boiler located at the Watervliet ...

  20. The Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine Alternative: Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine Alternative: Performance and Emissions Results in a Medium-Duty Application The Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine Alternative: Performance and ...

  1. Gas turbines for coal-fired turbocharged PFBC boiler power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenglarz, R.; Drenker, S.

    1984-11-01

    A coal-fired turbocharged boiler using fluidized bed combustion at high pressure would be more compact than a pulverized coal fired boiler. The smaller boiler size could permit the utility industry to adopt efficient modular construction methods now widely used in other industries. A commercial turbocharger of the capacity needed to run a 250 MW /SUB e/ power plant does not exist; commercial gas turbines of the correct capacity exist, but they are not matched to this cycle's gas temperature of less than 538/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). In order to avoid impeding the development of the technology, it will probably be desirable to use existing machines to the maximum extent possible. This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of applying either standard gas turbines or modified standard gas turbines to the turbocharged boiler.

  2. Composite coatings for elevated temperature erosion-corrosion protection in fossil-fueled boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verstak, A.; Wang, B.; Baranovski, V.; Beliaev, A.

    1998-12-31

    Fluidized bed combustors components suffer severe erosion, frequently accomplished by corrosive gases attack at elevated temperatures. The tubes damage rate depends on the boiler design bed constituents and combustion parameters, however an accelerated metal wastage is usually found in the same specific areas of different boilers. New HVOF sprayed coatings are developed for the tube erosion-corrosion protection, based on Cr{sub 2}C{sub 2}/Ni-Cr, Cr-Ti-C/Ni-Cr-Mo, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiAl composite materials. The combustion arc Fe-Cr-C coatings were found as an economical solution for relatively low erosion rate zones. The coatings properties and behavior under simulated elevated temperature erosion conditions and in the operating boilers are discussed.

  3. Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Boilers Market will grow due...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Concerns to Push Global Market to Grow at 8.1% CAGR from 2013 to 2019 Oil Shale Market is Estimated to Reach USD 7,400.70 Million by 2022 more Group members (32)...

  4. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses This tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial...

  5. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses Boiler "short cycling" occurs when an oversized boiler quickly satisfes process or space heating demands, and then shuts down until heat is ...

  6. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: Steam Boiler Systems Best Management Practice 8: Steam Boiler Systems Steam boilers are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where ...

  7. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Gas Boilers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Boilers Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Gas Boilers The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential gas boilers, a product ...

  8. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  9. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering heat from boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  10. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  11. Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home Heating Systems » Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces and Boilers Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Most U.S. homes are heated with either furnaces or boilers. Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through the house using ducts. Boilers heat water, and provide either hot water or steam for heating. Steam is distributed via

  12. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A vent damper prevents chimney losses by closing off a boiler's vent when the boiler isn't firing. Steam boilers benefit from vent dampers more than hot water boilers, and bigger ...

  13. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  14. Development of the first demonstration CFB boiler for gas and steam cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, M; Luo, Z.; Li, X.; Wang, Q.; Shi, Z.; Ni, M.; Cen, K.

    1997-12-31

    To solve the shortage of gas and steam supply in the small towns of the country, a new gas steam cogeneration system has been developed. On the basis of the fundamental research on the system, a demonstration gas steam cogeneration system has been designed. As the phase 1 of the project, a 75t/h demonstration CFB boiler for gas steam cogeneration has been erected and operated at Yangzhong Thermal Power Plant of China. This paper introduces the first 75t/h demonstration CFB boiler for gas steam cogeneration. Due to the need of gas steam cogeneration process, the boiler has the features of high temperature cyclone separation, high solid recycle ratio, staged combustion and an external heat exchanger adjusting bed temperature and heat load. The operation results show that the boiler has wide fuel adaptability and the heating value of the coal changes from 14MJ/Kg to 25MJ/Kg. The heat load changes from 85t/h to 28t/h while steam parameter is maintained at the normal conditions. The combustion efficiency of the boiler attain 98%. The boiler design and operation experiences may be a guide to the design and operation of larger CFB units in the future.

  15. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  16. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  17. Covered Product Category: Commercial Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements for commercial boilers, which is a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  18. Design features of first of its kind AFBC high pressure boiler for Kutch lignite fuel in Gujarat, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diwakar, K.K.; Mokashi, A.H.

    1999-11-01

    Gujarat Heavy Chemicals Limited (GHCL) in Gujarat State in India is one of the largest manufacturers of Soda Ash with modern most technology from Akzo of Neitherland. GHCL with earlier experience of firing of kind of lignite on travagrate boiler and with converted fluidized bed boiler has very clearly identified the problem areas for review and with that rich experience awarded contract to Thermax Babcock and Wilcox Limited (TBW), Pune, India a joint venture company of Thermax Limited, Pune, India and Babcock and Wilcox, USA. Accordingly, boiler has been designed to suit Kutch Lignite and Coal with AFBC Technology, Single Drum Design, top supported with underbed feeding system. Capacity of boiler is 90 Ton/Hr with design pressure of 130 kg/cm{sup 2} with superheated steam temperature of 510 C. This is the first boiler in India with such a high pressure and temperature conditions for this capacity firing lignite. Other first of its kind features include single drum boiler convection bank made with headers and tubes, riffled inbed evaporator tubes, erosion protection by surface coating and not by studs, line bed system for inert material, no soot blowers, specially designed double hinged SS supports for inbed superheater coils etc. This boiler also has a provision of over fire air arrangement for better combustion split. Other unique features include the start-up arrangement by HSD burners which can take the boiler up to 30% load, provision for flue gas recirculation system, specially designed SS air distribution nozzles, separate compartments for under feed, ash drain and air cooled distribution plate with 1:5 turndown. The paper discusses all the above design features.

  19. Boiler - tuning basics, part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leopold, T.

    2009-03-15

    Tuning power plant controls takes nerves of steel and an intimate knowledge of plant systems gained only by experience. Tuning controls also requires equal parts art and science, which probably is why there are so few tuning experts in the power industry. In part 1 of a two-part series, the author explores a mix of the theoretical and practical aspects of tuning boiler control. 5 figs.

  20. Unmanned boiler operation a reality in Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilg, E.

    1996-08-01

    With the rise in liquid level technology in Europe comes new standards for boiler operation. SMART technology for level probes and auxiliary equipment, means many European countries allow a boiler to operate completely unmanned (without operators) for up to 72 hours at a time. It is not just a level control system, but a total boiler control scheme. This incorporates level control, continuous TDS monitoring with blowdown, automatic timed bottom blowdown, feed water control, contamination detection systems for monitoring of incoming feed water, monitoring of exhaust stack temperatures, over pressure alarms and timed automatic blowdown of level pots. One of the main reasons for the development of the SMART equipment and the new boiler codes was to increase reliability of boiler operation. Surveys in Germany and England showed that almost 90 percent of boiler failures was due to operator error, this has almost been eliminated through the use of new equipment based on the new codes.

  1. Metallurgical failures in fossil fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, D.N.

    1993-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive catalog of the types of metallurgical failures common to boilers. The author uses actual case histories of boiler shutdowns, and documents the full range of causes of boiler tube failure. A blueprint is provided for cutting maintenance costs and upgrading the efficiency and reliability of any power plant operation. Individual chapters are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  2. Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stroke boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, Kenneth L.

    1980-01-01

    A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the fuel bed is maintained at a depth sufficient to consume all oxygen admitted under fire and to insure a continuous layer of fresh fuel thereover to entrap charred particles inside the fuel bed.

  3. Minimize Boiler Blowdown - Steam Tip Sheet #9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  4. Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP steam tip sheet on upgrading boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  5. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  6. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the ...

  7. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container...

  8. Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    STEAM TIP SHEET 24 Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners (January 2012) (416.98 ... Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses J.R. ...

  9. Return Condensate to the Boiler | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Return Condensate to the Boiler Return Condensate to the Boiler This tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #8 Return Condensate to the Boiler (January 2012) (433.53 KB) More Documents & Publications Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Minimize Boiler Blowdown Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure

  10. Boiler efficiency calculation for multiple fuel burning boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khodabakhsh, F.; Munukutla, S.; Clary, A.T.

    1996-12-31

    A rigorous method based on the output/loss approach is developed for calculating the coal flow rate for multiple fuel burning boilers. It is assumed that the ultimate analyses of all the fuels are known. In addition, it is assumed that the flow rates of all the fuels with the exception of coal are known. The calculations are performed iteratively, with the first iteration taking into consideration coal as the only fuel. The results converge to the correct answer after a few number of iterations, typically four or five.

  11. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  12. Paducah Package Steam Boilers to Provide Efficiency, Environmental Benefits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PADUCAH, Ky. – Five modern, modular steam boilers have replaced three larger coal-fired boilers that comprised the steam plant at EM’s Paducah Site.

  13. Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces The prevention of scale formation in fretube boilers can result in substantial energy savings. Scale deposits occur when ...

  14. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency This tip sheet outlines how to improve boiler combustion efficiency as part of an optimized steam system. STEAM TIP SHEET 4 Improve...

  15. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency Combustion Efficiency Operating your boiler with an optimum amount of excess air will minimize heat loss up the stack and improve ...

  16. Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval ...

  17. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using ...

  18. Paducah Package Steam Boilers to Provide Efficiency, Environmental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PADUCAH, Ky. - Five modern, modular steam boilers have replaced three larger coal-fired boilers that comprised the steam plant at EM's Paducah Site. Moving to the more ...

  19. Winning the fight against boiler tube failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, J.; Dooley, B.

    1986-12-01

    Eliminating boiler tube failures could be worth $5 billion a year to the electric power industry. The causes and cures for the great majority of these ubiquitous failures are now known, with implications for change ranging from senior management to the maintenance crew. Methods for preventing boiler tube failure are discussed.

  20. Opposed-flow virtual cyclone for particle concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rader, Daniel J.; Torczynski, John R.

    2000-12-05

    An opposed-flow virtual cyclone for aerosol collation which can accurately collect, classify, and concentrate (enrich) particles in a specific size range. The opposed-flow virtual cyclone is a variation on the virtual cyclone and has its inherent advantages (no-impact particle separation in a simple geometry), while providing a more robust design for concentrating particles in a flow-through type system. The opposed-flow virtual cyclone consists of two geometrically similar virtual cyclones arranged such that their inlet jets are inwardly directed and symmetrically opposed relative to a plane of symmetry located between the two inlet slits. A top plate bounds both jets on the "top" side of the inlets, while the other or lower wall curves "down" and away from each inlet jet. Each inlet jet will follow the adjacent lower wall as it turns away, and that particles will be transferred away from the wall and towards the symmetry plane by centrifugal action. After turning, the two jets merge smoothly along the symmetry line and flow parallel to it through the throat. Particles are transferred from the main flows, across a dividing streamline, and into a central recirculating region, where particle concentrations become greatly increased relative to the main stream.

  1. Improved Recovery Boiler Performance Through Control of Combustion, Sulfur, and Alkali Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L.

    2008-06-09

    This project involved the following objectives: 1. Determine black liquor drying and devolatilization elemental and total mass release rates and yields. 2. Develop a public domain physical/chemical kinetic model of black liquor drop combustion, including new information on drying and devolatilization. 3. Determine mechanisms and rates of sulfur scavenging in recover boilers. 4. Develop non-ideal, public-domain thermochemistry models for alkali salts appropriate for recovery boilers 5. Develop data and a one-dimensional model of a char bed in a recovery boiler. 6. Implement all of the above in comprehensive combustion code and validate effects on boiler performance. 7. Perform gasification modeling in support of INEL and commercial customers. The major accomplishments of this project corresponding to these objectives are as follows: 1. Original data for black liquor and biomass data demonstrate dependencies of particle reactions on particle size, liquor type, gas temperature, and gas composition. A comprehensive particle submodel and corresponding data developed during this project predicts particle drying (including both free and chemisorbed moisture), devolatilization, heterogeneous char oxidation, char-smelt reactions, and smelt oxidation. Data and model predictions agree, without adjustment of parameters, within their respective errors. The work performed under these tasks substantially exceeded the original objectives. 2. A separate model for sulfur scavenging and fume formation in a recovery boiler demonstrated strong dependence on both in-boiler mixing and chemistry. In particular, accurate fume particle size predictions, as determined from both laboratory and field measurements, depend on gas mixing effects in the boilers that lead to substantial particle agglomeration. Sulfur scavenging was quantitatively predicted while particle size required one empirical mixing factor to match data. 3. Condensed-phase thermochemistry algorithms were developed for salt

  2. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  3. Investigation of heat transfer and combustion in the advanced fluidized bed combustor (FBC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Seong W. Lee

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this project is to predict the heat transfer and combustion performance in newly-designed fluidized bed combustor (FBC) and to provide the design guide lines and innovative concept for small-scale boiler and furnace. The major accomplishments are summarized.

  4. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  5. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  6. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, Charles L.; Foote, John P.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  7. Boiler scale prevention employing an organic chelant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Steven L.; Griffin, Jr., Freddie; Tvedt, Jr., Thorwald J.

    1984-01-01

    An improved method of treating boiler water which employs an oxygen scavenging compound and a compound to control pH together with a chelating agent, wherein the chelating agent is hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic acid.

  8. Furnace and Boiler Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boilers consist of a vessel or tank where heat produced from the combustion of such fuels as natural gas, fuel oil, or coal is used to generate hot water or steam. Many buildings ...

  9. Furnace and Boiler Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2:50pm Addthis Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts; boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Furnaces...

  10. Clean Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on cleaning boiler water-side heat transfer surfaces provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  11. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 5. Analysis of solid waste impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boldt, K.; Davis, H.; Delaney, B.; Grundahl, N.; Hyde, R.; Malloch, R.; Tusa, W.

    1980-09-01

    This study provides an analysis of the impacts of emission controls on disposal of solid wastes from coal-fired industrial boilers. Examination is made of boiler systems, coal types, emission control alternatives, waste streams, waste disposal and utilization alternatives, and pertinent Federal regulations. Twenty-four representative model case scenarios are studied in detail. Expected disposal/utilization alternatives and disposal costs are developed. Comparison of the systems studied indicates that the most cost-effective SO/sub 2/ control technologies from the perspective of waste disposal cost per unit SO/sub 2/ control are, in decreasing order: physically cleaned coal/double alkali combination; double alkali; lime/limestone; spray drying; fluidized-bed combustion; and sodium throwaway.

  12. Review of Individual Technology Assessment Reports (ITAR) for industrial boiler applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archer, T.; Bakshi, P.; Weisenberg, I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Eight Individual Technology Assessment Reports and one Background Study in Support of New Source Performance Standards for Industrial Boilers are reviewed. These ITARs were prepared for the EPA and include studies of particulate control, flue-gas desulfurization, fluidized-bed combustion, NO/sub x/ combustion modification, NO/sub x/ flue-gas treatment, coal cleaning, synthetic fuels, and oil cleaning. The ITARs provide engineering and cost data for the air pollution control technologies that will be required to meet the New Source Performance Standards for industrial boilers. The pollutants considered were SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, and particulates. Each ITAR is reviewed from the standpoint of engineering, demonstrated technology, and costing methodology. The cost review includes a comparison of the costing methodology of each ITAR with the costing methodology recommended by the EPA background document.

  13. Superheater Corrosion In Biomass Boilers: Today's Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, William

    2011-12-01

    the measured first melting point of fly ash deposits does not necessarily produce a step increase in corrosion rate. Corrosion rate typically accelerates at temperatures below the first melting temperature and mixed deposits may have a broad melting temperature range. Although the environment at a superheater tube surface is initially that of the ash deposits, this chemistry typically changes as the deposits mature. The corrosion rate is controlled by the environment and temperature at the tube surface, which can only be measured indirectly. Some results are counter-intuitive. Two boiler manufacturers and a consortium have developed models to predict fouling and corrosion in biomass boilers in order to specify tube materials for particular operating conditions. It would be very useful to compare the predictions of these models regarding corrosion rates and recommended alloys in the boiler environments where field tests will be performed in the current program. Manufacturers of biomass boilers have concluded that it is more cost-effective to restrict steam temperatures, to co-fire biofuels with high sulfur fuels and/or to use fuel additives rather than try to increase fuel efficiency by operating with superheater tube temperatures above melting temperature of fly ash deposits. Similar strategies have been developed for coal fired and waste-fired boilers. Additives are primarily used to replace alkali metal chloride deposits with higher melting temperature and less corrosive alkali metal sulfate or alkali aluminum silicate deposits. Design modifications that have been shown to control superheater corrosion include adding a radiant pass (empty chamber) between the furnace and the superheater, installing cool tubes immediately upstream of the superheater to trap high chloride deposits, designing superheater banks for quick replacement, using an external superheater that burns a less corrosive biomass fuel, moving circulating fluidized bed (CFB) superheaters from the

  14. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 3 (Appendices II, sections 2--3 and III)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 3 contains the following appendix sections: Formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides in recovery boilers; Sintering and densification of recovery boiler deposits laboratory data and a rate model; and Experimental data on rates of particulate formation during char bed burning.

  15. Investigation of Fly Ash and Activated Carbon Obtained from Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely; Zheng Yao

    2006-08-31

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addressed the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addressed the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project has determined the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed have also been determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control have been analyzed in an effort to determine the effects of SCR on the ash.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2004-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash. These analyses will also determine the properties of ash which are important for Hg capture.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2005-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash.

  18. Development and applications of clean coal fluidized bed technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eskin, N.; Hepbasli, A.

    2006-09-15

    Power generation in Europe and elsewhere relies heavily on coal and coal-based fuels as the source of energy. The reliance will increase in the future due to the decreasing stability of price and security of oil supply. In other words, the studies on fluidized bed combustion systems, which is one of the clean coal technologies, will maintain its importance. The main objective of the present study is to introduce the development and the applications of the fluidized bed technology (FBT) and to review the fluidized bed combustion studies conducted in Turkey. The industrial applications of the fluidized bed technology in the country date back to the 1980s. Since then, the number of the fluidized bed boilers has increased. The majority of the installations are in the textile sector. In Turkey, there is also a circulating fluidized bed thermal power plant with a capacity of 2 x 160 MW under construction at Can in Canakkale. It is expected that the FBT has had, or will have, a significant and increasing role in dictating the energy strategies for Turkey.

  19. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith, Raymond E.

    1991-10-01

    Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute's decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

  20. Three-stage combustion (reburning) test results from a 300-MWe boiler in the Ukraine. Report for November 1988-April 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Lewis, R.D.; Hall, R.E.; Kotler, V.R.; Mospan, Y.M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper gives results of a program to design, install, and test a natural-gas three-stage combustion (reburn) system on a 300-MWe, opposed-wall, wet-bottom (slagging) coal-fired utility boiler operating in the Ukraine. The U.S. EPA sponsored this program in support of a working group initially involving the EPA and (the former) Soviet Union, and now consisting of representatives from the EPA, Russia, and the Ukraine. The host boiler fires a high volatile Ukrainian bituminous coal, a Siberian brown (lignite) coal, or various blends. An opposed-wall, natural-gas reburn system was designed and installed in the summer of 1992. Parametric testing was carried out during the remainder of 1992. Initial parametric test results from this boiler show average nitrogen oxide (NOx) reductions of about 50% from a baseline pre-retrofit level of 600 ppm, corrected to 3% oxygen (0.82 lb NOx/million Btu). During this testing, variations in boiler operation and conditions resulted in a range of NOx reductions of 40-60%. Additional testing and analysis is currently in progress to define the results further and to optimize system performance.

  1. Fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowards, N.K.; Murphy, M.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a vessel. It comprises a fluid bed for continuously incinerating fuel comprising tire segments and the like which comprise metallic wire tramp and for concurrently removing tramp and bed materials at a bottom effluent exit means of the vessel, the vessel further comprising static air distributor means at the periphery of the bed comprising a substantially centrally unobstructed relatively large central region in which the fluid bed and fuel only are disposed and through which bed material and tramp migrate without obstruction to and through the effluent exit means, downwardly and inwardly stepped lower vessel wall means and a plurality of peripherally located centrally directed vertically and horizontally offset spaced air influent means surrounding the central region and associated with the stepped lower vessel wall means by which the bed is supported and fluidized.

  2. CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROTARY COMBUSTOR FOR REFIRING PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray F. Abbott; Jamal B. Mereb; Simon P. Hanson; Michael J. Virr

    2000-11-01

    The Rotary Combustor is a novel concept for burning coal with low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. It burns crushed coal in a fluid bed where the bed is maintained in a rotating drum by centripetal force. Since this force may be varied, the combustor may be very compact, and thus be a direct replacement for a p.c. burner on existing boilers. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate that a typical industrial boiler can be refired with the modified prototype Rotary Combustor to burn Ohio high-sulfur coal with low emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The primary problem that must be resolved to demonstrate sustained operations with coal is temperature control in the rotating fluid bed. The prototype Rotary Combustor was assembled and installed on the T-850P CNB boiler at the CONSOL Energy site in South Park, Pennsylvania. Several design improvements were investigated and implemented during the assembly to improve the prototype Rotary Combustor operations compared to prior tests at Detroit Stoker in Monroe, Michigan. An Operating Manual and Safety Review were completed. The shakedown test phase was initiated. Two major problems were initially encountered: binding of the rotating drum at operating temperatures, and reduced fluid-bed pressure drop after short periods of operation. Plating the brush seal rotary land ring with a chrome carbide plasma spray and lubricating the seal prior to each test sufficiently resolved these problems to permit a limited number of operations tests. Unlike previous tests at Detroit Stoker, sustained operation of the prototype Rotary Combustor was accomplished burning a high-Btu fuel, metallurgical coke. The prototype Rotary Combustor was operated with coke in gasifier mode on two occasions. Fluid-bed temperature spiking was minimized with manual control of the feeds (coke, air and steam), and no clinker formation problems were encountered in either test. Emission levels of NO{sub x} were measured at about 270 ppmv which

  3. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Fact sheet describing the changes to Environmental Protection Act process standards. The DOE will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal and oil have information on cost-effective, clean energy strategies for compliance, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boiler burning to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expected to finalize the reconsideration process for its Clean Air Act pollution standards National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters (known as Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)), in Spring 2012. This rule applies to large and small boilers in a wide range of industrial facilities and institutions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal or oil have information on cost-effective clean energy strategies for compliance, including combined heat and power, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boilers to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs.

  4. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breault, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  5. Erosion-corrosion behavior of PFBC in-bed tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsumita, Yoshi; Namba, Kazuo; Kajigaya, Ichiro; Sonoya, Keiji

    1997-12-31

    In the design and operation of Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) plant, it is important to investigate erosion-corrosion behavior of in-bed heat exchanger tubes, since such phenomena is complicated by interaction of erosion and corrosion due to high operating temperature. Investigations to clarify the erosion-corrosion mechanism of materials were performed by using laboratory test facility and PFBC pilot plant (3MW), to determine the specifications of in-bed tubes and assess their life for the first commercial PFBC plant having a capacity of 360MW. In the laboratory test, erosion-corrosion behavior of wide variety of coated materials, which include thermally sprayed coatings, diffusion coatings and hard metal claddings, and non-coated steel candidates for the typical boiler tubes were evaluated by using fluidized-bed type erosion test rig. The erosion tests were carried out in order to obtain the tanking of candidate materials. And test coupons of candidate materials were also inserted into IHI`s PFBC pilot plant in order to predict the material wastage of actual boiler environment. The following guidelines for selecting the appropriate materials and assessing the life of in-bed tubes were given by these test results. (1) At lower temperature, applying thermal spray coatings is the best solution to protect erosion damage. (2) At higher temperature, materials show enough erosion-corrosion resistance because of the formation of hard oxide scale on the surface. These results have been verified by long-term operational experience of the 71MW Wakamatsu PFBC, which is the first demonstration plant in Japan.

  6. Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler No abstract ...

  7. Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler You are accessing a ...

  8. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler ... Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, ...

  9. Minimize Boiler Blowdown, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    may lead to carryover of boiler water into the steam, or the formation of deposits. ... 108,696 - 106,383 2,313 lbhr Enthalpy of Boiler Water 338.5 Btulb; for ...

  10. Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Water Steam What fuel is used? Gas Oil How many boilers will you purchase? unit(s) Performance Factors Existing What is the capacity of the existing boiler? MBtuhr* What is the ...

  11. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbine-Generators | Department of Energy High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators This tip sheet outlines the benefits of high-pressure boilers with backpressure turbine-generators as part of optimized steam systems. STEAM TIP SHEET #22 Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators (January 2012) (513.44 KB) More Documents & Publications Replace

  12. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rapier, Pascal M.

    1982-01-01

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  13. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rapier, P.M.

    1979-12-27

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carryover through the turbine causing corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  14. Slag monitoring for utility boilers: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anson, D.; Barrett, R.E.; Litt, R.D.; Paisley, M.A.

    1988-04-01

    This report provides a detailed description of commercially available slag monitoring techniques and some developing concepts for slag monitoring. Slag monitoring is currently being evaluated by several organizations as a means of controlling and optimizing sootblowers. The potential benefits from slag monitoring can represent significant savings in utility operating costs. Six types of heat flux meters are described as they are presently being used in utility boilers. These direct monitoring techniques determine local conditions within the furnace. Each application is described with current results and future plans. Boiler heat balance models provide an indirect technique for monitoring the general cleanliness/fouling of major boiler sections. Each model is described with current results at a representative installation. Several developing concepts of slag monitoring are described and evaluated. Four promising concepts, acoustic attenuation, a simplified heat balance model, sonic pyrometry, and ultrasonic pulse reflection, are recommended for further development and evaluation. 16 refs., 34 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  16. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, M.E.; Montoya, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This set of conference papers deals with the combustion of hazardous wastes in boilers and industrial furnaces. The majority of the papers pertain specifically to cement industry kiln incinerators and focus on environmental issues. In particular, stack emission requirements currently enforced or under consideration by the U.S. EPA are emphasized. The papers were drawn from seven areas: (1) proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology rule, (2) trial burn planning and experience, (3) management and beneficial use of materials, (4) inorganic emissions and continuous emission monitoring, (5) organic emissions, (6) boiler and industrial furnace operations, and (7) risk assessment and communication.

  18. Characteristics and sources of intermediate size particles in recovery boilers : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Verrill, Christopher L.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2005-02-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, a collaborative investigation was conducted on the sources, characteristics, and deposition of particles intermediate in size between submicron fume and carryover in recovery boilers. Laboratory experiments on suspended-drop combustion of black liquor and on black liquor char bed combustion demonstrated that both processes generate intermediate size particles (ISP), amounting to 0.5-2% of the black liquor dry solids mass (BLS). Measurements in two U.S. recovery boilers show variable loadings of ISP in the upper furnace, typically between 0.6-3 g/Nm{sup 3}, or 0.3-1.5% of BLS. The measurements show that the ISP mass size distribution increases with size from 5-100 {micro}m, implying that a substantial amount of ISP inertially deposits on steam tubes. ISP particles are depleted in potassium, chlorine, and sulfur relative to the fuel composition. Comprehensive boiler modeling demonstrates that ISP concentrations are substantially overpredicted when using a previously developed algorithm for ISP generation. Equilibrium calculations suggest that alkali carbonate decomposition occurs at intermediate heights in the furnace and may lead to partial destruction of ISP particles formed lower in the furnace. ISP deposition is predicted to occur in the superheater sections, at temperatures greater than 750 C, when the particles are at least partially molten.

  19. Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

    2013-04-17

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Cleaver-Brooks developed a new gas-fired steam generation system the Super Boiler for increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, and reduced emissions. The system consists of a firetube boiler with a unique staged furnace design, a two-stage burner system with engineered internal recirculation and inter-stage cooling integral to the boiler, unique convective pass design with extended internal surfaces for enhanced heat transfer, and a novel integrated heat recovery system to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. With these combined innovations, the Super Boiler technical goals were set at 94% HHV fuel efficiency, operation on natural gas with <5 ppmv NOx (referenced to 3%O2), and 50% smaller than conventional boilers of similar steam output. To demonstrate these technical goals, the project culminated in the industrial demonstration of this new high-efficiency technology on a 300 HP boiler at Clement Pappas, a juice bottler located in Ontario, California. The Super Boiler combustion system is based on two stage combustion which combines air staging, internal flue gas recirculation, inter-stage cooling, and unique fuel-air mixing technology to achieve low emissions rather than external flue gas recirculation which is most commonly used today. The two-stage combustion provides lower emissions because of the integrated design of the boiler and combustion system which permit precise control of peak flame temperatures in both primary and secondary stages of combustion. To reduce equipment size, the Super Boiler's dual furnace design increases radiant heat transfer to the furnace walls, allowing shorter overall furnace length, and also employs convective tubes with extended surfaces that increase heat transfer by up to 18-fold compared to conventional bare tubes. In this way, a two-pass boiler can achieve the same efficiency as a traditional three or four-pass firetube boiler design. The Super Boiler is consequently up to

  20. Evaluation of coal-derived liquids as boiler fuels. Volume 2: boiler test results. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid (CDL) fuels was conducted on a utility boiler located at the Plant Sweatt Electric Generating Station of Mississippi Power Company in Meridian, Mississippi. The test program was conducted in two phases. The first phase included the combustion tests of the two conventional fuels (natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil) and three coal-derived liquid fuels (Solvent Refined Coal-II full range distillate, H-Coal heavy distillate and H-Coal blended distillate). The second phase involved the evaluation of three additional CDL fuels (H-Coal light distillate, Exxon Donor Solvent full range distillate and Solvent Refined Coal-II middle distillate). The test boiler was a front wall-fired Babcock and Wilcox unit with a rated steam flow of 425,000 lb/h and a generating capacity of 40 MW. Boiler performance and emissions were evaluated with baseline and CDL fuels at 15, 25, 40 MW loads and at various excess air levels. Low NO/sub x/ (staged) combustion techniques were also implemented. Boiler performance monitoring included measurements for fuel steam and flue gas flow, pressure, temperature, and heat absorption, resulting in a calculated combustion efficiency, boiler efficiency, and heat rate. Emissions measurements included oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, acid dewpoint, particulate mass, size distribution and morphology, chlorides, and opacity. The test program demonstrated the general suitability of CDL fuels for use in existing oil-fired utility boilers. No significant boiler tube surface modifications will be required. The CDL fuels could be handled similarly to No. 2 oil with appropriate safety procedures and materials compatibility considerations. Volume 2 of a five-volume report contains the detailed boiler test results. 96 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements for commercial boilers, which is a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  2. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  3. Current state of atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) technology, a coal burning method that has several environmental and technical advantages over the more conventional technologies, such as pulverized-coal methods. The AFBC approach injects an air stream into a boiler in such a way that it mixes with solid fuel and sorbent to create a dense phase region or fluidized bed. This method makes it possible to use a much wider range of low-quality fuels and to burn them at lower temperatures with less pollutant by-product. The paper presents a comprehensive overview of AFBC technology to date. It includes worldwide development of this technology since the 1950s necessary to meet ever-stricter emissions requirements while providing greater fuel flexibility.

  4. The next generation of oxy-fuel boiler systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Gross, Alex; Patrick, Brian; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    Research in the area of oxy-fuel combustion which is being pioneered by Jupiter Oxygen Corporation combined with boiler research conducted by the USDOE/Albany Research Center has been applied to designing the next generation of oxy-fuel combustion systems. The new systems will enhance control of boiler systems during turn-down and improve response time while improving boiler efficiency. These next generation boiler systems produce a combustion product that has been shown to be well suited for integrated pollutant removal. These systems have the promise of reducing boiler foot-print and boiler construction costs. The modularity of the system opens the possibility of using this design for replacement of boilers for retrofit on existing systems.

  5. Tapered bed bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  6. Fluidized Bed Technology- Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fluidized beds suspend solid fuels on upward-blowing jets of air during the combustion process. The result is a turbulent mixing of gas and solids. The tumbling action, much like a bubbling fluid,...

  7. Ancient Salt Beds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Salt Beds Dr. Jack Griffith The key to the search for life on other planets may go through WIPP's ancient salt beds. In 2008, a team of scientists led by Jack Griffith, from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, retrieved salt samples from the WIPP underground and studied them with a transmission electron microscopy lab at the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. In examining fluid inclusions in the salt and solid halite

  8. Sea bed mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sleath, J.F.A.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a discussion on sea bed processes with engineering applications. It brings together the material currently available only in technical reports of research papers. It provides formulae and background references necessary for design calculation of problems such as sea bed or coastal erosion, and sub-marine pipeline stability. It also covers dissipation of wave energy, formation of ripples and dunes, and the transportation of sediments.

  9. Control of bed height in a fluidized bed gasification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehta, Gautam I.; Rogers, Lynn M.

    1983-12-20

    In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the height of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed height which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.

  10. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year

  11. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to

  12. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, CB

    2002-05-06

    Boiler owners and operators who need additional generating capacity face a number of legal, political, environmental, economic, and technical challenges. Their key to success requires selection of an adequately sized low-emission boiler and combustion equipment that can be operated in compliance with emission standards established by state and federal regulatory agencies. Recognizing that many issues are involved in making informed selection decisions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsored efforts at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a guide for use in choosing low-emission boilers and combustion equipment. To ensure that the guide covers a broad range of technical and regulatory issues of particular interest to the commercial boiler industry, the guide was developed in cooperation with the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA), the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The guide presents topics pertaining to industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers. Background information about various types of commercially available boilers is provided along with discussions about the fuels that they burn and the emissions that they produce. Also included are discussions about emissions standards and compliance issues, technical details related to emissions control techniques, and other important selection considerations. Although information in the guide is primarily applicable to new ICI boilers, it may also apply to existing boiler installations.

  13. The Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine Alternative: Performance and Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Results in a Medium-Duty Application | Department of Energy The Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine Alternative: Performance and Emissions Results in a Medium-Duty Application The Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine Alternative: Performance and Emissions Results in a Medium-Duty Application Modern analytical tools, materials, and engineering methods have been applied to the development process of an opposed-piston two-stroke engine, resulting in a more energy efficient engine design.

  14. DOE Does Not Oppose Petitions to Intervene in Yucca Mountain NRC Proceeding

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Does Not Oppose Petitions to Intervene in Yucca Mountain NRC Proceeding DOE Does Not Oppose Petitions to Intervene in Yucca Mountain NRC Proceeding March 30, 2010 - 9:57am Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy yesterday filed with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission a response to Petitions to Intervene filed by several parties seeking to oppose the Department's motion to withdraw its license application for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. DOE said it is

  15. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers-Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has consistently stated two things: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. The first step is to determine the appropriateness of setback for a particular project. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  16. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers - Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has told us a couple of things consistently for several years now: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step by step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  17. Coal-fired boiler for petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketterman, W.R.; Heinzmann, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    There has been a significant amount of interest in conversion from oil/gas fired boilers to coal-fired equipment since the Arab oil embargo of 1973. The CRA Incorporated Coffeyville Refinery decided in 1977 to proceed with the installation of a 86.183 Kg/h coal fired boiler to generate process steam at 650 psig (4,482 k Pa) 596/sup 0/F (313/sup 0/C). A significant portion of this steam is passed through steam turbines to obtain mechanical power. Building and operating a coal-fired steam plant is a ''Different Kettle of Fish'' from building and operating an oil/gas-fired steam plant. The intention of this paper is to deal with some of the ''Why's and Wherefores'' of the conversion to coal-fired equipment.

  18. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  19. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and, in some cases, return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential.

  20. Staged fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  1. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Boilers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boilers Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Boilers The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial boilers, a product category covered by FEMP-designated efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. FEMP's acquisition guidance and

  2. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  3. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with BackpressureTurbine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with backpressure turbine-generators as part of optimized steam systems. STEAM TIP SHEET 22 Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators (January ...

  4. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate ...

  5. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to ... Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those ...

  6. EECBG Success Story: New Boilers, Big Savings for Minnesota County

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Officials at Sherburne County's Government Center in Minnesota had a problem: the complex's original boilers, installed in 1972, were in desperate need of replacing. Learn more.

  7. Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the Northeast States Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Agency...

  8. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    natural gas meter. Gas boilers and furnaces can be fueled by either natural gas or propane with simple modifications accounting for the different characteristics of the fuels....

  9. Clean Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    STEAM TIP SHEET 7 Clean Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces (April 2012) (395.4 KB) More Documents & Publications Consider Installing Turbulators on Two- and Three-Pass ...

  10. Building America Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Boiler Load Monitoring Controllers Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: ... Most of Chicago's older multifamily housing stock is heated by centrally metered steam or ...

  11. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    STEAM TIP SHEET 10 Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown (January 2012) (372.21 KB) More Documents & Publications Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System Consider Installing a ...

  12. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  13. Return Condensate to the Boiler - Steam Tip Sheet #8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  14. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2Oil-FiredBoiler...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil-FiredBoiler Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Oil-fired boiler Pages using the property "BuildingSPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2Oil-FiredBoiler"...

  15. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  16. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  17. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  18. Characterization of emissions from a fluidized-bed wood chip home heating furnace. Final report Apr 82-May 83

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truesdale, R.S.

    1984-03-01

    The report gives results of measurements of emissions from a residential wood-chip combustor, operated in both a fluidized-bed and cyclone-fired mode, and their comparison with those from a conventional woodstove and industrial wood-fired boilers. In general, the combustion efficiency of the fluidized-bed and cyclone-fired wood-chip burner is higher than that of conventional woodstoves. Concomitant with this increase in efficiency is a decrease in most emissions. For the fluidized-bed tests, significant reductions of total hydrocarbons and CO were observed, compared to woodstove emissions. The cyclone test showed PAH levels far below those of conventional woodstoves, approaching levels measured in industrial wood-fired boilers. A baghouse, installed during two fluidized-bed tests, was extremely effective in reducing both particulate and PAH emissions. Method 5 samples from above the fluid bed suggest that appreciable PAH is formed in the upper region of the furnace or in the watertube heat exchangers. In general, the cyclone-fired mode was more effective in reducing emissions from residential wood combustion than the fluidized-bed mode.

  19. National SCADA Test Bed

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) is a one-of-a-kind national resource that draws on the integrated expertise and capabilities of the Argonne, Idaho, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories to address the cybersecurity challenges of energy delivery systems.

  20. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 85 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 84 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 119 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Emission factors for several toxic air pollutants from fluidized-bed combustion of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E.

    1986-03-01

    Clean coal technologies such as fluidized-bed combustion have the potential to emit the same trace elements as conventional combustors. Since the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is likely to promulgate National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for several trace elements, the feasibility of using fluidized-bed combustors to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may depend in part on the relative amounts of trace elements emitted by fluidized-bed and conventional combustors. Emissions of trace elements from both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors were compared with those from conventional combustors by developing fluidized-bed emission factors from information available in the literature and comparing them with the emission factors for conventional combustors recommended in a literature search conducted for EPA. The comparisons are based on the mass of emission per unit of heat input for antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, vanadium, and zinc. When inaccuracies in the data were taken into account, the trace element emissions from atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion seem to be somewhat higher than those from a conventional utility boiler burning pulverized coal and somewhat lower than those from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion.

  6. Lignite air-steam gasification in the fluidized bed of iron-containing slag catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Shchipko, M.L.; Golovin, Yu.

    1995-12-01

    The influence of fluidized bed of iron-containing slag particles on air-steam gasification of powdered Kansk-Achinsk lignite in entrained flow was studied in pilot installation with productivity about 60 kg per hour. Slag of Martin process and boiler slag were used as catalytic active materials until their complete mechanical attrition. Two following methods of catalytic gasification of lignite were compared: the partial gasification in stationary fluidized bed of slag particles with degree of fuel conversion 40-70% and complete gasification in circulating bed of slag particles. In the first case only the most reactive part of fuel is gasified with the simultaneously formation of porous carbon residue with good sorption ability. It was found the catalytic fluidized bed improves heat transfer from combustion to reduction zone of gas-generator and increases the rate of fuel conversion at the temperature range 900-1000{degrees}C. At these temperatures the degree of conversion is depended considerably on the duration time of fuel particles in the catalytic fluidized bed. The influence of catalytic fluidized bed height and velocity of reaction mixture on the temperature profiles in the gas-generator was studied. The optimal relationship was found between the fluidized bed height and velocity of flow which makes possible to produce the gas with higher calorific value at maximum degree of fuel conversion.

  7. Materials development for ultra-supercritical boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-30

    Progress is reported on a US Department of Energy project to develop high temperature, corrosion resistant alloys for use in ultra-supercritical steam cycles. The aim is to achieve boiler operation at 1,400{sup o}F/5,000 psi steam conditions with 47% net cycle efficiency. Most ferritic steel tested such as T92 and Save 12 showed severe corrosion. Nickel-based alloys, especially IN 740 and CCA 617, showed greatest resistance to oxidation with no evidence of exfoliation. Laboratory and in-plant tests have begun. 2 figs.

  8. Green wood chip gasification due under boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-14

    It is reported that Applied Engineering Co. has begun installing the first greenwood chip gasification system to be used in conjunction with fossil fuels at Florida Power Corp's Suwannee generating station near Lake City, Florida. The unit's design capacity is about 37 MMBTU/hour and will provide as much as 25% of the fuel requirements of a large utility type natural gas boiler under normal load conditions. The system is expected to back out as much as 1 million gal/year of fuel oil at a savings of approximately $850,000/year.

  9. Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2005-09-01

    Coal is presently the world's primary fuel for generating electrical power and, being more abundant and less expensive than oil or natural gas, is expected to continue its dominance into the future. Coal, however, is more carbon intensive than natural gas and oil and consequently coal-fired power plants are large point source emitters of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Since CO{sub 2} is a greenhouse gas, which may have an adverse impact on the world's climate/weather patterns, studies have been conducted to determine the feasibility and economic impact of capturing power plant CO{sub 2} emissions for pipeline transport to a sequestration/storage site. The stack gas that exhausts from a modern coal-fired power plant typically contains about 15% CO{sub 2} on a dry volume basis. Although there are numerous processes available for removing CO{sub 2} from gas streams, gas scrubbing with amine solvent is best suited for this application because of the large gas volumes and low CO{sub 2} concentrations involved. Unfortunately the energy required to regenerate the solvent for continued use as a capturing agent is large and imposes a severe energy penalty on the plant. In addition this ''back end'' or post combustion cleanup requires the addition of large vessels, which, in retrofit applications, are difficult to accommodate. As an alternative to post combustion scrubbing, Foster Wheeler (FW) has proposed that the combustion process be accomplished with oxygen rather than air. With all air nitrogen eliminated, a CO{sub 2}-water vapor rich flue gas will be generated. After condensation of the water vapor, a portion of the flue gas will be recirculated back to the boiler to control the combustion temperature and the balance of the CO{sub 2} will be processed for pipeline transport. This proposed oxygen-carbon dioxide (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) combustion process eliminates the need for CO{sub 2} removal/separation and reduces the cost of supplying a CO{sub 2} rich stream for

  10. Staged fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G.

    1984-01-01

    Method and apparatus for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  11. Design considerations and operating experience in firing refuse derived fuel in a circulating fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekos, S.J.; Matuny, M.

    1997-12-31

    The worldwide demand for cleaner, more efficient methods to dispose of municipal solid waste has stimulated interest in processing solid waste to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) for use in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The combination of waste processing and materials recovery systems and CFB boiler technology provides the greatest recovery of useful resources from trash and uses the cleanest combustion technology available today to generate power. Foster Wheeler Power Systems along with Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation and several other Foster Wheeler sister companies designed, built, and now operates a 1600 tons per day (TPD) (1450 metric tons) municipal waste-to-energy project located in Robbins, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. This project incorporates waste processing systems to recover recyclable materials and produce RDF. It is the first project in the United States to use CFB boiler technology to combust RDF. This paper will provide an overview of the Robbins, Illinois waste-to-energy project and will examine the technical and environmental reasons for selecting RDF waste processing and CFB combustion technology. Additionally, this paper will present experience with handling and combusting RDF and review the special design features incorporated into the CFB boiler and waste processing system that make it work.

  12. DB Riley-low emission boiler system (LEBS): Superior power for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beittel, R.; Ruth, L.A.

    1997-12-31

    In conjunction with the US Department of Energy, DB Riley, Inc., is developing a highly advanced coal-fired power-generation plant called the Low Emission Boiler Systems (LEBS). By the year 2000, LEBS will provide the US electric power industry with a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, environmentally superior alternative to current technologies. LEBS incorporates significant advances in coal combustion, supercritical steam boiler design, environmental control, and materials development. The system will include a state-of-the-art steam cycle operating at supercritical steam conditions; a slagging combustor that produces vitrified ash by-products; low nitrogen oxide (NOx) burners; a new, dry, regenerable flue gas cleanup system (copper oxide process) for simultaneously capturing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NOx); a pulse-jet fabric filter for particulate capture; and a low-temperature heat-recovery system. The copper oxide flue gas cleanup system, which has been under development at DOE`s Pittsburgh field center, removes over 98% of SO{sub 2} and 95% of NOx from flue gas. A new moving-bed design provides efficient sorbent utilization that lowers the cleanup process cost. The captured SO{sub 2} can be converted to valuable by-products such as sulfuric acid and/or element sulfur, and the process generates no waste.

  13. Gas reburn retrofit on an industrial cyclone boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farzan, H.; Latham, C.E.; Maringo, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Eastman Kodak Company`s cyclone boiler (Unit No. 43), located in Rochester, New York, is being retrofitted with the gas reburning technology developed by Babcock & Wilcox (B & W) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in order to comply with the Title I, ozone nonattainment, of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The required NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels necessary to meet the presumptive limit set in New York`s regulation is about 47%. Eastman Kodak and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are cosponsoring this project. B & W is the prime contractor and contract negotiations with Chevron as the gas supplier are presently being finalized. Equipment installation for the gas reburn system is scheduled for a September 1995 outage. No. 43 Boiler`s maximum continuous rating (MCR) is 550,000 pounds per hour of steam flow or approximately equivalent to 60 MW{sub e}. Because of the compact boiler design, there is insufficient gas residence time to use pulverized coal or oil as the reburn fuel, thus making it a prime candidate for gas reburn. Kodak currently has four cyclone boilers. Based on successful completion of this gas reburn project, modifying the other three cyclone boilers with gas reburn technology is anticipated. The paper will describe B & W`s gas reburn data from a cyclone-equipped pilot facility (B & W`s Small Boiler Simulator), gas reburn design information specific to Eastman Kodak No. 43 Boiler, and numerical modeling experiences based on the pilot-scale Small Boiler Simulator (SBS) results along with those from a full-scale commercial boiler.

  14. Establishing an energy efficiency recommendation for commercial boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ware, Michelle J.

    2000-08-01

    To assist the federal government in meeting its energy reduction goals, President Clinton's Executive Order 12902 established the Procurement Challenge, which directed all federal agencies to purchase equipment within the top 25th percentile of efficiency. Under the direction of DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Procurement Challenge's goal is to create efficiency recommendations for all energy-using products that could substantially impact the government's energy reduction goals, like commercial boilers. A typical 5,000,000 Btuh boiler, with a thermal efficiency of 83.2%, can have lifetime energy cost savings of $40,000 when compared to a boiler with a thermal efficiency of 78%. For the federal market, which makes up 2% of the boiler market, this means lifetime energy cost savings of over $25,600,000. To establish efficiency recommendations, FEMP uses standardized performance ratings for products sold in the marketplace. Currently, the boiler industry uses combustion efficiency and, sometimes, thermal efficiency performance measures when specifying a commercial boiler. For many years, the industry has used these efficiency measures interchangeably, causing confusion about boiler performance measurements, and making it difficult for FEMP to establish the top 25th percentile of efficiency. This paper will illustrate the method used to establish FEMP's recommendation for boilers. The method involved defining a correlation between thermal and combustion efficiency among boiler classifications; using the correlation to model a data set of all the boiler types available in the market; and identifying how the correlation affected the top 25th percentile analysis. The paper also will discuss the applicability of this method for evaluating other equipment for which there are limited data on performance ratings.

  15. Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-05-01

    The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

  16. Experimental investigation on heat transfer and frictional characteristics of vertical upward rifled tube in supercritical CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xiaojing; Bi, Qincheng; Chen, Tingkuan; Zhou, Chenn Q.

    2011-02-15

    Water wall design is a key issue for supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. On account of the good heat transfer performance, rifled tube is applied in the water wall design of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler in China. In order to investigate the heat transfer and frictional characteristics of the rifled tube with vertical upward flow, an in-depth experiment was conducted in the range of pressure from 12 to 30 MPa, mass flux from 230 to 1200 kg/(m{sup 2} s), and inner wall heat flux from 130 to 720 kW/m{sup 2}. The wall temperature distribution and pressure drop in the rifled tube were obtained in the experiment. The normal, enhanced and deteriorated heat transfer characteristics were also captured. In this paper, the effects of pressure, inner wall heat flux and mass flux on heat transfer characteristics are analyzed, the heat transfer mechanism and the frictional resistance performance are discussed, and the corresponding empirical correlations are presented. The experimental results show that the rifled tube can effectively prevent the occurrence of departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and keep the tube wall temperature in a permissible range under the operating condition of supercritical CFB boiler. (author)

  17. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2005.

  18. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  19. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2005.

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  1. Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  2. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

  3. Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance- Fact Sheet, April 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact sheet about the Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance Program

  4. 2015-12-29 Consumer Furnaces and Boilers Test Procedures Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Consumer Furnaces and Boilers

  5. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute`s decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

  6. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comparato, Joseph R. (Bloomfield, CT); Jacobs, Martin (Hartford, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  7. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  8. NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan

    2003-12-31

    Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Fuel Tech teamed together to investigate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control. The system is comprised of B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} ultra low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NOxOUT{reg_sign}, a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. Development of the low-NO{sub x} burner technology has been a focus in B and W's combustion program. The DRB-4Z{trademark} burner is B and W's newest low-NO{sub x} burner capable of achieving very low NO{sub x}. The burner is designed to reduce NO{sub x} by controlled mixing of the fuel and air. Based on data from several 500 to 600 MWe boilers firing PRB coal, NOx emissions levels of 0.15 to 0.20 lb/ 106 Btu have been achieved from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burners in combination with overfire air ports. Although NOx emissions from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burner are nearing the Ozone Transport Rule (OTR) level of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/106 Btu, the utility boiler owners can still benefit from the addition of an SNCR and/or SCR system in order to comply with the stringent NO{sub x} emission levels facing them. Large-scale testing is planned in B and W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) that simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. The objective of the project is to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/106 Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}. During this period B and W prepared and submitted the project management plan and hazardous substance plan to DOE. The negotiation of a subcontract for Fuel Tech has been started.

  9. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  10. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  11. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  12. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  13. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1996-02-27

    A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  14. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1995-04-25

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  15. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryers, Richard W. (Flemington, NJ); Taylor, Thomas E. (Bergenfield, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  16. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  17. Development of a Novel Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with an Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-12-31

    BOC, the world's second largest industrial gas company, has developed a novel high temperature sorption based technology referred to as CAR (Cyclic Autothermal Recovery) for oxygen production and supply to oxy-fuel boilers with flue gas recycle. This technology is based on sorption and storage of oxygen in a fixed bed containing mixed ionic and electronic conductor materials. The objective of the proposed work was to construct a CAR PDU that was capable of producing 10-scfm of oxygen, using steam or recycled flue gas as the sweep gas, and install it in the Combustion Test Facility. The unit was designed and fabricated at BOC/The Linde Group, Murray Hill, New Jersey. The unit was then shipped to WRI where the site had been prepared for the unit by installation of air, carbon dioxide, natural gas, nitrogen, computer, electrical and infrastructure systems. Initial experiments with the PDU consisted of flowing air into both sides of the absorption systems and using the air heaters to ramp up the bed temperatures. The two beds were tested individually to operational temperatures up to 900 C in air. The cycling process was tested where gases are flowed alternatively from the top then bottom of the beds. The PDU unit behaved properly with respect to flow, pressure and heat during tests. The PDU was advanced to the point where oxygen production testing could begin and integration to the combustion test facility could occur.

  18. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  19. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  20. Fluidized bed deposition of diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Carroll, David W.; Trkula, Mitchell; Anderson, Wallace E.; Valone, Steven M.

    1998-01-01

    A process for coating a substrate with diamond or diamond-like material including maintaining a substrate within a bed of particles capable of being fluidized, the particles having substantially uniform dimensions and the substrate characterized as having different dimensions than the bed particles, fluidizing the bed of particles, and depositing a coating of diamond or diamond-like material upon the substrate by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon-containing precursor gas mixture, the precursor gas mixture introduced into the fluidized bed under conditions resulting in excitation mechanisms sufficient to form the diamond coating.

  1. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freeman, David H.; Angeles, Rosalie M.; Keller, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  2. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown...

  3. New Boilers, Big Savings for Minnesota County | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    However, hopes for a new set of boilers were revived in April after the county received a ... Local contractor El-Jay Plumbing & Heating of St. Cloud, Minn., will install the new ...

  4. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown - Steam Tip Sheet #10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on recovering heat from boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  5. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses - Steam Tip Sheet #16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  6. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronical...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Similar case studies of the effectiveness of these control features in steam- heated buildings would be valuable. Description A state-of-the-art boiler control system includes a ...

  7. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses - Steam Tip Sheet #16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  8. Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to reduce corrosion and improve the life span of boiler superheater tubes operating at temperatures above the melting point of ash deposits.

  9. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A residential natural gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the...

  10. Performance analysis and pilot plant test results for the Komorany fluidized bed retrofit project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, G.C.

    1995-12-01

    Detailed heat and mass balance calculations and emission performance projections are presented for an atmospheric fluidized bed boiler bottom retrofit at the 927 MWt (steam output) Komorany power station and district heating plant in the Czech Republic. Each of the ten existing boilers are traveling grate stoker units firing a local, low-rank brown coal. This fuel, considered to be representative of much of the coal deposits in Central Europe, is characterized by an average gross calorific value of 10.5 MJ/kg (4,530 Btu/lb), an average dry basis ash content of 47 %, and a maximum dry basis sulfur content of 1.8 % (3.4 % on a dry, ash free basis). The same fuel supply, together with limestone supplied from the region will be utilized in the retrofit fluidized bed boilers. The primary objectives of this retrofit program are, (1) reduce emissions to a level at or below the new Czech Clean Air Act, and (2) restore plant capacity to the original specification. As a result of the AFBC retrofit and plant upgrade, the particulate matter emissions will be reduced by over 98 percent, SO{sub 2} emissions will be reduced by 88 percent, and NO{sub x} emissions will be reduced by 38 percent compared to the present grate-fired configuration. The decrease in SO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the fluidized bed retrofit was initially predicted based on fuel sulfur content, including the distribution among organic, pyritic, and sulfate forms; the ash alkalinity; and the estimated limestone calcium utilization efficiency. The methodology and the results of this prediction were confirmed and extended by pilot scale combustion trials at a 1.0 MWt (fuel input), variable configuration test facility in France.

  11. Brief introduction of GEF efficient industrial boiler project in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meijian, T.

    1996-12-31

    The present situation of installed industrial boilers, their efficiency and environmental impact are assessed. And the factors contribute to the low efficiency and serious pollution are summarized. Based on WB-assisted GEF project, {open_quotes}Efficient Industrial Boiler Project{close_quotes} aimed at CO{sub 2} mitigation in China, a series of effective measures to bring the GHG emission under control are addressed, in technology, system performance, and operation management aspects.

  12. Biomass Boiler to Heat Oregon School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Boiler to Heat Oregon School Biomass Boiler to Heat Oregon School April 26, 2011 - 5:29pm Addthis Oregon Governor Kulongoski maneuvers a backhoe to break ground at the Vernonia school site. | Department of Energy Image | Photo by Joel Danforth, Contractor | Public Domain | Oregon Governor Kulongoski maneuvers a backhoe to break ground at the Vernonia school site. | Department of Energy Image | Photo by Joel Danforth, Contractor | Public Domain | Joel Danforth Project Officer, Golden

  13. Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating Applications Only | Department of Energy Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only This cost calculator is a screening tool that estimates a product's lifetime energy cost savings at various efficiency levels. Learn more about the base model and other assumptions. Project Type Is this a new installation or a replacement? New Replacement What is the deliverable

  14. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The guide presents topics pertaining to industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers. Background information about various types of commercially available boilers is provided along with discussion about the fuels that they burn and the emissions that they produce. Also included are discussions about emissions standards and compliance issues, technical details related to emissions control techniques, and other important selection considerations. It is part of a suite of publications offered by the Department of Energy to improve steam system performance.

  15. Dynamic bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stormo, Keith E. (Moscow, ID)

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  16. Automated Boiler Combustion Controls for Emission Reduction and Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled "Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program." The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-emission sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to Control Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI's cooperative agreement is to apply combustion controls to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion controls on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI's combustion controls on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% reduction in particulate emissions The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.

  17. Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

    1997-07-01

    The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

  18. Oregon Hospital Heats Up with a Biomass Boiler | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hospital Heats Up with a Biomass Boiler Oregon Hospital Heats Up with a Biomass Boiler December 27, 2012 - 4:30pm Addthis Using money from the Recovery Act, Blue Mountain Hospital replaced one of its 1950s crude oil boilers with a wood-pellet boiler -- saving the hospital about $100,000 a year in heating costs. | Photo courtesy of the Oregon Department of Energy. Using money from the Recovery Act, Blue Mountain Hospital replaced one of its 1950s crude oil boilers with a wood-pellet boiler --

  19. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  20. Distribution plate for recirculating fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-ching; Vidt, Edward J.; Keairns, Dale L.

    1977-01-01

    A distribution plate for a recirculating fluidized bed has a centrally disposed opening and a plurality of apertures adjacent the periphery to eliminate dead spots within the bed.

  1. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil-fuel power plants. March 1977-December 1989 (A Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for March 1977-December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. Hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures are presented. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 88 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  2. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  3. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2007-12-15

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  4. Oil ash corrosion; A review of utility boiler experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, L.D. ); Seeley, R.R. )

    1991-02-01

    In this paper a review of experience with oil ash corrosion is presented along with current design practices used to avoid excessive tube wastage. Factors influencing oil ash corrosion include fuel chemistry, boiler operation, and boiler design. These factors are interdependent and determine the corrosion behavior in utility boilers. Oil ash corrosion occurs when vanadium-containing ash deposits on boiler tube surfaces become molten. These molten ash deposits dissolve protective oxides and scales causing accelerated tube wastage. Vanadium is the major fuel constituent responsible for oil ash corrosion. Vanadium reacts with sodium, sulfur, and chlorine during combustion to produce lower melting temperature ash compositions, which accelerate tube wastage. Limiting tube metal temperatures will prevent ash deposits from becoming molten, thereby avoiding the onset of oil ash corrosion. Tube metal temperatures are limited by the use of a parallel stream flow and by limiting steam outlet temperatures. Operating a boiler with low excess air has helped avoid oil ash corrosion by altering the corrosive combustion products. Air mixing and distribution are essential to the success of this palliative action. High chromium alloys and coatings form more stable protective scaled on tubing surfaces, which result in lower oil ash corrosion rates. However, there is not material totally resistant to oil ash corrosion.

  5. Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taler, J.; Taler, D.

    2009-07-01

    The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

  6. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gandy, David W.; Shingledecker, John P.

    2011-05-11

    Coal-fired power plants are a significant part of the nation's power generating capacity, currently accounting for more than 55% of the country's total electricity production. Extending the reliable lifetimes of fossil fired boiler components and reducing the maintenance costs are essential for economic operation of power plants. Corrosion and erosion are leading causes of superheater and reheater boiler tube failures leading to unscheduled costly outages. Several types of coatings and weld overlays have been used to extend the service life of boiler tubes; however, the protection afforded by such materials was limited approximately one to eight years. Power companies are more recently focused in achieving greater plant efficiency by increasing steam temperature and pressure into the advanced-ultrasupercritical (A-USC) condition with steam temperatures approaching 760°C (1400°F) and operating pressures in excess of 35MPa (5075 psig). Unfortunately, laboratory and field testing suggests that the resultant fireside environment when operating under A-USC conditions can potentially cause significant corrosion to conventional and advanced boiler materials1-2. In order to improve reliability and availability of fossil fired A-USC boilers, it is essential to develop advanced nanostructured coatings that provide excellent corrosion and erosion resistance without adversely affecting the other properties such as toughness and thermal fatigue strength of the component material.

  7. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrOil-FiredBoiler...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    eriodMwhYrOil-FiredBoiler Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Oil-fired boiler Pages using the property "BuildingSPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrOil-FiredB...

  8. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrOil-FiredBoiler ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rmlYrMwhYrOil-FiredBoiler Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Oil-fired boiler Pages using the property "BuildingSPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrOil-FiredBoil...

  9. Task 2 Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Task 2 Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems (NETL-US) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Task 2 Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems ...

  10. Detection and Control of Deposition on Pendant Tubes in Kraft Chemical Recovery Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The kraft chemical recovery boilers used for pulp processing are large and expensive and can be the limiting factor for mill capacity. Improvements in boiler efficiency with better control of...